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Sample records for homogeneous conditions etude

  1. Catalytic Parallel Kinetic Resolution under Homogeneous Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Trisha A.; MacKay, James A.; Vedejs, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Two complementary chiral catalysts, the phosphine 8d and the DMAP-derived ent-23b, are used simultaneously to selectively activate one of a mixture of two different achiral anhydrides as acyl donors under homogeneous conditions. The resulting activated intermediates 25 and 26 react with the racemic benzylic alcohol 5 to form enantioenriched esters (R)-24 and (S)-17 by fully catalytic parallel kinetic resolution (PKR). The aroyl ester (R)-24 is obtained with near-ideal enantioselectivity for the PKR process, but (S)-17 is contaminated by ca. 8% of the minor enantiomer (R)-17 resulting from a second pathway via formation of mixed anhydride 24 and its activation by 8d. PMID:20557113

  2. Homogeneous nucleation of methane hydrates: unrealistic under realistic conditions.

    PubMed

    Knott, Brandon C; Molinero, Valeria; Doherty, Michael F; Peters, Baron

    2012-12-05

    Methane hydrates are ice-like inclusion compounds with importance to the oil and natural gas industry, global climate change, and gas transportation and storage. The molecular mechanism by which these compounds form under conditions relevant to industry and nature remains mysterious. To understand the mechanism of methane hydrate nucleation from supersaturated aqueous solutions, we performed simulations at controlled and realistic supersaturation. We found that critical nuclei are extremely large and that homogeneous nucleation rates are extremely low. Our findings suggest that nucleation of methane hydrates under these realistic conditions cannot occur by a homogeneous mechanism.

  3. Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions in Peristaltic Flow with Convective Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Tanveer, Anum; Yasmin, Humaira; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in peristaltic transport of Carreau fluid in a channel with wall properties. Mathematical modelling and analysis have been carried out in the presence of Hall current. The channel walls satisfy the more realistic convective conditions. The governing partial differential equations along with long wavelength and low Reynolds number considerations are solved. The results of temperature and heat transfer coefficient are analyzed for various parameters of interest. PMID:25460608

  4. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  5. Solution conditions define morphological homogeneity of α-synuclein fibrils.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Arshdeep; Segers-Nolten, Ine; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2014-12-01

    The intrinsically disordered human α-synuclein (αSyn) protein exhibits considerable heterogeneity in in vitro fibrillization reactions. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) we show that depending on the solvent conditions, A140C mutant and wild-type αSyn can be directed to reproducibly form homogeneous populations of fibrils exhibiting regular periodicity. Results from Thioflavin-T fluorescence assays, determination of residual monomer concentrations and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveal that solvent conditions including EDTA facilitate incorporation of a larger fraction of monomers into fibrils. The fibrils formed in 10mM Tris-HCl, 10mM NaCl and 0.1mM EDTA at pH7.4 display a narrow distribution of periodicities with an average value of 102±6nm for the A140C mutant and 107±9nm for wt αSyn. The ability to produce a homogeneous fibril population can be instrumental in understanding the detailed structural features of fibrils and the fibril assembly process. Moreover, the availability of morphologically well-defined fibrils will enhance the potential for use of amyloids as biological nanomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aspects of implementing constant traction boundary conditions in computational homogenization via semi-Dirichlet boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javili, A.; Saeb, S.; Steinmann, P.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades computational homogenization has proven to be a powerful strategy to compute the overall response of continua. Central to computational homogenization is the Hill-Mandel condition. The Hill-Mandel condition is fulfilled via imposing displacement boundary conditions (DBC), periodic boundary conditions (PBC) or traction boundary conditions (TBC) collectively referred to as canonical boundary conditions. While DBC and PBC are widely implemented, TBC remains poorly understood, with a few exceptions. The main issue with TBC is the singularity of the stiffness matrix due to rigid body motions. The objective of this manuscript is to propose a generic strategy to implement TBC in the context of computational homogenization at finite strains. To eliminate rigid body motions, we introduce the concept of semi-Dirichlet boundary conditions. Semi-Dirichlet boundary conditions are non-homogeneous Dirichlet-type constraints that simultaneously satisfy the Neumann-type conditions. A key feature of the proposed methodology is its applicability for both strain-driven as well as stress-driven homogenization. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated via a series of numerical examples.

  7. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, I. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called ‘Faraday cage effect’). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to infinity, we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an effective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the size and shape of the wires, and, in the electromagnetic case, on the frequency and polarization of the incident field. In the electromagnetic case, there are resonance effects, whereby at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of the equivalent solid shell, the presence of the cage actually amplifies the incident field, rather than shielding it. By appropriately modifying the continuum model, we calculate the modified resonant frequencies, and their associated peak amplitudes. We discuss applications to radiation containment in microwave ovens and acoustic scattering by perforated shells. PMID:27279775

  8. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages.

    PubMed

    Hewett, D P; Hewitt, I J

    2016-05-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called 'Faraday cage effect'). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to infinity, we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an effective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the size and shape of the wires, and, in the electromagnetic case, on the frequency and polarization of the incident field. In the electromagnetic case, there are resonance effects, whereby at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of the equivalent solid shell, the presence of the cage actually amplifies the incident field, rather than shielding it. By appropriately modifying the continuum model, we calculate the modified resonant frequencies, and their associated peak amplitudes. We discuss applications to radiation containment in microwave ovens and acoustic scattering by perforated shells.

  9. Homogenized boundary conditions and resonance effects in Faraday cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, D. P.; Hewitt, I. J.

    2016-05-01

    We present a mathematical study of two-dimensional electrostatic and electromagnetic shielding by a cage of conducting wires (the so-called `Faraday cage effect'). Taking the limit as the number of wires in the cage tends to infinity, we use the asymptotic method of multiple scales to derive continuum models for the shielding, involving homogenized boundary conditions on an effective cage boundary. We show how the resulting models depend on key cage parameters such as the size and shape of the wires, and, in the electromagnetic case, on the frequency and polarization of the incident field. In the electromagnetic case, there are resonance effects, whereby at frequencies close to the natural frequencies of the equivalent solid shell, the presence of the cage actually amplifies the incident field, rather than shielding it. By appropriately modifying the continuum model, we calculate the modified resonant frequencies, and their associated peak amplitudes. We discuss applications to radiation containment in microwave ovens and acoustic scattering by perforated shells.

  10. Some sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stabilizability of three dimensional homogeneous polynomial systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayawansa, W. P.; Martin, C. F.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to three-dimensional homogeneous polynomial systems, and some sufficient conditions for their asymptotic stability are derived by using homogeneous feedback. The tests given are geometric in nature.

  11. Conditions of asymptotic stability for linear homogeneous switched systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Gennady; Alferov, Gennady; Sharlay, Artem; Efimova, Polina

    2017-07-01

    In this article the authors prove the theorems giving the necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of robotic and mechatronic systems motion in terms of Lyapunov functions theory with the use of set-theoretic approach.

  12. On the resolvent of multidimensional operators with frequently changing boundary conditions in the case of the homogenized Dirichlet condition

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapov, T F

    2014-10-31

    We consider an elliptic operator in a multidimensional domain with frequently changing boundary conditions in the case when the homogenized operator contains the Dirichlet boundary condition. We prove the uniform resolvent convergence of the perturbed operator to the homogenized operator and obtain estimates for the rate of convergence. A complete asymptotic expansion is constructed for the resolvent when it acts on sufficiently smooth functions. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  13. On the Effective Construction of Compactly Supported Wavelets Satisfying Homogenous Boundary Conditions on the Interval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiavassa, G.; Liandrat, J.

    1996-01-01

    We construct compactly supported wavelet bases satisfying homogeneous boundary conditions on the interval (0,1). The maximum features of multiresolution analysis on the line are retained, including polynomial approximation and tree algorithms. The case of H(sub 0)(sup 1)(0, 1)is detailed, and numerical values, required for the implementation, are provided for the Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions.

  14. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Let, Mette B; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M; Meyer, Anne S

    2007-03-07

    In this study fish oil was incorporated into commercial homogenized milk using different homogenization temperatures and pressures. The main aim was to understand the significance of homogenization temperature and pressure on the oxidative stability of the resulting milks. Increasing homogenization temperature from 50 to 72 degrees C decreased droplet size only slightly, whereas a pressure increase from 5 to 22.5 MPa decreased droplet size significantly. Surprisingly, emulsions having small droplets, and therefore large interfacial area, were less oxidized than emulsions having bigger droplets. Emulsions with similar droplet size distributions, but resulting from different homogenization conditions, had significantly different oxidative stabilities, indicating that properties of significance to oxidation other than droplet size itself were affected by the different treatments. In general, homogenization at 72 degrees C appeared to induce protective effects against oxidation as compared to homogenization at 50 degrees C. The results thus indicated that the actual composition of the oil-water interface is more important than total surface area itself.

  15. Folds and Etudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about "Folds" and "Etudes" which are images derived from anonymous typing exercises that he found in a used copy of "Touch Typing Made Simple". "Etudes" refers to the musical tradition of studies for a solo instrument, which is a typewriter. Typing exercises are repetitive attempts to type words and phrases…

  16. MMSE precoding for multiuser MISO downlink transmission with non-homogeneous user SNR conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duy HN; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2014-12-01

    This paper is concerned with linear precoding designs for multiuser downlink transmissions. We consider a multiple-input single-output (MISO) system with multiple single-antenna user equipment (UE) experiencing non-homogeneous average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. The first part of this work examines different precoding schemes with perfect channel state information (CSI) and average SNR at the base-station (eNB). We then propose a weighted minimum mean squared error (WMMSE) precoder, which takes advantage of the non-homogeneous SNR conditions. Given in a closed-form solution, the proposed WMMSE precoder outperforms other well-known linear precoders, such as zero-forcing (ZF), regularized ZF (RZF), while achieving a close performance to the locally optimal iterative WMMSE (IWMMSE) precoder, in terms of the achievable network sum-rate. In the second part of this work, we consider the non-homogeneous multiuser system with limited and quantized channel quality indicator (CQI) and channel direction indicator (CDI) feedbacks. Based on the CQI and CDI feedback models proposed for the Long-Term Evolution Advanced standard, we then propose a robust WMMSE precoder in a closed-form solution which takes into account the quantization errors. Simulation shows a significant improvement in the achievable network sum-rate by the proposed robust WMMSE precoder, compared to non-robust linear precoder designs.

  17. Ru-Catalyzed Estragole Isomerization under Homogeneous and Ionic Liquid Biphasic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The isomerization of estragole to trans-anethole is an important reaction and is industrially performed using an excess of NaOH or KOH in ethanol at high temperatures with very low selectivity. Simple Ru-based transition-metal complexes, under homogeneous, ionic liquid (IL)-supported (biphasic) and “solventless” conditions, can be used for this reaction. The selectivity of this reaction is more sensitive to the solvent/support used than the ligands associated with the metal catalyst. Thus, under the optimized reaction conditions, 100% conversion can be achieved in the estragole isomerization, using as little as 4 × 10–3 mol % (40 ppm) of [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in toluene, reflecting a total turnover number (TON) of 25 000 and turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 500 min–1 at 80 °C. Using a dimeric Ru precursor, [RuCl(μ-Cl)(η3:η3-C10H16)]2, in ethanol associated with P(OEt)3, a TON of 10 000 and a TOF of 125 min–1 are obtained with 100% conversion and 99% selectivity. These two Ru catalytic systems can be transposed to biphasic IL systems by using ionic-tagged P-ligands such as 1-(3-(diphenylphosphanyl)propyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide immobilized in 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide with up to 99% selectivity and almost complete estragole conversion. However, the reaction is much slower than that performed under solventless or homogeneous conditions. The use of ionic-tagged ligands significantly reduces the Ru leaching to the organic phase, compared to that in reactions performed under homogeneous conditions, where the catalytic system loses catalytic performance after the second recycling. Detailed kinetic investigations of the reaction catalyzed by [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] indicate that a simplified kinetic model (a monomolecular reversible first-order reaction) is adequate for fitting the homogeneous reaction at 80 °C and under biphasic conditions. However, the kinetics of

  18. Crosstalk analysis in homogeneous multi-core two-mode fiber under bent condition.

    PubMed

    Chang, J H; Choi, H G; Bae, S H; Sim, D H; Kim, Hoon; Chung, Y C

    2015-04-20

    We analyze the inter-core crosstalk in homogeneous multi-core two-mode fibers (MC-TMFs) under bent condition by using the coupled-mode equations. In particular, we investigate the effects of the intra-core mode coupling on the inter-core crosstalk for two different types of MC-TMFs at various bending radii. The results show that the inter-core homo-mode crosstalk of LP(11) mode is dominant under the gentle fiber bending condition due to its large effective area. However, as the fiber bending becomes tight, the intra-core mode coupling is significantly enhanced and consequently makes all the inter-core crosstalk levels comparable to each other regardless of the mode. A similar tendency is observed at a reduced bending radius when the difference in the propagation constants between modes is large and core pitch is small.

  19. Mixed boundary conditions for FFT-based homogenization at finite strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabel, Matthias; Fliegener, Sascha; Schneider, Matti

    2016-02-01

    In this article we introduce a Lippmann-Schwinger formulation for the unit cell problem of periodic homogenization of elasticity at finite strains incorporating arbitrary mixed boundary conditions. Such problems occur frequently, for instance when validating computational results with tensile tests, where the deformation gradient in loading direction is fixed, as is the stress in the corresponding orthogonal plane. Previous Lippmann-Schwinger formulations involving mixed boundary can only describe tensile tests where the vector of applied force is proportional to a coordinate direction. Utilizing suitable orthogonal projectors we develop a Lippmann-Schwinger framework for arbitrary mixed boundary conditions. The resulting fixed point and Newton-Krylov algorithms preserve the positive characteristics of existing FFT-algorithms. We demonstrate the power of the proposed methods with a series of numerical examples, including continuous fiber reinforced laminates and a complex nonwoven structure of a long fiber reinforced thermoplastic, resulting in a speed-up of some computations by a factor of 1000.

  20. Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide on mercury oxidation and reduction under homogeneous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yongxin Zhao; Michael D. Mann; Edwin S. Olson; John H. Pavlish; Grant E. Dunham

    2006-05-15

    This paper is particularly related to elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation and divalent mercury (Hg{sup 2+} reduction under simulated flue gas conditions in the presence of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). As a powerful oxidant and chlorinating reagent, Cl{sub 2} has the potential for Hg oxidation. However, the detailed mechanism for the interactions, especially among chlorine (Cl)-containing species, SO{sub 2}, NO, as well as H{sub 2}O, remains ambiguous. Research described in this paper therefore focused on the impacts of SO{sub 2} and NO on Hg{sup 0} oxidation and Hg{sup 2+} reduction with the intent of unraveling unrecognized interactions among Cl species, SO{sub 2}, and NO most importantly in the presence of H{sub 2}O. The experimental results demonstrated that SO{sub 2} and NO had pronounced inhibitory effects on Hg{sup 0} oxidation at high temperatures when H{sub 2}O was also present in the gas blend. Such a demonstration was further confirmed by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} back into its elemental form. Data revealed that SO{sub 2} and NO were capable of promoting homogeneous reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0} with H{sub 2}O being present. However, the above inhibition or promotion disappeared under homogeneous conditions when H{sub 2}O was removed from the gas blend. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  1. Unified treatment of microscopic boundary conditions and efficient algorithms for estimating tangent operators of the homogenized behavior in the computational homogenization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van-Dung; Wu, Ling; Noels, Ludovic

    2017-03-01

    This work provides a unified treatment of arbitrary kinds of microscopic boundary conditions usually considered in the multi-scale computational homogenization method for nonlinear multi-physics problems. An efficient procedure is developed to enforce the multi-point linear constraints arising from the microscopic boundary condition either by the direct constraint elimination or by the Lagrange multiplier elimination methods. The macroscopic tangent operators are computed in an efficient way from a multiple right hand sides linear system whose left hand side matrix is the stiffness matrix of the microscopic linearized system at the converged solution. The number of vectors at the right hand side is equal to the number of the macroscopic kinematic variables used to formulate the microscopic boundary condition. As the resolution of the microscopic linearized system often follows a direct factorization procedure, the computation of the macroscopic tangent operators is then performed using this factorized matrix at a reduced computational time.

  2. Unified treatment of microscopic boundary conditions and efficient algorithms for estimating tangent operators of the homogenized behavior in the computational homogenization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van-Dung; Wu, Ling; Noels, Ludovic

    2016-11-01

    This work provides a unified treatment of arbitrary kinds of microscopic boundary conditions usually considered in the multi-scale computational homogenization method for nonlinear multi-physics problems. An efficient procedure is developed to enforce the multi-point linear constraints arising from the microscopic boundary condition either by the direct constraint elimination or by the Lagrange multiplier elimination methods. The macroscopic tangent operators are computed in an efficient way from a multiple right hand sides linear system whose left hand side matrix is the stiffness matrix of the microscopic linearized system at the converged solution. The number of vectors at the right hand side is equal to the number of the macroscopic kinematic variables used to formulate the microscopic boundary condition. As the resolution of the microscopic linearized system often follows a direct factorization procedure, the computation of the macroscopic tangent operators is then performed using this factorized matrix at a reduced computational time.

  3. A study on the interaction between two rumors in homogeneous complex networks under symmetric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Renlong; Qiao, Jian; Xu, Genjiu; Meng, Yingying

    2016-07-01

    The propagating dynamics of more than one rumor has received a substantial amount of attention in recent years. To investigate the effects of interactions between two rumors under symmetric conditions, we built a model based on an ordinary differential equation system while assuming that each individual's spreading rate after receiving one rumor depends on whether he/she knows the other rumor. In certain cases, two rumors accelerate the spread of each other, while in a portion of the other cases they impede or decelerate the spread of each other. We discuss these effects by dividing the total population into nine groups that correspond to nine states, and we subsequently build the mean-field equations for the two-rumor interaction based on the SIR model in a homogeneous complex network, and we find their numerical solution with varying interaction factors for the rates of spreading and becoming disinterested. The results show that when we change these interaction factors, the density curves of the nine states and their maximum values will change accordingly by a series of rules, which demonstrates the corresponding effects when there is a positive or negative interaction between the two rumors. Our work could establish a foundation for further study of this issue.

  4. Multifrequency radiation diffusion equations for homogeneous, refractive, lossy media and their interface conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, Aleksei I.

    2013-06-15

    We derive time-dependent multifrequency diffusion equations for homogeneous, refractive lossy media. The equations are applicable for a domain composed of several materials with distinct refractive indexes. In such applications, the fundamental radiation variable, the intensity I, is discontinuous across material interfaces. The diffusion equations evolve a variable ξ, the integral of I over all directions divided by the square of the refractive index. Attention is focused on boundary and internal interface conditions for ξ. For numerical solutions using finite elements, it is shown that at material interfaces, the usual diffusion coefficient 1/3κ of the multifrequency equation, where κ is the opacity, is modified by a tensor diffusion term consisting of integrals of the reflectivity. Numerical results are presented. For a single material simulation, the ξ equations yield the same result as diffusion equations that evolve the spectral radiation energy density. A second simulation solves a test problem that models radiation transport in a domain comprised of materials with different refractive indexes. Results qualitatively agree with those previously published.

  5. Homogeneity and heterogeneity in amylase production by Bacillus subtilis under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Ploss, Tina N; Reilman, Ewoud; Monteferrante, Carmine G; Denham, Emma L; Piersma, Sjouke; Lingner, Anja; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Lorenz, Patrick; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-03-29

    Bacillus subtilis is an important cell factory for the biotechnological industry due to its ability to secrete commercially relevant proteins in large amounts directly into the growth medium. However, hyper-secretion of proteins, such as α-amylases, leads to induction of the secretion stress-responsive CssR-CssS regulatory system, resulting in up-regulation of the HtrA and HtrB proteases. These proteases degrade misfolded proteins secreted via the Sec pathway, resulting in a loss of product. The aim of this study was to investigate the secretion stress response in B. subtilis 168 cells overproducing the industrially relevant α-amylase AmyM from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, which was expressed from the strong promoter P(amyQ)-M. Here we show that activity of the htrB promoter as induced by overproduction of AmyM was "noisy", which is indicative for heterogeneous activation of the secretion stress pathway. Plasmids were constructed to allow real-time analysis of P(amyQ)-M promoter activity and AmyM production by, respectively, transcriptional and out-of-frame translationally coupled fusions with gfpmut3. Our results show the emergence of distinct sub-populations of high- and low-level AmyM-producing cells, reflecting heterogeneity in the activity of P(amyQ)-M. This most likely explains the heterogeneous secretion stress response. Importantly, more homogenous cell populations with regard to P(amyQ)-M activity were observed for the B. subtilis mutant strain 168degUhy32, and the wild-type strain 168 under optimized growth conditions. Expression heterogeneity of secretory proteins in B. subtilis can be suppressed by degU mutation and optimized growth conditions. Further, the out-of-frame translational fusion of a gene for a secreted target protein and gfp represents a versatile tool for real-time monitoring of protein production and opens novel avenues for Bacillus production strain improvement.

  6. Influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose addition and homogenization conditions on properties and ageing of corn starch based films.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Alberto; Fabra, María José; Talens, Pau; Chiralt, Amparo

    2012-06-20

    Edible films based on corn starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and their mixtures were prepared by using two different procedures to homogenize the film forming dispersions (rotor-stator and rotor-stator plus microfluidizer). The influence of both HPMC-starch ratio and the homogenization method on the structural, optical, tensile and barrier properties of the films was analysed. The ageing of the films was also studied by characterizing them after 5 weeks' storage. Starch re-crystallization in newly prepared and stored films was analysed by means of X-ray diffraction. HPMC-corn starch films showed phase separation of polymers, which was enhanced when microfluidization was applied to the film forming dispersion. Nevertheless, HPMC addition inhibited starch re-crystallization during storage, giving rise to more flexible films at the end of the period. Water barrier properties of starch films were hardly affected by the addition of HPMC, although oxygen permeability increased due to its poorer oxygen barrier properties.

  7. Porcine liver decellularization under oscillating pressure conditions: a technical refinement to improve the homogeneity of the decellularization process.

    PubMed

    Struecker, Benjamin; Hillebrandt, Karl Herbert; Voitl, Robert; Butter, Antje; Schmuck, Rosa B; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Geisel, Dominik; Joehrens, Korinna; Pickerodt, Philipp A; Raschzok, Nathanael; Puhl, Gero; Neuhaus, Peter; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor M

    2015-03-01

    Decellularization and recellularization of parenchymal organs may facilitate the generation of autologous functional liver organoids by repopulation of decellularized porcine liver matrices with induced liver cells. We present an accelerated (7 h overall perfusion time) and effective protocol for human-scale liver decellularization by pressure-controlled perfusion with 1% Triton X-100 and 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate via the hepatic artery (120 mmHg) and portal vein (60 mmHg). In addition, we analyzed the effect of oscillating pressure conditions on pig liver decellularization (n=19). The proprietary perfusion device used to generate these pressure conditions mimics intra-abdominal conditions during respiration to optimize microperfusion within livers and thus optimize the homogeneity of the decellularization process. The efficiency of perfusion decellularization was analyzed by macroscopic observation, histological staining (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], Sirius red, and alcian blue), immunohistochemical staining (collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin), and biochemical assessment (DNA, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans) of decellularized liver matrices. The integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) postdecellularization was visualized by corrosion casting and three-dimensional computed tomography scanning. We found that livers perfused under oscillating pressure conditions (P(+)) showed a more homogenous course of decellularization and contained less DNA compared with livers perfused without oscillating pressure conditions (P(-)). Microscopically, livers from the (P(-)) group showed remnant cell clusters, while no cells were found in livers from the (P(+)) group. The grade of disruption of the ECM was higher in livers from the (P(-)) group, although the perfusion rates and pressure did not significantly differ. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that important matrix components were still present after decellularization. Corrosion casting showed an intact

  8. Why homogeneous boundary conditions lead to heterogeneous internal strain in analogue simple shear experiments - explained by numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner, Ulrike; Frehner, Marcel; Mancktelow, Neil S.; Grujic, Djordje

    2010-05-01

    Analogue modeling of geological structures, investigating for example the rotation and interaction of rigid or weak inclusions in a matrix, single layer folding, or fold interference patterns, commonly employs a linear simple shear or general shear rig. While the boundaries of such deformation rigs theoretically prescribe a homogeneous isochoric (plane strain) flow, the internal deformation pattern of the analogue material (paraffin wax or silicone putties) may strongly deviate from the intended homogeneous strain conditions. For example, in simple shear experiments (x-y-coordinate system, simple shear in x-direction) the following observations can be made: (1) Close to model boundaries initially parallel to the y-direction of the apparatus a prominent deflection of passive marker lines develops during the experiment, indicating a strong perturbation strain. (2) The central part of the model rotates with the opposite sense of rotation compared to the imposed vorticity, documented by the imposed marker grid. We employ two-dimensional numerical finite element models to investigate the observed deviation from a homogeneous simple shear flow field in simple shear rig experiments. A Newtonian rheology is used to represent the analogue material. We tested different boundary conditions that do not represent perfect simple shear boundary conditions, but could possibly be present in analogue experiments. The numerical results show that neither traction-free slip nor free surface boundary conditions at the four walls, nor any combination of these boundary conditions produces the deformation pattern observed in analogue experiments. Therefore, we conclude that the imposed boundary conditions at the walls of the analogue rigs are not the reason for the observed heterogeneous strain field. In analogue experiments, the analogue material commonly lies on top of a weak viscous material (e.g. vaseline) or is sandwiched between two layers of such a material. These layers are also

  9. Unraveling the microscopic pathway of homogeneous water crystallization at supercooled conditions from direct simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Fausto; Palmer, Jeremy; Singh, Rakesh; Debenedetti, Pablo; Car, Roberto

    By means of unbiased classical molecular dynamics simulations, we identify the microscopic pathways of spontaneous homogeneous crystallization in supercooled ST2 water. By introducing a new order parameter, we are able to monitor formation/disruption of locally ordered regions characterized by small ice clusters with intermediate range order. When two of these regions are close each other, they percolate and form a larger ordered region. The process is slow enough to allow for polymorphic selection in favor of cubic ice (Ic). The formation of an ice nucleus requires percolation of many small clusters so that the transformations at the interface of the nucleus do not involve its core, thus guaranteeing the stability of the nucleus. The growth of the crystalline nucleus is fast and involves direct transformation of interfacial liquid molecules as well as percolation of small Ic/Ih clusters. The growth is too fast to allow conversion of Ih into Ic sites, originating the formation of a stacking fault in the final crystal. We recognize Euclidean structures in the oxygen configuration of the second shell in Ic and Ih clusters. This new point of view allows us to explain the source of the ordered stacking fault geometry.

  10. Homogenous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water at close to atmospherically relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brus, D.; Neitola, K.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Petäjä, T.; Vanhanen, J.; Sipilä, M.; Paasonen, P.; Kulmala, M.; Lihavainen, H.

    2011-06-01

    In this study the homogeneous nucleation rates in the system of sulfuric acid and water were measured by using a flow tube technique. The goal was to directly compare particle formation rates obtained from atmospheric measurements with nucleation rates of freshly nucleated particles measured with particle size magnifier (PSM) which has detection efficiency of unity for particles having mobility diameter of 1.5 nm. The gas phase sulfuric acid concentration in this study was measured with the chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS), commonly used in field measurements. The wall losses of sulfuric acid were estimated from measured concentration profiles along the flow tube. The initial concentrations of sulfuric acid estimated from loss measurements ranged from 108 to 3 × 109 molecules cm-3. The nucleation rates obtained in this study cover about three orders of magnitude from 10-1 to 102 cm-3 s-1 for commercial ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC) TSI model 3025A and from 101 to 104 cm-3 s-1 for PSM. The nucleation rates and the slopes (dlnJ/dln [H2SO4]) show satisfactory agreement when compared to empirical kinetic and activation models and the latest atmospheric nucleation data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental work providing temperature dependent nucleation rate measurements using a high efficiency particle counter with a cut-off-size of 1.5 nm together with direct measurements of gas phase sulfuric acid concentration.

  11. Homogenous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water at atmospherically relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brus, D.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Vanhanen, J.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Sipilä, M.; Paasonen, P.; Lihavainen, H.; Kulmala, M.

    2010-11-01

    In this study the homogeneous nucleation rates of sulfuric acid and water were measured by using a flow tube technique. The goal was to directly compare particle formation rates obtained from atmospheric measurements with nucleation rates of freshly nucleated particles measured with particle size magnifier (PSM) which has detection efficiency of unity for particles having mobility diameter of 1.5 nm. The gas phase sulfuric acid concentration in this study was measured with the chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS), commonly used in field measurements. The wall losses of sulfuric acid were estimated from measured concentration profiles along the flow tube. The initial concentrations of sulfuric acid estimated from loss measurements ranged from 108 to 3×109 molecules cm-3. The nucleation rates obtained in this study cover about three orders of magnitude from 10-1 to 102 cm3 s-1 for commercial ultrafine condensation particle counter (UCPC) TSI model 3025A and from 101 to 104 cm3 s-1 for PSM. The nucleation rates and the slopes (dlnJ/dln[H2SO4]) show satisfactory agreement when compared to empirical kinetic and activation models and the latest atmospheric nucleation data.

  12. Homogenization of Environmental Condition and Benthic Communities in Restored Streams of the North Carolina Piedmont.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D. D.; Penrose, D. L.; Jennings, G. D.; Wentworth, T. R.

    2005-05-01

    Stream ecosystems, as described through benthic communities and twenty environmental variables, exhibited decreased variances and reduced ordinal dimensionality in restored streams when compared to associated upstream reaches in this upstream-downstream investigation of stream restoration in the North Carolina Piedmont. Through paired t-tests of the environmental variables and several descriptions of community structure and function, the variance for restored stream reaches was lower than the upstream reaches for 70% of environmental characteristics, for 75% of Functional Feeding and Habitat Groups, and for all of the community descriptions, including the Q statistic, Shannon Index, Simpson Index, EPT taxa richness, and NCBI. Further, Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling of the sites best expressed the upstream reaches on three axes, while the restored stream reaches required only one axis to effectively describe variation in the benthic communities. These results suggest that simplification of the biota may occur following steam restoration activities, indicating the biological losses associated with early recovery in these streams. While the science of stream restoration has advanced since the early construction and implementation at these sites, the consequential homogenization demonstrated by these biotic and abiotic stream corridor features emphasizes the importance of a concentrated effort to re-establish heterogeneity in restoration designs.

  13. Conditions for invariant spectrum of light generated by scattering of partially coherent wave from quasi-homogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    Within the first-order Born approximation, the spectrum of light generated by the scattering of a partially coherent wave from a quasi-homogeneous (QH) medium is derived. In particular, the partially coherent incident wave is produced by Young's pinholes. It is shown that the spectrum of the scattered field is identical to the spectrum of incident plane waves if the Fourier transform of the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) of the scattering potential satisfies a certain scaling law. The scaling law is valid when the medium size is sufficiently small compared with the space between Young' pinholes. Furthermore, comparisons are made between our conditions with the previous results.

  14. Effects of long-term simulated martian conditions on a freeze-dried and homogenized bacterial permafrost community.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Aviaja A; Jensen, Lars L; Kristoffersen, Tommy; Mikkelsen, Karina; Merrison, Jonathan; Finster, Kai W; Lomstein, Bente Aa

    2009-03-01

    Indigenous bacteria and biomolecules (DNA and proteins) in a freeze-dried and homogenized Arctic permafrost were exposed to simulated martian conditions that correspond to about 80 days on the surface of Mars with respect to the accumulated UV dose. The simulation conditions included UV radiation, freeze-thaw cycles, the atmospheric gas composition, and pressure. The homogenized permafrost cores were subjected to repeated cycles of UV radiation for 3 h followed by 27 h without irradiation. The effects of the simulation conditions on the concentrations of biomolecules; numbers of viable, dead, and cultured bacteria; as well as the community structure were determined. Simulated martian conditions resulted in a significant reduction of the concentrations of DNA and amino acids in the uppermost 1.5 mm of the soil core. The total number of bacterial cells was reduced in the upper 9 mm of the soil core, while the number of viable cells was reduced in the upper 15 mm. The number of cultured aerobic bacteria was reduced in the upper 6 mm of the soil core, whereas the community structure of cultured anaerobic bacteria was relatively unaffected by the exposure conditions. As explanations for the observed changes, we propose three causes that might have been working on the biological material either individually or synergistically: (i) UV radiation, (ii) UV-generated reactive oxygen species, and (iii) freeze-thaw cycles. Currently, the production and action of reactive gases is only hypothetical and will be a central subject in future investigations. Overall, we conclude that in a stable environment (no wind-/pressure-induced mixing) biological material is efficiently shielded by a 2 cm thick layer of dust, while it is relatively rapidly destroyed in the surface layer, and that biomolecules like proteins and polynucleotides are more resistant to destruction than living biota.

  15. Homogeneity of ball milled ceramic powders: Effect of jar shape and milling conditions.

    PubMed

    Broseghini, M; D'Incau, M; Gelisio, L; Pugno, N M; Scardi, P

    2017-02-01

    This paper contains data and supporting information of and complementary to the research article entitled "Effect of jar shape on high-energy planetary ball milling efficiency: simulations and experiments" (Broseghini et al.,) [1]. Calcium fluoride (CaF2) was ground using two jars of different shape (cylindrical and half-moon) installed on a planetary ball-mill, exploring different operating conditions (jar-to-plate angular velocity ratio and milling time). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images and X-Ray Powder Diffraction data (XRPD) were collected to assess the effect of milling conditions on the end-product crystallite size. Due to the inhomogeneity of the end product, the Whole Powder Pattern Model (WPPM, (Scardi, 2008) [2]) analysis of XRPD data required the hypothesis of a bimodal distribution of sizes - respectively ground (fine fraction) and less-to-not ground (coarse fraction) - confirmed by SEM images and suggested by the previous literature (Abdellatief et al., 2013) [3,4]. Predominance of fine fraction clearly indicates optimal milling conditions.

  16. Multiple-pass high-pressure homogenization of milk for the development of pasteurization-like processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Espinosa, H; Amador-Espejo, G G; Barcenas-Pozos, M E; Angulo-Guerrero, J O; Garcia, H S; Welti-Chanes, J

    2013-02-01

    Multiple-pass ultrahigh pressure homogenization (UHPH) was used for reducing microbial population of both indigenous spoilage microflora in whole raw milk and a baroresistant pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) inoculated in whole sterile milk to define pasteurization-like processing conditions. Response surface methodology was followed and multiple response optimization of UHPH operating pressure (OP) (100, 175, 250 MPa) and number of passes (N) (1-5) was conducted through overlaid contour plot analysis. Increasing OP and N had a significant effect (P < 0·05) on microbial reduction of both spoilage microflora and Staph. aureus in milk. Optimized UHPH processes (five 202-MPa passes; four 232-MPa passes) defined a region where a 5-log(10) reduction of total bacterial count of milk and a baroresistant pathogen are attainable, as a requisite parameter for establishing an alternative method of pasteurization. Multiple-pass UHPH optimized conditions might help in producing safe milk without the detrimental effects associated with thermal pasteurization.

  17. Etude Exploratoire sur l’Etat de Stress Post-Traumatique dans Deux Unites Operationnelles de l’Armee de Terre (Exploratory Study of the Condition of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Two Operational Units of Ground Forces)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-134 30 - 1 Etude exploratoire sur l’état de stress post-traumatique dans deux unités opérationnelles de l’armée de terre D ...Leur diagnostic nécessite une démarche active du médecin. L’objectif de l’étude vise à évaluer la fréquence de cette pathologie dans une population...d’inhibition (1). Cette pathologie a fréquemment une évolution chronique. Elle peut être très invalidante. Vallet, D .; Arvers, P. (2006) Etude exploratoire

  18. Homogeneous ice freezing temperatures and ice nucleation rates of aqueous ammonium sulfate and aqueous levoglucosan particles for relevant atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Daniel Alexander; Lopez, Miguel David

    2009-09-28

    Homogeneous ice nucleation from micrometre-sized aqueous (NH4)2SO4 and aqueous levoglucosan particles is studied employing the optical microscope technique. A new experimental method is introduced that allows us to control the initial water activity of the aqueous droplets. Homogeneous ice freezing temperatures and ice melting temperatures of these aqueous solution droplets, 10 to 80 microm in diameter, are determined. Homogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous (NH4)2SO4 particles 5-39 wt% in concentration and aqueous levoglucosan particles with initial water activities of 0.85-0.99 yield upper limits of the homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients of up to 1x10(10) cm(-3) s(-1). The experimentally derived homogeneous ice freezing temperatures and upper limits of the homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients are compared with corresponding predictions of the water-activity-based ice nucleation theory [T. Koop, B. P. Luo, A. Tsias and T. Peter, Nature, 2000, 406, 611]. It is found that the water-activity-based ice nucleation theory can capture the experimentally derived ice freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients of the aqueous (NH4)2SO4 and aqueous levoglucosan particles. However, the level of agreement between experimentally derived and predicted values, in particular for homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, crucially depends on the extrapolation method to obtain water activities at corresponding freezing temperatures. It is suggested that the combination of experimentally derived ice freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients can serve as a better validation of the water-activity-based ice nucleation theory than when compared to the observation of homogeneous ice freezing temperatures alone. The atmospheric implications with regard to the application of the water-activity-based ice nucleation theory and derivation of maximum ice particle production rates are briefly discussed.

  19. Effect of fat content and homogenization under conventional or ultra-high-pressure conditions on interactions between proteins in rennet curds.

    PubMed

    Zamora, A; Trujillo, A J; Armaforte, E; Waldron, D S; Kelly, A L

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of conventional and ultra-high-pressure homogenization on interactions between proteins within drained rennet curds. The effect of fat content of milk (0.0, 1.8, or 3.6%) and homogenization treatment on dissociation of proteins by different chemical agents was thus studied. Increasing the fat content of raw milk increased levels of unbound whey proteins and calcium-bonded caseins in curds; in contrast, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds were inhibited. Both homogenization treatments triggered the incorporation of unbound whey proteins in the curd, and of caseins through ionic bonds involving calcium salts. Conventional homogenization-pasteurization enhanced interactions between caseins through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. In contrast, ultra-high-pressure homogenization impaired hydrogen bonding, led to the incorporation of both whey proteins and caseins through hydrophobic interactions and increased the amount of unbound caseins. Thus, both homogenization treatments provoked changes in the protein interactions within rennet curds; however, the nature of the changes depended on the homogenization conditions.

  20. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins: Focus on sample preparation and derivatization conditions.

    PubMed

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J; Grune, Tilman

    2015-08-01

    Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples.

  1. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from pyrene to perylene labels for nucleic acid hybridization assays under homogeneous solution conditions

    PubMed Central

    Masuko, Masayuki; Ohuchi, Shohkichi; Sode, Koji; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Shimadzu, Akira

    2000-01-01

    We characterized the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from pyrene (donor) to perylene (acceptor) for nucleic acid assays under homogeneous solution conditions. We used the hybridization between a target 32mer and its complementary two sequential 16mer deoxyribonucleotides whose neighboring terminals were each respectively labeled with a pyrene and a perylene residue. A transfer efficiency of ~100% was attained upon the hybridization when observing perylene fluorescence at 459 nm with 347-nm excitation of a pyrene absorption peak. The Förster distance between two dye residues was 22.3 Å (the orientation factor of 2/3). We could change the distance between the residues by inserting various numbers of nucleotides into the center of the target, thus creating a gap between the dye residues on a hybrid. Assuming that the number of inserted nucleotides is proportional to the distance between the dye residues, the energy transfer efficiency versus number of inserted nucleotides strictly obeyed the Förster theory. The mean inter-nucleotide distance of the single-stranded portion was estimated to be 2.1 Å. Comparison between the fluorescent properties of a pyrene–perylene pair with those of a widely used fluorescein–rhodamine pair showed that the pyrene–perylene FRET is suitable for hybridization assays. PMID:10734211

  2. Efficacy of Various Pasteurization Time-Temperature Conditions in Combination with Homogenization on Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Milk

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Irene R.; Williams, Alan G.; Rowe, Michael T.; Muir, D. Donald

    2005-01-01

    The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 101 to 105 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteurized milk samples overall, 5 on Herrold's egg yolk medium and 22 by BACTEC culture. Therefore, in 96.7% of samples, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had been completely inactivated by HTST pasteurization, alone or in combination with homogenization. Heat treatments incorporating homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2, applied upstream (as a separate process) or in hold (at the start of a holding section), resulted in significantly fewer culture-positive samples than pasteurization treatments without homogenization (P < 0.001 for those in hold and P < 0.05 for those upstream). Where colony counts were obtained, the number of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was estimated to be 10 to 20 CFU/150 ml, and the reduction in numbers achieved by HTST pasteurization with or without homogenization was estimated to be 4.0 to 5.2 log10. The impact of homogenization on clump size distribution in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis broth suspensions was subsequently assessed using a Mastersizer X spectrometer. These experiments demonstrated that large clumps of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were reduced to single-cell or “miniclump” status by homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2. Consequently, when HTST pasteurization was being applied to homogenized milk, the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells would have been present as predominantly declumped cells, which may possibly explain the greater inactivation achieved by the combination of pasteurization and homogenization. PMID:15932977

  3. Efficacy of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions in combination with homogenization on inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk.

    PubMed

    Grant, Irene R; Williams, Alan G; Rowe, Michael T; Muir, D Donald

    2005-06-01

    The effect of various pasteurization time-temperature conditions with and without homogenization on the viability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was investigated using a pilot-scale commercial high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurizer and raw milk spiked with 10(1) to 10(5) M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells/ml. Viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was cultured from 27 (3.3%) of 816 pasteurized milk samples overall, 5 on Herrold's egg yolk medium and 22 by BACTEC culture. Therefore, in 96.7% of samples, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis had been completely inactivated by HTST pasteurization, alone or in combination with homogenization. Heat treatments incorporating homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2, applied upstream (as a separate process) or in hold (at the start of a holding section), resulted in significantly fewer culture-positive samples than pasteurization treatments without homogenization (P < 0.001 for those in hold and P < 0.05 for those upstream). Where colony counts were obtained, the number of surviving M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells was estimated to be 10 to 20 CFU/150 ml, and the reduction in numbers achieved by HTST pasteurization with or without homogenization was estimated to be 4.0 to 5.2 log10. The impact of homogenization on clump size distribution in M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis broth suspensions was subsequently assessed using a Mastersizer X spectrometer. These experiments demonstrated that large clumps of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells were reduced to single-cell or "miniclump" status by homogenization at 2,500 lb/in2. Consequently, when HTST pasteurization was being applied to homogenized milk, the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells would have been present as predominantly declumped cells, which may possibly explain the greater inactivation achieved by the combination of pasteurization and homogenization.

  4. Regional Homogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lili; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Much effort has been made to understand the organizational principles of human brain function using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods, among which resting-state fMRI (rfMRI) is an increasingly recognized technique for measuring the intrinsic dynamics of the human brain. Functional connectivity (FC) with rfMRI is the most widely used method to describe remote or long-distance relationships in studies of cerebral cortex parcellation, interindividual variability, and brain disorders. In contrast, local or short-distance functional interactions, especially at a scale of millimeters, have rarely been investigated or systematically reviewed like remote FC, although some local FC algorithms have been developed and applied to the discovery of brain-based changes under neuropsychiatric conditions. To fill this gap between remote and local FC studies, this review will (1) briefly survey the history of studies on organizational principles of human brain function; (2) propose local functional homogeneity as a network centrality to characterize multimodal local features of the brain connectome; (3) render a neurobiological perspective on local functional homogeneity by linking its temporal, spatial, and individual variability to information processing, anatomical morphology, and brain development; and (4) discuss its role in performing connectome-wide association studies and identify relevant challenges, and recommend its use in future brain connectomics studies. PMID:26170004

  5. Acid-catalyzed cyclization of terpenes under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions as probed through stereoisotopic studies: a concerted process with competing preorganized chair and boat transition states.

    PubMed

    Raptis, Christos; Lykakis, Ioannis N; Tsangarakis, Constantinos; Stratakis, Manolis

    2009-11-09

    Based on stereoisotopic studies and beta-secondary isotope effects, we propose that the acid-catalyzed cyclization of geranyl acetate proceeds through a concerted mechanism. Under heterogeneous conditions (zeolite Y confinement), a preorganized chairlike transition state predominates, whereas under homogeneous conditions the boat- and chairlike transition states are almost isoenergetic. For the case of farnesyl acetate, we propose that under homogeneous conditions a concerted dicyclization occurs with a preorganized boat-chair transition state competing with the chair-chair transition state. Under zeolite confinement conditions, the chair-chairlike dicyclization transition state is highly favorable. The preference of chairlike transition states within the cavities of zeolite Y is attributed to a transition state shape selectivity effect.

  6. The effects of late homogenization conditions on the Mg2Si particle size in a slow pre-heated 6063 aluminum extrusion billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayıkcı, R.; Kocaman, E.; Şirin, S.; ćolak, M.

    2015-03-01

    In order to investigate the effect of late homogenization conditions on the Mg2Si precipitation of 6063 grade extrusion billets are slow pre-heated to intentionally have large Mg2Si particle precipitation. Then the billets are water quenched to preserve this microstructure for late homogenizations. Finally billets are re-heated using two different furnace temperature as 450°C and 500°C at which temperatures the billet are held for 0.5 h, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h and 2.5 h periods and water quenched before being taken to metallographic examinations.

  7. Homogeneity Pursuit

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Tracy; Fan, Jianqing; Wu, Yichao

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the homogeneity of coefficients in high-dimensional regression, which extends the sparsity concept and is more general and suitable for many applications. Homogeneity arises when regression coefficients corresponding to neighboring geographical regions or a similar cluster of covariates are expected to be approximately the same. Sparsity corresponds to a special case of homogeneity with a large cluster of known atom zero. In this article, we propose a new method called clustering algorithm in regression via data-driven segmentation (CARDS) to explore homogeneity. New mathematics are provided on the gain that can be achieved by exploring homogeneity. Statistical properties of two versions of CARDS are analyzed. In particular, the asymptotic normality of our proposed CARDS estimator is established, which reveals better estimation accuracy for homogeneous parameters than that without homogeneity exploration. When our methods are combined with sparsity exploration, further efficiency can be achieved beyond the exploration of sparsity alone. This provides additional insights into the power of exploring low-dimensional structures in high-dimensional regression: homogeneity and sparsity. Our results also shed lights on the properties of the fussed Lasso. The newly developed method is further illustrated by simulation studies and applications to real data. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:26085701

  8. Comparative analysis of storage conditions and homogenization methods for tick and flea species for identification by MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Nebbak, A; El Hamzaoui, B; Berenger, J-M; Bitam, I; Raoult, D; Almeras, L; Parola, P

    2017-07-19

    Ticks and fleas are vectors for numerous human and animal pathogens. Controlling them, which is important in combating such diseases, requires accurate identification, to distinguish between vector and non-vector species. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was applied to the rapid identification of arthropods. The growth of this promising tool, however, requires guidelines to be established. To this end, standardization protocols were applied to species of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) Latreille and Ctenocephalides felis felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Bouché, including the automation of sample homogenization using two homogenizer devices, and varied sample preservation modes for a period of 1-6 months. The MS spectra were then compared with those obtained from manual pestle grinding, the standard homogenization method. Both automated methods generated intense, reproducible MS spectra from fresh specimens. Frozen storage methods appeared to represent the best preservation mode, for up to 6 months, while storage in ethanol is also possible, with some caveats for tick specimens. Carnoy's buffer, however, was shown to be less compatible with MS analysis for the purpose of identifying ticks or fleas. These standard protocols for MALDI-TOF MS arthropod identification should be complemented by additional MS spectrum quality controls, to generalize their use in monitoring arthropods of medical interest. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Rheology and microstructure of carrot and tomato emulsions as a result of high-pressure homogenization conditions.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia; Svelander, Cecilia; Bialek, Lucy; Schumm, Stephan; Langton, Maud

    2011-01-01

    High-pressure homogenization, as a way to further mechanically disrupt plant cells and cell walls compared to conventional blending, has been applied to thermally treated and comminuted carrot and tomato material in the presence of 5% olive oil. Mixes of both vegetables in a 1:1 ratio were also included. Both the effect of homogenization pressure and the effect of multiple process cycles were studied. The different microstructures generated were linked to different rheological properties analyzed by oscillatory and steady state measurements. The results showed that while carrot tissue requires a high shear input to be disrupted into cells and cell fragments, tomato cells were broken across the cell walls already at moderate shear input, and the nature of the tomato particles changed to amorphous aggregates, probably composed of cell contents and cell wall polymers. All the plant stabilized emulsions generated were stable against creaming under centrifugation. While for tomato a low-pressure multiple cycle and a high-pressure single-cycle process led to comparable microstructures and rheological properties, carrot showed different rheological properties after these treatments linked to differences in particle morphology. Mixes of carrot and tomato showed similar rheological properties after homogenizing in a single or in a split-stream process. Practical Application: Following consumers' demand, the food industry has shown a growing interest in manufacturing products free of gums and stabilizers, which are often perceived as artificial. By tailored processing, fresh plant material could be used to structure food products in a more natural way while increasing their nutritional quality.

  10. Effect of Boundary Conditions on the Axial Compression Buckling of Homogeneous Orthotropic Composite Cylinders in the Long Column Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Oremont, Leonard; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2011-01-01

    Buckling loads for long isotropic and laminated cylinders are calculated based on Euler, Fluegge and Donnell's equations. Results from these methods are presented using simple parameters useful for fundamental design work. Buckling loads for two types of simply supported boundary conditions are calculated using finite element methods for comparison to select cases of the closed form solution. Results indicate that relying on Donnell theory can result in an over-prediction of buckling loads by as much as 40% in isotropic materials.

  11. Open system Hf isotope homogenization by a DISPOREP process under amphibolite-facies conditions, an example from the Limpopo Belt (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeh, Armin; Gerdes, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Isotope homogenization in metamorphic rock is a prerequisite for precise isochrone dating. However, whether or not homogenisation occurs during a metamorphic overprint dependent on several parameters and processes, which compete with each other and comprise at least (i) volume diffusion, (ii) dissolution-re-precipitation, (iii) intergranular diffusive or fluid enhanced transport, and (iv) metamorphic mineral reaction(s). Isotope homogenisation is commonly reached in high-grade (granulite-facies) metamorphic rocks, where diffusion is fast, and mineral reactions and dissolution-re-precipitation accompanied or maintained by a melt phase, but it is incomplete in low-grade to amphibolite-facies rocks, in the presence of an aqueous fluid phase. This holds true, in particular, for the Lu-Hf isotope system, which is mainly controlled by accessory zircon, which is very resistant against dissolution in aqueous fluids and has slow diffusivity for Hf, U, Pb. Thus zircon often maintains it primary U-Pb-Hf isotope composition obtained during previous magmatic crystallisation (i.e, magmatic grains in orthogneisses or detrital magmatic grains in paragneisses), even under very high-grade metamorphic conditions >1000° C. However, results of recent isotope studies show, that the U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope systems of zircon-bearing ortho- and paragneisses can homogenize completely (on hand specimen scale) even under amphibolite facies T - P conditions of

  12. Etude aerodynamique d'un jet turbulent impactant une paroi concave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, Benoit

    Etant donne la demande croissante de temperatures elevees dans des chambres de combustion de systemes de propulsions en aerospatiale (turbomoteurs, moteur a reaction, etc.), l'interet dans le refroidissement par jets impactant s'est vu croitre. Le refroidissement des aubes de turbine permet une augmentation de temperature de combustion, ce qui se traduit en une augmentation de l'efficacite de combustion et donc une meilleure economie de carburant. Le transfert de chaleur dans les au bages est influence par les aspects aerodynamiques du refroidissement a jet, particulierement dans le cas d'ecoulements turbulents. Un manque de comprehension de l'aerodynamique a l'interieur de ces espaces confinees peut mener a des changements de transfert thermique qui sont inattendus, ce qui augmente le risque de fluage. Il est donc d'interet pour l'industrie aerospatiale et l'academie de poursuivre la recherche dans l'aerodynamique des jets turbulents impactant les parois courbes. Les jets impactant les surfaces courbes ont deja fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes. Par contre des conditions oscillatoires observees en laboratoire se sont averees difficiles a reproduire en numerique, puisque les structures d'ecoulements impactants des parois concaves sont fortement dependantes de la turbulence et des effets instationnaires. Une etude experimentale fut realisee a l'institut PPRIME a l'Universite de Poitiers afin d'observer le phenomene d'oscillation dans le jet. Une serie d'essais ont verifie les conditions d'ecoulement laminaires et turbulentes, toutefois le cout des essais experimentaux a seulement permis d'avoir un apercu du phenomene global. Une deuxieme serie d'essais fut realisee numeriquement a l'Universite de Moncton avec l'outil OpenFOAM pour des conditions d'ecoulement laminaire et bidimensionnel. Cette etude a donc comme but de poursuivre l'enquete de l'aerodynamique oscillatoire des jets impactant des parois courbes, mais pour un regime d'ecoulement transitoire, turbulent

  13. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants

    PubMed Central

    Östman, Elin; Forslund, Anna; Tareke, Eden; Björck, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol), or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol). A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol) was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB) as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC) was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (−47%, p = 0.0000) but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019), compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite) revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents. PMID:27271662

  14. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants.

    PubMed

    Östman, Elin; Forslund, Anna; Tareke, Eden; Björck, Inger

    2016-06-03

    The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol), or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol). A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol) was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB) as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC) was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (-47%, p = 0.0000) but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019), compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite) revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  15. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2011-08-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data

  16. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  17. Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) draws up, proposes and conducts France's space policy. Its role is to develop the uses of space, to meet the civilian and military needs of public bodies and of the scientific community, and to foster the development and dissemination of new applications, designed to create wealth and jobs....

  18. Etudes on 1/N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starinets, Andrei Olegovich

    A number of problems in string theory and lattice statistical mechanics is studied using the large N approximation, with N being the dimension of the fundamental representation of the underlying symmetry algebra. As the first problem, the absorption of a minimally coupled massless scalar in the gravitational background created by a stack of near-extremal black three-branes is considered. The low-temperature asymptotic expansion and the high-temperature perturbative expansion are obtained. A field-theoretical calculation of the absorption cross section in the brane's world-volume theory is also performed. As an application, the shear viscosity of a strongly coupled Yang-Mills plasma is computed. In the second problem, we study supergravity solutions with two asymptotically Anti de Sitter regions which are conjectured to describe the renormalization group flow of a four-dimensional field theory from a UV fixed point to an interacting IR fixed point. We show that, in the UV (IR) limit, the two-point function of a minimally-coupled scalar field depends only on the UV (IR) region of the metric, asymptotic to AdS5 thus lending a support to the conjecture. In the third problem, monotonicity and other properties of the canonical c-function in some holographic duals of 4-d quantum field theories are investigated. The canonical c-function and its derivatives are related to the 5-d Green's function of the dual supergravity theory. In the fourth problem, we study solutions of the equations (Δ - λ)φ = 0 and (Δ - λ)2φ = 0 on the covering space C AdSd of the d-dimensional Anti de-Sitter space subject to various boundary conditions, and we analyze their connection to the unitary irreducible representations of SO (d - 1, 2). Finally, as the fifth problem, we compute the phase diagram in the N --> ∞ limit for lattice RPN-1, CPN-1 and QPN-1 σ- models with the quartic action, and more generally for mixed isovector/isotensor models. We show that the N = ∞ limit exhibits

  19. [Technical condition of semi-bionic extraction in optimizing formula of Rhizoma Cyperi that had been extracted by SFE-CO2 through homogeneous design].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiumei; Shi, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhaowang; Wang, Yingzi

    2009-11-01

    To optimize the extraction condtions in the modification of Rhizoma Cyperi, which had been extracted by the technique of supercritical CO2 extraction. The semi-bionic extraction (SBE) conditions were optimized through homogeneous design while the extracts (< or = 1 000), the total area of HPLC and dry extracts were adopted as markers. The optimized SBE extraction conditions are the following: pH in first extraction was adjusted to 2.005 3. And then pH in second and third extraction adjusted to 6.508 2 and 8.945 6, time of the whole extracted process was 3.912 7 h. Combine the faction of production,we make sure the conclusion is pH in first extraction was 2.00, pH in second and third extraction adjusted to 6.50 and 9.00, duration of run was 2.0 h, 1.0 h and 1.0 h, respectively.

  20. A comparison of protein profiles of cervical tissue homogenate, exfoliated cells from cervix and serum in normal and cervical malignancy conditions.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sujatha; Kartha, Vasudevan Bhaskaran; Rai, Lavanya; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women, progresses silently over long periods before producing any clinical manifestation. Research in early detection of this condition using proteomic techniques is of very recent origin. We used high-performance liquid chromatography combined with laser-induced fluorescence method in our lab to record the protein profiles of tissue homogenate, cell lysate and serum samples of normal and different stages of malignant conditions of the cervix. Information on protein markers in the protein profiles was derived using various data processing methods including curve resolution. The variations in relative intensities of different peaks with respect to peak height, width and area under the curve from different sample types were compared to get information regarding the concentration of the various proteins and their significance in the induction and metastasis of cervical cancer. The method can be used in diagnosis, follow-up with respect to the progression, remission and effective therapy, in cervical malignancy. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Reaction-space analysis of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion with varying levels of fuel stratification under positive and negative valve overlap conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Lavoie, George A.; Assanis, Dennis N.; Martz, Jason B.

    2015-10-26

    Full-cycle computational fluid dynamics simulations with gasoline chemical kinetics were performed to determine the impact of breathing and fuel injection strategies on thermal and compositional stratification, combustion and emissions during homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. The simulations examined positive valve overlap and negative valve overlap strategies, along with fueling by port fuel injection and direct injection. The resulting charge mass distributions were analyzed prior to ignition using ignition delay as a reactivity metric. The reactivity stratification arising from differences in the distributions of fuel–oxygen equivalence ratio (ΦFO), oxygen molar fraction (χO2) and temperature (T) was determined for three parametric studies. In the first study, the reactivity stratification and burn duration for positive valve overlap valve events with port fuel injection and early direct injection were nearly identical and were dominated by wall-driven thermal stratification. nitrogen oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were negligible for both injection strategies. In the second study, which examined negative valve overlap valve events with direct injection and port fuel injection, reactivity stratification increased for direct injection as the ΦFO and T distributions associated with direct fuel injection into the hot residual gas were positively correlated; however, the latent heat absorbed from the hot residual gas by the evaporating direct injection fuel jet reduced the overall thermal and reactivity stratification. These stratification effects were offsetting, resulting in similar reactivity stratification and burn durations for the two injection strategies. The higher local burned gas temperatures with direct injection resulted in an order of magnitude increase in NO, while incomplete combustion of locally over-lean regions led to a sevenfold increase in CO emissions compared to port fuel

  2. Reaction-space analysis of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion with varying levels of fuel stratification under positive and negative valve overlap conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Kodavasal, Janardhan; Lavoie, George A.; Assanis, Dennis N.; ...

    2015-10-26

    Full-cycle computational fluid dynamics simulations with gasoline chemical kinetics were performed to determine the impact of breathing and fuel injection strategies on thermal and compositional stratification, combustion and emissions during homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion. The simulations examined positive valve overlap and negative valve overlap strategies, along with fueling by port fuel injection and direct injection. The resulting charge mass distributions were analyzed prior to ignition using ignition delay as a reactivity metric. The reactivity stratification arising from differences in the distributions of fuel–oxygen equivalence ratio (ΦFO), oxygen molar fraction (χO2) and temperature (T) was determined for three parametric studies.more » In the first study, the reactivity stratification and burn duration for positive valve overlap valve events with port fuel injection and early direct injection were nearly identical and were dominated by wall-driven thermal stratification. nitrogen oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were negligible for both injection strategies. In the second study, which examined negative valve overlap valve events with direct injection and port fuel injection, reactivity stratification increased for direct injection as the ΦFO and T distributions associated with direct fuel injection into the hot residual gas were positively correlated; however, the latent heat absorbed from the hot residual gas by the evaporating direct injection fuel jet reduced the overall thermal and reactivity stratification. These stratification effects were offsetting, resulting in similar reactivity stratification and burn durations for the two injection strategies. The higher local burned gas temperatures with direct injection resulted in an order of magnitude increase in NO, while incomplete combustion of locally over-lean regions led to a sevenfold increase in CO emissions compared to port fuel injection. The final study

  3. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  4. The occurrence of pituitary prolactin depletion-transformation in lactating rats: dependence on strain of rats, homogenization conditions and method of assay.

    PubMed

    Lawson, D M; Haisenleder, D J; Gala, R R; Moy, J A

    1987-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether pre-release transformation (depletion) of pituitary prolactin occurs as the result of suckling to the same extent in several strains of lactating rats, the molecular nature of the transformed hormone, whether the quantity of transformed (depleted) prolactin recovered is dependent upon the type of homogenization buffer used and whether the method of assay influences the extent to which transformed prolactin is detected. During the course of these experiments other factors such as the methods of handling and storing pituitaries and homogenates were also found to influence the amount of prolactin recovered. The results indicated that transformation of prolactin is a very labile event which is affected by many factors. Strain and supplier of rats was critical to the observation of suckling-induced depletion of prolactin, with Spartan- and Holtzman-derived Sprague-Dawley strains exhibiting the most consistent responses. When transformation was observed, it mattered little which buffer was used for homogenization; however, alkaline or acidic buffers extracted more prolactin than did neutral buffers. Triton X-100 also significantly enhanced the efficiency of extraction by neutral buffers. Maintaining pituitaries on dry ice immediately upon removal from the animal increased the amount of prolactin recovered, as did freezing the homogenate for 1-5 weeks before assay. The addition of the protease inhibitor, benzamidine hydrochloride, did not affect the pituitary content of prolactin. Assay of prolactin by polyacrylamide electrophoresis and densitometry yielded more prolactin than either radioimmunoassay or the Nb2 lymphoma bioassay. The molecular nature of pituitary prolactin, extracted at neutral pH, as judged by gel filtration was altered slightly but consistently by suckling, such that large molecular forms increased at the expense of the smallest molecular form. We conclude from these studies that great care must be

  5. Homogenization conditions affect the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions: oxidation linked to changes in protein composition at the oil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit M; Baron, Caroline P; Let, Mette B; Brüggemann, Dagmar A; Pedersen, Lise R L; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-03-07

    Fish oil was incorporated into milk under different homogenization temperatures (50 and 72 degrees C) and pressures (5, 15, and 22.5 MPa). Subsequently, the oxidative stability of the milk and changes in the protein composition of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) were examined. Results showed that high pressure and high temperature (72 degrees C and 22.5 MPa) resulted in less lipid oxidation, whereas low pressure and low temperature (50 degrees C and 5 MPa) resulted in faster lipid oxidation. Analysis of protein oxidation indicated that especially casein was prone to oxidation. The level of free thiol groups was increased by high temperature (72 degrees C) and with increasing pressure. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) indicated that high temperature resulted in an increase in beta-lactoglobulin adsorbed at the oil-water interface. This was even more pronounced with higher pressure. Less casein seemed to be present at the oil-water interface with increasing pressure. Overall, the results indicated that a combination of more beta-lactoglobulin and less casein at the oil-water interface gave the most stable emulsions with respect to lipid oxidation.

  6. Dynamics of compact homogeneous universes

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, M.; Koike, T.; Hosoya, A.

    1997-01-01

    A complete description of dynamics of compact locally homogeneous universes is given, which, in particular, includes explicit calculations of Teichm{umlt u}ller deformations and careful counting of dynamical degrees of freedom. We regard each of the universes as a simply connected four-dimensional space{endash}time with identifications by the action of a discrete subgroup of the isometry group. We then reduce the identifications defined by the space{endash}time isometries to ones in a homogeneous section, and find a condition that such spatial identifications must satisfy. This is essential for explicit construction of compact homogeneous universes. Some examples are demonstrated for Bianchi II, VI{sub 0}, VII{sub 0}, and I universal covers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Is the Universe homogeneous?

    PubMed

    Maartens, Roy

    2011-12-28

    The standard model of cosmology is based on the existence of homogeneous surfaces as the background arena for structure formation. Homogeneity underpins both general relativistic and modified gravity models and is central to the way in which we interpret observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the galaxy distribution. However, homogeneity cannot be directly observed in the galaxy distribution or CMB, even with perfect observations, since we observe on the past light cone and not on spatial surfaces. We can directly observe and test for isotropy, but to link this to homogeneity we need to assume the Copernican principle (CP). First, we discuss the link between isotropic observations on the past light cone and isotropic space-time geometry: what observations do we need to be isotropic in order to deduce space-time isotropy? Second, we discuss what we can say with the Copernican assumption. The most powerful result is based on the CMB: the vanishing of the dipole, quadrupole and octupole of the CMB is sufficient to impose homogeneity. Real observations lead to near-isotropy on large scales--does this lead to near-homogeneity? There are important partial results, and we discuss why this remains a difficult open question. Thus, we are currently unable to prove homogeneity of the Universe on large scales, even with the CP. However, we can use observations of the cosmic microwave background, galaxies and clusters to test homogeneity itself.

  8. Mise au point du rheometre a cisaillement annulaire pour l'etude de rheologie d'un mastic bitumineux avec verre incorpore =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mansouri, Souleimane

    Dans le domaine viscoelastique lineaire (VEL, domaine des petites deformations), le comportement thermomecanique du bitume et du mastic bitumineux (melange uniforme de bitume et de fillers) a ete caracterise au Laboratoire des Chaussees et Materiaux Bitumineux (LCMB) de l'Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) avec l'appui de nos partenaires externes : la Societe des Alcools du Quebec (SAQ) et Eco Entreprises Quebec (EEQ). Les proprietes rheologiques des bitumes et des mastics ont ete mesurees grâce a un nouvel outil d'investigation appele, Rheometre a Cisaillement Annulaire (RCA), sous differentes conditions de chargement. Cet appareil permet non seulement de solliciter des eprouvettes de tailles importantes par rapport a celles utilisees lors des essais classiques, mais aussi d'effectuer des essais en conditions quasi-homogenes, ce qui permet de donner acces a la loi de comportement des materiaux. Les essais sont realises sur une large gamme de temperatures et de frequences (de -15 °C a 45°C et de 0,03Hz a 10 Hz). Cette etude a ete menee principalement pour comparer le comportement d'un bitume avec celui d'un mastic bitumineux dans le domaine des petites deformations. neanmoins, dans une seconde perspective, on s'interesse a l'influence des fillers de verre de post-consommation sur le comportement d'un mastic a faibles niveaux de deformations en comparant l'evolution des modules complexes de cisaillements (G*) d'un mastic avec fillers de verre et un mastic avec fillers conventionnels (calcaire). Enfin, le modele analogique 2S2P1D est utilise pour simuler le comportement viscoelastique lineaire des bitumes et des mastics bitumineux testes lors de la campagne experimentale.

  9. Theoretical nitric oxide production incidental to autoignition and combustion of several fuels homogeneously dispersed in air under some typical hypersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahn, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    A reaction package of 100 chemical reactions and attendant reaction rate constants defined for the autoignition and combustion of four carbonaceous fuels, CH4, CH3OH, C2H6, and C2H5OH. Definition of the package was made primarily by means of comparison between trial calculations and experimental data for the autoignition of CH4. Autoignition and combustion of each of these four fuels was calculated under three sets of conditions realistic for hypersonic flight applications, for comparison to hydrogen fuel, particularly with respect to formation of nitric oxide. Results show that, for all of the fuels including hydrogen, if NO production is a significant problem, compromise must be made between approaching equilibrium heat release and approaching equilibrium NO concentration.

  10. Homogeneity and Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS

  11. Homogeneous Atomic Fermi Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yan, Zhenjie; Patel, Parth B.; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Yefsah, Tarik; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the creation of homogeneous Fermi gases of ultracold atoms in a uniform potential. In the momentum distribution of a spin-polarized gas, we observe the emergence of the Fermi surface and the saturated occupation of one particle per momentum state: the striking consequence of Pauli blocking in momentum space for a degenerate gas. Cooling a spin-balanced Fermi gas at unitarity, we create homogeneous superfluids and observe spatially uniform pair condensates. For thermodynamic measurements, we introduce a hybrid potential that is harmonic in one dimension and uniform in the other two. The spatially resolved compressibility reveals the superfluid transition in a spin-balanced Fermi gas, saturation in a fully polarized Fermi gas, and strong attraction in the polaronic regime of a partially polarized Fermi gas.

  12. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M. J.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2012-01-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random independent break-type inhomogeneities with normally distributed breakpoint sizes were added to the simulated datasets. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study. After the deadline at which details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed, 22 additional solutions were submitted. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data

  13. Homogeneous, bioluminescent proteasome assays.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Martha A; Moravec, Richard A; Riss, Terry L; Bulleit, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Protein degradation is mediated predominantly through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The importance of the proteasome in regulating degradation of proteins involved in cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and angiogenesis led to the recognition of the proteasome as a therapeutic target for cancer. The proteasome is also essential for degrading misfolded and aberrant proteins, and impaired proteasome function has been implicated in neurodegerative and cardiovascular diseases. Robust, sensitive assays are essential for monitoring proteasome activity and for developing inhibitors of the proteasome. Peptide-conjugated fluorophores are widely used as substrates for monitoring proteasome activity, but fluorogenic substrates can exhibit significant background and can be problematic for screening because of cellular autofluorescence or interference from fluorescent library compounds. Furthermore, fluorescent proteasome assays require column-purified 20S or 26S proteasome (typically obtained from erythrocytes), or proteasome extracts from whole cells, as their samples. To provide assays more amenable to high-throughput screening, we developed a homogeneous, bioluminescent method that combines peptide-conjugated aminoluciferin substrates and a stabilized luciferase. Using substrates for the chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like proteasome activities in combination with a selective membrane permeabilization step, we developed single-step, cell-based assays to measure each of the proteasome catalytic activities. The homogeneous method eliminates the need to prepare individual cell extracts as samples and has adequate sensitivity for 96- and 384-well plates. The simple "add and read" format enables sensitive and rapid proteasome assays ideal for inhibitor screening.

  14. Sources of Peer Group Homogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jere M.

    1977-01-01

    Investigates how adolescent friendship groups become homogeneous. Analysis of 49 student friendship groups indicates that homophilic selection is most important for group homogeneity, conformity pressures are somewhat important, and disproportionate group leaving contributes nothing to homogeneity. The conclusion is that the magnitude of peer…

  15. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Busey, H.M.

    1959-02-17

    Nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The reactor is comprised of an elongated closed vessel, vertically oriented, having a critical region at the bottom, a lower chimney structure extending from the critical region vertically upwardly and surrounded by heat exchanger coils, to a baffle region above which is located an upper chimney structure containing a catalyst functioning to recombine radiolyticallydissociated moderator gages. In operation the liquid fuel circulates solely by convection from the critical region upwardly through the lower chimney and then downwardly through the heat exchanger to return to the critical region. The gases formed by radiolytic- dissociation of the moderator are carried upwardly with the circulating liquid fuel and past the baffle into the region of the upper chimney where they are recombined by the catalyst and condensed, thence returning through the heat exchanger to the critical region.

  16. Homogeneous quantum electrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1992-01-01

    The electromagnetic field equations and Dirac equations for oppositely charged wave functions are numerically time-integrated using a spatial Fourier method. The numerical approach used, a spectral transform technique, is based on a continuum representation of physical space. The coupled classical field equations contain a dimensionless parameter which sets the strength of the nonlinear interaction (as the parameter increases, interaction volume decreases). For a parameter value of unity, highly nonlinear behavior in the time-evolution of an individual wave function, analogous to ideal fluid turbulence, is observed. In the truncated Fourier representation which is numerically implemented here, the quantum turbulence is homogeneous but anisotropic and manifests itself in the nonlinear evolution of equilibrium modal spatial spectra for the probability density of each particle and also for the electromagnetic energy density. The results show that nonlinearly interacting fermionic wave functions quickly approach a multi-mode, dynamic equilibrium state, and that this state can be determined by numerical means.

  17. Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilakos, N.P.; Barreiros, M.T.

    1984-01-01

    Aqueous hydrogenation of cellulose in the presence of various homogeneous acidic catalysts was studied in a batch autoclave system at 250-350 degrees, residence times of 1-4 h, catalyst concentrations of less than 10% weight, and H pressures of less than 735 psi. The use of heterogeneous cocatalysts was also investigated. Under these conditions, less than 93% of the initial cellulose feed was converted, yielding mainly water-soluble components and gases rich in CO and CO2. C conversions to water-solubles and gases of less than 57% (on the basis of cellulose) were obtained, constituting in some cases improvements of more than 100% over the noncatalytic experiments. The conversion mechanism involved competing hydrolysis, pyrolysis, and hydrogenation reactions, the relative importance of which was strongly dependent on temperature. FeCl3 was the best overall catalyst, while molybdates displayed high selectivity toward hydrogenation.

  18. A non-asymptotic homogenization theory for periodic electromagnetic structures

    PubMed Central

    Tsukerman, Igor; Markel, Vadim A.

    2014-01-01

    Homogenization of electromagnetic periodic composites is treated as a two-scale problem and solved by approximating the fields on both scales with eigenmodes that satisfy Maxwell's equations and boundary conditions as accurately as possible. Built into this homogenization methodology is an error indicator whose value characterizes the accuracy of homogenization. The proposed theory allows one to define not only bulk, but also position-dependent material parameters (e.g. in proximity to a physical boundary) and to quantify the trade-off between the accuracy of homogenization and its range of applicability to various illumination conditions. PMID:25104912

  19. Homogeneous nucleation kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, D. H.; Appleby, M. R.; Leedom, G. L.; Babu, S. V.; Naumann, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Homogeneous nucleation kinetics are rederived in a manner fundamentally similar to the approach of classical nucleation theory with the following modifications and improvements. First, the cluster is a parent phase cluster and does not require energization to the parent state. Second, the thermodynamic potential used to describe phase stability is a continuous function along the pathway of phase decomposition. Third, the kinetics of clustering corresponds directly to the diffusional flux of monomers through the cluster distribution and are formally similar to classical theory with the resulting kinetic equation modified by two terms in the preexponential factor. These terms correct for the influence of a supersaturation dependent clustering within the parent phase and for the influence of an asymmetrical cluster concentration as a function of cluster size at the critical cluster size. Fourth, the supersaturation dependence of the nucleation rate is of the same form as that given by classical nucleation theory. This supersaturation dependence must however be interpreted in terms of a size dependent surface tension. Finally, there are two scaling laws which describe supersaturation to either constant nucleation rate or to the thermodynamically determined physical spinodal.

  20. Universum Inference and Corpus Homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Carl; Lynch, Gerard; Janssen, Jerom

    Universum Inference is re-interpreted for assessment of corpus homogeneity in computational stylometry. Recent stylometric research quantifies strength of characterization within dramatic works by assessing the homogeneity of corpora associated with dramatic personas. A methodological advance is suggested to mitigate the potential for the assessment of homogeneity to be achieved by chance. Baseline comparison analysis is constructed for contributions to debates by nonfictional participants: the corpus analyzed consists of transcripts of US Presidential and Vice-Presidential debates from the 2000 election cycle. The corpus is also analyzed in translation to Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. Adding randomized categories makes assessments of homogeneity more conservative.

  1. Homogeneous isolation of nanocellulose from sugarcane bagasse by high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihua; Wei, Xiaoyi; Wang, Qinghuang; Chen, Jiacui; Chang, Gang; Kong, Lingxue; Su, Junbo; Liu, Yuhuan

    2012-11-06

    Nanocellulose from sugarcane bagasse was isolated by high pressure homogenization in a homogeneous media. Pretreatment with an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl)) was initially involved to dissolve the bagasse cellulose. Subsequently, the homogeneous solution was passed through a high pressure homogenizer without any clogging. The nanocellulose was obtained at 80 MPa for 30 cycles with recovery of 90% under the optimum refining condition. Nanocellulose had been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that nanocellulose was 10-20 nm in diameter, and presented lower thermal stability and crystallinity than the original cellulose. The developed nanocellulose would be a very versatile renewable material.

  2. Etude du Photochromisme et de la Photorefractivite dans le Poly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghailane, Fatima

    1995-11-01

    Nous avons etudie la possibilite d'utiliser un materiau organique, le poly(vinylcarbazole) comme milieu de stockage optique de masse en temps reel. Ce materiau dope aux photochromes presente un potentiel non negligeable pour l'holographie de volume en temps reel. Plusiers cycles, Ecriture-Lecture-Effacement, ont ete enregistres dans cette matrice polymerique avec une resolution assez elevee. Une etude a ete menee afin d'obtenir la valeur des parametres comme l'epaisseur du film et l'intensite d'ecriture pour un angle d'enregistrement theta_{ acute ecriture} donne qui permettent d'obtenir les meilleures efficacites diffractionelles tout en preservant ce milieu de tout effet de fatigue ou de degradation. Ce polymere devient photorefractif une fois melange avec un bon accepteur de charge, le trinitrofluorenone et un bon chromophore non-lineaire, le disperse orange 25. Nous avons etudie experimentalement la conductivite en obscurite et la photoconductivite de ce materiau. Des simulations numeriques ont ete realisees en se basant sur le modele de Poole-Frenkel. Nous avons aussi etudie l'implantation de faisceaux d'ions d'oxygene d'energie 200 keV pour inscrire dans le PVCz un guide d'onde plan a profil d'indice. Une etude ESCA complete cette partie afin de savoir les modifications induites par implementation ionique a l'interieur du film polymerique.

  3. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers.

    PubMed

    Schick, Christoph; Androsch, R; Schmelzer, Juern W P

    2017-07-14

    The pathway of crystal nucleation significantly influences the structure and properties of semi-crystalline polymers. Crystal nucleation is normally heterogeneous at low supercooling, and homogeneous at high supercooling, of the polymer melt. Homogeneous nucleation in bulk polymers has been, so far, hardly accessible experimentally, and was even doubted to occur at all. This topical review summarizes experimental findings on homogeneous crystal nucleation in polymers. Recently developed fast scanning calorimetry, with cooling and heating rates up to 106 K s-1, allows for detailed investigations of nucleation near and even below the glass transition temperature, including analysis of nuclei stability. As for other materials, the maximum homogeneous nucleation rate for polymers is located close to the glass transition temperature. In the experiments discussed here, it is shown that polymer nucleation is homogeneous at such temperatures. Homogeneous nucleation in polymers is discussed in the framework of classical nucleation theory. The majority of our observations are consistent with the theory. The discrepancies may guide further research, particularly experiments to progress theoretical development. Progress in the understanding of homogeneous nucleation is much needed, since most of the modelling approaches dealing with polymer crystallization exclusively consider homogeneous nucleation. This is also the basis for advancing theoretical approaches to the much more complex phenomena governing heterogeneous nucleation. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Metastable states in homogeneous Ising models

    SciTech Connect

    Achilles, M.; Bendisch, J.; von Trotha, H.

    1987-04-01

    Metastable states of homogeneous 2D and 3D Ising models are studied under free boundary conditions. The states are defined in terms of weak and strict local minima of the total interaction energy. The morphology of these minima is characterized locally and globally on square and cubic grids. Furthermore, in the 2D case, transition from any spin configuration that is not a strict minimum to a strict minimum is possible via non-energy-increasing single flips.

  5. A Homogeneous Billet Layer Casting Fabrication Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, FengLi; Wang, JunGe; Ge, HongHao; Li, Jun; Hu, Qiaodan; Nadendla, Hari-Babu; Xia, MingXu; Li, JianGuo

    2017-10-01

    A novel additive casting approach, termed as layer casting (LC), was proposed to fabricate ingots with homogeneous composition and grain structure distribution. Ingots of Al-4.5 wt pct Cu were fabricated using conventional and novel methods to verify the feasibility of this novel approach. The results show that the novel processing not only alleviates macrosegregation but also reduces the shrinkage cavity and improves the tensile properties of the as-cast condition.

  6. Locally homogeneous pp-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globke, Wolfgang; Leistner, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    We show that every n-dimensional locally homogeneous pp-wave is a plane wave, provided it is indecomposable and its curvature operator, when acting on 2-forms, has rank greater than one. As a consequence we obtain that indecomposable, Ricci-flat locally homogeneous pp-waves are plane waves. This generalises a classical result by Jordan, Ehlers and Kundt in dimension 4. Several examples show that our assumptions on indecomposability and the rank of the curvature are essential.

  7. Operator estimates in homogenization theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhikov, V. V.; Pastukhova, S. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper gives a systematic treatment of two methods for obtaining operator estimates: the shift method and the spectral method. Though substantially different in mathematical technique and physical motivation, these methods produce basically the same results. Besides the classical formulation of the homogenization problem, other formulations of the problem are also considered: homogenization in perforated domains, the case of an unbounded diffusion matrix, non-self-adjoint evolution equations, and higher-order elliptic operators. Bibliography: 62 titles.

  8. Homogeneous coordinates in motion correction.

    PubMed

    Zahneisen, Benjamin; Ernst, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Prospective motion correction for MRI and other imaging modalities are commonly based on the assumption of affine motion, i.e., rotations, shearing, scaling and translations. In addition it often involves transformations between different reference frames, especially for applications with an external tracking device. The goal of this work is to develop a computational framework for motion correction based on homogeneous transforms. The homogeneous representation of affine transformations uses 4 × 4 transformation matrices applied to four-dimensional augmented vectors. It is demonstrated how homogenous transforms can be used to describe the motion of slice objects during an MRI scan. Furthermore, we extend the concept of homogeneous transforms to gradient and k-space vectors, and show that the fourth dimension of an augmented k-space vector encodes the complex phase of the corresponding signal sample due to translations. The validity of describing motion tracking in real space and k-space using homogeneous transformations only is demonstrated on phantom experiments. Homogeneous transformations allows for a conceptually simple, consistent and computationally efficient theoretical framework for motion correction applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Don't homogenize, synchronize.

    PubMed

    Sawhney, M

    2001-01-01

    To be more responsive to customers, companies often break down organizational walls between their units--setting up all manner of cross-business and cross-functional task forces and working groups and promoting a "one-company" culture. But such attempts can backfire terribly by distracting business and functional units and by contaminating their strategies and processes. Fortunately, there's a better way, says the author. Rather than tear down organizational walls, a company can make them permeable to information. It can synchronize all its data on products, filtering the information through linked databases and applications and delivering it in a coordinated, meaningful form to customers. As a result, the organization can present a single, unified face to the customer--one that can change as market conditions warrant--without imposing homogeneity on its people. Such synchronization can lead not just to stronger customer relationships and more sales but also to greater operational efficiency. It allows a company, for example, to avoid the high costs of maintaining many different information systems with redundant data. The decoupling of product control from customer control in a synchronized company reflects a fundamental fact about business: While companies have to focus on creating great products, customers think in terms of the activities they perform and the benefits they seek. For companies, products are ends, but for customers, products are means. The disconnect between how customers think and how companies organize themselves is what leads to inefficiencies and missed opportunities, and that's exactly the problem that synchronization solves. Synchronized companies can get closer to customers, sustain product innovation, and improve operational efficiency--goals that have traditionally been very difficult to achieve simultaneously.

  10. Etude de l'influence de la temperature et de l'humidite sur les proprietes mecaniques en traction des fibres de chanvre et de coco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho Thi, Thu Nga

    L'objectif de cette etude fut d'etablir l'effet de l'humidite et de la temperature sur la resistance en traction et le module elastique des fibres de chanvre et de coco. Deux etudes ont ete realisees afin d'atteindre cet objectif. La premiere vise l'absorption de l'humidite dans ces fibres en exposition dans l'air (de 0%RH a 80%RH) ainsi que l'absorption de l'eau dans ces fibres immergees dans l'eau aux differentes temperatures. La deuxieme consiste a mesurer la resistance en traction et le module elastique de ces fibres sous differentes conditions d'humidite et de temperature. En basant sur les resultats experimentaux obtenus, les methodes semi empiriques et de reseaux de neurones ont ete utilisees pour but de predire les proprietes en traction (resistance et module d'elasticite) des fibres de chanvre et de coco sous l'influence de l'humidite et de la temperature.

  11. Homogeneous freezing nucleation of stratospheric solution droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric J.; Toon, Owen B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The classical theory of homogeneous nucleation was used to calculate the freezing rate of sulfuric acid solution aerosols under stratospheric conditions. The freezing of stratospheric aerosols would be important for the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate particles in the Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres. In addition, the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions on stratospheric aerosols may be very sensitive to their state. The calculations indicate that homogeneous freezing nucleation of pure water ice in the stratospheric solution droplets would occur at temperatures below about 192 K. However, the physical properties of H2SO4 solution at such low temperatures are not well known, and it is possible that sulfuric acid aerosols will freeze out at temperatures ranging from about 180 to 195 K. It is also shown that the temperature at which the aerosols freeze is nearly independent of their size.

  12. Homogeneous freezing nucleation of stratospheric solution droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Eric J.; Toon, Owen B.; Hamill, Patrick

    1991-10-01

    The classical theory of homogeneous nucleation was used to calculate the freezing rate of sulfuric acid solution aerosols under stratospheric conditions. The freezing of stratospheric aerosols would be important for the nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate particles in the Arctic and Antarctic stratospheres. In addition, the rate of heterogeneous chemical reactions on stratospheric aerosols may be very sensitive to their state. The calculations indicate that homogeneous freezing nucleation of pure water ice in the stratospheric solution droplets would occur at temperatures below about 192 K. However, the physical properties of H2SO4 solution at such low temperatures are not well known, and it is possible that sulfuric acid aerosols will freeze out at temperatures ranging from about 180 to 195 K. It is also shown that the temperature at which the aerosols freeze is nearly independent of their size.

  13. Etude du comportement rheologique de suspensions colloidales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yziquel, Florence

    the rheological behavior of coating colors. The nonlinear viscoelasticity was attributed to the motion of the equilibrium particle position. A model based on the network theory has been proposed to describe the rheological behavior of both suspensions. The proposed model is based on a modified upper convected Jeffreys model coupled with a kinetic equation describing the structure evolution under flow. Three kinetic equations have been examined. The first one depends on the second invariant of the rate-of-strain tensor, the second, on the first invariant of the stress tensor and the last one, on the rate of dissipated energy. These kinetic equations coupled with Jeffreys model describe fairly well the non linear viscoelastic behavior of the fumed silica suspensions and the coating colors. The effect of frequency, in the nonlinear domain, is a critical test to assess the proposed model validity. Contrary to homogeneous polymers, the critical strain decreases with increasing frequency. Therefore, the stress-dependent model is inappropriate for predicting the rheological behavior of suspensions. The energy-dependent model seems to be the best adapted. Nevertheless, this model, as the two others, cannot predict the different dynamic properties measured here with the same parameter values.

  14. Harmonic analysis of homogeneous networks.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, W J; Rothman, J A; Chang, E H; Aultman, W; Ripton, G

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a generalization of mutually inhibitory networks called homogeneous networks. Such networks have symmetric connection strength matrices that are circulant (one-dimensional case) or block circulant with circulant blocks (two-dimensional case). Fourier harmonics provide universal eigenvectors, and we apply them to several homogeneous examples: k-wta, k-cluster, on/center off/surround, and the assignment problem. We also analyze one nonhomogeneous case: the subset-sum problem. We present the results of 10000 trials on a 50-node k-cluster problem and 100 trials on a 25-node subset-sum problem.

  15. Analysis of homogeneous turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, A. D.; Hill, J. C.; Mahalingam, S.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Full turbulence simulations at low Reynolds numbers were made for the single-step, irreversible, bimolecular reaction between non-premixed reactants in isochoric, decaying homogeneous turbulence. Various initial conditions for the scalar field were used in the simulations to control the initial scalar dissipation length scale, and simulations were also made for temperature-dependent reaction rates and for non-stoichiometric and unequal diffusivity conditions. Joint probability density functions (pdf's), conditional pdf's, and various statistical quantities appearing in the moment equations were computed. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates that compressive strain-rate correlates better than other dynamical quantities with local reaction rate, and the locations of peak reaction rates seem to be insensitive to the scalar field initial conditions.

  16. Stability properties of autonomous homogeneous polynomial differential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzija, Nikola

    A geometrical approach is used to derive a generalized characteristic value problem for dynamic systems described by homogeneous polynomials. It is shown that a nonlinear homogeneous polynomial system possesses eigenvectors and eigenvalues, quantities normally associated with a linear system. These quantities are then employed in studying stability properties. The necessary and sufficient conditions for all forms of stabilities characteristic of a two-dimensional system are provided. This result, together with the classical theorem of Frommer, completes a stability analysis for a two-dimensional homogeneous polynomial system.

  17. No hypocalcemic action of Stannius corpuscle homogenates in rats.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, K; Sasayama, Y

    1993-04-01

    1. Serum Ca level of goldfish administered with homogenate of the corpuscles of Stannius (CS) taken from 1/3 seawater-acclimated goldfish was significantly lower than that of the control goldfish up to 2 hr after administration. 2. Serum Ca, Mg, Pi, Na and K levels of rats administered with CS homogenates of freshwater eels, 1/3 seawater-acclimated goldfish, or seawater-inhabited wrasse were not statistically different from those of control rats during the 3 hr investigation. 3. It was concluded that in rats, CS homogenates did not decrease the serum mineral levels under the present conditions.

  18. Stochastic homogenization of a front propagation problem with unbounded velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajej, A.

    2017-04-01

    We study the homogenization of Hamilton-Jacobi equations which arise in front propagation problems in stationary ergodic media. Our results are obtained for fronts moving with possible unbounded velocity. We show, by an example, that the homogenized Hamiltonian, which always exists, may be unbounded. In this context, we show convergence results if we start with a compact initial front. On the other hand, if the media satisfies a finite range of dependence condition, we prove that the effective Hamiltonian is bounded and obtain classical homogenization in this context.

  19. A Locally-Exact Homogenization Approach for Periodic Heterogeneous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Drago, Anthony S.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    2008-02-15

    Elements of the homogenization theory are utilized to develop a new micromechanics approach for unit cells of periodic heterogeneous materials based on locally-exact elasticity solutions. Closed-form expressions for the homogenized moduli of unidirectionally-reinforced heterogeneous materials are obtained in terms of Hill's strain concentration matrices valid under arbitrary combined loading, which yield the homogenized Hooke's law. Results for simple unit cells with off-set fibers, which require the use of periodic boundary conditions, are compared with corresponding finite-element results demonstrating excellent correlation.

  20. Isotropic homogeneous universe with viscous fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, N.O.; Dias, R.S.; Banerjee, A.

    1985-04-01

    Exact solutions are obtained for the isotropic homogeneous cosmological model with viscous fluid. The fluid has only bulk viscosity and the viscosity coefficient is taken to be a power function of the mass density. The equation of state assumed obeys a linear relation between mass density and pressure. The models satisfying Hawking's energy conditions are discussed. Murphy's model is only a special case of this general set of solutions and it is shown that Murphy's conclusion that the introduciton of bulk viscosity can avoid the occurrence of space-time singularity at finite past is not, in general, valid.

  1. The approach to steady state using homogeneous and Cartesian coordinates.

    PubMed

    Gochberg, D F; Ding, Z

    2013-01-01

    Repeating an arbitrary sequence of RF pulses and magnetic field gradients will eventually lead to a steady-state condition in any magnetic resonance system. While numerical methods can quantify this trajectory, analytic analysis provides significantly more insight and a means for faster calculation. Recently, an analytic analysis using homogeneous coordinates was published. The current work further develops this line of thought and compares the relative merits of using a homogeneous or a Cartesian coordinate system.

  2. Carbon dioxide in the ocean surface: The homogeneous buffer factor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, E.T.; Plummer, L.N.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1979-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide that can be dissolved in surface seawater depends at least partially on the homogeneous buffer factor, which is a mathematical function of the chemical equilibrium conditions among the various dissolved inorganic species. Because these equilibria are well known, the homogeneous buffer factor is well known. Natural spatial variations depend very systematically on sea surface temperatures, and do not contribute significantly to uncertainties in the present or future carbon dioxide budget. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  3. Homogeneous Pt-bimetallic Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Chi, Miaofang; More, Karren Leslie; Markovic, Nenad; Stamenkovic, Vojislav

    2011-01-01

    Alloying has shown enormous potential for tailoring the atomic and electronic structures, and improving the performance of catalytic materials. Systematic studies of alloy catalysts are, however, often compromised by inhomogeneous distribution of alloying components. Here we introduce a general approach for the synthesis of monodispersed and highly homogeneous Pt-bimetallic alloy nanocatalysts. Pt{sub 3}M (where M = Fe, Ni, or Co) nanoparticles were prepared by an organic solvothermal method and then supported on high surface area carbon. These catalysts attained a homogeneous distribution of elements, as demonstrated by atomic-scale elemental analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy. They also exhibited high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), with improvement factors of 2-3 versus conventional Pt/carbon catalysts. The measured ORR catalytic activities for Pt{sub 3}M nanocatalysts validated the volcano curve established on extended surfaces, with Pt{sub 3}Co being the most active alloy.

  4. Peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation: influence of tissue non-homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Vessela T Z; Papazov, Sava P; Daskalov, Ivan K

    2003-12-23

    Peripheral nerves are situated in a highly non-homogeneous environment, including muscles, bones, blood vessels, etc. Time-varying magnetic field stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in the carpal region is studied, with special consideration of the influence of non-homogeneities. A detailed three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the anatomy of the wrist region was built to assess the induced currents distribution by external magnetic stimulation. The electromagnetic field distribution in the non-homogeneous domain was defined as an internal Dirichlet problem using the finite element method. The boundary conditions were obtained by analysis of the vector potential field excited by external current-driven coils. The results include evaluation and graphical representation of the induced current field distribution at various stimulation coil positions. Comparative study for the real non-homogeneous structure with anisotropic conductivities of the tissues and a mock homogeneous media is also presented. The possibility of achieving selective stimulation of either of the two nerves is assessed. The model developed could be useful in theoretical prediction of the current distribution in the nerves during diagnostic stimulation and therapeutic procedures involving electromagnetic excitation. The errors in applying homogeneous domain modeling rather than real non-homogeneous biological structures are demonstrated. The practical implications of the applied approach are valid for any arbitrary weakly conductive medium.

  5. At tank Low Activity Feed Homogeneity Analysis Verification

    SciTech Connect

    DOUGLAS, J.G.

    2000-09-28

    This report evaluates the merit of selecting sodium, aluminum, and cesium-137 as analytes to indicate homogeneity of soluble species in low-activity waste (LAW) feed and recommends possible analytes and physical properties that could serve as rapid screening indicators for LAW feed homogeneity. The three analytes are adequate as screening indicators of soluble species homogeneity for tank waste when a mixing pump is used to thoroughly mix the waste in the waste feed staging tank and when all dissolved species are present at concentrations well below their solubility limits. If either of these conditions is violated, then the three indicators may not be sufficiently chemically representative of other waste constituents to reliably indicate homogeneity in the feed supernatant. Additional homogeneity indicators that should be considered are anions such as fluoride, sulfate, and phosphate, total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon, and total alpha to estimate the transuranic species. Physical property measurements such as gamma profiling, conductivity, specific gravity, and total suspended solids are recommended as possible at-tank methods for indicating homogeneity. Indicators of LAW feed homogeneity are needed to reduce the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) Program's contractual risk by assuring that the waste feed is within the contractual composition and can be supplied to the waste treatment plant within the schedule requirements.

  6. Planar factors of proper homogeneous Lorentz transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahnline, D.E.

    1985-02-01

    This article discusses two constructions factoring proper homogeneous Lorentz transformations H into the product of two planar transformations. A planar transformation is a proper homogeneous Lorentz transformation changing vectors in a two-flat through the origin, called the transformation two-flat, into new vectors in the same two-flat and which leaves unchanged vectors in the orthogonal two-flat, called the pointwise invariant two-flat. The first construction provides two planar factors such that a given timelike vector lies in the transformation two-flat of one and in the pointwise invariant two-flat of the other; it leads to several basic conditions on the trace of H and to necessary and sufficient conditions for H to be planar. The second construction yields explicit formulas for the orthogonal factors of H when they exist and are unique, where two planar transformations are orthogonal if the transformation two-flat of one is the pointwise invariant two-flat of the other.

  7. Homogenization in micro-magneto-mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, A.; Keip, M.-A.; Miehe, C.

    2016-07-01

    Ferromagnetic materials are characterized by a heterogeneous micro-structure that can be altered by external magnetic and mechanical stimuli. The understanding and the description of the micro-structure evolution is of particular importance for the design and the analysis of smart materials with magneto-mechanical coupling. The macroscopic response of the material results from complex magneto-mechanical interactions occurring on smaller length scales, which are driven by magnetization reorientation and associated magnetic domain wall motions. The aim of this work is to directly base the description of the macroscopic magneto-mechanical material behavior on the micro-magnetic domain evolution. This will be realized by the incorporation of a ferromagnetic phase-field formulation into a macroscopic Boltzmann continuum by the use of computational homogenization. The transition conditions between the two scales are obtained via rigorous exploitation of rate-type and incremental variational principles, which incorporate an extended version of the classical Hill-Mandel macro-homogeneity condition covering the phase field on the micro-scale. An efficient two-scale computational scenario is developed based on an operator splitting scheme that includes a predictor for the magnetization on the micro-scale. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations demonstrate the performance of the method. They investigate micro-magnetic domain evolution driven by macroscopic fields as well as the associated overall hysteretic response of ferromagnetic solids.

  8. Homogenization of an ensemble of interacting resonant scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilder, N. J.; Sauvan, C.; Sortais, Y. R. P.; Browaeys, A.; Greffet, J.-J.

    2017-07-01

    We study theoretically the concept of homogenization in optics using an ensemble of randomly distributed resonant stationary atoms with density ρ . The ensemble is dense enough for the usual condition for homogenization, viz. ρ λ3≫1 , to be reached. Introducing the coherent and incoherent scattered powers, we define two criteria to define the homogenization regime. We find that when the excitation field is tuned in a broad frequency range around the resonance, neither of the criteria for homogenization is fulfilled, meaning that the condition ρ λ3≫1 is not sufficient to characterize the homogenized regime around the atomic resonance. We interpret these results as a consequence of the light-induced dipole-dipole interactions between the atoms, which implies a description of scattering in terms of collective modes rather than as a sequence of individual scattering events. Finally, we show that, although homogenization can never be reached for a dense ensemble of randomly positioned laser-cooled atoms around resonance, it becomes possible if one introduces spatial correlations in the positions of the atoms or nonradiative losses, such as would be the case for organic molecules or quantum dots coupled to a phonon bath.

  9. Stochastic Homogenization of Nonconvex Unbounded Integral Functionals with Convex Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerinckx, Mitia; Gloria, Antoine

    2016-09-01

    We consider the well-trodden ground of the problem of the homogenization of random integral functionals. When the integrand has standard growth conditions, the qualitative theory is well-understood. When it comes to unbounded functionals, that is, when the domain of the integrand is not the whole space and may depend on the space-variable, there is no satisfactory theory. In this contribution we develop a complete qualitative stochastic homogenization theory for nonconvex unbounded functionals with convex growth. We first prove that if the integrand is convex and has p-growth from below (with p > d, the dimension), then it admits homogenization regardless of growth conditions from above. This result, that crucially relies on the existence and sublinearity at infinity of correctors, is also new in the periodic case. In the case of nonconvex integrands, we prove that a similar homogenization result holds provided that the nonconvex integrand admits a two-sided estimate by a convex integrand (the domain of which may depend on the space variable) that itself admits homogenization. This result is of interest to the rigorous derivation of rubber elasticity from polymer physics, which involves the stochastic homogenization of such unbounded functionals.

  10. Etude de la resistance en fatigue des materiaux bitumineux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touhara, Radouen

    The goal of this research program is to evaluate and characterize the fatigue behaviour of two GB20 hot mix asphalt made with two different bitumen. One of them is made in laboratory with a straight-run PG58-28 bitumen, while the second mix was made in an asphalt plant with a PG64-28 bitumen. Two characterization tests, in homogeneous conditions, done in traction/compression on cylindrical specimens are used in this study. First, a complex modulus test performed in the linear viscoelasticity (LVE) domain is used to characterize the mixes and second, a fatigue test is done to evaluate the mixes performances. The fatigue tests were done in strain controlled at different amplitude. All fatigue tests were performed at 10Hz, but at different temperatures (10, 20 and 30°C) in order to evaluate the effect of the temperature on the fatigue behaviour of those mixes. In this document, the results are presented, and the analysis of the results as a function of the grade of bitumen, the tests’ temperature and the dispersion of the results is performed. Also, the DGCB method is applied to the fatigue results to calculate the rate of damage per cycle followed by a study of the different failure criteria (Nf) to predict the fatigue life of asphalt mixes. Keywords: bituminous materials, fatigue, complex modulus, Damage.

  11. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  12. Optimizing homogenization by chaotic unmixing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijs, Joost; Bartolo, Denis

    2016-11-01

    A number of industrial processes rely on the homogeneous dispersion of non-brownian particles in a viscous fluid. An ideal mixing would yield a so-called hyperuniform particle distribution. Such configurations are characterized by density fluctuations that grow slower than the standard √{ N}-fluctuations. Even though such distributions have been found in several natural structures, e.g. retina receptors in birds, they have remained out of experimental reach until very recently. Over the last 5 years independent experiments and numerical simulations have shown that periodically driven suspensions can self-assemble hyperuniformally. Simple as the recipe may be, it has one important disadvantage. The emergence of hyperuniform states co-occurs with a critical phase transition from reversible to non reversible particle dynamics. As a consequence the homogenization dynamics occurs over a time that diverges with the system size (critical slowing down). Here, we discuss how this process can be sped up by exploiting the stirring properties of chaotic advection. Among the questions that we answer are: What are the physical mechanisms in a chaotic flow that are relevant for hyperuniformity? How can we tune the flow parameters such to obtain optimal hyperuniformity in the fastest way? JW acknowledges funding by NWO (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research) through a Rubicon Grant.

  13. Topology of actions and homogeneous spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, Konstantin L

    2013-04-30

    Topologization of a group of homeomorphisms and its action provide additional possibilities for studying the topological space, the group of homeomorphisms, and their interconnections. The subject of the paper is the use of the property of d-openness of an action (introduced by Ancel under the name of weak micro-transitivity) in the study of spaces with various forms of homogeneity. It is proved that a d-open action of a Cech-complete group is open. A characterization of Polish SLH spaces using d-openness is given, and it is established that any separable metrizable SLH space has an SLH completion that is a Polish space. Furthermore, the completion is realized in coordination with the completion of the acting group with respect to the two-sided uniformity. A sufficient condition is given for extension of a d-open action to the completion of the space with respect to the maximal equiuniformity with preservation of d-openness. A result of van Mill is generalized, namely, it is proved that any homogeneous CDH metrizable compactum is the only G-compactification of the space of rational numbers for the action of some Polish group. Bibliography: 39 titles.

  14. 7 CFR 58.623 - Homogenizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE....623 Homogenizer. Homogenizer shall comply with 3-A Sanitary Standards....

  15. Homogenization and Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation studies three aspects of analysis and numerical methods for partial differential equations with oscillatory solutions. 1. Homogenization theory for certain linear hyperbolic equations is developed. We derive the homogenized convection equations for linear convection problems with rapidly varying velocity in space and time. We find that the oscillatory solutions are very sensitive to the arithmetic properties of certain parameters, such as the corresponding rotation number and the ratio between the components of the mean velocity field in linear convection. We also show that the oscillatory velocity field in two dimensional incompressible flow behaves like shear flows. 2. The homogenization of scalar nonlinear conservation laws in several space variables with oscillatory initial data is also discussed. We prove that the initial oscillations will be eliminated for any positive time when the equations are non-degenerate. This is also true for degenerate equations if there is enough mixing among the initial oscillations in the degenerate direction. Otherwise, the initial oscillation, for which the homogenized equation is obtained, will survive and be propagated. The large-time behavior of conservation laws with several space variables is studied. We show that, under a new nondegenerate condition (the second derivatives of the flux functions are linearly independent in any interval), a piecewise smooth periodic solution with converge strongly to the mean value of initial data. This generalizes Glimm and Lax's result for the one dimensional problem (3). 3. Numerical simulations of the oscillatory solutions are also carried out. We give some error estimate for varepsilon-h resonance ( varepsilon: oscillation wave length, h: numerical step) and prove essential convergence (24) of order alpha < 1 for some numerical schemes. These include upwind schemes and particle methods for linear hyperbolic equations with oscillatory coefficients. A stochastic analysis

  16. Homogeneous spaces with inner metric and with integrable invariant distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berestovskii, V. N.; Gorbatsevich, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper is a survey of results (partly obtained by the authors) on homogeneous spaces of Lie groups with a compact stabilizer subgroup , on which every -invariant distribution is integrable. It is proved that the condition of integrability is necessary and sufficient for every invariant inner metric to be (holonomic) Finsler on such a space. As a corollary of the obtained results, we assert that the class of homogeneous spaces with invariant non-holonomic Riemannian metrics (in other terms, sub-Riemannian or Carnot-Carathéodory metrics), which were actively studied last 3 decades after Gromov's work, is rather broad. On the other hand, the class of homogeneous spaces with integrable invariant distributions includes Cartan's symmetric spaces as well as isotropy irreducible, in particular, strictly isotropy irreducible, homogeneous spaces, which have been classified in simply connected case in the papers by Wang and Ziller (respectively, by Manturov, Wolf and Krämer). Special attention is paid to the case, when the Lie groups and are connected. Then the integrability condition of the invariant distributions is equivalent to a purely algebraic condition, that for the Lie algebra of the subgroup , any -invariant vector subspace in the Lie algebra of the Lie group is a Lie subalgebra; such Lie subalgebra is called a strong subalgebra. The first author proved that a simply connected and compact space with this condition is isomorphic to a direct product of strictly isotropy irreducible homogeneous spaces. In line with this, the second author recently found several non-compact simply connected homogeneous spaces with this condition, which are not isomorphic to such direct products. These results are naturally related to the structure questions of a class of general homogeneous locally compact spaces with an inner metric. This class is exactly the closure in the Gromov-Hausdorff sense of the class of homogeneous manifolds with an inner metric. Any such manifold is

  17. Invariant distributions on compact homogeneous spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbatsevich, V V

    2013-12-31

    In this paper, we study distributions on compact homogeneous spaces, including invariant distributions and also distributions admitting a sub-Riemannian structure. We first consider distributions of dimension 1 and 2 on compact homogeneous spaces. After this, we study the cases of compact homogeneous spaces of dimension 2, 3, and 4 in detail. Invariant distributions on simply connected compact homogeneous spaces are also treated. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  18. Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, P.; Bernhardt, A.

    1993-06-29

    The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.

  19. Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul; Bernhardt, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    The geometrical restrictions on a laser beam homogenizer are relaxed by ug a coherence delay line to separate a coherent input beam into several components each having a path length difference equal to a multiple of the coherence length with respect to the other components. The components recombine incoherently at the output of the homogenizer, and the resultant beam has a more uniform spatial intensity suitable for microlithography and laser pantogography. Also disclosed is a variable aperture homogenizer, and a liquid filled homogenizer.

  20. Orthogonality Measurement for Homogenous Projects-Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivan, Ion; Sandu, Andrei; Popa, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The homogenous projects-base concept is defined. Next, the necessary steps to create a homogenous projects-base are presented. A metric system is built, which then will be used for analyzing projects. The indicators which are meaningful for analyzing a homogenous projects-base are selected. The given hypothesis is experimentally verified. The…

  1. Effects of homogenous loading on silicon direct bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Yang; Ho, Kuan-Lin; Hu, Chen-Ti

    2011-06-01

    The effect of a homogenous loaded stress on the bonding quality of silicon wafer pairs was investigated by employing a Nano-Imprint System and a homogenous plane-stress applied over the entire surface area of pre-cleaned wafers. In addition, the effects of variations in the applied homogenous stress (1, 10, 100, 500 psi) on the interface energy of the bonded pairs were examined using a dynamic blade insertion (DBI) method. Infrared imaging was used to evaluate the quality of the bonded interface of each bonded pair immediately after the bonding process and after allowing the bonded pairs to rest at room temperature for 80 h after bonding. The results indicated that the homogenous loading with the Nano-Imprint System further improved the bonding condition of wafer pairs that had been pre-bonded using an anodic bonder. Furthermore, the bonded pairs exhibited almost identical interfacial energies of about 0.2 Jm -2 when the homogenous stress was varied from 1 psi to 500 psi, which clearly indicates that the interfacial energy of bonded wafers is independent of the amount of stress applied by the homogenous loading process.

  2. Dephosphorylation of WR-2721 with mouse tissue homogenates

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, T.; Nikaido, O.; Sugahara, T.

    1984-09-01

    Mouse liver homogenate had an optimum pH of 8.6 to 8.8 for dephosphorylation of WR-2721 in the analyzed pH range from 5.2 to 10.0. At this optimum pH condition, the dephosphorylation activities of six mouse tissue homogenates were analyzed. Kidney, liver and small intestine homogenates showed higher dephosphorylation activities than spleen and lung homogenates. Furthermore, serum did not show any dephosphorylation activity. The high activity found in liver homogenate agrees well with our previous data with mouse L cells. However, optimum pH from 8.6 to 8.8 in liver homogenate is quite different from the data reported by using Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (optimum pH was 5.6). Therefore, it is suggested that WR-2721 administered into mouse is efficiently dephosphorylated in certain tissues such as liver to its active form with the enzyme(s) different from that found in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

  3. Numerical experiments in homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The direct simulation methods developed by Orszag and Patternson (1972) for isotropic turbulence were extended to homogeneous turbulence in an incompressible fluid subjected to uniform deformation or rotation. The results of simulations for irrotational strain (plane and axisymmetric), shear, rotation, and relaxation toward isotropy following axisymmetric strain are compared with linear theory and experimental data. Emphasis is placed on the shear flow because of its importance and because of the availability of accurate and detailed experimental data. The computed results are used to assess the accuracy of two popular models used in the closure of the Reynolds-stress equations. Data from a variety of the computed fields and the details of the numerical methods used in the simulation are also presented.

  4. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis

  5. Homogeneous cosmologies as group field theory condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, Steffen; Oriti, Daniele; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2014-06-01

    We give a general procedure, in the group field theory (GFT) formalism for quantum gravity, for constructing states that describe macroscopic, spatially homogeneous universes. These states are close to coherent (condensate) states used in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The condition on such states to be (approximate) solutions to the quantum equations of motion of GFT is used to extract an effective dynamics for homogeneous cosmologies directly from the underlying quantum theory. The resulting description in general gives nonlinear and nonlocal equations for the `condensate wavefunction' which are analogous to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in Bose-Einstein condensates. We show the general form of the effective equations for current quantum gravity models, as well as some concrete examples. We identify conditions under which the dynamics becomes linear, admitting an interpretation as a quantum-cosmological Wheeler-DeWitt equation, and give its semiclassical (WKB) approximation in the case of a kinetic term that includes a Laplace-Beltrami operator. For isotropic states, this approximation reproduces the classical Friedmann equation in vacuum with positive spatial curvature. We show how the formalism can be consistently extended from Riemannian signature to Lorentzian signature models, and discuss the addition of matter fields, obtaining the correct coupling of a massless scalar in the Friedmann equation from the most natural extension of the GFT action. We also outline the procedure for extending our condensate states to include cosmological perturbations. Our results form the basis of a general programme for extracting effective cosmological dynamics directly from a microscopic non-perturbative theory of quantum gravity.

  6. Singing as a Therapeutic Agent, inThe Etude, 1891-1949.

    PubMed

    Hunter

    1999-01-01

    The Etude music magazine, founded by Theodore Presser, was one of a number of popular music magazines published in the years prior to the establishment of the music therapy profession in 1950. During its publication run from 1883 to 1957, over 100 music therapy related articles appeared, including 13 on the health benefits of singing published between 1891 and 1949. Written by authors with diverse backgrounds, such as the famous Battle Creek, Michigan physician John Harvey Kellogg and Boston music critic Louis C. Elson, the articles contained consistent and adamant support regarding the health benefits of singing. The advantages described were both physical and psychological, and were recommended prophylactically for well persons and therapeutically for ill persons. Although the articles varied in perspective, from philosophical to theoretical to pedagogical, there is a consistent holistic medicine theme that appeared almost ahead of its time and no doubt linked to the push for vocal music education in that era. The importance of The Etude in promulgating ideas that helped shape the early practice of music therapy should not be underestimated. For much of its publication run The Etude was the largest music periodical in print, reaching its peak circulation of 250,000 copies per month in 1924.

  7. Homogeneous solutions of extremal Pucci's equations in planar cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leoni, Fabiana

    2017-07-01

    We derive explicit expressions of the homogeneous solutions with constant sign in two dimensional cones for Pucci's extremal equations. As examples of possible applications, we obtain monotonicity formulas for all nonnegative supersolutions and necessary and sufficient explicit conditions for non-existence results of Liouville type.

  8. Reciprocity theory of homogeneous reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbormbai, Adolf A.

    1990-03-01

    The reciprocity formalism is applied to the homogeneous gaseous reactions in which the structure of the participating molecules changes upon collision with one another, resulting in a change in the composition of the gas. The approach is applied to various classes of dissociation, recombination, rearrangement, ionizing, and photochemical reactions. It is shown that for the principle of reciprocity to be satisfied it is necessary that all chemical reactions exist in complementary pairs which consist of the forward and backward reactions. The backward reaction may be described by either the reverse or inverse process. The forward and backward processes must satisfy the same reciprocity equation. Because the number of dynamical variables is usually unbalanced on both sides of a chemical equation, it is necessary that this balance be established by including as many of the dynamical variables as needed before the reciprocity equation can be formulated. Statistical transformation models of the reactions are formulated. The models are classified under the titles free exchange, restricted exchange and simplified restricted exchange. The special equations for the forward and backward processes are obtained. The models are consistent with the H theorem and Le Chatelier's principle. The models are also formulated in the context of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  9. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    SciTech Connect

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-06-15

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or Coleman{endash}De Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe.

  10. Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Liver Homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Demirkan, Gokhan; Salomon, Arthur R.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Regulation of protein function via reversible phosphorylation is an essential component of cell signaling. Our ability to understand complex phosphorylation networks in the physiological context of a whole organism or tissue remains limited. This is largely due to the technical challenge of isolating serine/threonine phosphorylated peptides from a tissue sample. In the present study, we developed a phosphoproteomic strategy to purify and identify phosphopeptides from a tissue sample by employing protein gel filtration, protein SAX (strong anion exchange) and SCX (strong cation exchange) chromatography, peptide SCX chromatography and TiO2 affinity purification. By applying this strategy to the mass spectrometry-based analysis of rat liver homogenates, we were able to identify with high confidence and quantify over four thousand unique phosphopeptides. Finally, the reproducibility of our methodology was demonstrated by its application to analysis of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in liver samples obtained from rats in which hepatic mTOR was activated by refeeding following a period of fasting. PMID:22903715

  11. Bounds for nonlinear composites via iterated homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponte Castañeda, P.

    2012-09-01

    Improved estimates of the Hashin-Shtrikman-Willis type are generated for the class of nonlinear composites consisting of two well-ordered, isotropic phases distributed randomly with prescribed two-point correlations, as determined by the H-measure of the microstructure. For this purpose, a novel strategy for generating bounds has been developed utilizing iterated homogenization. The general idea is to make use of bounds that may be available for composite materials in the limit when the concentration of one of the phases (say phase 1) is small. It then follows from the theory of iterated homogenization that it is possible, under certain conditions, to obtain bounds for more general values of the concentration, by gradually adding small amounts of phase 1 in incremental fashion, and sequentially using the available dilute-concentration estimate, up to the final (finite) value of the concentration (of phase 1). Such an approach can also be useful when available bounds are expected to be tighter for certain ranges of the phase volume fractions. This is the case, for example, for the "linear comparison" bounds for porous viscoplastic materials, which are known to be comparatively tighter for large values of the porosity. In this case, the new bounds obtained by the above-mentioned "iterated" procedure can be shown to be much improved relative to the earlier "linear comparison" bounds, especially at low values of the porosity and high triaxialities. Consistent with the way in which they have been derived, the new estimates are, strictly, bounds only for the class of multi-scale, nonlinear composites consisting of two well-ordered, isotropic phases that are distributed with prescribed H-measure at each stage in the incremental process. However, given the facts that the H-measure of the sequential microstructures is conserved (so that the final microstructures can be shown to have the same H-measure), and that H-measures are insensitive to length scales, it is conjectured

  12. EDQNM closure: A homogeneous simulation to support it. A quasi-homogeneous simulation to disprove it

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertoglio, J. P.; Squires, K.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    It is known that two-point closures are useful tools for understanding and predicting turbulence. Among the various closures, the Eddy Damped Quasi-Normal Markovian (EDQNM) approach is one of the simplest and, at the same time, most useful. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) can provide information that can be used to test the validity of two-point theories. It is the purpose of the present work to use DNS to validate, or improve upon, EDQNM. A case was selected for which EDQNM is known to give satisfactory results: homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Quantities were then evaluated which may be used to test the assumptions of two-point closure approximations: spectral Lagrangian time scales. The goal was to make a careful and refined study to validate the EDQNM theory. A reference case was built for which EDQNM is likely to give poor results. An attempt to generate a quasi-homogeneous turbulent field containing organized structures, was built by artifically injecting them in the initial conditions. The results of direct simulations using such initial conditions are expected to provide a challenge for EDQNM since this kind of field is simple enough to allow comparisons with two-point theories, but at the same time contains coherent structures which cannot be expected to be accurately accounted for by closures based on expansions about Gaussianity.

  13. Central Andean temperature and precipitation measurements and its homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunziker, Stefan; Gubler, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    Observation of climatological parameters and the homogenization of these time series have a well-established history in western countries. This is not the case for many other countries, such as Bolivia and Peru. In Bolivia and Peru, the organization of measurements, quality of measurement equipment, equipment maintenance, training of staff and data management are fundamentally different compared to the western standard. The data needs special attention, because many problems are not detected by standard quality control procedures. Information about the weather stations, best achieved by station visits, is very beneficial. If the cause of the problem is known, some of the data may be corrected. In this study, cases of typical problems and measurement errors will be demonstrated. Much of research on homogenization techniques (up to subdaily scale) has been completed in recent years. However, data sets of the quality of western station networks have been used, and little is known about the performance of homogenization methods on data sets from countries such as Bolivia and Peru. HOMER (HOMogenizaton softwarE in R) is one of the most recent and widely used homogenization softwares. Its performance is tested on Peruvian-like data that has been sourced from Swiss stations (similar station density and metadata availability). The Swiss station network is a suitable test bed, because climate gradients are strong and the terrain is complex, as is also found in the Central Andes. On the other hand, the Swiss station network is dense, and long time series and extensive metadata are available. By subsampling the station network and omitting the metadata, the conditions of a Peruvian test region are mimicked. Results are compared to a dataset homogenized by THOMAS (Tool for Homogenization of Monthly Data Series), the homogenization tool used by MeteoSwiss.

  14. Toward a homogeneous and efficient batch-tray dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Khattab, N.M.

    1996-06-01

    In batch-tray dryers, with equal loading of trays, a nonhomogeneous drying of the product may result. This will degrade the quality of the dried product, as some of it will be either overdried or underdried. To obtain homogeneous drying, the trays must be loaded in accordance with the condition of the inlet air to each tray, i.e., as the air gets cooler and more saturated with moisture when moving upward, the tray loading should be reduced. The aim of the present work is to develop an analytical method for obtaining the best loading pattern in batch-tray dryers, that guarantees a homogeneous and efficient drying of the product. A mathematical model that describes the mass and heat transfer inside the dryer is proposed. Homogeneous drying is achieved by solving the model under constraints imposed by some proposed control functions, giving as a result the loading of different trays. An algorithm of the calculation procedures is given, and an application to study drying of apricots is demonstrated. In addition, the performance of the dryer, loaded so as to achieve homogeneous drying of the product, was studied under a wide range of inlet air conditions to determine the one that gives maximum productivity of the dryer. The final result of those calculations is to obtain the necessary condition for a product of good quality dried in the most efficient way.

  15. Pyroxene Homogenization and the Isotopic Systematics of Eucrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    1996-01-01

    The original Mg-Fe zoning of eucritic pyroxenes has in nearly all cases been partly homogenized, an observation that has been combined with other petrographic and compositional criteria to establish a scale of thermal "metamorphism" for eucrites. To evaluate hypotheses explaining development of conditions on the HED parent body (Vesta?) leading to pyroxene homogenization against their chronological implications, it is necessary to know whether pyroxene metamorphism was recorded in the isotopic systems. However, identifying the effects of the thermal metamorphism with specific effects in the isotopic systems has been difficult, due in part to a lack of correlated isotopic and mineralogical studies of the same eucrites. Furthermore, isotopic studies often place high demands on analytical capabilities, resulting in slow growth of the isotopic database. Additionally, some isotopic systems would not respond in a direct and sensitive way to pyroxene homogenization. Nevertheless, sufficient data exist to generalize some observations, and to identify directions of potentially fruitful investigations.

  16. Homogenization of electromagnetic crystals formed by uniaxial resonant scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, Pavel A.; Simovski, Constantin R.

    2005-08-01

    Dispersion properties of electromagnetic crystals formed by small uniaxial resonant scatterers (magnetic or electric) are studied using the local field approach. The goal of the study is to determine the conditions under which the homogenization of such crystals is possible. Therefore the consideration is limited to the frequency region where the wavelength in the host medium is larger than the lattice periods. It is demonstrated that, together with the known restriction for the homogenization related to the large values of the material parameters, there is an additional restriction related to their small absolute values. On the other hand, the homogenization becomes allowed in both cases of large and small material parameters for special directions of propagation. Two unusual effects inherent to the crystals under consideration are revealed: a flat isofrequency contour that allows subwavelength imaging using the canalization regime and birefringence of the extraordinary modes which can be used for beam splitting.

  17. Etude theorique des fluctuations structurales dans les composes organiques a dimensionnalite reduite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Benoit

    Les systemes a dimensionnalite reduite constituent maintenant une branche entiere de la physique de la matiere condensee. Cette derniere s'est developpee rapidement au cours des dernieres annees, avec la decouverte des materiaux organiques qui presentent, justement, des proprietes physiques fortement anisotropes. Cette these presente une etude en trois parties de plusieurs composes organiques qui, bien que tres differents du point de vue de leurs compositions chimiques et de leurs proprietes physiques a haute temperature, subissent tous une instabilite structurale a tres basse temperature. De plus, dans chacun des cas, l'instabilite structurale est precedee d'un important regime fluctuatif a partir duquel les proprietes physiques changent de maniere significative. Notre etude suit un ordre chronologique inverse puisque nous nous attardons en premier lieu au cas de composes recemment decouverts: les composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X (X = PF6 , AsF6). Ces derniers sont des isolants magnetiques a la temperature ambiante et subissent une instabilite structurale de type spin-Peierls a une temperature appelee TSP. En particulier, nous nous interessons a l'etude des proprietes physiques de ces systemes dans le regime fluctuatif, qui precede cette instabilite. Notre etude theorique nous permet de comprendre en detail comment ces systemes s'approchent de l'instabilite struturale. Dans la seconde partie de cette these, nous etudions le regime fluctuatif (pre-transitionnel) observe experimentalement dans le compose de (TMTTF)2PF6. Ce compose organique, dont la structure s'apparente aux sels de Bechgaard, subit une instabilite de type spin-Peierls a une temperature T SP = 19K. Bien que ce compose possede la particularite d'etre un bon conducteur a la temperature ambiante, il subit une transition de type Mott-Hubbard a une temperature Trho ≈ 220K et devient alors un isolant magnetique, analogue aux composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X. Le regime fluctuatif precedant l

  18. Numerical modeling of the acoustic wave propagation across a homogenized rigid microstructure in the time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, Bruno; Maurel, Agnès; Marigo, Jean-Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Homogenization of a thin micro-structure yields effective jump conditions that incorporate the geometrical features of the scatterers. These jump conditions apply across a thin but nonzero thickness interface whose interior is disregarded. This paper aims (i) to propose a numerical method able to handle the jump conditions in order to simulate the homogenized problem in the time domain, (ii) to inspect the validity of the homogenized problem when compared to the real one. For this purpose, we adapt the Explicit Simplified Interface Method originally developed for standard jump conditions across a zero-thickness interface. Doing so allows us to handle arbitrary-shaped interfaces on a Cartesian grid with the same efficiency and accuracy of the numerical scheme than those obtained in a homogeneous medium. Numerical experiments are performed to test the properties of the numerical method and to inspect the validity of the homogenization problem.

  19. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  20. Homogeneous catalysts in hypersonic combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Harradine, D.M.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Pack, R.T.; Schott, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Density and residence time both become unfavorably small for efficient combustion of hydrogen fuel in ramjet propulsion in air at high altitude and hypersonic speed. Raising the density and increasing the transit time of the air through the engine necessitates stronger contraction of the air flow area. This enhances the kinetic and thermodynamic tendency of H/sub 2/O to form completely, accompanied only by N/sub 2/ and any excess H/sub 2/(or O/sub 2/). The by-products to be avoided are the energetically expensive fragment species H and/or O atoms and OH radicals, and residual (2H/sub 2/ plus O/sub 2/). However, excessive area contraction raises air temperature and consequent combustion-product temperature by adiabatic compression. This counteracts and ultimately overwhelms the thermodynamic benefit by which higher density favors the triatomic product, H/sub 2/O, over its monatomic and diatomic alternatives. For static pressures in the neighborhood of 1 atm, static temperature must be kept or brought below ca. 2400 K for acceptable stability of H/sub 2/O. Another measure, whose requisite chemistry we address here, is to extract propulsive work from the combustion products early in the expansion. The objective is to lower the static temperature of the combustion stream enough for H/sub 2/O to become adequately stable before the exhaust flow is massively expanded and its composition ''frozen.'' We proceed to address this mechanism and its kinetics, and then examine prospects for enhancing its rate by homogeneous catalysts. 9 refs.

  1. STEAM STIRRED HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-06-01

    A homogeneous nuclear reactor utilizing a selfcirculating liquid fuel is described. The reactor vessel is in the form of a vertically disposed tubular member having the lower end closed by the tube walls and the upper end closed by a removal fianged assembly. A spherical reaction shell is located in the lower end of the vessel and spaced from the inside walls. The reaction shell is perforated on its lower surface and is provided with a bundle of small-diameter tubes extending vertically upward from its top central portion. The reactor vessel is surrounded in the region of the reaction shell by a neutron reflector. The liquid fuel, which may be a solution of enriched uranyl sulfate in ordinary or heavy water, is mainiained at a level within the reactor vessel of approximately the top of the tubes. The heat of the reaction which is created in the critical region within the spherical reaction shell forms steam bubbles which more upwardly through the tubes. The upward movement of these bubbles results in the forcing of the liquid fuel out of the top of these tubes, from where the fuel passes downwardly in the space between the tubes and the vessel wall where it is cooled by heat exchangers. The fuel then re-enters the critical region in the reaction shell through the perforations in the bottom. The upper portion of the reactor vessel is provided with baffles to prevent the liquid fuel from splashing into this region which is also provided with a recombiner apparatus for recombining the radiolytically dissociated moderator vapor and a control means.

  2. Homogeneity and thermodynamic identities in geometrothermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, Hernando; Quevedo, María N.; Sánchez, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    We propose a classification of thermodynamic systems in terms of the homogeneity properties of their fundamental equations. Ordinary systems correspond to homogeneous functions and non-ordinary systems are given by generalized homogeneous functions. This affects the explicit form of the Gibbs-Duhem relation and Euler's identity. We show that these generalized relations can be implemented in the formalism of black hole geometrothermodynamics in order to completely fix the arbitrariness present in Legendre invariant metrics.

  3. The Homogenization and Optimization of Thermoelectric Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-17

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0090 The Homogenization and Optimization of Thermoelectric Composites Jiangyu Li UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Final Report 04/17/2015...SUBTITLE The Homogenization and Optimization of Thermoelectric Composites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0325 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...behavior of thermoelectric composites using rigorous homogenization technique in this project. In the last three years, our accomplishment includes: (1

  4. L'etude de l'InP et du GaP suite a l'implantation ionique de Mn et a un recuit thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucsa, Ioan Gigel

    Cette these est dediee a l'etude des materiaux InMnP et GaMnP fabriques par implantation ionique et recuit thermique. Plus precisement nous avons investigue la possibilite de former par implantation ionique des materiaux homogenes (alliages) de InMnP et GaMnP contenant de 1 a 5 % atomiques de Mn qui seraient en etat ferromagnetique, pour des possibles applications dans la spintronique. Dans un premier chapitre introductif nous donnons les motivations de cette recherche et faisons une revue de la litterature sur ce sujet. Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les principes de l'implantation ionique, qui est la technique utilisee pour la fabrication des echantillons. Les effets de l'energie, fluence et direction du faisceau ionique sur le profil d'implantation et la formation des dommages seront mis en evidence. Aussi dans ce chapitre nous allons trouver des informations sur les substrats utilises pour l'implantation. Les techniques experimentales utilisees pour la caracterisation structurale, chimique et magnetique des echantillons, ainsi que leurs limitations sont presentees dans le troisieme chapitre. Quelques principes theoriques du magnetisme necessaires pour la comprehension des mesures magnetiques se retrouvent dans le chapitre 4. Le cinquieme chapitre est dedie a l'etude de la morphologie et des proprietes magnetiques des substrats utilises pour implantation et le sixieme chapitre, a l'etude des echantillons implantes au Mn sans avoir subi un recuit thermique. Notamment nous allons voir dans ce chapitre que l'implantation de Mn a plus que 1016 ions/cm 2 amorphise la partie implantee du materiau et le Mn implante se dispose en profondeur sur un profil gaussien. De point de vue magnetique les atomes implantes se trouvent dans un etat paramagnetique entre 5 et 300 K ayant le spin 5/2. Dans le chapitre 7 nous presentons les proprietes des echantillons recuits a basses temperatures. Nous allons voir que dans ces echantillons la couche implantee est polycristalline et les

  5. Inhibitors of microsomal oxidations in insect homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, J.; Sissons, C. H.; Smith, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    1. Homogenates of insect tissues were assayed for enzymes capable of oxidizing p-nitrotoluene to p-nitrobenzoic acid. 2. Locust fat-body homogenate 10000g supernatant was an effective enzyme and required no added cofactors. 3. Homogenates of other insects or locust organs and 10000g sediment from locust fat-body were not active and inhibited microsomal oxidations carried out by locust fat-body or rabbit liver enzyme. 4. Inhibitory power was high in homogenates of whole flies and of fly heads or thoraces. 5. Inhibition appeared to involve both irreversible inactivation of enzyme and the removal of essential cofactors. PMID:4382105

  6. Iodothyronine Metabolism in Rat Liver Homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Michael M.; Utiger, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    To investigate mechanisms of extrathyroidal thyroid hormone metabolism, conversion of thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) and degradation of 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (rT3) were studied in rat liver homogenates. Both reactions were enzymatic. For conversion of T4 to T3, the Km of T4 was 7.7 μM, and the Vmax was 0.13 pmol T3/min per mg protein. For rT3 degradation, the Km of rT3 was 7.5 nM, and the Vmax was 0.36 pmol rT3/min per mg protein. Production of rT3 or degradation of T4 or T3 was not detected under the conditions employed. rT3 was a potent competitive inhibitor of T4 to T3 conversion with a Ki of 4.5 nM; 3,3′-diiodothyronine was a less potent inhibitor of this reaction. T4 was a competitive inhibitor of rT3 degradation with a Ki of 10.2 μM. Agents which inhibited both reactions included propylthiouracil, which appeared to be an allosteric inhibitor, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and iopanoic acid. Sodium diatrizoate had a weak inhibitory effect. No inhibition was found with α-methylparatyrosine, Fe+2, Fe+3, reduced glutathione, β-hydroxybutyrate, or oleic acid. Fasting resulted in inhibition of T4 to T3 conversion and of rT3 degradation by rat liver homogenates which was reversible after refeeding. Serum T4, T3, and thyrotropin concentrations fell during fasting, with no decrease in serum protein binding as assessed by a T3-charcoal uptake. There was no consistent change in serum rT3 concentrations. Dexamethasone had no effect in vitro. In vivo dexamethasone administration resulted in elevated serum rT3 concentrations after 1 day, and after 5 days, in inhibition of T4 to T3 conversion and rT3 degradation without altering serum T4, T3, or thyrotropin concentrations. Endotoxin treatment had no effect of iodothyronine metabolism in liver homogenates. In kidney homogenates the reaction rates and response to propylthiouracil in vitro were similar to those in liver. No significant T4 to T3 conversion or rT3 production or degradation could be detected

  7. Spatially homogeneous rotating world models.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozsvath, I.

    1971-01-01

    The mathematical problem encountered when looking for the simplest expanding and rotating model of the universe without the compactness condition for the space sections is formulated. The Lagrangian function is derived for four different rotating universes simultaneously. These models correspond in a certain sense to Godel's (1950) ?symmetric case.'

  8. Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous nucleation in water-dicarboxylic acid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hienola, A. I.; Vehkamäki, H.; Riipinen, I.; Kulmala, M.

    2009-03-01

    Binary heterogeneous nucleation of water-succinic/glutaric/malonic/adipic acid on nanometer-sized particles is investigated within the frame of classical heterogeneous nucleation theory. Homogeneous nucleation is also included for comparison. It is found that the nucleation probabilities depend on the contact angle and on the size of the seed particles. New thermodynamical properties, such as saturation vapor pressure, density and surface tension for all the dicarboxylic acid aqueous solutions are included in the calculations. While the new surface tension and density formulations do not bring any significant difference in the computed nucleation rate for homogeneous nucleation for succinic and glutaric acids, the use of the newly derived equations for the vapor pressure decrease the acid concentrations in gas phase by 3 orders of magnitude. According to our calculations, the binary heterogeneous nucleation of succinic acid-water and glutaric acid-water - although it requires a 3-4 orders of magnitude lower vapor concentrations than the homogeneous nucleation - cannot take place under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand binary homogeneous nucleation of adipic acid-water systems might be possible under conditions occuring in upper boundary layer. However, a more detailed characterization of the interaction between the surface and the molecules of the nucleating vapor should be considered in the future.

  9. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M. J.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratiannil, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.; Willett, K.

    2013-09-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous values at various averaging scales, ii) the error in linear trend estimates and iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data. Moreover, state-of-the-art relative homogenization algorithms developed to work with an inhomogeneous reference are shown to perform best. The study showed that currently automatic algorithms can perform as well as manual ones.

  10. Spatial homogeneity criteria for active media of cataphoresis repetitively pulsed metal vapour lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chebotarev, Gennady D; Prutsakov, Oleg O; Latush, Evgeny L

    2005-07-31

    The formation of the transverse distribution of the metal vapour concentration in repetitively pulsed lasers is analysed. The criterion for the homogeneity of this distribution is found. The optimal conditions for excitation of the active media of cataphoresis repetitively pulsed metal vapour lasers are determined under which a high degree of both longitudinal and transverse homogeneity is achieved. (active media)

  11. Contributions a L'etude de Dispositifs D'optique Integree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touam, Tahar

    Cette these contient des contributions a l'etude de deux champs du vaste domaine de l'optique integree. A cet effet, nous avons divise notre travail en deux grandes parties:. Dans une premiere partie, nous traitons le probleme de la realisation d'une nouvelle classe de guides d'onde planaires utilisables dans le domaine de longueur d'onde de l'infrarouge moyen (infrarouge thermique), domaine ou l'apparition anticipee de fibres optiques a pertes extremement faibles rendraient fort interessante l'existence de tels guides d'onde planaires. Dans un premier temps, nous presentons une etude analytique originale d'une structure planaire a profil d'indice gradue, suivie d'une analyse d'un guide canal base sur cette structure. Dans un deuxieme temps, nous decrivons le procede de fabrication par pulverisation atomique d'un guide planaire forme d'arseniure de gallium (AsGa) sur du dioxyde de silicium (SiO_2 ), combinaison de materiau compatible avec l'infrarouge moyen. Finalement, nous presentons une etude de conception d'un reseau de surface destine a coupler la lumiere dans un tel guide, les autres methodes traditionnelles de couplage semblant peu appropriees aux environs de lambda = 10 mum. Dans une deuxieme partie, nous traitons le probleme de la jonction Y en optique integree, jonction qui soufre de pertes tres importantes des que l'angle d'ouverture devient interessant pour le concepteur de circuits integres optiques. L'analyse est basee sur la methode numerique dite BPM (Beam Propagation Method; methode de propagation du faisceau) qui fait l'objet d'un bref rappel. Nous poursuivons avec l'etude et l'optimisation d'une nouvelle jonction Y dont l'essence est l'utilisation du phenomene de diffraction a travers trois fentes de phase. Nous obtenons ainsi une tres bonne jonction, separant proprement le faisceau, a une ouverture de 10 degres. Finalement, nous faisons un rappel d'un profil d'indice dit "ideal" pour guides courbes et nous proposons l'utilisation de tels guides

  12. Evaluation of experimental parameters for growth of homogeneous solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Hans J.; Swendsen, Robert H.

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the experimental conditions required to grow large two-component crystals from homogeneous solid solutions. Building on the work of Burton, Prim, and Slichter and that of Van Erk, we are able to establish that the concentration fluctuations for diffusion-limited growth are rather insensitive to hydrodynamic fluctuations. This enables a crystal grower to take advantage of forced convection to optimize growth rates without aggravating the striation problem.

  13. Uniqueness of the differential Mueller matrix of uniform homogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Devlaminck, Vincent; Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2014-06-01

    We show that the differential matrix of a uniform homogeneous medium containing birefringence may not be uniquely determined from its Mueller matrix, resulting in the potential existence of an infinite set of elementary polarization properties parameterized by an integer parameter. The uniqueness depends on the symmetry properties of a special differential matrix derived from the eigenvalue decomposition of the Mueller matrix. The conditions for the uniqueness of the differential matrix are identified, physically discussed, and illustrated in examples from the literature.

  14. A micromorphic computational homogenization framework for heterogeneous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, R.; Poh, L. H.

    2017-05-01

    The conventional first-order computational homogenization framework is restricted to problems where the macro characteristic length scale is much larger than the underlying Representative Volume Element (RVE). In the absence of a clear separation of length scales, higher-order enrichment is required to capture the influence of the underlying rapid fluctuations, otherwise neglected in the first-order framework. In this contribution, focusing on matrix-inclusion composites, a novel computational homogenization framework is proposed such that standard continuum models at the micro-scale translate onto the macro-scale to recover a micromorphic continuum. Departing from the conventional FE2 framework where a macroscopic strain tensor characterizes the average deformation within the RVE, our formulation introduces an additional macro kinematic field to characterize the average strain in the inclusions. The two macro kinematic fields, each characterizing a particular aspect of deformation within the RVE, thus provide critical information on the underlying rapid fluctuations. The net effect of these fluctuations, as well as the interactions between RVEs, are next incorporated naturally into the macroscopic virtual power statement through the Hill-Mandel condition. The excellent predictive capability of the proposed homogenization framework is illustrated through three benchmark examples. It is shown that the homogenized micromorphic model adequately captures the material responses, even in the absence of a clear separation of length scales between macro and micro.

  15. Magnetic field homogeneity of a conical coaxial coil pair.

    PubMed

    Salazar, F J; Nieves, F J; Bayón, A; Gascón, F

    2017-09-01

    An analytical study of the magnetic field created by a double-conical conducting sheet is presented. The analysis is based on the expansion of the magnetic field in terms of Legendre polynomials. It is demonstrated analytically that the angle of the conical surface that produces a nearly homogeneous magnetic field coincides with that of a pair of loops that fulfills the Helmholtz condition. From the results obtained, we propose an electric circuit formed by pairs of isolated conducting loops tightly wound around a pair of conical surfaces, calculating numerically the magnetic field produced by this system and its heterogeneity. An experimental setup of the proposed circuit was constructed and its magnetic field was measured. The results were compared with those obtained by numerical calculation, finding a good agreement. The numerical results demonstrate a significant improvement in homogeneity in the field of the proposed pair of conical coils compared with that achieved with a simple pair of Helmholtz loops or with a double solenoid. Moreover, a new design of a double pair of conical coils based on Braunbek's four loops is also proposed to achieve greater homogeneity. Regarding homogeneity, the rating of the analyzed configurations from best to worst is as follows: (1) double pair of conical coils, (2) pair of conical coils, (3) Braunbek's four loops, (4) Helmholtz pair, and (5) solenoid pair.

  16. Magnifying absolute instruments for optically homogeneous regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tyc, Tomas

    2011-09-15

    We propose a class of magnifying absolute optical instruments with a positive isotropic refractive index. They create magnified stigmatic images, either virtual or real, of optically homogeneous three-dimensional spatial regions within geometrical optics.

  17. ANALYSIS OF FISH HOMOGENATES FOR PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) which include PFOS and PFOA are widely distributed in wildlife. Whole fish homogenates were analyzed for PFCs from the upper Mississippi, the Missouri and the Ohio rivers. Methods development, validation data, and preliminary study results will b...

  18. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  19. Model Misspecification: Finite Mixture or Homogeneous?

    PubMed Central

    Tarpey, Thaddeus; Yun, Dong; Petkova, Eva

    2007-01-01

    A common problem in statistical modelling is to distinguish between finite mixture distribution and a homogeneous non-mixture distribution. Finite mixture models are widely used in practice and often mixtures of normal densities are indistinguishable from homogenous non-normal densities. This paper illustrates what happens when the EM algorithm for normal mixtures is applied to a distribution that is a homogeneous non-mixture distribution. In particular, a population-based EM algorithm for finite mixtures is introduced and applied directly to density functions instead of sample data. The population-based EM algorithm is used to find finite mixture approximations to common homogeneous distributions. An example regarding the nature of a placebo response in drug treated depressed subjects is used to illustrate ideas. PMID:18974843

  20. Homogeneous cosmological models in Yang's gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennelly, A. J.; Pavelle, R.

    1979-01-01

    We present a dynamic, spatially homogeneous solution of Yang's pure space gravitational field equations which is non-Einsteinian. The predictions of this cosmological model seem to be at variance with observations.

  1. Homogeneous cosmological models in Yang's gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennelly, A. J.; Pavelle, R.

    1979-01-01

    We present a dynamic, spatially homogeneous solution of Yang's pure space gravitational field equations which is non-Einsteinian. The predictions of this cosmological model seem to be at variance with observations.

  2. Preparation and characterization of paclitaxel nanosuspension using novel emulsification method by combining high speed homogenizer and high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Zhao, Xiuhua; Zu, Yuangang; Zhang, Yin

    2015-07-25

    The aim of this study was to develop an alternative, more bio-available, better tolerated paclitaxel nanosuspension (PTXNS) for intravenous injection in comparison with commercially available Taxol(®) formulation. In this study, PTXNS was prepared by emulsification method through combination of high speed homogenizer and high pressure homogenization, followed by lyophilization process for intravenous administration. The main production parameters including volume ratio of organic phase in water and organic phase (Vo:Vw+o), concentration of PTX, content of PTX and emulsification time (Et), homogenization pressure (HP) and passes (Ps) for high pressure homogenization were optimized and their effects on mean particle size (MPS) and particle size distribution (PSD) of PTXNS were investigated. The characteristics of PTXNS, such as, surface morphology, physical status of paclitaxel (PTX) in PTXNS, redispersibility of PTXNS in purified water, in vitro dissolution study and bioavailability in vivo were all investigated. The PTXNS obtained under optimum conditions had an MPS of 186.8 nm and a zeta potential (ZP) of -6.87 mV. The PTX content in PTXNS was approximately 3.42%. Moreover, the residual amount of chloroform was lower than the International Conference on Harmonization limit (60 ppm) for solvents. The dissolution study indicated PTXNS had merits including effect to fast at the side of raw PTX and sustained-dissolution character compared with Taxol(®) formulation. Moreover, the bioavailability of PTXNS increased 14.38 and 3.51 times respectively compared with raw PTX and Taxol(®) formulation.

  3. Steps Towards a Homogenized Sub-Monthly Temperature Monitoring Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, J.; Kunkel, K.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface air temperature products have been essential for monitoring the evolution of the climate system. Before a temperature dataset is included in such reports, it is important that non-climatic influences be removed or changed so the dataset is considered homogenous. These inhomogeneities include changes in station location, instrumentation and observing practices. Very few datasets are free of these influences and therefore require homogenization schemes. While many homogenized products exist on the monthly time scale, few daily products exist, due to the complication of removing break points that are truly inhomogeneous rather than solely by chance (for example, sharp changes due to synoptic conditions). Since there is a high demand for sub-monthly monitoring tools, there is a need to address these issues. The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily dataset provides a strong foundation of the Earth's climate on the daily scale, and is the official archive of daily data in the United States. While the dataset adheres to a strict set of quality assurance, no daily adjustments are applied. However, this dataset lays the groundwork for other products distributed at NCEI-Asheville, including the climate divisional dataset (nClimDiv), the North American monthly homogenized product (Northam) and the 1981-2010 Normals. Since these downstream products already provide homogenization and base period schemes, it makes sense to combine these datasets to provide a sub-monthly monitoring tool for the United States. Using these datasets already in existence, monthly adjustments are applied to daily data, and then anomalies are created using a base climatology defined by the 1981-2010 Normals. Station data is then aggregated to the state level and then regions defined by the National Climate Assessment. Ranks are then created to provide informational monitoring tools that could be of use for public dissemination. This presentation goes over the product, including

  4. Homogeneous and heterogenized iridium water oxidation catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macchioni, Alceo

    2014-10-01

    The development of an efficient catalyst for the oxidative splitting of water into molecular oxygen, protons and electrons is of key importance for producing solar fuels through artificial photosynthesis. We are facing the problem by means of a rational approach aimed at understanding how catalytic performance may be optimized by the knowledge of the reaction mechanism of water oxidation and the fate of the catalytic site under the inevitably harsh oxidative conditions. For the purposes of our study we selected iridium water oxidation catalysts, exhibiting remarkable performance (TOF > 5 s-1 and TON > 20000). In particular, we recently focused our attention on [Cp*Ir(N,O)X] (N,O = 2-pyridincarboxylate; X = Cl or NO3) and [IrCl(Hedta)]Na water oxidation catalysts. The former exhibited a remarkable TOF whereas the latter showed a very high TON. Furthermore, [IrCl(Hedta)]Na was heterogenized onto TiO2 taking advantage of the presence of a dandling -COOH functionality. The heterogenized catalyst maintained approximately the same catalytic activity of the homogeneous analogous with the advantage that could be reused many times. Mechanistic studies were performed in order to shed some light on the rate-determining step and the transformation of catalysts when exposed to "oxidative stress". It was found that the last oxidative step, preceding oxygen liberation, is the rate-determining step when a small excess of sacrificial oxidant is used. In addition, several intermediates of the oxidative transformation of the catalyst were intercepted and characterized by NMR, X-Ray diffractometry and ESI-MS.

  5. Line segments in homogeneous scalar turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauding, Michael; Goebbert, Jens Henrik; Hasse, Christian; Peters, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    The local structure of a turbulent scalar field in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is analyzed by direct numerical simulations (DNS) with different Taylor micro-scale based Reynolds numbers between 119 and 529. A novel signal decomposition approach is introduced where the signal of the scalar along a straight line is partitioned into segments based on the local extremal points of the scalar field. These segments are then parameterized by the distance ℓ between adjacent extremal points and the scalar difference Δϕ at the extrema. Both variables are statistical quantities and a joint distribution function of these quantities contains most information to statistically describe the scalar field. It is highlighted that the marginal distribution function of the length becomes independent of Reynolds number when normalized by the mean length ℓm. From a statistical approach, it is further shown that the mean length scales with the Kolmogorov length, which is also confirmed by DNS. For turbulent mixing, the scalar gradient plays a paramount role. Turbulent scalar fields are characterized by cliff-ramp-like structures manifesting the occurrence of localized large scalar gradients. To study turbulent mixing, a segment-based gradient is defined as Δϕ/ℓ. Joint statistics of the length and the segment-based gradient provide novel understanding of cliff-ramp-like structures. Ramp-like structures are unveiled by the asymmetry of the joint distribution function of the segment-based gradient and the length. Cliff-like structures are further analyzed by conditional statistics and it is shown from DNS that the width of cliffs scales with the Kolmogorov length scale.

  6. A study of the homogenization of soils

    SciTech Connect

    Giovine, L.R.S.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    In accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, areas of land that have been contaminated must be returned to an environmental condition that permits less restrictive forms of use. In anticipation of being listed as an EPA Superfund Site, the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is evaluating existing the technologies, and supporting the development of new technologies, for the removal of plutonium contaminants from soils. During the 1950s, DOE conducted a series of tests on the NTS wherein attempts were made to detonate nuclear weapons by igniting charges of high explosives packed around the weapons` warheads. While the warheads never achieved criticality, each test disseminated particulate plutonium over several square miles, principally in Area 11 of the NTS.DOE`s Nevada Operations Office has committed to a Plutonium In Soils Integrated Demonstration Project (PuID) to evaluate existing and developmental technologies for the safe removal of plutonium contamination from soils. It is DOE`s intention to provide approximately one ton of Area 11 soil, traced with a non-radioactive plutonium surrogate, to each of several companies with expertise in the removal of soil contaminants. These companies have expressed an interest in contracting with DOE for remediation of NTS soils. DOE wishes to evaluate each company`s process in an unbiased and statistically justifiable manner. For this reason, DOE must provide to each company a large sample of soil for prototype testing. The soil must be homogenized such that the representativeness of each split is well documented and defensible. The process of uniformly mixing large volumes of soil has not been addressed, to our knowledge, in the hydrogeologic, soil science or mining literature. Several mixing devices are currently being evaluated by DOE for use in the PuID. This report describes the results of some initial experimentation with a small cement mixer.

  7. Modeling the turbulent kinetic energy equation for compressible, homogeneous turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aupoix, B.; Blaisdell, G. A.; Reynolds, William C.; Zeman, Otto

    1990-01-01

    The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation, which is the basis of turbulence models, is investigated for homogeneous, compressible turbulence using direct numerical simulations performed at CTR. It is shown that the partition between dilatational and solenoidal modes is very sensitive to initial conditions for isotropic decaying turbulence but not for sheared flows. The importance of the dilatational dissipation and of the pressure-dilatation term is evidenced from simulations and a transport equation is proposed to evaluate the pressure-dilatation term evolution. This transport equation seems to work well for sheared flows but does not account for initial condition sensitivity in isotropic decay. An improved model is proposed.

  8. Accurate evaluation of homogenous and nonhomogeneous gas emissivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Lee, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral transmittance and total band adsorptance of selected infrared bands of carbon dioxide and water vapor are calculated by using the line-by-line and quasi-random band models and these are compared with available experimental results to establish the validity of the quasi-random band model. Various wide-band model correlations are employed to calculate the total band absorptance and total emissivity of these two gases under homogeneous and nonhomogeneous conditions. These results are compared with available experimental results under identical conditions. From these comparisons, it is found that the quasi-random band model can provide quite accurate results and is quite suitable for most atmospheric applications.

  9. Etude des chaines de spins par les methodes de la theorie quantique des champs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Dave

    Notre etude porte sur la chaine de spins en zigzag avec dimerisation dans le cas des spins 1/2 et 1. L'echelle de spin ordinaire et la chaine en zigzag simple en sont des cas particuliers. Dans la limite continue, ces systemes sont decrits par des modeles Wess-Zumino-Witten couples. Afin de pouvoir calculer les fonctions de correlation, nous exposons differentes equivalences quantiques permettant de simplifier les calculs. Dans le cas de chaines de spin 1/2, nous demontrons l'equivalence avec un modele de type Gross-Neveu, en fonction de fermions de Majorana; ces fermions decrivent alors les excitations elementaires du systeme. Nous exposons une vision classique de ces excitations afin de voir les mecanismes de confinement des spinons. Dans le cas de chaines de spin 1, l'etude est plus complexe. Nous pouvons decrire le systeme a l'aide de modeles sine-Gordon perturbes par de nombreuses interactions. En se limitant aux plus importantes, nous pouvons expliquer le comportement du gap en fonction du couplage interchaine observe numeriquement.

  10. Broken Ergodicity in Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3-D) homogeneous MHD turbulence.The se features include several ideal invariants, along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity. Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo.Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3-D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was explained. Here, a detailed description of the origins of broken ergodicity in 2-D MHD turbulence is presented. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions.T he origins of broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigen analysis of the covariance matrices of the modal probability density functions.It will also be shown that when the lowest wavenumber magnetic field becomes quasi-stationary, the higher wavenumber modes can propagate as Alfven waves on these almost static large-scale magnetic structures

  11. Homogeneity evaluation of mesenchymal stem cells based on electrotaxis analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Mi Hee; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Dohyun; Koo, Min-Ah; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Park, Jong-Chul

    2017-08-29

    Stem cell therapy that can restore function to damaged tissue, avoid host rejection and reduce inflammation throughout body without use of immunosuppressive drugs. The established methods were used to identify and to isolate specific stem cell markers by FACS or by immunomagnetic cell separation. The procedures for distinguishing population of stem cells took a time and needed many preparations. Here we suggest an electrotaxis analysis as a new method to evaluate the homogeneity of mesenchymal stem cells which can observe the stem cell population in culture condition and wide use to various types of stem cells. Human mesenchymal stem cell, adipose derived stem cell, tonsil derived stem cell and osteogenic differentiated cells migrated toward anode but the migration speed of differentiated cells was significantly decreased versus that of stem cells. In mixture of stem cells and differentiated cells condition, we identified that the ratio of stem cell versus differentiated cell was matched with the homogeneity evaluation data of stem cells based on electrotaxis analysis. As a result, our evaluation tool has the possibility of the wide use to stem cell homogeneity evaluation and might be used as the stem cell quality control during stem cell culture without any additional antibodies.

  12. Homogeneous anisotropic solutions of topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant and their homogeneous deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutsopoulos, George

    2013-06-01

    We solve the equations of topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a potentially non-vanishing cosmological constant for homogeneous metrics without isotropy. We only reproduce known solutions. We also discuss their homogeneous deformations, possibly with isotropy. We show that de Sitter space and hyperbolic space cannot be infinitesimally homogeneously deformed in TMG. We clarify some of their Segre-Petrov types and discuss the warped de Sitter spacetime.

  13. Microfluidic converging/diverging channels optimised for homogeneous extensional deformation.

    PubMed

    Zografos, K; Pimenta, F; Alves, M A; Oliveira, M S N

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we optimise microfluidic converging/diverging geometries in order to produce constant strain-rates along the centreline of the flow, for performing studies under homogeneous extension. The design is examined for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows where the effects of aspect ratio and dimensionless contraction length are investigated. Initially, pressure driven flows of Newtonian fluids under creeping flow conditions are considered, which is a reasonable approximation in microfluidics, and the limits of the applicability of the design in terms of Reynolds numbers are investigated. The optimised geometry is then used for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids and the practical limitations in terms of Weissenberg number are reported. Furthermore, the optimisation strategy is also applied for electro-osmotic driven flows, where the development of a plug-like velocity profile allows for a wider region of homogeneous extensional deformation in the flow field.

  14. Microfluidic converging/diverging channels optimised for homogeneous extensional deformation

    PubMed Central

    Zografos, K.; Oliveira, M. S. N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we optimise microfluidic converging/diverging geometries in order to produce constant strain-rates along the centreline of the flow, for performing studies under homogeneous extension. The design is examined for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows where the effects of aspect ratio and dimensionless contraction length are investigated. Initially, pressure driven flows of Newtonian fluids under creeping flow conditions are considered, which is a reasonable approximation in microfluidics, and the limits of the applicability of the design in terms of Reynolds numbers are investigated. The optimised geometry is then used for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids and the practical limitations in terms of Weissenberg number are reported. Furthermore, the optimisation strategy is also applied for electro-osmotic driven flows, where the development of a plug-like velocity profile allows for a wider region of homogeneous extensional deformation in the flow field. PMID:27478523

  15. Homogeneous charge engines -- Basis of cyclic variations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitelaw, J.H.

    1997-06-30

    The objectives of the Grant required investigations of cyclic variations in a homogeneous-charge engine initially with gas combustion and the air from ranging from near quiescent to the incorporation of swirl and tumble by valve inserts. Later experiments were performed with unleaded gasoline. The measurements included local velocity and cylinder pressure through the four strokes of a single-cylinder engine, under motored and firing conditions and with examination of the flame kernel growth by combinations of photography and flame-ionization gauges. In all cases, the measurements of in-cylinder characteristics were linked to performance as measured in terms of speed and its variability, load and emissions. The experiments progressed to consider deviations from homogeneous charge and included consideration of stratified charge with local injection of a rich mixture in the vicinity of the spark gap so as to establish a flame kernel which would propagate securely into an overall weak mixture.

  16. Physical justification for negative remanent magnetization in homogeneous nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuo; He, Weidong; Zhang, Ming; Zhuang, Taisen; Jin, Yi; ElBidweihy, Hatem; Mao, Yiwu; Dickerson, James H; Wagner, Michael J; Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H

    2014-09-03

    The phenomenon of negative remanent magnetization (NRM) has been observed experimentally in a number of heterogeneous magnetic systems and has been considered anomalous. The existence of NRM in homogenous magnetic materials is still in debate, mainly due to the lack of compelling support from experimental data and a convincing theoretical explanation for its thermodynamic validation. Here we resolve the long-existing controversy by presenting experimental evidence and physical justification that NRM is real in a prototype homogeneous ferromagnetic nanoparticle, an europium sulfide nanoparticle. We provide novel insights into major and minor hysteresis behavior that illuminate the true nature of the observed inverted hysteresis and validate its thermodynamic permissibility and, for the first time, present counterintuitive magnetic aftereffect behavior that is consistent with the mechanism of magnetization reversal, possessing unique capability to identify NRM. The origin and conditions of NRM are explained quantitatively via a wasp-waist model, in combination of energy calculations.

  17. The inverse electromagnetic scattering problem in a piecewise homogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Jiaqing

    2010-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from an impenetrable obstacle in a piecewise homogeneous medium. The well-posedness of the direct problem is established, employing the integral equation method. In Liu and Zhang (2009 Appl. Anal. 88 1339-55) it was proved, under the condition that the wave numbers in the innermost and outermost homogeneous layers coincide and S0 is known in advance, that the obstacle with its physical property can be uniquely determined from knowledge of the electric far-field pattern for incident plane waves. In this paper, we will remove this restriction by establishing a new mixed reciprocity relation. Furthermore, inspired by Hähner's idea in Hähner (1993 Inverse Problems 9 667-78), we prove that the penetrable interface between layers can also be uniquely determined.

  18. Physical Justification for Negative Remanent Magnetization in Homogeneous Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shuo; He, Weidong; Zhang, Ming; Zhuang, Taisen; Jin, Yi; ElBidweihy, Hatem; Mao, Yiwu; Dickerson, James H.; Wagner, Michael J.; Torre, Edward Della; Bennett, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of negative remanent magnetization (NRM) has been observed experimentally in a number of heterogeneous magnetic systems and has been considered anomalous. The existence of NRM in homogenous magnetic materials is still in debate, mainly due to the lack of compelling support from experimental data and a convincing theoretical explanation for its thermodynamic validation. Here we resolve the long-existing controversy by presenting experimental evidence and physical justification that NRM is real in a prototype homogeneous ferromagnetic nanoparticle, an europium sulfide nanoparticle. We provide novel insights into major and minor hysteresis behavior that illuminate the true nature of the observed inverted hysteresis and validate its thermodynamic permissibility and, for the first time, present counterintuitive magnetic aftereffect behavior that is consistent with the mechanism of magnetization reversal, possessing unique capability to identify NRM. The origin and conditions of NRM are explained quantitatively via a wasp-waist model, in combination of energy calculations. PMID:25183061

  19. Analysis of homogeneous/non-homogeneous nanofluid models accounting for nanofluid-surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, R.

    2016-07-01

    This article reports an unbiased analysis for the water based rod shaped alumina nanoparticles by considering both the homogeneous and non-homogeneous nanofluid models over the coupled nanofluid-surface interface. The mechanics of the surface are found for both the homogeneous and non-homogeneous models, which were ignored in previous studies. The viscosity and thermal conductivity data are implemented from the international nanofluid property benchmark exercise. All the simulations are being done by using the experimentally verified results. By considering the homogeneous and non-homogeneous models, the precise movement of the alumina nanoparticles over the surface has been observed by solving the corresponding system of differential equations. For the non-homogeneous model, a uniform temperature and nanofluid volume fraction are assumed at the surface, and the flux of the alumina nanoparticle is taken as zero. The assumption of zero nanoparticle flux at the surface makes the non-homogeneous model physically more realistic. The differences of all profiles for both the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous models are insignificant, and this is due to small deviations in the values of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters.

  20. Homogenization in compiling ICRF combined catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, F. J.; Martínez, M. J.; López, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    Context. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) recommendations regarding the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) realizations require the construction of radio sources catalogs obtained using very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) methods. The improvement of these catalogs is a necessary procedure for the further densification of the ICRF over the celestial sphere. Aims: The different positions obtained from several catalogs using common sources to the ICRF make it necessary to critically revise the different methods employed in improving the ICRF from several radio sources catalogs. In this sense, a revision of the analytical and the statistical methods is necessary in line with their advantages and disadvantages. We have a double goal: first, we propose an adequate treatment of the residual of several catalogs to obtain a homogeneous catalog; second, we attempt to discern whether a combined catalog is homogeneous. Methods: We define homogeneity as applied to our problem in a dual sense: the first deals with the spatial distribution of the data over the celestial sphere. The second has a statistical meaning, as we consider that homogeneity exists when the residual between a given catalog and the ICRF behaves as a unimodal pure Gaussian. We use a nonparametrical method, which enables us to homogeneously extend the statistical properties of the residual over the entire sphere. This intermediate adjustment allows for subsequent computation of the coefficients for any parametrical adjustment model that has a higher accuracy and greater stability, and it prevents problems related with direct adjustments using the models. On the other hand, the homogeneity of the residuals in a catalog is tested using different weights. Our procedure also serves to propose the most suitable weights to maintain homogeneity in the final results. We perform a test using the ICRF-Ext2, JPL, and USNO quasar catalogs. Results: We show that a combination of catalogs can only

  1. Supported Dendrimer-Encapsulated Metal Clusters: Toward Heterogenizing Homogeneous Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Rong; Zhukhovitskiy, Aleksandr V; Deraedt, Christophe V; Toste, F Dean; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2017-08-15

    Recyclable catalysts, especially those that display selective reactivity, are vital for the development of sustainable chemical processes. Among available catalyst platforms, heterogeneous catalysts are particularly well-disposed toward separation from the reaction mixture via filtration methods, which renders them readily recyclable. Furthermore, heterogeneous catalysts offer numerous handles-some without homogeneous analogues-for performance and selectivity optimization. These handles include nanoparticle size, pore profile of porous supports, surface ligands and interface with oxide supports, and flow rate through a solid catalyst bed. Despite these available handles, however, conventional heterogeneous catalysts are themselves often structurally heterogeneous compared to homogeneous catalysts, which complicates efforts to optimize and expand the scope of their reactivity and selectivity. Ongoing efforts in our laboratories are aimed to address the above challenge by heterogenizing homogeneous catalysts, which can be defined as the modification of homogeneous catalysts to render them in a separable (solid) phase from the starting materials and products. Specifically, we grow the small nanoclusters in dendrimers, a class of uniform polymers with the connectivity of fractal trees and generally radial symmetry. Thanks to their dense multivalency, shape persistence, and structural uniformity, dendrimers have proven to be versatile scaffolds for the synthesis and stabilization of small nanoclusters. Then these dendrimer-encapsulated metal clusters (DEMCs) are adsorbed onto mesoporous silica. Through this method, we have achieved selective transformations that had been challenging to accomplish in a heterogeneous setting, e.g., π-bond activation and aldol reactions. Extensive investigation into the catalytic systems under reaction conditions allowed us to correlate the structural features (e.g., oxidation states) of the catalysts and their activity. Moreover, we have

  2. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  3. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miyazono, S.; Patino, Reynaldo; Taylor, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamfiow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was > 2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  4. Method of Mapping Anomalies in Homogenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electrical conductor and antenna are positioned in a fixed relationship to one another. Relative lateral movement is generated between the electrical conductor and a homogenous material while maintaining the electrical conductor at a fixed distance from the homogenous material. The antenna supplies a time-varying magnetic field that causes the electrical conductor to resonate and generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this lateral movement are indicative of a lateral location of a subsurface anomaly. Next, relative out-of-plane movement is generated between the electrical conductor and the homogenous material in the vicinity of the anomaly's lateral location. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this out-of-plane movement are indicative of a depth location of the subsurface anomaly. A recording of the disruptions provides a mapping of the anomaly.

  5. Rapid biotic homogenization of marine fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Magurran, Anne E; Dornelas, Maria; Moyes, Faye; Gotelli, Nicholas J; McGill, Brian

    2015-09-24

    The role human activities play in reshaping biodiversity is increasingly apparent in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the responses of entire marine assemblages are not well-understood, in part, because few monitoring programs incorporate both spatial and temporal replication. Here, we analyse an exceptionally comprehensive 29-year time series of North Atlantic groundfish assemblages monitored over 5° latitude to the west of Scotland. These fish assemblages show no systematic change in species richness through time, but steady change in species composition, leading to an increase in spatial homogenization: the species identity of colder northern localities increasingly resembles that of warmer southern localities. This biotic homogenization mirrors the spatial pattern of unevenly rising ocean temperatures over the same time period suggesting that climate change is primarily responsible for the spatial homogenization we observe. In this and other ecosystems, apparent constancy in species richness may mask major changes in species composition driven by anthropogenic change.

  6. Computational Homogenization of Defect Driving Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricker, Sarah; Mergheim, Julia; Steinmann, Paul

    Due to the fact that many engineering materials and also biological tissues possess an underlying (heterogeneous) micro-structure it is not sufficient to simulate these materials by pre-assumed overall constitutive assumptions. Therefore, we apply a homogenization scheme, which determines the macroscopic material behavior based on analysis of the underlying micro-structure. In the work at hand focus is put on the extension of the classical computational homogenization scheme towards the homogenization of material forces. Therefore, volume forces have to incorporated which may emerge due to inhomogeneities in the material. With assistance of this material formulation and the equivalence of the J-integral and the material force at a crack tip, studies on the influence of the micro-structure onto the macroscopic crack-propagation are carried out.

  7. Numerical homogenization of the viscoplastic behavior of snow based on X-ray tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wautier, Antoine; Geindreau, Christian; Flin, Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    While the homogenization of snow elastic properties has been widely reported in the literature, homogeneous rate-dependent behavior responsible for the densification of the snowpack has hardly ever been upscaled from snow microstructure. We therefore adapt homogenization techniques developed within the framework of elasticity to the study of snow viscoplastic behavior. Based on the definition of kinematically uniform boundary conditions, homogenization problems are applied to 3-D images obtained from X-ray tomography, and the mechanical response of snow samples is explored for several densities. We propose an original post-processing approach in terms of viscous dissipated powers in order to formulate snow macroscopic behavior. Then, we show that Abouaf models are able to capture snow viscoplastic behavior and we formulate a homogenized constitutive equation based on a density parametrization. Eventually, we demonstrate the ability of the proposed models to account for the macroscopic mechanical response of snow for classical laboratory tests.

  8. On gain in homogenized composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-09-01

    Three theoretical studies were undertaken, each based on the Bruggeman homogenization formalism and each involving homogenized composite materials (HCMs) comprising active component materials. It was found that: (i) HCMs can exhibit higher degrees of amplification than are exhibited by the HCM's component materials; (ii) anisotropic HCMs can simultaneously exhibit plane-wave amplification for certain propagation directions and plane-wave attenuation for other propagation directions; and (iii) for isotropic chiral HCMs, left-circularly polarized fields may be amplified while right-circularly polarized fields may be simultaneously attenuated (or vice versa) in any propagation direction.

  9. Stochastic estimation of organized turbulent structure - Homogeneous shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, Ronald J.; Moin, Parviz

    1988-01-01

    A generalization of the conditional-eddy concept is proposed in which the conditional event specifies the local kinematic state in terms of the velocity and the deformation. Results are presented for stochastically estimated conditional eddies given the local kinematics. The equation governing the probability density function of a kinematic state has been derived for constant-property incompressible flow, providing a link between coherent flow structures corresponding to the conditional eddies and the modelling of turbulent transport. The primary contributions to the second-quadrant and fourth-quadrant Reynolds-stress events in homogeneous shear flow are shown to come from flow induced through the 'legs' and close to the 'heads' of upright and inverted 'hairpins', respectively.

  10. Hyperelastic bodies under homogeneous Cauchy stress induced by non-homogeneous finite deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, L. Angela; Neff, Patrizio

    2017-03-01

    We discuss whether homogeneous Cauchy stress implies homogeneous strain in isotropic nonlinear elasticity. While for linear elasticity the positive answer is clear, we exhibit, through detailed calculations, an example with inhomogeneous continuous deformation but constant Cauchy stress. The example is derived from a non rank-one convex elastic energy.

  11. Critical Casimir forces between homogeneous and chemically striped surfaces.

    PubMed

    Parisen Toldin, Francesco; Tröndle, Matthias; Dietrich, S

    2013-11-01

    Recent experiments have measured the critical Casimir force acting on a colloid immersed in a binary liquid mixture near its continuous demixing phase transition and exposed to a chemically structured substrate. Motivated by these experiments, we study the critical behavior of a system, which belongs to the Ising universality class, for the film geometry with one planar wall chemically striped, such that there is a laterally alternating adsorption preference for the two species of the binary liquid mixture, which is implemented by surface fields. For the opposite wall we employ alternatively a homogeneous adsorption preference or homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions, which within a lattice model are realized by open boundary conditions. By means of mean-field theory, Monte Carlo simulations, and finite-size scaling analysis we determine the critical Casimir force acting on the two parallel walls and its corresponding universal scaling function. We show that in the limit of stripe widths small compared with the film thickness, on the striped surface the system effectively realizes Dirichlet boundary conditions, which generically do not hold for actual fluids. Moreover, the critical Casimir force is found to be attractive or repulsive, depending on the width of the stripes of the chemically patterned surface and on the boundary condition applied to the opposing surface.

  12. Direction of unsaturated flow in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Ning; Kaya, Basak Sener; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of soil moisture in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope is a transient, variably saturated physical process controlled by rainfall characteristics, hillslope geometry, and the hydrological properties of the hillslope materials. The major driving mechanisms for moisture movement are gravity and gradients in matric potential. The latter is solely controlled by gradients of moisture content. In a homogeneous and isotropic saturated hillslope, absent a gradient in moisture content and under the driving force of gravity with a constant pressure boundary at the slope surface, flow is always in the lateral downslope direction, under either transient or steady state conditions. However, under variably saturated conditions, both gravity and moisture content gradients drive fluid motion, leading to complex flow patterns. In general, the flow field near the ground surface is variably saturated and transient, and the direction of flow could be laterally downslope, laterally upslope, or vertically downward. Previous work has suggested that prevailing rainfall conditions are sufficient to completely control these flow regimes. This work, however, shows that under time-varying rainfall conditions, vertical, downslope, and upslope lateral flow can concurrently occur at different depths and locations within the hillslope. More importantly, we show that the state of wetting or drying in a hillslope defines the temporal and spatial regimes of flow and when and where laterally downslope and/or laterally upslope flow occurs.

  13. Direction of unsaturated flow in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, N.; Kaya, B.S.; Godt, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of soil moisture in a homogeneous and isotropic hillslope is a transient, variably saturated physical process controlled by rainfall characteristics, hillslope geometry, and the hydrological properties of the hillslope materials. The major driving mechanisms for moisture movement are gravity and gradients in matric potential. The latter is solely controlled by gradients of moisture content. In a homogeneous and isotropic saturated hillslope, absent a gradient in moisture content and under the driving force of gravity with a constant pressure boundary at the slope surface, flow is always in the lateral downslope direction, under either transient or steady state conditions. However, under variably saturated conditions, both gravity and moisture content gradients drive fluid motion, leading to complex flow patterns. In general, the flow field near the ground surface is variably saturated and transient, and the direction of flow could be laterally downslope, laterally upslope, or vertically downward. Previous work has suggested that prevailing rainfall conditions are sufficient to completely control these flow regimes. This work, however, shows that under time-varying rainfall conditions, vertical, downslope, and upslope lateral flow can concurrently occur at different depths and locations within the hillslope. More importantly, we show that the state of wetting or drying in a hillslope defines the temporal and spatial regimes of flow and when and where laterally downslope and/or laterally upslope flow occurs. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Effects of homogenization treatment on recrystallization behavior of 7150 aluminum sheet during post-rolling annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhanying; Zhao, Gang; Chen, X.-Grant

    2016-04-15

    The effects of two homogenization treatments applied to the direct chill (DC) cast billet on the recrystallization behavior in 7150 aluminum alloy during post-rolling annealing have been investigated using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. Following hot and cold rolling to the sheet, measured orientation maps, the recrystallization fraction and grain size, the misorientation angle and the subgrain size were used to characterize the recovery and recrystallization processes at different annealing temperatures. The results were compared between the conventional one-step homogenization and the new two-step homogenization, with the first step being pretreated at 250 °C. Al{sub 3}Zr dispersoids with higher densities and smaller sizes were obtained after the two-step homogenization, which strongly retarded subgrain/grain boundary mobility and inhibited recrystallization. Compared with the conventional one-step homogenized samples, a significantly lower recrystallized fraction and a smaller recrystallized grain size were obtained under all annealing conditions after cold rolling in the two-step homogenized samples. - Highlights: • Effects of two homogenization treatments on recrystallization in 7150 Al sheets • Quantitative study on the recrystallization evolution during post-rolling annealing • Al{sub 3}Zr dispersoids with higher densities and smaller sizes after two-step treatment • Higher recrystallization resistance of 7150 sheets with two-step homogenization.

  15. Effect of high-pressure homogenization on different matrices of food supplements.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; García-González, Antonio; Gómez, Perla A; Aguayo, Encarna

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing demand for food supplements containing high amounts of vitamins, phenolic compounds and mineral content that provide health benefits. Those functional compounds have different solubility properties, and the maintenance of their compounds and the guarantee of their homogenic properties need the application of novel technologies. The quality of different drinkable functional foods after thermal processing (0.1 MPa) or high-pressure homogenization under two different conditions (80 MPa, 33 ℃ and 120 MPa, 43 ℃) was studied. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory qualities were evaluated throughout the six months of accelerated storage at 40 ℃ and 75% relative humidity (RH). Aroma and color were better maintained in high-pressure homogenization-treated samples than the thermally treated ones, which contributed significantly to extending their shelf life. The small particle size obtained after high-pressure homogenization treatments caused differences in turbidity and viscosity with respect to heat-treated samples. The use of high-pressure homogenization, more specifically, 120 MPa, provided active ingredient homogeneity to ensure uniform content in functional food supplements. Although the effect of high-pressure homogenization can be affected by the food matrix, high-pressure homogenization can be implemented as an alternative to conventional heat treatments in a commercial setting within the functional food supplement or pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Taxonomic homogenization of woodland plant communities over 70 years.

    PubMed

    Keith, Sally A; Newton, Adrian C; Morecroft, Michael D; Bealey, Clive E; Bullock, James M

    2009-10-07

    Taxonomic homogenization (TH) is the increasing similarity of the species composition of ecological communities over time. Such homogenization represents a form of biodiversity loss and can result from local species turnover. Evidence for TH is limited, reflecting a lack of suitable historical datasets, and previous analyses have generated contrasting conclusions. We present an analysis of woodland patches across a southern English county (Dorset) in which we quantified 70 years of change in the composition of vascular plant communities. We tested the hypotheses that over this time patches decreased in species richness, homogenized, or shifted towards novel communities. Although mean species richness at the patch scale did not change, we found increased similarity in species composition among woodlands over time. We concluded that the woodlands have undergone TH without experiencing declines in local diversity or shifts towards novel communities. Analysis of species characteristics suggested that these changes were not driven by non-native species invasions or climate change, but instead reflected reorganization of the native plant communities in response to eutrophication and increasingly shaded conditions. These analyses provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of TH in the UK and highlight the potential importance of this phenomenon as a contributor to biodiversity loss.

  17. Dynamical decoupling and homogenization of continuous variable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenz, Christian; Burgarth, Daniel; Hillier, Robin

    2017-03-01

    For finite-dimensional quantum systems, such as qubits, a well established strategy to protect such systems from decoherence is dynamical decoupling. However many promising quantum devices, such as oscillators, are infinite dimensional, for which the question if dynamical decoupling could be applied remained open. Here we first show that not every infinite-dimensional system can be protected from decoherence through dynamical decoupling. Then we develop dynamical decoupling for continuous variable systems which are described by quadratic Hamiltonians. We identify a condition and a set of operations that allow us to map a set of interacting harmonic oscillators onto a set of non-interacting oscillators rotating with an averaged frequency, a procedure we call homogenization. Furthermore we show that every quadratic system-environment interaction can be suppressed with two simple operations acting only on the system. Using a random dynamical decoupling or homogenization scheme, we develop bounds that characterize how fast we have to work in order to achieve the desired uncoupled dynamics. This allows us to identify how well homogenization can be achieved and decoherence can be suppressed in continuous variable systems.

  18. Large Eddy Simulation of Homogeneous Rotating Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, Kyle D.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Cambon, Claude; Chasnov, Jeffrey R.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Study of turbulent flows in rotating reference frames has proven to be one of the more challenging areas of turbulence research. The large number of theoretical, experimental, and computational studies performed over the years have demonstrated that the effect of solid-body rotation on turbulent flows is subtle and remains exceedingly difficult to predict. Because of the complexities associated with non-homogeneous turbulence, it is worthwhile to examine the effect of steady system rotation on the evolution of an initially isotropic turbulent flow. The assumption of statistical homogeneity considerably simplifies analysis and computation; calculation of homogeneous turbulence is further motivated since it possesses the essential physics found in more complex rotating flows. The principal objectives of the present study have therefore been to increase our fundamental understanding of turbulent flows in rotating reference frames through an examination of the asymptotic state of homogeneous rotating turbulence; particularly as to the existence of an asymptotic state which is self similar. Knowledge of an asymptotic similarity state permits prediction of the ultimate statistical evolution of the flow without requiring detailed knowledge of the complex, and not well understood, non-linear transfer processes. Aside from examination of possible similarity states in rotating turbulence, of further interest in this study has been an examination of the degree to which solid-body rotation induces a two-dimensional state in an initially isotropic flow.

  19. Spatial Homogeneity and Redshift--Distance Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, J. F.; Segal, I. E.

    1982-06-01

    Spatial homogeneity in the radial direction of low-redshift galaxies is subjected to Kafka-Schmidt V/Vm tests using well-documented samples. Homogeneity is consistent with the assumption of the Lundmark (quadratic redshift-distance) law, but large deviations from homogeneity are implied by the assumption of the Hubble (linear redshift-distance) law. These deviations are similar to what would be expected on the basis of the Lundmark law. Luminosity functions are obtained for each law by a nonparametric statistically optimal method that removes the observational cutoff bias in complete samples. Although the Hubble law correlation of absolute magnitude with redshift is reduced considerably by elimination of the bias, computer simulations show that its bias-free value is nevertheless at a satistically quite significant level, indicating the self-inconsistency of the law. The corresponding Lundmark law correlations are quite satisfactory satistically. The regression of redshift on magnitude also involves radial spatial homogeneity and, according to R. Soneira, has slope determining the redshift-magnitude exponent independently of the luminosity function. We have, however, rigorously proved the material dependence of the regression on this function and here exemplify our treatment by using the bias-free functions indicated, with results consistent with the foregoing argument.

  20. Homogeneous Catalysis by Transition Metal Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawby, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Examines four processes involving homogeneous catalysis which highlight the contrast between the simplicity of the overall reaction and the complexity of the catalytic cycle. Describes how catalysts provide circuitous routes in which all energy barriers are relatively low rather than lowering the activation energy for a single step reaction.…

  1. Homogeneous Immunoassays: Historical Perspective and Future Promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, Edwin F.

    1999-06-01

    The founding and growth of Syva Company is examined in the context of its leadership role in the development of homogeneous immunoassays. The simple mix and read protocols of these methods offer advantages in routine analytical and clinical applications. Early homogeneous methods were based on insensitive detection of immunoprecipitation during antigen/antibody binding. The advent of reporter groups in biology provided a means of quantitating immunochemical binding by labeling antibody or antigen and physically separating label incorporated into immune complexes from free label. Although high sensitivity was achieved, quantitative separations were experimentally demanding. Only when it became apparent that reporter groups could provide information, not only about the location of a molecule but also about its microscopic environment, was it possible to design practical non-separation methods. The evolution of early homogenous immunoassays was driven largely by the development of improved detection strategies. The first commercial spin immunoassays, developed by Syva for drug abuse testing during the Vietnam war, were followed by increasingly powerful methods such as immunochemical modulation of enzyme activity, fluorescence, and photo-induced chemiluminescence. Homogeneous methods that quantify analytes at femtomolar concentrations within a few minutes now offer important new opportunities in clinical diagnostics, nucleic acid detection and drug discovery.

  2. RELIABLE COMPUTATION OF HOMOGENEOUS AZEOTROPES. (R824731)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    It is important to determine the existence and composition of homogeneous azeotropes in the analysis of phase behavior and in the synthesis and design of separation systems, from both theoretical and practical standpoints. A new method for reliably locating an...

  3. HSTEP - Homogeneous Studies of Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a summary of the HSTEP project: an effort to calculate the physical properties of the known transiting extrasolar planets using a homogeneous approach. I discuss the motivation for the project, list the 83 planets which have already been studied, run through some important aspects of the methodology, and finish with a synopsis of the results.

  4. Homogeneous Catalysis by Transition Metal Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawby, Roger

    1988-01-01

    Examines four processes involving homogeneous catalysis which highlight the contrast between the simplicity of the overall reaction and the complexity of the catalytic cycle. Describes how catalysts provide circuitous routes in which all energy barriers are relatively low rather than lowering the activation energy for a single step reaction.…

  5. Revisiting Shock Initiation Modeling of Homogeneous Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2013-04-01

    Shock initiation of homogeneous explosives has been a subject of research since the 1960s, with neat and sensitized nitromethane as the main materials for experiments. A shock initiation model of homogeneous explosives was established in the early 1960s. It involves a thermal explosion event at the shock entrance boundary, which develops into a superdetonation that overtakes the initial shock. In recent years, Sheffield and his group, using accurate experimental tools, were able to observe details of buildup of the superdetonation. There are many papers on modeling shock initiation of heterogeneous explosives, but there are only a few papers on modeling shock initiation of homogeneous explosives. In this article, bulk reaction reactive flow equations are used to model homogeneous shock initiation in an attempt to reproduce experimental data of Sheffield and his group. It was possible to reproduce the main features of the shock initiation process, including thermal explosion, superdetonation, input shock overtake, overdriven detonation after overtake, and the beginning of decay toward Chapman-Jouget (CJ) detonation. The time to overtake (TTO) as function of input pressure was also calculated and compared to the experimental TTO.

  6. Reduced-order modelling numerical homogenization.

    PubMed

    Abdulle, A; Bai, Y

    2014-08-06

    A general framework to combine numerical homogenization and reduced-order modelling techniques for partial differential equations (PDEs) with multiple scales is described. Numerical homogenization methods are usually efficient to approximate the effective solution of PDEs with multiple scales. However, classical numerical homogenization techniques require the numerical solution of a large number of so-called microproblems to approximate the effective data at selected grid points of the computational domain. Such computations become particularly expensive for high-dimensional, time-dependent or nonlinear problems. In this paper, we explain how numerical homogenization method can benefit from reduced-order modelling techniques that allow one to identify offline and online computational procedures. The effective data are only computed accurately at a carefully selected number of grid points (offline stage) appropriately 'interpolated' in the online stage resulting in an online cost comparable to that of a single-scale solver. The methodology is presented for a class of PDEs with multiple scales, including elliptic, parabolic, wave and nonlinear problems. Numerical examples, including wave propagation in inhomogeneous media and solute transport in unsaturated porous media, illustrate the proposed method.

  7. RELIABLE COMPUTATION OF HOMOGENEOUS AZEOTROPES. (R824731)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    It is important to determine the existence and composition of homogeneous azeotropes in the analysis of phase behavior and in the synthesis and design of separation systems, from both theoretical and practical standpoints. A new method for reliably locating an...

  8. General Theorems about Homogeneous Ellipsoidal Inclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korringa, J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Mathematical theorems about the properties of ellipsoids are developed. Included are Poisson's theorem concerning the magnetization of a homogeneous body of ellipsoidal shape, the polarization of a dielectric, the transport of heat or electricity through an ellipsoid, and other problems. (BB)

  9. Coherence delay augmented laser beam homogenizer

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, P.; Bernhardt, A.

    1991-12-31

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus that can reduce the apparent coherence length of a laser beam so the beam can be used with an inexpensive homogenizer to produce an output beam with a uniform spatial intensity across its entire cross section. It is a further object of the invention to provide an improved homogenizer with a variable aperture size that is simple and easily made. It is still an additional object of the invention to provide an improved liquid filled homogenizer utilizing total internal reflection for improved efficiency. These, and other objects of the invention are realized by using a ``coherence delay line,`` according to the present invention, in series between a laser and a homogenizer. The coherence delay line is an optical ``line`` that comprises two mirrors, one partially reflecting, and one totally reflecting, arranged so that light incident from the laser first strikes the partially reflecting mirror. A portion of the beam passes through, and a portion is reflected back to the totally reflecting mirror.

  10. Homogeneity of Latvian temperature and precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizuma, L.; Briede, A.

    2010-09-01

    During previous years and decades the homogenization of Latvian monthly temperature and precipitation data series was based on the direct homogenization methods which relayed on metadata and studies of the effects of specific changes in time of observation as well as methods of observation. However, the method is not effective for temperature and precipitation data series shifts detection caused by measurement's place relocation or environmental changes. The both climatological temperature and precipitation records are significantly affected by a number of non-climatological factors (station moves, changes in instrumentation; introduction of different observing practices like a different observing time or introduction of wetting corrections for precipitation, changes in the local urban environment). If these non-homogeneities are not accounted for properly, that makes the data unrepresentative to be used for analyses of climate state, variations and changes. Monthly and daily Latvian station series (1950-2008) of surface air temperature and precipitation are statistically tested with respect to homogeneity. Two homogeneity tests are applied to evaluate monthly series. The multiple analyses of series for homogenization MASHv3.02 has been applied to 23 Latvian mean, maximum and minimum daily and monthly data series and daily and monthly precipitation series. The standard normal homogeneity tests (SNHT) has been applied to monthly mean temperature and precipitation series. During the tested period the station network is dense enough for efficient homogeneity testing. It has been found that all the time series contain the homogeneity breaks at least during one of the month. For some stations the multiple breaks were found. For mean temperature time series the 80 % of the breaks are generally less than ±0.20C. The largest detected homogeneity breaks in the mean monthly temperatures are up to ±1.00C, in mean monthly maximum temperature are up to ±1.30C and for mean

  11. Refined Zigzag Theory for Homogeneous, Laminated Composite, and Sandwich Plates: A Homogeneous Limit Methodology for Zigzag Function Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, Alexander; DiSciuva, Marco; Gherlone, marco

    2010-01-01

    The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) for homogeneous, laminated composite, and sandwich plates is presented from a multi-scale formalism starting with the inplane displacement field expressed as a superposition of coarse and fine contributions. The coarse kinematic field is that of first-order shear-deformation theory, whereas the fine kinematic field has a piecewise-linear zigzag distribution through the thickness. The condition of limiting homogeneity of transverse-shear properties is proposed and yields four distinct sets of zigzag functions. By examining elastostatic solutions for highly heterogeneous sandwich plates, the best-performing zigzag functions are identified. The RZT predictive capabilities to model homogeneous and highly heterogeneous sandwich plates are critically assessed, demonstrating its superior efficiency, accuracy ; and a wide range of applicability. The present theory, which is derived from the virtual work principle, is well-suited for developing computationally efficient CO-continuous finite elements, and is thus appropriate for the analysis and design of high-performance load-bearing aerospace structures.

  12. Fabrication of homogeneous titania/MWNT composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Korbely, Barbara; Nemeth, Zoltan; Reti, Balazs; Seo, Jin Won; Magrez, Arnaud; Forro, Laszlo; Hernadi, Klara

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Homogenous titania coverage on MWNT surface in a controllable way. {yields} Various titanium alkoxy precursors are suitable for layer formation. {yields} Acetone and ethanol are the best to promote interaction between MWNT and titania. -- Abstract: MWNT/titania nanocomposites were prepared by an impregnation method and subsequent heat treatment at 400 {sup o}C. Precursor compounds such as titanium (IV) propoxide and titanium (IV) ethoxide were used to cover the surface of CNTs under solution conditions. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were carried out to characterize the as-prepared titania layers.

  13. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  14. Elastic waves trapped by a homogeneous anisotropic semicylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, S A

    2013-11-30

    It is established that the problem of elastic oscillations of a homogeneous anisotropic semicylinder (console) with traction-free lateral surface (Neumann boundary condition) has no eigenvalues when the console is clamped at one end (Dirichlet boundary condition). If the end is free, under additional requirements of elastic and geometric symmetry, simple sufficient conditions are found for the existence of an eigenvalue embedded in the continuous spectrum and generating a trapped elastic wave, that is, one which decays at infinity at an exponential rate. The results are obtained by generalizing the methods developed for scalar problems, which however require substantial modification for the vector problem in elasticity theory. Examples are given and open questions are stated. Bibliography: 53 titles.

  15. Overview of ICF program at Centre D{close_quote}Etudes de Limeil-Valenton

    SciTech Connect

    Cel-V Laser Team

    1996-05-01

    The major objectives of the CEA-DAM laser program is to determine the various requirements to achieve thermonuclear fusion in laboratory. We report here recent results obtained at Centre d{close_quote}Etudes de Limeil-Valenton on high density X-Ray implosions, radiative transfer processes, hydrodynamic instabilities and laser-plasma interaction involved in cavity physics. Ignition and a moderate gain appears to be achievable with a laser energy of about 1.5{minus}2 MJ delivered at {lambda}=0, 35 {mu}m with a shaped pulse (duration{approximately}16 ns). The construction of such a laser is realizable and a conceptual design is under preparation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Homogenization of tissues via picosecond-infrared laser (PIRL) ablation: Giving a closer view on the in-vivo composition of protein species as compared to mechanical homogenization

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, M.; Wurlitzer, M.; Krutilin, A.; Kiani, P.; Nimer, R.; Omidi, M.; Mannaa, A.; Bussmann, T.; Bartkowiak, K.; Kruber, S.; Uschold, S.; Steffen, P.; Lübberstedt, J.; Küpker, N.; Petersen, H.; Knecht, R.; Hansen, N.O.; Zarrine-Afsar, A.; Robertson, W.D.; Miller, R.J.D.; Schlüter, H.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications and proteolytic processing regulate almost all physiological processes. Dysregulation can potentially result in pathologic protein species causing diseases. Thus, tissue species proteomes of diseased individuals provide diagnostic information. Since the composition of tissue proteomes can rapidly change during tissue homogenization by the action of enzymes released from their compartments, disease specific protein species patterns can vanish. Recently, we described a novel, ultrafast and soft method for cold vaporization of tissue via desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE) using a picosecond-infrared-laser (PIRL). Given that DIVE extraction may provide improved access to the original composition of protein species in tissues, we compared the proteome composition of tissue protein homogenates after DIVE homogenization with conventional homogenizations. A higher number of intact protein species was observed in DIVE homogenates. Due to the ultrafast transfer of proteins from tissues via gas phase into frozen condensates of the aerosols, intact protein species were exposed to a lesser extent to enzymatic degradation reactions compared with conventional protein extraction. In addition, total yield of the number of proteins is higher in DIVE homogenates, because they are very homogenous and contain almost no insoluble particles, allowing direct analysis with subsequent analytical methods without the necessity of centrifugation. Biological significance Enzymatic protein modifications during tissue homogenization are responsible for changes of the in-vivo protein species composition. Cold vaporization of tissues by PIRL-DIVE is comparable with taking a snapshot at the time of the laser irradiation of the dynamic changes that occur continuously under in-vivo conditions. At that time point all biomolecules are transferred into an aerosol, which is immediately frozen. PMID:26778141

  17. Homogeneous crystal nucleation in binary metallic melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. V.; Spaepen, F.

    1983-01-01

    A method for calculating the homogeneous crystal nucleation frequency in binary metallic melts is developed. The free energy of crystallization is derived from regular solution models for the liquid and solid and is used, together with model-based estimates of the interfacial tension, to calculate the nucleation frequency from the classical theory. The method can account for the composition dependence of the maximum undercooling observed in a number of experiments on small droplet dispersions. It can also be used to calculate the driving force for crystal growth and to obtain more precise estimates of the homogeneous crystal nucleation frequency in glass-forming alloys. This method, although approximate, is simple to apply, and requires only knowledge of the phase diagram and a few readily available thermodynamic quantities as input data.

  18. Detonation in shocked homogeneous high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C.S.; Holmes, N.C.; Souers, P.C.

    1995-11-01

    We have studied shock-induced changes in homogeneous high explosives including nitromethane, tetranitromethane, and single crystals of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) by using fast time-resolved emission and Raman spectroscopy at a two-stage light-gas gun. The results reveal three distinct steps during which the homogeneous explosives chemically evolve to final detonation products. These are (1) the initiation of shock compressed high explosives after an induction period, (2) thermal explosion of shock-compressed and/or reacting materials, and (3) a decay to a steady-state representing a transition to the detonation of uncompressed high explosives. Based on a gray-body approximation, we have obtained the CJ temperatures: 3800 K for nitromethane, 2950 K for tetranitromethane, and 4100 K for PETN. We compare the data with various thermochemical equilibrium calculations. In this paper we will also show a preliminary result of single-shot time-resolved Raman spectroscopy applied to shock-compressed nitromethane.

  19. Beyond relationships between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, David A.; Katz, Alexander; Arslan, Ilke; Gates, Bruce C.

    2014-08-13

    Scientists who regard catalysis as a coherent field have been striving for decades to articulate the fundamental unifying principles. But because these principles seem to be broader than chemistry, chemical engineering, and materials science combined, catalytic scientists commonly interact within the sub-domains of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and bio-catalysis, and increasingly within even narrower domains such as organocatalysis, phase-transfer catalysis, acid-base catalysis, zeolite catalysis, etc. Attempts to unify catalysis have motivated researchers to find relationships between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and to mimic enzymes. These themes have inspired vibrant international meetings and workshops, and we have benefited from the idea exchanges and have some thoughts about a path forward.

  20. Broken Ergodicity in Ideal, Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John; Fu, Terry; Nguyen, Phu; Shum, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the statistical mechanics of numerical models of ideal homogeneous, incompressible turbulence and their relevance for dissipative fluids and magnetofluids. These numerical models are based on Fourier series and the relevant statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. However, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We explain this phenomena in terms of broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We review the theoretical basis of broken ergodicity, apply it to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from simulations using GPU (graphical processing unit) computers.

  1. CUDA Simulation of Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John V.; Shum, Victor; Fu, Terry

    2011-01-01

    We discuss very fast Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) simulations of ideal homogeneous incompressible turbulence based on Fourier models. These models have associated statistical theories that predict that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. Prior numerical simulations have shown that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We review the theoretical basis of this "broken ergodicity" as applied to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence. Our new simulations examine the phenomenon of broken ergodicity through very long time and large grid size runs performed on a state-of-the-art CUDA platform. Results comparing various CUDA hardware configurations and grid sizes are discussed. NS and MHD results are compared.

  2. Program Logics for Homogeneous Meta-programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Martin; Tratt, Laurence

    A meta-program is a program that generates or manipulates another program; in homogeneous meta-programming, a program may generate new parts of, or manipulate, itself. Meta-programming has been used extensively since macros were introduced to Lisp, yet we have little idea how formally to reason about meta-programs. This paper provides the first program logics for homogeneous meta-programming - using a variant of MiniML_e^{square} by Davies and Pfenning as underlying meta-programming language. We show the applicability of our approach by reasoning about example meta-programs from the literature. We also demonstrate that our logics are relatively complete in the sense of Cook, enable the inductive derivation of characteristic formulae, and exactly capture the observational properties induced by the operational semantics.

  3. Kinematical uniqueness of homogeneous isotropic LQC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Jonathan; Hanusch, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    In a paper by Ashtekar and Campiglia, invariance under volume preserving residual diffeomorphisms has been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). In this paper, we use invariance under all residual diffeomorphisms to single out the standard kinematical Hilbert space of homogeneous isotropic LQC for both the standard configuration space {{{R}}\\text{Bohr}} , as well as for the Fleischhack one {R}\\sqcup {{{R}}\\text{Bohr}} . We first determine the scale invariant Radon measures on these spaces, and then show that the Haar measure on {{{R}}\\text{Bohr}} is the only such measure for which the momentum operator is hermitian w.r.t. the corresponding inner product. In particular, the measure is forced to be identically zero on {R} in the Fleischhack case, so that for both approaches, the standard kinematical LQC-Hilbert space is singled out.

  4. Coherent Eigenmodes in Homogeneous MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    The statistical mechanics of Fourier models of ideal, homogeneous, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is discussed, along with their relevance for dissipative magnetofluids. Although statistical theory predicts that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic field are zero-mean random variables, numerical simulations clearly show that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation, i.e., we have coherent structure. We use eigenanalysis of the modal covariance matrices in the probability density function to explain this phenomena in terms of `broken ergodicity', which is defined to occur when dynamical behavior does not match ensemble predictions on very long time-scales. We provide examples from 2-D and 3-D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence, and show new results from long-time simulations of MHD turbulence with and without a mean magnetic field

  5. Genetic homogeneity of Fascioloides magna in Austria.

    PubMed

    Husch, Christian; Sattmann, Helmut; Hörweg, Christoph; Ursprung, Josef; Walochnik, Julia

    2017-08-30

    The large American liver fluke, Fascioloides magna, is an economically relevant parasite of both domestic and wild ungulates. F. magna was repeatedly introduced into Europe, for the first time already in the 19th century. In Austria, a stable population of F. magna has established in the Danube floodplain forests southeast of Vienna. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of F. magna in Austria. A total of 26 individuals from various regions within the known area of distribution were investigated for their cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene haplotypes. Interestingly, all 26 individuals revealed one and the same haplotype, namely concatenated haplotype Ha5. This indicates a homogenous population of F. magna in Austria and may argue for a single introduction. Alternatively, genetic homogeneity might also be explained by a bottleneck effect and/or genetic drift. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Homogeneous Superpixels from Markov Random Walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perbet, Frank; Stenger, Björn; Maki, Atsuto

    This paper presents a novel algorithm to generate homogeneous superpixels from Markov random walks. We exploit Markov clustering (MCL) as the methodology, a generic graph clustering method based on stochastic flow circulation. In particular, we introduce a graph pruning strategy called compact pruning in order to capture intrinsic local image structure. The resulting superpixels are homogeneous, i.e. uniform in size and compact in shape. The original MCL algorithm does not scale well to a graph of an image due to the square computation of the Markov matrix which is necessary for circulating the flow. The proposed pruning scheme has the advantages of faster computation, smaller memory footprint, and straightforward parallel implementation. Through comparisons with other recent techniques, we show that the proposed algorithm achieves state-of-the-art performance.

  7. Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourque, Claude Julie

    Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement. C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en 2009 et 2010 aupres de 808 repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte (donnees quantitatives et qualitatives). Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise. Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere. Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun. Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des

  8. Castings, Steel, Homogenization of Steel Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-12-05

    diffraction pattern of quenched and tempered steel castings. 2. Calculations based upon known diffusion rates show: A. Practical homogenizing heat ...will be largely eliminated by either the usual heating for nuenching or a homo- genizing treatment. C. Interdendritic segregation of sulfur will...26 Appendix A - History of the Heat Treatment and Composition of Centrifugal Gun Castings at W-tertown Ar- sen-.l. ..... ..................... 2

  9. Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, Sarah Z.; Standley, Eric A.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2014-05-01

    Tremendous advances have been made in nickel catalysis over the past decade. Several key properties of nickel, such as facile oxidative addition and ready access to multiple oxidation states, have allowed the development of a broad range of innovative reactions. In recent years, these properties have been increasingly understood and used to perform transformations long considered exceptionally challenging. Here we discuss some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis, with an emphasis on both synthetic outcome and mechanism.

  10. Homogeneous Biosensing Based on Magnetic Particle Labels

    PubMed Central

    Schrittwieser, Stefan; Pelaz, Beatriz; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Lentijo-Mozo, Sergio; Soulantica, Katerina; Dieckhoff, Jan; Ludwig, Frank; Guenther, Annegret; Tschöpe, Andreas; Schotter, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of biomarker panels for molecular diagnostics is leading to an increasing need for fast and sensitive biosensing technologies that are applicable to point-of-care testing. In that regard, homogeneous measurement principles are especially relevant as they usually do not require extensive sample preparation procedures, thus reducing the total analysis time and maximizing ease-of-use. In this review, we focus on homogeneous biosensors for the in vitro detection of biomarkers. Within this broad range of biosensors, we concentrate on methods that apply magnetic particle labels. The advantage of such methods lies in the added possibility to manipulate the particle labels by applied magnetic fields, which can be exploited, for example, to decrease incubation times or to enhance the signal-to-noise-ratio of the measurement signal by applying frequency-selective detection. In our review, we discriminate the corresponding methods based on the nature of the acquired measurement signal, which can either be based on magnetic or optical detection. The underlying measurement principles of the different techniques are discussed, and biosensing examples for all techniques are reported, thereby demonstrating the broad applicability of homogeneous in vitro biosensing based on magnetic particle label actuation. PMID:27275824

  11. Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, M.; Lili, T.

    2011-06-01

    Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT). The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS) of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997)] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995)] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St < 3.5). It is important to note that RDT is also valid for large values of St (St > 10) in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

  12. Homogeneous cooling state of frictionless rod particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Largo, S. M.; Alonso-Marroquin, F.; Weinhart, T.; Luding, S.; Hidalgo, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we report some theoretical results on granular gases consisting of frictionless 3D rods with low energy dissipation. We performed simulations on the temporal evolution of soft spherocylinders, using a molecular dynamics algorithm implemented on GPU architecture. A homogeneous cooling state for rods, where the time dependence of the system's intensive variables occurs only through a global granular temperature, has been identified. We have found a homogeneous cooling process, which is in excellent agreement with Haff's law, when using an adequate rescaling time τ(ξ), the value of which depends on the particle elongation ξ and the restitution coefficient. It was further found that scaled particle velocity distributions remain approximately Gaussian regardless of the particle shape. Similarly to a system of ellipsoids, energy equipartition between rotational and translational degrees of freedom was better satisfied as one gets closer to the elastic limit. Taking advantage of scaling properties, we have numerically determined the general functionality of the magnitude Dc(ξ), which describes the efficiency of the energy interchange between rotational and translational degrees of freedom, as well as its dependence on particle shape. We have detected a range of particle elongations (1.5 < ξ < 4.0), where the average energy transfer between the rotational and translational degrees of freedom results greater for spherocylinders than for homogeneous ellipsoids with the same aspect ratio.

  13. TESTING HOMOGENEITY WITH GALAXY STAR FORMATION HISTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul; Tojeiro, Rita; Maartens, Roy; Heavens, Alan; Clarkson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Observationally confirming spatial homogeneity on sufficiently large cosmological scales is of importance to test one of the underpinning assumptions of cosmology, and is also imperative for correctly interpreting dark energy. A challenging aspect of this is that homogeneity must be probed inside our past light cone, while observations take place on the light cone. The star formation history (SFH) in the galaxy fossil record provides a novel way to do this. We calculate the SFH of stacked luminous red galaxy (LRG) spectra obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We divide the LRG sample into 12 equal-area contiguous sky patches and 10 redshift slices (0.2 < z < 0.5), which correspond to 120 blocks of volume {approx}0.04 Gpc{sup 3}. Using the SFH in a time period that samples the history of the universe between look-back times 11.5 and 13.4 Gyr as a proxy for homogeneity, we calculate the posterior distribution for the excess large-scale variance due to inhomogeneity, and find that the most likely solution is no extra variance at all. At 95% credibility, there is no evidence of deviations larger than 5.8%.

  14. Tits Satake projections of homogeneous special geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fré, Pietro; Gargiulo, Floriana; Rosseel, Jan; Rulik, Ksenya; Trigiante, Mario; Van Proeyen, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    We organize the homogeneous special geometries, describing as well the couplings of D = 6, 5, 4 and 3 supergravities with eight supercharges, in a small number of universality classes. This relates manifolds on which similar types of dynamical solutions can exist. The mathematical ingredient is the Tits Satake projection of real simple Lie algebras, which we extend to all solvable Lie algebras occurring in these homogeneous special geometries. Apart from some exotic cases all the other, 'very special', homogeneous manifolds can be grouped into seven universality classes. The organization of these classes, which capture the essential features of their basic dynamics, commutes with the r- and c-map. Different members are distinguished by different choices of the paint group, a notion discovered in the context of cosmic billiard dynamics of non-maximally supersymmetric supergravities. We comment on the usefulness of this organization in universality class both in relation with cosmic billiard dynamics and with configurations of branes and orbifolds defining special geometry backgrounds.

  15. Numerical homogenization of the Richards equation for unsaturated water flow through heterogeneous soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Yue, Xingye; Ren, Li

    2016-11-01

    Homogenized equations and the corresponding effective constitutive relations are generally necessary for numerically modeling large-scale unsaturated flow processes in soils. Recently, based on the Kirchhoff transformation and the two-scale convergence theory, a homogenization method for the Richards equation with the Mualem-van Genuchten model has been proposed, with a constant model parameter α relating to the inverse of the air-entry pressure and the soil pore size distribution. The homogenized model is computationally efficient and convenient to use because of its explicit expression. In this study, we generalize this method, allowing α to be a spatially distributed random field and proposing a homogenized Richards equation in the mixed form (θ/h) under the condition that the effective hydraulic conductivity tensor is diagonal. This generalization eliminates the limitation of a constant α in practical applications; the proposed homogenized model is meaningful in most situations because the flow problems are influenced mainly by the diagonal terms of conductivity and the off-diagonal terms are often neglected. Two-dimensional numerical tests are conducted in soil profiles with different degrees of spatial heterogeneity structure to illustrate that the homogenized model can capture the fine-scale flow behaviors on coarse grids effectively. Homogenization for the Richards equation with other two commonly used constitutive relations—the Brooks-Corey model and the Gardner-Russo model—is also illustrated in this study.

  16. Evaluation of a locally homogeneous flow model of spray combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, C. P.; Szekely, G. A., Jr.; Faeth, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    A model of spray combustion which employs a second-order turbulence model was developed. The assumption of locally homogeneous flow is made, implying infinitely fast transport rates between the phase. Measurements to test the model were completed for a gaseous n-propane flame and an air atomized n-pentane spray flame, burning in stagnant air at atmospheric pressure. Profiles of mean velocity and temperature, as well as velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress, were measured in the flames. The predictions for the gas flame were in excellent agreement with the measurements. The predictions for the spray were qualitatively correct, but effects of finite rate interphase transport were evident, resulting in a overstimation of the rate development of the flow. Predictions of spray penetration length at high pressures, including supercritical combustion conditions, were also completed for comparison with earlier measurements. Test conditions involved a pressure atomized n-pentane spray, burning in stagnant air at pressures of 3, 5, and 9 MPa. The comparison between predictions and measurements was fair. This is not a very sensitive test of the model, however, and further high pressure experimental and theoretical results are needed before a satisfactory assessment of the locally homogeneous flow approximation can be made.

  17. Etudes Asymptotiques en Filtrage Non Lineaire Avec Petit Bruit D’Observation (Asymptotic Studies in Nonlinear Time Filtering with Small Observation Noise)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-26

    titre de s DOCTEUR DE L’UNIVERSITE DE PROVENCE : SpdcialitM MATHEMATIQUES APPLIQUEES par PAULA M. L. P. MILHEIRO de OLIVEIRA Sujet de la these: ETUDES...PROVENCE Spdcialitd: MATHEMATIQUES APPLIQUEES par PAULA M. L. P. MILHEIRO de OLIVEIRA Sujet dela thse: E~TUDES ASYMPTOTIQUES EN FILTRAGE NON LINEAIRE...At Pk + h2 At p,]f6 2 ± h2 AtP] k CO lk + Ilk Donc C I~k+1 Pk1 (10) 1-iPk + C Cl Suivant un raisonnement par recurrence on trouve l’expression: Ilk_

  18. Distributed LQR control for discrete-time homogeneous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Fangfang; Han, Chunyan

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the distributed linear quadratic regulation (LQR) controller design method for discrete-time homogeneous scalar systems. Based on the optimal centralised control theory, the existence condition for distributed optimal controller is firstly proposed. It shows that the globally optimal distributed controller is dependent on the structure of the penalty matrix. Such results can be used in consensus problems and used to find under which communication topology (may not be an all-to-all form) the optimal distributed controller exists. When the proposed condition cannot hold, a suboptimal design method with the aid of the decomposition of discrete algebraic Riccati equations and robustness of local controllers is proposed. The computation complexity and communication load for each subsystem are only dependent on the number of its neighbours.

  19. All-sky homogeneity of precipitable water vapour over Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querel, Richard R.; Kerber, Florian

    2014-08-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (~10 μm) for cloud detection. We present, for the first time, a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 21 months of periodic (every 6 hours) all-sky scans from the radiometer. These data provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric conditions relevant for astronomical observations, particularly in the infrared. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5° elevation with a median variation of 0.32 mm (peak to valley) or 0.07 mm (rms). The homogeneity is a function of the absolute PWV but the relative variation is fairly constant at 10-15% (peak to valley) and 3% (rms). Such variations will not be a significant issue for analysis of astronomical data. Users at ESO can specify PWV - measured at zenith - as an ambient constraint in service mode to enable, for instance, very demanding observations in the infrared that can only be conducted during periods of very good atmospheric transmission and hence low PWV. We conclude that in general it will not be necessary to add another observing constraint for PWV homogeneity to ensure integrity of observations. For demanding observations requiring very low PWV, where the relative variation is higher, the optimum support could be provided by observing with the LHATPRO in the same line-of-sight simultaneously. Such a mode of operations has already been tested but will have to be

  20. Microphysical Modelling of the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter. 3; Impact of Homogeneous Freezing on PSCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, K.

    2003-01-01

    Simulations of the 1999-2000 winter have tested the effect on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of the homogeneous freezing of liquid ternary solutions into nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD). Proposed laboratory-derived volume-based and surface-based homogeneous freezing rates have both been examined, including different assumptions about the extrapolation of laboratory measurements to atmospheric conditions. Widespread PSC formation and denitrification are possible in several of the scenarios examined. However, the simulations are all unable to explain the solid-phase PSCs observed early in the 1999-2000 winter, and are unable to reproduce the measured extent of vortex denitrification. These problems can both be attributed to the relatively cold temperatures, more than 5 K below the NAT condensation point, necessary for effective homogeneous freezing. Therefore synoptic-scale homogeneous freezing appears unlikely to be the primary mechanism responsible for solid-phase PSC formation.

  1. Microphysical Modelling of the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter. 3; Impact of Homogeneous Freezing on PSCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, K.

    2003-01-01

    Simulations of the 1999-2000 winter have tested the effect on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of the homogeneous freezing of liquid ternary solutions into nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD). Proposed laboratory-derived volume-based and surface-based homogeneous freezing rates have both been examined, including different assumptions about the extrapolation of laboratory measurements to atmospheric conditions. Widespread PSC formation and denitrification are possible in several of the scenarios examined. However, the simulations are all unable to explain the solid-phase PSCs observed early in the 1999-2000 winter, and are unable to reproduce the measured extent of vortex denitrification. These problems can both be attributed to the relatively cold temperatures, more than 5 K below the NAT condensation point, necessary for effective homogeneous freezing. Therefore synoptic-scale homogeneous freezing appears unlikely to be the primary mechanism responsible for solid-phase PSC formation.

  2. Two-scale homogenization to determine effective parameters of thin metallic-structured films

    PubMed Central

    Marigo, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We present a homogenization method based on matched asymptotic expansion technique to derive effective transmission conditions of thin structured films. The method leads unambiguously to effective parameters of the interface which define jump conditions or boundary conditions at an equivalent zero thickness interface. The homogenized interface model is presented in the context of electromagnetic waves for metallic inclusions associated with Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions for transverse electric or transverse magnetic wave polarization. By comparison with full-wave simulations, the model is shown to be valid for thin interfaces up to thicknesses close to the wavelength. We also compare our effective conditions with the two-sided impedance conditions obtained in transmission line theory and to the so-called generalized sheet transition conditions. PMID:27616916

  3. Homogeneous Characterization of Transiting Exoplanet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Faedi, Francesca; Hebb, Leslie; Pollacco, Don; Stassun, Keivan; Ghezzi, Luan; Cargile, Phillip; Barros, Susana; Smalley, Barry; Mack, Claude

    2012-02-01

    We aim to obtain a homogeneous set of high resolution, high signal- to-noise (S/N) spectra for a large and diverse sample of stars with transiting planets, using the Kitt Peak 4-m echelle spectrograph for bright Northern targets (7.7homogeneous analysis of this high-quality dataset, we will be able to investigate any systematic uncertainties on the derived stellar properties, and consequently, on the planetary properties derived from the iterative combination of our spectral analysis with the best available radial velocity data and transit photometry. % to derive a homogeneous set of properties for the transiting systems. The resulting consistent set of physical properties will allow us to further explore known correlations, e.g., core-size of the planet and stellar metallicity, and to newly identify subtle relationships providing insight into our understanding of planetary formation, structure, and evolution. Our pilot study analyzing our WASP-13 HIRES spectrum (R 48 000, S/N>150) in combination with high precision light curves shows an improvement in the precision of the stellar parameters of 60% in Teff, 75% in FeH, 82% in mstar, and 73% in rstar, which translates into a 64% improvement in the precision of rpl, and more than 2% on mpl, relative to the discovery paper's values.

  4. Sulfur isotope homogeneity of lunar mare basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Boswell A.; Farquhar, James

    2015-12-01

    We present a new set of high precision measurements of relative 33S/32S, 34S/32S, and 36S/32S values in lunar mare basalts. The measurements are referenced to the Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT) scale, on which the international reference material, IAEA-S-1, is characterized by δ33S = -0.061‰, δ34S ≡ -0.3‰ and δ36S = -1.27‰. The present dataset confirms that lunar mare basalts are characterized by a remarkable degree of sulfur isotopic homogeneity, with most new and published SF6-based sulfur isotope measurements consistent with a single mass-dependent mean isotopic composition of δ34S = 0.58 ± 0.05‰, Δ33S = 0.008 ± 0.006‰, and Δ36S = 0.2 ± 0.2‰, relative to V-CDT, where the uncertainties are quoted as 99% confidence intervals on the mean. This homogeneity allows identification of a single sample (12022, 281) with an apparent 33S enrichment, possibly reflecting cosmic-ray-induced spallation reactions. It also reveals that some mare basalts have slightly lower δ34S values than the population mean, which is consistent with sulfur loss from a reduced basaltic melt prior to eruption at the lunar surface. Both the sulfur isotope homogeneity of the lunar mare basalts and the predicted sensitivity of sulfur isotopes to vaporization-driven fractionation suggest that less than ≈1-10% of lunar sulfur was lost after a potential moon-forming impact event.

  5. The Chemical Homogeneity of Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Determining the level of chemical homogeneity in open clusters is of fundamental importance in the study of the evolution of star-forming clouds and that of the Galactic disk. Yet limiting the initial abundance spread in clusters has been hampered by difficulties in obtaining consistent spectroscopic abundances for different stellar types. Without reference to any specific model of stellar photospheres, a model for a homogeneous cluster is that it forms a one-dimensional sequence, with any differences between members due to variations in stellar mass and observational uncertainties. I present a novel method for investigating the abundance spread in open clusters that tests this one-dimensional hypothesis at the level of observed stellar spectra, rather than constraining homogeneity using derived abundances as is traditionally done. Using high-resolution APOGEE spectra for 49 giants in M67, NGC 6819, and NGC 2420 I demonstrate that these spectra form one-dimensional sequences for each cluster. With detailed forward modeling of the spectra and Approximate Bayesian Computation, I derive strong limits on the initial abundance spread of 15 elements: <0.01 (0.02) {dex} for C and Fe, ≲0.015 (0.03) {dex} for N, O, Mg, Si, and Ni, ≲0.02 (0.03) {dex} for Al, Ca, and Mn, and ≲0.03 (0.05) {dex} for Na, S, K, Ti, and V (at 68% and 95% confidence, respectively). The strong limits on C and O imply that no pollution by massive core-collapse supernovae occurred during star formation in open clusters, which, thus, need to form within ≲6 {Myr}. Further development of this and related techniques will bring the power of differential abundances to stars other than solar twins in large spectroscopic surveys and will help unravel the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in the Milky Way through chemical tagging.

  6. Compressible homogeneous shear: Simulation and modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, S.; Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Compressibility effects were studied on turbulence by direct numerical simulation of homogeneous shear flow. A primary observation is that the growth of the turbulent kinetic energy decreases with increasing turbulent Mach number. The sinks provided by compressible dissipation and the pressure dilatation, along with reduced Reynolds shear stress, are shown to contribute to the reduced growth of kinetic energy. Models are proposed for these dilatational terms and verified by direct comparison with the simulations. The differences between the incompressible and compressible fields are brought out by the examination of spectra, statistical moments, and structure of the rate of strain tensor.

  7. Heterogeneity versus homogeneity of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Fumitaka; Martinez, Nicholas E; Omura, Seiichi; Tsunoda, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    The 10th International Congress of Neuroimmunology, including the 10th European School of Neuroimmunology Course, was held by the International Society of Neuroimmunology in Sitges (Barcelona, Spain) on 26–30 October 2010. The conference covered a wide spectrum of issues and challenges in both basic science and clinical aspects of neuroimmunology. Data and ideas were shared through a variety of programs, including review talks and poster sessions. One of the topics of the congress was whether multiple sclerosis is a homogenous or heterogenous disease, clinically and pathologically, throughout its course. PMID:21426254

  8. Multifractal spectra in homogeneous shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deane, A. E.; Keefe, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    Employing numerical simulations of 3-D homogeneous shear flow, the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and vorticity fields were calculated. The results for (128) cubed simulations of this flow, and those obtained in recent experiments that analyzed 1- and 2-D intersections of atmospheric and laboratory flows, are in some agreement. A two-scale Cantor set model of the energy cascade process which describes the experimental results from 1-D intersections quite well, describes the 3-D results only marginally.

  9. Homogeneous sphere packings with triclinic symmetry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, W; Koch, E

    2002-11-01

    All homogeneous sphere packings with triclinic symmetry have been derived by studying the characteristic Wyckoff positions P -1 1a and P -1 2i of the two triclinic lattice complexes. These sphere packings belong to 30 different types. Only one type exists that has exclusively triclinic sphere packings and no higher-symmetry ones. The inherent symmetry of part of the sphere packings is triclinic for 18 types. Sphere packings of all but six of the 30 types may be realized as stackings of parallel planar nets.

  10. Homogeneous and hypersurface-homogeneous shear-free perfect fluids ingeneral relativity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C. B.

    1988-08-01

    Shear-free, general-relativistic perfect fluids are investigated in the case where they are either homogeneous or hypersurface-homogeneous (and, in particular, spatially homogeneous). It is assumed that the energy density μ and the presurep of the fluid are related by a barotropic equation of statep = p(μ), where μ +p ≠ 0. Under such circumstances, it follows that either the fluid's volume expansion rate θ or the fluid's vorticity (i.e., rotation) ω must vanish. In the homogeneous case, this leads to only two possibilities: either ω = θ = 0 (the Einstein static solution), or ω ≠ 0,θ = 0 (the Gödel solution). In the hypersurface-homogeneous case, the situation is more complicated: either ω = 0, θ≠ 0 (as exemplified,inter alia, by the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models), or ω ≠ 0, θ = 0 (which pertains, for example, in general stationary cylindrically symmetric fluids with rigid rotation, or ω = θ = 0 (as occurs for static spherically symmetric solutions). Each possibility is further subdivided in an invariant way, and related to the studies of other authors, thereby unifying and extending these earlier works.

  11. Drying regimes in homogeneous porous media from macro- to nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, J.; Rodts, S.; Weitz, D. A.; Coussot, P.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging visualization down to nanometric liquid films in model porous media with pore sizes from micro- to nanometers enables one to fully characterize the physical mechanisms of drying. For pore size larger than a few tens of nanometers, we identify an initial constant drying rate period, probing homogeneous desaturation, followed by a falling drying rate period. This second period is associated with the development of a gradient in saturation underneath the sample free surface that initiates the inward recession of the contact line. During this latter stage, the drying rate varies in accordance with vapor diffusion through the dry porous region, possibly affected by the Knudsen effect for small pore size. However, we show that for sufficiently small pore size and/or saturation the drying rate is increasingly reduced by the Kelvin effect. Subsequently, we demonstrate that this effect governs the kinetics of evaporation in nanopores as a homogeneous desaturation occurs. Eventually, under our experimental conditions, we show that the saturation unceasingly decreases in a homogeneous manner throughout the wet regions of the medium regardless of pore size or drying regime considered. This finding suggests the existence of continuous liquid flow towards the interface of higher evaporation, down to very low saturation or very small pore size. Paradoxically, even if this net flow is unidirectional and capillary driven, it corresponds to a series of diffused local capillary equilibrations over the full height of the sample, which might explain that a simple Darcy's law model does not predict the effect of scaling of the net flow rate on the pore size observed in our tests.

  12. Stimulus homogeneity enhances implicit learning: evidence from contextual cueing.

    PubMed

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Visual search for a target object is faster if the target is embedded in a repeatedly presented invariant configuration of distractors ('contextual cueing'). It has also been shown that the homogeneity of a context affects the efficiency of visual search: targets receive prioritized processing when presented in a homogeneous context compared to a heterogeneous context, presumably due to grouping processes at early stages of visual processing. The present study investigated in three Experiments whether context homogeneity also affects contextual cueing. In Experiment 1, context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-relevant dimension (orientation) and contextual cueing was most pronounced for context configurations with high orientation homogeneity. When context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-irrelevant dimension (color) and orientation homogeneity was fixed, no modulation of contextual cueing was observed: high orientation homogeneity led to large contextual cueing effects (Experiment 2) and low orientation homogeneity led to low contextual cueing effects (Experiment 3), irrespective of color homogeneity. Enhanced contextual cueing for homogeneous context configurations suggest that grouping processes do not only affect visual search but also implicit learning. We conclude that memory representation of context configurations are more easily acquired when context configurations can be processed as larger, grouped perceptual units. However, this form of implicit perceptual learning is only improved by stimulus homogeneity when stimulus homogeneity facilitates grouping processes on a dimension that is currently relevant in the task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. HYPERLEDA. II. The homogenized HI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paturel, G.; Theureau, G.; Bottinelli, L.; Gouguenheim, L.; Coudreau-Durand, N.; Hallet, N.; Petit, C.

    2003-12-01

    After a compilation of HI data from 611 references and new observations made in Nançay, we produce a catalog of homogenized HI data for 16781 galaxies. The homogenization is made using the EPIDEMIC method from which all data are progressively converted into the adopted standard. The result is a catalog giving: 1) the logarithm of twice the maximum rotation velocity, log 2V_Msin i, converted to the system of Mathewson et al. (\\cite{Mathewson1996}). This quantity is given without correction for inclination; 2) the HI magnitude, m21, (area of the 21-cm line width expressed in magnitude) converted to the flux system of Theureau et al. (\\cite{Theureau1998}); 3) the HI velocity, V_HI, expressed with the optical definition (i.e., using wavelengths instead frequencies). The typical uncertainties are: 0.04 for log 2V_Msin i, 0.25 mag for m21 and 9 km s-1 for V_HI. Full Tables \\ref{epidemicw}, \\ref{epidemicw2}, \\ref{epidemicf}, \\ref{epidemicf2} and Fig. \\ref{profiles} are available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org. Full Tables \\ref{references}, \\ref{cataf}, \\ref{newdata} and \\ref{notes} are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/412/57

  14. Population dynamics in non-homogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alards, Kim M. J.; Tesser, Francesca; Toschi, Federico

    2014-11-01

    For organisms living in aquatic ecosystems the presence of fluid transport can have a strong influence on the dynamics of populations and on evolution of species. In particular, displacements due to self-propulsion, summed up with turbulent dispersion at larger scales, strongly influence the local densities and thus population and genetic dynamics. Real marine environments are furthermore characterized by a high degree of non-homogeneities. In the case of population fronts propagating in ``fast'' turbulence, with respect to the population duplication time, the flow effect can be studied by replacing the microscopic diffusivity with an effective turbulent diffusivity. In the opposite case of ``slow'' turbulence the advection by the flow has to be considered locally. Here we employ numerical simulations to study the influence of non-homogeneities in the diffusion coefficient of reacting individuals of different species expanding in a 2 dimensional space. Moreover, to explore the influence of advection, we consider a population expanding in the presence of simple velocity fields like cellular flows. The output is analyzed in terms of front roughness, front shape, propagation speed and, concerning the genetics, by means of heterozygosity and local and global extinction probabilities.

  15. Homogenized radiosonde data for climate reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimberger, Leopold; Blaschek, Michael

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that radiosonde data need bias correction before they can be used for climate reanalyses. Variational approaches have so far not achieved satisfactory results for this type of data. Therefore most reanalyses rely on bias corrections calculated offline using (semi)automatic homogeneity adjustment methods. One approach is to analyse time subdaily time series of differences between background forecasts of a previous reanalysis cycle (bg) and observation records (obs) for break detection. For break adjustment, one can either use again the bg-obs time series or one can use composites of neighboring radiosondes. Adjustments from both methods (called RAOBCORE/RICH) have been used in most contemporary reanalyses assimilating these data. Improvements to these methods to deal with annual variations of the radiosonde observation biases are described as well as improvements due to the use of better quality background departure time series. The adjustments are expected to reduce differences with independent satellite data as well as the rejection rate of radiosonde temperature observations and are used also in the first COPERNICUS climate reanalysis ERA5. Efforts on radiosonde humidity homogenization are presented as well.

  16. Emergence of Leadership within a Homogeneous Group

    PubMed Central

    Eskridge, Brent E.; Valle, Elizabeth; Schlupp, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Large scale coordination without dominant, consistent leadership is frequent in nature. How individuals emerge from within the group as leaders, however transitory this position may be, has become an increasingly common question asked. This question is further complicated by the fact that in many of these aggregations, differences between individuals are minor and the group is largely considered to be homogeneous. In the simulations presented here, we investigate the emergence of leadership in the extreme situation in which all individuals are initially identical. Using a mathematical model developed using observations of natural systems, we show that the addition of a simple concept of leadership tendencies which is inspired by observations of natural systems and is affected by experience can produce distinct leaders and followers using a nonlinear feedback loop. Most importantly, our results show that small differences in experience can promote the rapid emergence of stable roles for leaders and followers. Our findings have implications for our understanding of adaptive behaviors in initially homogeneous groups, the role experience can play in shaping leadership tendencies, and the use of self-assessment in adapting behavior and, ultimately, self-role-assignment. PMID:26226381

  17. Primary Healthcare Solo Practices: Homogeneous or Heterogeneous?

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Boivin, Antoine; Prud'homme, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Solo practices have generally been viewed as forming a homogeneous group. However, they may differ on many characteristics. The objective of this paper is to identify different forms of solo practice and to determine the extent to which they are associated with patient experience of care. Methods. Two surveys were carried out in two regions of Quebec in 2010: a telephone survey of 9180 respondents from the general population and a postal survey of 606 primary healthcare (PHC) practices. Data from the two surveys were linked through the respondent's usual source of care. A taxonomy of solo practices was constructed (n = 213), using cluster analysis techniques. Bivariate and multilevel analyses were used to determine the relationship of the taxonomy with patient experience of care. Results. Four models were derived from the taxonomy. Practices in the “resourceful networked” model contrast with those of the “resourceless isolated” model to the extent that the experience of care reported by their patients is more favorable. Conclusion. Solo practice is not a homogeneous group. The four models identified have different organizational features and their patients' experience of care also differs. Some models seem to offer a better organizational potential in the context of current reforms. PMID:24523964

  18. The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal Homogeneous Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2002-01-01

    Plasmas, such as those found in the space environment or in plasma confinement devices, are often modeled as electrically conducting fluids. When fluids and plasmas are energetically stirred, regions of highly nonlinear, chaotic behavior known as turbulence arise. Understanding the fundamental nature of turbulence is a long-standing theoretical challenge. The present work describes a statistical theory concerning a certain class of nonlinear, finite dimensional, dynamical models of turbulence. These models arise when the partial differential equations describing incompressible, ideal (i.e., nondissipative) homogeneous fluid and magnetofluid (i.e., plasma) turbulence are Fourier transformed into a very large set of ordinary differential equations. These equations define a divergenceless flow in a high-dimensional phase space, which allows for the existence of a Liouville theorem, guaranteeing a distribution function based on constants of the motion (integral invariants). The novelty of these particular dynamical systems is that there are integral invariants other than the energy, and that some of these invariants behave like pseudoscalars under two of the discrete symmetry transformations of physics, parity, and charge conjugation. In this work the 'rugged invariants' of ideal homogeneous turbulence are shown to be the only significant scalar and pseudoscalar invariants. The discovery that pseudoscalar invariants cause symmetries of the original equations to be dynamically broken and induce a nonergodic structure on the associated phase space is the primary result presented here. Applicability of this result to dissipative turbulence is also discussed.

  19. Modified Homogeneous Data Set of Coronal Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorotovič, I.; Minarovjech, M.; Lorenc, M.; Rybanský, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences has published the intensities, recalibrated with respect to a common intensity scale, of the 530.3 nm (Fe xiv) green coronal line observed at ground-based stations up to the year 2008. The name of this publication is Homogeneous Data Set (HDS). We have developed a method that allows one to successfully substitute the ground-based observations by satellite observations and, thus, continue with the publication of the HDS. For this purpose, the observations of the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite, were exploited. Among other data the EIT instrument provides almost daily 28.4 nm (Fe xv) emission-line snapshots of the corona. The Fe xiv and Fe xv data (4051 observation days) taken in the period 1996 - 2008 have been compared and good agreement was found. The method to obtain the individual data for the HDS follows from the correlation analysis described in this article. The resulting data, now under the name of Modified Homogeneous Data Set (MHDS), are identical up to 1996 to those in the HDS. The MHDS can be used further for studies of the coronal solar activity and its cycle. These data are available at http://www.suh.sk.

  20. Primary healthcare solo practices: homogeneous or heterogeneous?

    PubMed

    Pineault, Raynald; Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Provost, Sylvie; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Boivin, Antoine; Couture, Audrey; Prud'homme, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Solo practices have generally been viewed as forming a homogeneous group. However, they may differ on many characteristics. The objective of this paper is to identify different forms of solo practice and to determine the extent to which they are associated with patient experience of care. Methods. Two surveys were carried out in two regions of Quebec in 2010: a telephone survey of 9180 respondents from the general population and a postal survey of 606 primary healthcare (PHC) practices. Data from the two surveys were linked through the respondent's usual source of care. A taxonomy of solo practices was constructed (n = 213), using cluster analysis techniques. Bivariate and multilevel analyses were used to determine the relationship of the taxonomy with patient experience of care. Results. Four models were derived from the taxonomy. Practices in the "resourceful networked" model contrast with those of the "resourceless isolated" model to the extent that the experience of care reported by their patients is more favorable. Conclusion. Solo practice is not a homogeneous group. The four models identified have different organizational features and their patients' experience of care also differs. Some models seem to offer a better organizational potential in the context of current reforms.

  1. On shearing fluids with homogeneous densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, D. C.; Srivastava, V. C.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study shearing spherically symmetric homogeneous density fluids in comoving coordinates. It is found that the expansion of the four-velocity of a perfect fluid is homogeneous, whereas its shear is generated by an arbitrary function of time M( t), related to the mass function of the distribution. This function is found to bear a functional relationship with density. The field equations are reduced to two coupled first order ordinary differential equations for the metric coefficients g_{11} and g_{22}. We have explored a class of solutions assuming that M is a linear function of the density. This class embodies, as a subcase, the complete class of shear-free solutions. We have discussed the off quoted work of Kustaanheimo (Comment Phys Math XIII:12, 1, 1947) and have noted that it deals with shear-free fluids having anisotropic pressure. It is shown that the anisotropy of the fluid is characterized by an arbitrary function of time. We have discussed some issues of historical priorities and credentials related to shear-free solutions. Recent controversial claims by Mitra (Astrophys Space Sci 333:351, 2011 and Gravit Cosmol 18:17, 2012) have also been addressed. We found that the singularity and the shearing motion of the fluid are closely related. Hence, there is a need for fresh look to the solutions obtained earlier in comoving coordinates.

  2. GOLGI FRACTIONS PREPARED FROM RAT LIVER HOMOGENATES

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, J. H.; Bergeron, J. J. M.; Siekevitz, P.; Palade, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    In devising a new procedure for the isolation of Golgi fractions from rat liver homogenates, we have taken advantage of the overloading with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles that occurs in the Golgi elements of hepatocytes ∼90 min after ethanol is administered (0.6 g/100 g body weight) by stomach tube to the animals. The VLDLs act as morphological markers as well as density modifiers of these elements. The starting preparation is a total microsomal fraction prepared from liver homogenized (1:5) in 0.25 M sucrose. This fraction is resuspended in 1.15 M sucrose and loaded at the bottom of a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. Centrifugation at ∼13 x 106 g·min yields by flotation three Golgi fractions of density >1.041 and <1.173. The light and intermediate fractions consist essentially of VLDL-loaded Golgi vacuoles and cisternae. Nearly empty, often collapsed, Golgi cisternae are the main component of the heavy fraction. A procedure which subjects the Golgi fractions to hypotonic shock and shearing in a French press at pH 8.5 allows the extraction of the content of the Golgi elements and the subsequent isolation of their membranes by differential centrifugation. PMID:4356571

  3. Si isotope homogeneity of the solar nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, Emily A.; Savage, Paul S.; Moynier, Frédéric; Jackson, Matthew G.; Barrat, Jean-Alix E-mail: savage@levee.wustl.edu E-mail: moynier@ipgp.fr E-mail: Jean-Alix.Barrat@univ-brest.fr

    2013-12-20

    The presence or absence of variations in the mass-independent abundances of Si isotopes in bulk meteorites provides important clues concerning the evolution of the early solar system. No Si isotopic anomalies have been found within the level of analytical precision of 15 ppm in {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si across a wide range of inner solar system materials, including terrestrial basalts, chondrites, and achondrites. A possible exception is the angrites, which may exhibit small excesses of {sup 29}Si. However, the general absence of anomalies suggests that primitive meteorites and differentiated planetesimals formed in a reservoir that was isotopically homogenous with respect to Si. Furthermore, the lack of resolvable anomalies in the calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion measured here suggests that any nucleosynthetic anomalies in Si isotopes were erased through mixing in the solar nebula prior to the formation of refractory solids. The homogeneity exhibited by Si isotopes may have implications for the distribution of Mg isotopes in the solar nebula. Based on supernova nucleosynthetic yield calculations, the expected magnitude of heavy-isotope overabundance is larger for Si than for Mg, suggesting that any potential Mg heterogeneity, if present, exists below the 15 ppm level.

  4. Microstructure and homogeneity of dental porcelain frits.

    PubMed

    Ban, S; Matsuo, K; Mizutani, N; Iwase, H; Kani, T; Hasegawa, J

    1998-12-01

    The microstructure and homogeneity of three commercial dentin and incisal unfired porcelain frits (one conventional and two ultra-low fusing types, fused-to metal were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microspectroscopy, and wavelength- and energy dispersive X-ray microspectroscopy. The average contents of tetragonal and cubic leucite for the conventional and one of the ultra-low fusing type frits were 20.1-22.6 wt% and 0-2.6 wt%, respectively, whereas those of another of the ultra-low fusing type frits were about 11.5-11.6 wt% and 2.9-4.6 wt%, respectively. The conventional type frits seemed to be admixtures of three kinds of glass frits. One of the ultra-low fusing type frits seemed to be an admixture of four kinds of glass frits. Another ultra-low fusing frits seemed to be only one kind of glass frit dispersed with small size, less than 1 micron, leucite crystals. There were no remarkable differences in microstructure and homogeneity between dentin and incisal porcelain frits in each brand.

  5. Tests of marginal homogeneity and special cases.

    PubMed

    Dunnigan, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of two-way contingency tables is common in clinical studies. In addition to summary counts and percentages, statistical tests or summary measures are often desired. If the data can be viewed as two categorical measurements on the same experimental unit (matched pair data) then a test of marginal homogeneity may be appropriate. The most common clinical example is the so called 'shift table' whereby a quantity is tested for change between two time points. The two principal marginal homogeneity tests are the Stuart Maxwell and Bhapkar tests. At present, SAS software does not compute either test directly (for tables with more than two categories) and a programmatic solution is required. Two examples of programmatic SAS code are found in the current literature. Although accurate in most instances, they fail to produce output for certain tables ('special cases'). After summarizing the mathematics behind the two tests, a SAS macro is presented, which produces correct output for all tables. Finally, several examples are coded and presented with resultant output. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Ketone-body utilization by homogenates of adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Klein, W.

    1982-06-01

    The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of /sup 14/C from (3-/sup 14/C)ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.

  7. Improvement of spatial homogeneity in IBAD based YBCO coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Z.; Kiss, T.; Inoue, M.; Enpuku, K.; Kashima, N.; Watanabe, T.; Mori, M.; Nagaya, S.; Ibi, A.; Miyata, S.; Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y.

    2008-09-01

    Prior to the development of fabrication technique for the chemical vapor deposited (CVD) YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ coated conductor on a IBAD-Gd 2Zr 2O 7, investigations on the improvement of spatial homogeneity have been done. By using spatially resolved measurements and combined multiple microanalysis techniques with length scale of several μm, physical and transport properties of the CVD samples have been investigated before and after fabrication modification. Structural inhomogeneity was visualized using thermoelectric voltage imaging (TVI) technique using a laser scanning microscope. Laser scanning microscopy at superconducting temperature is used to visualize flux flow dissipation; furthermore, mappings of 2D local current flow density distribution have been done using a scanning SQUID microscopy. It has been shown that the superconducting layer consisted of YBCO matrix with localized defects originating from the buffer layer. This led to current non-uniformity and caused high flux flow dissipation within the vicinity of the defects. Process conditions have been modified effectively based on those insights. After fabrication modification, our measurement analyses shows that the texturing of the YBCO layer improved significantly and the appearance of spatially distributed obstacles that are responsible for non-uniform current distribution and localized dissipation are reduced. Our complementing, quick yet non-invasive technique not only can quantify the improvement of YBCO homogeneity but also shed light on the basic understanding of the current limiting mechanism in the IBAD based coated conductors.

  8. Immobilization of Mn(II) via Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, N.; Jeong, H. Y.; Park, M.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, S.; Choi, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the immobilization of Mn(II) via homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation by air. A series of kinetic experiments were performed with stirred batch reactors equipped with air spargers. The reactions were initiated by adding Mn(II) stock solutions to pH-buffered solutions amended with dissolved Fe(II), Fe oxyhydroxides, or Mn oxides. Under experimental conditions, the homogeneous oxidation of Mn(II) itself was minimal over pH 6.5-8.5. However, when dissolved Fe(II) was present, the immobilization of Mn occurred, with the extent becoming greater at higher pH. By Mn-K edge XAS analysis, the Mn removal at pH 6.5 was due to the oxidation of labile Mn(II) into insoluble Mn(III) solids, which was catalyzed by the homogeneous oxidation of Fe(II). On the other hand, Mn(II) at pH 7.0-8.5 remained largely unoxidized; instead, it was immobilized by forming co-precipitates with Fe(III) oxyhydroxides. Goethite, HFO, Mn2O3, and MnO2 were added to mediate the heterogeneous oxidation of Mn(II). In the presence of goethite and HFO, dissolved Mn was initially quickly decreased, and later gradually decreased. In both batches, the initial removal was due to the surface complexation of Mn(II) with Fe oxyhydroxides. On the other hand, the later removal in goethite-amend batches resulted from the formation of co-precipitates with Fe(III) oxyhydroxides, whereas the later removal in HFO-amended batches was due to the heterogeneous oxidation of Mn(II) into Mn(III) solids. When Mn2O3 and MnO2 were used as heterogeneous catalysts, XAS analysis did not provide mechanistic insight into Mn removal. Nonetheless, Mn2O3 was found to immobilize Mn(II) under oxic conditions. Notably, MnO2 was far more effectively immobilize Mn(II) under both oxic and anoxic conditions, pointing to its superior oxidative capability. Acknowledgement: Financial support was provided by "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003).

  9. Systeme complet d'interferometrie radar: Etude de cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Frederic

    2002-09-01

    La recherche realisee a porte sur la mise au point de plusieurs ameliorations dans la chaine de traitement interferometrique necessaire pour pouvoir appliquer l'interferometrie radar (InROS) a des problemes d'interets majeurs au Quebec. Ainsi, la mesure de la deformation du sol et la creation de modeles numeriques d'altitude (MNA) par InROS en zone de coherences variables ont ete explorees au cours de cette recherche. Les faibles taux de deformation et les petites dimensions spatiales des zones affectees, les rapides variations des conditions climatiques et la presence de vegetation dense sont les principaux facteurs responsables de l'echec de l'InROS pour la mesure des deformations de glissements de terrain au Quebec. L'InROS s'est par contre averee etre un outil puissant pour le suivi des mouvements de glace sur les cours d'eau nordiques pour la securite des populations riveraines et pour la navigation fluviale. Une methode de fusion de MNA InROS de differentes configurations de prises de vue d'images en fonction des caracteristiques locales de pente et de coherence a ete developpee afin d'ameliorer la qualite des MNA InROS en zone de fortes variations de coherence. Finalement, une methode de correction des effets atmospheriques qui affectent les interferogrammes, basee sur l'acquisition simultanee de donnees GPS et de donnees radar, a aussi ete developpee au cours de cette recherche.

  10. Etude paleomagnetique des sediments holocenes de la Fosse du Mackenzie, mer de Beaufort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barris, Elissa

    Les etudes paleomagnetiques a haute resolution sont d'importance en magnetostratigraphie et geomagnetisme, particulierement dans l'Arctique en raison de l'inaccessibilite et des faibles vitesses de sedimentation dans plusieurs secteurs. Deux carottes sedimentaires representant l'Holocene recent ont ete recoltees dans la Fosse du Mackenzie, une region avec des vitesses de sedimentation relativement elevees. Une carotte boite et un Calypso square core ont ete preleves a deux sites (690 et 680). Les proprietes physiques et magnetiques et la granulometrie ont ete mesurees, ainsi que les aimantations remanentes naturelle, anhysteretique, isothermale et isothermale saturee (NRM, ARM, IRM et SIRM). L'hysteresis magnetique indique une forte concentration de magnetite de type pseudo-single domain, un porteur ideal de remanence, alors que les mesures de la susceptibilite magnetique suggerent une concentration uniforme. Les valeurs de deviation angulaire maximale (MAD) et du champ median destructif (MDF) indiquent des donnees de direction d'excellente qualite et une coercivite typique de la magnetite, respectivement. Finalement, dans la carotte 690 et la partie intermediaire de la 680, l'inclinaison vane autour des valeurs d'un dipole axial geocentrique (GAD) pour la latitude des sites, renforcant la fiabilite du signal paleomagnetique. Finalement, des proxies de la paleointensite relative ont ete construits pour les carottes 690 et 680 en normalisant la NRM par l'IRM et l'ARM, respectivement. Vingt-et-une coquilles de pelecypodes reparties dans les deux carottes ont ete recoltees pour construire un modele d'âge au radiocarbone a chaque si te, une tâche necessaire pour la mise en contexte d'un enregistrement paleomagnetique, mais souvent difficile dans l'Arctique. En utilisant ces modeles d'âge, les enregistrements paleomagnetiques ont ete compares avec d'autres provenant du bas-Arctique et des moyennes latitudes, soulignant leur potentiel pour des etudes

  11. Homogenized modeling methodology for 18650 lithium-ion battery module under large deformation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Zhang, Jinjie; Cheng, Pengle

    2017-01-01

    Effective lithium-ion battery module modeling has become a bottleneck for full-size electric vehicle crash safety numerical simulation. Modeling every single cell in detail would be costly. However, computational accuracy could be lost if the module is modeled by using a simple bulk material or rigid body. To solve this critical engineering problem, a general method to establish a computational homogenized model for the cylindrical battery module is proposed. A single battery cell model is developed and validated through radial compression and bending experiments. To analyze the homogenized mechanical properties of the module, a representative unit cell (RUC) is extracted with the periodic boundary condition applied on it. An elastic-plastic constitutive model is established to describe the computational homogenized model for the module. Two typical packing modes, i.e., cubic dense packing and hexagonal packing for the homogenized equivalent battery module (EBM) model, are targeted for validation compression tests, as well as the models with detailed single cell description. Further, the homogenized EBM model is confirmed to agree reasonably well with the detailed battery module (DBM) model for different packing modes with a length scale of up to 15 × 15 cells and 12% deformation where the short circuit takes place. The suggested homogenized model for battery module makes way for battery module and pack safety evaluation for full-size electric vehicle crashworthiness analysis.

  12. Homogenized modeling methodology for 18650 lithium-ion battery module under large deformation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang; Cheng, Pengle

    2017-01-01

    Effective lithium-ion battery module modeling has become a bottleneck for full-size electric vehicle crash safety numerical simulation. Modeling every single cell in detail would be costly. However, computational accuracy could be lost if the module is modeled by using a simple bulk material or rigid body. To solve this critical engineering problem, a general method to establish a computational homogenized model for the cylindrical battery module is proposed. A single battery cell model is developed and validated through radial compression and bending experiments. To analyze the homogenized mechanical properties of the module, a representative unit cell (RUC) is extracted with the periodic boundary condition applied on it. An elastic–plastic constitutive model is established to describe the computational homogenized model for the module. Two typical packing modes, i.e., cubic dense packing and hexagonal packing for the homogenized equivalent battery module (EBM) model, are targeted for validation compression tests, as well as the models with detailed single cell description. Further, the homogenized EBM model is confirmed to agree reasonably well with the detailed battery module (DBM) model for different packing modes with a length scale of up to 15 × 15 cells and 12% deformation where the short circuit takes place. The suggested homogenized model for battery module makes way for battery module and pack safety evaluation for full-size electric vehicle crashworthiness analysis. PMID:28746390

  13. To homogenize, or not to homogenize, that is the question: Quartz-hosted melt inclusion analysis avenues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, C. N.; Roberge, J.; Todorov, T. I.; Hofstra, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Melt inclusions hosted in quartz can provide the only direct information about the pressure, temperature, and melt composition of pre-eruptive rhyolitic magmas, many of which are the precursors to mineralizing aqueous fluids [1]. With ideal, rapidly-quenched pumice samples, analysis of glassy quartz-hosted melt inclusions is relatively straightforward. These data can be directly interpreted to represent snapshots of metal and volatile concentrations during magma crystallization and degassing. However, most ore deposit-related igneous samples are non-ideal; being older, potentially hydrothermally altered, and often crystallized due to slow cooling in subvolcanic regions (e.g., porphyry-type deposits). In this case, analysis of crystalline melt inclusions in quartz is not straightforward and resulting data must be meticulously examined before interpretation. Many melt inclusions may have experienced post-entrapment modifications [1] such as diffusion of elements (e.g., H, Li, Na, Ag, Cu) [2], which may lead to changes in measured oxygen fugacity. Slowly cooled inclusions may crystallize, producing a heterogeneous "micro-rock" that cannot be analyzed by spectroscopic methods or electron microprobe. While crystallized inclusions can be homogenized in a high-temperature furnace, many new problems may arise such as inclusion decrepitation [3], diffusion of elements [2], and incorporation of too little or too much Si from the inclusion rim or host crystal. However, if unwanted homogenization effects are minimized by choosing ideal experimental conditions, then these homogenized inclusions can be analyzed by traditional FTIR and electron microprobe methods. The electron microprobe data from homogenized inclusions can be used as accurate internal standards for laser ablation-ICP-MS data reduction. Alternatively, crystalline inclusions can be directly analyzed for major and trace elements by laser ablation-ICP-MS [4], which considerably reduces sample preparation time, but

  14. Etudes physiques des mélanges eau-cryoprotecteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassoille, R.; Perez, J.

    The aim of the following review is to present the most important studies concerning the physical properties of water-solutes mixtures used in cryobiology. Cryobiology is a branch of biology which deals with the very low temperature behaviour of cells. This technique is developed today in several directions. The creation of banks of cells and perhaps in a short time of small organs, is the purpose of much research in this domain. Before freezing, living cells are generally put in a solution containing one or more solutes. The role of these solutes is to protect the cells against damage due to crystallization of water (cryoprotectors). The mechanisms of cryoprotection are not well known ; nevertheless the vitreous state formation during cooling is often invoked. So, it is possible to avoid crystallization damage such as mechanical strain (due to an increase of volume of about 10 %) and salt effects (due to osmotic pressure). The conditions in which the vitreous state is obtained, maintained during cooling, storage at low temperature and rewarming can be defined by physical studies presented in the following review. Le présent travail est essentiellement une revue bibliographique des principales études physiques qui ont été réalisées avec des solutions de composés habituellement employés en cryobiologie. La cryobiologie est une branche de la biologie qui s'intéresse au comportement des cellules à basse température. Cette discipline est actuellement en plein développement dans des domaines très divers. Son principal but est la création de banques de cellules de plus en plus complexes avec comme perspective la conservation des organes. Les cellules vivantes sont généralement placées avant congélation dans une solution contenant divers composés dont le rôle est de protéger les cellules contre les effets de la cristallisation de l'eau. L'action protectrice de ces cryoprotecteurs est encore mal connue; cependant, la formation d'un état vitreux lors du

  15. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1991-02-12

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  16. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOEpatents

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  17. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    DOE PAGES

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; ...

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated outputmore » voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.« less

  18. Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy; Kurien, Susan

    2016-11-01

    A new spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence is proposed. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Numerical simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.

  19. Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy T.; Kurien, Susan

    2017-06-01

    Here, a proposal for a spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Here, numericalmore » simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.« less

  20. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated output voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.

  1. ELECTROPHORETIC HOMOGENEITY OF PREGNANT MARE SERUM GONADOTROPHIN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Choh Hao; Evans, Herbert M.; Wonder, Donald H.

    1940-01-01

    A highly purified and potent gonadotrophin in pregnant mare serum has been prepared. The preparation has been shown to be electrophoretically homogeneous in the Tiselius apparatus. The mobilities of the substance have been determined over a wide range of hydrogen ion concentrations. The isoelectric point lies at pH 2.60–2.65 and the value of See PDF for Equation is 4.0 x 10–5. Some chemical constituents have been studied. From the tryptophane and tyrosine content the molecular weight of the hormone is estimated to be 30,000. The hormone has been subjected to acetylation by ketene in aqueous solution at room temperature and the result suggests again the essentiality of free amino groups for the biological activity of the hormone. In this respect it is to be contrasted with human chorionic gonadotrophin. PMID:19873189

  2. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Xueli; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Bajdich, Michal; Garcia-Melchor, Max; Han, Lili; Xu, Jixian; Liu, Min; Zheng, Lirong; F. Pelayo Garcia de Arquer; Dinh, Cao Thang; Fan, Fengjia; Yuan, Mingjian; Yassitepe, Emre; Chen, Ning; Regier, Tom; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yuhang; De Luna, Phil; Janmohamed, Alyf; Xin, Huolin L.; Yang, Huagui; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-03-24

    Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition-metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory suggested that non-3d high-valency metals such as tungsten can modulate 3d metal oxides, providing near-optimal adsorption energies for OER intermediates. We developed a room-temperature synthesis to produce gelled oxy-hydroxide materials with an atomically homogeneous metal distribution. These gelled FeCoW oxy-hydroxide exhibits the lowest overpotential (191 mV) reported at 10 mA per square centimeter in alkaline electrolyte. Here, the catalyst shows no evidence of degradation following more than 500 hours of operation. X-ray absorption and computational studies reveal a synergistic interplay between W, Fe and Co in producing a favorable local coordination environment and electronic structure that enhance the energetics for OER.

  3. Nanodosimetric track structure in homogeneous extended beams.

    PubMed

    Conte, V; Moro, D; Colautti, P; Grosswendt, B

    2015-09-01

    Physical aspects of particle track structure are important in determining the induction of clustered damage in relevant subcellular structures like the DNA and higher-order genomic structures. The direct measurement of track-structure properties of ionising radiation is feasible today by counting the number of ionisations produced inside a small gas volume. In particular, the so-called track-nanodosimeter, installed at the TANDEM-ALPI accelerator complex of LNL, measures ionisation cluster-size distributions in a simulated subcellular structure of dimensions 20 nm, corresponding approximately to the diameter of the chromatin fibre. The target volume is irradiated by pencil beams of primary particles passing at specified impact parameter. To directly relate these measured track-structure data to radiobiological measurements performed in broad homogeneous particle beams, these data can be integrated over the impact parameter. This procedure was successfully applied to 240 MeV carbon ions and compared with Monte Carlo simulations for extended fields.

  4. An inhomogeneous model universe behaving homogeneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Sh.; Kourkchi, E.; Mansouri, R.; Akrami, Y.

    2008-05-01

    We present a new model universe based on the junction of FRW to flat Lemaitre Tolman Bondi (LTB) solutions of Einstein equations along our past light cone, bringing structures within the FRW models. The model is assumed globally to be homogeneous, i.e. the cosmological principle is valid. Local inhomogeneities within the past light cone are modeled as a flat LTB, whereas those outside the light cone are assumed to be smoothed out and represented by a FRW model. The model is singularity free, always FRW far from the observer along the past light cone, gives way to a different luminosity distance relation as for the CDM/FRW models, a negative deceleration parameter near the observer, and correct linear and non-linear density contrast. As a whole, the model behaves like a FRW model on the past light cone with a special behavior of the scale factor, Hubble and deceleration parameter, mimicking dark energy.

  5. A homogeneous survey of red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Amparo; Dorda, Ricardo; González-Fernández, Carlos; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive homogeneous spectroscopic and photometric study of a sample of a few hundred red supergiants in the Milky Way, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud. Our results show that global trends can be derived for many spectroscopic features independently of metallicity. The intensity of atomic Ti lines is directly correlated to spectral type, suggesting a real temperature change in the photospheric temperature. We find that the shape of the spectral energy distribution stops being directly related to surface temperature around mid-K spectral types, and becomes strongly correlated to mass loss. The distribution of spectral types is markedly different for the subset of red supergiants above a given luminosity cut, giving very strong hints of a separate evolutionary phase.

  6. Instability of Homogeneous State in Magnetic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkkonen, J.; Kuivalainen, P.; Stubb, T.

    1982-06-01

    The instability of the homogeneous state in a ferromagnetic semiconductor is studied. The electronic part of the free energy is determined using Thomas-Fermi statistical model and the magnetic part is calculated by the molecular field approximation including the RKKY-interaction. The inhomogeneity consists of a small magnetically polarized region with a high electron density surrounded by a less polarized positively charged depletion layer. The inhomogeneous state is found to be stable in a relatively broad temperature range around the Curie temperature at low and intermediate doping densities. The stability range shrinks in an applied magnetic field. At fields exceeding about 3 T or at doping densities larger than 1021 cm-3 the inhomogeneous state is no more stable.

  7. Leith diffusion model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Robert; Clark, Timothy T.; Kurien, Susan

    2016-07-19

    Here, a proposal for a spectral closure model for homogeneous anisotropic turbulence. The systematic development begins by closing the third-order correlation describing nonlinear interactions by an anisotropic generalization of the Leith diffusion model for isotropic turbulence. The correlation tensor is then decomposed into a tensorially isotropic part, or directional anisotropy, and a trace-free remainder, or polarization anisotropy. The directional and polarization components are then decomposed using irreducible representations of the SO(3) symmetry group. Under the ansatz that the decomposition is truncated at quadratic order, evolution equations are derived for the directional and polarization pieces of the correlation tensor. Here, numerical simulation of the model equations for a freely decaying anisotropic flow illustrate the non-trivial effects of spectral dependencies on the different return-to-isotropy rates of the directional and polarization contributions.

  8. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Xueli; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Bajdich, Michal; Garcia-Melchor, Max; Han, Lili; Xu, Jixian; Liu, Min; Zheng, Lirong; F. Pelayo Garcia de Arquer; Dinh, Cao Thang; Fan, Fengjia; Yuan, Mingjian; Yassitepe, Emre; Chen, Ning; Regier, Tom; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yuhang; De Luna, Phil; Janmohamed, Alyf; Xin, Huolin L.; Yang, Huagui; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Sargent, Edward H.

    2016-03-24

    Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition-metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory suggested that non-3d high-valency metals such as tungsten can modulate 3d metal oxides, providing near-optimal adsorption energies for OER intermediates. We developed a room-temperature synthesis to produce gelled oxy-hydroxide materials with an atomically homogeneous metal distribution. These gelled FeCoW oxy-hydroxide exhibits the lowest overpotential (191 mV) reported at 10 mA per square centimeter in alkaline electrolyte. Here, the catalyst shows no evidence of degradation following more than 500 hours of operation. X-ray absorption and computational studies reveal a synergistic interplay between W, Fe and Co in producing a favorable local coordination environment and electronic structure that enhance the energetics for OER.

  9. Homogenization analysis of complementary waveguide metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landy, Nathan; Hunt, John; Smith, David R.

    2013-11-01

    We analyze the properties of complementary metamaterials as effective inclusions patterned into the conducting walls of metal waveguide structures. We show that guided wave metamaterials can be homogenized using the same retrieval techniques used for volumetric metamaterials, leading to a description in which a given complementary element is conceptually replaced by a block of material within the waveguide whose effective permittivity and permeability result in equivalent scattering characteristics. The use of effective constitutive parameters for waveguide materials provides an alternative point-of-view for the design of waveguide and microstrip based components, including planar lenses and filters, as well as devices with derived from a bulk material response. In addition to imparting effective constitutive properties to the waveguide, complementary metamaterials also couple energy from waveguide modes into radiation. Thus, complementary waveguide metamaterials can be used to modify and optimize a variety of antenna structures.

  10. The homogeneity conjecture for supergravity backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José Miguel

    2009-06-01

    These notes record three lectures given at the workshop "Higher symmetries in Physics", held at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in November 2008. In them we explain how to construct a Lie (super)algebra associated to a spin manifold, perhaps with extra geometric data, and a notion of privileged spinors. The typical examples are supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds; although there are more classical instances of this construction. We focus on two results: the geometric constructions of compact real forms of the simple Lie algebras of type B4, F4 and E8 from S7, S8 and S15, respectively; and the construction of the Killing superalgebra of eleven-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. As an application of this latter construction we show that supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds with enough supersymmetry are necessarily locally homogeneous.

  11. Homogenization of global radiosonde humidity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschek, Michael; Haimberger, Leopold

    2016-04-01

    The global radiosonde network is an important source of upper-air measurements and is strongly connected to reanalysis efforts of the 20th century. However, measurements are strongly affected by changes in the observing system and require a homogenization before they can be considered useful in climate studies. In particular humidity measurements are known to show spurious trends and biases induced by many sources, e.g. reporting practices or freezing of the sensor. We propose to detect and correct these biases in an automated way, as has been done with temperature and winds. We detect breakpoints in dew point depression (DPD) time series by employing a standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT) on DPD-departures from ERA-Interim. In a next step, we calculate quantile departures between the latter and the earlier part near the breakpoints of the time series, going back in time. These departures adjust the earlier distribution of DPD to the latter distribution, called quantile matching, thus removing for example a non climatic shift. We employ this approach to the existing radiosonde network. In a first step to verify our approach we compare our results with ERA-Interim data and brightness temperatures of humidity-sensitive channels of microwave measuring radiometers (SSMIS) onboard DMSP F16. The results show that some of the biases can be detected and corrected in an automated way, however large biases that impact the distribution of DPD values originating from known reporting practices (e.g. 30 DPD on US stations) remain. These biases can be removed but not corrected. The comparison of brightness temperatures from satellite and radiosondes proofs to be difficult as large differences result from for example representative errors.

  12. Homogeneous ice nucleation from supercooled water.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianshu; Donadio, Davide; Russo, Giovanna; Galli, Giulia

    2011-11-28

    Homogeneous ice nucleation from supercooled water was studied in the temperature range of 220-240 K through combining the forward flux sampling method (Allen et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2006, 124, 024102) with molecular dynamics simulations (FFS/MD), based on a recently developed coarse-grained water model (mW) (Molinero et al., J. Phys. Chem. B, 2009, 113, 4008). The calculated ice nucleation rates display a strong temperature dependence, ranging from 2.148 ± 0.635 × 10(25) m(-3) s(-1) at 220 K to 1.672 ± 0.970 × 10(-7) m(-3) s(-1) at 240 K. These rates can be fitted according to the classical nucleation theory, yielding an estimate of the effective ice-water interface energy γ(ls) of 31.01 ± 0.21 mJ m(-2) for the mW water model. Compared to experiments, our calculation underestimates the homogeneous ice nucleation rate by a few orders of magnitude. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed. The nucleating ice embryo contains both cubic ice Ic and hexagonal ice Ih, with the fraction of each structure being roughly 50% when the critical size is reached. In particular, a novel defect structure containing nearly five-fold twin boundaries is identified in the ice clusters formed during nucleation. The way such defect structure is formed is found to be different from mechanisms proposed for the formation of the same defect in metallic nanoparticles and thin film. The quasi five-fold twin boundary structure found here is expected to occur in the crystallization of a wide range of materials with the diamond cubic structure, including ice.

  13. A Monte-Carlo step-by-step simulation code of the non-homogeneous chemistry of the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions--Part II: calculation of radiolytic yields under different conditions of LET, pH, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Plante, Ianik

    2011-08-01

    The importance of the radiolysis of water in the initial events following irradiation of biological systems has motivated considerable theoretical and experimental work in the field of radiation chemistry of water and aqueous systems. These studies include Monte-Carlo simulations of the radiation track structure and of the non-homogeneous chemical stage, which have been successfully used to calculate the yields of radiolytic species (H(·), (·)OH, H(2), H(2)O(2), e (aq) (-) , …). Most techniques used for the simulation of the non-homogeneous chemical stage such as the independent reaction time (IRT) technique and diffusion kinetics methods do not calculate the time evolution of the positions of the radiolytic species. This is a major limitation to their extension to the simulation of the irradiation of radiobiological systems. Step-by-step (SBS) simulation programs provide such information, but they are very demanding in term of computer power and storage capacity. Recent improvements in computer performance now allow the regular use of the SBS method in radiation chemistry simulations. In the first of a series of two papers, the SBS method has been reviewed in details and the implementation of a SBS code has been discussed. In this second paper, the results of several studies are presented: (1) the time evolution of the radiolytic yields from the formation of the radiation track to 10(-6) s; (2) the effect of pH on yields (pH ~ 0.4-7.0); (3) the effect of proton energy (and LET) on yields (300 MeV-0.1 MeV), and iv) the effect of the ion type ((1)H(+), (4)He(2+), (12)C(6+)) on yields. Nonbiological applications, i.e., the study of the temperature on the yields (about 25-300°C) and the simulation of the time evolution of G(Fe(3+)) in the Fricke dosimeter are also discussed.

  14. Analogues of the Helmholtz resonator in homogenization theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gadyl'shin, R R

    2002-12-31

    Perturbed two-dimensional boundary-value problems are considered for Helmholtz's equation with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions on a family of arcs obtained from the boundary of a bounded domain {omega} by cutting out a large number of small holes distributed almost periodically and close to one another. Relations between the sizes of the openings and of the boundary ensuring that the solution of the perturbed problem converges to the solutions of the Dirichlet or the Neumann problem in {omega} and outside {omega}-bar are established. In the case when {omega} is a disc, the holes are periodically distributed and the homogenized problems are Dirichlet problems, asymptotic formulae with respect to a small parameter {epsilon} (characterizing the sizes of the openings and the distance between them) are constructed for the poles with small imaginary parts of the analytic continuation of the solution of the perturbed problem and their resonance behaviour is demonstrated.

  15. Stress waves in transversely isotropic media: The homogeneous problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marques, E. R. C.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The homogeneous problem of stress wave propagation in unbounded transversely isotropic media is analyzed. By adopting plane wave solutions, the conditions for the existence of the solution are established in terms of phase velocities and directions of particle displacements. Dispersion relations and group velocities are derived from the phase velocity expressions. The deviation angles (e.g., angles between the normals to the adopted plane waves and the actual directions of their propagation) are numerically determined for a specific fiber-glass epoxy composite. A graphical method is introduced for the construction of the wave surfaces using magnitudes of phase velocities and deviation angles. The results for the case of isotropic media are shown to be contained in the solutions for the transversely isotropic media.

  16. Willis elastodynamic homogenization theory revisited for periodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, H.; He, Q.-C.; Auffray, N.

    2015-04-01

    The theory of elastodynamic homogenization initiated by J.R. Willis is revisited for periodically inhomogeneous media through a careful scrutiny of the main aspects of that theory in the 3D continuum context and by applying it to the thorough treatment of a simple 1D discrete periodic system. The Bloch theorem appears to be central to appropriately defining and interpreting effective fields. Based on some physical arguments, three necessary conditions are derived for the transition from the microscopic description to the macroscopic description of periodic media. The parameters involved in the Willis effective constitutive relation are expressed in terms of two localization tensors and specified with the help of the corresponding Green function in the spirit of micromechanics. These results are illustrated and discussed for the 1D discrete periodic system considered. In particular, inspired by Brillouin's study, the dependency of the effective constitutive parameters on the frequency is physically interpreted in terms of oscillation modes of the underlying microstructure.

  17. A spatially homogeneous and isotropic Einstein-Dirac cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finster, Felix; Hainzl, Christian

    2011-04-01

    We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model where Dirac spinors are coupled to classical gravity. For the Dirac spinors we choose a Hartree-Fock ansatz where all one-particle wave functions are coherent and have the same momentum. If the scale function is large, the universe behaves like the classical Friedmann dust solution. If however the scale function is small, quantum effects lead to oscillations of the energy-momentum tensor. It is shown numerically and proven analytically that these quantum oscillations can prevent the formation of a big bang or big crunch singularity. The energy conditions are analyzed. We prove the existence of time-periodic solutions which go through an infinite number of expansion and contraction cycles.

  18. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids with a homogeneous cobalt catalyst.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Ties J; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Elsevier, Cornelis J; de Bruin, Bas

    2015-10-16

    The reduction of esters and carboxylic acids to alcohols is a highly relevant conversion for the pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industries and for biomass conversion. It is commonly performed using stoichiometric reagents, and the catalytic hydrogenation of the acids previously required precious metals. Here we report the homogeneously catalyzed hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to alcohols using earth-abundant cobalt. This system, which pairs Co(BF4)2·6H2O with a tridentate phosphine ligand, can reduce a wide range of esters and carboxylic acids under relatively mild conditions (100°C, 80 bar H2) and reaches turnover numbers of up to 8000. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Homogenization of a Cauchy continuum towards a micromorphic continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hütter, Geralf

    2017-02-01

    The micromorphic theory of Eringen and Mindlin, including special cases like strain gradient theory or Cosserat theory, is widely used to model size effects and localization phenomena. The heuristic construction of such theories based on thermodynamic considerations is well-established. However, the identification of corresponding constitutive laws and of the large number of respective constitutive parameters limits the practical application of such theories. In the present contribution, a closed procedure for the homogenization of a Cauchy continuum at the microscale towards a fully micromorphic continuum is derived including explicit definitions of all involved generalized macroscopic stress and deformation measures. The boundary value problem to be solved on the microscale is formulated either for using static or kinematic boundary conditions. The procedure is demonstrated with an example.

  20. Estimation of homogeneous nucleation flux via a kinetic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, C. F.; Bauer, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed kinetic model for condensation under homogeneous conditions, and the onset of unidirectional cluster growth in supersaturated gases, does not suffer from the conceptual flaws that characterize classical nucleation theory. When a full set of simultaneous rate equation is solved, a characteristic time emerges, for each cluster size, at which the production rate, and its rate of conversion to the next size (n + 1) are equal. Procedures for estimating the essential parameters are proposed; condensation fluxes J(kin) exp ss are evaluated. Since there are practical limits to the cluster size that can be incorporated in the set of simultaneous first-order differential equations, a code was developed for computing an approximate J(th) exp ss based on estimates of a 'constrained equilibrium' distribution, and identification of its minimum.

  1. Structure of ferrofluid nanofilms in homogeneous magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Jordanovic, Jelena; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2009-02-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations results for model ferrofluid films subject to an external, homogeneous magnetic field directed parallel or perpendicular to the film surfaces. The interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles are modeled via the Stockmayer potential. In a previous study [J. Jordanovic and S. H. L. Klapp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 038302 (2008)] we have shown that an external field can control the number and internal structure of the layers characterizing the fluid films, in qualitative agreement with experiments. Here we explore the dependence of the layering effects on thermodynamic conditions, and we analyze the results from an energetic (microscopic and macroscopic) perspective. As a special case we investigate a monolayer to bilayer transition induced via a perpendicular field.

  2. Structure of ferrofluid nanofilms in homogeneous magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanovic, Jelena; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2009-02-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations results for model ferrofluid films subject to an external, homogeneous magnetic field directed parallel or perpendicular to the film surfaces. The interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles are modeled via the Stockmayer potential. In a previous study [J. Jordanovic and S. H. L. Klapp, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 038302 (2008)] we have shown that an external field can control the number and internal structure of the layers characterizing the fluid films, in qualitative agreement with experiments. Here we explore the dependence of the layering effects on thermodynamic conditions, and we analyze the results from an energetic (microscopic and macroscopic) perspective. As a special case we investigate a monolayer to bilayer transition induced via a perpendicular field.

  3. Effects of sample homogenization on solid phase sediment toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W.; Newman, J.W.; Tjeerdema, R.S.; Fairey, W.R.; Stephenson, M.D.; Puckett, H.M.; Taberski, K.M.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment toxicity is typically assessed using homogenized surficial sediment samples. It has been recognized that homogenization alters sediment integrity and may result in changes in chemical bioavailability through oxidation-reduction or other chemical processes. In this study, intact (unhomogenized) sediment cores were taken from a Van Veen grab sampler and tested concurrently with sediment homogenate from the same sample in order to investigate the effect of homogenization on toxicity. Two different solid-phase toxicity test protocols were used for these comparisons. Results of amphipod exposures to samples from San Francisco Bay indicated minimal difference between intact and homogenized samples. Mean amphipod survival in intact cores relative to homogenates was similar at two contaminated sites. Mean survival was 34 and 33% in intact and homogenized samples, respectively, at Castro Cove. Mean survival was 41% and 57%, respectively, in intact and homogenized samples from Islais Creek. Studies using the sea urchin development protocol, modified for testing at the sediment/water interface, indicated considerably more toxicity in intact samples relative to homogenized samples from San Diego Bay. Measures of metal flux into the overlying water demonstrated greater flux of metals from the intact samples. Zinc flux was five times greater, and copper flux was twice as great in some intact samples relative to homogenates. Future experiments will compare flux of metals and organic compounds in intact and homogenized sediments to further evaluate the efficacy of using intact cores for solid phase toxicity assessment.

  4. Long homozygous chromosomal segments in reference families from the centre d'Etude du polymorphisme humain.

    PubMed

    Broman, K W; Weber, J L

    1999-12-01

    Using genotypes from nearly 8,000 short tandem-repeat polymorphisms typed in eight of the reference families from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH), we identified numerous long chromosomal segments of marker homozygosity in many CEPH individuals. These segments are likely to represent autozygosity, the result of the mating of related individuals. Confidence that the complete segment is homozygous is gained only with markers of high density. The longest segment in the eight families spanned 77 cM and included 118 homozygous markers. All individuals in family 884 showed at least one segment of homozygosity: the father and mother were homozygous in 8 and 10 segments with an average length of 13 and 16 cM, respectively, and covering a total of 105 and 160 cM, respectively. The progeny in family 884 were homozygous over 5-16 segments with average length 11 cM. The progeny in family 102 were homozygous over 4-12 segments with average length 19 cM. Of the 100 individuals in the other six families, 1 had especially long homozygous segments, and 19 had short but significant homozygous segments. Our results indicate that long homozygous segments are common in humans and that these segments could have a substantial impact on gene mapping and health.

  5. Gastrointestinal lymphomas: the French experience of the Groupe D'etude des Lymphomes Digestifs (GELD).

    PubMed

    Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, A

    2000-01-01

    Since 1983, the French Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes Digestifs (GELD), under the aegis of the Fondation Française de Cancérologie Digestive, has aimed to identify the different prognostic groups of the primary digestive-tract lymphomas (PDTL) and their optimal treatment. Successive multicenter studies were conducted and 91 PDTL were evaluated. A marked improvement in their prognosis was obtained by a strategy including precise histologic typing and clinical staging followed by a therapeutic approach combining initial surgical resection, whenever possible or reasonable, followed by chemotherapy adapted to the grade of malignancy and resectability of the lymphoma. The multivariate analysis indicated that the factors for good prognosis were age (< 65 yrs), gastric localisation, stage IE and radical or even incomplete surgery. However, Helicobacter pylori eradication should be the first treatment in stage IE low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) tumors. The long-term results of such medical treatment are evaluated together with the management and the place of surgery in these localised tumors. However, owing to the limited number of patients, a large international co-operative trial is needed to confirm the findings. Thirty-one cases of multiple lymphomatous polyposis were also collected and confirmed to be a distinct entity among PDTL and the gastrointestinal counterpart of the mantle-cell-zone lymphomas. High-dose radio-chemotherapy supported by auto-transplantation improved their prognosis.

  6. Etude vibroacoustique d'un systeme coque-plancher-cavite avec application a un fuselage simplifie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missaoui, Jemai

    L'objectif de ce travail est de developper des modeles semi-analytiques pour etudier le comportement structural, acoustique et vibro-acoustique d'un systeme coque-plancher-cavite. La connection entre la coque et le plancher est assuree en utilisant le concept de rigidite artificielle. Ce concept de modelisation flexible facilite le choix des fonctions de decomposition du mouvement de chaque sous-structure. Les resultats issus de cette etude vont permettre la comprehension des phenomenes physiques de base rencontres dans une structure d'avion. Une approche integro-modale est developpee pour calculer les caracteristiques modales acoustiques. Elle utilise une discretisation de la cavite irreguliere en sous-cavites acoustiques dont les bases de developpement sont connues a priori. Cette approche, a caractere physique, presente l'avantage d'etre efficace et precise. La validite de celle-ci a ete demontree en utilisant des resultats disponibles dans la litterature. Un modele vibro-acoustique est developpe dans un but d'analyser et de comprendre les effets structuraux et acoustiques du plancher dans la configuration. La validite des resultats, en termes de resonance et de fonction de transfert, est verifiee a l'aide des mesures experimentales realisees au laboratoire.

  7. Using pH of homogenated needles for assessing the influence of sulfur dioxide on pine

    SciTech Connect

    Vasfilov, S.P.

    1995-09-01

    The total increase and change in the homogenate pH ratio of the apical and basal parts of pine needles under conditions of permanent air pollution by sulfur dioxide are shown. It is proposed to use this index for diagnosing pine state. 16 refs., 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Stability of vitamin C in frozen raw fruit and vegetable homogenates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Retention of vitamin C in homogenized raw fruits and vegetables stored under laboratory conditions prior to analysis was investigated. Raw collard greens, clementines, and potatoes were chosen, to be representative of food matrices to be sampled in USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program...

  9. Two scale homogenization of a row of locally resonant inclusions - the case of anti-plane shear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Kim; Maurel, Agnès; Marigo, Jean-Jacques

    2017-09-01

    We present a homogenization model for a single row of locally resonant inclusions. The resonances, of the Mie type, result from a high contrast in the shear modulus between the inclusions and the elastic matrix. The presented homogenization model is based on a matched asymptotic expansion technique; it slightly differs from the classical homogenization which applies for thick arrays with many rows of inclusions (and thick means large compared to the wavelength in the matrix). Instead of the effective bulk parameters found in the classical homogenization, we end up with interface parameters entering in jump conditions for the displacement and for the normal stress; among these parameters, one is frequency dependent and encapsulates the resonant behavior of the inclusions. Our homogenized model is validated by comparison with results of full wave calculations. It is shown to be efficient in the low frequency domain and accurately describes the effects of the losses in the soft inclusions.

  10. [Chemiluminescence spectroscopic analysis of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion processes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-feng; Yao, Ming-fa; Jin, Chao; Zhang, Peng; Li, Zhe-ming; Zheng, Zun-qing

    2010-10-01

    To study the combustion reaction kinetics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) under different port injection strategies and intake temperature conditions, the tests were carried out on a modified single-cylinder optical engine using chemiluminescence spectroscopic analysis. The experimental conditions are keeping the fuel mass constant; fueling the n-heptane; controlling speed at 600 r x min(-1) and inlet pressure at 0.1 MPa; controlling inlet temperature at 95 degrees C and 125 degrees C, respectively. The results of chemiluminescence spectrum show that the chemiluminescence is quite faint during low temperature heat release (LTHR), and these bands spectrum originates from formaldehyde (CH2O) chemiluminescence. During the phase of later LTHR-negative temperature coefficient (NTC)-early high temperature heat release (HTHR), these bands spectrum also originates from formaldehyde (CH2O) chemiluminescence. The CO--O* continuum is strong during HTHR, and radicals such as OH, HCO, CH and CH2O appear superimposed on this CO--O* continuum. After the HTHR, the chemiluminescence intensity is quite faint. In comparison to the start of injection (SOI) of -30 degrees ATDC, the chemiluminescence intensity is higher under the SOI = -300 degrees ATDC condition due to the more intense emissions of CO--O* continuum. And more radicals of HCO and OH are formed, which also indicates a more intense combustion reaction. Similarly, more intense CO--O* continuum and more radicals of HCO and OH are emitted under higher intake temperature case.

  11. On the decay of homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrbek, L.; Stalp, Steven R.

    2000-08-01

    Decaying homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is investigated using a phenomenological model based on the three-dimensional turbulent energy spectra. We generalize the approach first used by Comte-Bellot and Corrsin [J. Fluid Mech. 25, 657 (1966)] and revised by Saffman [J. Fluid Mech. 27, 581 (1967); Phys. Fluids 10, 1349 (1967)]. At small wave numbers we assume the spectral energy is proportional to the wave number to an arbitrary power. The specific case of power 2, which follows from the Saffman invariant, is discussed in detail and is later shown to best describe experimental data. For the spectral energy density in the inertial range we apply both the Kolmogorov -5/3 law, E(k)=Cɛ2/3k-5/3, and the refined Kolmogorov law by taking into account intermittency. We show that intermittency affects the energy decay mainly by shifting the position of the virtual origin rather than altering the power law of the energy decay. Additionally, the spectrum is naturally truncated due to the size of the wind tunnel test section, as eddies larger than the physical size of the system cannot exist. We discuss effects associated with the energy-containing length scale saturating at the size of the test section and predict a change in the power law decay of both energy and vorticity. To incorporate viscous corrections to the model, we truncate the spectrum at an effective Kolmogorov wave number kη=γ(ɛ/v3)1/4, where γ is a dimensionless parameter of order unity. We show that as the turbulence decays, viscous corrections gradually become more important and a simple power law can no longer describe the decay. We discuss the final period of decay within the framework of our model, and show that care must be taken to distinguish between the final period of decay and the change of the character of decay due to the saturation of the energy containing length scale. The model is applied to a number of experiments on decaying turbulence. These include the downstream decay of turbulence in

  12. Numerical Computation of Homogeneous Slope Stability

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shuangshuang; Li, Kemin; Ding, Xiaohua; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    To simplify the computational process of homogeneous slope stability, improve computational accuracy, and find multiple potential slip surfaces of a complex geometric slope, this study utilized the limit equilibrium method to derive expression equations of overall and partial factors of safety. This study transformed the solution of the minimum factor of safety (FOS) to solving of a constrained nonlinear programming problem and applied an exhaustive method (EM) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) to this problem. In simple slope examples, the computational results using an EM and PSO were close to those obtained using other methods. Compared to the EM, the PSO had a small computation error and a significantly shorter computation time. As a result, the PSO could precisely calculate the slope FOS with high efficiency. The example of the multistage slope analysis indicated that this slope had two potential slip surfaces. The factors of safety were 1.1182 and 1.1560, respectively. The differences between these and the minimum FOS (1.0759) were small, but the positions of the slip surfaces were completely different than the critical slip surface (CSS). PMID:25784927

  13. Magnetic field homogeneity for neutron EDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Melissa

    2016-09-01

    The neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) is an observable which, if non-zero, would violate time-reversal symmetry, and thereby charge-parity symmetry of nature. New sources of CP violation beyond those found in the standard model of particle physics are already tightly constrained by nEDM measurements. Our future nEDM experiment seeks to improve the precision on the nEDM by a factor of 30, using a new ultracold neutron (UCN) source that is being constructed at TRIUMF. Systematic errors in the nEDM experiment are driven by magnetic field inhomogeneity and instability. The goal field inhomogeneity averaged over the experimental measurement cell (order of 1 m) is 1 nT/m, at a total magnetic field of 1 microTesla. This equates to roughly 10-3 homogeneity. A particularly challenging aspect of the design problem is that nearby magnetic materials will also affect the magnetic inhomogeneity, and this must be taken into account in completing the design. This poster will present the design methodology and status of the main coil for the experiment where we use FEA software (COMSOL) to simulate and analyze the magnetic field. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  14. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Xueli; Voznyy, Oleksandr; ...

    2016-03-24

    Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition-metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory suggested that non-3d high-valency metals such as tungsten can modulate 3d metal oxides, providing near-optimal adsorption energies for OER intermediates. We developed a room-temperature synthesis to produce gelled oxy-hydroxide materials with an atomically homogeneous metal distribution. These gelled FeCoW oxy-hydroxide exhibits the lowest overpotential (191 mV) reported at 10 mA per square centimeter in alkaline electrolyte. Here, the catalyst shows no evidence of degradation following more than 500 hours of operation. X-ray absorption and computationalmore » studies reveal a synergistic interplay between W, Fe and Co in producing a favorable local coordination environment and electronic structure that enhance the energetics for OER.« less

  15. Simulation and modeling of homogeneous, compressed turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.T.; Ferziger, J.H.; Chapman, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    Low Reynolds number homogeneous turbulence undergoing low Mach number isotropic and one-dimensional compression was simulated by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical simulations were performed on a CYBER 205 computer using a 64 x 64 x 64 mesh. A spectral method was used for spatial differencing and the second-order Runge-Kutta method for time advancement. A variety of statistical information was extracted from the computed flow fields. These include three-dimensional energy and dissipation spectra, two-point velocity correlations, one-dimensional energy spectra, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, integral length scales, Taylor microscales, and Kolmogorov length scale. Results from the simulated flow fields were used to test one-point closure, two-equation models. A new one-point-closure, three-equation turbulence model which accounts for the effect of compression is proposed. The new model accurately calculates four types of flows (isotropic decay, isotropic compression, one-dimensional compression, and axisymmetric expansion flows) for a wide range of strain rates.

  16. Simulation and modeling of homogeneous, compressed turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. T.; Ferziger, J. H.; Chapman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Low Reynolds number homogeneous turbulence undergoing low Mach number isotropic and one-dimensional compression was simulated by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical simulations were performed on a CYBER 205 computer using a 64 x 64 x 64 mesh. A spectral method was used for spatial differencing and the second-order Runge-Kutta method for time advancement. A variety of statistical information was extracted from the computed flow fields. These include three-dimensional energy and dissipation spectra, two-point velocity correlations, one-dimensional energy spectra, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, integral length scales, Taylor microscales, and Kolmogorov length scale. Results from the simulated flow fields were used to test one-point closure, two-equation models. A new one-point-closure, three-equation turbulence model which accounts for the effect of compression is proposed. The new model accurately calculates four types of flows (isotropic decay, isotropic compression, one-dimensional compression, and axisymmetric expansion flows) for a wide range of strain rates.

  17. Homogenizing atomic dynamics by fractional differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shaoqiang; Ying, Yuping

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose two ways to construct fractional differential equations (FDE) for approximating atomic chain dynamics. Taking harmonic chain as an example, we add a power function of fractional order to Taylor expansion of the dispersion relation, and determine the parameters by matching two selected wave numbers. This approximate function leads to an FDE after considering both directions for wave propagation. As an alternative, we consider the symbol of the force term, and approximate it by a similar function. It also induces an FDE. Both approaches produce excellent agreement with the harmonic chain dynamics. The accuracy may be improved by optimizing the selected wave numbers, or starting with higher order Taylor expansions. When resolved in the lattice constant, the resulting FDE's faithfully reproduce the lattice dynamics. When resolved in a coarse grid instead, they systematically generate homogenized algorithms. Numerical tests are performed to verify the proposed approaches. Moreover, FDE's are also constructed for diatomic chain and anharmonic lattice, to illustrate the generality of the proposed approaches.

  18. Convective mixing in homogeneous porous media flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Jia-Hau; Chen, Peilong; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the flow processes in the technology of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in saline formations, we modeled a homogeneous porous media flow in a Hele-Shaw cell to investigate density-driven convection due to dissolution. We used an analogy of the fluid system to mimic the diffusion and subsequent convection when CO2 dissolves in brine, which generates a heavier solution. By varying the permeability, we examined the onset of convection, the falling dynamics, the wavelengths of fingers, and the rate of dissolution, for the Rayleigh number Ra (a dimensionless forcing term which is the ratio of buoyancy to diffusivity) in the range of 2.0 ×104≤Ra≤8.26 ×105 . Our results reveal that the effect of permeability influences significantly the initial convective speed, as well as the later coarsening dynamics of the heavier fingering plumes. However, the total dissolved mass, characterized by a nondimensional Nusselt number Nu, has an insignificant dependence on Ra. This implies that the total dissolution rate of CO2 is nearly constant in high Ra geological porous structures.

  19. Dynamic contact angle cycling homogenizes heterogeneous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Belibel, R; Barbaud, C; Mora, L

    2016-12-01

    In order to reduce restenosis, the necessity to develop the appropriate coating material of metallic stent is a challenge for biomedicine and scientific research over the past decade. Therefore, biodegradable copolymers of poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) were prepared in order to develop a new coating exhibiting different custom groups in its side chain and being able to carry a drug. This material will be in direct contact with cells and blood. It consists of carboxylic acid and hexylic groups used for hydrophilic and hydrophobic character, respectively. The study of this material wettability and dynamic surface properties is of importance due to the influence of the chemistry and the potential motility of these chemical groups on cell adhesion and polymer kinetic hydrolysis. Cassie theory was used for the theoretical correction of contact angles of these chemical heterogeneous surfaces coatings. Dynamic Surface Analysis was used as practical homogenizer of chemical heterogeneous surfaces by cycling during many cycles in water. In this work, we confirmed that, unlike receding contact angle, advancing contact angle is influenced by the difference of only 10% of acidic groups (%A) in side-chain of polymers. It linearly decreases with increasing acidity percentage. Hysteresis (H) is also a sensitive parameter which is discussed in this paper. Finally, we conclude that cycling provides real information, thus avoiding theoretical Cassie correction. H(10)is the most sensible parameter to %A.

  20. Ultrasensitive magnetic biosensor for homogeneous immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Chemla, Y. R.; Grossman, H. L.; Poon, Y.; McDermott, R.; Stevens, R.; Alper, M. D.; Clarke, J.

    2000-01-01

    A technique is described for specific, sensitive, quantitative, and rapid detection of biological targets by using superparamagnetic nanoparticles and a “microscope” based on a high-transition temperature dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). In this technique, a mylar film to which the targets have been bound is placed on the microscope. The film, at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, is typically 40 μm from the SQUID, which is at 77 K in a vacuum. A suspension of magnetic nanoparticles carrying antibodies directed against the target is added to the mixture in the well, and 1-s pulses of magnetic field are applied parallel to the SQUID. In the presence of this aligning field the nanoparticles develop a net magnetization, which relaxes when the field is turned off. Unbound nanoparticles relax rapidly by Brownian rotation and contribute no measurable signal. Nanoparticles that are bound to the target on the film are immobilized and undergo Néel relaxation, producing a slowly decaying magnetic flux, which is detected by the SQUID. The ability to distinguish between bound and unbound labels allows one to run homogeneous assays, which do not require separation and removal of unbound magnetic particles. The technique has been demonstrated with a model system of liposomes carrying the FLAG epitope. The SQUID microscope requires no more than (5 ± 2) × 104 magnetic nanoparticles to register a reproducible signal. PMID:11121032

  1. Ultrasensitive magnetic biosensor for homogeneous immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Chemla, Y R; Grossman, H L; Poon, Y; McDermott, R; Stevens, R; Alper, M D; Clarke, J

    2000-12-19

    A technique is described for specific, sensitive, quantitative, and rapid detection of biological targets by using superparamagnetic nanoparticles and a "microscope" based on a high-transition temperature dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). In this technique, a mylar film to which the targets have been bound is placed on the microscope. The film, at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, is typically 40 micrometer from the SQUID, which is at 77 K in a vacuum. A suspension of magnetic nanoparticles carrying antibodies directed against the target is added to the mixture in the well, and 1-s pulses of magnetic field are applied parallel to the SQUID. In the presence of this aligning field the nanoparticles develop a net magnetization, which relaxes when the field is turned off. Unbound nanoparticles relax rapidly by Brownian rotation and contribute no measurable signal. Nanoparticles that are bound to the target on the film are immobilized and undergo Néel relaxation, producing a slowly decaying magnetic flux, which is detected by the SQUID. The ability to distinguish between bound and unbound labels allows one to run homogeneous assays, which do not require separation and removal of unbound magnetic particles. The technique has been demonstrated with a model system of liposomes carrying the FLAG epitope. The SQUID microscope requires no more than (5 +/- 2) x 10(4) magnetic nanoparticles to register a reproducible signal.

  2. Davydov's solitons in a homogeneous nucleotide chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhno, Victor D.

    Charge transfer in homogeneous nucleotide chains is modeled on the basis of Holstein Hamiltonian. The path length of Davydov solitons in these chains is being studied. It is shown that in a dispersionless case, when the soliton velocity V is small, the path length grows exponentially as V decreases. In this case, the state of a moving soliton is quasisteady. In the presence of dispersion determined by the dependenceΩ2 =Ω 02 + V 02κ2, the path length in the region 0 < V < V0 is equal to infinity. In this case, the phonon environment follows the charge motion. In the region V > V0, the soliton motion is accompanied by emission of phonons which leads to a finite path length of a soliton. The latter tends to infinity as V → V0 + 0 and V → ∞. The presence of dissipation leads to a finite soliton path length. An equilibrium velocity of soliton in an external electric field is calculated. It is shown that there is a maximum intensity of an electric field at which a steady motion of a soliton is possible. The soliton mobility is calculated for the stable or ohmic brunch.

  3. Converter film technology for homogeneous white light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Rafael C.; Bauer, Jörg; Oppermann, Hermann

    2007-09-01

    An important issue for white ultra high power LEDs is the generation of a homogeneous light with high efficiency and a good color rendering index. Different from hot light sources LEDs do not emit the whole range of visible wavelengths. Only a certain wavelength with a limited full width at half maximum is emitted. Therefore a combination of wavelengths must be used to satisfy the human eye for white light. The CIE chromaticity diagram (Fig. 1) shows, that several combinations of wavelengths let the brain realize white light. Already the combination of two wavelengths (e.g. cyan and red or blue and yellow) let us think, that the source is white, if this wavelengths hit our receptors. This is completely different, if the light is illuminating an object. The reflection spectra of this object, which is crucial for our color feeling about this object, can not be stimulated in the whole range. For example a red stop sign, which is absorbing all wavelength excepting red, will absorb the blue and yellow light from our "white" light source and due to the missing red, the sign seems to be dark grey or black.

  4. Homogeneously dispersed, multimetal oxygen-evolving catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Xueli; Voznyy, Oleksandr; ...

    2016-03-24

    Earth-abundant first-row (3d) transition-metal-based catalysts have been developed for the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER); however, they operate at overpotentials significantly above thermodynamic requirements. Density functional theory suggested that non-3d high-valency metals such as tungsten can modulate 3d metal oxides, providing near-optimal adsorption energies for OER intermediates. We developed a room-temperature synthesis to produce gelled oxy-hydroxide materials with an atomically homogeneous metal distribution. These gelled FeCoW oxy-hydroxide exhibits the lowest overpotential (191 mV) reported at 10 mA per square centimeter in alkaline electrolyte. Here, the catalyst shows no evidence of degradation following more than 500 hours of operation. X-ray absorption and computationalmore » studies reveal a synergistic interplay between W, Fe and Co in producing a favorable local coordination environment and electronic structure that enhance the energetics for OER.« less

  5. Number of independent parameters in the Mueller matrix representation of homogeneous depolarizing media.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Oriol

    2013-04-01

    In general the transmission of polarized light through a homogeneous depolarizing sample has motion-reversal symmetry because the response remains the same for light traveling in the opposite direction. As a consequence, the optical properties of a sample, characterized by the differential Mueller matrix, must be invariant upon motion reversal. This Letter shows that the 16 parameters of the differential Mueller matrix must therefore obey six conditions to satisfy this symmetry. This limits the number of independent parameters to 10. The 10 elementary optical properties of a depolarizing homogeneous medium are defined and discussed.

  6. Refractive Index and Wave Resistance of Homogeneous Plane Waves in Isotropic Media with Losses and Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisanov, V. V.

    2017-09-01

    Analytical expressions for complex values of the wave number, refractive index, and the characteristic wave impedance of homogeneous electromagnetic plane waves propagating in a linear, homogeneous, isotropic medium with losses and gain are derived. Formulas for determining the type of normal wave as a function of the values of the real and imaginary parts of the permittivity and permeability are obtained, and conditions for the appearance of positive and negative refraction at the interface of two isotropic media are indicated. In the approach applied here, the concept of a negative refractive index is not used.

  7. High-frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media.

    PubMed

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Milton, Graeme W; Craster, Richard V

    2016-07-01

    We consider high-frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schrödinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω1 plus a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector [Formula: see text] and frequency ω2. We derive effective equations for the modulating functions, and then prove that there is no coupling in the effective equations between the two different waves both in the scalar and the system cases. To be precise, we prove that there is no coupling unless ω1=ω2 and [Formula: see text] where Λ=(λ1λ2…λ d ) is the periodicity cell of the medium and for any two vectors [Formula: see text] the product a⊙b is defined to be the vector (a1b1,a2b2,…,adbd ). This last condition forces the carrier waves to be equivalent Bloch waves meaning that the coupling constants in the system of effective equations vanish. We use two-scale analysis and some new weak-convergence type lemmas. The analysis is not at the same level of rigour as that of Allaire and co-workers who use two-scale convergence theory to treat the problem, but has the advantage of simplicity which will allow it to be easily extended to the case where there is degeneracy of the Bloch eigenvalue.

  8. High-frequency homogenization for travelling waves in periodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunyan, Davit; Milton, Graeme W.; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-07-01

    We consider high-frequency homogenization in periodic media for travelling waves of several different equations: the wave equation for scalar-valued waves such as acoustics; the wave equation for vector-valued waves such as electromagnetism and elasticity; and a system that encompasses the Schrödinger equation. This homogenization applies when the wavelength is of the order of the size of the medium periodicity cell. The travelling wave is assumed to be the sum of two waves: a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector k and frequency ω1 plus a modulated Bloch carrier wave having crystal wavevector m and frequency ω2. We derive effective equations for the modulating functions, and then prove that there is no coupling in the effective equations between the two different waves both in the scalar and the system cases. To be precise, we prove that there is no coupling unless ω1=ω2 and (k -m )⊙Λ ∈2 π Zd, where Λ=(λ1λ2…λd) is the periodicity cell of the medium and for any two vectors a =(a1,a2,…,ad),b =(b1,b2,…,bd)∈Rd, the product a⊙b is defined to be the vector (a1b1,a2b2,…,adbd). This last condition forces the carrier waves to be equivalent Bloch waves meaning that the coupling constants in the system of effective equations vanish. We use two-scale analysis and some new weak-convergence type lemmas. The analysis is not at the same level of rigour as that of Allaire and co-workers who use two-scale convergence theory to treat the problem, but has the advantage of simplicity which will allow it to be easily extended to the case where there is degeneracy of the Bloch eigenvalue.

  9. Homogeneous piecewise polynomial Lyapunov function for robust stability of uncertain piecewise linear system

    SciTech Connect

    BenAbdallah, Abdallah; Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Kallel, Jalel

    2009-03-05

    In this paper we present some sufficient conditions for the robust stability and stabilization of time invariant uncertain piecewise linear system using homogenous piecewise polynomial Lyapunov function. The proposed conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities which can be numerically solved. An application of the obtained result is given. It consists in resolving the stabilization of piecewise uncertain linear control systems by using a state piecewise linear feedback.

  10. Note on integrability of certain homogeneous Hamiltonian systems in 2D constant curvature spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Szumiński, Wojciech; Przybylska, Maria

    2017-02-01

    We formulate the necessary conditions for the integrability of a certain family of Hamiltonian systems defined in the constant curvature two-dimensional spaces. Proposed form of potential can be considered as a counterpart of a homogeneous potential in flat spaces. Thanks to this property Hamilton equations admit, in a general case, a particular solution. Using this solution we derive necessary integrability conditions investigating differential Galois group of variational equations.

  11. Advances in the homogenization of daily climate surface data in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füllemann, C.; Begert, M.; Croci-Maspoli, M.

    2010-09-01

    It is often the extremes of weather and climate which have the greatest impact on society. In this respect temporal high-resolution and long-term climate data series are a unique source for e.g. variability and trend analyses, extreme value analysis or analyses of extreme climate indices. Consequentially that these analyses require high demands on the data quality for accurate conclusions on climate change. This can be achieved by homogenization of the corresponding data. It is the intention of MeteoSwiss to fulfill these requirements for their available long-term climate surface data in Switzerland by i) systematically preserve historical climate data in respect to national and international guidelines, ii) ensure efficient and extensive quality control and iii) homogenize long-term data series of the most important climate variables on monthly and daily time scales. In the framework of the COST Action ES0601 "Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME)", which dedicates a main focus on the comparison and development of daily homogenization methods, we present results of the comparison from different daily homogenization procedures using long-term series. Currently only a few statistical methods exist to help homogenize daily climate data. We will focus on three different daily homogenization methods and will present results of extreme temperature values during the period 1864 until 2009 for several Swiss surface stations. One aspect will be the exposure of the three methods to different weather conditions such as sunny calm days or days influenced by the foehn in spring. It is important to see how the methods deal with physical impacts (radiation, wind).

  12. Stochastic homogenization of rate-independent systems and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heida, Martin

    2017-05-01

    We study the stochastic and periodic homogenization 1-homogeneous convex functionals. We prove some convergence results with respect to stochastic two-scale convergence, which are related to classical Γ -convergence results. The main result is a general \\liminf -estimate for a sequence of 1-homogeneous functionals and a two-scale stability result for sequences of convex sets. We apply our results to the homogenization of rate-independent systems with 1-homogeneous dissipation potentials and quadratic energies. In these applications, both the energy and the dissipation potential have an underlying stochastic microscopic structure. We study the particular homogenization problems of Prandtl-Reuss plasticity, Tresca friction on a macroscopic surface and Tresca friction on microscopic fissures.

  13. Homogeneity of lithium distribution in cylinder-type Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Dolotko, O.; Hofmann, M.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2015-12-01

    Spatially-resolved neutron powder diffraction with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 has been applied as an in situ method to probe the lithium concentration in the graphite anode of different Li-ion cells of 18650-type in charged state. Structural studies performed in combination with electrochemical measurements and X-ray computed tomography under real cell operating conditions unambiguously revealed non-homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the graphite anode. Deviations from a homogeneous behaviour have been found in both radial and axial directions of 18650-type cells and were discussed in the frame of cell geometry and electrical connection of electrodes, which might play a crucial role in the homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the active materials within each electrode.

  14. Synthesis of cyclic sulfites from epoxides and sulfur dioxide with silica-immobilized homogeneous catalysts.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yasumasa; Kiyosu, Takahiro; Mori, Goro; Choi, Jun-Chul; Fukaya, Norihisa; Sakakura, Toshiyasu; Yasuda, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-09

    Quaternary ammonium- and amino-functionalized silica catalysts have been prepared for the selective synthesis of cyclic sulfites from epoxides and sulfur dioxide, demonstrating the effects of immobilizing the homogeneous catalysts on silica. The cycloaddition of sulfur dioxide to various epoxides was conducted under solvent-free conditions at 100 °C. The quaternary ammonium- and amino-functionalized silica catalysts produced cyclic sulfites in high yields (79-96 %) that are comparable to those produced by the homogeneous catalysts. The functionalized silica catalysts could be separated from the product solution by filtration, thereby avoiding the catalytic decomposition of the cyclic sulfite products upon distillation of the product solution. Heterogenization of a homogeneous catalyst by immobilization can, therefore, improve the efficiency of the purification of crude reaction products. Despite a decrease in catalytic activity after each recycling step, the heterogeneous pyridine-functionalized silica catalyst provided high yields after as many as five recycling processes.

  15. Homogeneity of lithium distribution in cylinder-type Li-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Dolotko, O.; Hofmann, M.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially-resolved neutron powder diffraction with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 has been applied as an in situ method to probe the lithium concentration in the graphite anode of different Li-ion cells of 18650-type in charged state. Structural studies performed in combination with electrochemical measurements and X-ray computed tomography under real cell operating conditions unambiguously revealed non-homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the graphite anode. Deviations from a homogeneous behaviour have been found in both radial and axial directions of 18650-type cells and were discussed in the frame of cell geometry and electrical connection of electrodes, which might play a crucial role in the homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the active materials within each electrode. PMID:26681110

  16. The role of exotic species in homogenizing the North American flora.

    PubMed

    Qian, Hong; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2006-12-01

    Exotic species have begun to homogenize the global biota, yet few data are available to assess the extent of this process or factors that constrain its advance at global or continental scales. We evaluate homogenization of vascular plants across America north of Mexico by comparing similarity in the complete native and exotic floras between states and provinces of the USA and Canada. Compared with native species, exotic plants are distributed haphazardly among areas but spread more widely, producing differentiation of floras among neighbouring areas but homogenization at greater distance. The number of exotic species is more closely associated with the size of the human population than with ecological conditions, as in the case of native species, and their distributions are less influenced by climate than those of native species.

  17. Homogeneity of lithium distribution in cylinder-type Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Senyshyn, A; Mühlbauer, M J; Dolotko, O; Hofmann, M; Ehrenberg, H

    2015-12-18

    Spatially-resolved neutron powder diffraction with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 20 mm(3) has been applied as an in situ method to probe the lithium concentration in the graphite anode of different Li-ion cells of 18650-type in charged state. Structural studies performed in combination with electrochemical measurements and X-ray computed tomography under real cell operating conditions unambiguously revealed non-homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the graphite anode. Deviations from a homogeneous behaviour have been found in both radial and axial directions of 18650-type cells and were discussed in the frame of cell geometry and electrical connection of electrodes, which might play a crucial role in the homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the active materials within each electrode.

  18. Compressibility Effects on the Growth and Structure of Homogeneous Turbulent Shear Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaisdell, G. A.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    Compressibility effects within decaying isotropic turbulence and homogeneous turbulent shear flow have been studied using direct numerical simulation. The objective of this work is to increase our understanding of compressible turbulence and to aid the development of turbulence models for compressible flows. The numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence show that compressibility effects are highly dependent on the initial conditions. The shear flow simulations, on the other hand, show that measures of compressibility evolve to become independent of their initial values and are parameterized by the root mean square Mach number. The growth rate of the turbulence in compressible homogeneous shear flow is reduced compared to that in the incompressible case. The reduced growth rate is the result of an increase in the dissipation rate and energy transfer to internal energy by the pressure-dilatation correlation. Examination of the structure of compressible homogeneous shear flow reveals the presence of eddy shocklets, which are important for the increased dissipation rate of compressible turbulence.

  19. Homogeneity of passively ventilated waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Jensen, L.; Cromar, R.D.; Hayes, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    Gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site are being characterized to help resolve waste storage safety issues and estimate air emissions. Characterization is accomplished by collecting and analyzing air samples from the headspaces of the tanks. Samples are generally collected from a single central location within the headspace, and it is assumed that they are representative of the entire headspace. The validity of this assumption appears to be very good for most tanks, because thermally induced convection currents within the headspaces mix constituents continuously. In the coolest waste tanks, however, thermally induced convection may be suppressed for several months of each year because of the seasonal soil temperature cycle. To determine whether composition does vary significantly with location in a cool tank, the headspaces of three waste tanks have been sampled at different horizontal and vertical locations during that part of the year when thermally induced convection is minimized. This report describes the bases for tank selection and the sampling and analytical methods used, then analyzes and discusses the results. Headspace composition data from two risers at three elevations in Tanks 241-B-103, TY-103, and U-112 have been analyzed by standard analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods, which indicate that these tank headspaces are essentially homogeneous. No stratification of denser vapors (e.g., carbon tetrachloride, dodecane) or lighter gases (e.g., ammonia, hydrogen) was detected in any of the three tanks. A qualitative examination of all tentatively identified organic vapors in SUMMA{trademark} and TST samples supported this conclusion.

  20. Cluster Mechanism of Homogeneous Crystallization (Computer Study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belashchenko, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) study of homogeneous crystallization of liquid rubidium is conducted with an inter-particle pair potential. The equilibrium crystallization temperature of the models was 313 K. Models consisted of 500, 998, and 1968 particles in a basic cube. The main investigation method was as follows: to detect (along the MD run) the atoms with Voronoi polyhedrons (VP) of 0608 type (“0608-atoms,” as in a bcc crystal) and to detect the bound groups of 0608-atoms (“0608-clusters”) that could play the role of the seeds in crystallization. Full crystallization was observed only at temperatures lower than 185 K with the creation of a predominant bcc crystal. The crystallization mechanism of Rb models differs drastically from the mechanism adopted in classical nucleation theory. It consists of the growth of the total number of 0608-atoms on cooling and the formation of 0608-clusters, analogous to the case of coagulation of solute for a supersaturated two-component solution. At the first stage of the process the clusters have a very loose structure (something like medusa or octopus with many tentacles) and include inside atoms with other Voronoi polyhedron types. The dimensions of clusters quickly increase and approach those of the basic cube. 0608-atoms play the leading role in the crystallization process and activate the transition of the atoms involved in the 0608-coordination. The fast growth of the maximum cluster begins after it attains a critical size (about 150 0608-atoms). The fluctuations of cluster sizes are very important in the creation of a 0608-cluster of critical (threshold) size. These fluctuations are especially large in the interval from 180 K to 185 K.

  1. Climate Data Homogenization Using Edge Detection Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, A. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of climate data homogenization has predominantly been addressed by testing the likelihood of one or more breaks inserted into a given time series and modeling the mean to be stationary in between the breaks. We recast the same problem in a slightly different form: that of detecting step-like changes in noisy data, and observe that this problem has spawned a large number of approaches to its solution as the "edge detection" problem in image processing. With respect to climate data, we ask the question: How can we optimally separate step-like from smoothly-varying low-frequency signals? We study the hypothesis that the edge-detection approach makes better use of all information contained in the time series than the "traditional" approach (e.g. Caussinus and Mestre, 2004), which we base on several observations. 1) The traditional formulation of the problem reduces the available information from the outset to that contained in the test statistic. 2) The criterion of local steepness of the low-frequency variability, while at least hypothetically useful, is ignored. 3) The practice of using monthly data corresponds, mathematically, to applying a moving average filter (to reduce noise) and subsequent subsampling of the result; this subsampling reduces the amount of available information beyond what is necessary for noise reduction. Most importantly, the tradeoff between noise reduction (better with filters with wide support in the time domain) and localization of detected changes (better with filters with narrow support) is expressed in the well-known uncertainty principle and can be addressed optimally within a time-frequency framework. Unsurprisingly, a large number of edge-detection algorithms have been proposed that make use of wavelet decompositions and similar techniques. We are developing this framework in part to be applied to a particular set of climate data from Greenland; we will present results from this application as well as from tests with

  2. Homogenization of alloys in the system Al-Mg-Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drits, M. E.; Toropova, L. S.; Bykov, Yu. G.

    1983-07-01

    A reduction in homogenizing anneal temperature and a reduction in soaking time leads to an increase in yield point for alloys of the system Al-Mg-Sc. The optimum homogenizing schedule for alloys of this system is heating to 400°C and soaking for up to 10 h. This homogenizing schedule provides an alloy structure of fine coherent ScAl3-phase precipitates and dissolution of excess β-phase precipitates.

  3. High-temperature viscoelastic creep constitutive equations for polymer composites: Homogenization theory and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Skontorp, A.; Wang, S.S.; Shibuya, Y.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, a homogenization theory is developed to determine high-temperature effective viscoelastic constitutive equations for fiber-reinforced polymer composites. The homogenization theory approximates the microstructure of a fiber composite, and determine simultaneously effective macroscopic constitutive properties of the composite and the associated microscopic strain and stress in the heterogeneous material. The time-temperature dependent homogenization theory requires that the viscoelastic constituent properties of the matrix phase at elevated temperatures, the governing equations for the composites, and the boundary conditions of the problem be Laplace transformed to a conjugate problem. The homogenized effective properties in the transformed domain are determined, using a two-scale asymptotic expansion of field variables and an averaging procedure. Field solutions in the unit cell are determined from basic and first-order governing equations with the aid of a boundary integral method (BIM). Effective viscoelastic constitutive properties of the composite at elevated temperatures are determined by an inverse transformation, as are the microscopic stress and deformation in the composite. Using this method, interactions among fibers and between the fibers and the matrix can be evaluated explicitly, resulting in accurate solutions for composites with high-volume fraction of reinforcing fibers. Examples are given for the case of a carbon-fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyamide composite in an elevated temperature environment. The homogenization predictions are in good agreement with experimental data available for the composite.

  4. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Kai; Chung, Eric T.; Gibson, Richard L.; Fu, Shubin; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-06-05

    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. We therefore propose a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite element methods for simulating elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that is similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity where the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.

  5. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Kai; Chung, Eric T.; Gibson, Richard L.; ...

    2015-06-05

    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. We therefore propose a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite element methods for simulating elasticmore » wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that is similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity where the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.« less

  6. A novel approach to computational homogenization and its application to fully coupled two-scale thermomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Robert; Božić, Marko; Kaliske, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The paper introduces a novel approach to computational homogenization by bridging the scales from microscale to macroscale. Whenever the microstructure is in an equilibrium state, the macrostructure needs to be in equilibrium, too. The novel approach is based on the concept of representative volume elements, stating that an assemblage of representative elements should be able to resemble the macrostructure. The resulting key assumption is the continuity of the appropriate kinematic fields across both scales. This assumption motivates the following idea. In contrast to existing approaches, where mostly constitutive quantities are homogenized, the balance equations, that drive the considered field quantities, are homogenized. The approach is applied to the fully coupled partial differential equations of thermomechanics solved by the finite element (FE) method. A novel consistent finite homogenization element is given with respect to discretized residual formulations and linearization terms. The presented FE has no restrictions regarding the thermomechanical constitutive laws that are characterizing the microstructure. A first verification of the presented approach is carried out against semi-analytical and reference solutions within the range of one-dimensional small strain thermoelasticity. Further verification is obtained by a comparison to the classical FE^2 method and its different types of boundary conditions within a finite deformation setting of purely mechanical problems. Furthermore, the efficiency of the novel approach is investigated and compared. Finally, structural examples are shown in order to demonstrate the applicability of the presented homogenization framework in case of finite thermo-inelasticity at different length scales.

  7. Exploring an approximation for the homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O, Kuan-Ting; Wood, Robert

    2016-06-01

    In this work, based on the well-known formulae of classical nucleation theory (CNT), the temperature TNc = 1 at which the mean number of critical embryos inside a droplet is unity is derived from the Boltzmann distribution function and explored as an approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets. Without including the information of the applied cooling rate γcooling and the number of observed droplets Ntotal_droplets in the calculation, the approximation TNc = 1 is able to reproduce the dependence of homogeneous freezing temperature on drop size V and water activity aw of aqueous drops observed in a wide range of experimental studies for droplet diameter > 10 µm and aw > 0.85, suggesting the effect of γcooling and Ntotal_droplets may be secondary compared to the effect of V and aw on homogeneous freezing temperatures in these size and water activity ranges under realistic atmospheric conditions. We use the TNc = 1 approximation to argue that the distribution of homogeneous freezing temperatures observed in the experiments may be partly explained by the spread in the size distribution of droplets used in the particular experiment. It thus appears that the simplicity of this approximation makes it potentially useful for predicting homogeneous freezing temperatures of water droplets in the atmosphere.

  8. NORDHOM - a Nordic collaboration to homogenize long-term climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engström, Erik; Carlund, Thomas; Laapas, Mikko; Aalto, Juha; Drebs, Achim; Lundstad, Elin; Motrøen Gjelte, Herdis; Vint, Kairi

    2015-04-01

    High-quality instrumental climate records are crucial for analysis of climate variability. Long-term climate series are however often affected by inhomogeneities (artificial shifts) due to changes in measurement conditions (relocations, instrumentation, change in environment, etc.). To deal with this problem homogenization procedures have been developed for detecting and adjusting inhomogeneities. The climate services at the Nordic NMHSs have a long profound tradition in cooperation on activities of common interest. One successful activity within this collaboration was establishing the North Atlantic Climatological Dataset (NACD) in the 1990s. The NACD data set (1890-) was later continued as the Nordic Climate Dataset (NkDS). Since the mid-1990s there have been little systematic homogenization efforts at the Nordic NMHSs. It was agreed at an expert meeting within the "Nordic Framework for Climate services (NFCS)" in 2012, to establish a NFCS-project NORDHOM: "Nordic collaboration on long-term homogeneous climate data records". The ongoing activities in NORDHOM are to establish common methods for homogeneity testing and adjustment for inhomogeneities, homogenize long Nordic temperature and precipitation series, and update the Nordic Climate Dataset. We are now summarizing what we have achieved during the first phase (2013-2014) of the project and have an outlook what will follow during the second phase (2015-2016). There will also be some examples from each participating country in the collaboration.

  9. Thermodynamics of homogeneous nucleation of mesospheric ice particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasetsky, A. Y.; Petelina, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    Although our knowledge of the upper mesospheric region is continuously improving, many aspects of mesospheric dynamics and thermodynamics are still unclear. We address some of these open questions related to the thermodynamics of water at the conditions intrinsic for the polar summer mesosphere. For this we use recently published theoretical and laboratory results on the properties of water at very low temperatures. We present the hypothesis of homogeneous nucleation of ice nano-particles in the polar summer mesosphere. The nucleation of condensed phase is traced back to the first step on the formation pathway, which is assumed to be the transition of water vapor to amorphous cluster. Amorphous clusters then freeze into water ice, likely metastable cubic ice, when they reach the critical size. The estimates based on the equilibrium thermodynamics give the critical size (radius) of amorphous water clusters as about 1.0 nm. The same estimates for the final transition step, that is the transformation of cubic to hexagonal ice, give the critical size of about 15 nm at typical upper mesospheric conditions during the polar summer (about 150K temperature and about 109cm-3 water vapor density).

  10. Evaluation of a locally homogeneous model of spray evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, A. J.; Faeth, G. M.; Tamura, H.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on an evaporating spray in a stagnant environment. The spray was formed using an air-atomizing injector to yield a Sauter mean diameter of the order of 30 microns. The region where evaporation occurred extended approximately 1 m from the injector for the test conditions. Profiles of mean velocity, temperature, composition, and drop size distribution, as well as velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress, were measured. The results are compared with a locally homogeneous two-phase flow model which implies no velocity difference and thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases. The flow was represented by a k-epsilon-g turbulence model employing a clipped Gaussian probability density function for mixture fraction fluctuations. The model provides a good representation of earlier single-phase jet measurements, but generally overestimates the rate of development of the spray. Using the model predictions to represent conditions along the centerline of the spray, drop life-history calculations were conducted which indicate that these discrepancies are due to slip and loss of thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases.

  11. Effects of an oscillating magnetic field on homogeneous ferrofluid turbulence.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Kristopher R; Riley, James J; Finlayson, Bruce A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results from direct numerical simulations of homogeneous ferrofluid turbulence with a spatially uniform, applied oscillating magnetic field. Due to the strong coupling that exists between the magnetic field and the ferrofluid, we find that the oscillating field can affect the characteristics of the turbulent flow. The magnetic field does work on the turbulent flow and typically leads to an increased rate of energy loss via two dissipation modes specific to ferrofluids. However, under certain conditions this magnetic work results in injection, or a forcing, of turbulent kinetic energy into the flow. For the cases considered here, there is no mean shear and the mean components of velocity, vorticity, and particle spin rate are all zero. Thus, the effects shown are entirely due to the interactions between the turbulent fluctuations of the ferrofluid and the magnetic field. In addition to the effects of the oscillation frequency, we also investigate the effects of the choice of magnetization equation. The calculations focus on the approximate centerline conditions of the relatively low Reynolds number turbulent ferrofluid pipe flow experiments described previously [K. R. Schumacher, Phys. Rev. E 67, 026308 (2003)].

  12. ANALYTICAL FRACTIONATION OF HOMOGENATES FROM CULTURED RAT EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS

    PubMed Central

    Tulkens, Paul; Beaufay, Henry; Trouet, André

    1974-01-01

    Homogenates of cultured rat embryo fibroblasts have been assayed for acid phosphatase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, cathepsin D, acid deoxyribonuclease, cytochrome oxidase, NADH cytochrome c reductase, 5'-nucleotidase, inosine diphosphatase, acid pyrophosphatase, neutral pyrophosphatase, esterase, catalase, cholesterol, and RNA. The validity of the assay conditions was checked. Neutral pyrophosphatase is a readily soluble enzyme. Acid hydrolases, except acid pyrophosphatase, are particle-bound enzymes, which exhibit a high degree of structural latency. They are activated and solubilized in a parallel fashion by mechanical treatments and tensio-active agents. Catalase is also particle-bound and latent; activating conditions stronger than those for hydrolases are required to activate the enzyme. Acid pyrophosphatase, 5'-nucleotidase and inosine diphosphatase are firmly particle-bound, but not latent; they are not easily solubilized. In differential and isopycnic centrifugation, the latent hydrolases, cytochrome oxidase and catalase dissociate largely from each other; this suggests the occurrence of lysosomes and peroxisome-like structures besides mitochondria. The distribution patterns of 5'-nucleotidase and cholesterol are largely similar; digitonin influences their equilibrium density to the same extent; these two constituents are thought to be related to the plasma membrane. Inosine diphosphatase and acid pyrophosphatase are also partially associated with the plasma membrane, although some part of these enzymic activities probably belongs to other structures. NADH cytochrome c reductase is associated partly with the endoplasmic reticulum, partly with mitochondria. PMID:4371790

  13. Mechanized syringe homogenization of human and animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Porter, Andrew C; Patel, Nisha C; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Scofield, R Hal

    2004-06-01

    Tissue homogenization is a prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A plethora of hands-on methods are available to homogenize tissues. Here we report a mechanized method for homogenizing animal and human tissues rapidly and easily. The Bio-Mixer 1200 (manufactured by Innovative Products, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK) utilizes the back-and-forth movement of two motor-driven disposable syringes, connected to each other through a three-way stopcock, to homogenize animal or human tissue. Using this method, we were able to homogenize human or mouse tissues (brain, liver, heart, and salivary glands) in 5 min. From sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric enzyme assay for prolidase, we have found that the homogenates obtained were as good or even better than that obtained used a manual glass-on-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) homogenization protocol (all-glass tube and Teflon pestle). Use of the Bio-Mixer 1200 to homogenize animal or human tissue precludes the need to stay in the cold room as is the case with the other hands-on homogenization methods available, in addition to freeing up time for other experiments.

  14. The Raychaudhuri equation in homogeneous cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Albareti, F.D.; Cembranos, J.A.R.; Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la; Dobado, A. E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es E-mail: dobado@fis.ucm.es

    2014-03-01

    In this work we address the issue of studying the conditions required to guarantee the Focusing Theorem for both null and timelike geodesic congruences by using the Raychaudhuri equation. In particular we study the case of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker as well as more general Bianchi Type I spacetimes. The fulfillment of the Focusing Theorem is mandatory in small scales since it accounts for the attractive character of gravity. However, the Focusing Theorem is not satisfied at cosmological scales due to the measured negative deceleration parameter. The study of the conditions needed for congruences convergence is not only relevant at the fundamental level but also to derive the viability conditions to be imposed on extended theories of gravity describing the different expansion regimes of the universe. We illustrate this idea for f(R) gravity theories.

  15. Propagation of the light generated by quasi-homogeneous sources through quasi-homogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Yan-Ru; Zhao, Qi; Zhou, Mu-Chun; Xu, Shi-Xue

    2010-01-01

    The spectral density of the quasi-homogeneous (QH) light has been known when it scatters on QH media or propagates in free space. The case that QH sources are surrounded by QH media is proposed in this paper. Under the paraxial approximation, the spectral density of the QH light propagating through QH media is derived. A modified scaling law for the propagation of the QH light through QH media is also obtained. This law also holds true in the far field beyond the paraxial approximation.

  16. Vertically homogeneous stationary tornado-type vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkevich, P. B.; Rutkevych, P. P.

    2010-05-01

    Tornado is regarded as one of the most dangerous atmosphere phenomena. The tornado phenomenon has been intensively studied so far, however, there is still no established and accepted theory of how tornadoes form, an uncertainty still exists concerning extreme winds and pressure drops in tornadoes. It is commonly accepted that it is possible to describe tornado from the set of nonlinear hydrodynamical equations, however, it is still unclear which non-linear processes are responsible for its formation. Nonlinear terms in the system are associated with either centrifugal force, or entropy transport, or transport of humidity. It appears that the amount and spatial distribution of precipitation with the convection are important indicators of the weather phenomena associated with a particular storm. The low-precipitation supercells that produce relatively little precipitation and yet show clear visual signs of rotation. Low-precipitation supercells occur most often near the surface dryline and, owing to the sparse precipitation and relatively dry environments with little cloudiness. Low-precipitation storms are frequently non-tornadic and many are non-severe despite exhibiting persistent rotation. On the other hand, the so-called high-precipitation storms are characterized by substantial precipitation within their mesocyclonic circulations. When high-precipitation storms have a recognizable hook radar echo, reflectivity in the hook is comparable to those in the precipitation core. High-precipitation supercells are probably the most common form of supercell and produce severe weather of all types including tornadoes. Therefore, in this work we consider a hydrodynamic system with only one nonlinear term associated with atmosphere humidity, which yields energy to the system. The tornado vortex is usually to a good approximation cylindrical so we use cylindrical geometry and homogeneity in vertical direction. In this case the problem reduces to a system of ordinary

  17. Reactivity of D-fructose and D-xylose in acidic media in homogeneous phases.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Maxime B; Chagnault, Vincent; Postel, Denis

    2015-05-29

    Chemistry development of renewable resources is a real challenge. Carbohydrates from biomass are complex and their use as substitutes for fossil materials remains difficult (European involvement on the incorporation of 20% raw material of plant origin in 2020). Most of the time, the transformation of these polyhydroxylated structures are carried out in acidic conditions. Recent reviews on this subject describe homogeneous catalytic transformations of pentoses, specifically toward furfural, and also the transformation of biomass-derived sugars in heterogeneous conditions. To complete these informations, the objective of this review is to give an overview of the structural variety described during the treatment of two monosaccharides (D-Fructose and D-xylose) in acidic conditions in homogeneous phases. The reaction mechanisms being not always determined with certainty, we will also provide a brief state of the art regarding this.

  18. Etude de la dynamique des porteurs dans des nanofils de silicium par spectroscopie terahertz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, Alexandre

    Ce memoire presente une etude des proprietes de conduction electrique et de la dynamique temporelle des porteurs de charges dans des nanofils de silicium sondes par rayonnement terahertz. Les cas de nanofils de silicium non intentionnellement dopes et dopes type n sont compares pour differentes configurations du montage experimental. Les mesures de spectroscopie terahertz en transmission montre qu'il est possible de detecter la presence de dopants dans les nanofils via leur absorption du rayonnement terahertz (˜ 1--12 meV). Les difficultes de modelisation de la transmission d'une impulsion electromagnetique dans un systeme de nanofils sont egalement discutees. La detection differentielle, une modification au systeme de spectroscopie terahertz, est testee et ses performances sont comparees au montage de caracterisation standard. Les instructions et des recommendations pour la mise en place de ce type de mesure sont incluses. Les resultats d'une experience de pompe optique-sonde terahertz sont egalement presentes. Dans cette experience, les porteurs de charge temporairement crees suite a l'absorption de la pompe optique (lambda ˜ 800 nm) dans les nanofils (les photoporteurs) s'ajoutent aux porteurs initialement presents et augmentent done l'absorption du rayonnement terahertz. Premierement, l'anisotropie de l'absorption terahertz et de la pompe optique par les nanofils est demontree. Deuxiemement, le temps de recombinaison des photoporteurs est etudie en fonction du nombre de photoporteurs injectes. Une hypothese expliquant les comportements observes pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n est presentee. Troisiemement, la photoconductivite est extraite pour les nanofils non-dopes et dopes-n sur une plage de 0.5 a 2 THz. Un lissage sur la photoconductivite permet d'estimer le nombre de dopants dans les nanofils dopes-n. Mots-cles: nanofil, silicium, terahertz, conductivite, spectroscopie, photoconductivite.

  19. Influence of Homogenization on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the U-10Mo Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2014-04-01

    In Phase 1 of this study, the mechanical properties of as-cast, depleted uranium alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum alloy (U-10Mo) samples were evaluated by high-temperature compression testing. Compression testing was conducted at three strain rates over a temperature range of 400 to 800°C. The results indicated that with increasing test temperature, the material flow stress decreases and the material becomes more sensitive to strain rate. In addition, above the eutectoid transformation temperature (~ 550°C), the drop in material flow stress is prominent and shows a strain-softening behavior, especially at lower strain rates. In the second part of this research, we studied the effect that homogenization heat treatment had on the high temperature mechanical properties and microstructure of the cast U-10Mo alloy. Various homogenization times and temperatures were studied ranging between 800 and 1000°C for 4 to 48 hours. Based on the microstructural response in this homogenization study, a heat treatment cycle of 800°C for 24 hours and another at 1000°C for 16 hours were selected as the times at temperature to achieve a fully homogenized sample. Samples from these conditions were then compression tested at a variety of temperatures ranging from 500 to 800°C. The microstructure of these samples were compared to the as-cast samples and to a baseline sample homogenized at 1000°C for 16 hours. The results indicate that below the eutectoid temperature (~ 550°C) all three samples showed strain hardening and followed similar trends. Above the eutectoid temperature, the yield strength of the material decreased linearly. For the as-cast sample and the sample homogenized at 800°C for 24 hours, the n-values were negative, whereas for the samples homogenized at 1000°C for 16 hours the material exhibited a perfectly plastic behavior. The as-cast sample, heat treated at 800°C for 24 hours, showed significant lamellar structure transformation that seems to have

  20. Pi overlapping ring systems contained in a homogeneous assay: a novel homogeneous assay for antigens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, David A.

    1993-05-01

    A novel immunoassay, Pi overlapping ring systems contained in a homogeneous assay (PORSCHA), is described. This assay relies upon the change in fluorescent spectral properties that pyrene and its derivatives show with varying concentration. Because antibodies and other biomolecules can bind two molecules simultaneously, they can change the local concentration of the molecules that they bind. This concentration change may be detected spectrally as a change in the fluorescence emission wavelength of an appropriately labeled biomolecule. Several tests of PORSCHA have been performed which demonstrate this principle. For example: with streptavidin as the binding biomolecule and a biotin labeled pyrene derivative, the production of the excimer emitting at 470 nm is observed. Without the streptavidin present, only the monomer emitting at 378 and 390 nm is observed. The ratio of monomer to excimer provides the concentration of unlabeled biotin in the sample. Approximately 1 ng/mL of biotin may be detected with this system using a 50 (mu) l sample (2 X 10-16 moles biotin). The principles behind PORSCHA, the results with the streptavidin/biotin system are discussed and extensions of the PORSCHA concept to antibodies as the binding partner and DNA in homogeneous assays are suggested.

  1. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    PubMed

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p < 0.01) and also had lower fat loss during tube feeding (p < 0.01). Ultrasonic homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants.

  2. Sensitivity of liquid clouds to homogenous freezing parameterizations

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Ross J; Murray, Benjamin J; Dobbie, Steven J; Koop, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Water droplets in some clouds can supercool to temperatures where homogeneous ice nucleation becomes the dominant freezing mechanism. In many cloud resolving and mesoscale models, it is assumed that homogeneous ice nucleation in water droplets only occurs below some threshold temperature typically set at −40°C. However, laboratory measurements show that there is a finite rate of nucleation at warmer temperatures. In this study we use a parcel model with detailed microphysics to show that cloud properties can be sensitive to homogeneous ice nucleation as warm as −30°C. Thus, homogeneous ice nucleation may be more important for cloud development, precipitation rates, and key cloud radiative parameters than is often assumed. Furthermore, we show that cloud development is particularly sensitive to the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate. In order to better constrain the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation laboratory measurements are needed at both high (>−35°C) and low (<−38°C) temperatures. Key Points Homogeneous freezing may be significant as warm as −30°C Homogeneous freezing should not be represented by a threshold approximation There is a need for an improved parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation PMID:26074652

  3. Fibrations and globalizations of compact homogeneous CR-manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, B.; Huckleberry, Alan T.

    2009-06-01

    Fibration methods which were previously used for complex homogeneous spaces and CR-homogeneous spaces of special types [1]-[4] are developed in a general framework. These include the \\mathfrak{g}-anticanonical fibration in the CR-setting, which reduces certain considerations to the compact projective algebraic case, where a Borel-Remmert type splitting theorem is proved. This leads to a reduction to spaces homogeneous under actions of compact Lie groups. General globalization theorems are proved which enable one to regard a homogeneous CR-manifold as an orbit of a real Lie group in a complex homogeneous space of a complex Lie group. In the special case of CR-codimension at most two, precise classification results are proved and are applied to show that in most cases there exists such a globalization.

  4. Sensitivity of liquid clouds to homogenous freezing parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Ross J.; Murray, Benjamin J.; Dobbie, Steven J.; Koop, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Water droplets in some clouds can supercool to temperatures where homogeneous ice nucleation becomes the dominant freezing mechanism. In many cloud resolving and mesoscale models, it is assumed that homogeneous ice nucleation in water droplets only occurs below some threshold temperature typically set at -40°C. However, laboratory measurements show that there is a finite rate of nucleation at warmer temperatures. In this study we use a parcel model with detailed microphysics to show that cloud properties can be sensitive to homogeneous ice nucleation as warm as -30°C. Thus, homogeneous ice nucleation may be more important for cloud development, precipitation rates, and key cloud radiative parameters than is often assumed. Furthermore, we show that cloud development is particularly sensitive to the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate. In order to better constrain the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation laboratory measurements are needed at both high (>-35°C) and low (<-38°C) temperatures.

  5. Sensitivity of liquid clouds to homogenous freezing parameterizations.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Ross J; Murray, Benjamin J; Dobbie, Steven J; Koop, Thomas

    2015-03-16

    Water droplets in some clouds can supercool to temperatures where homogeneous ice nucleation becomes the dominant freezing mechanism. In many cloud resolving and mesoscale models, it is assumed that homogeneous ice nucleation in water droplets only occurs below some threshold temperature typically set at -40°C. However, laboratory measurements show that there is a finite rate of nucleation at warmer temperatures. In this study we use a parcel model with detailed microphysics to show that cloud properties can be sensitive to homogeneous ice nucleation as warm as -30°C. Thus, homogeneous ice nucleation may be more important for cloud development, precipitation rates, and key cloud radiative parameters than is often assumed. Furthermore, we show that cloud development is particularly sensitive to the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate. In order to better constrain the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation laboratory measurements are needed at both high (>-35°C) and low (<-38°C) temperatures.

  6. Bounded Correctors in Almost Periodic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Gloria, Antoine; Kuusi, Tuomo

    2016-10-01

    We show that certain linear elliptic equations (and systems) in divergence form with almost periodic coefficients have bounded, almost periodic correctors. This is proved under a new condition we introduce which quantifies the almost periodic assumption and includes (but is not restricted to) the class of smooth, quasiperiodic coefficient fields which satisfy a Diophantine-type condition previously considered by Kozlov (Mat Sb (N.S), 107(149):199-217, 1978). The proof is based on a quantitative ergodic theorem for almost periodic functions combined with the new regularity theory recently introduced by Armstrong and Shen (Pure Appl Math, 2016) for equations with almost periodic coefficients. This yields control on spatial averages of the gradient of the corrector, which is converted into estimates on the size of the corrector itself via a multiscale Poincaré-type inequality.

  7. Turbulent Diffusion in Non-Homogeneous Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.; Mahjoub, O. B.; Sekula, E.

    2012-04-01

    Many experimental studies have been devoted to the understanding of non-homogeneous turbulent dynamics. Activity in this area intensified when the basic Kolmogorov self-similar theory was extended to two-dimensional or quasi 2D turbulent flows such as those appearing in the environment, that seem to control mixing [1,2]. The statistical description and the dynamics of these geophysical flows depend strongly on the distribution of long lived organized (coherent) structures. These flows show a complex topology, but may be subdivided in terms of strongly elliptical domains (high vorticity regions), strong hyperbolic domains (deformation cells with high energy condensations) and the background turbulent field of moderate elliptic and hyperbolic characteristics. It is of fundamental importance to investigate the different influence of these topological diverse regions. Relevant geometrical information of different areas is also given by the maximum fractal dimension, which is related to the energy spectrum of the flow. Using all the available information it is possible to investigate the spatial variability of the horizontal eddy diffusivity K(x,y). This information would be very important when trying to model numerically the behaviour in time of the oil spills [3,4] There is a strong dependence of horizontal eddy diffusivities with the Wave Reynolds number as well as with the wind stress measured as the friction velocity from wind profiles measured at the coastline. Natural sea surface oily slicks of diverse origin (plankton, algae or natural emissions and seeps of oil) form complicated structures in the sea surface due to the effects of both multiscale turbulence and Langmuir circulation. It is then possible to use the topological and scaling analysis to discriminate the different physical sea surface processes. We can relate higher orden moments of the Lagrangian velocity to effective diffusivity in spite of the need to calibrate the different regions determining the

  8. Chemical zoning and homogenization of olivines in ordinary chondrites and implications for thermal histories of chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, Masamichi; Mckay, David S.; Mckay, Gordon A.; Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The extent and degree of homogenization of chemical zoning of olivines in type 3 ordinary chondrites is studied in order to obtain some constraints on cooling histories of chondrites. Based on Mg-Fe and CaO zoning, olivines in type 3 chondrites are classified into four types. A single chondrule usually contains olivines with the same type of zoning. Microporphyritic olivines show all four zoning types. Barred olivines usually show almost homogenized chemical zoning. The cooling rates or burial depths needed to homogenize the chemical zoning are calculated by solving the diffusion equation, using the zoning profiles as an initial condition. Mg-Fe zoning of olivine may be altered during initial cooling, whereas CaO zoning is hardly changed. Barred olivines may be homogenized during initial cooling because their size is relatively small. To simulated microporphyritic olivine chondrules, cooling from just below the liquidus at moderately high rates is preferable to cooling from above the liquidus at low rates. For postaccumulation metamorphism of type 3 chondrites to keep Mg-Fe zoning unaltered, the maximum metamorphic temperature must be less than about 400 C if cooling rates based on Fe-Ni data are assumed. Calculated cooling rates for both Fa and CaO homogenization are consistent with those by Fe-Ni data for type 4 chondrites. A hot ejecta blanket several tens of meters thick on the surface of a parent body is sufficient to homogenize Mg-Fe zoning if the temperature of the blanket is 600-700 C. Burial depths for petrologic types of ordinary chondrites in a parent body heated by Al-26 are broadly consistent with those previously proposed.

  9. Homogeneous Freezing of Water Droplets and its Dependence on Droplet Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Thea; Möhler, Ottmar; Höhler, Kristina; Leisner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The formulation and parameterisation of microphysical processes in tropospheric clouds, such as phase transitions, is still a challenge for weather and climate models. This includes the homogeneous freezing of supercooled water droplets, since this is an important process in deep convective systems, where almost pure water droplets may stay liquid until homogeneous freezing occurs at temperatures around 238 K. Though the homogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled water is considered to be well understood, recent laboratory experiments with typical cloud droplet sizes showed one to two orders of magnitude smaller nucleation rate coefficients than previous literature results, including earlier results from experiments with single levitated water droplets and from cloud simulation experiments at the AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) facility. This motivated us to re-analyse homogeneous droplet freezing experiments conducted during the previous years at the AIDA cloud chamber. This cloud chamber has a volume of 84m3 and operates under atmospherically relevant conditions within wide ranges of temperature, pressure and humidity, whereby investigations of both tropospheric mixed-phase clouds and cirrus clouds can be realised. By controlled adiabatic expansions, the ascent of an air parcel in the troposphere can be simulated. According to our new results and their comparison to the results from single levitated droplet experiments, the homogeneous freezing of water droplets seems to be a volume-dependent process, at least for droplets as small as a few micrometers in diameter. A contribution of surface induced freezing can be ruled out, in agreement to previous conclusions from the single droplet experiments. The obtained volume nucleation rate coefficients are in good agreement, within error bars, with some previous literature data, including our own results from earlier AIDA experiments, but they do not agree with recently published lower volume

  10. Homogeneous Liquid Phase Transfer of Graphene Oxide into Epoxy Resins.

    PubMed

    Amirova, Lyaysan; Surnova, Albina; Balkaev, Dinar; Musin, Delus; Amirov, Rustem; Dimiev, Ayrat M

    2017-04-05

    The quality of polymer composite materials depends on the distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix. Due to the presence of the oxygen functional groups, graphene oxide (GO) has a strong affinity to epoxy resins, providing potential opportunity for the uniform distribution of GO sheets in the matrix. Another advantage of GO over its nonoxidized counterpart is its ability to exfoliate to single-atomic-layer sheets in water and in some organic solvents. However, these advantages of GO have not yet been fully realized due to the lack of the methods efficiently introducing GO into the epoxy resin. Here we develop a novel homogeneous liquid phase transfer method that affords uniform distribution, and fully exfoliated condition of GO in the polymer matrix. The most pronounced alteration of properties of the cured composites is registered at the 0.10%-0.15% GO content. Addition of as little as 0.10% GO leads to the increase of the Young's modulus by 48%. Moreover, we demonstrate successful introduction of GO into the epoxy matrix containing an active diluent-modifier; this opens new venues for fabrication of improved GO-epoxy-modifier composites with a broad range of predesigned properties. The experiments done on reproducing the two literature methods, using alternative GO introduction techniques, lead to either decrease or insignificant increase of the Young's modulus of the resulting GO-epoxy composites.

  11. Dynamic control of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P [Metamora, IL; Mehresh, Parag [Peoria, IL; Schuh, David [Peoria, IL; Kieser, Andrew J [Morton, IL; Hergart, Carl-Anders [Peoria, IL; Hardy, William L [Peoria, IL; Rodman, Anthony [Chillicothe, IL; Liechty, Michael P [Chillicothe, IL

    2008-06-03

    A homogenous charge compression ignition engine is operated by compressing a charge mixture of air, exhaust and fuel in a combustion chamber to an autoignition condition of the fuel. The engine may facilitate a transition from a first combination of speed and load to a second combination of speed and load by changing the charge mixture and compression ratio. This may be accomplished in a consecutive engine cycle by adjusting both a fuel injector control signal and a variable valve control signal away from a nominal variable valve control signal. Thereafter in one or more subsequent engine cycles, more sluggish adjustments are made to at least one of a geometric compression ratio control signal and an exhaust gas recirculation control signal to allow the variable valve control signal to be readjusted back toward its nominal variable valve control signal setting. By readjusting the variable valve control signal back toward its nominal setting, the engine will be ready for another transition to a new combination of engine speed and load.

  12. Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Pete; Soliveres, Santiago; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C.; Dawud, Seid Muhie; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Mueller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality. PMID:26979952

  13. Clustering of vertically constrained passive particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pietro, Massimo; van Hinsberg, Michel A. T.; Biferale, Luca; Clercx, Herman J. H.; Perlekar, Prasad; Toschi, Federico

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the dynamics of small particles vertically confined, by means of a linear restoring force, to move within a horizontal fluid slab in a three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous isotropic turbulent velocity field. The model that we introduce and study is possibly the simplest description for the dynamics of small aquatic organisms that, due to swimming, active regulation of their buoyancy, or any other mechanism, maintain themselves in a shallow horizontal layer below the free surface of oceans or lakes. By varying the strength of the restoring force, we are able to control the thickness of the fluid slab in which the particles can move. This allows us to analyze the statistical features of the system over a wide range of conditions going from a fully 3D incompressible flow (corresponding to the case of no confinement) to the extremely confined case corresponding to a two-dimensional slice. The background 3D turbulent velocity field is evolved by means of fully resolved direct numerical simulations. Whenever some level of vertical confinement is present, the particle trajectories deviate from that of fluid tracers and the particles experience an effectively compressible velocity field. Here, we have quantified the compressibility, the preferential concentration of the particles, and the correlation dimension by changing the strength of the restoring force. The main result is that there exists a particular value of the force constant, corresponding to a mean slab depth approximately equal to a few times the Kolmogorov length scale η , that maximizes the clustering of the particles.

  14. Modeling of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Aceves, S.M.; Westbrook, C.; Pitz, W.

    1997-05-01

    The operation of piston engines on a compression ignition cycle using a lean, homogeneous charge has many potential attractive features. These include the potential for extremely low NO{sub x} and particulate emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency and not requiring the expensive high pressure injection system of the typical modem diesel engine. Using the HCT chemical kinetics code to simulate autoignition of methane-air mixtures, we have explored the ignition timing, burn duration, NO{sub x} production, indicated efficiency and power output of an engine with a compression ratio of 15:1 at 1200 and 2400 rpm. HCT was modified to include the effects of heat transfer. This study used a single control volume reaction zone that varies as a function of crank angle. The ignition process is controlled by varying the intake equivalence ratio and varying the residual gas trapping (RGT). RGT is internal exhaust gas recirculation which recycles both heat and combustion product species. It is accomplished by varying the timing of the exhaust valve closure. Inlet manifold temperature was held constant at 330 Kelvins. Results show that there is a narrow range of operational conditions that show promise of achieving the control necessary to vary power output while keeping indicated efficiency above 50% and NO{sub x} levels below 100 ppm.

  15. Biotic homogenization can decrease landscape-scale forest multifunctionality.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Pete; Soliveres, Santiago; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David Anthony; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C; Dawud, Seid Muhie; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Mueller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-03-29

    Many experiments have shown that local biodiversity loss impairs the ability of ecosystems to maintain multiple ecosystem functions at high levels (multifunctionality). In contrast, the role of biodiversity in driving ecosystem multifunctionality at landscape scales remains unresolved. We used a comprehensive pan-European dataset, including 16 ecosystem functions measured in 209 forest plots across six European countries, and performed simulations to investigate how local plot-scale richness of tree species (α-diversity) and their turnover between plots (β-diversity) are related to landscape-scale multifunctionality. After accounting for variation in environmental conditions, we found that relationships between α-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality varied from positive to negative depending on the multifunctionality metric used. In contrast, when significant, relationships between β-diversity and landscape-scale multifunctionality were always positive, because a high spatial turnover in species composition was closely related to a high spatial turnover in functions that were supported at high levels. Our findings have major implications for forest management and indicate that biotic homogenization can have previously unrecognized and negative consequences for large-scale ecosystem multifunctionality.

  16. Degeneracy allows for both apparent homogeneity and diversification in populations

    PubMed Central

    Whitacre, James M.; Atamas, Sergei P.

    2013-01-01

    Trait diversity – the substrate for natural selection – is necessary for adaptation through selection, particularly in populations faced with environmental changes that diminish population fitness. In habitats that remain unchanged for many generations, stabilizing selection maximizes exploitation of resources by reducing trait diversity to a narrow optimal range. One might expect that such ostensibly homogeneous populations would have a reduced potential for heritable adaptive responses when faced with fitness-reducing environmental changes. However, field studies have documented populations that, even after long periods of evolutionary stasis, can still rapidly evolve in response to changed environmental conditions. We argue that degeneracy, the ability of diverse population elements to function similarly, can satisfy both the current need to maximize fitness and the future need for diversity. Degenerate ensembles appear functionally redundant in certain environmental contexts and functionally diverse in others. We propose that genetic variation not contributing to the observed range of phenotypes in a current population, also known as cryptic genetic variation (CGV), is a specific case of degeneracy. We argue that CGV, which gradually accumulates in static populations in stable environments, reveals hidden trait differences when environments change. By allowing CGV accumulation, static populations prepare themselves for future rapid adaptations to environmental novelty. A greater appreciation of degeneracy’s role in resolving the inherent tension between current stabilizing selection and future directional selection has implications in conservation biology and may be applied in social and technological systems to maximize current performance while strengthening the potential for future changes. PMID:22910487

  17. Caracterisation des etats de surface par teledetection infrarouge thermique multispectrale: Contribution a l'etude des conditions de viabilite hivernale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, Frederic

    La mesure de temperature d'une surface et de son emissivite thermique constitue encore de nos jours, un defi de taille. D'un point de vue microclimatique, la temperature significative d'une surface est celle qui reflete l'etat des echanges energetiques qui y ont lieu. La radiometrie infrarouge thermique permet de lire la temperature de l'interface air-sol pour une couche infiniment petite de la surface (de l'ordre de quelques microns). Dans le cadre d'un systeme d'aide aux decisions en viabilite hivernale, nous avons defini un prototype de station de mesures mobiles. Cette station permet de determiner, avec precision, la temperature radiative de la surface de la chaussee ainsi que de determiner, avec un taux de succes de plus de 65 %, l'etat de cette meme surface. Par la conception de ce prototype, nous avons aborde le principe physique de la mesure de temperature de surface par radiometrie multispectrale infrarouge thermique. Ce travail aura permis d'evaluer une approche standard de mesure a bande spectrale unique (de 8 a 14 mum). Dans la correction de la temperature radiative de surface, nous avons considere trois methodes distinctes. La premiere methode utilisee est celle de l'algorithme TES (Gillespie et al., 1998). Cet algorithme etablit le spectre d'emissivite, puis calcule une temperature de surface corrigee, en tenant compte de la reflexion du rayonnement thermique incident a la surface. La seconde methode consideree est l'indice TISI (Li et al., 1999) qui consiste en un indice d'emissivite relatif independant de la temperature de la surface et qui tient compte du rayonnement incident a la surface. La troisieme methode est un indice de temperature relative (ITR) qui correspond au contraste normalise des temperatures radiatives de surface. L'identification du type de surface a montre un taux de succes de 54,8 % pour les resultats de l'indice ITR, de 51,9 % pour les resultats de l'indice TISI et de 67,3 % pour les resultats de l'algorithme TES. Quant a la valeur de temperature corrigee, une verification prealable ayant permis de determiner la precision du TES a 0,5 °C, nous avons determine la precision relative des deux autres methodes par rapport a celle du TES. Pour les deux methodes TISI et ITR, la correction de temperature radiative a donne un ecart moyen similaire de l'ordre de --1,2 °C, avec une etendue d'ecart allant de ---0,5 a --2,2 °C. L'experience realisee a permis de presenter un prototype operationnel de mesure de la temperature de surface permettant en meme temps la caracterisation de la surface mesuree. L'extraction de ces deux types d'informations a partir d'une meme serie de mesures est une innovation. La banque d'emissivite spectrale mesuree sur le terrain est aussi une contribution de ce projet. Teledetection -- Infrarouge thermique -- Temperature de surface -- Neige -- Glace -- Meteorologie routiere

  18. Supernovae data and perturbative deviation from homogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Enqvist, Kari; Mattsson, Maria; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos E-mail: maria.ronkainen@helsinki.fi

    2009-09-01

    We show that a spherically symmetric perturbation of a dust dominated Ω = 1 FRW universe in the Newtonian gauge can lead to an apparent acceleration of standard candles and provide a fit to the magnitude-redshift relation inferred from the supernovae data, while the perturbation in the gravitational potential remains small at all scales. We also demonstrate that the supernovae data does not necessarily imply the presence of some additional non-perturbative contribution by showing that any Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi model fitting the supernovae data (with appropriate initial conditions) will be equivalent to a perturbed FRW spacetime along the past light cone.

  19. Pattern and process of biotic homogenization in the New Pangaea.

    PubMed

    Baiser, Benjamin; Olden, Julian D; Record, Sydne; Lockwood, Julie L; McKinney, Michael L

    2012-12-07

    Human activities have reorganized the earth's biota resulting in spatially disparate locales becoming more or less similar in species composition over time through the processes of biotic homogenization and biotic differentiation, respectively. Despite mounting evidence suggesting that this process may be widespread in both aquatic and terrestrial systems, past studies have predominantly focused on single taxonomic groups at a single spatial scale. Furthermore, change in pairwise similarity is itself dependent on two distinct processes, spatial turnover in species composition and changes in gradients of species richness. Most past research has failed to disentangle the effect of these two mechanisms on homogenization patterns. Here, we use recent statistical advances and collate a global database of homogenization studies (20 studies, 50 datasets) to provide the first global investigation of the homogenization process across major faunal and floral groups and elucidate the relative role of changes in species richness and turnover. We found evidence of homogenization (change in similarity ranging from -0.02 to 0.09) across nearly all taxonomic groups, spatial extent and grain sizes. Partitioning of change in pairwise similarity shows that overall change in community similarity is driven by changes in species richness. Our results show that biotic homogenization is truly a global phenomenon and put into question many of the ecological mechanisms invoked in previous studies to explain patterns of homogenization.

  20. Proficiency testing in immunopathology: establishing the homogeneity of test material.

    PubMed

    Esterman, Adrian; Javanovich, Sue; McEvoy, Robert; Roberts-Thomson, Peter

    2005-04-01

    To develop a technique for homogeneity testing of serum aliquot samples suitable for use in the Quality Assurance Program in Clinical Immunology (QAP Pty Ltd). Albumin was selected as the surrogate protein marker for the product to be tested and the coefficient of dispersion (COD) calculated as the measure of homogeneity. To detect changes in the average level of homogeneity, cumulative sum control (cusum) charts were used. The COD(%) for each triplicate reading of albumin obtained from 34 specimens was normally distributed with a mean of 0.49% and a standard deviation of 0.25%. In industrial quality control schemes the action line is generally set at the upper 99% confidence limits, hence any triplicate sample would be considered to have acceptable homogeneity if the COD was < or = 1.08%. Cusum charts were created to monitor albumin homogeneity over time. The use of albumin measurement as the surrogate appears statistically suitable for homogeneity testing in QAP programs for immunodiagnostic testing. CUSUM charts are particularly useful to monitor such homogeneity testing.

  1. Individual differences and state effects on mind-wandering: hypnotizability, dissociation, and sensory homogenization.

    PubMed

    Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Terhune, Devin B; Cardeña, Etzel

    2012-09-01

    Consciousness alterations can be experienced during unstructured, monotonous stimuli. These effects have not been linked to particular cognitive operations; individual differences in response to such stimulation remain poorly understood. We examined the role of hypnotizability and dissociative tendencies in mind-wandering (MW) during a sensory homogenization procedure (ganzfeld). We expected that the influence of ganzfeld on MW would be more pronounced among highly hypnotizable individuals (highs), particularly those high in dissociative tendencies. High and low hypnotizables, also stratified by dissociation, completed the sustained attention to response task during ganzfeld and control conditions. High dissociative highs made more commission errors during ganzfeld, suggesting increased MW, whereas the other groups displayed the opposite pattern. Increases in commission errors from the control condition to ganzfeld were associated with more alterations in consciousness and negative affect, but only among highs. Sensory homogenization had opposite effects on MW depending on the interaction of hypnotizability and dissociation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanoporous oxidic solids: the confluence of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John Meurig; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Raja, Robert; Bell, Robert G

    2009-04-28

    The several factors that render certain kinds of nanoporous oxidic solids valuable for the design of a wide range of new heterogeneous catalysts are outlined and exemplified. These factors include: (i), their relative ease of preparation, when both mesoporous siliceous frameworks (ca. 20 to 250 A diameter pores) and microporous framework-substituted aluminophosphates (ca. 4 to 14 A diameter pores) can be tailored to suit particular catalytic needs according to whether regiospecific or enantio- or shape-selective conversions are the goal; (ii), the enormous internal (three-dimensional) areas that these nanoporous solids possess (typically 10(3) m(2) g(-1)) and the consequential ease of access of reactants through the internal pores of the solids; (iii), the ability, by judicious solid-state preparative methods to assemble spatially isolated, single-site active centres at the internal surfaces of these open-structure solids, thereby making the heterogeneous catalyst simulate the characteristic features of homogenous and enzymatic catalysts; (iv), the wide variety of in situ, time-resolved and ex situ experimental techniques, coupled with computational methods, that can pin-point the precise structure of the active site under operating conditions and facilitate the formulation of reaction intermediates and mechanisms. Varieties of catalysts are described for the synthesis (often under environmentally benign and solvent-free conditions) of a wide range of organic materials including commodity chemicals (such as adipic and terephthalic acid), fine and pharmaceutical chemicals (e.g. vitamin B(3)), alkenes, epoxides, and for the photocatalytic preferential destruction of carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrogen. Nanoporous oxidic solids are ideal materials to investigate the phenomenology of catalysis because, in many of them, little distinction exists between a model and a real catalyst.

  3. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  4. Heterogenization of Homogeneous Catalysts: the Effect of the Support

    SciTech Connect

    Earl, W.L.; Ott, K.C.; Hall, K.A.; de Rege, F.M.; Morita, D.K.; Tumas, W.; Brown, G.H.; Broene, R.D.

    1999-06-29

    We have studied the influence of placing a soluble, homogeneous catalyst onto a solid support. We determined that such a 'heterogenized' homogeneous catalyst can have improved activity and selectivity for the asymmetric hydrogenation of enamides to amino acid derivatives. The route of heterogenization of RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} cations occurs via electrostatic interactions with anions that are capable of strong hydrogen bonding to silica surfaces. This is a novel approach to supported catalysis. Supported RhDuPhos(COD){sup +} is a recyclable, non-leaching catalyst in non-polar media. This is one of the few heterogenized catalysts that exhibits improved catalytic performance as compared to its homogeneous analog.

  5. Etude des proprietes electroniques des etats fondamentaux aux facteurs de remplissage entiers dans la bicouche de graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine

    Dans ce document, on etudie les proprietes electroniques d'un systeme compose de deux couches de graphene separees par un dielectrique en presence d'un fort champ magnetique perpendiculaire. L'epaisseur du dielectrique est choisie de facon a pouvoir negliger le transfert de charges par effet tunnel. Ce type de systeme est etudie par quelques groupes de recherche dans le principal but de predire et comprendre la formation de condensat de Bose-Einstein d'excitons dont les composants sont des fermions relativistes sans masse [1] [2] [3]. Nous nous interessons a l'effet de l'interaction electron-electron sur les etats fondamentaux de ce systeme et 'a leurs excitations collectives a facteur de remplissage entier. Plus precisement, nous etudions les diagrammes de phase de cette bicouche de graphene sans terme tunnel dans le niveau de Landau n = 0 pour les facteurs de remplissage nu = 1 et nu = 2 dans la limite ou la temperature tend vers zero. Lors de cette etude, nous appuyons les predictions faites par Allan H. MacDonald et Yogesh N. Joglekar a propos de la formation d'un condensat de Bose-Einstein d'excitons pour differentes zones des diagrammes de phase. Nous etudions aussi la relation de dispersion des excitations collectives soutenues par les etats fondamentaux et leur effet sur le systeme. Finalement, nous nous interessons a la conductivite du systeme. Nous demontrons alors les regles de selection pour l'absorption inter-niveaux de Landaux et nous etudions l'effet des modes collectifs sur l'absorption .intrarniveau de Landau, Ce dernier phenomene ressort directement de la forme particuliere du reseau atomique du graphene et nous proposons dans ce document une toute premiere etude de ce concept. Mots-cles : graphene, gaz d'electrons bidimensionnel, effets Hall quantiques, proprietes electroniques, modes collectifs

  6. Etude de la Region de Transition A=130: Structure a Spin Eleve des Noyaux de SAMARIUM-136 et SAMARIUM-138

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadon, Normand

    La structure a haut spin des noyaux pairs-pairs de ^{136}Sm et ^{138}Sm a ete etudiee a l'aide du spectrometre 8pi de Chalk River. Les noyaux etaient produits par une reaction d'ions lourds. La mesure des cascades gamma emises lors de la desexcitation du noyau nous a permis d'etablir le schema de niveaux des noyaux de ^{136 }Sm et ^{138}Sm jusqu'a un spin de 30hbar. Nous avons mis en evidence plusieurs nouvelles bandes rotationnelles. A partir des calculs theoriques CSM (Cranked Shell Model), nous avons identifie les differentes configurations responsables de l'excitation de ces noyaux. Dans ces deux noyaux, on assiste a une competition entre les neutrons provenant du haut de la couche h_{11/2 } et les protons issus du bas de la meme couche. D'autres calculs TRS (Total Routhian Surface) nous ont permis de suivre l'evolution du noyau en fonction de la deformation. Les resultats montrent que ces noyaux se situent dans une region de transition entre une forme allongee et une forme aplatie. D'apres notre etude, meme si les neutrons entrai nent le noyau vers une forme aplatie, la presence des protons stabilise le noyau a une forme triaxiale. De l'experience effectuee sur le noyau de ^{136}Sm, nous avons observe quelques evidences d'une bande superdeformee. Cette bande serait batie sur une configuration a plusieurs quasiparticules impliquant possiblement l'orbitale nu i_ {13/2}. La decouverte de cette bande superdeformee vient corroborer les predictions theoriques. Cependant, une etude plus approfondie devra etre entreprise afin de valider la structure de cette bande.

  7. The single-zone numerical model of homogeneous charge compression ignition engine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyanov, E. A.; Itkis, E. M.; Kuzmin, V. N.; Shumskiy, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    The single-zone model of methane-air mixture combustion in the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engine was developed. First modeling efforts resulted in the selection of the detailed kinetic reaction mechanism, most appropriate for the conditions of the HCCI process. Then, the model was completed so as to simulate the performance of the four-stroke engine and was coupled by physically reasonable adjusting functions. Validation of calculations against experimental data showed acceptable agreement.

  8. Unconditional Haar bases for Lebesgue spaces on spaces of homogeneous type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aimar, Hugo; Gorosito, Osvaldo

    2000-12-01

    We show that spaces of homogeneous type are adequate structures on which the unbalanced wavelet of Girabardi and Sweldens, can be constructed with an additional geometric control for the size of the nested partitions, given by the underlying quasi-distance. Moreover, we show that if a non- degeneracy condition is satisfied, we can still apply the Calderon-Zygmund theory in order to get the characterization of Lp spaces.

  9. Discrete analogue of generalized Hardy spaces and multiplication operators on homogenous trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, Perumal; Ponnusamy, Saminathan

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we define discrete analogue of generalized Hardy spaces and its separable subspace on a homogenous rooted tree and study some of its properties such as completeness, inclusion relations with other spaces, separability, growth estimate for functions in these spaces and their consequences. Equivalent conditions for multiplication operators to be bounded and compact are also obtained. Furthermore, we discuss about point spectrum, approximate point spectrum and spectrum of multiplication operators and discuss when a multiplication operator is an isometry.

  10. Homogenization procedure for a metamaterial and local violation of the second principle of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiucci, Nadia; D'Aguanno, Giuseppe; Akozbek, Neset; Scalora, Michael; Bloemer, Mark J.

    2010-04-01

    Classical theory of crystals states that a medium to be considered homogeneous must satisfy the following requirements (a) the dimension of the elementary cell must be much smaller than the incident wavelength; (b) the sample must contain a large number of elementary cells, i.e. it must be macroscopic with respect to wavelength. Under these conditions, macroscopic quantities can be introduced in order to describe the optical response of the medium. We analytically demonstrate that for a symmetric elementary cell those requirements can be relaxed, and it is possible to assign a permittivity and a permeability to a composite structure, even if the metamaterial cannot be considered homogeneous under the requirements stated above. However, the effective permittivity and permeability in some cases may give rise to unphysical, effective behaviors inside the medium, notwithstanding the fact that they satisfy requirements like being Kramers-Kronig pairs, for example, and are consistent with all the linear properties outside the structure (i.e. reflection, transmission, and absorption at all frequencies). In some situations the medium is assigned a magnetic response even though the medium is not magnetically active. In particular, we demonstrate that the homogenization procedure can lead to a medium that locally violates the second principle of thermodynamics. We also show that, in the non-homogeneous regime, it is not possible to describe the nonlinear behavior of the structure using an effective parameters approach, despite the possibility to assign an effective linear refractive index.

  11. The effect of high pressure homogenization on the activity of a commercial β-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Tribst, Alline A L; Augusto, Pedro E D; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2012-11-01

    High pressure homogenization (HPH) has been proposed as a promising method for changing the activity and stability of enzymes. Therefore, this research studied the activity of β-galactosidase before and after HPH. The enzyme solution at pH values of 6.4, 7.0, and 8.0 was processed at pressures of up to 150 MPa, and the effects of HPH were determined from the residual enzyme activity measured at 5, 30, and 45 °C immediately after homogenization and after 1 day of refrigerated storage. The results indicated that at neutral pH the enzyme remained active at 30 °C (optimum temperature) even after homogenization at pressures of up to 150 MPa. On the contrary, when the β-galactosidase was homogenized at pH 6.4 and 8.0, a gradual loss of activity was observed, reaching a minimum activity (around 30 %) after HPH at 150 MPa and pH 8.0. After storage, only β-galactosidase that underwent HPH at pH 7.0 retained similar activity to the native sample. Thus, HPH did not affect the activity and stability of β-galactosidase only when the process was carried out at neutral pH; for the other conditions, HPH resulted in partial inactivation of the enzyme. Considering the use of β-galactosidase to produce low lactose milk, it was concluded that HPH can be applied with no deleterious effects on enzyme activity.

  12. Homogeneity and Synchronous Dynamics of Microbial Communities in Particulate Biofilms: from Major Populations to Minor Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gévaudan, Gaëlle; Hamelin, Jérôme; Dabert, Patrick; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bernet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Natural or engineered microbial populations often show variations over time. These variations may be due to environmental fluctuations or intrinsic factors. Thus, studying the dynamics of microbial diversity for different communities living in a spatially homogeneous landscape is of interest. As a model ecosystem, nitrifying biofilm communities were grown in a two litre inverse turbulent bed reactor (ITBR) containing an estimated 200 million small particles (about 150 μm in diameter). Each particulate biofilm is considered as a distinct community growing in the neighborhood of other similar particles, in a homogeneous and well-controlled environmental context. A molecular approach was adopted to test how microbial community structures might evolve: either in synchrony, converging or diverging. The shape of biofilm was observed by microscopy for each particle. The biomass content was evaluated by quantitative PCR and showed similar values for each particle. The microbial community structure was evaluated by Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting and showed extraordinary homogeneity between particles, even though transitory community structures were observed when reactor operating conditions were modified. This homogeneity was observed for the Bacteria primer set but, more interestingly, was also observed when minor non-nitrifying bacteria making up the biofilm, representing about 5% and 10% of total cells, were targeted. PMID:22791046

  13. Homogeneity and synchronous dynamics of microbial communities in particulate biofilms: from major populations to minor groups.

    PubMed

    Gévaudan, Gaëlle; Hamelin, Jérôme; Dabert, Patrick; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bernet, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Natural or engineered microbial populations often show variations over time. These variations may be due to environmental fluctuations or intrinsic factors. Thus, studying the dynamics of microbial diversity for different communities living in a spatially homogeneous landscape is of interest. As a model ecosystem, nitrifying biofilm communities were grown in a two litre inverse turbulent bed reactor (ITBR) containing an estimated 200 million small particles (about 150 µm in diameter). Each particulate biofilm is considered as a distinct community growing in the neighborhood of other similar particles, in a homogeneous and well-controlled environmental context. A molecular approach was adopted to test how microbial community structures might evolve: either in synchrony, converging or diverging. The shape of biofilm was observed by microscopy for each particle. The biomass content was evaluated by quantitative PCR and showed similar values for each particle. The microbial community structure was evaluated by Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting and showed extraordinary homogeneity between particles, even though transitory community structures were observed when reactor operating conditions were modified. This homogeneity was observed for the Bacteria primer set but, more interestingly, was also observed when minor non-nitrifying bacteria making up the biofilm, representing about 5% and 10% of total cells, were targeted.

  14. A homogeneous immunoassay for cyclic nucleotides based on chemiluminescence energy transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, A K; Patel, A

    1983-01-01

    A chemiluminescent derivative of cyclic AMP, aminobutylethylisoluminol succinyl cyclic AMP (ABEI-scAMP), was synthesized in order to develop a homogeneous immunoassay based on non-radiative energy transfer. ABEI-scAMP was chemiluminescent (5.1 X 10(18) luminescent counts X mol-1 at pH 13), pure (greater than 95%) stable and immunologically active. A conventional immunoassay was established using ABEI-scAMP and a solid-phase anti-(cyclic AMP) immunoglobulin G which could detect cyclic AMP at least down to 25fmol. A homogeneous immunoassay for cyclic AMP was established by measuring the shift in wavelength from 460 to 525nm which occurred when ABEI-scAMP was bound to fluorescein-labelled anti-(cyclic AMP) immunoglobulin G. The assay was at least as sensitive as the conventional radioimmunoassay using cyclic [3H]AMP and could measure cyclic AMP over the range 1-1000nM. The homogeneous chemiluminescent energy transfer assay was also able to quantify the association and dissociation of antibody-antigen complexes. Chemiluminescence energy transfer occurred between fluorescein-labelled antibodies and several other ABEI-labelled antigens (Mr values 314-150000) including progesterone, cyclic GMP, complement component C9 and immunoglobulin G. The results provide a homogeneous immunoassay capable of measuring free cyclic AMP under conditions likely to exist inside cells. PMID:6316935

  15. Standardization of sample homogenization for mosquito identification using an innovative proteomic tool based on protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Nebbak, Amira; Willcox, Alexandra C; Bitam, Idir; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe; Almeras, Lionel

    2016-12-01

    The rapid spread of vector-borne diseases demands the development of an innovative strategy for arthropod monitoring. The emergence of MALDI-TOF MS as a rapid, low-cost, and accurate tool for arthropod identification is revolutionizing medical entomology. However, as MS spectra from an arthropod can vary according to the body part selected, the sample homogenization method used and the mode and duration of sample storage, standardization of protocols is indispensable prior to the creation and sharing of an MS reference spectra database. In the present study, manual grinding of Anopheles gambiae Giles and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes at the adult and larval (L3) developmental stages was compared to automated homogenization. Settings for each homogenizer were optimized, and glass powder was found to be the best sample disruptor based on its ability to create reproducible and intense MS spectra. In addition, the suitability of common arthropod storage conditions for further MALDI-TOF MS analysis was kinetically evaluated. The conditions that best preserved samples for accurate species identification by MALDI-TOF MS were freezing at -20°C or in liquid nitrogen for up to 6 months. The optimized conditions were objectified based on the reproducibility and stability of species-specific MS profiles. The automation and standardization of mosquito sample preparation methods for MALDI-TOF MS analyses will popularize the use of this innovative tool for the rapid identification of arthropods with medical interest. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Data on the effect of homogenization heat treatments on the cast structure and tensile properties of alloy 718Plus in the presence of grain-boundary elements.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Madar, Karim Zangeneh; Abbasi, Seyed Mehdi

    2017-08-01

    The segregation of the elements during solidification and the direct formation of destructive phases such as Laves from the liquid, result in in-homogeneity of the cast structure and degradation of mechanical properties. Homogenization heat treatment is one of the ways to eliminate destructive Laves from the cast structure of superalloys such as 718Plus. The collected data presents the effect of homogenization treatment conditions on the cast structure, hardness, and tensile properties of the alloy 718Plus in the presence of boron and zirconium additives. For this purpose, five alloys with different contents of boron and zirconium were cast by VIM/VAR process and then were homogenized at various conditions. The microstructural investigation by OM and SEM and phase analysis by XRD were done and then hardness and tensile tests were performed on the homogenized alloys.

  17. Dynamic homogenization of viscoelastic phononic metasolids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichard, Hélène; Torrent, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The effects of dissipation in metamaterials is a sensitive issue and, although experiments show that they are more than relevant, their theoretical study and modeling has received less attention. In this work, we study the effects of viscosity on the dissipation of elastic metamaterials. It is found that these metasolids present effective constitutive parameters that are in general complex, in contrast with common elastic materials where the mass density is a real valued scalar quantity and dissipation enters only through the stiffness tensor. It is also found that, while in the low frequency limit the dissipation is higher as the viscoelastic coefficient is also higher, near a resonance of the metamaterial this condition does not hold, since the imaginary part of the constitutive parameters is higher as the viscosity is smaller. Finally, the effects of viscosity are studied on the non-local properties of the effective parameters, and it is found that this property is attenuated with dissipation although still has to be considered.

  18. A new method to solve non-homogeneous wave equations of electromagnetic fields by fourier’s triple integral transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenjing

    2017-08-01

    This paper uses Fourier’s triple integral transform method to simplify the calculation of the non-homogeneous wave equations of the time-varying electromagnetic field. By adding several special definite conditions to the wave equation, it becomes a mathematical problem of definite condition. Then by using Fourier’s triple integral transform method, this three-dimension non-homogeneous partial differential wave equation is changed into an ordinary differential equation. Through the solution to this ordinary differential equation, the expression of the relationship between the time-varying scalar potential and electromagnetic wave excitation source is developed precisely. This method simplifies the solving process effectively.

  19. An approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O, K.-T.; Wood, R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, based on the well-known formulae of classical nucleation theory (CNT), the temperature TNc = 1 at which the mean number of critical embryos inside a droplet is unity is derived and proposed as a new approximation for homogeneous freezing temperature of water droplets. Without consideration of time dependence and stochastic nature of the ice nucleation process, the approximation TNc = 1 is able to reproduce the dependence of homogeneous freezing temperature on drop size and water activity of aqueous drops observed in a wide range of experimental studies. We use the TNc = 1 approximation to argue that the distribution of homogeneous freezing temperatures observed in the experiments may largely be explained by the spread in the size distribution of droplets used in the particular experiment. It thus appears that this approximation is useful for predicting homogeneous freezing temperatures of water droplets in the atmosphere.

  20. Tritium Technology Program TTP-1-3089 TPBAR Homogenized Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Edward F.

    2014-10-12

    Homogenized TPBAR number densities contained herein have been derived for unclassified core physics calculations. The use of this information may not provide accurate, conservative or representative results and must be evaluated for applicability to the specific problem.

  1. Ring-diffusion mediated homogeneous melting in the superheating regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Li, Mo

    2008-04-01

    Homogeneous melting in the superheating regime is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation of a Lennard-Jones model system. We show that the commonly observed catastrophic melting at the superheating limit is caused by fast heating rate. By keeping the system isothermally at temperatures below the superheating limit, we observe intense self-diffusion motions as the precursor of melting. The highly correlated atomic motions are related to the self-diffusion loops or rings. Two types of loops are observed, closed loop and open loop, where the latter is directly related to the homogeneous nucleation of the liquid phase. Homogeneous melting occurs when the number density of diffusion loops reaches a critical value. Our results suggest that homogeneous melting in the superheating regime is a first-order thermodynamic phase transition triggered by the self-diffusion loops when the kinetic constraint imposed by heating rate is lessened.

  2. HOMOGENEOUS CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Homogeneous Catalytic Oxidations of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems

    Michael A. Gonzalez* and Thomas M. Becker, Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, ...

  3. HOMOGENEOUS CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Homogeneous Catalytic Oxidations of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems

    Michael A. Gonzalez* and Thomas M. Becker, Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, ...

  4. The structure of the vorticity field in homogeneous turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Michael M.; Moin, Parviz

    1987-01-01

    The structures of the vorticity fields in several homogeneous irrotational straining flows and a homogeneous turbulent shear flow were examined using a database generated by direct numerical simulation of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. In all cases, strong evidence was found for the presence of coherent vortical structures. The initially isotropic vorticity fields were rapidly affected by imposed mean strain and the rotational component of mean shear and developed accordingly. In the homogeneous turbulent shear-flow cases, the roll-up of mean vorticity into characteristic hairpin vortices was clearly observed, supporting the view that hairpin vortices are an important vortical structure in all turbulent shear flows; the absence of mean shear in the homogeneous irrotational straining flows precludes the presence of hairpin-like vortices.

  5. Temperature lowering program for homogeneous doping in flux growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiwei, Wang; Shouquan, Jia

    1989-10-01

    Based on the mass conservation law and the Burton-Prim-Slichter equation, the temperature program for homogeneous doping in flux growth by slow cooling was derived. The effect of various factors, such as initial supersaturation, solution volume, growth kinetic coefficient and degree of mixing in the solution on growth rate, crystal size and temperature program is discussed in detail. Theoretical analysis shows that there is a critical crystal size above which homogeneous doping is impossible.

  6. Homogeneous free-form directional backlight for 3D display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, Peter; Liang, Haowen; Fan, Hang; Zhang, Aiqin; Zhou, Yangui; Chen, Jiayi; Li, Kunyang; Zhou, Jianying

    2017-08-01

    Realization of a near perfect homogeneous secondary emission source for 3D display is proposed and demonstrated. The light source takes advantage of an array of free-form emission surface with a specially tailored light guiding structure, a light diffuser and Fresnel lens. A seamless and homogeneous directional emission is experimentally obtained which is essential for a high quality naked-eye 3D display.

  7. Matrix-dependent multigrid-homogenization for diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Knapek, S.

    1996-12-31

    We present a method to approximately determine the effective diffusion coefficient on the coarse scale level of problems with strongly varying or discontinuous diffusion coefficients. It is based on techniques used also in multigrid, like Dendy`s matrix-dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse grid operators by means of the Galerkin approximation. In numerical experiments, we compare our multigrid-homogenization method with homogenization, renormalization and averaging approaches.

  8. A Wald test with enhanced selectivity properties in homogeneous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weijian; Xie, Wenchong; Wang, Yongliang

    2013-12-01

    A Wald test with enhanced selectivity capabilities is proposed in homogeneous environments. At the design stage, we assume that the cell under test contains a noise-like interferer in addition to colored noise and possible signal of interest. We show that the Wald test is equivalent to a recently proposed Rao test. We also observe that this Rao/Wald test possesses constant false alarm rate property in homogeneous environments.

  9. Homogeneous vortex model for liquid slosh in spinning spherical tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.; Wagner, P.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of forced fluid sloshing in a partially filled spinning spherical tank is solved numerically using the finite element method. The governing equations include Coriolis acceleration, empirical fluid damping and spatially homogeneous vorticity first introduced by Pfeiffer. An exponential instability similar to flutter is detected in the present simulation for fill ratios below 50 percent. This instability appears in the model as a result of the homogeneous vortex assumption since the free slosh equations are neutrally stable in the Liapunov sense.

  10. Catalytic photodegradation of pharmaceuticals - homogeneous and heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Klementova, S; Kahoun, D; Doubkova, L; Frejlachova, K; Dusakova, M; Zlamal, M

    2017-01-18

    Photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceuticals (hydrocortisone, estradiol, and verapamil) and personal care product additives (parabens-methyl, ethyl, and propyl derivatives) was investigated in the homogeneous phase (with ferric ions as the catalyst) and on TiO2. Ferric ions in concentrations corresponding to concentrations in natural water bodies were shown to be a significant accelerator of the degradation in homogeneous reaction mixtures. In heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions on TiO2, lower reaction rates, but mineralisation to higher extents, were observed.

  11. Spatial homogeneity of benthic macrofaunal biodiversity across small spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R S K

    2016-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity has been extensively researched, but its spatial homogeneity is virtually unstudied. An intertidal seagrass system at Knysna (South Africa) known to display spatially homogeneous macrobenthic species density at scales ≥0.0275 m(2) was re-investigated at four smaller spatial grains (0.0015 m(2) - 0.0095 m(2)) via a lattice of 8 × 8 stations within a 0.2 ha area. The aim was to investigate the null hypothesis that spatial homogeneity of species density is not a fixed emergent assemblage property but breaks down at small spatial grains within given spatial extents. Although assemblage abundance was significantly heterogeneous at all spatial grains investigated, both species density and functional-group density were significantly homogeneous across those same scales; observed densities not departing from those expected on the basis of independent assortment. Spatial homogeneity is therefore an emergent assemblage property within given spatial extents at Knysna and probably at equivalent sites elsewhere. Equivalent species density in South Africa, Australia and the UK at spatial grains <0.03 m(2), however, is a scale-related sampling artefact, as may be temporal homogeneity of species density at Knysna over a 3 year period, but close similarity in shape of their species occupancy distributions remains unexplained.

  12. Testing homogeneity with the fossil record of galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Heavens, Alan F.; Jimenez, Raul; Maartens, Roy E-mail: raul.jimenez@icc.ub.edu

    2011-09-01

    The standard Friedmann model of cosmology is based on the Copernican Principle, i.e. the assumption of a homogeneous background on which structure forms via perturbations. Homogeneity underpins both general relativistic and modified gravity models and is central to the way in which we interpret observations of the CMB and the galaxy distribution. It is therefore important to probe homogeneity via observations. We describe a test based on the fossil record of distant galaxies: if we can reconstruct key intrinsic properties of galaxies as functions of proper time along their worldlines, we can compare such properties at the same proper time for our galaxy and others. We achieve this by computing the lookback time using radial Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, and the time along galaxy world line using stellar physics, allowing us to probe homogeneity, in principle anywhere inside the past light cone. Agreement in the results would be an important consistency test — although it would not in itself prove homogeneity. Any significant deviation in the results however would signal a breakdown of homogeneity.

  13. A conceptual translation of homogeneous catalysis into heterogeneous catalysis: homogeneous-like heterogeneous gold nanoparticle catalyst induced by ceria supporter.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Xing; Xue, Wei; Guan, Bing-Tao; Shi, Fu-Bo; Shi, Zhang-Jie; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Chun-Hua

    2013-02-07

    Translation of homogeneous catalysis into heterogeneous catalysis is a promising solution to green and sustainable development in chemical industry. For this purpose, noble metal nanoparticles represent a new frontier in catalytic transformations. Many challenges remain for researchers to transform noble metal nanoparticles of heterogeneous catalytic active sites into ionic species of homogeneous catalytic active sites. We report here a successful design on translating homogeneous gold catalysis into a heterogeneous system with a clear understanding of the catalytic pathway. This study initiates a novel concept to immobilize a homogeneous catalyst based on electron transfer between supporting base and supported nanoparticles. Meanwhile, on the basis of theoretical calculation, it has deepened the understanding of the interactions between noble metal nanoparticles and the catalyst support.

  14. Numerical simulations of non-homogeneous viscoelastic turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housiadas, Kostas; Beris, Antony

    2004-11-01

    The effect of the polymer mixing in turbulent channel flow is studied through numerical simulations, using a spectral technique. In particular, we simulate injection of polymeric material through a slit very close to the wall and parallel to it in pre-established Newtonian turbulent flow. The governing equations consist of the mass conservation, the modified Navier-Stokes equation (in order to take into account the polymer extra-stress), the evolution equation for the conformation tensor and an advection-diffusion equation for the polymer concentration. The injection process is simulated by dividing the computational domain in three different regions: (a) the entrance region where the polymer is introduced (b) the developing region where the polymer is allowed to convect freely interacting/modifying the turbulent flow and (c) the recovering region where we use a reacting sink to force the removal of the polymer from the solvent in order to re-establish the inlet conditions. A fully spectral method is used in order to solve the set of governing equations similar to that developed for homogenous viscoelastic turbulent DNS (Housiadas & Beris, Phys. Fluids, 15, (2003)). Although a significantly improved numerical algorithm has been successfully used before (Housiadas & Beris, to appear in J. Non-Newt. Fluid Mech. (2004)) a further improved version of that algorithm is presented in this work. The new algorithm has enabled us to extend the simulations for much wider range of viscoelasticity parameter values as well as for many viscoelastic models like the FENE-P, Giesekus, Oldroyd-B and the modified Giesekus/FENE-P model. Results for illustrative sets of parameter values are going to be presented.

  15. String-like cooperative motion in homogeneous melting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Khalkhali, Mohammad; Liu, Qingxia; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-03-28

    Despite the fundamental nature and practical importance of melting, there is still no generally accepted theory of this ubiquitous phenomenon. Even the earliest simulations of melting of hard discs by Alder and Wainwright indicated the active role of collective atomic motion in melting and here we utilize molecular dynamics simulation to determine whether these correlated motions are similar to those found in recent studies of glass-forming (GF) liquids and other condensed, strongly interacting, particle systems. We indeed find string-like collective atomic motion in our simulations of "superheated" Ni crystals, but other observations indicate significant differences from GF liquids. For example, we observe neither stretched exponential structural relaxation, nor any decoupling phenomenon, while we do find a boson peak, findings that have strong implications for understanding the physical origin of these universal properties of GF liquids. Our simulations also provide a novel view of "homogeneous" melting in which a small concentration of interstitial defects exerts a powerful effect on the crystal stability through their initiation and propagation of collective atomic motion. These relatively rare point defects are found to propagate down the strings like solitons, driving the collective motion. Crystal integrity remains preserved when the permutational atomic motions take the form of ring-like atomic exchanges, but a topological transition occurs at higher temperatures where the rings open to form linear chains similar in geometrical form and length distribution to the strings of GF liquids. The local symmetry breaking effect of the open strings apparently destabilizes the local lattice structure and precipitates crystal melting. The crystal defects are thus not static entities under dynamic conditions, such as elevated temperatures or material loading, but rather are active agents exhibiting a rich nonlinear dynamics that is not addressed in conventional "static

  16. Studies of Immobilized Homogeneous Metal Catalysts on Silica Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Stanger, Keith James

    2003-01-01

    The tethered, chiral, chelating diphosphine rhodium complex, which catalyzes the enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl-α-acetamidocinnamate (MAC), has the illustrated structure as established by 31P NMR and IR studies. Spectral and catalytic investigations also suggest that the mechanism of action of the tethered complex is the same as that of the untethered complex in solution. The rhodium complexes, [Rh(COD)H]4, [Rh(COD)2]+BF4-, [Rh(COD)Cl]2, and RhCl3• 3H2O, adsorbed on SiO2 are optimally activated for toluene hydrogenation by pretreatment with H2 at 200 C. The same complexes on Pd-SiO2 are equally active without pretreatments. The active species in all cases is rhodium metal. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, TEM, DRIFTS, and mercury poisoning experiments. Rhodium on silica catalyzes the hydrogenation of fluorobenzene to produce predominantly fluorocyclohexane in heptane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents. In heptane/methanol and heptane/water solvents, hydrodefluorination to benzene and subsequent hydrogenation to cyclohexane occurs exclusively. Benzene inhibits the hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene. In DCE or heptane solvents, fluorocyclohexane reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form cyclohexene. Reaction conditions can be chosen to selectively yield fluorocyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, or cyclohexane. The oxorhenium(V) dithiolate catalyst [-S(CH2)3s-]Re(O)(Me)(PPh3) was modified by linking it to a tether that could be attached to a silica support. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic oxidation reactivity showed the heterogenized catalyst's structure and reactivity to be similar to its homogeneous analog. However, the immobilized catalyst offered additional advantages of recyclability, extended stability, and increased resistance to deactivation.

  17. Size and spatial homogeneity of SiGe quantum dots in amorphous silica matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Buljan, Maja; Pinto, Sara R. C.; Rolo, Anabela G.; Levichev, Sergey; Gomes, Maria J. M.; Kashtiban, Reza J.; Bangert, Ursel; Chahboun, Adil; Holy, Vaclav

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, we present a study of structural properties of SiGe quantum dots formed in amorphous silica matrix by magnetron sputtering technique. We investigate deposition conditions leading to the formation of dense and uniformly sized quantum dots, distributed homogeneously in the matrix. X-ray and Raman spectroscopy were used to estimate the Si content. A detailed analysis based on grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering revealed the influence of the deposition conditions on quantum dot sizes, size distributions, spatial arrangement, and concentration of quantum dots in the matrix, as well as the Si:Ge content.

  18. Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenization of grassland communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossner, Martin M.; Lewinsohn, Thomas M.; Kahl, Tiemo; Grassein, Fabrice; Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Birkhofer, Klaus; Renner, Swen C.; Sikorski, Johannes; Wubet, Tesfaye; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Jorge, Leonardo Ré; Jung, Kirsten; Keyel, Alexander C.; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Müller, Jörg; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Penone, Caterina; Perović, David J.; Purschke, Oliver; Schall, Peter; Socher, Stephanie A.; Sonnemann, Ilja; Tschapka, Marco; Tscharntke, Teja; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul Christiaan; Weiner, Christiane N.; Werner, Michael; Wolters, Volkmar; Wurst, Susanne; Westphal, Catrin; Fischer, Markus; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Allan, Eric

    2016-12-01

    Land-use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Alongside reductions in local species diversity, biotic homogenization at larger spatial scales is of great concern for conservation. Biotic homogenization means a decrease in β-diversity (the compositional dissimilarity between sites). Most studies have investigated losses in local (α)-diversity and neglected biodiversity loss at larger spatial scales. Studies addressing β-diversity have focused on single or a few organism groups (for example, ref. 4), and it is thus unknown whether land-use intensification homogenizes communities at different trophic levels, above- and belowground. Here we show that even moderate increases in local land-use intensity (LUI) cause biotic homogenization across microbial, plant and animal groups, both above- and belowground, and that this is largely independent of changes in α-diversity. We analysed a unique grassland biodiversity dataset, with abundances of more than 4,000 species belonging to 12 trophic groups. LUI, and, in particular, high mowing intensity, had consistent effects on β-diversity across groups, causing a homogenization of soil microbial, fungal pathogen, plant and arthropod communities. These effects were nonlinear and the strongest declines in β-diversity occurred in the transition from extensively managed to intermediate intensity grassland. LUI tended to reduce local α-diversity in aboveground groups, whereas the α-diversity increased in belowground groups. Correlations between the β-diversity of different groups, particularly between plants and their consumers, became weaker at high LUI. This suggests a loss of specialist species and is further evidence for biotic homogenization. The consistently negative effects of LUI on landscape-scale biodiversity underscore the high value of extensively managed grasslands for conserving multitrophic biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Indeed, biotic homogenization rather than local diversity

  19. Land-use intensification causes multitrophic homogenization of grassland communities.

    PubMed

    Gossner, Martin M; Lewinsohn, Thomas M; Kahl, Tiemo; Grassein, Fabrice; Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Birkhofer, Klaus; Renner, Swen C; Sikorski, Johannes; Wubet, Tesfaye; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Jorge, Leonardo Ré; Jung, Kirsten; Keyel, Alexander C; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Müller, Jörg; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Penone, Caterina; Perović, David J; Purschke, Oliver; Schall, Peter; Socher, Stephanie A; Sonnemann, Ilja; Tschapka, Marco; Tscharntke, Teja; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul Christiaan; Weiner, Christiane N; Werner, Michael; Wolters, Volkmar; Wurst, Susanne; Westphal, Catrin; Fischer, Markus; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Allan, Eric

    2016-12-08

    Land-use intensification is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Alongside reductions in local species diversity, biotic homogenization at larger spatial scales is of great concern for conservation. Biotic homogenization means a decrease in β-diversity (the compositional dissimilarity between sites). Most studies have investigated losses in local (α)-diversity and neglected biodiversity loss at larger spatial scales. Studies addressing β-diversity have focused on single or a few organism groups (for example, ref. 4), and it is thus unknown whether land-use intensification homogenizes communities at different trophic levels, above- and belowground. Here we show that even moderate increases in local land-use intensity (LUI) cause biotic homogenization across microbial, plant and animal groups, both above- and belowground, and that this is largely independent of changes in α-diversity. We analysed a unique grassland biodiversity dataset, with abundances of more than 4,000 species belonging to 12 trophic groups. LUI, and, in particular, high mowing intensity, had consistent effects on β-diversity across groups, causing a homogenization of soil microbial, fungal pathogen, plant and arthropod communities. These effects were nonlinear and the strongest declines in β-diversity occurred in the transition from extensively managed to intermediate intensity grassland. LUI tended to reduce local α-diversity in aboveground groups, whereas the α-diversity increased in belowground groups. Correlations between the β-diversity of different groups, particularly between plants and their consumers, became weaker at high LUI. This suggests a loss of specialist species and is further evidence for biotic homogenization. The consistently negative effects of LUI on landscape-scale biodiversity underscore the high value of extensively managed grasslands for conserving multitrophic biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Indeed, biotic homogenization rather than local diversity

  20. Characteristics of cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion prepared using APV-high pressure homogenizer and ultra turrax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmawati, Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Shamsuddin, Ahmad Fuad

    2014-09-01

    This work aims at determining the optimized parameter to prepare cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion by using high pressure homogenizer (2 passes at 900 bar) and ultra turrax T25 (12000 rpm for 5 min). Thirteen formulation of cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion obtained by Design Expert software were prepared at a range of oil and surfactant concentration between of 5% and 10% (v/v). Commercial cinnamaldehyde was blended with deionized water and Tween 80 (emulsifier). The responses used in obtaining the optimized condition were droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI) and emulsion stability (ζ-potential). Result showed that nanoemulsion prepared using 5% (v/v) cinnamaldehyde and 5% (v/v) Tween 80 and homogenized using high pressure homogenizer (APV, Germany) has the smallest size of droplet. The response surface plots for droplet size showed that droplet size (diameter, nm) decreased as the concentration of cinnamaldehyde oil and Tween 80 decreased. However ζ-potential value (mV) showed an increment as the cinnamaldehyde oil concentration decreased and Tween 80 increased. The optimum formulation as predicted by response surface methodology in order to produce a stable cinnamaldehyde nanoemulsion was at 5% cinnamaldehyde oil and 7.11% Tween 80. At this optimized conditions the droplet size and ζ-potential values were 56.56 nm and -4.32 mV, respectively.

  1. Improved turbulence models based on large eddy simulation of homogeneous, incompressible turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardino, J.; Ferziger, J. H.; Reynolds, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    The physical bases of large eddy simulation and subgrid modeling are studied. A subgrid scale similarity model is developed that can account for system rotation. Large eddy simulations of homogeneous shear flows with system rotation were carried out. Apparently contradictory experimental results were explained. The main effect of rotation is to increase the transverse length scales in the rotation direction, and thereby decrease the rates of dissipation. Experimental results are shown to be affected by conditions at the turbulence producing grid, which make the initial states a function of the rotation rate. A two equation model is proposed that accounts for effects of rotation and shows good agreement with experimental results. In addition, a Reynolds stress model is developed that represents the turbulence structure of homogeneous shear flows very well and can account also for the effects of system rotation.

  2. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous crystal nucleation in Li2O-2SiO2 glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, M. C.; Neilson, G. F.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    When analyzing crystal nucleation in glasses, it is difficult to distinguish between homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. A method is proposed to investigate the nature of crystal nucleation in Li2O-2SiO2, and calculations are performed to determine under which conditions saturation effects help ascertain the nature of the nucleation. The capability of detecting impurity particles in unheated glass via standard micrographic techniques (SEM or REM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is explored. Results indicate that if the maximum impurity particle densities do not exceed 2 x 10 to the 7th per cu cm then heterogeneous nucleation may be excluded and most impurity particles with densities in excess of 10 to the 10th per cu cm are detectable by SAXS. It is concluded that crystal nucleation in this system most probably occurs homogeneously.

  3. Homogenization of a mathematical model for cavitation in thin film flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsandzana, Afonso Fernando

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to mathematical modeling of thin film flow between two surfaces which are in relative motion. In particular such flows are important in lubrication theory. For many shapes of the surfaces and boundary conditions the pressure in the fluid will be so low that the continuous fluid film ruptures and air bubbles are formed. This phenomenon is known as cavitation and have a huge impact on the hydrodynamic performance. We derive a mathematical model of thin film flow between two close surfaces which takes into account cavitation, surface roughness and pressure dependent density. Moreover, we use two-scale convergence to homogenize the model. In addition, we compute the coefficients of the homogenized equation for a simple class of functions that describe the film thickness.

  4. [Growth Factors and Interleukins in Amniotic Membrane Tissue Homogenate].

    PubMed

    Stachon, T; Bischoff, M; Seitz, B; Huber, M; Zawada, M; Langenbucher, A; Szentmáry, N

    2015-07-01

    Application of amniotic membrane homogenate eye drops may be a potential treatment alternative for therapy resistant corneal epithelial defects. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor basic (bFGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in amniotic membrane homogenates. Amniotic membranes of 8 placentas were prepared and thereafter stored at - 80 °C using the standard methods of the LIONS Cornea Bank Saar-Lor-Lux, Trier/Westpfalz. Following defreezing, amniotic membranes were cut in two pieces and homogenized in liquid nitrogen. One part of the homogenate was prepared in cell-lysis buffer, the other part was prepared in PBS. The tissue homogenates were stored at - 20 °C until enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis for EGF, bFGF, HGF, KGF, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations. Concentrations of KGF, IL-6 and IL-8 were below the detection limit using both preparation techniques. The EGF concentration in tissue homogenates treated with cell-lysis buffer (2412 pg/g tissue) was not significantly different compared to that of tissue homogenates treated with PBS (1586 pg/g tissue, p = 0.72). bFGF release was also not significantly different using cell-lysis buffer (3606 pg/g tissue) or PBS treated tissue homogenates (4649 pg/g tissue, p = 0.35). HGF release was significantly lower using cell-lysis buffer (23,555 pg/g tissue), compared to PBS treated tissue (47,766 pg/g tissue, p = 0.007). Containing EGF, bFGF and HGF, and lacking IL-6 and IL-8, the application of amniotic membrane homogenate eye drops may be a potential treatment alternative for therapy-resistant corneal epithelial defects. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Homogenization of Large-Scale Movement Models in Ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garlick, M.J.; Powell, J.A.; Hooten, M.B.; McFarlane, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    A difficulty in using diffusion models to predict large scale animal population dispersal is that individuals move differently based on local information (as opposed to gradients) in differing habitat types. This can be accommodated by using ecological diffusion. However, real environments are often spatially complex, limiting application of a direct approach. Homogenization for partial differential equations has long been applied to Fickian diffusion (in which average individual movement is organized along gradients of habitat and population density). We derive a homogenization procedure for ecological diffusion and apply it to a simple model for chronic wasting disease in mule deer. Homogenization allows us to determine the impact of small scale (10-100 m) habitat variability on large scale (10-100 km) movement. The procedure generates asymptotic equations for solutions on the large scale with parameters defined by small-scale variation. The simplicity of this homogenization procedure is striking when compared to the multi-dimensional homogenization procedure for Fickian diffusion,and the method will be equally straightforward for more complex models. ?? 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  6. An enthalpy landscape view of homogeneous melting in crystals.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Alex M; Sinno, Talid

    2011-08-21

    A detailed analysis of homogeneous melting in crystalline materials modeled by empirical interatomic potentials is presented using the theory of inherent structures. We show that the homogeneous melting of a perfect, infinite crystalline material can be inferred directly from the growth exponent of the inherent structure density-of-states distribution expressed as a function of formation enthalpy. Interestingly, this growth is already established by the presence of very few homogeneously nucleated point defects in the form of Frenkel pairs. This finding supports the notion that homogeneous melting is appropriately defined in terms of a one-phase theory and does not require detailed consideration of the liquid phase. We then apply this framework to the study of applied hydrostatic compression on homogeneous melting and show that the inherent structure analysis used here is able to capture the correct pressure-dependence for two crystalline materials, namely silicon and aluminum. The coupling between the melting temperature and applied pressure arises through the distribution of formation volumes for the various inherent structures.

  7. Visual quality of printed surfaces: study of homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nébouy, D.; Hébert, M.; Fournel, T.; Lesur, J.-L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a homogeneity assessment method for the printed versions of uniform color images. This parameter has been specifically selected as one of the relevant attributes of printing quality. The method relies on image processing algorithms from a scanned image of the printed surface, especially the computation of gray level co-occurrence matrices and of objective homogeneity attribute inspired of Haralick's parameters. The viewing distance is also taken into account when computing the homogeneity index. Resizing and filtering of the scanned image are performed in order to keep the level of details visible by a standard human observer at short and long distances. The combination of the obtained homogeneity scores on both high and low resolution images provides a homogeneity index, which can be computed for any printed version of a uniform digital image. We tested the method on several hardcopies of a same image, and compared the scores to the empirical evaluations carried out by non-expert observers who were asked to sort the samples and to place them on a metric scale. Our experiments show a good matching between the sorting by the observers and the score computed by our algorithm.

  8. Context homogeneity facilitates both distractor inhibition and target enhancement.

    PubMed

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

    2013-05-06

    Homogeneous contexts were shown to result in prioritized processing of embedded targets compared to heterogeneous contexts (Duncan & Humphreys, 1989). The present experiment used behavioral and ERP measures to examine whether context homogeneity affects both enhancing relevant information and inhibiting irrelevant in contexts of varying homogeneity. Targets and distractors were presented laterally or on the vertical midline which allowed disentangling target- and distractor-related activity in the lateralized ERP (Hickey, diLollo, & McDonald, 2009). In homogeneous contexts, targets elicited an NT component from 150 ms on and a PD component from 200 ms on, showing early attention deployment at target locations and active suppression of distractors. In heterogeneous contexts, an NT component was also found from 150 ms on and PD was found from 250 ms on, suggesting delayed suppression of the distractor. Before 250 ms, distractors in heterogeneous contexts elicited a contralateral negativity, indicating attentional capture of the distractor prior to active suppression. In sum the present results suggest that top-down control of attention is more pronounced in homogeneous than in heterogeneous contexts.

  9. Effects of Pressure and Number of Turns on Microstructural Homogeneity Developed in High-Pressure Double Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahedi, Mohammad; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Paydar, Mohammad Hossein; Zheng, Shijian; Xiong, Ting; Knezevic, Marko

    2017-01-01

    With electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, we study the rate of grain refinement and the uniformity in the evolution of microstructure in commercial purity Cu samples during high-pressure double torsion (HPDT). We aim to identify the processing conditions that would produce a microstructure that is both refined and uniform across the sample in grain size, texture, and intra-granular misorientation with minimal energy input. Two processing variables, pressure and number of turns, are probed. To provide a reference for HPDT, the investigation is also carried out using the standard high-pressure torsion (HPT) technique. For both processes, grain sizes decrease with the number of turns and applied pressure. Under pressure of 600 MPa and 4 torsional turns, HPDT provided a more homogeneous grain structure than HPT. Likewise, we also demonstrate that for the same processing condition, HPDT again produces the more homogeneous grain structure. It is found that a more homogeneous grain structure is achieved after doubling number of turns than doubling the pressure amount to 1.2 GPa. However, the rate of grain refinement substantially increases with doubling the pressure. Considering these results, the HPDT process, compared to HPT, takes better advantage of the role that high pressure plays in shear strain-induced grain refinement and homogenizing the microstructure. Last, analysis of the applied work finds that the least amount of work required for achieving fine and homogeneous microstructure occurs when the applied pressure is maximized and number of turns is minimized.

  10. Effects of Pressure and Number of Turns on Microstructural Homogeneity Developed in High-Pressure Double Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahedi, Mohammad; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Paydar, Mohammad Hossein; Zheng, Shijian; Xiong, Ting; Knezevic, Marko

    2017-03-01

    With electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, we study the rate of grain refinement and the uniformity in the evolution of microstructure in commercial purity Cu samples during high-pressure double torsion (HPDT). We aim to identify the processing conditions that would produce a microstructure that is both refined and uniform across the sample in grain size, texture, and intra-granular misorientation with minimal energy input. Two processing variables, pressure and number of turns, are probed. To provide a reference for HPDT, the investigation is also carried out using the standard high-pressure torsion (HPT) technique. For both processes, grain sizes decrease with the number of turns and applied pressure. Under pressure of 600 MPa and 4 torsional turns, HPDT provided a more homogeneous grain structure than HPT. Likewise, we also demonstrate that for the same processing condition, HPDT again produces the more homogeneous grain structure. It is found that a more homogeneous grain structure is achieved after doubling number of turns than doubling the pressure amount to 1.2 GPa. However, the rate of grain refinement substantially increases with doubling the pressure. Considering these results, the HPDT process, compared to HPT, takes better advantage of the role that high pressure plays in shear strain-induced grain refinement and homogenizing the microstructure. Last, analysis of the applied work finds that the least amount of work required for achieving fine and homogeneous microstructure occurs when the applied pressure is maximized and number of turns is minimized.

  11. La structure de l'eau liquide: Une etude thermique par spectroscopie infrarouge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larouche, Pascal

    Le probleme de la structure de l'eau liquide est important car l'eau est le liquide le plus present sur Terre, et complexe, la quete d'un modele precis pour decrire comment fonctionne ce liquide ayant debute des la fin du dix-neuvieme siecle. Cette etude aborde ce probleme en etudiant l'effet de l'augmentation de la temperature sur H2O et D 2O purs a l'aide de la spectroscopie infrarouge. L'intervalle de temperatures scrute est 29--93.1°C. Les spectres enregistres sont des spectres MIR-ATR entre 650 et 6000 cm-1 . L'analyse par facteurs de ces donnees permet de montrer que deux et seulement deux facteurs principaux sont necessaires pour decomposer tous les spectres experimentaux. Ces resultats sont confirmes grace a l'analyse par facteurs de spectres de la region FIR. Par la suite, la transformation en spectres de la partie reelle n et imaginaire k de l'indice de refraction permet de combiner les donnees des regions MIR et FIR. Une fois ce calcul termine, les spectres de transmission complets de H 2O et D2O entre 25 et 90°C sont connus. Ils sont ensuite utilises pour calculer par extrapolation le spectre des especes constituant l'eau liquide, puis leur abondance en fonction de la temperature. L'extrapolation de ces abondances montre que les especes correspondent a des temperatures limites de --18 et 122°C. Par la suite, la decomposition gaussienne des spectres d'especes met en evidence la riche structure de ces objets et permet de demontrer que l'apparent deplacement du massif d'absorption OH (OD) est produit par une variation de l'intensite des bandes et non pas de leur deplacement. L'examen attentif des spectres des especes prouve qu'il n'y a pas de OH libres crees par l'augmentation de la temperature: meme a 93.1°C, chaque molecule possede quatre liens-H. Ces conclusions sont de plus confirmees par une analyse thermodynamique du passage des molecules de la phase solide a la phase gazeuse. Pour diversifier la nature des resultats experimentaux utilises, des

  12. Etude par spectroscopie de Coulomb de points quantiques lateraux individuels et couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioro-Ladriere, Michel

    Des points quantiques contenant un nombre discret et variable d'electrons sont formes dans un gaz bi-dimensionnel d'electrons a l'aide de grilles metalliques. Le transport electrique, le blocage de spin et la detection de charge sont employes comme outils spectroscopiques permettant de sonder les proprietes de ces nanostructures. Ces techniques permettent aussi de controler exactement le nombres d'electrons confines dans des points quantiques individuels et couples en utilisant un patron de grille judicieux. Une technique de refroidissement en tension est developpee afin de minimiser les effets parasites du bruit telegraphique. Ce type de bruit de charge deteriore la stabilite des nanostructures laterales par l'activation d'un minuscule courant de fuite entre les grilles et le gaz bi-dimensionnel. Un modele expliquant le role du refroidissement en tension sur le courant de fuite est presente. L'activation du courant de fuite est confirmee par detection de charge. Les effets des interactions entre les electrons pieges dans un point quantique sont ensuite etudies dans un regime ou il est possible de comparer les resulats experimentaux avec ceux obtenus par diagonalisation exacte. L'etude demontre que la phase associee au facteur de remplissage nu = 2 est instable au-dessus d'un nombre critique d'electrons. Cette instabilite est confirmee experimentalement par blocage de spin. On demontre aussi l'existence d'etats correles dans le regime des renversements de spin, associe au passage de la phase nu = 2 a nu = 1. Les etats correles sont identifies par spectroscopie en transport non lineaire. Cette caracterisation du diagramme de phase de points individuels permet de coupler deux points quantiques configures a nu = 2. Pour ce regime, la nanostructure se comporte comme un systeme a deux niveaux pouvant contenir entre un et quatre electrons de valence et ce, meme si le nombre total d'electrons est plus eleve. Les degres de liberte de charge et de spin des deux points

  13. Heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation compared: rapid nucleation on microscopic impurities.

    PubMed

    Sear, Richard P

    2006-03-16

    We use computer simulation to calculate the rates of both homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation on microscopic impurities. We do so in perhaps the simplest model of fluids and magnets: the two-dimensional Ising model. We expect our results to be qualitatively applicable to many simple and complex fluids. We find that heterogeneous nucleation on an impurity that is not only microscopic but also as small as possible, that is, a single fixed spin, is more than four orders of magnitude faster than homogeneous nucleation. The rate of heterogeneous nucleation then increases by a factor of approximately five for each additional fixed spin in the impurity. These results suggest that impurities as small as single molecules can result in homogeneous nucleation being irrelevant due to heterogeneous nucleation on these microscopic impurities being much faster.

  14. A tree-based model for homogeneous groupings of multinomials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Young

    2005-11-30

    The motivation of this paper is to provide a tree-based method for grouping multinomial data according to their classification probability vectors. We produce an initial tree by binary recursive partitioning whereby multinomials are successively split into two subsets and the splits are determined by maximizing the likelihood function. If the number of multinomials k is too large, we propose to order the multinomials, and then build the initial tree based on a dramatically smaller number k-1 of possible splits. The tree is then pruned from the bottom up. The pruning process involves a sequence of hypothesis tests of a single homogeneous group against the alternative that there are two distinct, internally homogeneous groups. As pruning criteria, the Bayesian information criterion and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test are proposed. The tree-based model is illustrated on genetic sequence data. Homogeneous groupings of genetic sequences present new opportunities to understand and align these sequences.

  15. Homogeneous sound-absorbing structures for aircraft engine ducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, A. F.; Ushakov, V. G.; Filippova, R. D.

    2009-11-01

    As applied to the ducts of aircraft engines, a new method is studied for extending the frequency range of sound absorption by using special homogeneous materials of a rigid structure. A through- or blind-hole perforation of such a homogeneous material is for the first time suggested with a view to substantially extend its capabilities. A theory is developed for sound-absorbing structures of perforated homogeneous material that allows for computing their wave parameters and impedance on the basis of those of the starting material. Based on this theory, one can calculate the impedance of any, no matter how complex a structure built up of several layers differing in thickness and perforation percentage and diameter. The results of calculations made for the impedance and sound absorption coefficient of single and multiple layer samples show good agreement with experimental data.

  16. Scaling of Lyapunov Exponents in Homogeneous, Isotropic DNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimmons, Nicholas; Malaya, Nicholas; Moser, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Lyapunov exponents measure the rate of separation of initially infinitesimally close trajectories in a chaotic system. Using the exponents, we are able to probe the chaotic nature of homogeneous isotropic turbulence and study the instabilities of the chaotic field. The exponents are measured by calculating the instantaneous growth rate of a linear disturbance, evolved with the linearized Navier-Stokes equation, at each time step. In this talk, we examine these exponents in the context of homogeneous isotropic turbulence with two goals: 1) to investigate the scaling of the exponents with respect to the parameters of forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence, and 2) to characterize the instabilities that lead to chaos in turbulence. Specifically, we explore the scaling of the Lyapunov exponents with respect to the Reynolds number and with respect to the ratio of the integral length scale and the computational domain size.

  17. Homogeneous solutions of minimal massive 3D gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charyyev, Jumageldi; Deger, Nihat Sadik

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we systematically construct simply transitive homogeneous spacetime solutions of the three-dimensional minimal massive gravity (MMG) model. In addition to those that have analogs in topologically massive gravity, such as warped AdS and p p waves, there are several solutions genuine to MMG. Among them, there is a stationary Lifshitz metric with the dynamical exponent z =-1 and an anisotropic Lifshitz solution where all coordinates scale differently. Moreover, we identify a homogeneous Kundt-type solution at the chiral point of the theory. We also show that in a particular limit of the physical parameters in which the Cotton tensor drops out from the MMG field equation, homogeneous solutions exist only at the merger point in the parameter space if they are not conformally flat.

  18. Computational homogenization of diffusion in three-phase mesoscale concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilenius, Filip; Larsson, Fredrik; Lundgren, Karin; Runesson, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    A three dimensional (3D) mesoscale model of concrete is presented and employed for computational homogenization in the context of mass diffusion. The mesoscale constituents of cement paste, aggregates and interfacial transition zone (ITZ) are contained within a statistical volume element (SVE) on which homogenization is carried out. The model implementation accounts for ITZ anisotropy thereby the diffusivity tensor depends on the normal of the aggregate surface. The homogenized response is compared between 3D and 2D SVEs to study the influence of the third spatial dimension, and for varying mesoscale compositions to study the influence of aggregate content on concrete diffusivity. The computational results show that the effective diffusivity of 3D SVEs is about 40 % greater than 2D SVEs when ITZ is excluded for the SVE, and 17 % when ITZ is included. The results are in agreement with the upper Hashin-Shtrikman bound when ITZ is excluded, and close to the Taylor assumption when ITZ is included.

  19. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  20. Cryogenic Homogenization and Sampling of Heterogeneous Multi-Phase Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Glenn M.; Ideker, Virgene D.; Siegwarth, James D.

    1999-09-21

    An apparatus and process for producing a homogeneous analytical sample from a heterogeneous feedstock by: providing the mixed feedstock, reducing the temperature of the feedstock to a temperature below a critical temperature, reducing the size of the feedstock components, blending the reduced size feedstock to form a homogeneous mixture; and obtaining a representative sample of the homogeneous mixture. The size reduction and blending steps are performed at temperatures below the critical temperature in order to retain organic compounds in the form of solvents, oils, or liquids that may be adsorbed onto or absorbed into the solid components of the mixture, while also improving the efficiency of the size reduction. Preferably, the critical temperature is less than 77K (-196 C). Further, with the process of this invention the representative sample maybe maintained below the critical temperature until being analyzed.

  1. Cryogenic homogenization and sampling of heterogeneous multi-phase feedstock

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Glenn Michael; Ideker, Virgene Linda; Siegwarth, James David

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and process for producing a homogeneous analytical sample from a heterogenous feedstock by: providing the mixed feedstock, reducing the temperature of the feedstock to a temperature below a critical temperature, reducing the size of the feedstock components, blending the reduced size feedstock to form a homogeneous mixture; and obtaining a representative sample of the homogeneous mixture. The size reduction and blending steps are performed at temperatures below the critical temperature in order to retain organic compounds in the form of solvents, oils, or liquids that may be adsorbed onto or absorbed into the solid components of the mixture, while also improving the efficiency of the size reduction. Preferably, the critical temperature is less than 77 K (-196.degree. C.). Further, with the process of this invention the representative sample may be maintained below the critical temperature until being analyzed.

  2. Cell structure imaging with bright and homogeneous nanometric light source.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Ono, Atsushi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Shen, Lin; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terekawa, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    Label-free optical nano-imaging of dendritic structures and intracellular granules in biological cells is demonstrated using a bright and homogeneous nanometric light source. The optical nanometric light source is excited using a focused electron beam. A zinc oxide (ZnO) luminescent thin film was fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to produce the nanoscale light source. The ZnO film formed by ALD emitted the bright, homogeneous light, unlike that deposited by another method. The dendritic structures of label-free macrophage receptor with collagenous structure-expressing CHO cells were clearly visualized below the diffraction limit. The inner fiber structure was observed with 120 nm spatial resolution. Because the bright homogeneous emission from the ZnO film suppresses the background noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the imaging results was greater than 10. The ALD method helps achieve an electron beam excitation assisted microscope with high spatial resolution and high SNR.

  3. Defining least community as a homogeneous group in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin; Ma, Ding

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces a new concept of least community that is as homogeneous as a random graph, and develops a new community detection algorithm from the perspective of homogeneity or heterogeneity. Based on this concept, we adopt head/tail breaks-a newly developed classification scheme for data with a heavy-tailed distribution-and rely on edge betweenness given its heavy-tailed distribution to iteratively partition a network into many heterogeneous and homogeneous communities. Surprisingly, the derived communities for any self-organized and/or self-evolved large networks demonstrate very striking power laws, implying that there are far more small communities than large ones. This notion of far more small things than large ones constitutes a new fundamental way of thinking for community detection.

  4. A Comparison of the Developmental Impact of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Housing Conditions on Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cade, Sharon M.

    1979-01-01

    Examines changes in students' sense of autonomy and in their ability to manage their emotions, as described by Chickering's vectors, in relation to residence hall environments. Results neither support nor refute the all-freshman hall. Participants moved developmentally along the Autonomy Scale. Freshman women increased their scores on the Impulse…

  5. Influence of initial conditions on homogeneous nucleation kinetics in a closed system.

    PubMed

    Kozísek, Zdenek; Demo, Pavel

    2005-10-08

    The formation of nuclei of a new phase from the supersaturated mother phase in a closed system is studied. The depletion of the mother phase due to phase transition is taken into account. Basic kinetic equations describing such process are solved numerically to determine the number density of nuclei of newly forming phase and nucleation rate. It is shown that in contrary to the standard nucleation model, when the depletion of the mother phase is not taken into account, the initial size distribution of the clusters affects considerably the nucleation process at higher supersaturations. Our model starts with the equilibrium size distribution of clusters up to various cluster sizes in the undercritical region. At lower supersaturation the formation of nuclei is similar to the standard model because of the low depletion of the mother phase. At higher supersaturation, the depletion of the mother phase plays an important role and some extremal value appears at the size distribution of nuclei, which is not observed in the standard model. The extremum in the size distribution is not a consequence of the coalescence process itself, but it is caused rather by the depletion of the mother phase during the phase transformation.

  6. An improved model of homogeneous nucleation for high supersaturation conditions: aluminum vapor.

    PubMed

    Savel'ev, A M; Starik, A M

    2016-12-21

    A novel model of stationary nucleation, treating the thermodynamic functions of small clusters, has been built. The model is validated against the experimental data on the nucleation rate of water vapor obtained in a broad range of supersaturation values (S = 10-120), and, at high supersaturation values, it reproduces the experimental data much better than the traditional classical nucleation model. A comprehensive analysis of the nucleation of aluminum vapor with the usage of developed stationary and non-stationary nucleation models has been performed. It has been shown that, at some value of supersaturation, there exists a double potential nucleation barrier. It has been revealed that the existence of this barrier notably delayed the establishment of a stationary distribution of subcritical clusters. It has also been demonstrated that the non-stationary model of the present work and the model of liquid-droplet approximation predict different values of nucleation delay time, τs. In doing so, the liquid-droplet model can underestimate notably (by more than an order of magnitude) the value of τs.

  7. Delineating relative homogeneous G+C domains in DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, W

    2001-10-03

    The concept of homogeneity of G+C content is always relative and subjective. This point is emphasized and quantified in this paper using a simple example of one sequence segmented into two subsequences. Whether the sequence is homogeneous or not can be answered by whether the two-subsequence model describes the DNA sequence better than the one-sequence model. There are at least three equivalent ways of looking at the 1-to-2 segmentation: Jensen-Shannon divergence measure, log likelihood ratio test, and model selection using Bayesian information criterion. Once a criterion is chosen, a DNA sequence can be recursively segmented into multiple domains. We use one subjective criterion called segmentation strength based on the Bayesian information criterion. Whether or not a sequence is homogeneous and how many domains it has depend on this criterion. We compare six different genome sequences (yeast S. cerevisiae chromosome III and IV, bacterium M. pneumoniae, human major histocompatibility complex sequence, longest contigs in human chromosome 21 and 22) by recursive segmentations at different strength criteria. Results by recursive segmentation confirm that yeast chromosome IV is more homogeneous than yeast chromosome III, human chromosome 21 is more homogeneous than human chromosome 22, and bacterial genomes may not be homogeneous due to short segments with distinct base compositions. The recursive segmentation also provides a quantitative criterion for identifying isochores in human sequences. Some features of our recursive segmentation, such as the possibility of delineating domain borders accurately, are superior to those of the moving-window approach commonly used in such analyses.

  8. Preparation and use of sea urchin egg homogenates.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Anthony J; Galione, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Cell homogenates provide a simple and yet powerful means of investigating the actions of Ca(2+)-mobilizing second messengers and their target Ca(2+) stores. The sea urchin egg homogenate is particularly useful and almost unique in retaining robust Ca(2+) responses to all three major messengers, i.e., inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), cyclic ADP-ribose, and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) (Lee and Aarhus. J Biol Chem 270: 2152-2172, 1995). It is not only invaluable for probing the pharmacology and mechanism of action of these messengers, but can also be used to assay Ca(2+) uptake mechanisms (Churchill et al. Cell 111: 703-708, 2002), second messenger production (Morgan et al. Methods in cADPR and NAADP research. In: Putney JW Jr (ed) Methods in calcium signalling, CRC: Boca Raton, FL, 2006), and dynamics of luminal pH (pHL) changes within acidic Ca(2+) stores (Lee and Epel. Dev Biol 98: 446-454, 1983; Morgan and Galione. Biochem J 402: 301-310, 2007). Here, we detail the protocols for preparing and using egg homogenates, wherein eggs are shed and collected into artificial sea water (ASW), dejellied, washed several times in Ca(2+)-free ASW, and then finally washed and resuspended in an intracellular-like medium. Homogenization is effected with a Dounce glass tissue homogenizer (at 50 % (v/v)) and aliquots frozen and stored at -80 °C. For Ca(2+) (or pHL) measurements, homogenate is thawed and sequentially diluted in an intracellular-like medium and the fluorescence of Ca(2+)- or pHL-sensitive dyes monitored in a standard fluorimeter or plate-reader.

  9. Homogenization of daily Spanish temperatures using SNHT and HOM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, E.; Rodrigo, F. S.; Fernández-Montes, S.; Luna, M. Y.; Rasilla, D.; Sigró, J.; Brunet, M.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, in connection with the need to improve our knowledge about climatic extremes, the homogenization community has focused on the adjustment of daily climatological data. The Spanish funded projects EXPICA (Spanish grant CGL2007-65546-C03) and its coordinated project CAFIDEXPI (Spanish grant CGL2007-65546-C03-02) is devoted to analyze changes in extremes over the Iberian Peninsula, thus needing daily homogeneous data suitable for such purposes. As daily resolution would increase the problems encountered by homogenizers to apply the different detection/correction methods, a widely used approach (as demonstrated by the survey conducted in the framework of the Working Group I of the COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach-HOME) is to combine a detection approach based on lower resolution data (monthly, seasonal, annual) and a correction method specifically designed for daily data. In this work, we present the results of the homogenization of a subset of 28 daily temperature stations, centered around the Iberian Peninsula, which were subsequently used to derive a basic climatology for the above mentioned projects. All stations are almost complete for the 1971-2000 reference period and many of them go back to the 19th century. The procedure detects potential breaks applying the SNHT test to annual and quarterly data, using additional support station as references and the limited available metadata. Daily adjustments were calculated using the HOM method and covering the longest possible period (variable for each station), allowed by available, well correlated, overlapping data. Trends before and after homogenization were assessed by calculating a set of climate change indices.

  10. Roles of Clonal Integration in both Heterogeneous and Homogeneous Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijie; Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that clonal integration can promote the performance of clonal plants in heterogeneous habitats, but the roles of clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats were rarely studied simultaneously. Ramet pairs of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb were placed in two habitats either heterogeneous or homogeneous in soil nutrient availability, with stolon connections left intact or severed. Total biomass, total length of stolons, and number of new ramets of distal (relatively young) ramets located in low-nutrient environments were significantly greater when the distal ramets were connected to than when they were disconnected from proximal (relatively old) ramets located in high-nutrient environments. Total length of stolons of proximal ramets growing in low-nutrient environments was significantly higher when the proximal ramets were connected to than when they were disconnected from the distal ramets growing in high-nutrient environments, but stolon connection did not affect total biomass or number of new ramets of the proximal ramets. Stolon severing also did not affect the growth of the whole ramet pairs in heterogeneous environments. In homogeneous high-nutrient environments stolon severing promoted the growth of the proximal ramets and the ramet pairs, but in homogeneous low-nutrient environments it did not affect the growth of the proximal or distal ramets. Hence, for A. philoxeroides, clonal fragmentation appears to be more advantageous than clonal integration in resource-rich homogeneous habitats, and clonal integration becomes beneficial in heterogeneous habitats. Our study contributes to revealing roles of clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats and expansion patterns of invasive clonal plants such as A. philoxeroides in multifarious habitats. PMID:27200026

  11. Absolute homogeneity test of Kelantan catchment precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, Faizah Che; Tosaka, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kenji; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Basri, Hidayah

    2015-05-01

    Along the Kelantan River in north east of Malaysia Peninsular, there are several areas often damaged by flood during north-east monsoon season every year. It is vital to predict the expected behavior of precipitation and river runoff for reducing flood damages of the area under rapid urbanization and future planning. Nevertheless, the accuracy and reliability of any hydrological and climate studies vary based on the quality of the data used. The factors causing variations on these data are the method of gauging and data collection, stations environment, station relocation and the reliability of the measurement tool affect the homogenous precipitation records. Hence in this study, homogeneity of long precipitation data series is checked via the absolute homogeneity test consisting of four methods namely Pettitt test, standard normal homogeneity test (SNHT), Buishand range test and Von Neumann ratio test. For homogeneity test, the annual rainfall amount from the daily precipitation records at stations located in Kelantan operated by Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia were considered in this study. The missing values were completed using the correlation and regression and inverse distance method. The data network consists of 103 precipitation gauging stations where 31 points are inactive, 6 gauging stations had missing precipitation values more than five years in a row and 16 stations have records less than twenty years. So total of 50 stations gauging stations were evaluated in this analysis. With the application of the mentioned methods and further graphical analysis, inhomogeneity was detected at 4 stations and 46 stations are found to be homogeneous.

  12. Analysis of stability of a homogeneous state of anisotropic plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, V. Yu. Chernova, T. G. Stepanov, S. E.

    2015-04-15

    Small-amplitude waves in collisionless magnetized plasma are considered in the framework of one-fluid anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics with allowance for the anisotropy of the pressure and thermal flux. Stability of a homogeneous plasma state is analyzed using an eighth-order dispersion relation. Restrictions on the parameters of the homogeneous state at which the dispersion relation has no complex roots at any value of the angle between the wave vector and the unperturbed magnetic field are obtained. The applied method also makes it possible to determine the types of unstable waves.

  13. Homogenization of spatially dispersive 1D fractal metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeini, Samaneh

    2016-04-01

    A layered uniaxial dielectric structure is considered. The layers in the structure are distributed according to a one-dimensional fractal set. The resulting fractal metamaterial is homogenized with an original source-driven homogenization approach which is suitable for both numerical and analytical calculations. Due to the fact that the considered metamaterial is nonmagnetic, the only effective parameter which needs to be calculated is the effective permittivity dyadic e(ω, k). The effective permittivity is obtained analytically (by using a transfer matrix approach) and numerically (by using a Finite-Difference Time-Domain solver).

  14. Homogeneous irradiation of the ''short-necked'' laryngeal cancer patient

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, J.W.; Eapen, L.; Kulkarni, N.S.

    1984-04-01

    A technique for homogeneous irradiation of the ''short-necked'' laryngeal cancer patient is presented. The method is similar to a previously described technique in that inferiorly angled opposed lateral beams are used with tissue compensators and beam wedges. The advantages of the technique presented here are that the patient is treated supine rather than sitting and therapy simulation is more easily carried out. Experimental verification of the calculated radiation distributions was carried out in a water phantom having the same shape as the patient. These results show the extent of dose homogeneity and in addition show that neglecting tissue inhomogeneity, the measured and calculated dose distribuion agree within 2%.

  15. Novel method for tracking in homogeneous volumetric media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy N.; Butz, John; Milster, Thomas D.; Bletscher, Warren L.; Walker, Edwin P.; Park, Sang-Ki; Felix, David

    2003-09-01

    Volumetric media have great potential for meeting future optical data storage demands, but homogeneous media lack internal features for tracking. A novel method of tracking inside homogeneous media is described that uses external reference tracks attached to the media. Several possible configurations for implementing the "slave-servo" concept are described and compared. An optical design for the most promising configuration is presented. This desing utilizes a diffractive optical element for dispersion compensation. Modeling describes the limits of device performance and alignment. Early prototype results are presented.

  16. Homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jin-Shuo; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; He, Xun-Jun; Wang, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Based on the theory of transformation optics, a type of homogeneous illusion device exhibiting transformed and shifted scattering effect is proposed in this paper. The constitutive parameters of the proposed device are derived, and full-wave simulations are performed to validate the electromagnetic properties of transformed and shifted scattering effect. The simulation results show that the proposed device not only can visually shift the image of target in two dimensions, but also can visually transform the shape of target. It is expected that such homogeneous illusion device could possess potential applications in military camouflage and other field of electromagnetic engineering.

  17. Homogeneous Open Quantum Random Walks on a Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Raffaella; Pautrat, Yan

    2015-09-01

    We study open quantum random walks (OQRWs) for which the underlying graph is a lattice, and the generators of the walk are homogeneous in space. Using the results recently obtained in Carbone and Pautrat (Ann Henri Poincaré, 2015), we study the quantum trajectory associated with the OQRW, which is described by a position process and a state process. We obtain a central limit theorem and a large deviation principle for the position process. We study in detail the case of homogeneous OQRWs on the lattice , with internal space.

  18. Cirrus crystal nucleation by homogeneous freezing of solution droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Sabin, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model consisting of a system of differential equations is used to study cirrus crystal nucleation in a rising parcel containing a distribution of cloud condensation nuclei. The evolution of the particle population and the thermodynamic variables in the parcel are examined. The results suggest that, if homogeneous freezing is not considered, liquid water should be detected below -40 C. If homogeneous freezing is considered, the rapid growth of ice crystals and vapor depletion prevent water saturation from being reached. It is shown that the likelihood of a droplet being frozen is increased by lower temperatures, larger droplet diameter, or lower solution density.

  19. Lagrangian and Eulerian statistics in homogeneous, anisotropic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Kartik; Bonaccorso, Fabio; Toschi, Federico; Biferale, Luca

    2016-11-01

    We report results from highly resolved direct numerical simulations of anisotropic homogeneous flows using up to 20483 collocations points. We examine a turbulent Kolmogorov flow with randomly correlated phases in order to recover space homogeneity on average. We present Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements concerning the universality of isotropic and anisotropic contributions using a systematic decomposition based on the eigenfunctions of the SO (3) group of rotations in three dimensions. Additionally, we discuss absolute dispersion statistics of particles in flows subjected to different large-scale anisotropies. ERC ADG NewTURB 2013.

  20. The Largest Fragment of a Homogeneous Fragmentation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyprianou, Andreas; Lane, Francis; Mörters, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We show that in homogeneous fragmentation processes the largest fragment at time t has size e^{-t Φ '(overline{p})}t^{-3/2 (log Φ )'(overline{p})+o(1)}, where Φ is the Lévy exponent of the fragmentation process, and overline{p} is the unique solution of the equation (log Φ )'(bar{p})=1/1+bar{p}. We argue that this result is in line with predictions arising from the classification of homogeneous fragmentation processes as logarithmically correlated random fields.

  1. Quaternionic-like manifolds and homogeneous twistor spaces.

    PubMed

    Pantilie, Radu

    2016-12-01

    Motivated by the quaternionic geometry corresponding to the homogeneous complex manifolds endowed with (holomorphically) embedded spheres, we introduce and initiate the study of the 'quaternionic-like manifolds'. These contain, as particular subclasses, the CR quaternionic and the ρ-quaternionic manifolds. Moreover, the notion of 'heaven space' finds its adequate level of generality in this setting: (essentially) any real analytic quaternionic-like manifold admits a (germ) unique heaven space, which is a ρ-quaternionic manifold. We, also, give a natural construction of homogeneous complex manifolds endowed with embedded spheres, thus, emphasizing the abundance of the quaternionic-like manifolds.

  2. Quantitative Homogeneity and In-Contact Particles of High Temperature Reactors (htr) Compacts Determination via X-Ray Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecomte, G.; Tisseur, D.; Létang, J. M.; Banchet, J.; Vitali, M. P.

    2008-02-01

    In AREVA Nuclear Power's High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design called ANTARES, fuel consists of compacts composed of few thousands millimetric quasi-spherical particles dispersed in a graphite matrix. Compact homogeneity, defined as the homogeneous particles spatial distribution in the matrix, as well as the possibility of obtaining particles in contact, need to be assessed since they condition the thermo-mechanical behavior of the nuclear fuel under irradiation. In this paper, image and data processing algorithms are developed to do so, based on X-Ray tomographic images.

  3. Vinyl Acetate Synthesis on Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Pd-Based Catalysts: A Theoretical Analysis on the Reaction Mechanisms#

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, José J.; García-Mota, Mónica; Braga, Ataualpa A. C.; López, Núria; Maseras, Feliu

    2009-09-01

    Vinyl acetate can be synthetized by both homogeneous and heterogeneous processes involving Pd atoms as reaction centers. We have determined the reaction mechanisms by means of density functional theory applied to molecular models for the homogeneous catalyst and to slabs that model the most active heterogeneous ensemble to unravel the similarities and differences in the reaction networks under these different conditions. We find that although the reaction network is similar, the rate determining step is different. Thus, direct extrapolations from organometallic chemistry to gas-phase heterogeneous catalysis should be handled with care.

  4. Regionalization Study of Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM) in Hydrologically Homogeneous River Basins of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Babita; Paul, Pranesh Kumar; Singh, Rajendra; Mishra, Ashok; Gupta, Praveen Kumar; Singh, Raghvendra P.

    2017-04-01

    A new semi-distributed conceptual hydrological model, namely Satellite based Hydrological Model (SHM), has been developed under 'PRACRITI-2' program of Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad for sustainable water resources management of India by using data from Indian Remote Sensing satellites. Entire India is divided into 5km x 5km grid cells and properties at the center of the cells are assumed to represent the property of the cells. SHM contains five modules namely surface water, forest, snow, groundwater and routing. Two empirical equations (SCS-CN and Hargreaves) and water balance method have been used in the surface water module; the forest module is based on the calculations of water balancing & dynamics of subsurface. 2-D Boussinesq equation is used for groundwater modelling which is solved using implicit finite-difference. The routing module follows a distributed routing approach which requires flow path and network with the key point of travel time estimation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of SHM using regionalization technique which also checks the usefulness of a model in data scarce condition or for ungauged basins. However, homogeneity analysis is pre-requisite to regionalization. Similarity index (Φ) and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis are adopted to test the homogeneity in terms of physical attributes of three basins namely Brahmani (39,033 km km^2)), Baitarani (10,982 km km^2)) and Kangsabati (9,660 km km^2)) with respect to Subarnarekha (29,196 km km^2)) basin. The results of both homogeneity analysis show that Brahmani basin is the most homogeneous with respect to Subarnarekha river basin in terms of physical characteristics (land use land cover classes, soiltype and elevation). The calibration and validation of model parameters of Brahmani basin is in progress which are to be transferred into the SHM set up of Subarnarekha basin and results are to be compared with the results of calibrated and validated

  5. Metabolism of propionate by sheep liver. Oxidation of propionate by homogenates

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R. M.; Osborne-White, W. S.

    1965-01-01

    1. The rate and stability to aging of the metabolism of propionate by sheep-liver slices and sucrose homogenates were examined. Aging for up to 20min. at 37° in the absence of added substrate had little effect with slices, whole homogenates or homogenates without the nuclear fraction. 2. Metabolism of propionate by sucrose homogenates was confined to the mitochondrial fraction, but the mitochondrial supernatant (microsomes plus cell sap) stimulated propionate removal. 3. The rate of propionate metabolism by liver slices was higher in a high potassium phosphate–bicarbonate medium [0·88(±s.e.m. 0·16)μmole/mg. of N/hr.] than in Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate medium [0·44(±s.e.m. 0·13)μmole/mg. of N/hr.]. 4. Metabolism of propionate by sucrose homogenates freed from nuclei was dependent on the presence of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ATP. Propionate removal was stimulated 250% by Mg2+ ions and 670% by cytochrome c. 5. In the complete medium 2·39(±s.e.m. 0·15)μmoles of propionate were consumed/mg. of N/hr. 6. The ratio of oxygen consumption to propionate utilization was sufficient to account for the complete oxidation of half the propionate consumed. 7. The only products detected under these conditions were succinate, fumarate and malate. Propionate had no effect on the production of lactate from endogenous sources and did not itself give rise to lactate. 8. Methylmalonate did not accumulate when propionate was metabolized and was not oxidized. It was detected as an intermediate in the conversion of propionyl-CoA into succinate. The rate of this reaction sequence was adequate to account for the rate of propionate metabolism by sucrose homogenates or slices, provided that the rate of formation of propionyl-CoA was not limiting. 9. The methylmalonate pathway was predominantly a mitochondrial function. 10. The metabolism of propionate appeared to be dependent on active oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:14340092

  6. Construction of homogeneous loading functions for elastoplastic damage models for concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ji; Li, Jie

    2014-03-01

    Over the past 2 decades, tight restriction has been imposed on strength criteria of concrete by the combination of plasticity and damage in one theory. The present study aims at constructing plastic/damage loading functions for elastoplastic damage models for concrete that can perform more satisfactorily in 3D stress states. Numerous strength criteria of concrete are reorganized according to their simplest representations as Cartesian, cylindrical, mixed cylindrical-Cartesian, and other forms, and the homogeneity of loading functions discussed. It is found that under certain supplementary conditions from physical meanings, an unambiguous definition of the cohesion in a strength criterion, which is demanded in an elastoplastic damage model, is usually available in an explicit or implicit form, and in each case the loading function is still homogeneous. To apply and validate the presented theory, we construct the respective homogeneous damage and plastic loading functions and implant them into some widely used elastoplastic damage models for concrete, and their performances in triaxial compression prove to have improved significantly.

  7. Homogenization of carbonate-bearing microinclusions in diamond at P- T parameters of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragozin, A. L.; Palyanov, Yu. N.; Zedgenizov, D. A.; Kalinin, A. A.; Shatsky, V. S.

    2016-10-01

    The staged high-pressure annealing of natural cubic diamonds with numerous melt microinclusions from the Internatsional'naya kimberlite pipe was studied experimentally. The results mainly show that the carbonate phases, the daughter phases in partially crystallized microinclusions in diamonds, may undergo phase transformations under the mantle P- T conditions. Most likely, partial melting and further dissolution of dolomite in the carbonate-silicate melt (homogenization of inclusions) occur in inclusions. The experimental data on the staged high-pressure annealing of diamonds with melt microinclusions allow us to estimate the temperature of their homogenization as 1400-1500°C. Thus, cubic diamonds from the Internatsional'naya pipe could have been formed under quite high temperatures corresponding to the lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary. However, it should be noted that the effect of selective capture of inclusions with partial loss of volatiles in relation to the composition of the crystallization medium is not excluded during the growth. This may increase the temperature of their homogenization significantly between 1400 and 1500°C.

  8. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    DOE PAGES

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage.more » Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.« less

  9. Projected changes in rainfall and temperature over homogeneous regions of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Savita; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Rao, K. Koteswara

    2016-11-01

    The impact of climate change on the characteristics of seasonal maximum and minimum temperature and seasonal summer monsoon rainfall is assessed over five homogeneous regions of India using a high-resolution regional climate model. Providing REgional Climate for Climate Studies (PRECIS) is developed at Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, UK. The model simulations are carried out over South Asian domain for the continuous period of 1961-2098 at 50-km horizontal resolution. Here, three simulations from a 17-member perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) produced using HadCM3 under the Quantifying Model Uncertainties in Model Predictions (QUMP) project of Hadley Centre, Met. Office, UK, have been used as lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the 138-year simulations of the regional climate model under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B scenario. The projections indicate the increase in the summer monsoon (June through September) rainfall over all the homogeneous regions (15 to 19%) except peninsular India (around 5%). There may be marginal change in the frequency of medium and heavy rainfall events (>20 mm) towards the end of the present century. The analysis over five homogeneous regions indicates that the mean maximum surface air temperatures for the pre-monsoon season (March-April-May) as well as the mean minimum surface air temperature for winter season (January-February) may be warmer by around 4 °C towards the end of the twenty-first century.

  10. Hysteresis Effects and Strain-Induced Homogeneity Effects in Base Metal Thermocouples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlasek, P.; Elliott, C. J.; Pearce, J. V.; Duris, S.; Palencar, R.; Koval, M.; Machin, G.

    2015-03-01

    Thermocouples are used in a wide variety of industrial applications in which they play an important role for temperature control and monitoring. Wire inhomogeneity and hysteresis effects are major sources of uncertainty in thermocouple measurements. To efficiently mitigate these effects, it is first necessary to explore the impact of strain-induced inhomogeneities and hysteresis, and their contribution to the uncertainty. This article investigates homogeneity and hysteresis effects in Types N and K mineral-insulated metal-sheathed (MIMS) thermocouples. Homogeneity of thermocouple wires is known to change when mechanical strain is experienced by the thermoelements. To test this influence, bends of increasingly small radii, typical in industrial applications, were made to a number of thermocouples with different sheath diameters. The change in homogeneity was determined through controlled immersion of the thermocouple into an isothermal liquid oil bath at and was found to be very small at for Type K thermocouples, with no measureable change in Type N thermocouples found. An experiment to determine the hysteresis effect in thermocouples was performed on swaged, MIMS Type N and Type K thermocouples, in the temperature range from to . The hysteresis measurements presented simulate the conditions that thermocouples may be exposed to in industrial applications through continuous cycling over 136 h. During this exposure, a characteristic drift from the reference function has been observed but no considerable difference between the heating and cooling measurements was measureable. The measured differences were within the measurement uncertainties; therefore, no hysteresis was observed.

  11. Effect of high pressure homogenization on aqueous phase solvent extraction of lipids from Nannochloris Oculata microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Samarasinghe, Nalin; Fernando, Sandun; Faulkner, William B.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to extract lipids from high-moisture Nannochloris Oculata algal biomass disrupted with high pressure homogenization was investigated. During the first phase, the effect of high pressure homogenization (system pressure and number of passes) on disrupting aqueous algae (of different concentrations and degree of stress) was investigated. Secondly, the effect of degree of cell wall disruption on the amount of lipids extracted with three solvents, namely: hexane, dichloromethane and chloroform, were compared. Studies reveled that high pressure homogenization is effective on cell disruption while the amount of system pressure being the most significant factor affecting the degree of cell breakage. Although the number of passes had some impact, the level of disruption seemed to level-off after a certain number of passes. The study revealed that slightly polar solvents (such as chloroform and dichloromethane) performed better in aqueous-phase lipid extractions as compared to hexane. Also, it was revealed that it was not necessary to disrupt the algal cells completely to achieve appreciable levels of lipid yields. In fact, conditions that exerted only 20% of the cells to completely disrupt, allowed sufficient damage to liberate most of the lipids contained in the remainder of the cells.

  12. Extremal horizons with reduced symmetry: hyperscaling violation, stripes, and a classification for the homogeneous case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Norihiro; Kachru, Shamit; Kundu, Nilay; Narayan, Prithvi; Sircar, Nilanjan; Trivedi, Sandip P.; Wang, Huajia

    2013-03-01

    Classifying the zero-temperature ground states of quantum field theories with finite charge density is a very interesting problem. Via holography, this problem is mapped to the classification of extremal charged black brane geometries with anti-de Sitter asymptotics. In a recent paper [1], we proposed a Bianchi classification of the extremal near-horizon geometries in five dimensions, in the case where they are homogeneous but, in general, anisotropic. Here, we extend our study in two directions: we show that Bianchi attractors can lead to new phases, and generalize the classification of homogeneous phases in a way suggested by holography. In the first direction, we show that hyperscaling violation can naturally be incorporated into the Bianchi horizons. We also find analytical examples of "striped" horizons. In the second direction, we propose a more complete classification of homogeneous horizon geometries where the natural mathematics involves real four-algebras with three dimensional sub-algebras. This gives rise to a richer set of possible near-horizon geometries, where the holographic radial direction is non-trivially intertwined with field theory spatial coordinates. We find examples of several of the new types in systems consisting of reasonably simple matter sectors coupled to gravity, while arguing that others are forbidden by the Null Energy Condition. Extremal horizons in four dimensions governed by three-algebras or four-algebras are also discussed.

  13. Homogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous inorganic/organic particles representative of biomass burning: water activity, freezing temperatures, nucleation rates.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Daniel A; Rigg, Yannick J

    2011-02-10

    Homogeneous ice nucleation plays an important role in the formation of cirrus clouds with subsequent effects on the global radiative budget. Here we report on homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures and corresponding nucleation rate coefficients of aqueous droplets serving as surrogates of biomass burning aerosol. Micrometer-sized (NH(4))(2)SO(4)/levoglucosan droplets with mass ratios of 10:1, 1:1, 1:5, and 1:10 and aqueous multicomponent organic droplets with and without (NH(4))(2)SO(4) under typical tropospheric temperatures and relative humidities are investigated experimentally using a droplet conditioning and ice nucleation apparatus coupled to an optical microscope with image analysis. Homogeneous freezing was determined as a function of temperature and water activity, a(w), which was set at droplet preparation conditions. The ice nucleation data indicate that minor addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) to the aqueous organic droplets renders the temperature dependency of water activity negligible in contrast to the case of aqueous organic solution droplets. The mean homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient derived from 8 different aqueous droplet compositions with average diameters of ∼60 μm for temperatures as low as 195 K and a(w) of 0.82-1 is 2.18 × 10(6) cm(-3) s(-1). The experimentally derived freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients are in agreement with predictions of the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory when taking predictive uncertainties into account. However, the presented ice nucleation data indicate that the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory overpredicts the freezing temperatures by up to 3 K and corresponding ice nucleation rate coefficients by up to ∼2 orders of magnitude. A shift of 0.01 in a(w), which is well within the uncertainty of typical field and laboratory relative humidity measurements, brings experimental and predicted freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice

  14. Homogeneity of Moral Judgment? Apprentices Solving Business Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Klaus; Heinrichs, Karin; Minnameier, Gerhard; Parche-Kawik, Kirsten

    In an ongoing longitudinal study that started in 1994, the moral development of business apprentices is being studied. The focal point of this project is a critical analysis of L. Kohlberg's thesis of homogeneity, according to which people should judge every moral issue from the point of view of their "modal" stage (the most frequently…

  15. Matrix algorithms for solving (in)homogeneous bound state equations.

    PubMed

    Blank, M; Krassnigg, A

    2011-07-01

    In the functional approach to quantum chromodynamics, the properties of hadronic bound states are accessible via covariant integral equations, e.g. the Bethe-Salpeter equation for mesons. In particular, one has to deal with linear, homogeneous integral equations which, in sophisticated model setups, use numerical representations of the solutions of other integral equations as part of their input. Analogously, inhomogeneous equations can be constructed to obtain off-shell information in addition to bound-state masses and other properties obtained from the covariant analogue to a wave function of the bound state. These can be solved very efficiently using well-known matrix algorithms for eigenvalues (in the homogeneous case) and the solution of linear systems (in the inhomogeneous case). We demonstrate this by solving the homogeneous and inhomogeneous Bethe-Salpeter equations and find, e.g. that for the calculation of the mass spectrum it is as efficient or even advantageous to use the inhomogeneous equation as compared to the homogeneous. This is valuable insight, in particular for the study of baryons in a three-quark setup and more involved systems.

  16. Changes in Beliefs about Category Homogeneity and Variability across Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    Effective category-based induction requires understanding that categories include both fundamental similarities between members and important variation. This article explores 4- to 11-year-olds' (n = 207) and adults' (n = 49) intuitions about this balance between within-category homogeneity and variability using a novel induction task in which…

  17. Political homogeneity can nurture threats to research validity.

    PubMed

    Chambers, John R; Schlenker, Barry R

    2015-01-01

    Political homogeneity within a scientific field nurtures threats to the validity of many research conclusions by allowing ideologically compatible values to influence interpretations, by minimizing skepticism, and by creating premature consensus. Although validity threats can crop in any research, the usual corrective activities in science are more likely to be minimized and delayed.

  18. From homogeneous eigenvalue problems to two-sex population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Horst R

    2017-03-08

    Enclosure theorems are derived for homogeneous bounded order-preserving operators and illustrated for operators involving pair-formation functions introduced by Karl-Peter Hadeler in the late 1980s. They are applied to a basic discrete-time two-sex population model and to the relation between the basic turnover number and the basic reproduction number.

  19. Exploring cosmic homogeneity with the BOSS DR12 galaxy sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntelis, Pierros; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Burtin, Etienne; Laurent, Pierre; Rich, James; Guillermo Busca, Nicolas; Tinker, Jeremy; Aubourg, Eric; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Bautista, Julian; Palanque Delabrouille, Nathalie; Delubac, Timothée; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Hogg, David W.; Myers, Adam; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Partick; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P.; Tojeiro, Rita; Yeche, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we probe the transition to cosmic homogeneity in the Large Scale Structure (LSS) of the Universe using the CMASS galaxy sample of BOSS spectroscopic survey which covers the largest effective volume to date, 3 h-3 Gpc3 at 0.43 <= z <= 0.7. We study the scaled counts-in-spheres, N(homogeneity scale of the universe using a Landy & Szalay inspired estimator. Defining the scale of transition to homogeneity as the scale at which D2(r) reaches 3 within 1%, i.e. D2(r)>2.97 for r>RH, we find RH = (63.3±0.7) h-1 Mpc, in agreement at the percentage level with the predictions of the ΛCDM model RH=62.0 h-1 Mpc. Thanks to the large cosmic depth of the survey, we investigate the redshift evolution of the transition to homogeneity scale and find agreement with the ΛCDM prediction. Finally, we find that Script D2 is compatible with 3 at scales larger than 300 h-1 Mpc in all redshift bins. These results consolidate the Cosmological Principle and represent a precise consistency test of the ΛCDM model.

  20. Polished homogeneity testing of Corning fused silica boules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanning, Andrew W.; Ellison, Joseph F.; Green, Daniel E.

    1999-11-01

    Interferometrically measuring the index of refraction variation (index homogeneity) of glass blanks requires that the blanks be made transparent to the interferometer laser. One method for achieving this is to 'sandwich' a rough ground blank between two polished flats while adding an index matching liquid at each surface interface. This is better known as oil-on-flat (OOF) or oil-on-plate testing. Another method requires polishing both surfaces and is better known as polished homogeneity (PHOM) testing or the Schwider method. Corning Inc. historically has used OOF testing to measure the index homogeneity of disk-shaped, fused silica boules over multiple 18' diameter apertures. Recently a boule polishing and PHOM testing process was developed by Corning for measuring the homogeneity over 24' diameter apertures to support fused silica production for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Consequently, the PHOM technique has been compared to the OOF process using a number of different methods including repeatability/reproducibility studies, data stitching, and vibration analysis. The analysis performed demonstrates PHOM's advantages over OOF testing.

  1. The IUE data base: Homogenizing the IUE object nomenclature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barylak, Michael; Wamsteker, Willem; Schmitz, Marion

    1988-01-01

    The IUE project started to homogenize the object nomenclature in the IUE data base. Due to the absence of an official IAU nomenclature hierarchy and in view of the increasing confusion in IUE (and, in general, astronomical) object identifications, the IUE project adopted its own nomenclature hierarchy. The scheme and problems encountered in establishing it are described.

  2. Revisiting the homogenization of dammed rivers in the southeastern US

    Treesearch

    Ryan A. McManamay; Donald J. Orth; Charles A. Dolloff

    2012-01-01

    For some time, ecologists have attempted to make generalizations concerning how disturbances influence natural ecosystems, especially river systems. The existing literature suggests that dams homogenize the hydrologic variability of rivers. However, this might insinuate that dams affect river systems similarly despite a large gradient in natural hydrologic character....

  3. Generalized Euler identity for subdifferentials of homogeneous functions and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuchun; Wei, Zhou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we mainly consider subdifferentials and basic subdifferentials of homogeneous functions defined on real Banach space and Asplund space respectively, and obtain the generalized Euler identity. As applications, we consider constrained optimization problems and several geometric properties of Banach space.

  4. Matrix algorithms for solving (in)homogeneous bound state equations

    PubMed Central

    Blank, M.; Krassnigg, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the functional approach to quantum chromodynamics, the properties of hadronic bound states are accessible via covariant integral equations, e.g. the Bethe–Salpeter equation for mesons. In particular, one has to deal with linear, homogeneous integral equations which, in sophisticated model setups, use numerical representations of the solutions of other integral equations as part of their input. Analogously, inhomogeneous equations can be constructed to obtain off-shell information in addition to bound-state masses and other properties obtained from the covariant analogue to a wave function of the bound state. These can be solved very efficiently using well-known matrix algorithms for eigenvalues (in the homogeneous case) and the solution of linear systems (in the inhomogeneous case). We demonstrate this by solving the homogeneous and inhomogeneous Bethe–Salpeter equations and find, e.g. that for the calculation of the mass spectrum it is as efficient or even advantageous to use the inhomogeneous equation as compared to the homogeneous. This is valuable insight, in particular for the study of baryons in a three-quark setup and more involved systems. PMID:21760640

  5. A homogeneous superconducting magnet design using a hybrid optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Zhipeng; Wang, Qiuliang; Liu, Feng; Yan, Luguang

    2013-12-01

    This paper employs a hybrid optimization algorithm with a combination of linear programming (LP) and nonlinear programming (NLP) to design the highly homogeneous superconducting magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The whole work is divided into two stages. The first LP stage provides a global optimal current map with several non-zero current clusters, and the mathematical model for the LP was updated by taking into account the maximum axial and radial magnetic field strength limitations. In the second NLP stage, the non-zero current clusters were discretized into practical solenoids. The superconducting conductor consumption was set as the objective function both in the LP and NLP stages to minimize the construction cost. In addition, the peak-peak homogeneity over the volume of imaging (VOI), the scope of 5 Gauss fringe field, and maximum magnetic field strength within superconducting coils were set as constraints. The detailed design process for a dedicated 3.0 T animal MRI scanner was presented. The homogeneous magnet produces a magnetic field quality of 6.0 ppm peak-peak homogeneity over a 16 cm by 18 cm elliptical VOI, and the 5 Gauss fringe field was limited within a 1.5 m by 2.0 m elliptical region.

  6. HOMOGENEOUS AIR OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS UTILIZING MN AND CO CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Homogeneous Air Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Utilizing Mn and Co Catalysts

    Thomas M. Becker and Michael A. Gonzalez*, Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Mail Sto...

  7. Stability of rehydrated Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine homogeneity over time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper vaccine application is required to maximize the results of the vaccination, with maintenance of a homogenous solution is critical to obtain uniform results. This study was designed to analyze the need for continued mixing of a Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine solution in order to maintain a ...

  8. Homogeneous thin film lens on LiNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Pisu; Laybourn, Peter J. R.; Righini, Giancarlo C.

    1991-02-01

    Problems in the fabrication of homogeneous integ ited lenses on lithium niobate were investigated. TIPE and double proton exchange waveguide . abrication methods were compared and various masking systems tested. Mode matching between a v w index single mode DMPE waveguide and a high index multi mode PE waveguide was optimized.

  9. Isotopic homogeneity of iron in the early solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X K; Guo, Y; O'Nions, R K; Young, E D; Ash, R D

    2001-07-19

    The chemical and isotopic homogeneity of the early solar nebula, and the processes producing fractionation during its evolution, are central issues of cosmochemistry. Studies of the relative abundance variations of three or more isotopes of an element can in principle determine if the initial reservoir of material was a homogeneous mixture or if it contained several distinct sources of precursor material. For example, widespread anomalies observed in the oxygen isotopes of meteorites have been interpreted as resulting from the mixing of a solid phase that was enriched in 16O with a gas phase in which 16O was depleted, or as an isotopic 'memory' of Galactic evolution. In either case, these anomalies are regarded as strong evidence that the early solar nebula was not initially homogeneous. Here we present measurements of the relative abundances of three iron isotopes in meteoritic and terrestrial samples. We show that significant variations of iron isotopes exist in both terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials. But when plotted in a three-isotope diagram, all of the data for these Solar System materials fall on a single mass-fractionation line, showing that homogenization of iron isotopes occurred in the solar nebula before both planetesimal accretion and chondrule formation.

  10. Class Management and Homogeneous Grouping in Kindergarten Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Guanglei; Pelletier, Janette; Hong, Yihua; Corter, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold. Firstly the authors examine, given the amount of time allocated to literacy instruction, whether homogeneous grouping helps improve class manageability over the kindergarten year and whether individual students' externalizing problem behaviors will decrease in tandem. Secondly, they investigate whether the…

  11. On Euler's Theorem for Homogeneous Functions and Proofs Thereof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tykodi, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Euler's theorem for homogenous functions is useful when developing thermodynamic distinction between extensive and intensive variables of state and when deriving the Gibbs-Duhem relation. Discusses Euler's theorem and thermodynamic applications. Includes six-step instructional strategy for introducing the material to students. (Author/JN)

  12. Compressibility Effects on the Passive Scalar Flux Within Homogeneous Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaisdell, G. A.; Mansour, N. N.; Reynolds, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    Compressibility effects on turbulent transport of a passive scalar are studied within homogeneous turbulence using a kinematic decomposition of the velocity field into solenoidal and dilatational parts. It is found that the dilatational velocity does not produce a passive scalar flux, and that all of the passive scalar flux is due to the solenoidal velocity.

  13. HOMOGENEOUS AIR OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS UTILIZING MN AND CO CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Homogeneous Air Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Utilizing Mn and Co Catalysts

    Thomas M. Becker and Michael A. Gonzalez*, Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Mail Sto...

  14. HOMOGENEOUS FLUOROIMMUNOASSAY OF A PYRETHROID METABOLITE IN URINE. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroids are widely used in agriculture as insecticides. In this study, we describe a simple one-step homogeneous fluoroimmunoassay for the glycine conjugate of phenoxybenzoic acid (PBAG), a putative pyrethroid metabolite that may be used as a biomarker of exposure to pyret...

  15. A Comparison of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Anxiety Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    For test anxious subjects, both forms of anxiety management training (AMT) significantly reduced test anxiety compared with controls. For speech anxious subjects, both forms of AMT reduced speech anxiety; however, heterogeneous AMT lowered it more than homogeneous AMT. (Author/BEF)

  16. Noncommutative anisotropic oscillator in a homogeneous magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, D.; Roy, P.

    2017-02-01

    We study anisotropic oscillator in the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field and other related systems in the noncommutative plane. Energy values as function of the noncommutative parameter θ and the magnetic field B have been obtained. Some features of the spectrum, for example, formation of energy bands etc. have been examined. The effect of anisotropy on the energy levels has also been discussed.

  17. Homogeneity of Moral Judgment?--Apprentices Solving Business Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Klaus; Heinrichs, Karin; Minnameier, Gerhard; Parche-Kawik, Kirsten

    1999-01-01

    Presents results on the status of moral development of apprentices in the business context within different types of situations. States that the results seem to support the hypothesis of "moral segmentation," contrary to Kohlberg's theory of homogeneity, and indicate that individual patterns of moral judgment are to a large extent…

  18. Segmenting Demographically Homogeneous Radio Audiences: An Exploratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planchon, John M.

    The possibility that the benefits sought by radio listeners could be used to further define demographically homogeneous audiences for marketing purposes was investigated by surveying a segment of college undergraduate listeners. Twenty-five interviews were conducted to determine where, why, what time of day, and to what station an individual…

  19. On the Autonomy and Homogeneity of Canadian English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollinger, Stefan; Clarke, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the symposium approaches the themes of autonomy and homogeneity in Canadian English from a historical perspective. We trace the debates on these topics back to the late 19th century and relate them to changing public attitudes toward Canadian linguistic autonomy over time. We review the scholarly evidence on autonomy and…

  20. Kinetics of homogeneous nucleation in many component systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reiss's classical treatment of the kinetics of homogeneous nucleation in a system containing two chemical components is extended to many-component systems. The formulation is analogous to the pseudo-stationary state theory of chemical reaction rates with the free energy as a function of the composition of the embryo taking the place of the potential energy as a function of interatomic distances.