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Sample records for homosexuality female

  1. [Comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Honsberg, L

    1989-03-01

    The author explores to what extent the first gender-identical love between mother and daughter shapes female self representation and becomes influential for later homosexual relations among women. Literary examples and case vignettes illustrate the connection. PMID:2652196

  2. [Clinical comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M

    1993-02-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, homosexual women are regarded as being possessed by violent hatred of the mother. They are held to identify with the male or the phallic and to display an absence of "normal" femaleness. Their attendant immaturity makes them incapable of love. The author takes issue with the assumption that normality is synonymous with mature, reciprocal heterosexuality. With reference to a case study of a homosexual woman, she traces the structure of a lesbian love relationship. The patient is the involuntary witness of sexual intercourse between the parents. The mixture of alarm and excitement which this arouses sparks off female desires that revive early libidinous experiences with the mother. The girl desires her mother, without however identifying with the father. In her later relationships with women she does not relate to her partners as a disguised man but as a woman. Identification with the father serves as a defence against the desire for-and the fear of-identification at a female level. PMID:8441814

  3. Epidemiological studies of female prisoners. IV. Homosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Climent, C E; Ervin, F R; Rollins, A; Plutchik, R; Batinelli, C J

    1977-01-01

    The existence of homosexual behavior in female offenders is investigated not only as an adaptive process but as an established behavior existing prior to detention. Ninety-five prisoners from the Framingham Institution for Women were included: 26 were self-reported homosexuals, 42 were considered homosexuals by prision staff, and 27 were nonhomosexuals. Suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, psychiatric problems during menstruation, and a history of violent crimes against persons were characteristic of the homosexual group, whereas a history of crimes against self and property as well as history of alcoholism were common in the nonhomosexual group. Violet behavior together with suicidal attempts in homosexual female prisoners support the hypothesis that aggressive impulses may be expressed either externally or toward the self, the problem being one of impairment in control mechanisms. The findings also suppor the idea that violent behavior, as shown by this group of incarcerated homosexual females, is multidetermined. The factors that influence its appearance and expression could include a history of family violence, impulse control as children, neurological abnormality, sex role identification problems, biochemical abnormalities (manifested as menstrual irregularities), and impulse control problems as adults. A better understanding of human violence must be based on the recognition of the multidimensional nature of the problem using the tools and insights from many disciplines. PMID:830798

  4. Parent-Child Relationship and Sexual Identity in Male and Female Homosexuals and Heterosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jr., Norman L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Striking features of the studies of male and female homosexuality reported here are (a) the prominent role played by weak and/or hostile fathers in the etiology of homosexuality for both women and men; (b) the lack of a clear role of mothers in female homosexual etiology but the striking role of mothers in the etiology of male homosexuals; (c) the…

  5. Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity.

    PubMed

    Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Corna, Francesca; Capiluppi, Claudio

    2004-11-01

    The Darwinian paradox of male homosexuality in humans is examined, i.e. if male homosexuality has a genetic component and homosexuals reproduce less than heterosexuals, then why is this trait maintained in the population? In a sample of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives (a total of over 4600 individuals), we found that female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives. The study confirms previous reports, in particular that homosexuals have more maternal than paternal male homosexual relatives, that homosexual males are more often later-born than first-born and that they have more older brothers than older sisters. We discuss the findings and their implications for current research on male homosexuality.

  6. Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-05-01

    We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality.

  7. The biogeography and evolution of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L; Jiskoot, Hester

    2010-12-01

    In certain Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) populations, females routinely engage in same-sex courtship, mounting, and consortship activity. Drawing on behavioral, biogeographic, and genetic research, we suggest that female homosexual behavior may be associated with genetically distinct free-ranging populations of Japanese macaques. In addition, we briefly discuss the implications of this research for the evolution of female homosexual behavior in this species.

  8. Comparative Development of Heterosexual and Homosexual Behaviors in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-07-01

    We used cross-sectional focal data collected in adolescent and adult females to elucidate the comparative development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors in female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama, Japan, in a group where adult females routinely exhibit sexual interactions with both males and females. Our data fully or partially supported most of our predictions (20 out of 30) related to the "learning hypothesis," which postulated that adolescence would serve to provide young females with a period in which to practice, and gradually acquire, three types of adult female-like heterosexual and homosexual behavioral patterns, namely sexual solicitations, sexual mounts, and spatio-temporal coordination during consortships. However, there were marked differences in the development of heterosexual and homosexual behaviors. The percentage of homosexual mounts was significantly higher in adolescent than in adult females. Of the fully or partially supported predictions, 13 of 15 pertained to heterosexual activity whereas only seven of 15 pertained to homosexual activity. A number of sexual behavioral patterns (e.g., demonstrative solicitations, range of solicitation patterns and mounting postures, and grasping behavior during consortships) emerged earlier and developed faster when directed to females than when directed to males. We explain such differences in terms of risk of male aggression, males' disinterest in adolescent females' sexual solicitations, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners, social facilitation, and sexual reward.

  9. Effect of Female-Biased Sex Ratios on Female Homosexual Behavior in Japanese Macaques: Evidence for the "Bisexual Preference Hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to explain the frequent and prevalent female homosexual behavior in the context of female-biased operational sex ratios (OSR) and qualified sex ratios (Q) in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Japan. Our data included the average availability of sexually mature males during females' putative fertile period (OSR), the ratio of sexually mature males to sexually mature females (Q), as well as heterosexual and female homosexual solicitations and consortships collected during 13 mating seasons from 136 females. Our results did not support the "heterosexual deprivation hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to a shortage of male mates. Likewise, our results did not support the "lack of opposite-sex sexual competitor hypothesis," which holds that females have more access to female mates when male sexual rivals are scarce. Of the 11 predictions tested, only one yielded statistically significant results: we found that higher ratios of availability of preferred female partners to preferred male partners were associated with female homosexual consortships rather than female heterosexual consortships. This result supported the "bisexual preference hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to female preference for certain female mates relative to certain male mates. We conclude that when a female targets another female as a mate, it is an active choice for a female sexual partner over available male alternatives, rather than a by-default situation that occurs because males are not available as sexual partners, or because females are better able to access female sexual partners due to a scarcity of male sexual competitors.

  10. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Stoinski, Tara S

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a 'pornographic' effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation. PMID:27167861

  11. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Cyril C.; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a ‘pornographic’ effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation. PMID:27167861

  12. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Stoinski, Tara S

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a 'pornographic' effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation.

  13. A possible second type of maternal-fetal immune interaction involved in both male and female homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has found that the mothers of firstborn homosexual sons produce fewer subsequent offspring than do the mothers of firstborn heterosexual sons. It was hypothesized that a subset of mothers of firstborn homosexuals may be responsible for this finding. If there is a subset of mothers whose immune reactions cause their first male fetus to be homosexual and their subsequent fetuses to die, then their immune reactions should also cause their first male fetus to have a lower birth weight. This leads to the prediction that, within the population of firstborn homosexual men, those with no younger siblings should also tend to have lower birth weights. This prediction was tested using a previously published sample of 1,445 firstborn subjects: 929 heterosexual females, 47 homosexual females, 409 heterosexual males, and 60 homosexual males. The results showed that firstborn homosexuals with no younger siblings (i.e., only children) did have lower birth weights compared with all the other subjects, but the finding applied to firstborn lesbian women as well as firstborn gay men.

  14. HIV risk behaviours among male-to-female transgenders in comparison with homosexual or bisexual males and heterosexual females.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, T; Luke, D; Mamo, L; Ching, A; Patria, J

    1999-06-01

    Issues and concerns among six directors, one counsellor and one consultant for transgender programmes in San Francisco are described. Additionally, 173 clients who were enrolled in programmes in eight AIDS service organizations were interviewed using a structured survey questionnaire. This study examined the relationships between HIV risk behaviours and social and cognitive factors among transgendered females (male-to-female transgenders) (n = 25) in comparison with homosexual or bisexual males (n = 122) and heterosexual females (n = 26). Transgendered females engaged in riskier behaviours than the other groups in terms of the number of sex partners in the past 30 days and the past six months, commercial sex activities, and having a steady sex partner who injected drugs. Adverse socioeconomic conditions and transgender-specific risk behaviours such as injecting hormones in relation to HIV risk behaviours must be targeted by future intervention studies.

  15. Homosexual behavior in male goats is more frequent during breeding season and in bucks isolated from females.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Rodolfo; Giriboni, Julia; Freitas-de-Melo, Aline; Lacuesta, Lorena

    2014-05-01

    Male homosexual behavior is observed in many ruminant species; seasonality and isolation from females may affect the display of male-male sexual behavior. Our objectives were to determine whether: 1) homosexual behavior has a seasonal pattern in male goats (Capra hircus); 2) isolation from female goats influences the frequency of the display of homosexual behavior; and 3) the frequency of homosexual behaviors is related to testosterone concentration. Bucks were housed in a pen adjacent to another pen with 3 estrous goats (FC group) or in complete isolation from females (IF group). Homosexual behaviors and testosterone concentrations were recorded in October, December, February and May. Frequencies of penile display and flehmen increased in May and were observed more frequently in the IF than in the FC group. Ano-genital sniffing was more frequent in February and May and was more frequent in IF than in FC bucks. Lateral approaches were more frequent in May, in which period this was more frequently observed in IF bucks. Mount attempts and mounts were only observed in IF bucks. Testosterone concentrations increased from December to February and decreased in May, although they were still greater than in October and December. In May IF bucks had greater testosterone concentrations than FC bucks. Testosterone concentrations were only related to the number of lateral approaches in IF bucks in December. In conclusion, homosexual behavior was more frequent during the late breeding season than during the early and the non-breeding seasons, and in males isolated from females than in males housed near estrous females. Testosterone concentrations appear to be unrelated to homosexual behavior.

  16. [Doctor and poet as rivals. Sigmund Freud, Alfred von Berger and the narrative of female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Starting from a passage in the Dora case history where Freud suggests some differences between a literary and a clinical narrative of female homosexuality, this paper presents examples which he might have had in mind. Besides Balzac's "La fille aux yeux d'or" (1834/35) it is in particular Alfred v. Berger's novella "Die Italienerin [The Italian woman]" (1904) which may have served as a model and counterpoint to the literary strategies used in Freud's case history. Freud had a relationship of long standing with Berger. This newly discovered source may provide a clue for the date at which Freud finalized the Dora manscript which he had held back for years.

  17. The Self Perception of Male and Female Homosexuals. Criminal Justice Monograph: Vol. 6, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, William Henry, III

    This monograph presents a historical and theoretical review of homosexuality followed by a study of the self-perception of homosexuals. History bears out that homosexuality has always been one aspect of human sexuality and was more prominent in other periods of human history, depending on societal attitudes and mores. At present, many authors…

  18. Male and Female Homosexuality: A Review of Differential Factors in Etiology and Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strautin, Astra Lydia

    Today's society, in large part, has granted public acknowledgment of the practice of homosexuality as an "alternative lifestyle" and as a valid expression of sexuality and self. However, there are men and women who, having engaged in an active homosexual lifestyle for varying lengths of time, feel regretful about their homosexuality and want to…

  19. [Doctor and poet as rivals. Sigmund Freud, Alfred von Berger and the narrative of female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Starting from a passage in the Dora case history where Freud suggests some differences between a literary and a clinical narrative of female homosexuality, this paper presents examples which he might have had in mind. Besides Balzac's "La fille aux yeux d'or" (1834/35) it is in particular Alfred v. Berger's novella "Die Italienerin [The Italian woman]" (1904) which may have served as a model and counterpoint to the literary strategies used in Freud's case history. Freud had a relationship of long standing with Berger. This newly discovered source may provide a clue for the date at which Freud finalized the Dora manscript which he had held back for years. PMID:21598589

  20. Female homosexual behavior and inter-sexual mate competition in Japanese macaques: possible implications for sexual selection theory.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we review research related to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), including our 20-year program of research on this species. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in this species is sexually motivated. In contrast, many sociosexual hypotheses have been tested in relation to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques, but none have been supported. Female Japanese macaques sometimes engage in same-sex sexual activity even when motivated opposite-sex alternatives are available. Within this context of mate choice, males compete inter-sexually for opportunities to copulate with females above and beyond any intra-sexual competition that is required. Anecdotal evidence suggests that inter-sexual competition for female sexual partners has been observed in a number of other species, including humans. At present it is unclear whether inter-sexual competition for sexual partners influences patterns of reproduction. Our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems may be improved by investigating whether inter-sexual mate competition influences the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive partners in those species in which such interactions occur.

  1. Iatrogenic homosexuality: gender identity in seven 46,XX chromosomal females with hyperadrenocortical hermaphroditism born with a penis, three reared as boys, four reared as girls.

    PubMed

    Money, J; Daléry, J

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes seven chromosomal and gonadal females with the adrenogenital syndrome who were born with a penis as a result of extreme fetal androgenization. Four of them were reared as girls and differentiated a female gender identity with tomboyism. The other three were reared as boys, differentiated a male gender identity, and performed sexually as men with women partners. Even though these men are by no means homosexual in the everyday meaning of the term, the sexual relation is homosexual on the criteria of chromosomal and gonadal sex. The prenatal hormonal environment as well as the social experience of the rearing have thus demonstrated a formula for creating the perfect female homosexual.

  2. Six homosexual siblings.

    PubMed

    Dank, B M

    1971-09-01

    A family consisting of several homosexual siblings is reported. All ten of the siblings in this family were to some degree homosexually experienced. Six were homosexual or predominantly homosexual, and five had a homosexual identity. The sex composition of the family was three females and seven males. Of the three females, one was homosexual, one was bisexual, and one had had some homosexual experience. There was one set of male dizygotic twins concordant for homosexuality in the family. All ten siblings were exposed to relatively similar family dynamics. The father's behavior toward the children and his wife was characterized by hostility, violence, and alcoholism. He was eventually murdered when the youngest child was 6 years old. The mother demonstrated qualities that were essentially opposite those of the father. She was described as affectionate and loving toward all the children, and she did not display violent behavior. The male homosexual sibling who was interviewed displayed a strong identification with his mother via a feminine self-identification, the adoption of the housewife role in a homosexual marriage, and the adoption of the passive role in anal intercourse. Only one other multiple homosexual sibling family has been reported in the scientific literature. This family consisted of 14 siblings, 11 male and three female. The four homosexual siblings in this family were all male and consisted of two sets of dizygotic twins. The behavior of the parents of this family was quite similar to the behavior of the parents in this study-a hostile and violent father and an affectionate and loving mother. These two multiple homosexual sibling families provide support for theories that emphasize the importance of early family relationships in the development of a homosexual adaptation. It is held that multiple homosexual sibling families can be employed as strategic data in testing various etiological theories of homosexuality.

  3. Mati-ism and black lesbianism: two idealtypical expressions of female homosexuality in black communities of the Diaspora.

    PubMed

    Wekker, G

    1993-01-01

    There are different ways in which black women in the Diaspora have given expression to their erotic fascination with other women. In this article two idealtypical expressions of black female homosexuality and the outlines of their underlying cosmologies are sketched: mati-ism and black lesbianism. Mati (or matisma) is the Sranan Tongo word for women who have sexual relations with other women, but who typically also will have had or still have relationships with men, simultaneously. More often than not they will also have children. While both types can only be understood via a constructionist view of homosexuality, the institution of mati-ism will be shown to have retained more Afrocentric, working class elements, while black lesbianism has more middle class, Eurocentric features. PMID:8505534

  4. Rape and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Addad, G

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between rape and homosexuality can be best understood by studying male rape. Offender(s) may deny homosexuality and confuse an aggressive active behaviour with a masculine (even macho) behaviour. They may project their homosexual feelings onto the victim. In the aftermath of rape, the victim may be ashamed of having lost control and may question himself about his real sexual identity. An aspect of female or male rape by a group of males may be an attempt to annihilate latent homosexual tendencies existing between members of this group. Surprisingly, in the short term, post traumatic disorder related to rape and pre-existing psychiatric disorder may develop separately, without substantial interaction. In the famous case of Schreiber described by Freud, homosexuality is assumed to play an important role in the development of paranoid schizophrenia. Cases in which schizophrenic patients (of both sexes) imagine being raped by a member of the opposite sex, may possibly challenge this opinion.

  5. Does incest cause homosexuality?

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K

    1995-04-01

    A random sample of 5,182 adults from 6 U.S. metropolitan areas were questioned about incestuous sexual relationships during childhood. Incest was disproportionately reported by both male and female bisexuals and homosexuals. 148 gays (7.7% of the sample) reported 14 (50%) of same-sex, and 7 (22%) of opposite-sex incestuous experiences, and 20 (69%) of same-sex and 2 (3%) of opposite-sex sexual experiences with other relatives. 88 lesbians (3% of the sample) reported 2 (33%) of same-sex incest and 7 (9%) of opposite-sex incest and 1 (17%) of same-sex and 10 (13%) of opposite-sex sexual experiences with other relatives. 12% of 98 male homosexuals vs 0.8% of 1,224 male heterosexuals with a brother reported brother-brother incest. These findings are consonant with those of other studies in which disproportionately more incest by homosexuals was reported. As opposed to an evolutionary genetic hypothesis, these data support the alternative that homosexuality may be learned, since homosexuals do not produce children at sustainable levels and the incidence of homosexuality varies as a function of various social factors. Incest cannot be excluded as a significant basis for homosexuality.

  6. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    PubMed

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality.

  7. Aztec homosexuality: the textual evidence.

    PubMed

    Kimball, G

    1993-01-01

    Male and female homosexuality among the Aztecs during the period immediately prior to the Spanish Conquest has been studied infrequently, even though a Nahuatl document, the Florentine Codex, written shortly after the Spanish Conquest, contains a number of texts on the subject. The Florentine Codex has been translated into English; however, the translators use biased and erroneous translations in the sections of the manuscript which mention homosexuality, and the actual meaning is unavailable to anyone who does not know Nahuatl. This paper is a new translation and an introductory study of the available texts on homosexuality in the Florentine Codex. The attitudes of the Aztecs toward homosexual men and women can be inferred from these texts, and there are tantalizing fragments which given an indication of how homosexuality fit into Aztec society.

  8. Aztec homosexuality: the textual evidence.

    PubMed

    Kimball, G

    1993-01-01

    Male and female homosexuality among the Aztecs during the period immediately prior to the Spanish Conquest has been studied infrequently, even though a Nahuatl document, the Florentine Codex, written shortly after the Spanish Conquest, contains a number of texts on the subject. The Florentine Codex has been translated into English; however, the translators use biased and erroneous translations in the sections of the manuscript which mention homosexuality, and the actual meaning is unavailable to anyone who does not know Nahuatl. This paper is a new translation and an introductory study of the available texts on homosexuality in the Florentine Codex. The attitudes of the Aztecs toward homosexual men and women can be inferred from these texts, and there are tantalizing fragments which given an indication of how homosexuality fit into Aztec society. PMID:8113605

  9. Attitudes Toward Homosexuality and Social Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Stephen F.; And Others

    Chair placement was used to determine the effect on social distance created by a person being perceived as homosexual in orientation. Eighty undergraduates subjects, 40 male and 40 female, were interviewed for 10 minutes by either a male or a female experimenter who orally administered a specifically designed Attitude Towards Homosexuality Scale.…

  10. Comparison of attitudes toward transsexuality and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, H; Slavin, L

    1983-08-01

    Attitudes toward transsexuality and homosexuality were compared in a sample of 318 university students. More people felt that homosexuality was "wrong" than felt that transsexuality was "wrong". This difference in favor of transsexuality was more pronounced in female than in male respondents. In addition, more people rejected the notion that biological factors were responsible for homosexuality than was the case for transsexuality. General attitudes about the morality of transsexuality and homosexuality, however, were not mirrored in response to questions pertaining to job discrimination. To the contrary, male respondents, especially, were more inclined toward equal opportunity for homosexuals than for transsexuals. One hypothesis supported by this study was that homosexual denial and "homophobia" in some transsexuals may, in part, be a reflection of society's greater moral condemnation of homosexuality relative to transsexuality.

  11. Detection of sexual orientation ("gaydar") by homosexual and heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Minna; Lynch, Aoife; Brewer, Gayle; Bruno, Davide

    2014-02-01

    Although there has been considerable research investigating the ability to identify sexual orientation from static images, or "gaydar," few studies have considered the role of female sexual orientation or sexual interest (for example, sociosexual orientation) in judgment accuracy. In two studies, we investigated the sexuality detection ability, and masculinity and femininity as cues used in judgment. In Study 1, we recruited heterosexual (N = 55) and homosexual (N = 71) women to rate the sexual orientation of homosexual and heterosexual male and female targets (N = 80: 20 heterosexual men, 20 homosexual men, 20 heterosexual women, and 20 homosexual women). We found that detection accuracy was better than chance levels for both male and female targets and that male targets were more likely to be falsely labeled as homosexual than female targets were. Overall, female faces were more accurately identified as heterosexual or homosexual than male faces and homosexual female raters were biased towards labeling targets as homosexual. Sociosexuality did not influence the accuracy with which targets were identified as heterosexual or homosexual. In Study 2, 100 heterosexual and 20 homosexual women rated the stimulus for masculinity and femininity. Heterosexual women were rated as more feminine and less masculine than homosexual women and homosexual men were rated as more feminine and less masculine than heterosexual men. Sexual orientation of the judges did not affect the ratings. The results were discussed with a reference to evolutionary and cultural influences affecting sexual orientation judgment accuracy.

  12. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified.

  13. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified. PMID:24578106

  14. Psychoanalysis, psychobiology, and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Friedman, R C; Downey, J

    1993-01-01

    The potential role of biological influences in human sexual orientation was considered more seriously during the early phases of psychoanalysis than in the years since World War II. Recently studies of homosexuality and heterosexuality in the neurosciences have attracted widespread attention both in the scientific and lay communities. The salience of these new data for psychoanalytic theory and practice is just beginning to be explored. In this article, we review research on sexual orientation in the following areas: genetics, crosscultural studies, studies of development in individuals with abnormal prenatal hormone exposure, childhood play patterns, and brain studies in both nonhumans and humans. Differences between male and female homosexuality are explored. We propose that psychoanalytic theory can grow and profit from a careful consideration of new findings in the psychobiology of sexuality, and that the interaction between mind and body is the appropriate purview of psychoanalysis.

  15. Psychoanalysis, psychobiology, and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Friedman, R C; Downey, J

    1993-01-01

    The potential role of biological influences in human sexual orientation was considered more seriously during the early phases of psychoanalysis than in the years since World War II. Recently studies of homosexuality and heterosexuality in the neurosciences have attracted widespread attention both in the scientific and lay communities. The salience of these new data for psychoanalytic theory and practice is just beginning to be explored. In this article, we review research on sexual orientation in the following areas: genetics, crosscultural studies, studies of development in individuals with abnormal prenatal hormone exposure, childhood play patterns, and brain studies in both nonhumans and humans. Differences between male and female homosexuality are explored. We propose that psychoanalytic theory can grow and profit from a careful consideration of new findings in the psychobiology of sexuality, and that the interaction between mind and body is the appropriate purview of psychoanalysis. PMID:8282941

  16. Homosexuality, type 1: an Xq28 phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Turner, W J

    1995-04-01

    Despite the absence of phenotypic manifestations in alternating generations characteristic of X-linked disorders, a thesis is presented that a major type of Kinsey grades 5 and 6 male homosexuality is determined by a gene in the Xq28 region. A total of 133 families in 78 kinshps of male and female homosexual probands, in addition to 116 families (including those of 40 famous homosexuals) from the literature, revealed an unbalanced secondary sex ratio in the maternal generation of male, but not of female, homosexuals. On the maternal side, in this study, the ratio of all uncles to all aunts of 90 males homosexuals was 132/209, chi 2 = 8.52, p = 0.004. On the maternal side for the total of all sources, the ratio of uncles to aunts of male homosexuals was 241/367, chi 2 = 13.20; p < 0.0001. The male/female ratio of the total number of maternal sibships bearing homosexuals (310/628: 0.491) was a measure of fetal wastage of the mothers' male sibs; 49%. This ratio was very close to that of the total number of children born to fathers affected with any one of nine Xq28-linked male semilethal conditions (255/508: ratio 0.556); for the difference between the two populations chi 2 = 0.859, p = 0.354. The male/female ratio of the total number of children born to female carriers of any one of these same conditions (1,232/1,062: ratio 1.16), chi 2 = 13.8 p < or = 0.0001, is close to that of the total number of children in homosexual sibships: 511/413, chi 2 = 10.4, p = 0.005. Between the number of children born to Xq28 mothers and to those born of mothers of homosexuals chi 2 = 0.581, p = 0.446. One may readily surmise that the maternal influence so often related to homosexuality may lie in the mother being a genetic carrier, with traits thereto associated. In this study, 65% of the mothers of homosexuals had no or only one live-born brother. Additional support for a genetic hypothesis is found in the occurrence of multiple instances--almost exclusively among maternal relatives

  17. When Christianity and homosexuality collide: understanding the potential intrapersonal conflict.

    PubMed

    Subhi, Nasrudin; Geelan, David

    2012-01-01

    Reconciling sexual orientation with religious and spiritual beliefs can be challenging for Christian homosexuals, since many Christian churches teach that homosexual behavior is sinful. A qualitative study of 10 male and 10 female Christian homosexuals was conducted via semistructured interviews. This article seeks to explore the potential conflict between Christianity and homosexuality faced by the respondents. Participants' life stories and experiences varied widely. A few respondents were unaffected by the potential conflict between Christianity and homosexuality, however, the majority were affected. Effects included depression, guilt, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and alienation. Implications of the findings for support personnel are included.

  18. Homosexuals and Title VII

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Juan R.; Galvan, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    A method of dealing with the problems of discrimination against homosexuals in private employment through the application of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is discussed. The scope of the paper is limited to male homosexuals. (LBH)

  19. Homosexuality: The Ethical Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    In three articles about homosexuality, the first author argues that homosexuals should be helped to accept their sexual situation; the second author categorically opposes this approach and proposes instead to help homosexuals change to heterosexuality. The third author assumes a more flexible position on the question. (SE)

  20. Heterosexuality/homosexuality: dichotomy or continuum.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1987-10-01

    A recent reanalysis of Kinsey's data rejected his conclusion that heterosexuality and homosexuality were a continuum. A number of studies have been published over the past decade reporting that 5% or less of adolescents were aware of homosexual feelings, a finding also inconsistent with Kinsey's data. These studies have rejected prenatal hormones and rearing by homosexual parents as influencing sexual orientation. If Kinsey's data are correct and 40% or more of adolescents are aware of homosexual feeling the findings of these studies are invalid. Two replications of an initial study with representative samples of medical students found over 40% of both males and females currently aware of some homosexual feelings, consistent with Kinsey's conclusion. The ratio of reported homosexual to heterosexual feelings correlated with opposite sex-linked behaviors in the male, supporting the validity of the subjects' reports. If subjects representative of other subgroups of the population are investigated with this easily implemented method and report similar data, this theoretically and sociologically significant divergence of belief concerning the incidence of the heterosexual/homosexual balance would be resolved.

  1. Medical students and interns’ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341

  2. "Physical attractiveness stereotype" and the attribution of homosexuality revisited.

    PubMed

    Dunkle, J H; Francis, P L

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated whether subjects would perceive male and female faces as homosexual based upon facial attractiveness while statistically controlling for facial masculinity/femininity. Also of interest was the extent to which the subjects' gender and attitudes toward homosexuality would influence their perceptions. Eighty undergraduates indicated how likely they thought it was that six male and six female faces were homosexual. The targets were also rated on attractiveness and masculinity/femininity. The present sample also completed the Index of Homophobia, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Attitude Toward Women Scale, a conservatism scale, and a demographic questionnaire. The subjects assigned higher homosexuality ratings to the unattractive males and females compared to their attractive counterparts. Gender of subject and attitudes toward homosexuality did not significantly affect evaluations.

  3. Intergroup Contact and Beliefs about Homosexuality in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Justin E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around…

  4. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  5. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children.

  6. Courtship behaviour in Japanese macaques during heterosexual and homosexual consortships.

    PubMed

    Vasey, P L; Rains, D; VanderLaan, D P; Duckworth, N; Kovacovsky, S D

    2008-07-01

    Female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in the Arashiyama population near Kyoto, Japan, are unusual, in that they exhibit what many would consider to be male-typical sexual characteristics. Specifically, they mount other females within the context of temporary, but exclusive, sexual relationships (i.e., homosexual consortships) and they sometimes exhibit a preference for female sexual partners, even when given the choice of a sexually motivated male alternative. In this study, we examined whether female Japanese macaques also exhibited male-typical patterns of courtship behaviour during homosexual consortships. Data were collected on courtship behaviour during heterosexual and homosexual consortships in free-ranging Japanese macaques from the Arashiyama (Japan) population. We analyzed the occurrence of 12 different courtship behaviours during 3374 heterosexual inter-mount intervals and 1412 homosexual inter-mount intervals. Sex differences between heterosexually consorting males and females existed for only two of the 12 courtship behaviours we investigated: inclined-back presentations and sexual vocalizations. Dominant and subordinate homosexually consorting females were sex-typical in their expression of inclined-back presentations and sexual vocalizations. Consequently, facultative same-sex sexual partner preference, mounting and consortships do not co-occur with male-typical patterns of courtship behaviour in female Japanese macaques.

  7. A pair of monozygotic twins discordant for homosexuality: sex-dimorphic behavior and penile volume responses.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N; Blaszczynski, A

    1980-04-01

    In reports of identical twins discordant for homosexuality, the homosexual twins showed the effeminacy syndrome in childhood. This has been considered evidence that the homosexuality comes from the twin himself. The possibility that the heterosexual twin was denying homosexuality has never been excluded. A pair of identical male twins discordant for homosexuality are reported. They showed significant differences in their penile volume responses to moving pictures of male and female nudes indicative of sexual orientations consistent with their statements. The homosexual twin showed the effeminacy syndrome. Aspects of the syndrome can be induced in mammals by altering their hormonal environment during some critical period in their intrauterine development. Discordance for homosexuality in identical twins could be due to one's being exposed to a different hormonal level during such a critical period.

  8. Homosexual Labeling by University Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyberg, Kenneth L.; Alston, Jon P.

    1977-01-01

    Details the responses of young, urban, college-educated people on their attitudes toward homosexuals, specifically focusing on issues of public identification and negative labeling as it effects homosexual persons and their behaviors. (Author/RK)

  9. Attitudes, opinions, and sexual development of 205 homosexual women.

    PubMed

    Hogan, R A; Fox, A N; Kirchner, J H

    1977-01-01

    Two hundred and five homosexual women, aged 15 to 50, were surveyed as to their attitudes and experiences in the areas of education, religion, family experiences, marriage, friendship, personal happiness, sexual development and satisfaction, psychological adjustment, and occupational status. The investigation discovered a high rate of only-child status among lesbian women, a tendency toward ambivalence of opinion on many issues, and a general lack of insight into self and others. Comparisons with other research on female homosexuality were made.

  10. Intelligence and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The origin of preferences and values is an unresolved theoretical problem in behavioural sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals are more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel preferences and values than less intelligent individuals, but general intelligence has no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar preferences and values. Ethnographies of traditional societies suggest that exclusively homosexual behaviour was probably rare in the ancestral environment, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent individuals are more likely to identify themselves as homosexual and engage in homosexual behaviour. Analyses of three large, nationally representative samples (two of which are prospectively longitudinal) from two different nations confirm the prediction.

  11. Sydney Anglicans and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, D

    1997-01-01

    The city of Sydney in Australia has one of the largest gay and lesbian communities in the English-speaking world, while the Anglican Church in Sydney is proud of its reputation as a strong-hold and guardian of conservative evangelicalism. Since the early 1970s the Anglican diocese, in its official statements and pastoral policies, has been strongly opposed to homosexuality and the organized gay movement. In 1973 a report on homosexuality by its Ethics and Social Questions Committee was unusual at the time because it recommended the continuance of legal sanctions against male homosexual behavior. There have been many confrontations between Anglican institutions and Sydney's increasingly confident gay community. This paper examines these tensions, the reasons for the stance of the diocese, and the responses of gay Christian groups such as Cross+Section and AngGays.

  12. Homosexuality, birth order, and evolution: toward an equilibrium reproductive economics of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Miller, E M

    2000-02-01

    The survival of a human predisposition for homosexuality can be explained by sexual orientation being a polygenetic trait that is influenced by a number of genes. During development these shift male brain development in the female direction. Inheritance of several such alleles produces homosexuality. Single alleles make for greater sensitivity, empathy, tendermindedness, and kindness. These traits make heterosexual carriers of the genes better fathers and more attractive mates. There is a balanced polymorphism in which the feminizing effect of these alleles in heterosexuals offsets the adverse effects (on reproductive success) of these alleles' contribution to homosexuality. A similar effect probably occurs for genes that can produce lesbianism in females. The whole system survives because it serves to provide a high degree of variability among the personalities of offspring, providing the genotype with diversification and reducing competition among offspring for the same niches. An allele with a large effect can survive in these circumstances in males, but it is less likely to survive in females. The birth order effect on homosexuality is probably a by-product of a biological mechanism that shifts personalities more in the feminine direction in the later born sons, reducing the probability of these sons engaging in unproductive competition with each other.

  13. Behavioral Intervention In Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, N.

    1977-01-01

    The author believes ethical and moral issues often come into play when deciding whether behavioral intervention strategies should be used with homosexuals. Counselors are warned not to lose sight of the patients' desires. Presented at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, 13 December 1975.…

  14. Media mating I: newspaper "personals" ads of homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Laner, M R; Kamel, G W

    1977-01-01

    Based on a design used in previous research with heterosexuals "Personals" advertisements, this study reports a content analysis of 359 ads placed by male homosexuals. Following exchange theory, it was hypothesized that, as with heterosexuals, a favorable presentation of self would characterize the advertisements. Further hypotheses predicted that homosexual ads would be more frank than are heterosexual ads and more specific about goals for desired relationships, and that homosexual ads would reflect the "virilization" of the male homosexual subculture. All predictions were strongly supported. The overtly sexual explicitness of many of the advertisements was explained on the basis of differences between same- and cross-sex relationships, and male/female differences in conceptualizing "love."

  15. Intergroup contact and beliefs about homosexuality in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Justin E; Horn, Stacey S

    2009-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around LG peers, and the acceptability of excluding or teasing an LG peer. The results suggest that having an LG friend is related to more positive attitudes toward homosexuals/homosexuality and less tolerance toward the unfair treatment of LG peers. The findings lend further support to intergroup contact theory and provide evidence that the intimacy of contact is related to prejudice reduction, and offer general support that age is related to prejudicial attitudes, but less so to prejudicial behaviors.

  16. Heterosexual Male Carriers Could Explain Persistence of Homosexuality in Men: Individual-Based Simulations of an X-Linked Inheritance Model.

    PubMed

    Chaladze, Giorgi

    2016-10-01

    Homosexuality has been documented throughout history and is found in almost all human cultures. Twin studies suggest that homosexuality is to some extent heritable. However, from an evolutionary perspective, this poses a problem: Male homosexuals tend to have on average five times fewer children than heterosexual males, so how can a phenomenon associated with low reproductive success be maintained at relatively stable frequencies? Recent findings of increased maternal fecundity of male homosexuals suggest that the genes responsible for homosexuality in males increase fecundity in the females who carry them. Can an increase in maternal fecundity compensate for the fecundity reduction in homosexual men and produce a stable polymorphism? In the current study, this problem was addressed with an individual-based modeling (IBM) approach. IBM suggests that male homosexuality can be maintained in a population at low and stable frequencies if roughly more than half of the females and half of the males are carriers of genes that predispose the male to homosexuality.

  17. An Advocate Model for Intervention with Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Raymond M.

    1977-01-01

    Homosexual behavior has received little attention from social workers. Starting with the premise that homosexuality is a legitimate variation of life-style, the author suggests a model for social work intervention with the homosexual. (Author)

  18. Family and sexual orientation: the family-demographic correlates of homosexuality in men and women.

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew M

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of young adults, I identify the family-demographic correlates of sexual orientation in men and women. Hence, I test the maternal immune hypothesis, which posits that the only biodemographic correlate of male homosexuality is the number of older brothers, and there are no biodemographic correlates of female homosexuality. For men, I find that having one older brother does not raise the likelihood of homosexuality. Although having multiple older brothers has a positive coefficient, it is not significant. Moreover, having any older sisters lowers the likelihood of homosexual or bisexual identity. For women, I find that having an older brother or having any sisters decreases the likelihood of homosexuality. Family structure, ethnicity, and education are also significantly correlated with male and female sexual orientation. Therefore, the maternal immune hypothesis cannot explain the entire pattern of family-demographic correlates. The findings are consistent with either biological or social theories of sexual orientation.

  19. A Foucauldian Analysis of Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazenovich, George

    2012-01-01

    The present research paper approaches homosexuality from a Foucauldian perspective. Foucault's place and standing in a postmodern historical and cultural context will be explained. The paper outlines how homosexuality has been historically constructed and socially constituted. How sexuality became understood as a particular form of discourse, that…

  20. Fraternal birth order and ratio of heterosexual/homosexual feelings in women and men.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, Nathaniel; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Stevens, Carol; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Buhrich, Neil; Vollmer-Conna, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Studies of the 2-3% of persons who identify as homosexual found men but not women had more older brothers than persons who identify as heterosexual. The present study investigated the birth order in the approximately 20% of men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings, few of whom identify as homosexual. The number of older brothers and sisters was investigated in seven cohorts: 319 male twins; and 49, 54, and 61 female and 66, 116, and 50 male medical students. Both women and men who anonymously reported homosexual feelings had a greater mean number of older brothers and sisters than did those who reported no homosexual feelings. The difference was stronger in relation to brothers than sisters. The birth order effect was not related to the strength of the subjects' degree of homosexual compared with heterosexual feelings. Its presence in women could not be accounted for by the widely accepted hypothesis that the birth order effect is due to a maternal immune reaction provoked only by male fetuses. The lack of relationship between the strength of the effect and degree of homosexual feelings in the men and women suggests the influence of birth order on homosexual feelings was not due to a biological, but a social process in the subjects studied. Investigating the neglected significant percentage of predominantly heterosexual men and women who anonymously report some homosexual feelings may aid in understanding the factors influencing sexual orientation, and identity.

  1. Homosexuality and totalitarianism.

    PubMed

    Birken, L

    1997-01-01

    Since the dissolution of Communism left the Right with no unifying enemy, some conservatives may be turning to the gay world as the new "evil empire." This article explores the ideology that underpins the recent upsurge of gay-baiting. Its central thesis is that in identifying the homosexual as the demonic "other" the cultural Right is offering us another form of ersatz Christianity masquerading as tradition but actually infected with the virus of modernity. The paper classifies homophobia as an essentially secular phenomenon, reminiscent of other ideologies which have arisen as a substitute for religion.

  2. Homosexuality in America: At 200 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brudnoy, David

    1976-01-01

    This paper takes the position that homosexuality is still considered deviant and that homosexuals are still discriminated against in many ways. The author views the present response to homosexuality as not advancing the homosexual's cause and feels that true acceptance is yet to be achieved. (NG)

  3. In Defense of the Homosexual Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Stephen W.

    1980-01-01

    Educators can strengthen students' commitment to the value of human dignity by openly affirming the homosexual teacher's right to teach. Common myths concerning homosexuality are explored and a history of homosexuality in education is given. Cultural, religious, psychological, and physiological points of view on the question of homosexuality are…

  4. Attitude Change among College Students toward Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Raymond

    1982-01-01

    College students' attitudes toward homosexuality changed after they participated in a program that taught about homosexuality through the use of: (1) a film on the topic of prejudice; (2) a videotape of a homosexual clergyman who discussed sexual variance; (3) two films in which couples engaged in homosexual behavior; and (4) a lecture. Results…

  5. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship.

  6. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship. PMID:19962634

  7. Homosexuality in ancient and modern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Gwan; Hahn, Sook-Ja

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines Korean views on the subject of male homosexuality. Using historical and contemporary sources, it seeks to explain elements of new cultural openness towards homosexuality in modern Korea. Korean people's understanding and knowledge of male homosexuality is ambiguous and limited. In the absence of knowledge and open communication, most Korean people imagine that male homosexuality is an abnormal and impure modern phenomenon. Prejudice and confusion lead most Korean male homosexuals to be estranged from their families, religious communities and non-homosexual peers. Moreover, they are often viewed as the 'carriers' of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). The purpose of this paper is to examine current Korean perspectives on male homosexuality by exploring both the ancient history of the practice of male homosexuality and current thinking about homosexual life among Koreans, which has played an important part in the formation of contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality.

  8. Impact of a homonegativity awareness workshop on attitudes toward homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Rye, B J; Meaney, Glenn J

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of a homonegativity awareness workshop on attitudes toward homosexuality and examined individual difference variables associated with attitude change. Participants included 71 female and 43 male students (approximate mean age = 23). Compared to a control group of introductory psychology students, participants were less homonegative and erotophobic (F(1, 359) = 62.47 and 15.92, ps < .001) after the workshop. Implications for contact with gay and lesbian persons through structured intervention programs on attitudes toward homosexuality are discussed in terms of both the practice and theory of reducing prejudice and discrimination.

  9. Out of DSM: Depathologizing Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2015-01-01

    In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the diagnosis of "homosexuality" from the second edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I and DSM-II as well as alternative theories that eventually led to its removal from DSM III and subsequent editions of the manual. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sociocultural aftermath of that 1973 decision. PMID:26690228

  10. Out of DSM: Depathologizing Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2015-12-04

    In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the diagnosis of "homosexuality" from the second edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I and DSM-II as well as alternative theories that eventually led to its removal from DSM III and subsequent editions of the manual. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sociocultural aftermath of that 1973 decision.

  11. [Chemical castration in homosexual pedophilia].

    PubMed

    Czeizel, E

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of reducing sexual drive with antiandrogenic cyproterone acetate in a man with homosexual paedophilia is shown with the summary of rules for the use of cyproterone acetate in the therapy of sexual deviations.

  12. Homosexuality: a dilemma in discourse!

    PubMed

    Gulia, K K; Mallick, H N

    2010-01-01

    Homosexuality has been in practice even prior to its recorded history. In the Indian cultural context, discourse on sexuality had never gained an agreeable consensus from any platform. However, in the recent past, efforts were made by governmental and nongovernmental organizations to bring sex-related issues to the masses after speculation on presumably the fast spread of AIDS (acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome) particularly through illegal homosexual activities. Nevertheless, strong cultural and religious ideologies discouraged any valid discussions on homosexuality. In light of the given scenario, the present essay aimed to highlight several aspects of homosexuality that include a brief history, biological basis, effect of nature versus nurture, evolutionary perspective and related issues concerning general well-being and health.

  13. Homosexuality: a dilemma in discourse!

    PubMed

    Gulia, K K; Mallick, H N

    2010-01-01

    Homosexuality has been in practice even prior to its recorded history. In the Indian cultural context, discourse on sexuality had never gained an agreeable consensus from any platform. However, in the recent past, efforts were made by governmental and nongovernmental organizations to bring sex-related issues to the masses after speculation on presumably the fast spread of AIDS (acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome) particularly through illegal homosexual activities. Nevertheless, strong cultural and religious ideologies discouraged any valid discussions on homosexuality. In light of the given scenario, the present essay aimed to highlight several aspects of homosexuality that include a brief history, biological basis, effect of nature versus nurture, evolutionary perspective and related issues concerning general well-being and health. PMID:21046915

  14. Birth order among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray; Siegelman, Marvin

    2003-02-01

    Nicolosi and Byrd in 2002 summarized empirical research on birth order and sexual orientation in men, which research has documented that homosexual men have a later birth order than heterosexual men. They did not, however, note a more refined analysis of an earlier null finding by Siegelman. This 1998 reanalysis by Blanchard, Zucker, Siegelman, Dickey, and Klassen also confirmed the later birth order of homosexual men.

  15. Homosexual orientation-from nature, not abuse: A critique of Roberts, Glymour, and Koenen (2013).

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Roberts, Glymour, and Koenen (2013), using instrumental variable models, argued that child abuse causes homosexual orientation, defined in part as any same-sex attractions. Their instruments were various negative family environment factors. In their analyses, they found that child sexual abuse (CSA) was more strongly related to homosexual orientation than non-sexual maltreatment was, especially among males. The present commentary therefore focused on male CSA. It is argued that Roberts et al.'s "abuse model" is incorrect and an alternative is presented. Male homosexual behavior is common in primates and has been common in many human societies, such that an evolved human male homosexual potential, with individual variation, can be assumed. Cultural variation has been strongly influenced by cultural norms. In our society, homosexual expression is rare because it is counternormative. The "counternormativity model" offered here holds that negative family environment weakens normative controls and increases counternormative thinking and behavior, which, in combination with sufficient homosexual potential and relevant, reinforcing experiences, can produce a homosexual orientation. This is a benign or positive model (innate potential plus release and reinforcement), in contrast to Roberts et al.'s negative model (abuse plus emotional compensation or cognitive distortion). The abuse model is criticized for being based on the sexual victimological paradigm, which developed to describe the female experience in rape and incest. This poorly fits the gay male experience, as demonstrated in a brief non-clinical literature review. Validly understanding male homosexuality, it is argued, requires the broad perspective, as employed here.

  16. The Dutch penal law and homosexual conduct.

    PubMed

    Salden, M

    The history of changes in Dutch penal law regulating homosexual conduct since the 18th century are traced and their effects on homosexual behavior described. Changes in policies and practices regarding enforcement are reviewed. The article discusses the Dutch criminal code of 1886, the criminalization of homosexual contacts involving minors in 1911, the criminalization of male homosexuality from 1941 to 1945, and the progressive relaxation of the law since World War II, resulting in the decriminalization in 1971 of homosexual contacts involving minors and the draft in 1981 for a bill that would prohibit discrimination against homosexuals.

  17. Anthropometric analysis of homosexuals and heterosexuals: implications for early hormone exposure.

    PubMed

    Martin, James T; Nguyen, Duc Huu

    2004-01-01

    Early exposure to sex steroids is thought to be important in mediating the differentiation of male-typical sexual orientation. Bone morphology is a marker of childhood sex steroid exposure, because estrogens and androgens control sexual dimorphism in skeletal size. Anthropometric analysis of heterosexuals and homosexuals indicates that those bones, which become sexually dimorphic in childhood, but not those which become sexually dimorphic after puberty, are different in length in homosexuals and heterosexuals. Persons with a sexual preference for males have less long bone growth in the arms, legs and hands, than those with sexual preference for females. The data support the hypothesis that male homosexuals have had less steroid exposure during development than male heterosexuals and that female homosexuals have had greater steroid exposure during development than their heterosexual counterparts.

  18. The Military: Its Processing of Accused Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Colin J.; Weinberg, Martin S.

    1970-01-01

    The authors describe the procedure by which men charged with homosexuality are classified as one of three organizationally recognized classes of homosexuals and processed to dishonorable," undesirable," or general" discharges usually correlated with such classifications. (DB)

  19. A Homosexual Teacher's Argument and Plea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Homosexual teachers do not influence children toward homosexuality nor do they proselytize. Teachers should be judged on their effectiveness in the classroom, not by their sexual preference. (Author/IRT)

  20. Age-Status Labeling in Homosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.

    1976-01-01

    Homosexual men (N=95) between 25 and 68 years of age were asked to classify themselves as young, middle-aged, or old. The popular suggestion of accelerated aging in homosexual men was not supported. (Author)

  1. Homosexual Labeling and the Male Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, Rodney G.

    1978-01-01

    In this study, men were perceived to be less masculine and less preferred as fellow participants if they were labeled homosexual. The man responsible for the primary labeling of the homosexual was perceived as more masculine and more sociable when he labeled the homosexual than when he did not. (Author/WI)

  2. Homosexuals' and Lesbians' Philosophies of Human Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Leonard; Benozio, Motti

    1987-01-01

    Compared 57 homosexual men and 45 lesbians on six dimensions of beliefs about human nature. On only one dimension was significant difference found: lesbians saw people as more altruistic and less selfish than did homosexual men. Findings are consistent with the few personality studies which report no differences between homosexuals and lesbians.…

  3. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rajabali, Alefiyah; Khan, Saeed; Warraich, Haider J; Khanani, Mohammad R; Ali, Syed H

    2008-08-01

    In Pakistan, seven times more men are reported to be infected with HIV than women. Among the Pakistani population, modes of HIV transmission include infection through sexual contact, contaminated blood and blood products, injecting drug use, and mother-to-child transmission. Although most sexual transmission of HIV results from unsafe heterosexual contact, homosexual and bisexual contact also represent important modes of transmission. According to unpublished reports, the prevalence of HIV among homosexual and bisexual Pakistani men is reaching alarming proportions. We describe the Pakistani homosexual and bisexual culture, review statistics regarding HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, and identify areas of improvement in the HIV policy with specific focus on men who have sex with men. PMID:18652997

  4. Is a homosexual orientation irreversible?

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1976-12-01

    In four studies homosexual patients were randomly allocated to receive either different forms of aversive therapy; or aversive therapy or a positive conditioning procedure. Before and after therapy the patients' sexual orientation was determined by measuring their penile volume responses to moving pictures of nude men and women. The aversive therapies produced reduction in homosexual feelings and behaviour. In the fourth study the reduction was significantly greater following the aversive compared with the positive conditioning procedure. No significant change in measured sexual orientation occurred in the patients who received aversive therapy compared with those who received positive conditioning. The measured sexual orientation of the homosexual patients after treatment differed significantly from that of heterosexual patients who received aversive therapy for sexual anomalies.

  5. Out of DSM: Depathologizing Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Jack

    2015-01-01

    In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the diagnosis of “homosexuality” from the second edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I and DSM-II as well as alternative theories that eventually led to its removal from DSM III and subsequent editions of the manual. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sociocultural aftermath of that 1973 decision. PMID:26690228

  6. [Genetic evaluation of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Gasztonyi, Z

    1998-02-01

    The family trees of 16 homosexual males are evaluated in the material of their Genetic Counselling Clinic. The familial cluster of three cases corresponded to the X-linked recessive inheritance. The results of family, twin and adoption studies are reviewed and the recent findings of molecular genetic and brain researches are summarised. Male homosexuality comprises of different subgroups, but one major entity is caused by X-linked recessive gene(s). This genetic background represent a predisposition which is triggered or suppressed by external factors.

  7. Fading to increase heterosexual responsiveness in homosexuals1

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, David H.; Agras, W. Stewart

    1973-01-01

    Heterosexual responsiveness, measured by penile responses and reports of behavior, was strengthened in three homosexuals through a fading procedure. Using two slide projectors, colored slides of nude females were superimposed on colored slides of nude males. As the sexual response was emitted, the nude male was faded out and the nude female faded in. Heterosexual arousal decreased when the fading procedure was reversed or stopped and increased once again when fading was resumed. Homosexual arousal remained high during this experiment but had decreased in two subjects at follow-up. The results suggest that fading was responsible for altering stimulus control of sexual arousal and that aversive techniques may not be necessary in the treatment of sexual deviation. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:16795417

  8. Multiple dimensions of attitudes about homosexuality: development of a multifaceted scale measuring attitudes toward homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Adolfsen, Anna; Iedema, Jurjen; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Attitudes toward homosexuality are complex. To get a comprehensive view on the attitudes of people, different dimensions need to be included in research. Based on a review of the literature, we distinguish five dimensions: acceptance of homosexuality in a general sense; attitude toward equal rights; reactions to homosexuality "at close quarters"; reactions to homosexuality in public; and so-called modern homonegativity. In a study on a representative sample of Dutch Defence personnel (N = 1,607) we tested this model. Structural equation modeling of several items measuring the attitude toward homosexuality offers a six factor solution. These six factors are more or less comparable to the five dimensions we distinguished. The dimension "reactions to homosexuality at close quarters" is, however, empirically split in a dimension on affective reactions to homosexuality and homosexual persons in general and a dimension on affective reaction to homosexual friends or acquaintances.

  9. Reconsiderations about Greek homosexualities.

    PubMed

    Percy, William Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    Focusing his analysis on (mostly Athenian) vase paintings of the sixth- and early fifth-century and on a handful of texts from the late fifth- and early fourth-century (again Athenian), Dover depicted the pederastic relationship of erastes (age 20 to 30) and eromenos (age 12-18) as defined by sexual roles, active and passive, respectively. This dichotomy he connected to other sexual and social phenomena, in which the active/ penetrating role was considered proper for a male adult Athenian citizen, while the passive/penetrated role was denigrated, ridiculed, and even punished. Constructing various social and psychological theories, Foucault and Halperin, along with a host of others, have extended his analysis, but at the core has remained the Dover dogma of sexual-role dichotomization. Penetration has become such a focal point in the scholarship that anything unable to be analyzed in terms of domination is downplayed or ignored. To reduce homosexuality or same-sex behaviors to the purely physical or sexual does an injustice to the complex phenomena of the Greek male experience. From Sparta to Athens to Thebes and beyond, the Greek world incorporated pederasty into their educational systems. Pederasty became a way to lead a boy into manhood and full participation in the polis, which meant not just participation in politics but primarily the ability to benefit the city in a wide range of potential ways. Thus the education, training, and even inspiration provided in the pederastic relationship released creative forces that led to what has been called the Greek 'miracle.' From around 630 BCE we find the institution of Greek pederasty informing the art and literature to a degree yet to be fully appreciated. Moreover, this influence not only extends to the 'higher' realms of culture, but also can be seen stimulating society at all levels, from the military to athletic games, from philosophy to historiography. An understanding of sexual practices-useful, even essential, to

  10. Human homosexuality: a paradigmatic arena for sexually antagonistic selection?

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Battaglia, Umberto; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-01-29

    Sexual conflict likely plays a crucial role in the origin and maintenance of homosexuality in our species. Although environmental factors are known to affect human homosexual (HS) preference, sibling concordances and population patterns related to HS indicate that genetic components are also influencing this trait in humans. We argue that multilocus, partially X-linked genetic factors undergoing sexually antagonistic selection that promote maternal female fecundity at the cost of occasional male offspring homosexuality are the best candidates capable of explaining the frequency, familial clustering, and pedigree asymmetries observed in HS male proband families. This establishes male HS as a paradigmatic example of sexual conflict in human biology. HS in females, on the other hand, is currently a more elusive phenomenon from both the empirical and theoretical standpoints because of its fluidity and marked environmental influence. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter involving sexually antagonistic components, have been hypothesized for the propagation and maintenance of female HS in the population. However, further data are needed to truly clarify the evolutionary dynamics of this trait.

  11. Human homosexuality: a paradigmatic arena for sexually antagonistic selection?

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Battaglia, Umberto; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Sexual conflict likely plays a crucial role in the origin and maintenance of homosexuality in our species. Although environmental factors are known to affect human homosexual (HS) preference, sibling concordances and population patterns related to HS indicate that genetic components are also influencing this trait in humans. We argue that multilocus, partially X-linked genetic factors undergoing sexually antagonistic selection that promote maternal female fecundity at the cost of occasional male offspring homosexuality are the best candidates capable of explaining the frequency, familial clustering, and pedigree asymmetries observed in HS male proband families. This establishes male HS as a paradigmatic example of sexual conflict in human biology. HS in females, on the other hand, is currently a more elusive phenomenon from both the empirical and theoretical standpoints because of its fluidity and marked environmental influence. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter involving sexually antagonistic components, have been hypothesized for the propagation and maintenance of female HS in the population. However, further data are needed to truly clarify the evolutionary dynamics of this trait. PMID:25635045

  12. Should Homosexuality Arouse Therapeutic Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Kurt

    1977-01-01

    With homosexuals, counseling toward self-acceptance is advisable; counseling toward heterosexual adjustment is feasible only as a second-best choice and should be combined with continued efforts of counseling of the first type. Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, 13 December…

  13. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  14. Self-Esteem, Splitting, Anxiety, Fear, Depression, Anxiety Sensitivity and Locus of Control as They Relate to the Homosexual Identity Formation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binks, Sidney Walter, III

    This study proposed that before comparisons between homosexuals and heterosexuals on levels of self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and locus of control can be made, one must understand the unique process of homosexual identity formation and how it differs from heterosexual identity formation. Subjects included 231 male and 21 female members (ages…

  15. Lesbianism in female and coed correctional institutions.

    PubMed

    Propper, A M

    1978-01-01

    Questionnaire responses from 13- to 17-year-old girls in four all-female and three coed institutions were used to determine rates and causes of institutional homosexuality. Rates were as high in coed as in single-sexed institutions. The overall rates of homosexuality for all seven institutions were 14% for "going with or being married" to another girl, 10% for passionately kissing, 10% for writing love letters, and 7% for having sex, beyond hugging and kissing, with another girl. The data suggest that previous homosexuality, often experienced in other correctional programs, explains much of the variance in institutional homosexuality. PMID:659849

  16. [Phalloplethysmographic findings in homosexual pedophile offenders].

    PubMed

    Tichý, P

    1991-03-29

    Using phalloplethysmographic tests comprising 20 coloured slides of four categories the authors examined 50 homosexual pedophil delinquents and a matched group of heterosexual men. The findings of the two compared groups differed significantly on exposure to three categories of erotic stimuli--adult heterosexual and homosexual objects and child homosexual objects. Only on projection of child heterosexual objects there were no statistically significant differences in the number and magnitude of positive vasomotor reactions recorded in the two groups. Men in the control group responded more frequently and more positively to adult heterosexual objects than homosexual pedophil delinquents. The latter responded more frequently positively to adult and child homosexual objects. In more than one quarter of the delinquents (13 men) a preference of child objects was found, i.e. a deviant pedophil orientation. In seven men the preference of child objects was without sexual differentiation, six men preferred homosexual child objects.

  17. Alcoholism and homosexuality: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Nardi, P M

    1982-01-01

    Although causal relationships between homosexuality and alcoholism have not been established, the myths and assumptions surrounding this issue are numerous. Much of the available literature on the subject is from a psychoanalytic perspective, emphasizing latent homosexuality as a cause of alcoholism. Very little is from the perspective of gay and lesbian populations. This paper analyzes the assumptions underlying the biological and genetic approaches, learning theory, psychoanalytic perspectives, and sociological models as they relate to alcoholism and homosexuality.

  18. Counselors', Psychologists', and Homosexuals' Philosophies of Human Nature and Attitudes Toward Homosexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Eugene P.

    1974-01-01

    Using the Philosophies of Human Nature Scale (PHN), counselors, psychologists, and homosexuals were studied to determine their beliefs about human nature and homosexuals. The results suggest that counselors were significantly stronger than homosexuals and psychologists in the belief that people control their own outcomes. (Author/BW)

  19. Evaluation of Assertive Training and Homosexual Guidance Service Groups Designed to Improve Homosexual Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, A.; Winkler, R.

    1977-01-01

    It is proposed that clinicians should develop research-based assertiveness training procedures for homosexuals that are designed to facilitate homosexual functioning. Subjects (N=27) were assigned to a behaviorally oriented assertive training group or a non-directive group run by a homosexual guidance service. Self-report measures indicated…

  20. Homophobia: How Physicians Treat Homosexual Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Christiane

    1982-01-01

    Doctors tend to be uncomfortable with homosexual patients, who make up a large part of an average practice. Homosexuality lies along the continuum of sexual expression and should not be considered a perversion. To a greater or lesser extent, it is present in all people, and is acted upon in a variety of ways. Physicians should be aware of the homosexual patient's lifestyle in order to give the best medical care. The epidemiology of disease differs in the homosexual and heterosexual population. PMID:21286083

  1. Some cultural aspects of Greek male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R J

    1980-01-01

    A brief examination of Greek social structures, history, and cosmology reveals several points about the nature of, and attitudes towards, male homosexual practices in the classical period. First, due to the overwhelming importance of the Hellenic family, few men seem to have engaged exclusively in homosexual acts. Second, historical sources for Attica indicate that, although most men may have married, homosexual behavior was widespread among all levels of society and was considered no more opprobrious than heterosexual behavior. Third, the Greek cosmology, with its unbounded sexuality and constant blurring of sex roles, provided an atmosphere in which homosexuality was regarded by Athenians as neither irreligious nor unnatural.

  2. Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2012-12-01

    Male and female homosexuality have substantial prevalence in humans. Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins is low and molecular studies have failed to find associated DNA makers. This paradoxical pattern calls for an explanation. We use published data on fetal androgen signaling and gene regulation via nongenetic changes in DNA packaging (epigenetics) to develop a new model for homosexuality. It is well established that fetal androgen signaling strongly influences sexual development. We show that an unappreciated feature of this process is reduced androgen sensitivity in XX fetuses and enhanced sensitivity in XY fetuses, and that this difference is most feasibly mused by numerous sex-specific epigenetic modifications ("epi-marks") originating in embryonic stem cells. These epi-marks buffer XX fetuses from masculinization due to excess fetal androgen exposure and similarly buffer XY fetuses from androgen underexposure. Extant data indicates that individual epi-marks influence some but not other sexually dimorphic traits, vary in strength across individuals, and are produced during ontogeny and erased between generations. Those that escape erasure will steer development of the sexual phenotypes they influence in a gonad-discordant direction in opposite sex offspring, mosaically feminizing XY offspring and masculinizing XX offspring. Such sex-specific epi-marks are sexually antagonistic (SA-epi-marks) because they canalize sexual development in the parent that produced them, but contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex offspring when unerased. In this model, homosexuality occurs when stronger-than-average SA-epi-marks (influencing sexual preference) from an opposite-sex parent escape erasure and are then paired with a weaker-than-average de novo sex-specific epi-marks produced in opposite-sex offspring. Our model predicts that homosexuality is part of a

  3. Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2012-12-01

    Male and female homosexuality have substantial prevalence in humans. Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins is low and molecular studies have failed to find associated DNA makers. This paradoxical pattern calls for an explanation. We use published data on fetal androgen signaling and gene regulation via nongenetic changes in DNA packaging (epigenetics) to develop a new model for homosexuality. It is well established that fetal androgen signaling strongly influences sexual development. We show that an unappreciated feature of this process is reduced androgen sensitivity in XX fetuses and enhanced sensitivity in XY fetuses, and that this difference is most feasibly mused by numerous sex-specific epigenetic modifications ("epi-marks") originating in embryonic stem cells. These epi-marks buffer XX fetuses from masculinization due to excess fetal androgen exposure and similarly buffer XY fetuses from androgen underexposure. Extant data indicates that individual epi-marks influence some but not other sexually dimorphic traits, vary in strength across individuals, and are produced during ontogeny and erased between generations. Those that escape erasure will steer development of the sexual phenotypes they influence in a gonad-discordant direction in opposite sex offspring, mosaically feminizing XY offspring and masculinizing XX offspring. Such sex-specific epi-marks are sexually antagonistic (SA-epi-marks) because they canalize sexual development in the parent that produced them, but contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex offspring when unerased. In this model, homosexuality occurs when stronger-than-average SA-epi-marks (influencing sexual preference) from an opposite-sex parent escape erasure and are then paired with a weaker-than-average de novo sex-specific epi-marks produced in opposite-sex offspring. Our model predicts that homosexuality is part of a

  4. [A sexo-analytic view on homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Crépault, C

    1994-01-01

    After having defined the terminology, the author attempts to identify homosexuality through the sexual individuation process and to trace its different ontogenic inconsistencies. A typology based on non conformity of gender and the heterophobia is suggested. Two clinical case examples will be given to further illustrate the sexoanalytic treatment of egodystonic homosexuality.

  5. Analysis of Public Attitudes Toward Homosexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyberg, Kenneth L.; Alston, Jon P.

    1976-01-01

    Data from a 1974 representative survey of the white American adult population indicate most white Americans (75 percent) disapprove of homosexual relations. Persons who tend to hold more favorable attitudes toward homosexual relations are those under 30 years of age, those living in larger urban centers, and those with college experience. (Author)

  6. Homosexuality--Illness or Life-Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Paul J.

    1975-01-01

    Addresses the issues of the labeling and selective discrimination of homosexuals. Psychiatry is encouraged to adhere to the medical model and treat the homosexual patient who is in conflict and motivated by inner turmoil and distress rather than assuming the job of society's regulator and the judge of acceptable behavior. (Author)

  7. Social Interaction and Stereotypic Responses to Homosexuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Ronald A.; Morrione, Thomas J.

    This work focuses on the variations in societal responses perceived by male homosexuals in various group settings of interaction and on the relationship of these responses to their social status and related behavioral characteristics. Conclusions were based on the analysis of data collected from a sampling of 148 male homosexuals in and around a…

  8. Developmental-Interest Factors Associated with Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary A.; Schoenfeldt, Lyle F.

    1973-01-01

    This study compared 42 male homosexual college students with heterosexual controls on 19 life experience factors. The factors were developed from a biographical questionnaire and, in turn, were used to develop subgroups homogeneous with respect to previous experience. The homosexuals differed on 8 of the 19 dimensions. The pattern was one…

  9. The Only Child Factor in Homosexual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the life experiences and attitudes of homosexual women with only-child status reveals that their emotional and social development is less favorable than that of homosexual women who had siblings. Only-child status is an important variable in understanding child development. (Author/CS)

  10. Adolescent Homosexuality and Concerns Regarding Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Therese W.

    2003-01-01

    With threats of being labeled abnormal or facing rejection, homosexual adolescents are pressured to hide their sexual identities. To provide optimal anticipatory guidance and support, professionals must understand the natural development of sexual attraction and the disclosure concerns and risks for developing homosexual adolescents (e.g., risk…

  11. Attitudes towards and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Grabovac, Igor; Abramović, Marija; Komlenović, Gordana; Milosević, Milan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p < 0.001) with 38% of explained variance. The significant predictor variables that indicate lower attitudes about homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.

  12. A history of homosexuality and organized psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Today the Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry welcomes its gay and lesbian members. Yet at the time of its 1956 founding, organized psychoanalytic attitudes toward homosexuality could be reasonably characterized as hostile. First there was a transition from Freud's early views of homosexuality as immature to later neofreudian theories that pathologized same-sex attractions and behavior. Following the 1973 decision of the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the DSM, homosexuality is now more commonly regarded as a normal variant of human sexuality. The history of psychoanalytic attitudes toward homosexuality reinforces the impression that psychoanalytic theories cannot be divorced from the political, cultural, and personal contexts in which they are formulated. This history also shows that analysts can take positions that either facilitate or obstruct tolerance and acceptance.

  13. Heterosexual Male Carriers Could Explain Persistence of Homosexuality in Men: Individual-Based Simulations of an X-Linked Inheritance Model.

    PubMed

    Chaladze, Giorgi

    2016-10-01

    Homosexuality has been documented throughout history and is found in almost all human cultures. Twin studies suggest that homosexuality is to some extent heritable. However, from an evolutionary perspective, this poses a problem: Male homosexuals tend to have on average five times fewer children than heterosexual males, so how can a phenomenon associated with low reproductive success be maintained at relatively stable frequencies? Recent findings of increased maternal fecundity of male homosexuals suggest that the genes responsible for homosexuality in males increase fecundity in the females who carry them. Can an increase in maternal fecundity compensate for the fecundity reduction in homosexual men and produce a stable polymorphism? In the current study, this problem was addressed with an individual-based modeling (IBM) approach. IBM suggests that male homosexuality can be maintained in a population at low and stable frequencies if roughly more than half of the females and half of the males are carriers of genes that predispose the male to homosexuality. PMID:27067240

  14. Catholic High School Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Snapshot of Incoming College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This study is a survey of incoming freshmen at a Midwestern Catholic university on their agreement with Church teachings on homosexuality. In general, females had more homo-positive attitudes than males, graduates of catholic high schools had more homo-positive attitudes than graduates from non-Catholic high schools, and graduates from…

  15. Gene- and environment-dependent neuroendocrine etiogenesis of homosexuality and transsexualism.

    PubMed

    Dörner, G; Poppe, I; Stahl, F; Kölzsch, J; Uebelhack, R

    1991-01-01

    Sexual brain organization is dependent on sex hormone and neurotransmitter levels occurring during critical developmental periods. The higher the androgen levels during brain organization, caused by genetic and/or environmental factors, the higher is the biological predisposition to bi- and homosexuality or even transsexualism in females and the lower it is in males. Adrenal androgen excess, leading to heterotypical sexual orientation and/or gender role behavior in genetic females, can be caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency, especially when associated with prenatal stress. The cortisol (F) precursor 21-deoxycortisol (21-DOF) was found to be significantly increased after ACTH stimulation in homosexual as compared to heterosexual females. 21-DOF was increased significantly before and even highly significantly after ACTH stimulation in female-to-male transsexuals. In view of these data, heterozygous and homozygous forms, respectively, of 21-hydroxylase deficiency represent a genetic predisposition to androgen-dependent development of homosexuality and transsexualism in females. Testicular androgen deficiency in prenatal life, giving rise to heterotypical sexual orientation and/or gender role behavior in genetic males, may be induced by prenatal stress and/or maternal or fetal genetic alterations. Most recently, in mothers of homosexual men--following ACTH stimulation--a significantly increased prevalence of high 21-DOF plasma values and 21-DOF/F ratios was found, which surpassed the mean + 1 SD level of heterosexual control women. In homosexual men as well--following ACTH stimulation--most of the 21-DOF plasma values and 21-DOF/F ratios also surpassed the mean + 1 SD level of heterosexual men. In only one out of 9 homosexual males, neither in his blood nor in that of his mother increased 21-DOF values and 21-DOF/F ratios were found after ACTH stimulation. In this homosexual man, however, the plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) values and the DHEA-S/1000 x A

  16. Exploring context and dynamics of homosexual experiences among rural youth in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Mahendra, Vaishali Sharma; Verma, Ravi

    2008-01-01

    There is a lack of community-based studies that have examined level and context of homosexual activity in India among male youth. As part of a larger study on sexual behavior and gender attitudes of rural youth in Northern India, this study identified a subgroup of young men who reported homosexual experiences, even though they did not identify themselves as homosexual. This article attempts to examine the levels and range of sexual practices and attitudes of the homosexually active male youth by comparing them with their peers who reported heterosexual experiences. Study findings indicate that about one-fifth of sexually active male youth reported homosexual experiences. These young men begin their sexual careers early; engage with a higher number of sexual partners, both male and female; and are more likely to report inconsistent condom use, as compared to their heterosexually active peers. With high levels of partner mixing and inconsistent condom, use it appears that, for this subgroup of young men with high risk behaviors, homosexual experiences are only one part of their sexual lives and not the main factor that would contribute to their HIV vulnerability. Interventions need to be mindful of these issues, rather than rushing into labelling youth as homosexual or heterosexual for programmatic purposes. At the same time, as high-risk behaviors are largely unexplored among a general population of rural male youth, there is need for more in-depth ethnographic and culturally specific sexuality research to explore if there is a subculture that may promote sexual practices including same-sex activities that influences HIV vulnerability. PMID:19856742

  17. Homosexual Discretion and Good Taste: Two Rules That Govern Homosexual Sociability Space in Santiago de Chile.

    PubMed

    Lizama, Pablo Astudillo

    2015-01-01

    Homosexual sociability space in Santiago is not socially homogenous. Beyond non-heterosexual identities segmentation (gay, lesbian, queer, BDSM, etc.), the present article proposes a reflection observing certain social distinctions or differences that come into play to create a hierarchy among gay and lesbian individuals within that space. Using a qualitative approximation, we analyze the discourse of homosexual men and women about ways to display homosexuality in different places in the city, as well as some sociability practices used in homosexual venues. The resulting social hierarchy is understood through two central subjective rules: discretion and good taste, dynamic mechanisms that perpetuate the distance among groups within the same sociability space, and to some extent reproduce the city's class structure. Given that material means to privatize and sophisticate homosexual expression are unequally distributed in Santiago, the resulting differentiated social networks end up configuring the visibility strategies of homosexual identity played out in the city in the last years. PMID:26075580

  18. Homosexual Discretion and Good Taste: Two Rules That Govern Homosexual Sociability Space in Santiago de Chile.

    PubMed

    Lizama, Pablo Astudillo

    2015-01-01

    Homosexual sociability space in Santiago is not socially homogenous. Beyond non-heterosexual identities segmentation (gay, lesbian, queer, BDSM, etc.), the present article proposes a reflection observing certain social distinctions or differences that come into play to create a hierarchy among gay and lesbian individuals within that space. Using a qualitative approximation, we analyze the discourse of homosexual men and women about ways to display homosexuality in different places in the city, as well as some sociability practices used in homosexual venues. The resulting social hierarchy is understood through two central subjective rules: discretion and good taste, dynamic mechanisms that perpetuate the distance among groups within the same sociability space, and to some extent reproduce the city's class structure. Given that material means to privatize and sophisticate homosexual expression are unequally distributed in Santiago, the resulting differentiated social networks end up configuring the visibility strategies of homosexual identity played out in the city in the last years.

  19. Homosexuality in Turkey: strategies for managing heterosexism.

    PubMed

    Bakacak, Ayça Gelgeç; Oktem, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the strategies used by young homosexuals to manage their sexual minority status in Turkey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 self-identified homosexual university students. The data on the strategies employed by homosexuals suggested a categorization of these strategies into four interrelated areas: strategies employed in the process of self-acceptance; strategies to manage sexual stigma and prejudice; strategies specific to the coming-out process; and the strategies used while openly expressing their sexual identities.

  20. Japan's progressive sex: male homosexuality, national competition, and the cinema.

    PubMed

    Hall, J M

    2000-01-01

    This essay serves as a broad investigation of the origins of what came to be called the "gay boom" in 1990's Japanese cinema: a culmination of print media, television, and especially films which made the gay male not merely a visible (political) subject but also the site of displaced contestations of gendered (female) desire. The most visible transnational signifier of the "gay boom" was the 1992 film Okoge, a film which, in keeping with a Japanese trend which relocates the gay male as a safe displacement of female desire, posits the heterosexual female as the audience's point of identification in a film about the lives of gay Japanese men. Using this as a starting point, this essay seeks to explore how male homosexuality and gender construction operate within both Japanese nationalism and the transnational discourse of Japanese cinema's dissemination.

  1. Japan's progressive sex: male homosexuality, national competition, and the cinema.

    PubMed

    Hall, J M

    2000-01-01

    This essay serves as a broad investigation of the origins of what came to be called the "gay boom" in 1990's Japanese cinema: a culmination of print media, television, and especially films which made the gay male not merely a visible (political) subject but also the site of displaced contestations of gendered (female) desire. The most visible transnational signifier of the "gay boom" was the 1992 film Okoge, a film which, in keeping with a Japanese trend which relocates the gay male as a safe displacement of female desire, posits the heterosexual female as the audience's point of identification in a film about the lives of gay Japanese men. Using this as a starting point, this essay seeks to explore how male homosexuality and gender construction operate within both Japanese nationalism and the transnational discourse of Japanese cinema's dissemination. PMID:11133140

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality: an Australian twin study.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Karin J H; Shekar, Sri N; Zietsch, Brendan P; Eaves, Lindon J; Bailey, J Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes, including attitudes toward homosexuality. Results show that, in accordance with literature, males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. In contrast with some earlier findings, age had no significant effect on the homophobia scores in this study. Genetic modelling showed that variation in homophobia scores could be explained by additive genetic (36%), shared environmental (18%) and unique environmental factors (46%). However, corrections based on previous findings show that the shared environmental estimate may be almost entirely accounted for as extra additive genetic variance arising from assortative mating for homophobic attitudes. The results suggest that variation in attitudes toward homosexuality is substantially inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor.

  3. Slavery and the social dynamics of male homosexual relations in ancient Rome.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, B C

    1980-01-01

    More than any other institution, slavery placed its stamp on male homosexual relations in ancient Rome. While the pervasive Hellenization of Roman society in the second and first centuries B.C. mitigated the traditional hostility towards homosexuality and homosexual relations and even, in cultured circles, fostered an idealizing acceptance of male pederastic relations patterned after the model of classical Greece, this transformation of attitudes would have produced less concrete effects had Rome not concurrently become a slave-owning society on a large scale, due to overseas conquests. The strictures of Roman law and tradition applied only to sexual relations among free men and women; sexual relations between freemen and female or male slaves were unlikely to incur much social stigma. Although there is evidence that some Romans did indeed exploit their slaves, fortunately the great lacuna within the law and tradition, together with the emergence of more humane values regarding slavery and sexual relations, allowed genuine love-relationships (both heterosexual and homosexual) to receive a large measure of social sanction as a form of concubinage. Roman culture, however, unlike classical Green civilization, made little contribution to an informed acceptance of homosexual relations grounded in an understanding of human ethics and psychology.

  4. Genetic models of homosexuality: generating testable predictions.

    PubMed

    Gavrilets, Sergey; Rice, William R

    2006-12-22

    Homosexuality is a common occurrence in humans and other species, yet its genetic and evolutionary basis is poorly understood. Here, we formulate and study a series of simple mathematical models for the purpose of predicting empirical patterns that can be used to determine the form of selection that leads to polymorphism of genes influencing homosexuality. Specifically, we develop theory to make contrasting predictions about the genetic characteristics of genes influencing homosexuality including: (i) chromosomal location, (ii) dominance among segregating alleles and (iii) effect sizes that distinguish between the two major models for their polymorphism: the overdominance and sexual antagonism models. We conclude that the measurement of the genetic characteristics of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) found in genomic screens for genes influencing homosexuality can be highly informative in resolving the form of natural selection maintaining their polymorphism.

  5. Attitudes among nurse educators toward homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Sirota, Theodora

    2013-04-01

    Homosexual populations have unique and specific cultures, psychosocial characteristics, health issues, and health care disparities that are currently ignored or insufficiently addressed in nursing education. To understand the reasons for these omissions, this descriptive study explores the attitudes of nurse educators (N = 1,282) toward homosexuality and the extent to which demographic, educational, and occupational factors are related to their attitudes. Responding to a direct online survey solicitation, self-selected participants completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) and a supplementary data questionnaire. Results indicate that the majority of participants have positive attitudes toward homosexuality, which is consistent with prior findings. Most participants believe it is important to teach nursing students about homosexuality, but they consider themselves unprepared to teach this content. Effects of various demographic and occupational factors on participants' ATLG scores and implications of the findings for nursing education and nursing health care policy are discussed.

  6. Suicidal behaviors in homosexual and bisexual males.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C; Tremblay, P

    1997-01-01

    A stratified random sample of 750 males in Calgary, Canada, aged 18-27 years, were given questions on sexual activity and orientation. Mental health questions included a measure of suicidality and of acts of deliberate self-harm. A computerized response format, which has been established as a good method for eliciting sensitive personal data, ensured anonymity. Almost 13% of the males were classified as homosexual or bisexual on the basis of being currently homosexually active or by self-identification. Significantly higher rates of previous suicidal ideas and actions were reported by homosexually oriented males than by heterosexual males. Homosexually oriented males accounted for 62.5% of suicide attempters. These findings, which indicate that homosexual and bisexual males are 13.9 times more at risk for a serious suicide attempt, are consonant with previous findings. The predominant reason for the suicidality of these young males may be linked to the process of "coming out," especially for those who currently have high levels of depression. These results underscore the need for qualified services rarely available to homosexually oriented youth. PMID:9141776

  7. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perception of Homosexuality and Related Factors in Three Asian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongliang; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Tu, Xiaowen; Cheng, Yan; Emerson, Mark R.; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents’ and young adults’ perception of homosexuality plays an important role in the marginalization and stigmatization of the homosexual, thereby influencing his or her health. This article aims to study that perception and to examine its predictors in three Asian cities that are culturally dominated by Confucianism. Methods From May 2006 to January 2007, a cross-sectional survey of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15–24 years old, in both urban and rural sites of three Asian cities (Hanoi in Vietnam, Shanghai in the mainland of China, and Taipei in Taiwan) was conducted through interview and computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify the predictors for their perception of homosexuality. Results The percentage of adolescents and young adults who hold a positive view of homosexuality (i.e., thought it was normal and/or acceptable) was low, especially in Hanoi and Shanghai; these figures increased from Hanoi to Shanghai to Taipei for both males and females. Overall, those factors significantly associated with adolescents’ and young adults’ perception of homosexuality included individuals’ demographic characteristics (urban/rural, age, economic status, student status, and educational level), preferred origin of movies/videos, self-identified sexual orientation, sexual and reproductive health knowledge, family values, gender role values, and attitudes toward premarital sex. Conclusions In these three Asian cities composed of populations whose views are largely influenced by Confucianism, adolescents and young adults mainly hold a negative perception of homosexuality. The most common and important predictors for a respondent's perception of homosexuality were his or her knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and how traditional his/her values may be. Greater attention needs to be paid to the popularization of knowledge about sexual and

  8. Correlates of attitudes toward homosexuality and intention to care for homosexual people among psychiatric nurses in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shu-Ying; Pan, Shung-Mei; Ko, Nai-Ying; Liu, Hsiu-Chin; Wu, Shu-Jung; Yang, Wen-Chiung; Yang, Hsing-Hu; Shieh, Shiu-Fen; Chuang, Li-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the association between attitudes toward homosexual individuals and intention to provide care and demographic and occupational factors, sexual orientation, knowledge about homosexuality, and experiences of contact with homosexual people among psychiatric nurses in southern Taiwan. In total, 133 psychiatric nurses from a medical center, three regional teaching hospitals, and one psychiatric hospital in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study. Their attitudes toward homosexual people as recorded on the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Questionnaire, intention to provide care to homosexual individuals, and related factors were examined. The results revealed that psychiatric nurses who had a bachelor's or master's degree, higher level of knowledge about homosexuality, and friends or relatives with a homosexual orientation had a more positive attitude toward homosexuality. These psychiatric nurses, with more positive attitudes, and who worked in the medical center or regional teaching hospitals had a higher intention to care for homosexual people. The factors related to attitudes toward homosexuality and intention to care for homosexual people identified in this study should be taken into consideration when intervening in psychiatric nurses' attitudes toward homosexuality and intention to care for homosexual people.

  9. The Catholic Church, the American military, and homosexual reorientation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lutz, David

    2004-01-01

    Homosexual activist groups have targeted the Catholic Church and the American military as institutions especially in need of transformation. Associations of healthcare professionals are also under assault from homosexual activists. It is, nevertheless, appropriate for the Church and the military to defend themselves against this assault, to affirm that homosexuality is incompatible with Christian ethics and military service, and to help homosexuals free themselves from the vice of homosexuality. Arguments that homosexual reorientation therapy is unethical are unsound. Such therapy is consistent with the Christian virtue of charity. PMID:15764096

  10. Sex ratio of older siblings in heterosexual and homosexual, right-handed and non-right-handed men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated why older brothers, which increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males who are right-handed, have no effect or the opposite effect on later-born males who are non-right-handed. The specific question was whether the different results for the non-right-handed men have to do with the heterosexual non-right-handers or the homosexual non-right-handers. The human sex ratio at birth (106 males per 100 females) was used as a gold standard for determining which groups differ from the general population and in which direction. All usable data from previous studies were combined to obtain the largest possible sample (N = 8,201). The observed ratio of older brothers to older sisters was 105 for the heterosexual right-handers, 128 for the homosexual right-handers, 127 for the heterosexual non-right-handers, and 96 for the homosexual non-right-handers. The ratios for the homosexual right-handers and the heterosexual non-right-handers differed significantly from the expected value. These results suggest that both heterosexual and homosexual non-right-handers contribute to the older brothers x handedness x sexual orientation interaction.

  11. Attitudes toward homosexuality among young adults: connections to gender role identity, gender-typed activities, and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, Evan; Lindsey, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality have been linked to numerous personality and demographic variables. This study investigated the influence that gender role identity, involvement in gender-typed activities, and religiosity plays in this relationship. The sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Northeastern university. Analyses revealed that both males and females who held a more masculine gender role identity and individual commitment to religion scored higher on measures of homophobia and heteronormativity, whereas there was no association between spiritual meaning in life and attitudes toward homosexuality. Among males, but not females, more masculine gender identity and less spiritual meaning in life was associated with greater homophobia. The importance of the findings for research on the origins of attitudes toward individuals with a homosexual orientation are discussed, as well as the potential directions for future research on connections between gender role identity, religious affiliation, and attitudes toward gays and lesbians.

  12. The Philosophy of Existentialism and a Psychology of Irreversible Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This paper shows that a relationship exists between existentialism and homosexual behavior. The writers suggest that for obligatory homosexuals, who remain well adjusted and continue to make wholesome contributions to society, their behavior is existential in nature. (Author)

  13. Legal Rights and Responsibilities of Homosexuals in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Morte, Michael W.

    1975-01-01

    Examines reported decisions that deal with questions of the employment, contract nonrenewal or dismissal, and revocation of teaching certificates of homosexuals in public education. Discusses emerging issues and legal principals dealing with the homosexual-educator. (Author)

  14. A multidimensional approach to homosexual identity.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, J L; Newcomb, M D

    2001-01-01

    The existing developmental stage models of homosexual identity do not consider the diversity of human sexual experience. The stage models stem from an essentialist perspective, in which the process of homosexual identity formation is largely a matter of becoming aware of one's underlying, or real, sexual orientation. Once homosexual orientation is identified, the only legitimate outcome is to develop homosexual identity and eventually incorporate that identity as one aspect of the total self. In this paper, we are concerned with those people for whom the stage models are inadequate in describing their experience of sexual identity development. The social constructionist perspective holds that the process of identity formation is a continual, two-way interactive process between the individual and the social environment, and that the meanings the individual gives to these factors influence the development of self-constructs and identity. Sexual identity develops within this contextual framework and, because it is influenced by continual interaction, is fluid over time and experience, throughout one's life. Our model does not rely on the existing developmental models of homosexual identity; rather, our model looks at desire, behavior, and identity as three separate constructs related to sexual identity. We posit that from the social constructionist viewpoint, there is in fact no true endpoint to sexual identity development. PMID:12013570

  15. Gender-Role Variables and Attitudes toward Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationships of gender role variables to attitudes toward homosexuality. Results from a literature review and from college student surveys indicated a relationship between gender role beliefs and attitudes toward homosexuality. Findings support the view that heterosexuals' dislike of homosexuals is at least partially…

  16. Demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual behavior over a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Kent; Heywood, Wendy; Simpson, Judy M; Pitts, Marian K; Richters, Juliet; Shelley, Julia M; Smith, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexual people's attitudes toward homosexual behavior. A nationally representative sample of Australian men and women were recruited via random digit dialling in 2004 through 2005. Participants completed annual computer-assisted telephone interviews over the next five years. Questions about attitudes toward male and female homosexual behavior were assessed at Wave 1 (2004-2005) and Wave 3 (2006-2007) of the study. The majority of the sample reported tolerance of both male and female homosexual behavior (with women slightly more tolerant than men). Multivariate analyses showed that those who regularly attended religious services were more likely to consistently disapprove of homosexual behavior and more likely to change from tolerant to disapproving. Among those who were initially tolerant, younger respondents and those with higher educations were less likely to become homophobic. The results of this study show that individual attitudes toward homosexual behavior are open to change, particularly toward a more tolerant position. Religiosity appears to be consistently associated with the development and reinforcement of homophobic tendencies.

  17. Mapping the Journal of Homosexuality: A Preface.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Lance

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as a Preface to the supplementary section of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Born contemporaneously with the depathologization of "homosexuality" in the early 1970s, how does the Journal of Homosexuality's commitment to LGBT health issues the past four decades reveal longstanding tensions between medical pathology, cultural appropriation, and political progress? Introducing the articles that follow (each of which examines a seminal medical-themed subject from the journal's history), this article asks how LGBT-sensitive academic texts play complicit roles in both the reinforcement and the liberation of queer subjects in biomedical discourse.

  18. Mapping the Journal of Homosexuality: A Preface.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Lance

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as a Preface to the supplementary section of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Born contemporaneously with the depathologization of "homosexuality" in the early 1970s, how does the Journal of Homosexuality's commitment to LGBT health issues the past four decades reveal longstanding tensions between medical pathology, cultural appropriation, and political progress? Introducing the articles that follow (each of which examines a seminal medical-themed subject from the journal's history), this article asks how LGBT-sensitive academic texts play complicit roles in both the reinforcement and the liberation of queer subjects in biomedical discourse. PMID:26643443

  19. The paradox of evil/homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Woo, Juhyun

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyze "personal experience stories around the homosexual" that entered into the parliamentary debates on the Sexual Offences Act in Britain in the 1950s and 1960s and shaped understandings of sexual citizenship in particular ways. Specific attention is paid to the effects of political storytelling involved in the making of British sexual citizens. I explore how the paradoxical figure of the evil homosexual emerges and how politicians, in telling stories of the evil homosexuality, police the border that can effectively separate sexual outsiders from sexual citizens. I conclude with an analysis of these stories, and how their telling is closely linked to the postwar social welfare thinking in Britain.

  20. Male homosexuality and spirit possession in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fry, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between male homosexuality and the Afro-Brazilian possession cults in Belém do Parà. After a discussion of the literature follows a description of the cults' beliefs, rites and social organization. Male sex roles are then discussed and the two categories, bicha and man, analyzed. It is noted that there is no term which is equivalent to the western category of "homosexual" in this taxonomic system. After putting forward folk explanations for the presence of many bichas in the cults, an analysis is put forward of the social rewards available to bichas within these cults, and the structural relationship between homosexuality and these regions in terms of their congruent marginality vis-à-vis "normal society." PMID:4093598

  1. [Sodomites, homosexuals, gay: from persecution to demedicalization].

    PubMed

    Di Segni Obiols, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Since 1895, when Oscar Wilde was put on trial, almost 80 years passed until the beginning of the process that led to delete homosexuality from DSM (APA) and contributed to its despenalization. Over that period, moral and legal persecution and mass killings in concentrations camps gave way to gay pride. Here we analyze this process in relation to DSM and we search for answers to the question of why homosexuality between consenting adults was far more persecuted than sexual behaviors that clearly affects the rights of other persons as paedophilia or rape.

  2. Teaching homosexual literature as a "subversive" act.

    PubMed

    Cady, J

    1992-01-01

    If taught in a way that exposes students extensively and closely to its texts, homosexual literature can "subvert" the long-standing cultural notion that homosexuality is and should remain "unspeakable" and "untouchable." The author's working methods and materials in his gay and lesbian literature courses at the New School for Social Research, where he has been teaching the subject since 1979, are organized according to those principles. His courses also have a secondary "subversiveness" in the present academic climate, in implicitly dissenting from the dominant "new-inventionist" trend in gay studies now.

  3. The cinematic representation of Asian homosexuality in The Wedding Banquet.

    PubMed

    Chua, L Y

    1999-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an increasing number of western films which represent both homosexuals and Asian people. However, the homosexuals depicted in these films are often white, and the Asians are almost always heterosexual. In an attempt to account for the scarcity of western films containing Asian homosexuals, this paper aims to examine some of the common cinematic tropes and theoretical discourses used to depict and define both Asians and homosexuals. As one of the few feature-length films containing an Asian homosexual central character, Ang Lee's The Wedding Banquet will also be discussed.

  4. "Proper Masculinities" and the Fear of Feminisation in Modern Cyprus: University Students Talk about Homosexuality and Gendered Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoufriou, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The present article attempts to pay attention to the ways in which a group of young Cypriot students engage in the construction of conventional notions of masculinities through the negation and the fear of homosexual desire. Drawing on interviews with 12 male and female university students, I argue that many young men go through complicated…

  5. Racism, sexism, and erotophobia: attitudes of heterosexuals toward homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Ficarrotto, T J

    1990-01-01

    This investigation examines the differential power of explanation of a sexual conservatism theory of homophobia against a more general theory of intergroup prejudice. Forty-eight female and 31 male undergraduate introductory psychology students from a large Eastern university completed a survey assessing contemporary attitudes toward women, Blacks, and homosexuals, as well as their affective orientation towards sex. The results indicate that sexual conservatism, as measured by an affective dimension of erotophilia-erotophobia, and social prejudice, as measured by racist and sexist beliefs, are independent and equal predictors of antihomosexual sentiment. It is suggested that distinct etiological differences may exist in the development of the homophobic personality. Findings are discussed within the context of Herek's (1984) functional approach to understanding attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

  6. Oxytocin's impact on social face processing is stronger in homosexual than heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Thienel, Matthias; Heinrichs, Markus; Fischer, Stefan; Ott, Volker; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved neuropeptide that contributes to the regulation of social interactions including the processing of facial stimuli. We hypothesized that its improving effect on social approach behavior depends on perceived sexual features and, consequently, on sexual orientation. In 19 homosexual and 18 heterosexual healthy young men, we investigated the acute effect of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo, respectively, on the processing of social stimuli as assessed by ratings of trustworthiness, attractiveness and approachability for male and female faces. Faces were each presented with a neutral, a happy, and an angry expression, respectively. In heterosexual subjects, the effect of oxytocin administration was restricted to a decrease in ratings of trustworthiness for angry female faces (p<0.02). In contrast, in homosexual men oxytocin administration robustly increased ratings of attractiveness and approachability for male faces regardless of the facial expression (all p ≤ 0.05), as well as ratings of approachability for happy female faces (p<0.01). Results indicate that homosexual in comparison to heterosexual men display higher sensitivity to oxytocin's enhancing impact on social approach tendencies, suggesting that differences in sexual orientation imply differential oxytocinergic signaling.

  7. The Effects of Hypnotherapy on Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Peter

    1967-01-01

    Fifteen homosexuals were treated with hypnosis. The patients were selected from a general psychiatric practice and had a long history of confirmed homosexual behaviour and showed no evidence of organic or psychotic illness. The type of hypnotic induction attempted in all cases is described. In those where a satisfactory depth of hypnotic trance was achieved a change in sexual orientation was suggested to the patient. Before therapy, each patient was assessed using the Kinsey scale. Results were evaluated in terms of the patient's subsequent behaviour and his subjective feelings. Of the 15 patients, three showed no improvement, four showed a mild improvement and eight showed a marked improvement. There was a significant correlation between the depth of hypnosis achieved and the therapeutic outcome. Those patients who reached a deep level of hypnotic trance were most likely to show a marked improvement. There were no significant correlations with other factors such as degree of homosexuality as measured on the Kinsey scale and the patient's marital status. Treatment of homosexuals with hypnosis may produce more satisfactory results than those obtainable by other means. The best results are likely to be achieved in patients who are good hypnotic subjects. PMID:6017544

  8. Psychology and homosexuality: the British Sexological Society.

    PubMed

    Weigle, D C

    1995-04-01

    The British Sexological Society was a largely unknown society composed of influential people of the early twentieth century in Great Britain. The present research is an archival study of the Society and its work concerning homosexuality. Issues addressed by the British Sexological Society are relevant to the early development of sexual emancipation movements as well as to issues of sexuality today.

  9. The Economic Cost of Homosexuality: Multilevel Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumle, Amanda K.; Poston, Dudley, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on earlier studies that have examined "the economic cost of homosexuality," by using data from the 2000 U.S. Census and by employing multilevel analyses. Our findings indicate that partnered gay men experience a 12.5 percent earnings penalty compared to married heterosexual men, and a statistically insignificant earnings…

  10. Male homosexual behavior in a free-ranging all-male group of Japanese macaques at minoo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Vasey, Paul L

    2014-07-01

    We documented nine male homosexual consortships within three different male-male dyads in a free-ranging all-male group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), at Minoo, Japan. A total of 63 male-male mounts were observed during these consortships. Male homosexual interactions shared most of the behavioral components that have been reported to characterize heterosexual and female homosexual consortships in this species. Convergent behavioral data, including analysis of male-male solicitations, mounting postures, body orientations, inter-mount activities, and third-party male intrusions supported the conclusion that male-male consortships are a sexual phenomenon. We discussed a series of proximate and ultimate hypotheses that purport to account for the occurrence of male homosexual behavior in all-male groups of primates, including humans. This first report of male homosexual interactions in an all-male group of Japanese macaques contributes to the growing database used to provide insights into the developmental processes, causal mechanisms, adaptive significance, and phylogenetic pathways of same-sex sexual behavior.

  11. Fertility in the mothers of firstborn homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2012-06-01

    This study tested the balancing selection hypothesis, that is, genes predisposing men to homosexuality escape elimination from the population because the decreased fertility of men with the heritable form of homosexuality is offset by an increased fertility among biological relatives who carry the same genetic variants. The index subjects (probands) were 40,197 firstborn heterosexual men and 4,784 firstborn homosexual men retrieved from six archival data sets, all of which had previously been used in published research. The measure of familial (specifically, parental) fertility was the proband's number of younger siblings. The results directly contradicted the prediction of the balancing selection hypothesis. In four of the six samples, the homosexual probands had significantly fewer younger siblings; in the other two samples, the means were not significantly different. It is possible that mothers who produce a homosexual son at their first delivery include a biologically distinct subpopulation of mothers of homosexual sons.

  12. Vices, gods, and virtues: cosmology as a mediating factor in attitudes toward male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R J

    Using historical and anthropological evidence, the article examines the relationship of the polytheistic and monotheistic cosmologies and attitudes toward sexuality, in particular, male homosexuality. The polytheistic cosmology included the ideas of the continuity of creation, the generative forces of the universe as a whole, and gender blurring in the realm of the supernatural. In the monotheistic cosmology the godhead (Yahweh) is unborn and does not father any generations, the universe is desexualized, and the conception of gender is rigidified. The author concludes that polytheism created the conditions for a wide variety of sexual expression and sex-role behavior and did not preclude any particular form of sexual activity. In contradistinction, the monotheistic cosmology was highly restrictive of permissible male and female behavior and sexual expression and conduct. Consequently, polytheism was able to embrace the crossing of gender lines and homosexual relationships while monotheism was incapable of making these accommodations.

  13. The proportions of heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles among sex offenders against children: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Watson, R J

    1992-01-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that the ratio of sex offenders against female children vs. offenders against male children is approximately 2:1, while the ratio of gynephiles to androphiles among the general population is approximately 20:1. The present study investigated whether the etiology of preferred partner sex among pedophiles is related to the etiology of preferred partner sex among males preferring adult partners. Using phallometric test sensitivities to calculate the proportion of true pedophiles among various groups of sex offenders against children, and taking into consideration previously reported mean numbers of victims per offender group, the ratio of heterosexual to homosexual pedophiles was calculated to be approximately 11:1. This suggests that the resulting proportion of true pedophiles among persons with a homosexual erotic development is greater than that in persons who develop heterosexually. This, of course, would not indicate that androphilic males have a greater propensity to offend against children. PMID:1556756

  14. Vices, gods, and virtues: cosmology as a mediating factor in attitudes toward male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R J

    Using historical and anthropological evidence, the article examines the relationship of the polytheistic and monotheistic cosmologies and attitudes toward sexuality, in particular, male homosexuality. The polytheistic cosmology included the ideas of the continuity of creation, the generative forces of the universe as a whole, and gender blurring in the realm of the supernatural. In the monotheistic cosmology the godhead (Yahweh) is unborn and does not father any generations, the universe is desexualized, and the conception of gender is rigidified. The author concludes that polytheism created the conditions for a wide variety of sexual expression and sex-role behavior and did not preclude any particular form of sexual activity. In contradistinction, the monotheistic cosmology was highly restrictive of permissible male and female behavior and sexual expression and conduct. Consequently, polytheism was able to embrace the crossing of gender lines and homosexual relationships while monotheism was incapable of making these accommodations. PMID:6677693

  15. A critique of anthropological research on homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T K

    1977-01-01

    Since the 1970 resolutions of the American Anthropological Association, encouraging more research activity among anthropologists on the topic of homosexuality, there has been less than enthusiastic response. Rather than directly attempting to provide reasons for this research failure, this paper takes a look at what actually has been done by anthropologists with an eye to assessment of their major contributions. Thus, summarized are the studies on the role of the "berdache" in primitive cultures, with a critique of the terminological problems associated; a review of some of the ethnographic accounts of homoerotic behavior among primitive folk, with comments on the weaknesses of such treatments; and, finally, a discussion of the current typological approach to the study of the homosexual community, with its multimodal rather than unimodal emphasis. In short, this is a review article that tries to assess the impact of anthropological research for the ultimate understanding of this facet of humankind.

  16. Investigating the Islamic Perspective on Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, Junaid B; Abdul-Latif, Hussein

    2016-07-01

    In his 2006 article in the Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America (JIMA), Dr. Ahmed qualified the predominant psychiatric view on homosexuality by recourse to opinions prevalent within reparative therapy circles. Conservative Muslim thinkers, online counselors, and other professionals continue to hold opinions similar to those delineated by Dr. Ahmed in his journal article. We use his article as a focal point to critique the general opinions upheld by conservative Muslim thinkers by alluding to the harms associated with reparative therapy and by rejecting the unreasonable prescription of permanent celibacy. We critique Dr. Ahmed's association of homosexuality with mental health issues, fatal diseases, alcoholism, and illicit sexual intercourse. Investigating the Muslim tradition, we encourage conservative Muslim leaders to facilitate Muslim gays and lesbians in their legitimate human need for intimacy, affection, and companionship.

  17. [Blood transfusion and homosexuality: Ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Béranger, A; Bellis, R; Bracconi, M; Mouysset, A

    2016-09-01

    Since the context of the contaminated blood affair in 1983, the homosexual male were excluded from the blood donation in France. This exclusion is often called into question in several countries and is an actual lively debate. In France, reform process is ongoing for a practical change. Three issues make up the discussion: the infectious risk bound to sexual behavior, the feasibility of the powerful biological tests but having a silent window and the protection of the blood recipient. The infectious risk in the homosexual male is higher for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in the rest of the population. Even if every person has his/her own individual risk depending on his/her habits, everyone is confronted to the same law. The challenge is to build a consensus, along with the precautionary principle, the non-discrimination policy, and the individual and collective responsibilities.

  18. [Blood transfusion and homosexuality: Ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Béranger, A; Bellis, R; Bracconi, M; Mouysset, A

    2016-09-01

    Since the context of the contaminated blood affair in 1983, the homosexual male were excluded from the blood donation in France. This exclusion is often called into question in several countries and is an actual lively debate. In France, reform process is ongoing for a practical change. Three issues make up the discussion: the infectious risk bound to sexual behavior, the feasibility of the powerful biological tests but having a silent window and the protection of the blood recipient. The infectious risk in the homosexual male is higher for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in the rest of the population. Even if every person has his/her own individual risk depending on his/her habits, everyone is confronted to the same law. The challenge is to build a consensus, along with the precautionary principle, the non-discrimination policy, and the individual and collective responsibilities. PMID:27449719

  19. Investigating the Islamic Perspective on Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, Junaid B; Abdul-Latif, Hussein

    2016-07-01

    In his 2006 article in the Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America (JIMA), Dr. Ahmed qualified the predominant psychiatric view on homosexuality by recourse to opinions prevalent within reparative therapy circles. Conservative Muslim thinkers, online counselors, and other professionals continue to hold opinions similar to those delineated by Dr. Ahmed in his journal article. We use his article as a focal point to critique the general opinions upheld by conservative Muslim thinkers by alluding to the harms associated with reparative therapy and by rejecting the unreasonable prescription of permanent celibacy. We critique Dr. Ahmed's association of homosexuality with mental health issues, fatal diseases, alcoholism, and illicit sexual intercourse. Investigating the Muslim tradition, we encourage conservative Muslim leaders to facilitate Muslim gays and lesbians in their legitimate human need for intimacy, affection, and companionship. PMID:26549277

  20. [Research progress on molecular genetics of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Tu, Dan; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Binbin; Feng, Tiejian

    2016-08-01

    Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality.

  1. Sperm competition and the persistence of genes for male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, F; Estep, K W

    1993-01-01

    Homosexuality is increasingly recognized as having a genetic component. Why then does it persist, when common sense suggests that it should result in fewer offspring? Monozygotic-twin studies permit a rough estimate of the importance of genetics (70%) in the development of male homosexuality, and the proportion of homosexuals remains constant: Fisher's Theorem then tells us there is an advantage to the heterozygote, which we find need be no greater than 2%. Behavior and sperm competition suggest what this advantage might be.

  2. [Research progress on molecular genetics of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Tu, Dan; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Binbin; Feng, Tiejian

    2016-08-01

    Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality. PMID:27455023

  3. Southwest Asian and north African terms for homosexual roles.

    PubMed

    Murray, S O

    1995-12-01

    Contrary to recent ethnocentric and contemporocentric claims that social categories for homosexual roles did not exist until late 19th-century northern European and North American medical discourse invented some, terms from a range of Islamic societies across a millennium are reviewed. Both age-stratified and gender-stratified sets of terms for male homosexual roles are discussed along with the problem of interpreting absence of evidence of lexemes for egalitarian homosexuality prior to the recent borrowing of "gay."

  4. Pictures of male homosexuals in the heads of Turkish college students: the effects of sex difference and social contact on stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Sakalli, Nuray

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to focus on the context of stereotypes of gay men, and how sex differences and social contact influence the stereotypic and counter-stereotypic attributes of them. To do that, 77 female and 106 male heterosexual undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants filled out a rating scale. The findings of the study demonstrated that male participants defined male homosexuals by using more stereotypic, less counter-stereotypic attributes, while female participants used less stereotypic and more counter-stereotypic attributes to define gay men. In the same way, participants who hadn't had any social contact with any homosexuals used more stereotypic and less counter-stereotypic attributes, while others who had had social contact with at least a homosexual defined gay men by using less stereotypic and more counter-stereotypic attributes. Both male participants and participants who hadn't had social contact with any homosexuals used more negative stereotypes than both females and participants who at least had had social contact with a homosexual. The findings were discussed in terms of gender-based judgments of gay men. PMID:12739701

  5. Shape differences between the faces of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan; Neustupa, Jiří

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that homosexual men differ from heterosexual men in several somatic traits and lay people accurately attribute sexual orientation based on facial images. Thus, we may predict that morphological differences between faces of homosexual and heterosexual individuals can cue to sexual orientation. The main aim of this study was to test for possible differences in facial shape between heterosexual and homosexual men. Further, we tested whether self-reported sexual orientation correlated with sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity attributed from facial images by independent raters. In Study 1, we used geometric morphometrics to test for differences in facial shape between homosexual and heterosexual men. The analysis revealed significant shape differences in faces of heterosexual and homosexual men. Homosexual men showed relatively wider and shorter faces, smaller and shorter noses, and rather massive and more rounded jaws, resulting in a mosaic of both feminine and masculine features. In Study 2, we tested the accuracy of sexual orientation judgment from standardized facial photos which were assessed by 80 independent raters. Binary logistic regression showed no effect of attributed sexual orientation on self-reported sexual orientation. However, homosexual men were rated as more masculine than heterosexual men, which may explain the misjudgment of sexual orientation. Thus, our results showed that differences in facial morphology of homosexual and heterosexual men do not simply mirror variation in femininity, and the stereotypic association of feminine looking men as homosexual may confound judgments of sexual orientation.

  6. [Effects of the disclosure of homosexuality on heterosexual undergraduates' behaviors with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Wada, Minoru

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated heterosexual undergraduates' behavior with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality after this friend disclosed his/her sexual orientation. The study also examined whether the heterosexual friend was regarded as a romantic love object or not. Participants were 77 male and 139 female undergraduates. Males decreased their behaviors with their close friend and adopted more positive attitudes toward gay men after they knew their friend's sexual orientation. Females decreased their behavior with their close friend more after learning that they were a romantic love object of their friend, compared to when tehy were not. Also females adopted more positive attitudes toward lesbians only after knowing they were not a romantic love object. These gender differences are discussed.

  7. Homosexuality And The Ethics Of Behavioral Intervention: Paper 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begelman, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author recommends that behavior therapists abandon the administration of sexual reorientation techniques to homosexuals because he believes homosexuality is not a behavior disorder or a form of mental illness. This paper was presented at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, 13 December…

  8. The Homosexual Educator: Past History/Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbeck, Karen M.

    This paper is a summary of a comprehensive work on the legal, social, educational, and political history of lesbian and gay teachers in U.S. society from colonial times to the present. Case law on homosexual educators is discussed, as are three major political campaigns that sought to prohibit homosexual conduct, activity or advocacy by school…

  9. [Progress in research on the biological reason of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Feng, Tie-jian

    2012-04-01

    Male homosexuality is a complex phenomenon which is universal and with unknown causes. Researchers believe that both biological and environmental factors have played a role in its pathogenesis. Researches focusing on genetics, neurobiology, development and endocrinology have made certain progress. In this paper, we have reviewed the biological causes of male homosexuality, which may provide clues for further research in this field.

  10. Social Inequality on the College Campus: A Consideration of Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Larry M.

    2008-01-01

    Aversion to homosexuals for many in the American society comes close to a true phobia, as a persistent and irrational fear. National surveys investigating attitudes toward homosexual relations between adults reported a majority of those responding believed that such relations were wrong. Taken to an extreme, homophobia and antigay discrimination…

  11. Reasons for Living in Homosexual and Heterosexual Older Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Ellis, Jon B.

    Suicide rates among older adolescents is a major concern for researchers. A homosexual lifestyle, with its additional stresses, may erode one's adaptive characteristics. This study sought to identify and compare suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics in homosexual and heterosexual adolescents. Sixty-two individuals were divided into two…

  12. Homosexuals and AIDS: a new approach to the illness.

    PubMed

    Vandevyer, C

    1993-01-01

    AIDS, historically connected with homosexuals, has provoked a number of social, psychological, and moral reactions within the homosexual community itself as well as elsewhere. Among questions raised, there are all those concerning the meaning and place of human sexuality. Between strict moral condemnation and publicity for "Safer Sex," there is room for a personal ethic, reflection, and a more responsible behavior.

  13. Homosexual Teachers in the Classroom: The Debate Continues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    A few years ago a state legislator traveled throughout California to promote a referendum that would prohibit homosexuals from teaching in classrooms. Together with his companions, they said that allowing homosexuals to teach in the classroom would expose young people to the "wrong role models." In this article, the author shares his views on this…

  14. Support for Instruction about Homosexuality in South Carolina Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Lisa L.; Reiniger Belinda M.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed 534 South Carolina registered voters to determine their level of support for school-based sexuality education, including homosexuality education. Overall, support for sexuality education (and many sexuality education topics) was strong, but homosexuality was the least-supported subject in the survey. There was strong support for…

  15. Education and MMPI Mf Scores in Homosexual and Heterosexual Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manosevitz, Martin

    1971-01-01

    The relationship between MMPI Mf, Hsx, and education was investigated, using heterosexual and homosexual men. Mf was a better discriminator between the homosexual and heterosexual groups than Hsx, and it was less contaminated by educational bias. The relationship between educational level and Mf appears to be more complex than generally assumed.…

  16. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Homosexual Persons, Behaviors, and Civil Rights: A Meta-analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Used meta-analytic techniques to compare men's and women's attitudes toward homosexual persons, homosexual behaviors, and gay people's civil rights. As expected, size of sex differences varied across these categories. Men were more negative than women toward homosexual persons and homosexual behavior, but the sexes viewed gay civil rights…

  17. Female Friendship in Literature: Bonding and Betrayal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Libby

    This document presents the findings of research concerning female friendship as literature portrays it. Literal sisterhood is not the focus of the report, nor is cross gender friendship. The examination rejects the suggestion that homosexuality is at the root of same sex friendship. The document touches on the enmities that may arise between…

  18. Seropositivity, homosexuality and identity politics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Terto V

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the emergence of HIV seropositivity as a new identity, closely linked to male homosexuality, in Brazilian culture. Two distinct conceptions of seropositive identities that emerged in the Brazilian HIV/AIDS movement were examined. These two differing conceptions have taken shape as the basis for social action and activism around AIDS-related issues such as prevention, treatment and care. The first of these conceptions suggest that all people whose lives have been touched by HIV and AIDS can work together, based on principles of solidarity, in seeking to respond to the epidemic--whether or not they were themselves directly infected with HIV. The second, more specific conception suggests that those infected by HIV share a number of common experiences that distinguish them from others, while at the same time recognizing the specificity of homosexual men as opposed to heterosexual women or injecting drug users. Despite the differences, the two conceptions promote various common purposes such as the social integration and participation of HIV-positive persons in confronting AIDS, fighting for better life conditions, defending civil rights and breaking clandestineness and isolation. The differences appear mainly in the ways of organizing and political and social representation.

  19. Masculorum concubitores: views on homosexuality among Catholics in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luís Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Coelho, David Handerson; Oliveira, Cinthia; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on Catholics' views towards homosexuality. The discussion is based on an ethnographic survey involving interviews with priests and lay leaders as well as participant observation of daily life in a working-class neighborhood in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The analysis points to persistent prejudice against homosexuality in the neighborhood and among Catholic clergy and lay leaders interviewed in the study. The priests base their assertions on the dialectics between desire/practice and chastity/reproduction. This interplay allows them to distinguish between “homosexuality,” condition of desire, and “homosexualism,” a sin of the flesh. Based on this understanding, they produce an attitude of tolerance towards homosexuals. Laypeople prove to be more intolerant and focus their assertions on the difference between the sexes as the condition for good, natural, and sanctified sexual interaction. This attitude appears to be consistent with the way the sex/gender system operates in the neighborhood, where homosexuality is evaluated in terms masculinity and femininity. In this setting, it is interesting to observe how the discourses of homosexual movements challenge lay people and destabilize their religious certainties. PMID:21822456

  20. Saying the Unsaid: Probing Homosexuality in The Hairdresser of Harare.

    PubMed

    Chitando, Anna; Manyonganise, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Homosexuality in Zimbabwe often evokes strong reactions. Due to a tradition of silence, the topic largely continues to be taboo. However, it has been used by some politicians and church leaders to strengthen arguments and to denounce opponents. It is against this background that The Hairdresser of Harare (Huchu, 2010) ought to be understood. The novel gives helpful clues into discourses on homosexuality in contemporary Zimbabwe. This article analyzes the author's approach to the subject and critiques it. It maintains that the author's view on homosexuality has been limited by attaching the theme to postcolonial politics and violence. However, the article appreciates his courage in exploring the theme.

  1. Judaism and homosexuality: the traditionalist/progressive debate.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Y H

    This article critically reviews modern Jewish teaching on Judaism and homosexuality. The historical prohibition of homosexual acts is grounded in a world-view that views heterosexuality as natural and heterosexual marriage as the only route to religious and personal fulfillment. Progressive Jews have begun in recent years to question the underlying premises of traditional Jewish teaching on sexuality. Employing the categories of covenant theology and applying the interpretative methodology of liberal Judaism, the author argues for the valuation of the person as homosexual as a legitimate expression of human and Jewish covenantal obligation.

  2. Conversion therapy for homosexuality: serious violation of ethics.

    PubMed

    Patra, Suravi

    2016-01-01

    Across the world, homosexuality is gaining legitimacy; stigma and discrimination are gradually giving way to equality and inclusion. The situation in India is in stark contrast to these trends. In this country, homosexuality is an offence as per Section 377 of the IPC. The homosexual community is fighting for its rights and continues to suffer from intense stigma and discrimination. Their healthcare needs are not at all attended to; their sexual orientation is conceptualised as a socially deviant mental disease that needs psychiatric treatment.

  3. Conversion therapy for homosexuality: serious violation of ethics.

    PubMed

    Patra, Suravi

    2016-01-01

    Across the world, homosexuality is gaining legitimacy; stigma and discrimination are gradually giving way to equality and inclusion. The situation in India is in stark contrast to these trends. In this country, homosexuality is an offence as per Section 377 of the IPC. The homosexual community is fighting for its rights and continues to suffer from intense stigma and discrimination. Their healthcare needs are not at all attended to; their sexual orientation is conceptualised as a socially deviant mental disease that needs psychiatric treatment. PMID:27474701

  4. Homosexuality: Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish issues; a fishbone tale.

    PubMed

    Nugent, R; Gramick, J

    Homosexuality is compared to a fishbone caught in the church's throat that the church can neither eject nor swallow entirely. Authors in all denominations are questioning traditional church stances influenced by the model of clinical pastoral education. Most major denominations have made policy statements on homosexuality. Four such stances discussed here highlight some of the common issues denominations face in their reexamination of the subject. Homosexuals struggling for full acceptance in the church must confront the classical understanding of the human being and human sexual differentiation as these concepts have traditionally influenced the churches. PMID:2625534

  5. Causal Attributions and Parents' Acceptance of Their Homosexual Sons.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Yael; Diamond, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    This Internet-based study examined the association between Israeli parents' attributions regarding the cause of their son's homosexuality and their level of acceptance of their homosexual son. The sample (N = 57) was recruited via Internet Web sites (gay forums and support groups). Findings suggest that more essentialist (versus constructivist) causal attributions were associated with higher levels of parental acceptance. Length of time parents knew of their son's homosexual orientation predicted the degree to which their attributions were essentialist. Implications are discussed.

  6. A sociological approach to counseling homosexual clients and their families.

    PubMed

    Hammersmith, S K

    1987-01-01

    Stigma lies at the root of many problems typically experienced by homosexual clients and their families. Sociological theory and research shed light on the dynamics of stigma and its consequences, both for the stigmatized population and for their heterosexual families and associates. This article summarizes key sociological research on the nature and development of sexual orientation. It considers the dynamics of homophobia and its implications for homosexual youngsters and their families. It offers practical tips for helping clients to understand their own or a family member's homosexual orientation, for coping with stigma, for reconciling issues of religion and morality, and for determining lifestyle. Suggestions for therapist office materials are also included.

  7. Exclusion, toleration, acceptance, integration: the experience of Dutch Reformed churches with homosexuality and homosexuals in the church.

    PubMed

    Mader, D

    1993-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of Protestant Christians in The Netherlands are members of denominations in the Reformed tradition (i.e., protestant churches characterized by Calvinist theology and a "presbyterian" church government by elected assemblies of elders). Comparable North American denominations are the Reformed Church in America and the United Presbyterian Church, both of which are facing some degree of internal controversy over homosexuality. In The Netherlands, the four major strands of the Reformed church have taken various positions on homosexuality, ranging from absolute rejection of homosexuality in the church and society, through one denomination which found itself in the curious position of approving the ordination of homosexual clergy while barring homosexuals from the Lord's Table, to creating "life covenants" which re-evaluate heterosexual marriage while also blessing relationships between homosexuals. All call upon the same set of principles for their varied stands. The two major denominational branches, the Netherlands Reformed Church (Hervormde Kerk) and the Reformed Churches in The Netherlands (Gereformeerde Kerken) have taken different approaches to resolving the issue, the former through internal political conflict and the latter through a more authoritarian (though progressive) stand. The article traces the political, theological, and juridical history of the evolution of these positions, and suggests various potential models, and their possibilities and pitfalls, for North American Protestant churches dealing with issues surrounding homosexuality and the church. PMID:8106736

  8. [The meaning of family for homosexual couples].

    PubMed

    Salomé, Geraldo Magela; Espósito, Vitória Helena Cunha; de Moraes, Ana Lúcia Horta

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the structure and the dynamics of the family of couples constituted by people of the same sex, approaching the basis of its experience. The phenomenological approach was used with interviews. From analysis of the testimonies added to our experiences and readings resulted in two thematic categories: "the meaning of the family, constituted by homosexuals" and "perceiving the impact and the value of the family". Based on the phenomenon understanding, new perspectives are glimpsed, therefore, when somebody you decide to compose a different family of that proposal for the traditional model, he/she also will be creating a new condition, or either, a new type of family. In nursing care it is necessary to be aware for new care needs in order that the different types of family can be attended with the same ethics and respect and also considering the privacy guarantee.

  9. Helping Homosexuals With Problems: A Commentary And A Personal View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Philip

    1977-01-01

    The author outlines a framework of desirable therapist behavior to be followed when providing behavioral intervention counseling for homosexuals. Presented at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, 13 December 1975. (Author)

  10. Is homosexuality a paraphilia? The evidence for and against.

    PubMed

    Cantor, James M

    2012-02-01

    Whether homosexuality should be described as one among many paraphilic sexual interests or an altogether different dimension of sexual interest has long been discussed in terms of its political and social implications. The present article examined the question instead by comparing the major correlates and other features of homosexuality and of the paraphilias, including prevalence, sex ratio, onset and course, fraternal birth order, physical height, handedness, IQ and cognitive neuropsychological profile, and neuroanatomy. Although those literatures remain underdeveloped, the existing findings thus far suggest that homosexuality has a pattern of correlates largely, but not entirely, distinct from that identified among the paraphilias. At least, if homosexuality were deemed a paraphilia, it would be relatively unique among them, taxonometrically speaking.

  11. [The behavioral-neuroendocrine mechanism of development of homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Tai, Fa-Dao

    2007-10-01

    In this review, we primarily focus on the behavioral-neuroendocrine mechanism of development of homosexuality from genetic, neuroendocrine neuroanatomical and behavioral studies. Besides the influence of genetics and environment, sexual orientation was determined by the early perinatal hormone exposure. Gonadal steroidal hormone interacted with many neurotransmitters in individual development by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and hypothalamus pituitary gonadal axis, which regulated the individual's sexual orientation. It was summarized here about the future directions on sexual orientation and demonstrated problems which would have to investigate next step. All these may be beneficial for our understanding of the homosexuality and paying attention to psychological and physiological health of homosexuality, which is useful to prevent the development of teenage homosexuality.

  12. Homosexual imagery in print advertisements: attended, remembered, but disliked.

    PubMed

    Angelini, James R; Bradley, Samuel D

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether print advertisements featuring homosexual imagery elicit greater attention and recall while eliciting more negative responses than advertisements featuring heterosexual images. Data indicate that these advertisements were indeed better remembered and required more time to cognitively process, likely because of the advertisement's imagery being inconsistent with existing gender schema. Other responses demonstrated that homosexual imagery negatively impacted opinions about the advertisement itself and the brand featured, and elicited more negative self-reported valence and arousal. PMID:20391007

  13. Homosexual signification: a moral construct in social contexts.

    PubMed

    Green, Beatrice C

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary attempts to define homophobia argue that it is a composite prejudice reflecting attitudes toward masculinity, sexual license, and social norms. Influenced by studies of other forms of prejudice, researchers have focused on trying to identify characteristics of a "homophobic personality". Strategies to reduce homophobia emphasize education and tolerance. There has yet to be an engaged, respectful discussion of the validity of the fears which constitute the phobia in homophobia. This paper suggests a taxonomy of moral themes which recur in arguments against homosexuality. Judeo-Christian writers quote the scriptural proscription of male anal intercourse and the particularly Christian notion of homosexuality as sin (although it is but one particular in a general denunciation of all non-reproductive sexual acts). Secular concern with masculinity, sex and gender role conformity is also a source of homophobic angst. The contention that homosexual acts are against nature is premised on the biological imperative toward reproduction of the species. It does not address the possibility that human sexuality may have other ends and it certainly is not against an individual nature. Clerical and civic authority exist to maintain social order and to restrain individual license and that to justify the establishment of a normative sexuality. Among marginalized groups, the practice of exclusive homosexuality may provoke fears of ethnic extinction. Lastly, homosexuality has a history associated with social evils, debauchery, prostitution, criminality and pathology. That heritage still affects the desirability or fear of identification as a homosexual or association with homosexuals. It is my intent that this paper will contribute to understanding the etiology of antagonistic attitudes toward homosexuality and promote an overdue acceptance.

  14. Dismantling reified African culture through localised homosexualities in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness.

  15. Dismantling reified African culture through localised homosexualities in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness. PMID:23767462

  16. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Boris; Krueger, Tillmann; Paul, Thomas; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Objective The neurobiological mechanisms of deviant sexual preferences such as pedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze whether brain activation patterns of homosexual pedophiles differed from those of a nonpedophile homosexual control group during visual sexual stimulation. Method A consecutive sample of 11 pedophile forensic inpatients exclusively attracted to boys and 12 age-matched homosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visual sexual stimulation procedure that used sexually stimulating and emotionally neutral photographs. Sexual arousal was assessed according to a subjective rating scale. Results In contrast to sexually neutral pictures, in both groups sexually arousing pictures having both homosexual and pedophile content activated brain areas known to be involved in processing visual stimuli containing emotional content, including the occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices. However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects. Conclusions Central processing of visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles seems to be comparable to that in nonpedophile control subjects. However, compared with homosexual control subjects, activation patterns in pedophiles refer more strongly to subcortical regions, which have previously been discussed in the context of processing reward signals and also play an important role in addictive and stimulus-controlled behaviour. Thus future studies should further elucidate the specificity of these brain regions for the processing of sexual stimuli in pedophilia and should address the generally weaker activation pattern in homosexual men. PMID:18197269

  17. Male Homosexual Preference: Where, When, Why?

    PubMed

    Barthes, Julien; Crochet, Pierre-André; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Male homosexual preference (MHP) has long been of interest to scholars studying the evolution of human sexuality. Indeed, MHP is partially heritable, induces a reproductive cost and is common. MHP has thus been considered a Darwinian paradox. Several questions arise when MHP is considered in an evolutionary context. At what point did MHP appear in the human evolutionary history? Is MHP present in all human groups? How has MHP evolved, given that MHP is a reproductively costly trait? These questions were addressed here, using data from the anthropological and archaeological literature. Our detailed analysis of the available data challenges the common view of MHP being a "virtually universal" trait present in humans since prehistory. The conditions under which it is possible to affirm that MHP was present in past societies are discussed. Furthermore, using anthropological reports, the presence or absence of MHP was documented for 107 societies, allowing us to conclude that evidence of the absence of MHP is available for some societies. A recent evolutionary hypothesis has argued that social stratification together with hypergyny (the hypergyny hypothesis) are necessary conditions for the evolution of MHP. Here, the link between the level of stratification and the probability of observing MHP was tested using an unprecedented large dataset. Furthermore, the test was performed for the first time by controlling for the phylogenetic non-independence between societies. A positive relationship was observed between the level of social stratification and the probability of observing MHP, supporting the hypergyny hypothesis. PMID:26267276

  18. Male Homosexual Preference: Where, When, Why?

    PubMed Central

    Barthes, Julien; Crochet, Pierre-André; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Male homosexual preference (MHP) has long been of interest to scholars studying the evolution of human sexuality. Indeed, MHP is partially heritable, induces a reproductive cost and is common. MHP has thus been considered a Darwinian paradox. Several questions arise when MHP is considered in an evolutionary context. At what point did MHP appear in the human evolutionary history? Is MHP present in all human groups? How has MHP evolved, given that MHP is a reproductively costly trait? These questions were addressed here, using data from the anthropological and archaeological literature. Our detailed analysis of the available data challenges the common view of MHP being a “virtually universal” trait present in humans since prehistory. The conditions under which it is possible to affirm that MHP was present in past societies are discussed. Furthermore, using anthropological reports, the presence or absence of MHP was documented for 107 societies, allowing us to conclude that evidence of the absence of MHP is available for some societies. A recent evolutionary hypothesis has argued that social stratification together with hypergyny (the hypergyny hypothesis) are necessary conditions for the evolution of MHP. Here, the link between the level of stratification and the probability of observing MHP was tested using an unprecedented large dataset. Furthermore, the test was performed for the first time by controlling for the phylogenetic non-independence between societies. A positive relationship was observed between the level of social stratification and the probability of observing MHP, supporting the hypergyny hypothesis. PMID:26267276

  19. Male Homosexual Preference: Where, When, Why?

    PubMed

    Barthes, Julien; Crochet, Pierre-André; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Male homosexual preference (MHP) has long been of interest to scholars studying the evolution of human sexuality. Indeed, MHP is partially heritable, induces a reproductive cost and is common. MHP has thus been considered a Darwinian paradox. Several questions arise when MHP is considered in an evolutionary context. At what point did MHP appear in the human evolutionary history? Is MHP present in all human groups? How has MHP evolved, given that MHP is a reproductively costly trait? These questions were addressed here, using data from the anthropological and archaeological literature. Our detailed analysis of the available data challenges the common view of MHP being a "virtually universal" trait present in humans since prehistory. The conditions under which it is possible to affirm that MHP was present in past societies are discussed. Furthermore, using anthropological reports, the presence or absence of MHP was documented for 107 societies, allowing us to conclude that evidence of the absence of MHP is available for some societies. A recent evolutionary hypothesis has argued that social stratification together with hypergyny (the hypergyny hypothesis) are necessary conditions for the evolution of MHP. Here, the link between the level of stratification and the probability of observing MHP was tested using an unprecedented large dataset. Furthermore, the test was performed for the first time by controlling for the phylogenetic non-independence between societies. A positive relationship was observed between the level of social stratification and the probability of observing MHP, supporting the hypergyny hypothesis.

  20. Tolerance as a Correlate of Experience With Stigma: The Case of the Homosexual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Sherry L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Scales measuring attitudes toward various unconventional groups were presented to 100 college students and 51 homosexual respondents. Homosexual respondents expressed significantly more tolerant attitudes toward deviantly labeling groups than did student respondents. (Author)

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual males in Seville, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Pichardo, A; Aznar, J; Camacho, F; Borobio, M V; Perea, E J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS--The absence of any official statistics on the prevalence of STD in homosexual men in Spain induced us to carry out a prospective study of new homosexual patients who consulted the STD Clinic of the School of Medicine in Seville, between January 1988 and December 1989. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in this group of patients. RESULTS--1805 patients were seen during the study period; 318 patients were homosexual of whom 309 agreed to participate in the study. Of the 309 homosexual men, 108 (35%) had symptoms and the remaining 201 (65%) were asymptomatic. In the symptomatic group the diagnoses were: syphilis 28 (25.9%); urethritis 40 (37%) (of these 40, 11 had Neisseria gonorrhoeae, five had Chlamydia trachomatis, five had Ureaplasma urealyticum, one had Herpes simplex virus and in 18 no pathogen was detected); genital herpes seven (6.4%). Eleven (10%) had concomitant infections. The following infections were found in the asymptomatic group: syphilis 23 (11.4%), N gonorrhoeae six (3%), C trachomatis two (1%), Herpes simplex virus one (0.5%). Antibodies against HIV were detected in 30 (9.6%) of the total group. CONCLUSIONS--Sexually transmitted diseases are common amongst homosexual men in Seville and many of these are asymptomatic. PMID:1916797

  2. Reported Consequences of Decriminalization of Consensual Adult Homosexuality in Seven American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geis, Gilbert; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article reports results of a survey of police officials, prosecuting attorneys, and members of homosexual groups in the seven states that had decriminalized private homosexual behavior between consenting adults. The response indicates that decriminalization has eased the problems of the homosexual community without any other adverse effects.…

  3. Reason, Liberalism, and Democratic Education: A Deweyan Approach to Teaching about Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrovic, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching about homosexuality, especially in a positive light, has long been held to be a controversial issue. There is, however, a view of the capacity for reason that finds that those who deem homosexuality to be controversial will ultimately contradict themselves, becoming unreasonable. By this standard of reason, homosexuality should be treated…

  4. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mucherah, Winnie; Owino, Elizabeth; McCoy, Kaleigh

    2016-01-01

    While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students' sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%), suspension from school (61%), and expulsion from school (49%). Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed.

  5. Pro-Recreational Sex Morality, Religiosity, and Causal Attribution of Homosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embree, Robert A.

    Homosexual cognitive victimization is a term which emphasizes social evaluation of sexual behaviors judged in terms of sexual preference. Individual differences in cognitive victimization of homosexuals were examined in two studies. In the first study, undergraduate students (N=78) completed Likert-type rating scales measuring homosexual cognitive…

  6. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mucherah, Winnie; Owino, Elizabeth; McCoy, Kaleigh

    2016-01-01

    While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students' sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%), suspension from school (61%), and expulsion from school (49%). Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed. PMID:27672345

  7. Homosexuality in the Rorschach: A New Look at the Old Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendlin, Stephen J.

    1976-01-01

    In comparing educated, adjusted male homosexuals to educated, adjusted heterosexuals, no differences were found between the groups using the traditional index of homosexuality on the Rorschach. Results suggest the traditional index is not valid and should not be used in clinical settings as a measure to assess homosexuality. (Author)

  8. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mucherah, Winnie; Owino, Elizabeth; McCoy, Kaleigh

    2016-01-01

    While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students’ perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students’ sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%), suspension from school (61%), and expulsion from school (49%). Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed.

  9. Out of the Closet and Into the Classroom: Homosexuality in Books for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Laurel A.; Lobban, Marjorie

    This annotated bibliography focuses on the issue of homosexuality in books for young people. The 120 books listed represent a period of great change in the depiction of homosexuality in children's literature by indicating the way sexual preference and sexuality is presented to young people. The recognition that homosexuality is an inherent part of…

  10. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mucherah, Winnie; Owino, Elizabeth; McCoy, Kaleigh

    2016-01-01

    While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students’ perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students’ sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%), suspension from school (61%), and expulsion from school (49%). Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed. PMID:27672345

  11. The Issue of the Homosexual Student on the Christian College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Brandon D.

    A difficult issue for student affairs professionals at Christian colleges is homosexuality. It is important for Christian student affairs professionals to understand the unique issues homosexual students face, develop programming and resources for homosexual students, and determine appropriate institutional responses to infractions of college…

  12. Sexual Excitability and Dysfunctional Coping Determine Cybersex Addiction in Homosexual Males.

    PubMed

    Laier, Christian; Pekal, Jaro; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Cybersex addiction (CA) has been mostly investigated in heterosexual males. Recent findings have demonstrated an association between CA severity and indicators of sexual excitability, and that coping by sexual behaviors mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA symptoms. The aim of this study was to test this mediation in a sample of homosexual males. Seventy-one homosexual males were surveyed online. Questionnaires assessed symptoms of CA, sensitivity to sexual excitation, pornography use motivation, problematic sexual behavior, psychological symptoms, and sexual behaviors in real life and online. Moreover, participants viewed pornographic videos and indicated their sexual arousal before and after the video presentation. Results showed strong correlations between CA symptoms and indicators of sexual arousal and sexual excitability, coping by sexual behaviors, and psychological symptoms. CA was not associated with offline sexual behaviors and weekly cybersex use time. Coping by sexual behaviors partially mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA. The results are comparable with those reported for heterosexual males and females in previous studies and are discussed against the background of theoretical assumptions of CA, which highlight the role of positive and negative reinforcement due to cybersex use. PMID:26374928

  13. Sexual Excitability and Dysfunctional Coping Determine Cybersex Addiction in Homosexual Males.

    PubMed

    Laier, Christian; Pekal, Jaro; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Cybersex addiction (CA) has been mostly investigated in heterosexual males. Recent findings have demonstrated an association between CA severity and indicators of sexual excitability, and that coping by sexual behaviors mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA symptoms. The aim of this study was to test this mediation in a sample of homosexual males. Seventy-one homosexual males were surveyed online. Questionnaires assessed symptoms of CA, sensitivity to sexual excitation, pornography use motivation, problematic sexual behavior, psychological symptoms, and sexual behaviors in real life and online. Moreover, participants viewed pornographic videos and indicated their sexual arousal before and after the video presentation. Results showed strong correlations between CA symptoms and indicators of sexual arousal and sexual excitability, coping by sexual behaviors, and psychological symptoms. CA was not associated with offline sexual behaviors and weekly cybersex use time. Coping by sexual behaviors partially mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA. The results are comparable with those reported for heterosexual males and females in previous studies and are discussed against the background of theoretical assumptions of CA, which highlight the role of positive and negative reinforcement due to cybersex use.

  14. Expressions of homosexuality and the perspective of analytical psychology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Barry

    2010-02-01

    Homosexuality, as a description and category of human experience, has a long, complicated and problematic history. It has been utilized as a carrier of theological, political, and psychological ideologies of all sorts, with varying and contradictory influences into the lives of us all. Analytical psychology, emphasizing the purposiveness found in manifestations of the psyche, offers a unique approach to this subject. The focus moves from causation to the meanings embedded in erotic expressions, fantasies, and dreams. Consequently, homosexuality loses its predetermined meaning and finds its definition in the psychology of the individual. Categories of 'sexual orientation' may defend against personal analysis, deflecting the essential fluidity and mystery of Eros. This is illustrated with samples of the variety found in 'homosexual' material.

  15. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  16. Homosexual sex as harmful as drug abuse, prostitution, or smoking.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul; Landess, Thomas; Cameron, Kirk

    2005-06-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court said same-sex sexual activity could not be prohibited by law. Analyzing data from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (N= 12,381) and comparing those who engaged in four recreational activities-homosexual sex, illegal drug use, participation in prostitution, and smoking --against those who abstained, participants (1) were more frequently disruptive (e.g., more frequently criminal, drove under the influence of drugs or alcohol, used illegal drugs, took sexual risks), (2) were less frequently productive (e.g., less frequently had children in marriage, more frequently missed work), and (3) generated excessive costs (e.g., more promiscuous, higher consumers of medical services). Major sexuality surveys have reported similar findings for homosexuals. Societal discrimination inadequately accounts for these differences since parallel comparisons of black and white subsamples produced a pattern unlike the differences found between homosexuals and nonhomosexuals.

  17. Heterosexual experience, marital status, and orientation of homosexual males.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1978-11-01

    The penile volume responses of homosexual males to pictures of nude women and men were measured and related to the subjects' marital status and experience of heterosexual intercourse. Single subjects with no experience of heterosexual intercourse and married subjects with a history of intercourse with only their wives showed significantly greater response to pictures of men compared to pictures of women than did single subjects with experience of heterosexual intercourse and married subjects with experience of intercourse with women additional to their wives. It was concluded that extensive experience of heterosexual intercourse with one partner did not reduce homosexual responsiveness as measured by subjects' penile response to pictures of nude men and women. It was further concluded that some homosexual males showed physiological evidence of a degree of bisexuality in addition to the behavioral evidence that they sought heterosexual physical relationships.

  18. Contingent negative variation (CNV) and erotic preference in self-declared homosexuals and in child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Howard, R C; Longmore, F J; Mason, P A; Martin, J L

    1994-10-01

    Contingent negative variation (CNV) was recorded bilaterally from central electrodes using a "match/mismatch" paradigm in (Study 1) samples of heterosexual men (N = 6), gay men (N = 10) and lesbian women (N = 14) and (Study 2) in samples of child sex offenders (N = 34) and heterosexual control men (N = 19). Sexual orientation was assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality (MSS) and the Human Sexuality Questionnaire (HSQ). Separate CNV averages were formed for each condition of stimulation: for Study 1, slides of adult male and female nudes; for Study 2, slides of child, pubescent and adult male and female nudes. Penile plethysmographic (PPG) data were also obtained from 15 of the child sex offender sample while they viewed stimuli of the same categories as were used in the CNV recording. On the basis of their PPG responses to children, child sex offenders were classified as either "pedophiles" or "non-pedophiles". In Study 1 significant Group x Sex (of slide) and Group x Electrode interactions indicated that: (i) heterosexual men (but neither homosexual group) showed significantly larger CNVs to female than to male slides; (ii) both homosexual groups showed significantly asymmetrical (R > L) CNVs. In Study 2, controls showed significantly greater CNVs to adult females than to both adult males and female children. Child sex offenders showed no significant differences in CNV to male and female slides for any age. "Non-pedophiles" showed significantly larger CNVs to female adults than to female children, but "pedophiles" did not. It is concluded that CNV has promise as a measure of both deviant and non-deviant sexual preference. PMID:7873701

  19. Self-perceived origins of attitudes toward homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hans, Jason D; Kersey, Megan; Kimberly, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 417) at a large southern university responded to open-ended questions designed to assess self-perceived origins of attitudes toward homosexuality and circumstances that may prompt a shift in attitudes. Inductively coded responses pointed to a positive correlation between attitudes toward homosexuality and experience interacting with gay men or lesbians; this is discussed in the context of Allport's (1954 ) contact hypothesis and Herek's (1984 , 1986 ) theory of functional attitudes. Implications are discussed for education and intervention efforts aimed at facilitating understanding and tolerance of gay men and lesbians.

  20. Openings: On the Journal of Homosexuality, Volume 1, Issue 1.

    PubMed

    Gotkin, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines Volume 1, Issue 1 of the Journal of Homosexuality and asks whether the journal's first contributors might reveal a historically problematic relationship whereby the categories of front-line LGBT health advocates in the 1970s might be incommensurate with the post-AIDS, queer politics that would follow in decades to come.

  1. Beyond the dichotomy: six religious views of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dawne

    2014-01-01

    Using published theological and scholarly evidence, this article disrupts the stereotypical "born gay"/"sinful choice" dichotomy widely assumed to characterize religious views of homosexuality in the United States. It argues that we need to keep moral questions separate from questions about the fixity or fluidity of sexual orientation. Rather than two, American Christian and Jewish views of homosexuality can been seen on a range from the "God Hates Fags" view through "Love the Sinner, Hate the Sin," "We Don't Talk About That," "They Can't Help It," "God's Good Gift," and a queer-theological view of the "Godly Calling."

  2. Openings: On the Journal of Homosexuality, Volume 1, Issue 1.

    PubMed

    Gotkin, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines Volume 1, Issue 1 of the Journal of Homosexuality and asks whether the journal's first contributors might reveal a historically problematic relationship whereby the categories of front-line LGBT health advocates in the 1970s might be incommensurate with the post-AIDS, queer politics that would follow in decades to come. PMID:26644062

  3. Homosexuality and alcohol: observations and research after the psychoanalytic era.

    PubMed

    Israelstam, S; Lambert, S

    1986-01-01

    There is very little literature in the area of homosexuals and alcohol but since the 1960s some work on the alcohol use of homosexuals has begun to surface. Most studies focus on the male but there are some studies of lesbians. The gay bar seems to be the best starting point for such studies as it is so central to gay society. How sex, drugs, and acquired immune deficiency relate to alcohol use are discussed. Ideas relating to intervention into the alcohol problems of gays are put forward.

  4. Beyond the dichotomy: six religious views of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dawne

    2014-01-01

    Using published theological and scholarly evidence, this article disrupts the stereotypical "born gay"/"sinful choice" dichotomy widely assumed to characterize religious views of homosexuality in the United States. It argues that we need to keep moral questions separate from questions about the fixity or fluidity of sexual orientation. Rather than two, American Christian and Jewish views of homosexuality can been seen on a range from the "God Hates Fags" view through "Love the Sinner, Hate the Sin," "We Don't Talk About That," "They Can't Help It," "God's Good Gift," and a queer-theological view of the "Godly Calling." PMID:24871867

  5. Floating call boys and agile homosexuals: homophobia/Venice/history.

    PubMed

    Champagne, John

    2014-01-01

    Because works of nonfiction are always composed of literary tropes and metaphors, they have to be read critically for the ways in which their truth claims are potentially structured by ideologies and stereotypes. This essay reads passages from Richard Sennett's sociological analysis Flesh and Stone, The Body and the City in Western Civilization and Joseph Brodsky's memoir Watermark in order to demonstrate how these alleged works of nonfiction shore up some dishearteningly familiar literary stereotypes of male homosexuality and participate in a tradition, dating from the 19th century, of linking the city of Venice with homosexuality and death.

  6. Handedness and creativity in a sample of homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Götestam, K O

    2001-06-01

    A form concerning handedness, dyslexia, stuttering (self-report), and twinning was included in a study of sexual habits of homosexual men. Questions about interests in music, art, and creative writing were also included. A questionnaire was sent out to male homosexuals. Out of 391 returned forms, 363 were suitable for data processing. Analysis showed 13.9% reported writing with the left hand, 6.5% with stuttering, and 8.6% with dyslexia. The twin incidence was 1.2%. The creativity questions indicated a high music and painting activity. The results confirmed previous studies, showing a left shift in laterality and increased stuttering and dyslexia in the sample. PMID:11565915

  7. Marriage and the homosexual body: it's about race.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body.

  8. A cross-cultural study of attitudes toward and beliefs about, male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Saito, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    This study attempted to compare British and Japanese people's beliefs about the etiolology, manifestations, and changes of male homosexuality. A total of 208 participants completed, in their native language, a three-part questionnaire consisting of 81 items, which covered etiological explanations of homosexuality, general attitudes toward the concept and practice of homosexuality, and efficacy of strategies to change homosexuality. It was hypothesized that Japanese would exhibit more negative beliefs about homosexuality than the British and would tend to favor sociological explanations as possible etiological factors whereas British would prefer biological explanatory models. The Japanese were more unfavorable toward homosexuality, showing more reluctance in contact with homosexuals. However, while British supported biological models, Japanese' attitudes ranged widely from social, biological, to cognitive accounts. Implications for approaches to overcome social stigma in the Japanese society are discussed.

  9. Shaping attitudes about homosexuality: the role of religion and cultural context.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Amy; Pitt, Cassady

    2009-06-01

    Across the globe, the debate over homosexuality continues, with great variation in public opinion about the acceptability of homosexuality, laws regulating same-sex unions and penalties for homosexual sex behaviors. Religion is often seen as an important predictor of attitudes about homosexuality. However, cross-national differences in cultural orientations suggest that the role religion has in explaining homosexual attitudes may depend on a nation's cultural context. In this study, we merge ideas from cultural sociology and religious contextual effects to explain cross-national variation in public opinion about homosexuality. Using data from the fourth wave of the World Values Survey and Hierarchical Modeling techniques, we find support for the micro and macro effects of religion and a survival vs. self-expressive cultural orientation. Moreover, we find that personal religious beliefs have a greater effect on attitudes about homosexuality in countries like the United States, which have a strong self-expressive cultural orientation.

  10. Treatment of obsessive homosexual pedophilic fantasies with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Pinta, E R

    1978-06-01

    The author describes a male patient with obsessive homosexual pedophilic fantasies treated with psychotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a progestin with antiandrogen activity. Long-acting MPA was administered for a 2-month period and caused a prompt and drastic reduction in fantasies and in the anxiety and depression generated by them. MPA was observed to have psychological benefits that outlived its physiologic activity.

  11. Social Environmental Conceptions of Male Homosexuality: A University Climate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.

    University climate differences were examined across paired samples of 32 male self-identified heterosexual and 32 male self-identified homosexual college students attending the University of Virginia. Data were collected during the winter and spring of the 1983-84 school year. Selected students completed a questionnaire packet addressing several…

  12. AIDS: Implications for Homosexual Self-Help and Support Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro-Alfonso, Jose

    The Colectivo de Concientizacion Gay, a homosexual and lesbian organization in Puerto Rico, developed a brief analysis of what has happened since symptoms associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first reported by the Centers for Disease Control in 1981; the analysis also included implications for the gay community. Since…

  13. Understanding the Male Homosexual Experience: Grades 11, 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagorski, Alec P.

    This unit has been designed as a means of sensitizing class members to various forms of social discrimination that exist against homosexuals. Each lesson can be adapted to a fifty minute class period; the steps indicate transitions in topic development, the key questions are recommended as guidelines for facilitating class discussion. Students…

  14. Elderly Homosexual Women and Men: Report on a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.; Adelman, Marcy R.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study is described in which four- to five-hour tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 11 homosexual women and men, 60-77 years of age. Areas examined included: physical change and physical health; work, retirement and leisure time; social behavior; psychological functioning; sexual behavior; and personal perspectives on the life…

  15. Prenatal Estrogens and the Development of Homosexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that prenatal estrogens contribute to the development of human sexual orientation. Several groups of women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) were compared with several samples of control women. Findings showed that more DES-exposed women than controls were rated as bisexual or homosexual,…

  16. A Legal History: University Recognition of Homosexual Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rullman, Loren J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the legal precedents that have supported the official recognition of homosexual organizations by universities and colleges. Among the court cases that are reviewed are the following: (1) Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969), which ruled that expressions not inciting unlawful behavior may not be subject to government restraint; (2) Healy…

  17. Health Education/Promotion Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sara L.; Reece, Michael; Lindeman, Alice K.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of health education/promotion students toward homosexuals and the extent to which those attitudes were related to their comfort and interest in working with gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) individuals and health issues socially-related to this community. Participants included 182 undergraduate and graduate…

  18. Legal and Ethical Implications of Refusing to Counsel Homosexual Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Mary A.; Herlihy, Barbara Richter

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, a federal appeals court upheld the job termination of a counselor who requested being excused from counseling a lesbian client on relationship issues because homosexuality conflicted with the counselor's religious beliefs ("Bruff v. North Mississippi Health Services, Inc.," 2001). This article provides the facts of the case and the legal…

  19. Educating about Homosexuality: What Do American Catholics Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Brenda J.; Michaelson, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine American Catholics' attitudes regarding education about homosexuality. Participants were 1000 self-identified Catholic adults who were interviewed via telephone. The majority of respondents agreed that Catholic colleges should offer courses on human sexuality, although religious and political conservatives…

  20. Cultural change, hybridity and male homosexuality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, H

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes how contemporary perceptions of male homosexuality are being shaped in Mexico. Ethnographic analysis included four short case studies from 64 mostly middle class individuals for two years in Guadalajara City. Mexican sexual culture is often portrayed traditionally as grounded in values inherent in machismo and influenced by Catholicism. There is a contrast between these traditional interpretations of roles and sexual identities in Mexico and the identities that are being adopted by many contemporary Mexican homosexual men. The homosexual men were categorizable in terms of 1) those who dominated in the sexual relationship and who were capable of maintaining a nonstigmatized identity as regular men, 2) those who assumed a feminine role and were penetrated and who were stigmatized for their effeminate demeanor, and 3) a minority of men who assumed both roles and who were termed "anally active and passive". The study revealed that middle-class homosexuals established networks in which individuals, supported by their friends, acquired the strength to effect personal changes along with other larger cultural changes. Thus, individual actions are beginning to have a collective effect on the society at large.

  1. Sin, Sickness or Status? Homosexual Gender Identity and Psychoneuroendocrinology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1987-01-01

    Sex hormones in the prenatal brain of humans influence the subsequent sexual status or orientation of the individual as bisexual, heterosexual, or homosexual. Postnatal socialization is another contributing factor. Sexual orientation is not under the direct governance of chromosomes and genes. (Author/VM)

  2. Homosexuality in the Family: Lesbian and Gay Spouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyers, Norman L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a 1983-84 study of the marital and parental behavior of lesbian wives and mothers and gay husbands and fathers. Discovered differences between the men and women in: overall demographics, marital history, marital problems and their impact, parenting issues, and dealing with homosexuality. (Author/ABB)

  3. Queer Breeding: Historicising Popular Culture, Homosexuality and Informal Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Through an analysis of gay protest music (1975) and an educational kit for students (1978), both sponsored by the Campaign for Homosexual Equality in the UK, this paper brings into focus a history of gay rights activists' efforts to marshal popular culture in the development of informal sex education for young people in the second half of the…

  4. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  5. Teaching Literature Gay-Affirmatively: A Homosexual Individuation Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadownick, Douglas G.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of a "homosexual hermeneutic" by which the great literary works of the western canon can be taught. This "interpretative methodology" is based in the author's own individuation process as gay. The author details his personal journey from engulfment in heteronormativity to the first crisis of his homosexual…

  6. The interrelationship between genes, microprolactinoma and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Roper, Walter Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    This hypothesis clearly proposes the true and previously undiscovered cause of male homosexuality or bisexuality and in most cases the predictability in infancy of the development of this sexuality in adulthood. It is based on compelling new evidence which has accumulated over many years. The fetal and neonatal periods are of the utmost importance in human development because they encompass critical periods which must be adhered to, for normal development. Biological variations may occur during these times, without implying the process of disease. This paper takes into account new paediatric hormonal and other evidence which has accumulated in the past two decades concerning the causation of male homosexuality or bisexuality. It includes indirect genetic influence which has now been shown to be present. It also includes the implications of infant male breast development in regard to sexuality. It is asserted that the major cause of male homosexuality is due to failure of masculinisation of the male brain due to temporary but critical prolactin secretion from microprolactinoma present in their pituitary glands. Genes appear to be involved in the production of these tumours and sometimes in their demise. The assessment of their numbers at any one time in infancy has not been correctly addressed. Secondly, there is absolutely compulsive evidence concerning increased male infant breast development and the true nature of "Witch's Milk" and how it is produced and the profound implications of its presence in male neonates. It adds much persuasion to the causation of male homosexuality as enunciated in this paper. Measurement of testosterone levels at exactly and precisely the right time, are able to predict homosexual or bisexual development in adults. This knowledge would be of great help to parents.

  7. The interrelationship between genes, microprolactinoma and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Roper, Walter Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    This hypothesis clearly proposes the true and previously undiscovered cause of male homosexuality or bisexuality and in most cases the predictability in infancy of the development of this sexuality in adulthood. It is based on compelling new evidence which has accumulated over many years. The fetal and neonatal periods are of the utmost importance in human development because they encompass critical periods which must be adhered to, for normal development. Biological variations may occur during these times, without implying the process of disease. This paper takes into account new paediatric hormonal and other evidence which has accumulated in the past two decades concerning the causation of male homosexuality or bisexuality. It includes indirect genetic influence which has now been shown to be present. It also includes the implications of infant male breast development in regard to sexuality. It is asserted that the major cause of male homosexuality is due to failure of masculinisation of the male brain due to temporary but critical prolactin secretion from microprolactinoma present in their pituitary glands. Genes appear to be involved in the production of these tumours and sometimes in their demise. The assessment of their numbers at any one time in infancy has not been correctly addressed. Secondly, there is absolutely compulsive evidence concerning increased male infant breast development and the true nature of "Witch's Milk" and how it is produced and the profound implications of its presence in male neonates. It adds much persuasion to the causation of male homosexuality as enunciated in this paper. Measurement of testosterone levels at exactly and precisely the right time, are able to predict homosexual or bisexual development in adults. This knowledge would be of great help to parents. PMID:27515200

  8. Learners' perceptions of learners regarded as having a homosexual orientation in an independent secondary school environment.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Hendrik P; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In schools today discrimination based on sexual orientation takes place on a regular basis. This form of discrimination leads to aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual, as well as towards those with a homosexual orientation. For more than 15 years South Africa has been a democratic country with laws that protect learners who have a homosexual orientation. Nevertheless, aggression and discrimination towards these learners still occur in schools. Aggression often leads to verbal and physical bullying of the victims by perpetrators. The objectives of this research were to explore and describe Grade 11 learners' experiences of aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual as well as those with a homosexual orientation in an independent secondary school environment. The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The data for this investigation consisted of essays based on a published newspaper photograph, phenomenological group interviews, observations and field notes. Tesch's method of data analysis was used, and an independent coder assisted. Three themes were identified, discussed and supported by a literature control: that learners experience that it is right and acceptable to have a homosexual orientation; that they experience ambivalence towards homosexual orientation of learners; and experienced feelings that it is wrong to have a homosexual orientation. Recommended guidelines are provided to address aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual and those with a homosexual orientation.

  9. Homosexuality among People with a Mild Intellectual Disability: An Explorative Study on the Lived Experiences of Homosexual People in the Netherlands with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffelen, J.; Kok, G.; Hospers, H.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research on homosexuality among people with an intellectual disability (ID) is limited and, to date, very little is known regarding the personal experiences of gay and lesbian people with an ID. This study set out to answer the question: "What are the lived experiences of a specific cohort of homosexual people with an…

  10. The "Jews" of the antifascist left: homosexuality and socialist resistance to Nazism.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, H

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1930s, German Social Democrats and Communists seized upon the homosexual orientation of some Nazi leaders, especially Ernst Röhm, with the aim of discrediting the entire National Socialist movement. In Western Europe as well as the Soviet Union, there was a general tendency among socialists in the 1930s to identify homosexuality with Nazism. Antifascist leftists created the impression that homosexuality was widespread in Nazi organizations. Such socialist theorists as Wilhelm Reich tended to view homosexuality sociologically and psychologically as a typical rightist, nationalist, and above all fascist aberration. Leftist aversion to homosexuality was not only an expression of political opportunism. Prejudices against homosexuality were part and parcel of socialist thinking and became even more deep-rooted among leftists as a consequence of the ideological and moral confrontation with National Socialism. Against the presumed immortality and perversion of the Nazis, the antifascists stressed their own rationality and purity.

  11. Attitude change in response to information that male homosexuality has a biological basis.

    PubMed

    Oldham, J D; Kasser, T

    1999-01-01

    We assessed 28 college students' attitudes toward homosexuals immediately before and 1 week after the presentation of either an article suggesting that male homosexuality has a biological component or a control article. Change in attitude toward homosexuality for subjects exposed to the biological article depended on subjects' memory of the article and on their college major. Subjects undecided in their major and those who scored below average on a memory test of the article's content had the most positive attitude change, while biological science majors and those who scored above average on the memory test became more negative toward homosexuals. The results suggest biological information about homosexuality can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on attitudes toward homosexuals.

  12. On the subject of homosexuality: What Freud said.

    PubMed

    Flanders, Sara; Ladame, Francois; Carlsberg, Anders; Heymanns, Petra; Naziri, Despina; Panitz, Denny

    2016-06-01

    The article explores Freud's writing on homosexuality, from his early hypotheses, expressed in his letters to Fleiss to his last observations in The Outline of Psychoanalysis, published in 1940 after his death. We trace the continuities as well as changes in his thinking, and have organized the paper conceptually, under the headings: 1) Bisexuality 2) Narcissism and Object choice, 3) On Normality and Pathology, and 4) The Quantitative factor and Aggression. We show that Freud was the first to confirm the existence of homosexualities, that he offers no black and white solution to the question of normality and pathology, although he contributes to the understanding of the vehemence that surrounds the subject, and that, in the considerable body of work, he has offered a rich and varied foundation for further thinking on the subject. PMID:27437635

  13. A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men.

    PubMed

    LeVay, S

    1991-08-30

    The anterior hypothalamus of the brain participates in the regulation of male-typical sexual behavior. The volumes of four cell groups in this region [interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) 1, 2, 3, and 4] were measured in postmortem tissue from three subject groups: women, men who were presumed to be heterosexual, and homosexual men. No differences were found between the groups in the volumes of INAH 1, 2, or 4. As has been reported previously, INAH 3 was more than twice as large in the heterosexual men as in the women. It was also, however, more than twice as large in the heterosexual men as in the homosexual men. This finding indicates that INAH is dimorphic with sexual orientation, at least in men, and suggests that sexual orientation has a biological substrate.

  14. Enteric pathogenic protozoa in homosexual men from San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Ortega, H B; Borchardt, K A; Hamilton, R; Ortega, P; Mahood, J

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of enteric protozoa was studied in a survey conducted among 150 male homosexual patients in San Francisco. All patients were from a private practice in internal medicine. Each was asked to complete a questionnaire and to submit multiple stool specimens for examination. Of this group, 47% were positive for one or more potentially pathogenic intestinal protozoa; Entamoeba histolytica was found in 36%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 35%, Giardia lamblia in 5%, and Dientamoeba fragilis in 1.3%. Symptoms were unreliable as a diagnostic index of intestinal protozoan infection. Colonization rates could not be correlated with any specific sexual technique. The large number of homosexuals at risk, combined with the potential for difficulties in diagnosis and contact-tracing, indicate the possibility that enteric pathogenic protozoa will cause future health problems in this population. PMID:6087479

  15. On the subject of homosexuality: What Freud said.

    PubMed

    Flanders, Sara; Ladame, Francois; Carlsberg, Anders; Heymanns, Petra; Naziri, Despina; Panitz, Denny

    2016-06-01

    The article explores Freud's writing on homosexuality, from his early hypotheses, expressed in his letters to Fleiss to his last observations in The Outline of Psychoanalysis, published in 1940 after his death. We trace the continuities as well as changes in his thinking, and have organized the paper conceptually, under the headings: 1) Bisexuality 2) Narcissism and Object choice, 3) On Normality and Pathology, and 4) The Quantitative factor and Aggression. We show that Freud was the first to confirm the existence of homosexualities, that he offers no black and white solution to the question of normality and pathology, although he contributes to the understanding of the vehemence that surrounds the subject, and that, in the considerable body of work, he has offered a rich and varied foundation for further thinking on the subject.

  16. The biology of homosexuality: sexual orientation or sexual preference?

    PubMed

    De Cecco, J P; Parker, D A

    1995-01-01

    This paper begins with a summary of the biological research on homosexuality that occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It then summarizes the treatment of this research chiefly by the print media. It then adumbrates the presuppositions about sexuality and gender upon which the reports were based. It is argued that the presuppositions, which are asserted without being examined, date back to the nineteenth century. They ignore the historical, sociocultural, and humanistic research of the last two decades that collectively comprise the field of gay, lesbian, and bisexual studies. The discussion of the issue of choice follows and it recognizes the various constraints on choice without eliminating it as an element of sexual expression. Finally, the paper sets forth a general conception of homosexuality that includes its psychological and socio-cultural dimensions along with the biological.

  17. The Impact of Education on Views of Homosexuality in the Senior Clergy of Hidalgo County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Park, John; Perez, Pamela R; Ramírez-Johnson, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    This study explores clergy perspectives on homosexuality and mental health. Interviews were conducted with 245 senior clergy of faith-based organizations in Hidalgo County, Texas. Analyses revealed that the less education the individual had, the more likely he or she viewed homosexuals as being more psychologically disturbed than heterosexuals. Clergy also expressed uncertainty in their views and actions regarding referral practices. A need for clergy education on views of homosexuality is documented. Suggestions are made for future research and education.

  18. Etiology and attitudes: beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and their implications for public policy.

    PubMed

    Overby, L Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality.

  19. Prenatal stress as possible aetiogenetic factor of homosexuality in human males.

    PubMed

    Dörner, G; Geier, T; Ahrens, L; Krell, L; Münx, G; Sieler, H; Kittner, E; Müller, H

    1980-06-01

    Out of 865 homosexual males who were registered by venerologists in 6 districts of the GDR highly significantly more homosexuals were born during the stressful war and early postwar period of the Second World War, i.e. between 1941 and 1947 (with a maximum of relative frequency in 1944-1945), than in the years before or after this critical period. This finding suggests that stressful prenatal (or perinatal) events may represent an aetiogenetic factor for homosexuality in human males.

  20. The Impact of Education on Views of Homosexuality in the Senior Clergy of Hidalgo County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Park, John; Perez, Pamela R; Ramírez-Johnson, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    This study explores clergy perspectives on homosexuality and mental health. Interviews were conducted with 245 senior clergy of faith-based organizations in Hidalgo County, Texas. Analyses revealed that the less education the individual had, the more likely he or she viewed homosexuals as being more psychologically disturbed than heterosexuals. Clergy also expressed uncertainty in their views and actions regarding referral practices. A need for clergy education on views of homosexuality is documented. Suggestions are made for future research and education. PMID:26733448

  1. Lesbianism, homosexuality, and the American Civil Liberties Union.

    PubMed

    Bullough, V L

    1986-01-01

    One of the turning points in changing the legal status of homosexuals in the United States was the change in policy of the American Civil Liberties Union. The author of this paper was instrumental in bringing about change in the Southern California ACLU, the first affiliate to modify the policy and carry on the legal battle for gay rights. This article details the background of and some of the insights gained from that experience.

  2. Two hypotheses on the causes of male homosexuality and paedophilia.

    PubMed

    James, William H

    2006-11-01

    This note considers two hypotheses on the causes of homosexuality and paedophilia in men, viz. the hypotheses of maternal immunity and of postnatal learning. According to the maternal immune hypothesis, there is progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male fetus, and there are concomitantly increasing effects of anti-male antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male fetus. An attempt is made to assess the status of this hypothesis within immunology. Knowledge of the properties of anti-male antibodies is meagre and there has been little direct experimentation on them, let alone on their effects on the developing male fetal brain. Moreover until the relevant antigens are identified, it will not be possible to test mothers of male homosexuals or paedophiles for the presence of such antibodies. Yet until this experimentation has been done, it would seem premature to regard the hypothesis as more than a very provisional explanatory tool. The evidence in relation to the postnatal learning hypothesis is quite different. There is an abundance of data suggesting that male homosexuals and paedophiles report having experienced more sexual abuse (however defined) in childhood (CSA) than do heterosexual controls. The question revolves round the interpretation of these data. Many (though not all) of these studies are correlational and thus subject to the usual qualifications concerning such data. However, there are grounds for supposing that some of the reports are veridical, and there is support from a longitudinal study reporting a small but significant increase in paedophilia in adulthood following CSA. To summarize: most boys who experience CSA do not later develop into homosexuals or paedophiles. However, the available evidence suggests that a few do so as a result of the abuse. PMID:16202179

  3. Homosexuality and the human genome project: private and public choices.

    PubMed

    Gabard, D L

    1999-01-01

    Recent scientific research which offers evidence of genetic and biologic influence in homosexuality has created serious concerns. The intent of this article is to offer suggestions based in principles of bioethics in which perceived negative outcomes may be diminished and the positive qualities of the research enhanced. For a portion of the general population the concerns expressed in this article could be alleviated through public discussion and exposure to the findings and theories of the academic and scientific communities. For another portion of the population, however, additional safeguards against misuse of screening tests and somatic cell interventions may be advisable through efforts initiated by researchers themselves, general public policies, and additional medical policies. While these efforts are recommended as short term goals for the separate scientific and social paradigms of homosexuality, it is proposed that an equally important and related debate involves the subjects of disease, normality and the value of diversity. It is suggested that while it is imperative that the behavioral and biological sciences recognize the limitations of their separate approaches, the reductionist approach itself limits our understanding of what essentially are questions of attraction and relationships. In conclusion, homosexuality should be understood from the perspective of autonomy as every person's right to experience a full and meaningful life.

  4. Comparison of Face-to-Face and Web Surveys on the Topic of Homosexual Rights.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingnan; Wang, Yichen

    2016-06-01

    Although academic research on homosexuality relies heavily on survey data, there has been limited study of the survey method of asking relevant questions. This study examines the effect of survey mode on responses to questions about homosexual rights. We find significant mode effects among heterosexual respondents, who are more likely to support equal access to employment, military service, adoption, and marriage for homosexual people in face-to-face surveys than in Web surveys. They are also more likely to choose to not respond when face-to-face than online. Homosexual respondents do not show mode effects for either substantive responses or item nonresponse rate. PMID:26566766

  5. Comparison of Face-to-Face and Web Surveys on the Topic of Homosexual Rights.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingnan; Wang, Yichen

    2016-06-01

    Although academic research on homosexuality relies heavily on survey data, there has been limited study of the survey method of asking relevant questions. This study examines the effect of survey mode on responses to questions about homosexual rights. We find significant mode effects among heterosexual respondents, who are more likely to support equal access to employment, military service, adoption, and marriage for homosexual people in face-to-face surveys than in Web surveys. They are also more likely to choose to not respond when face-to-face than online. Homosexual respondents do not show mode effects for either substantive responses or item nonresponse rate.

  6. Homosexuality in Specific Fields: The Arts, the Military, the Ministry, Prisons, Sports, Teaching and Transsexuals. A Selected Bibliography. Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alan V., Comp.

    This bibliography represents the third in a series of three dealing with employment of homosexuals, to be published by the Ontario Ministry of Labour Library. All asterisked titles deal with the employment problems of and discrimination against homosexuals. This bibliography is concerned with homosexuality in the specific fields of the arts, the…

  7. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  8. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in Homosexual Male Adolescents and Probably Prehomosexual Feminine Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Ray; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)

  9. Homosexual Pornography: Trends in Content and Form over a Twenty-Five Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celline, Harold B.; Duncan, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Conducted qualitative content analysis to examine homosexual pornography on sale in adult bookstores during four time periods: 1960-1969, 1970-1974, 1975-1979, and 1980-1984. Results revealed four trends: less tendency to disguise homosexual pornography, increasingly explicit sexual content, increasing emphasis on physical attractiveness of…

  10. Social Environmental Conceptions of Male Homosexual Behavior: A University Climate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed university climate of 32 male homosexual and 32 male heterosexual undergraduates. Subjects completed the University Climate Scale, Alienation Scale, Bem Sex-Role Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the University Homophobia Scale. Results revealed that homosexual subjects perceived measures of university climate as significantly…

  11. Optimal Scaling of HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse Homosexually Active Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used homogeneity analysis and latent class analysis to analyze sexual behavior patterns in two samples of homosexually active men. Results support the existence of a single, nonlinear, latent dimension underlying male homosexual behaviors consistent with HIV-related risk taking, providing an efficient means to scale sexual behavior patterns. (RJM)

  12. Homosexuality in Classroom Discourse at an American Modern Orthodox High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Devra

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent developments in the Modern Orthodox community's approach to homosexuality, this article presents a classroom discussion on homosexuality that took place at a Modern Orthodox high school. An examination of the discussion's heteroglossia, or multiplicity of languages existing in tension, along with attention to the discussion's…

  13. The Relationship between Gender and Heterosexual Attitudes toward Homosexuality at a Conservative Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar

    2014-01-01

    This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a…

  14. Educating for Sexual Difference? Muslim Teachers' Conversations about Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanjakdar, Fida

    2013-01-01

    Homosexuality is widely perceived among many Muslims as a "western disease", a natural outcome of the West's secularity and cultural degeneracy. In spite of the emergence of more liberal attitudes towards sexual differences in modern times, moral issues have not lost their relevance in polemical discourse against homosexuality among…

  15. Homosexual Subject(ivitie)s in Music (Education): Deconstructions of the Disappeared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to overstate music's persistent and uneasy relationship with homosexuality in Western society. Associated with femininity for centuries, particularly in North America, participation in music has been believed to emasculate and thus homosexualize men and boys. The linking of music to women and emotion (as opposed to men and reason)…

  16. Self-Concept and Psychological Adjustment Differences Between Self-Identified Male Transexuals and Male Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roback, Howard B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Self-concept and adjustment data from anatomical males seeking sexual reassignment surgery were compared with that from a male homosexual group. Findings indicated that the homosexual group had a better self-image and was better adjusted than the sex change group. (Author)

  17. Should Educators Accommodate Intolerance? Mark Halstead, Homosexuality, and the Islamic Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    The ideological interface between Muslims and liberal educators undoubtedly is strained in the realm of sex education, and perhaps on no topic more so than homosexuality. Mark Halstead argues that schools should not try to "undermine the faith" of Muslims, who object to teaching homosexuality as an "acceptable alternative lifestyle." In this…

  18. Teaching about Homosexualities to Nigerian University Students: A Report from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epprecht, Marc; Egya, Sule E.

    2011-01-01

    Nigeria's diverse cultures, religions and political parties appear to be unified by a strong taboo against homosexuality and gay rights. This has affected academic research, HIV/AIDS programmes, and sexuality education, all which commonly show evidence of heterosexism, self-censorship and even explicit condemnations of homosexuality. Yet a…

  19. Sex Instruction and the Construction of Homosexuality in New Zealand, 1920-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Historical analysis of sex education materials, as well as of the debates that surround them, can shed light upon the construction of sexuality in particular contexts. This article examines some of these materials and debates as a window into the construction of "homosexuality" and "the homosexual" in mid-twentieth century New Zealand. It is…

  20. Promoting Communication: Teaching Tolerance of Homosexual Persons While Addressing Religious Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, PJ

    This paper addresses how to teach tolerance of homosexual persons in a manner that is not threatening to those with religious scruples about homosexuals. It contains an example of a presentation for college students that is designed to teach them to respect their peers and future coworkers regardless of their sexual orientation. The presentation…

  1. Effects of sex role attitudes and similarity on men's rejection of male homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Krulewitz, J E; Nash, J E

    1980-01-01

    The present study investigated reactions to homosexuals as a function of perceived attitude similarity and subjects' sex role attitudes. Male subjects, preselected on the basis of their profeminist, moderate, or antifeminist scores on the Attitude Toward Feminism Scale were assigned at random to one of the four experimental conditions. Using a standard attraction paradigm design, subjects rated a bogus "partner," who was represented as either homosexual or heterosexual and as having attitudes either similar or dissimilar to theirs. Consistent with predictions, similar partners were liked more than dissimilar partners, and heterosexual partners were liked more than homosexuals. Homosexuals were seen as more dissimilar to the subjects in all conditions. Further, liberals were more accepting of homosexuals and dissimilar partners than were traditionals. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role attitudes and tolerance of dissimilarity. PMID:7373510

  2. Effects of sex role attitudes and similarity on men's rejection of male homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Krulewitz, J E; Nash, J E

    1980-01-01

    The present study investigated reactions to homosexuals as a function of perceived attitude similarity and subjects' sex role attitudes. Male subjects, preselected on the basis of their profeminist, moderate, or antifeminist scores on the Attitude Toward Feminism Scale were assigned at random to one of the four experimental conditions. Using a standard attraction paradigm design, subjects rated a bogus "partner," who was represented as either homosexual or heterosexual and as having attitudes either similar or dissimilar to theirs. Consistent with predictions, similar partners were liked more than dissimilar partners, and heterosexual partners were liked more than homosexuals. Homosexuals were seen as more dissimilar to the subjects in all conditions. Further, liberals were more accepting of homosexuals and dissimilar partners than were traditionals. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role attitudes and tolerance of dissimilarity.

  3. Communists, Social Democrats, and the homosexual movement in the Weimar Republic.

    PubMed

    Herzer, M

    1995-01-01

    Two cliches of gay historiography concerning the relationship between homosexuals and the political parties of the Weimar Republic are here subjected to critical examination. The notion that the political left of that era was similar in its homophobia to the right-wing and centrist parties is challenged with a number of particulars showing that the goals of the homosexual movement were supported almost exclusively by the left, especially the Communist Party, and that leftist homophobia was an atypical exception. Attention is also devoted to the active involvement of homosexual men in the Nazi movement and the destruction of the Weimar Republic, which casts doubt on the notion that homosexuals were merely passive victims of Nazi homophobia and persecution. The possibility of a special affinity between homosexual men and the Nazi movement is explored using the example of the Nazi leader Ernst Röhm. PMID:8666755

  4. Communists, Social Democrats, and the homosexual movement in the Weimar Republic.

    PubMed

    Herzer, M

    1995-01-01

    Two cliches of gay historiography concerning the relationship between homosexuals and the political parties of the Weimar Republic are here subjected to critical examination. The notion that the political left of that era was similar in its homophobia to the right-wing and centrist parties is challenged with a number of particulars showing that the goals of the homosexual movement were supported almost exclusively by the left, especially the Communist Party, and that leftist homophobia was an atypical exception. Attention is also devoted to the active involvement of homosexual men in the Nazi movement and the destruction of the Weimar Republic, which casts doubt on the notion that homosexuals were merely passive victims of Nazi homophobia and persecution. The possibility of a special affinity between homosexual men and the Nazi movement is explored using the example of the Nazi leader Ernst Röhm.

  5. Inventing the Pedophile in the Journal of Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines one of the most controversial moments in the history of the journal, whereby a contributor was subject to governmental and popular rebuke for his scholarship on pederasty, pedophilia, and underage queer sexuality. In a chronological and intellectual appraisal of this pedophilia-themed text, the author asks us to recalibrate the disquietude we posit when same-sex affection, youthful sexuality, and sexual abuse are in close proximity. PMID:26643601

  6. Going public: a study in the sociology of homosexual liberation.

    PubMed

    Lee, J A

    1977-01-01

    The complete process of resolving and announcing one's sexual orientation as "homosexual" is analyzed into three stages: signification, coming out, and going public. Each stage is further subdivided into steps. Not everyone passes through every step, and most persons stop well short of going public. However, the general process is found to be the same for 24 persons (the author and 23 respondents), all of whom have reached the final stage. Management of self-presentation in this process is discussed, using Goffman's concepts for "spoiled identity" (stigma). The motivation for going public is analyzed, using C. W. Mills' "vocabularies of motives."

  7. Inventing the Pedophile in the Journal of Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines one of the most controversial moments in the history of the journal, whereby a contributor was subject to governmental and popular rebuke for his scholarship on pederasty, pedophilia, and underage queer sexuality. In a chronological and intellectual appraisal of this pedophilia-themed text, the author asks us to recalibrate the disquietude we posit when same-sex affection, youthful sexuality, and sexual abuse are in close proximity.

  8. Intergroup contact, attitudes toward homosexuality, and the role of acceptance of gender non-conformity in young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Collier, Kate L; Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2012-08-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12-15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Preliminary analyses showed that contact with lesbian/gay persons outside of school was positively associated with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Multilevel analyses showed that acceptance of gender non-conformity mediated rather than moderated the relationship between intergroup contact and sexual prejudice in males. The effect of intergroup contact on females' attitudes toward lesbian women was no longer significant in multilevel analyses. The findings suggest that attention to both intergroup contact and acceptance of gender non-conformity would enhance our understanding of attitudes toward homosexuality in adolescents.

  9. Homosexuality and scientific evidence: On suspect anecdotes, antiquated data, and broad generalizations.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association have suggested for many years now that there is significant empirical evidence supporting the claim that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder. This paper summarizes and analyzes that purported scientific evidence and explains that much (if not all) of the evidence is irrelevant and does not support the homosexuality-is-not-a-mental-disorder claim. As a result of their deficiencies and arbitrariness, the credibility those two groups that are typically deemed authoritative and trustworthy is called into question. Lay summary: At one time, homosexuality was considered to be mentally disordered. Since the 1970s, however, major medical associations in the U.S. have labeled homosexuality as a normal counterpart of heterosexuality. Those medical associations have proposed that their homosexuality-is-normal claim is based on "scientific evidence." This article critically reviews that "scientific evidence" and finds that much of their literature does not support the claim that homosexuality is normal. This article suggests that instead of supporting their claim with scientific evidence, those major medical associations arbitrarily label homosexuality as normal.

  10. Homosexuality and scientific evidence: On suspect anecdotes, antiquated data, and broad generalizations.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association have suggested for many years now that there is significant empirical evidence supporting the claim that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder. This paper summarizes and analyzes that purported scientific evidence and explains that much (if not all) of the evidence is irrelevant and does not support the homosexuality-is-not-a-mental-disorder claim. As a result of their deficiencies and arbitrariness, the credibility those two groups that are typically deemed authoritative and trustworthy is called into question. Lay summary: At one time, homosexuality was considered to be mentally disordered. Since the 1970s, however, major medical associations in the U.S. have labeled homosexuality as a normal counterpart of heterosexuality. Those medical associations have proposed that their homosexuality-is-normal claim is based on "scientific evidence." This article critically reviews that "scientific evidence" and finds that much of their literature does not support the claim that homosexuality is normal. This article suggests that instead of supporting their claim with scientific evidence, those major medical associations arbitrarily label homosexuality as normal. PMID:26997677

  11. Homosexuality and scientific evidence: On suspect anecdotes, antiquated data, and broad generalizations

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association have suggested for many years now that there is significant empirical evidence supporting the claim that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder. This paper summarizes and analyzes that purported scientific evidence and explains that much (if not all) of the evidence is irrelevant and does not support the homosexuality-is-not-a-mental-disorder claim. As a result of their deficiencies and arbitrariness, the credibility those two groups that are typically deemed authoritative and trustworthy is called into question. Lay summary: At one time, homosexuality was considered to be mentally disordered. Since the 1970s, however, major medical associations in the U.S. have labeled homosexuality as a normal counterpart of heterosexuality. Those medical associations have proposed that their homosexuality-is-normal claim is based on “scientific evidence.” This article critically reviews that “scientific evidence” and finds that much of their literature does not support the claim that homosexuality is normal. This article suggests that instead of supporting their claim with scientific evidence, those major medical associations arbitrarily label homosexuality as normal. PMID:26997677

  12. A systematic review of instruments that measure attitudes toward homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Grey, Jeremy A; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Coleman, Eli; Bockting, Walter O

    2013-01-01

    Scientific interest in the measurement of homophobia and internalized homophobia has grown over the past 30 years, and new instruments and terms have emerged. To help researchers with the challenging task of identifying appropriate measures for studies in sexual-minority health, we reviewed measures of homophobia published in the academic literature from 1970 to 2012. Instruments that measured attitudes toward male homosexuals/homosexuality or measured homosexuals' internalized attitudes toward homosexuality were identified using measurement manuals and a systematic review. A total of 23 instruments met criteria for inclusion, and their features were summarized and compared. All 23 instruments met minimal criteria for adequate scale construction, including scale development, sampling, reliability, and evidence of validity. Validity evidence was diverse and was categorized as interaction with gay men, HIV/AIDS variables, mental health, and conservative religious or political beliefs. Homophobia was additionally correlated with authoritarianism and bias, gender ideology, gender differences, and reactions to homosexual stimuli. Internalized homophobia was validated by examining relationships with disclosing one's homosexuality and level of homosexual identity development. We hope this review will make the process of instrument selection more efficient by allowing researchers to easily locate, evaluate, and choose the proper measure based on their research question and population of interest.

  13. [: an expert report by Dr. Egas Moniz on homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Molina Artaloytia, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, the noted Nobel prize-winning Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz made an expert analysis on homosexuality in a marriage annulment case of major value as an example of the effective application of sexological knowledge of that period. Contemporary republican legislation established marriage annulment in medical terms and punished relations between persons of the same sex, or contra natura. In his report, Moniz attempted to interpret distinctive elements of the life of the subject using sexological categories, illustrating the interaction between these categories and the changing forms adopted by homosexuality (or homosexual people) of the time.

  14. Contributions of parents, peers, and media to attitudes toward homosexuality: investigating sex and ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Ward, L Monique

    2009-01-01

    Although research on sexual socialization continues to grow, still little is known about the processes by which youth learn about homosexuality and about how ethnicity and sex influence their learning experiences. To explore these issues, 745 undergraduates were interviewed and asked to indicate the amount and content of parental, peer, and media communication they regularly encounter about homosexuality. Results indicated that media and peers addressed the topic of homosexuality more frequently than parents; men and Black participants tended to receive fewer positive messages than did women and members of other ethnic groups, although results were moderated by religiosity and parental education.

  15. Brief Report: Increasing Acceptance of Homosexuality in the United States Across Racial and Ethnic Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Cleary, Sean D; Golden, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    After recent civil rights expansions for sexual minorities in the United States, we updated previous findings on population-level attitudes toward homosexuality measured in the General Social Survey. In 2014, 40.1% of respondents reported that homosexuality was "always wrong" compared with 54.8% in 2008 (P < 0.001). Although black and Hispanic respondents consistently reported more negative attitudes regarding homosexuality than white respondents throughout 2008 to 2014, the percentage declined among all racial/ethnic groups. Among MSM, more positive attitudes were associated with HIV testing. Research shows a potential association between homophobia and HIV risk; thus, these population-level changes may promote better health among MSM.

  16. Homosexuality and the Law: The Construction of Wolfenden Homonormativity in 1950s England.

    PubMed

    Suffee, Réshad

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses a television broadcast in England in 1957 in response to the Wolfenden Report (Wolfenden, 1957) into homosexuality and prostitution. Here I argue that those participants in the broadcast who are sympathetic with liberal reforms of the legislation on homosexuality utilize discourses related to normality and the public/private domains to discursively construct the Wolfenden homonormative male. In addition, I also show how, particularly through the trope of homonormativity, both the heterosexual and homosexual audiences are interpellated by the discourses exploited within the broadcast as publics whose subjectivities are reconfigured toward Wolfenden homonormativity. PMID:26295374

  17. Homosexuality and the Law: The Construction of Wolfenden Homonormativity in 1950s England.

    PubMed

    Suffee, Réshad

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses a television broadcast in England in 1957 in response to the Wolfenden Report (Wolfenden, 1957) into homosexuality and prostitution. Here I argue that those participants in the broadcast who are sympathetic with liberal reforms of the legislation on homosexuality utilize discourses related to normality and the public/private domains to discursively construct the Wolfenden homonormative male. In addition, I also show how, particularly through the trope of homonormativity, both the heterosexual and homosexual audiences are interpellated by the discourses exploited within the broadcast as publics whose subjectivities are reconfigured toward Wolfenden homonormativity.

  18. [Between law and psychiatry: homosexuality in the project of the Swiss penal code (1918)].

    PubMed

    Delessert, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    In 1942 the Swiss penal code depenalises homosexual acts between agreeing adults under some conditions. The genesis of the penal article shows that it was constructed before the First World War and bears marks of the forensic theories of the turn of the century. Both by direct contacts and the authority of its eminent figures, Swiss psychiatry exerts an unquestionable influence on the depenalisation. The conceptualisation of homosexuality is also strongly influenced by the German psychiatric theories and discussed in reference to Germanic law. By the penal article, the Swiss lawyers and psychiatrists link the homosexual question with the determination of the irresponsibility of criminal mental patients and degeneracy.

  19. [: an expert report by Dr. Egas Moniz on homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Molina Artaloytia, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, the noted Nobel prize-winning Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz made an expert analysis on homosexuality in a marriage annulment case of major value as an example of the effective application of sexological knowledge of that period. Contemporary republican legislation established marriage annulment in medical terms and punished relations between persons of the same sex, or contra natura. In his report, Moniz attempted to interpret distinctive elements of the life of the subject using sexological categories, illustrating the interaction between these categories and the changing forms adopted by homosexuality (or homosexual people) of the time. PMID:27363251

  20. Etiology and attitudes: beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and their implications for public policy.

    PubMed

    Overby, L Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality. PMID:24325311

  1. Homosexual mutuality: variation on a theme by Erik Erikson.

    PubMed

    Sohier, R

    The exploratory descriptive study described here was conducted in order to produce the initial empirical evidence to support reformulation of the theoretical construct of heterosexual mutuality (Erikson, 1975). Six persons were interviewed in depth on tape in order to locate them on one of four identity statuses constructed by Marcia (1964, 1966, 1973). The tool was modified and extended to meet the purposes of the study. The questions are directed toward illumination of conflictual moments in the life cycle when the ability to make appropriate decisions engenders character growth, and supports the personality integration of adulthood. An ability to make decisions results in personality integration. The small study provides evidence that there exists a homosexual mutuality (contrary to Erikson's position) which is no less valuable than heterosexual mutuality, and forms an equal basis for adult personality integration.

  2. Homosexual mutuality: variation on a theme by Erik Erikson.

    PubMed

    Sohier, R

    The exploratory descriptive study described here was conducted in order to produce the initial empirical evidence to support reformulation of the theoretical construct of heterosexual mutuality (Erikson, 1975). Six persons were interviewed in depth on tape in order to locate them on one of four identity statuses constructed by Marcia (1964, 1966, 1973). The tool was modified and extended to meet the purposes of the study. The questions are directed toward illumination of conflictual moments in the life cycle when the ability to make appropriate decisions engenders character growth, and supports the personality integration of adulthood. An ability to make decisions results in personality integration. The small study provides evidence that there exists a homosexual mutuality (contrary to Erikson's position) which is no less valuable than heterosexual mutuality, and forms an equal basis for adult personality integration. PMID:3835200

  3. Sexual behaviour in a group of Swedish homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, C

    1990-01-01

    Using self-administered questionnaires, sexual behaviour was assessed among 181 male homosexuals who were members of a 'gay' organization. Eighty-seven out of 181 (48%) had a regular partner and 14% reported their relationship as monogamous. The number of different sexual partners among the studied men was found to be low. Anal intercourse with non-steady partners in the past year had been practised by 43%, 79% of whom had generally used a condom. Use of condoms during oral intercourse was less common. Most of the men (86%) had made some risk-reducing behavioural changes (since a mean of 2.8 years) because of perceived risk of HIV/AIDS. 73% had had an HIV antibody test performed. Adoption of safer sexual practices seems to have occurred among the gay men studied.

  4. Inappropriate lubricant use with condoms by homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, D J

    1992-01-01

    Use of condoms has been advocated as an important method of reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, prostitutes, intravenous drug users, adolescents, and hemophiliacs. Despite risk-reduction education campaigns directed to gay men since the early 1980s, evidence shows continued deficits in condom-use skills and knowledge among gay men. Because most failures in the use of condoms are attributed to errors in use, increasing knowledge and skills in condom use is important in preventing HIV infection. Two groups of homosexual and bisexual men were sampled, those entering a risk-reduction education program and participants in a Gay Pride event. They were surveyed on their current sex practices and their efforts to reduce their risk of HIV infection. They were asked about their numbers of sex partners, specific sexual behaviors, use of condoms, types of condoms used, and lubricants used for genital-anal sex. The characteristics of those surveyed were similar to those of respondents in other studies of risk reduction among gay men. The use of an oil-based lubricant with condoms has been shown to weaken latex and to increase the likelihood of condom breakage, which use of water-based lubricants does not. Among respondents who reported having genital-anal sex, 60 percent reported use of an oil-based lubricant with a condom at least once during the year before the survey. Gay men in sexually exclusive relationships engaged in less consistent use of condoms for receptive genital-anal sex than did single gay men.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1641445

  5. The role of beliefs on learning about homosexuality in a college course.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, James; Kennison, Shelia; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated how personal beliefs about homosexuality influence learning in a college course. We tested students in introductory psychology over material on the science of homosexuality by Simon LeVay (2010). All students reported information about their typical academic habits and the extent to which homosexuality was consistent with their beliefs and values. The results showed that students' personal beliefs were related to academic behaviors (e.g., reading assignments, skipping class) and retention of the course material. The results also showed that students' recall of course material six weeks later was predicted by the extent to which they reported studying information that is inconsistent with their beliefs for an exam and then forgetting it. Students who reported the material to be inconsistent with their beliefs engaged in selective forgetting of the material on homosexuality. The results provide evidence that personal beliefs can reduce the retention of belief-inconsistent information in a college course.

  6. Negotiating homosexual identities: the experiences of men who have sex with men in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Haochu Howard; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lau, Joseph T F

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study of male homosexuality in contemporary Chinese society. The study focused on how men negotiated with the mainstream Chinese heterosexual society and in so doing constructed their sexual identities. The factors found to inform sexual identity were: the cultural imperative of heterosexual marriage, normative family obligations, desired gender roles, emotional experiences and a need for social belonging. The four types of sexual identities constructed included: establishing a deliberate non-homosexual identity, accumulating an individual homosexual identity, forming a collective homosexual identity and adopting a flexible sexual identity. For the men interviewed, sexual identity was both fluid and fragmented, derived from highly personalised negotiations between individualised needs and social and cultural constructs. The analysis is set against the background of China's rapid and recent economic development, shifting national and international social environments and improved access to the Internet. PMID:20162481

  7. "Two men under one cloak"---the Sages permit it: homosexual marriage in Judaism.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jacob A; Ulmer, Rivka B Kern

    2008-01-01

    This article examines halakhic (Jewish legal) passages that relate to homosexuality and marriage between two males. The article sets forth the respective positions of contemporary Jewish denominations in regard to homosexual marriage. Homosexual marriage is a case of first impression in Judaism and requires new decisions and new marriage contracts. The principal thesis of the article is that contemporary Judaism can accommodate philosophically--but also legally--a halakhic framework of thinking, same-sex marriage between men. Judaism does not have to opt for the perspectives of Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism, which have, to a major extent, freed themselves from the traditions and rituals of Jewish law. After examining marriage contracts in Rabbinic literature, specific examples are presented of how homosexual marriage between two males may be implemented.

  8. Lymphogranuloma venereum of the rectum in a homosexual man. Case report.

    PubMed Central

    Mindel, A

    1983-01-01

    A male homosexual presented initially with bloody diarrhoea and a swelling in the left groin, which was unsuccessfully treated with erythromycin. Examination in hospital showed a rectal mass and an abscess in the left groin. Histological examination of the rectal mass and a positive lymphogranuloma complement fixation test result confirmed the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum. This disease, although rare, should not be forgotten in the differential diagnosis of rectal problems in male homosexuals. PMID:6850267

  9. Some comments on "Marketing to the homosexual (gay) market: a profile and strategy implications".

    PubMed

    Bhat, S

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses some of the issues raised in the article "Marketing to the Homosexual (Gay) Market: A Profile and Strategy Implications." Strategic segmentation theory and practice suggest that segments should be based on consumers' responses or behaviors in relation to the marketer's product, thus calling into question the existence of a supposedly homogenous homosexual segment and the resultant profile of the average person in that segment.

  10. Implicit attitudes towards homosexuality: reliability, validity, and controllability of the IAT.

    PubMed

    Banse, R; Seise, J; Zerbes, N

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) that was adapted to measure implicit attitudes towards homosexuality. In a first experiment, the validity of the Homosexuality-IAT was tested using a known group approach. Implicit and explicit attitudes were assessed in heterosexual and homosexual men and women (N = 101). The results provided compelling evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the Homosexuality-IAT as a measure of implicit attitudes. No evidence was found for two alternative explanations of IAT effects (familiarity with stimulus material and stereotype knowledge). The internal consistency of IAT scores was satisfactory (alpha s > .80), but retest correlations were lower. In a second experiment (N = 79) it was shown that uninformed participants were able to fake positive explicit but not implicit attitudes. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit attitudes towards homosexuality could be partially accounted for by individual differences in the motivation to control prejudiced behavior, thus providing independent evidence for the validity of the implicit attitude measure. Neither explicit nor implicit attitudes could be changed by persuasive messages. The results of both experiments are interpreted as evidence for a single construct account of implicit and explicit attitudes towards homosexuality.

  11. How catholic college students think about homosexuality: the connection between authority and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Maher, Michael J; Sever, Linda M; Pichler, Shaun

    2008-01-01

    The researchers conducted a survey of undergraduates living in residence halls at Loyola University Chicago, a Jesuit Catholic university. The survey included 20 statements on topics currently being debated in the Church. The researchers hypothesized that those who indicated some level of agreement with the statement, Homosexuality is wrong, would show strong correlations with other statements about sexuality, while those indicating disagreement with the statement would show strong correlations with statements about discrimination. Results showed that the question of the morality of homosexuality seemed to be tied to a broader way of thinking that pits Catholic Church authority against a sort of wisdom of the world. This way of thinking is operational regardless of whether the young Catholic is accepting or not of homosexuality. The hypothesis was rejected. Attitudes toward homosexuality are tied with attitudes regarding sexuality and Church authority. Knowing gay and lesbian people seems to be the major factor that causes young Catholics to be more accepting of homosexuality. The majority of young Catholics is accepting of homosexuality and inclined to question Church teaching and Church authority.

  12. Beliefs about the etiology of homosexuality and about the ramifications of discovering its possible genetic origin.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Jane P; Pfeffer, Carla A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Feldbaum, Merle; Petty, Elizabeth M

    2007-01-01

    Homosexuality is viewed by many as a social problem. As such, there is a keen interest in elucidating the origins of homosexuality among many scholars, from anthropologists to zoologists, from psychologists to theologians. Research has shown that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn are more likely to have tolerant attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, whereas those who believe it is a choice have less tolerant attitudes. The current qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended telephone interviews with 42 White and 44 Black Americans to gain insight into the public's beliefs about the possible genetic origins of homosexuality. Along with etiological beliefs (and the sources of information used to develop these beliefs), we asked respondents to describe the benefits and dangers of scientists discovering the possible genetic basis for homosexuality. We found that although limited understanding and biased perspectives likely led to simplistic reasoning concerning the origins and genetic basis of homosexuality, many individuals appreciated the complex and interactive etiological perspectives. These interactive perspectives often included recognition of some type of inherent aspect, such as a genetic factor(s), that served as an underlying predisposition that would be manifested after being influenced by other factors such as choice or environmental exposures. We also found that beliefs in a genetic basis for homosexuality could be used to support very diverse opinions including those in accordance with negative eugenic agendas.

  13. The relationship between socioeconomic factors, wellbeing, and homosexuality in the theatrical profession.

    PubMed

    Ivtzan, Itai; Goodhand, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This article relates to the theory suggesting that there is a prevalence of male homosexuality within the theatrical profession that can be explained through male performers becoming homosexual due to their low socioeconomic position. In a questionnaire-based study, the socioeconomic status (SES) is measured of 121 homosexual performers who considered themselves to have been heterosexual at the time of joining the profession, and results are compared with a control group of 121 heterosexual male performers. The experimental group was chosen in this way due to the suggestion of the hypothesis that the change in sexual orientation occurs after the man begins performing professionally. Results were not significant and little difference was noted in any of the parameters of SES, including annual earnings and home ownership. However, a marginal though insignificant increase in SES was noted in the experimental group of homosexual men. Consequently, existing theories for homosexuality and possible reasons for the high prevalence within the performing profession are discussed; the notions of adult performing and creativity being extensions of childhood gender atypical behavior are considered and possible links between sexual orientation and these traits. Elements of genetic heritability of homosexuality are likewise implicated.

  14. The relationship between socioeconomic factors, wellbeing, and homosexuality in the theatrical profession.

    PubMed

    Ivtzan, Itai; Goodhand, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This article relates to the theory suggesting that there is a prevalence of male homosexuality within the theatrical profession that can be explained through male performers becoming homosexual due to their low socioeconomic position. In a questionnaire-based study, the socioeconomic status (SES) is measured of 121 homosexual performers who considered themselves to have been heterosexual at the time of joining the profession, and results are compared with a control group of 121 heterosexual male performers. The experimental group was chosen in this way due to the suggestion of the hypothesis that the change in sexual orientation occurs after the man begins performing professionally. Results were not significant and little difference was noted in any of the parameters of SES, including annual earnings and home ownership. However, a marginal though insignificant increase in SES was noted in the experimental group of homosexual men. Consequently, existing theories for homosexuality and possible reasons for the high prevalence within the performing profession are discussed; the notions of adult performing and creativity being extensions of childhood gender atypical behavior are considered and possible links between sexual orientation and these traits. Elements of genetic heritability of homosexuality are likewise implicated. PMID:23101496

  15. How catholic college students think about homosexuality: the connection between authority and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Maher, Michael J; Sever, Linda M; Pichler, Shaun

    2008-01-01

    The researchers conducted a survey of undergraduates living in residence halls at Loyola University Chicago, a Jesuit Catholic university. The survey included 20 statements on topics currently being debated in the Church. The researchers hypothesized that those who indicated some level of agreement with the statement, Homosexuality is wrong, would show strong correlations with other statements about sexuality, while those indicating disagreement with the statement would show strong correlations with statements about discrimination. Results showed that the question of the morality of homosexuality seemed to be tied to a broader way of thinking that pits Catholic Church authority against a sort of wisdom of the world. This way of thinking is operational regardless of whether the young Catholic is accepting or not of homosexuality. The hypothesis was rejected. Attitudes toward homosexuality are tied with attitudes regarding sexuality and Church authority. Knowing gay and lesbian people seems to be the major factor that causes young Catholics to be more accepting of homosexuality. The majority of young Catholics is accepting of homosexuality and inclined to question Church teaching and Church authority.

    PMID:19042276

  16. Effects of attractiveness and status in dating desire in homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexual men valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexual men and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire.

  17. Beliefs about the Etiology of Homosexuality and about the Ramifications of Discovering Its Possible Genetic Origin

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Jane P.; Pfeffer, Carla A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Feldbaum, Merle; Petty, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Homosexuality is viewed by many as a social problem. As such, there has been keen interest in elucidating the origins of homosexuality among many scholars, from anthropologists to zoologists, psychologists to theologians. Research has shown that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn are more likely to have tolerant attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, whereas those who believe it is a choice have less tolerant attitudes. The current qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended telephone interviews with 42 White and 44 Black Americans to gain insight into the public's beliefs about the possible genetic origins of homosexuality. Along with etiological beliefs (and the sources of information used to develop those beliefs), we asked respondents to describe the benefits and dangers of scientists discovering the possible genetic basis for homosexuality. We found that although limited understanding and biased perspectives likely led to simplistic reasoning concerning the origins and genetic basis of homosexuality, many individuals appreciated complex and interactive etiological perspectives. These interactive perspectives often included recognition of some type of inherent aspect, such as a genetic factor(s), that served as an underlying predisposition that would be manifested after being influenced by other factors such as choice or environmental exposures. We also found that beliefs in a genetic basis for homosexuality could be used to support very diverse opinions, including those in accordance with negative eugenic agendas. PMID:17594974

  18. Is the distant relationship of fathers and homosexual sons related to the sons' erotic preference for male partners, or to the sons' atypical gender identity, or to both?

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Blanchard, R

    1983-01-01

    Study 1 compared the retrospectively reported father-son relationships of four groups of adult males: (a) Gynephiles (males who erotically prefer physically mature females), (b) androphiles (who prefer physically mature males), (c) a combined group of heterosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter being attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent females), and (d) a combined group of homosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent males). The gynephiles were paid volunteers; the latter three groups were patients. The androphiles, the only group among those compared known to exhibit a measurably greater degree of cross gender identity in childhood, were also the only group to report significantly poorer father-son relations. The homosexual pedo/pedohebephiles, who also prefer male partners but who exhibit typical male gender identity in childhood, did not differ in father-son relations from the gynephiles or the heterosexual pedo/pedohebephiles. Study 2 showed that, within a sample of nonpatient volunteer androphiles, those individuals who reported the greatest degree of cross gender behavior in childhood also tended to report the worst relationships with their fathers. This correlation was replicated within a sample of androphilic patients in Study 3. The consistent pattern of results obtained from these three studies suggests that the emotionally distant relationships of fathers and androphilic sons relate to the sons' atypical childhood gender identity (or observable gender role behavior) rather than to the sons' erotic preference for male partners per se.

  19. Specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies in sera from patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC) and healthy homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, R Q; Johnson, E A; Donnelly, R P; Lavia, M F; Tsang, K Y

    1988-01-01

    The presence and specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies (ALA) was investigated in sera from male homosexuals with AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) as well as healthy homosexuals. Individuals in the healthy homosexual group had no detectable antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibodies reactive with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected by Western blot analysis in sera from both groups of homosexuals. Of those individuals whose sera contained ALA, 71% of ARC patients and 83% of healthy homosexuals had antibodies recognizing a 73 kilodalton (kD) molecule. ALA present in ARC sera reacted with CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes while little reactivity with B cells was observed. Our results indicate that ALA appear in homosexuals prior to HIV infection and are reactive primarily with T lymphocytes. A 73 kD structure associated with the T cell membrane is frequently the target for these antibodies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3052941

  20. [Between idealization and devaluation--problems and perspectives of theoretical analyses of female homo- and heterosexuality].

    PubMed

    Flaake, K

    1995-01-01

    Female homosexuality remains a controversial topic. Comparing psychoanalytic and sociological-feminist approaches to the phenomenon, the author points up clear theoretical distinctions between the two perspectives. Feminist authors tend towards an idealization of female homosexuality, while psychoanalysts display an inclination to devalue it as something pathological. However, the latent messages in both discourses have a number of points in common, traceable to a key problem they both have to come to grips with, the "lesbian complex". In lesbian relationships Flaake discerns a "third chance", an area not sanctioned by society, in which it is possible to re-attempt something left unattained in the early mother-daughter relationship: the appropriation of the female body. PMID:7480810

  1. The role of conditioning on heterosexual and homosexual partner preferences in rats.

    PubMed

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-01-01

    Partner preferences are expressed by many social species, including humans. They are commonly observed as selective contacts with an individual, more time spent together, and directed courtship behavior that leads to selective copulation. This review discusses the effect of conditioning on the development of heterosexual and homosexual partner preferences in rodents. Learned preferences may develop when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is associated in contingency with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that functions as a reinforcer. Consequently, an individual may display preference for a partner that bears a CS. Some UCS may be more or less reinforcing, depending on when they are experienced, and may be different for males and females. For example, it could be that, only during periods of early development, that stimuli associated with nurture and juvenile play become conditioned. In adulthood, other stimuli such as sexual reward, cohabitation, mild stress, or even pharmacological manipulations may function as reinforcers to condition partner preferences. Evolutionary biologists and psychologists must take into consideration the idea that an individual's experience with reward (i.e. sexual and pharmacological) can override presumably 'innate' mate choices (e.g. assortativeness and orientation) or mate strategies (e.g. monogamy or polygamy) by means of Pavlovian and operant contingencies. In fact, it is likely as innate to learn about the environment in ways that maximize reward and minimize aversive outcomes, making so-called 'proximate' causes (e.g. pleasure) ultimately more powerful predictors of social behavior and choice than so-called 'ultimate' causes (e.g. genetic or reproductive fitness).

  2. Performative family: homosexuality, marriage and intergenerational dynamics in China.

    PubMed

    Choi, Susanne Yp; Luo, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Using in-depth interview data on nominal marriages - legal marriages between a gay man and a lesbian to give the appearance of heterosexuality - this paper develops the concept of performative family to explain the processes through which parents and their adult children negotiate and resolve disagreements in relation to marriage decisions in post-socialist China. We identify three mechanisms - network pressure, a revised discourse of filial piety and resource leverage - through which parents influence their gay offspring's decision to turn to nominal marriage. We also delineate six strategies, namely minimizing network participation, changing expectations, making partial concessions, drawing the line, delaying decisions and ending the marriage, by which gay people in nominal marriages attempt to meet parental expectations while simultaneously retaining a degree of autonomy. Through these interactions, we argue that Chinese parents and their gay adult children implicitly and explicitly collaborate to perform family, emphasizing the importance of formally meeting society's expectations about marriage rather than substantively yielding to its demands. We also argue that the performative family is a pragmatic response to the tension between the persistent centrality of family and marriage and the rising tide of individualism in post-socialist China. We believe that our findings highlight the specific predicament of homosexual people. They also shed light on the more general dynamics of intergenerational negotiation because there is evidence that the mechanisms used by parents to exert influence may well be similar between gay and non-gay people. PMID:27206789

  3. Seroepidemiologic aspects of Neisseria meningitidis in homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Salit, I. E.; Frasch, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis has been isolated with increasing frequency from specimens obtained from patients attending venereal disease clinics and is an occasional cause of genital infection. Among 383 homosexual men attending either a venereal disease clinic or a community screening clinic meningococci were cultured from specimens obtained from 35.0% of all the subjects, and with similar frequency in the two groups. Of the positive specimens 93.5% were from the throat, 5.8% from the rectum and 0.72% from the urethra. The serogroups and serotypes of the isolates were characteristic of those commonly found in nasopharyngeal specimens from other asymptomatic carriers. Gonococci were isolated from 8.6% of all the subjects and were 1.4 times more common in those who also harboured meningococci. Of the cultures positive for gonococci, 14.7% were from the throat and 85.3% from the rectum. The two bacteria were rarely isolated from the same site in the same individual. Gonococci, but not meningococci, were significantly more common (P less than 0.05) in the group attending the venereal disease, clinic than in the group attending the screening clinic, the rates being 17.1% and 7.0%. PMID:6800626

  4. Performative family: homosexuality, marriage and intergenerational dynamics in China.

    PubMed

    Choi, Susanne Yp; Luo, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Using in-depth interview data on nominal marriages - legal marriages between a gay man and a lesbian to give the appearance of heterosexuality - this paper develops the concept of performative family to explain the processes through which parents and their adult children negotiate and resolve disagreements in relation to marriage decisions in post-socialist China. We identify three mechanisms - network pressure, a revised discourse of filial piety and resource leverage - through which parents influence their gay offspring's decision to turn to nominal marriage. We also delineate six strategies, namely minimizing network participation, changing expectations, making partial concessions, drawing the line, delaying decisions and ending the marriage, by which gay people in nominal marriages attempt to meet parental expectations while simultaneously retaining a degree of autonomy. Through these interactions, we argue that Chinese parents and their gay adult children implicitly and explicitly collaborate to perform family, emphasizing the importance of formally meeting society's expectations about marriage rather than substantively yielding to its demands. We also argue that the performative family is a pragmatic response to the tension between the persistent centrality of family and marriage and the rising tide of individualism in post-socialist China. We believe that our findings highlight the specific predicament of homosexual people. They also shed light on the more general dynamics of intergenerational negotiation because there is evidence that the mechanisms used by parents to exert influence may well be similar between gay and non-gay people.

  5. The pattern of sexual politics: feminism, homosexuality and pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, H

    1999-01-01

    Until recently sex and gender issues were thought to be biological or natural rather than political. The feminist movement largely changed perceptions of gender, and the gay and lesbian movements significantly altered conceptions of sex, so that what were once seen as permanent moral standards are now viewed as historical and political constructions. As views of these groups have moved towards social constructionism, perceptions of child sexuality have become more absolutist. Current attitudes towards child sexuality and representations of it resemble historical attitudes towards women and homosexuals. This article argues that there is a two-phase pattern of sexual politics. The first is a battle to prevent the battle, to keep the issue from being seen as political and negotiable. Psychological and moral categories are used to justify ridicule and preclude any discussions of the issue, and standard Constitutional guarantees are seen as irrelevant. The second phase more closely resembles traditional politics as different groups argue over rights and privileges. Feminist and gay/lesbian politics have recently entered the second phase, while pedophilia is in the first. PMID:10207822

  6. Place matters: Contextualizing the roles of religion and race for understanding Americans' attitudes about homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Amy; Boyd, Katharine A; Hayes, Brittany E

    2016-05-01

    As laws and policies related to homosexuality have evolved, Americans' attitudes have also changed. Race and religion have been established as important indicators of feelings about homosexuality. However, researchers have given almost no attention to how county characteristics shape Americans' attitudes. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling techniques, we examine how personal characteristics and the religious and racial context of a county shape feelings about homosexuality drawing on data from the American National Election Survey and information about where respondents reside. We find that African Americans initially appear less tolerant than other racial groups, until we account for the geographical distribution of attitudes across the nation. Additionally, once we consider religious involvement, strength of belief, and religious affiliation African Americans appear to have warmer feelings about homosexuality than whites. Drawing on the moral communities' hypothesis, we also find that the strength of religiosity amongst county residents heightens the influence of personal religious beliefs on disapproving attitudes. There is also a direct effect of the proportion conservative Protestant, whereby people of all faiths have cooler attitudes towards homosexual individuals when they reside in a county with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants. Finally, we do not find any evidence for an African American cultural influence on attitudes.

  7. The burden of poofs: criminal pathology, clinical scrutiny, and homosexual etiology in queer cinema.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Lance

    2013-06-01

    Given the resurgence of scientific studies on the etiology of homosexuality in the wake of the AIDS epidemic, this article considers the effects these studies had on contemporaneous queer filmmakers. By using the subject of criminality as a way to talk about homosexual causality, queer films of the 1990s illustrate that contemporary scientific studies on homosexuality were historically and politically situated in relation to cultural anxieties about other forms of deviance. This article focuses on films that dissect the hetero-normative tendency to amalgamate forms of deviance in order to distinguish between the diseased and the healthy. Such products of New Queer Cinema highlight this amalgamation of criminality and homosexuality in order to challenge demands by the LGBT community of the 1980s and 1990s for "more positive images" in film. This article argues that queer filmmakers have manipulated the image of the queer criminal to usurp the medical tendency to biologize and pathologize the notion of queer transgression. In such a way, queer films that enthusiastically dramatize the queer outlaw perpetuate myths about homosexuality in order to dissect and discredit them.

  8. Evidence for recent changes in sexual behaviour in homosexual men in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Gill, O N

    1989-09-01

    Over 80% of cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in England and Wales have occurred in homosexual men. Changes in sexual behaviour in this group may have a substantial influence on the incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and will therefore be crucial in determining future cases of AIDS. This paper critically weighs the indirect and direct evidence for changes in behaviour in homosexual men since the advent of the AIDS epidemic. The paper reports on falling incidence of gonorrhoea, hepatitis B and syphilis in homosexual men, the changes being most marked from 1985 onwards. Data on temporal trends in HIV prevalence and incidence in homosexual men are reviewed. These suggest that the maximum incidence of HIV infection occurred in 1982-84 and may have fallen since then. Evidence for a concomitant change in sexual behaviour is reported from several sources. This points towards a recent change in sexual behaviour characterized by reduction in the numbers of partners and adoption of safer sexual practices. In some places change may have occurred as early as 1983. A change became apparent generally in 1985 and this appears to have been sustained in 1986-87. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of homosexual men studied continue to practice high risk sexual practices, such as anal intercourse, including relationships with casual partners.

  9. Place matters: Contextualizing the roles of religion and race for understanding Americans' attitudes about homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Amy; Boyd, Katharine A; Hayes, Brittany E

    2016-05-01

    As laws and policies related to homosexuality have evolved, Americans' attitudes have also changed. Race and religion have been established as important indicators of feelings about homosexuality. However, researchers have given almost no attention to how county characteristics shape Americans' attitudes. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling techniques, we examine how personal characteristics and the religious and racial context of a county shape feelings about homosexuality drawing on data from the American National Election Survey and information about where respondents reside. We find that African Americans initially appear less tolerant than other racial groups, until we account for the geographical distribution of attitudes across the nation. Additionally, once we consider religious involvement, strength of belief, and religious affiliation African Americans appear to have warmer feelings about homosexuality than whites. Drawing on the moral communities' hypothesis, we also find that the strength of religiosity amongst county residents heightens the influence of personal religious beliefs on disapproving attitudes. There is also a direct effect of the proportion conservative Protestant, whereby people of all faiths have cooler attitudes towards homosexual individuals when they reside in a county with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants. Finally, we do not find any evidence for an African American cultural influence on attitudes. PMID:26973028

  10. "Como Se Dice HIV?" Adapting Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Messages to Reach Homosexual and Bisexual Hispanic Men: The Importance of Hispanic Cultural and Health Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowdy, Matthew A.

    HIV/AIDS prevention messages catered to Anglo homosexual/bisexual men are not effective in teaching preventative behaviors to Hispanic homosexual/bisexual men. Hispanic sociocultural traits associated with homosexuality and bisexuality prevent the effectiveness of these messages. The Hispanic family is also extremely important in influencing…

  11. Inclusive Science Education: What Does It Look Like? Confronting Homophobia and Providing Equity for Homosexuals in Our Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkle, Dale G.

    This paper provides a current picture of what is happening to homosexual students in science classrooms, and discusses the necessity of promoting an understanding of what needs to be done to make science classrooms inclusive for gays and lesbians. A summary of a research study that used a survey of homosexual students' attitudes toward school and…

  12. Psychiatry and homosexuality in mid-twentieth-century Edinburgh: the view from Jordanburn Nerve Hospital.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Roger

    2009-12-01

    There has been little historical research into the post-war treatment of homosexuality, especially in Scotland. Using surviving records from the Jordanburn Nerve Hospital (JNH) in Edinburgh for the 1950s, this paper sets out to rectify this omission. The views of homosexuality held by the psychiatrists, and the main treatment strategies adopted (categorized as hospitalization, suppression, reorientation/'cure', and adjustment) are surveyed and illustrated from particular cases. The Edinburgh experience is also compared with perceptions and practices relating to the treatment of homosexual problems in Glasgow. It is concluded that psychiatrists at the JNH adopted a cautious, ad hoc approach to therapy, reflecting both ideological and resource constraints and an attachment to taxonomies of deviance rooted in established notions of sexual pathology.

  13. Perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality and their effects on Iranian and American sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Mireshghi, Sholeh I; Matsumoto, David

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between three mental health constructs and perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Specifically, differences in perceived cultural attitudes and depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress between 49 Iranians and 47 Americans were compared. It was hypothesized that (a) perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality would be more negative among Iranians than Americans; (b) perceived cultural attitudes would be related to depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress; and (c) that Iranian participants' scores on the depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress measures would reflect poorer mental health than that of their American counterparts. Results indicated more negative perceptions of cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among Iranians. Contrary to prediction, however, no difference was found in levels of depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress among American and Iranian participants. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural and familial differences with regard to sexual orientation disclosure.

  14. The painful reunion : the remedicalization of homosexuality and the rise of the queer.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Lance

    2012-09-01

    This article considers the late 19th-century medical invention of the category of the homosexual in relation to homosexuality's moment of deliverance from medicine in the 1970s, when it was removed as a category of mental aberration in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). With the rise of the AIDS pandemic in gay communities in the early 1980s, I argue that homosexuals were forcibly returned to the medical sphere, a process I call "the painful reunion." Reading a collection of queer narratives across the 20th century, I show that historical and contemporaneous medical events prompted the mobilization of seropositive and queer artists at century's end to rehabilitate, revise, and offend the historiography of queer illness. Collectively, my conclusions redefine our understandings of queer theory and queer politics as distinctively 1990s projects invested in the present to ones that purposefully aim to challenge the past.

  15. "It is what it is": masculinity, homosexuality, and inclusive discourse in mixed martial arts.

    PubMed

    Channon, Alex; Matthews, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    In this article we make use of inclusive masculinity theory to explore online media representations of male homosexuality and masculinity within the increasingly popular combat sport of mixed martial arts (MMA). Adopting a case-study approach, we discuss narratives constructed around one aspirational male MMA fighter, Dakota Cochrane, whose history of having participated in gay pornography became a major talking point on a number of MMA discussion/community Web sites during early 2012. While these narratives attempted to discursively rescue Cochrane's supposedly threatened masculinity, highlighting both his "true" heterosexuality and his prodigious fighting abilities, they also simultaneously celebrated the acceptance of homosexual men within the sport that Cochrane's case implied. Thus, we suggest that these media representations of homosexuality and masculinity within MMA are indicative of declining cultural homophobia and homohysteria and an inclusive vision of masculinity, as previously described by proponents of inclusive masculinity theory. PMID:25603357

  16. "It is what it is": masculinity, homosexuality, and inclusive discourse in mixed martial arts.

    PubMed

    Channon, Alex; Matthews, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    In this article we make use of inclusive masculinity theory to explore online media representations of male homosexuality and masculinity within the increasingly popular combat sport of mixed martial arts (MMA). Adopting a case-study approach, we discuss narratives constructed around one aspirational male MMA fighter, Dakota Cochrane, whose history of having participated in gay pornography became a major talking point on a number of MMA discussion/community Web sites during early 2012. While these narratives attempted to discursively rescue Cochrane's supposedly threatened masculinity, highlighting both his "true" heterosexuality and his prodigious fighting abilities, they also simultaneously celebrated the acceptance of homosexual men within the sport that Cochrane's case implied. Thus, we suggest that these media representations of homosexuality and masculinity within MMA are indicative of declining cultural homophobia and homohysteria and an inclusive vision of masculinity, as previously described by proponents of inclusive masculinity theory.

  17. Brief Report: Increasing Acceptance of Homosexuality in the United States Across Racial and Ethnic Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Cleary, Sean D; Golden, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    After recent civil rights expansions for sexual minorities in the United States, we updated previous findings on population-level attitudes toward homosexuality measured in the General Social Survey. In 2014, 40.1% of respondents reported that homosexuality was "always wrong" compared with 54.8% in 2008 (P < 0.001). Although black and Hispanic respondents consistently reported more negative attitudes regarding homosexuality than white respondents throughout 2008 to 2014, the percentage declined among all racial/ethnic groups. Among MSM, more positive attitudes were associated with HIV testing. Research shows a potential association between homophobia and HIV risk; thus, these population-level changes may promote better health among MSM. PMID:26381102

  18. Homosexual men (and lesbian men) in a heterosexual genre: three gangster films from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A

    2000-01-01

    Of the East Asian film genres that have captured the attention of film goers internationally, it should be of little surprise that martial and heroically masculine genres have been the most popular, for violent action translates well into any language. Although it has been no secret that male martiality often leaks into homoerotic desire (on the part of the audience, too), three Hong Kong films from 1998 have finally explicated the generic homosexuality that the action genre has been (defensively) ashamed to admit all along. However, rather than posit this textual homosexuality as transgressive, the generic forces under which these films operate rewrite their homosexualities, both gay and lesbian, into generic modes fashioned around regressive oppositions of gender, and not progressive liberations of sexuality. PMID:11133135

  19. Homosexual men (and lesbian men) in a heterosexual genre: three gangster films from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A

    2000-01-01

    Of the East Asian film genres that have captured the attention of film goers internationally, it should be of little surprise that martial and heroically masculine genres have been the most popular, for violent action translates well into any language. Although it has been no secret that male martiality often leaks into homoerotic desire (on the part of the audience, too), three Hong Kong films from 1998 have finally explicated the generic homosexuality that the action genre has been (defensively) ashamed to admit all along. However, rather than posit this textual homosexuality as transgressive, the generic forces under which these films operate rewrite their homosexualities, both gay and lesbian, into generic modes fashioned around regressive oppositions of gender, and not progressive liberations of sexuality.

  20. Homophobia as a barrier to comprehensive media coverage of the Ugandan anti-homosexual bill.

    PubMed

    Strand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local media. This article explores to what degree a discriminatory social environment manifests itself in the Ugandan print media and discusses the potential implications for media's coverage of contentious policy options such as the Anti-Homosexuality Bill. A content analysis of 115 items from two daily newspapers (the government-owned New Vision and the privately owned the Daily Monitor, between October and December 2009) indicates the existence of two separate house styles; this is in spite of the fact that both newspapers reproduce the surrounding society's homophobia, albeit with different frequency. Unlike the New Vision, the Daily Monitor includes coverage on homophobia and discrimination, as well as provides space for criticism of the Bill. By acknowledging discrimination and its negative impact, the newspaper de-legitimizes homophobia and problematizes the proposed Anti-homosexuality Bill for their readers. PMID:22500993

  1. Bisexual men in marriage: is a positive homosexual identity and stable marriage possible?

    PubMed

    Matteson, D R

    1985-01-01

    The negative picture of mixed-orientation marriages portrayed in previous research is challenged by results from a study and two-year follow-up of a non-clinical sample of 41 spouses representing 30 marriages. Evidence suggests that more recent marriages involving a bisexual are made for positive reasons, rather than as an escape from homosexuality. A comparison of couples in which the homosexual behavior is acknowledged to those in which it is secretive suggests a positive homosexual identity can be developed in the acknowledged situation. Data from a two-year follow-up provide information on the factors which led to the stabilization of such marriages. A schema of developmental crises, decisions, and consequences is presented.

  2. Political tolerance of homosexuals: the role of group attitudes and legal principles.

    PubMed

    Riggle, E D; Ellis, A L

    1994-01-01

    Individuals' attitudes toward and acceptance of general legal principles were assessed along with their willingness to extend application of these principles to various social and political groups, including homosexuals. Respondents then indicated their attitudes toward various social and political groups, including the groups to whom they had applied the general principles. Regression analyses were used to determine to what degree acceptance of the general principle and attitude toward the social group predicted application of the general principle to the group. For disliked groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and Nazis, individuals' acceptance of the general principle alone predicted the specific application. For homosexuals, however, the application of the general principle was affected both by acceptance of the general principle and by individuals' attitudes toward homosexuals. The implications of this difference in light of research addressing the cognitive and affective nature of attitudes and attitude change is discussed. PMID:8006417

  3. Gender Atypicality and Anxiety Response to Social Interaction Stress in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Roi; Cohen, Hagit; Diamond, Gary M

    2016-04-01

    Gender non-conforming behavior and a homosexual sexual orientation have both been linked to higher levels of anxiety. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of gender atypicality and sexual orientation on levels of state anxiety immediately following a stressful social interaction task among a sample of homosexual and heterosexual Israeli men (n = 36). Gender atypicality was measured via both self-report and observer ratings. State anxiety was measured via both self-report immediately subsequent to the stressful social interaction task and pre- to post task changes in salivary cortisol. Results showed that self-reported gender atypicality and heterosexual sexual orientation predicted higher levels of self-reported social interaction anxiety, but not changes in cortisol. There were no sexual orientation by gender behavior interactions and there were no significant effects for observer rated gender atypicality. These findings suggest that gender atypicality, not homosexuality, place individuals at risk for increased anxiety.

  4. Of moths and men: Theo Lang and the persistence of Richard Goldschmidt's theory of homosexuality, 1916-1960.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, M R

    2000-01-01

    Using an analogy between moths and men, in 1916, Richard Goldschmidt proposed that homosexuality was a case of genetic intersexuality. As he strove to create a unified theory of sex determination that would encompass animals ranging from moths to men, Goldschmidt's doubts grew concerning the association of homosexuality with intersexuality until, in 1931, he dropped homosexuality from his theory of intersexuality. Despite Goldschmidt's explicit rejection of his theory of homosexuality, Theo Lang, a researcher in the Genealogical-Demographic Department of the Institute for Psychiatric Research in Munich, revived it, maintained Goldschmidt's association with it, and argued on its behalf in publications from 1936 to 1960. Lang's appropriation of Goldschmidt's theory did not depend on his resolution of the difficulties Goldschmidt had found with his own theory. Lang and Goldschmidt, I argue, had fundamentally different scientific and social commitments that allowed one to reject this theory of homosexuality and the other to accept it.

  5. Childhood sexual identity, childhood religiosity, and "homophobia" as influences in the development of transsexualism, homosexuality, and heterosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hellman, R E; Green, R; Gray, J L; Williams, K

    1981-08-01

    We have studied the interaction between boyhood cross-gender behavior, "homophobia," and religiosity in men raised as Catholics who, during adulthood, considered themselves transsexual, homosexual, or heterosexual. The sample consisted of 43 transsexual, 78 homosexual, and 43 heterosexual subjects matched for age, race, educational level, and economic status. The transsexual men recalled the most "feminine" behavior during boyhood, followed by the homosexual men. The heterosexual group was most "homophobic," followed by the transsexuals. "Homophobia" positively correlated with religiosity among adult transsexuals and heterosexuals. Transsexuals, recalling childhood, perceived their parents as being more religious than did the homosexuals. At intermediate levels of "femininity," greater "homophobia" scores were associated with more transsexual characteristics. These data support the thesis that early developmental aspects of sexual identity, and later concerns over homosexuality that are partly of a religious derivative, may contribute to a transsexual outcome.

  6. Leftist sexual politics and homosexuality: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Hekma, G; Oosterhuis, H; Steakley, J

    1995-01-01

    For almost a full century now, the revolutionary prospect of socialism has fuelled opening forays first of the homosexual emancipation and later of the gay liberation movements, both in Europe and in North America. It inspired Edward Carpenter and Magnus Hirschfeld at the turn of the century; André Gide and Richard Linsert in the post-World War I years; Harry Hay and Jim Kepner in the post-World War II era; and the British and American Gay Liberation Front, the Italian Fuori!, the French FHAR, the German "Rotzschwule," and the Dutch Red Faggots following the Stonewall rebellion. While the official socialist parties of Northwestern Europe may have made only limited contributions to homosexual emancipation, they certainly have a better record than conservative and Christian parties and even the liberals, who have consistently, if contradictorily, underlined the freedom of private life. Even so, parties across the entire political spectrum have gradually come to endorse at least some of the movement's goals. As it has advanced, the gay movement has changed as well, and it now finds itself pulled in divergent directions. Gay leftists who still subscribe to the ideals expressed in Marxist and utopian socialist writings now find themselves at demonstrations shoulder-to-shoulder with members of ACT UP and Queer Nation, to say nothing of gay conservatives and gay Christians. The successes achieved by the contemporary gay movement despite or precisely because of its diversity support Foucault's argument that "there is no single locus of great Refusal, no soul of revolt, source of all rebellions, or pure law of the revolutionary. Instead there is a plurality of resistances, each of them a special case...." At the close of the twentieth century, the welfare state has reached its apogee in Northwestern Europe. As blue-collar workers historically committed to class struggle have become relatively well-to-do and minoritarian, socialist parties have increasingly lost their

  7. Leftist sexual politics and homosexuality: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Hekma, G; Oosterhuis, H; Steakley, J

    1995-01-01

    For almost a full century now, the revolutionary prospect of socialism has fuelled opening forays first of the homosexual emancipation and later of the gay liberation movements, both in Europe and in North America. It inspired Edward Carpenter and Magnus Hirschfeld at the turn of the century; André Gide and Richard Linsert in the post-World War I years; Harry Hay and Jim Kepner in the post-World War II era; and the British and American Gay Liberation Front, the Italian Fuori!, the French FHAR, the German "Rotzschwule," and the Dutch Red Faggots following the Stonewall rebellion. While the official socialist parties of Northwestern Europe may have made only limited contributions to homosexual emancipation, they certainly have a better record than conservative and Christian parties and even the liberals, who have consistently, if contradictorily, underlined the freedom of private life. Even so, parties across the entire political spectrum have gradually come to endorse at least some of the movement's goals. As it has advanced, the gay movement has changed as well, and it now finds itself pulled in divergent directions. Gay leftists who still subscribe to the ideals expressed in Marxist and utopian socialist writings now find themselves at demonstrations shoulder-to-shoulder with members of ACT UP and Queer Nation, to say nothing of gay conservatives and gay Christians. The successes achieved by the contemporary gay movement despite or precisely because of its diversity support Foucault's argument that "there is no single locus of great Refusal, no soul of revolt, source of all rebellions, or pure law of the revolutionary. Instead there is a plurality of resistances, each of them a special case...." At the close of the twentieth century, the welfare state has reached its apogee in Northwestern Europe. As blue-collar workers historically committed to class struggle have become relatively well-to-do and minoritarian, socialist parties have increasingly lost their

  8. Homosexuality: representing the devil or a spiritual gift? Two opposing views in the same Marian devotion.

    PubMed

    Samson, Judith; Notermans, Catrien; Jansen, Willy

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes opposing discourses on homosexuality forwarded by two different Catholic social actors. These are linked to the messages of the Lady of All Nations, a Marian apparition site in Amsterdam. These different actors are understood as competing moral communities ( Hunt, 2009 ), especially about the issue of what constitute European values. Both discourses can be seen as examples of the minoritizing yet universalizing view on homosexuality ( Kosofsky Sedgwick, 1990 , p. 85). The devotion to the Lady of All Nations serves as a site for promoting competing discourses ( Hermkens, Jansen, & Notermans, 2009 ).

  9. Impossible Love and Victorian Values: J. A. Symonds and the Intellectual History of Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Emily

    2014-10-01

    The historian and critic John Addington Symonds (1840-1893) was the first thinker in Britain to develop an academic model of male homosexual identity. Previous work on Symonds has not fully understood his distinctive blend of scholarship and sexual identity; this article situates Symonds' thinking about homosexuality within a wider context of nineteenth-century ideas about the classics, modern history, ethics, religion, and science. It argues that intellectual and ethical concerns were more fundamental to Symonds' sense of self than sexual expression, and that they shaped his understanding of his own and others' sexuality.

  10. The Influence of Pastors' Ideologies of Homosexuality on HIV Prevention in the Black Church.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Young, Staci

    2016-10-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and Black Churches may be a source of stigma which can exacerbate HIV risk and contribute to negative health and psychosocial outcomes. Findings from this study are based on 21 semi-structured interviews with pastors and ethnographic observation in six Black Churches. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis. Although pastors espoused messages of love and acceptance, they overwhelmingly believed homosexuality was a sin and had difficulty accepting YBMSM into their churches. The tension around homosexuality limited pastors' involvement in HIV prevention efforts, although there still may be opportunities for some churches.

  11. Writing the fairy Huckleberry Finn: William Goyen's and Truman Capote's genderings of male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Richards, G

    1998-01-01

    After rehearsing persisting representations of same-sex desire in the Southern Renaissance's literary production, this essay charts how novels by Truman Capote and William Goyen reveal contradictory genderings of male homosexuality. Capote's Other Voices, Other Rooms collapses male gay identity with effeminacy, while Goyen's The House of Breath replicates this model but also contrasts it with a coexisting and competing one in which masculine men can physically act upon gay desire. Thus, contrary to the theorizations of Michel Foucault and David Halperin, these representations suggest the absence of a unified model of mid-twentieth-century male homosexuality. PMID:9505226

  12. A theory of scandal: Victorians, homosexuality, and the fall of Oscar Wilde.

    PubMed

    Adut, Ari

    2005-07-01

    Oscar Wilde is considered to be the iconic victim of 19th-century English puritanism. Yet the Victorian authorities rarely and only reluctantly enforced homosexuality laws. Moreover, Wilde's sexual predilections had long been common knowledge in London before his trial without affecting the dramatist's wide popularity. Focusing on the seemingly inconsistent Victorian attitudes toward homosexuality and the dynamics of the Oscar Wilde affair, this article develops a general theory of scandal as the disruptive publicity of transgression. The study of scandal reveals the effects of publicity on norm enforcement and throws into full relief the dramaturgical nature of the public sphere and norm work in society.

  13. Writing the fairy Huckleberry Finn: William Goyen's and Truman Capote's genderings of male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Richards, G

    1998-01-01

    After rehearsing persisting representations of same-sex desire in the Southern Renaissance's literary production, this essay charts how novels by Truman Capote and William Goyen reveal contradictory genderings of male homosexuality. Capote's Other Voices, Other Rooms collapses male gay identity with effeminacy, while Goyen's The House of Breath replicates this model but also contrasts it with a coexisting and competing one in which masculine men can physically act upon gay desire. Thus, contrary to the theorizations of Michel Foucault and David Halperin, these representations suggest the absence of a unified model of mid-twentieth-century male homosexuality.

  14. Perineal swelling, intermenstrual cycle, and female sexual behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Paoli, T; Palagi, E; Tacconi, G; Tarli, S Borgognini

    2006-04-01

    Many reports have claimed that the duration of the swelling cycle in female bonobos (Pan paniscus) is longer than that of chimpanzees, and that the bonobo maximum swelling phase is markedly prolonged. Field data on intermenstrual intervals (IMIs) in female bonobos are limited and restricted to interswelling intervals (ISIs), which are assumed to reflect the IMI, though a direct comparison between the duration of ISIs and IMIs is still lacking. Reports on bonobo sexual activity as a function of the swelling phase are often contradictory. Moreover, the function of female homosexual interactions (genito-genital (GG) rubbing) is still debated. This study examines the reliability of the ISI as an approximation of the IMI, and the attractivity of female sexual swellings for other individuals. An analysis of 51 ISI-IMI pairs showed that ISIs are a fair representation of the reproductive cycle. The cycle length was 35.6+/-1.1 SE days relying on the ISI, whereas it was 35.0+/-1.1 SE days considering the IMI. This result is similar to the cycle length reported for chimpanzees. Female homosexual interactions and copulatory rates were higher during maximum tumescence, suggesting that the sexual swelling may be attractive for both males and other females. Furthermore, the GG-rubbing was performed free of a hierarchical postural imposition, and was not correlated with affinitive interactions. We suggest that GG-rubbing, which is generally the most frequent female sexual interaction, is a tool for social assessments among females.

  15. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  16. Homosexuality-related stigma and sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ha, Huy; Risser, Jan M H; Ross, Michael W; Huynh, Nhung T; Nguyen, Huong T M

    2015-02-01

    This article examined the associations between three forms of homosexuality-related stigma (enacted, perceived, and internalized homosexual stigmas) with risky sexual behaviors, and to describe the mechanisms of these associations, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hanoi, Vietnam. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 451 MSM into a cross-sectional study conducted from August 2010 to January 2011. Data were adjusted for recruitment patterns due to the RDS approach; logistic regression and path analyses were performed. Participants were young and single; most had attended at least some college. Nine out of ten participants engaged in sexual behaviors at moderate to high risk levels. Compared to those who had no enacted homosexual stigma, men having low and high levels of enacted homosexual stigma, respectively, were 2.23 times (95 % CI 1.35-3.69) and 2.20 times (95 % CI 1.04-4.76) more likely to engage in high levels of sexual risk behaviors. In addition, there was an indirect effect of perceived homosexual stigma and internalized homosexual stigma on sexual risk behaviors through depression and drug and alcohol use. Our study provides valuable information to our understanding of homosexual stigma in Vietnam, highlighting the need for provision of coping skills against stigma to the gay community and addressing drinking and drug use among MSM, to improve the current HIV prevention interventions in Vietnam.

  17. [The characteristics of diagnosing homosexuality in examining a special population contingent].

    PubMed

    Bardenshteĭn, L M; Ermolaev, V S; Ovchinnikov, V I; Ponomarev, G N

    1995-01-01

    In social terms homosexuality is one of the most dangerous sexual perversions, for it is subject to a strong social disapproval, affects the personality core, leads to social disadaptation, growth of anxiety, development of neurotic and depressive states, suicidal inclination, is conducive to the spread of syphilis and AIDS, forms the basis for numerous crimes (violence, aggression, murder). Homosexuality virtually cannot be corrected and is carefully concealed. In single-sex groups (soldiers, students of military schools, convicts) the prevalence of homosexuality may be as high as 30 to 50%. The proposed complex method for the diagnosis of homosexuality in men has been developed on the basis of methods of sexology, anthropometry, verbal and nonverbal psychodiagnosis, multidimensional mathematical statistics. The method consists of several independent blocks representing different aspects of sexuality. It is conductive to a flexible and rapid solution of numerous practical problems from singling out a risk group in screening examinations to full expert evaluation of the sexual sphere with a resulting differential diagnosis. PMID:7638881

  18. Emotional, Behavioral, and HIV Risks Associated with Sexual Abuse among Adult Homosexual and Bisexual Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholow, Bradford N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 1,001 adult homosexual and bisexual men found that sexual abuse in childhood was significantly associated with mental health counseling and hospitalization, psychoactive substance use, depression, suicidal thought or actions, social support, sexual identity development, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) risk behavior, and risk of…

  19. Educator Training in Homosexual/Bisexual Youth Issues: Research Issues and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth

    As a result of hostile climates for homosexual/bisexual students, dropout rates, substance abuse, homelessness, isolation, and identity problems are growing rapidly. Recent court decisions hold educators and schools responsible for the safety and education of these youth. However, there is no consensus on how to teach such controversial issues to…

  20. The Use of Stimulus/Modeling Videotapes in Assertive Training for Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duehn, Wayne D.; Mayadas, Nazneen, S.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and apply an experimental approach for teaching assertive behaviors in selective problematic interpersonal situations encountered by homosexuals. Results of a single-subject interrupted time-series analysis suggest that the client displayed significantly more assertive behaviors on four of the six criterion…

  1. Changing Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Homosexuals: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Edmon W.; Potocky-Tripodi, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article systematically reviews evidence for interventions that change attitudes toward homosexuals. Method: In all, 17 empirical studies using college and/or university student samples and interventions intended to improve heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, or bisexual individuals are reviewed. Characteristics of the…

  2. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  3. Nineteenth Century English Homosexual Teachers: The Up Front and Back Stage Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Vern; Bullough, Bonnie

    Although homosexuality was considered to be a crime in nineteenth-century England, the subculture of the school system promoted it. For example, in the early nineteenth century schoolboys of all ages were locked up in dormitories at 8:00 p.m. and no master entered the building until the next morning. No-one supervised the boys' activities during…

  4. Annotated Bibliography of Research on Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality (1967-1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Stephen F.

    Researchers in recent years have given increased attention to the empirical study of lesbianism and male homosexuality. This annotated bibliography outlines major findings of 139 empirical studies published in English-language journals and referenced in Psychological Abstracts in the eight-year period from 1967 to 1974. Articles included in the…

  5. "Masculine love," Renaissance writing, and the "new invention" of homosexuality: an addendum.

    PubMed

    Forker, C R

    1996-01-01

    Joseph Cady's recent article, "Masculine Love," Renaissance Writing, and the "New Invention' of Homosexuality," Journal of Homosexuality 23.1-2 (1992): 9-40, did much to shed new light on the controversial issue of whether homosexual identity is a relatively late phenomenon (late seventeenth- or early eighteenth-century at the earliest according to scholars of the "constructivist" persuasion) or already existed in the age of the Renaissance and before. Cady argues that homosexual identity is at least as old as the Elizabethan age, and cites from widely divergent sources several early modern instances of the term "masculine love," a term that seems to have been used exclusively to refer to the sexual preference of men for members of their own gender. The present note adds a further example to buttress Cady's case-namely the term "masculine conversation" from Arthur Wilson's History of Great Britain (1653), an account of the reign of James I (who was widely recognized to be sexually attracted to men). The term "conversation" often referred to sexual intercourse, being used in legal discourse to define adultery, and therefore constitutes an even more explicit example of denotative language than those Cady cites. Since Wilson discusses Sir Francis Bacon as well as James I, this brief article explores the historically documentable sexual preferences of these two figures in addition to that of the dramatist Christopher Marlowe and of Bacon's brother Anthony, a diplomat, all of whom seem to have been strongly oriented to "masculine love" and "masculine conversation". PMID:8895030

  6. Male Archetypes as Resources for Homosexual Identity Development in Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, William P.; McMahon, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    The male archetypes of king, lover, magician, and warrior provide important and timeless insights into mature masculine qualities. Homosexual identity development models describe tasks that confront gay men as they move through the identity development process. Proposes that by understanding the metaphor of male archetypes, gay men will discover…

  7. Homosexuality and Normality: Basic Knowledge and Practical Considerations for School Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherblom, Stephen A.; Bahr, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, controversy persists regarding what it means for heterosexuality to be the norm, or more pointedly, what it means for those not strictly heterosexual to be outside the norm. It is important that consultants in schools be aware of the current state of research bearing on homosexuality. Consultation provides a viable approach…

  8. "Masculine love," Renaissance writing, and the "new invention" of homosexuality: an addendum.

    PubMed

    Forker, C R

    1996-01-01

    Joseph Cady's recent article, "Masculine Love," Renaissance Writing, and the "New Invention' of Homosexuality," Journal of Homosexuality 23.1-2 (1992): 9-40, did much to shed new light on the controversial issue of whether homosexual identity is a relatively late phenomenon (late seventeenth- or early eighteenth-century at the earliest according to scholars of the "constructivist" persuasion) or already existed in the age of the Renaissance and before. Cady argues that homosexual identity is at least as old as the Elizabethan age, and cites from widely divergent sources several early modern instances of the term "masculine love," a term that seems to have been used exclusively to refer to the sexual preference of men for members of their own gender. The present note adds a further example to buttress Cady's case-namely the term "masculine conversation" from Arthur Wilson's History of Great Britain (1653), an account of the reign of James I (who was widely recognized to be sexually attracted to men). The term "conversation" often referred to sexual intercourse, being used in legal discourse to define adultery, and therefore constitutes an even more explicit example of denotative language than those Cady cites. Since Wilson discusses Sir Francis Bacon as well as James I, this brief article explores the historically documentable sexual preferences of these two figures in addition to that of the dramatist Christopher Marlowe and of Bacon's brother Anthony, a diplomat, all of whom seem to have been strongly oriented to "masculine love" and "masculine conversation".

  9. Explaining Comfort with Homosexuality among Social Work Students: The Impact of Demographic, Contextual, and Attitudinal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Eric; Raiz, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    While recent research explores the determinants of homophobia among college students, only a few studies look at the perceptions of homosexuals among social work students. Unfortunately these rare studies generally present a modest list of predictor variables or small sample sizes. To address this gap, this research explores the ways in which…

  10. Sex Education, Homosexuality, and Social Contestation in 1970s New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines the relationships between homosexuality and sex education in New Zealand during the 1970s. It argues that reading sex education debates and resources provides a useful way of exploring connections between the ontologies and politics of sexuality at that time. In particular, the advent of social movements concerned with sexual…

  11. "Worse than dogs and pigs?" Attitudes toward homosexual practice in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Shoko, Tabona

    2010-01-01

    Politicians call them the "festering finger," endangering the body of the nation; churchmen say God wants them dead; the courts send them to jail. Zimbabwe has declared that it will not tolerate homosexuality. Gays and lesbians feel persecuted and their rights are undermined. The controversy that was ignited in 1997 when the Zimbabwean government forced the closure of a fair booth by Gays and Lesbians of Zimbabwe at the Zimbabwe International Book Fair continues to echo. At issue are fundamental questions of the scope of human rights protection in Zimbabwe and other African countries (BBC News, 1998). Such issues have sparked endless debates on homosexuality in religion, politics, and other forums. This article seeks to explore the attitudes of both traditional Shona culture and Christian sectors in Zimbabwe. The goal is to find out if the practice is rooted in Shona tradition or if it can be seen as a new phenomenon emanating from Western political and Judeo-Christian influences on Zimbabwe. The article argues that the Zimbabwean attitudes toward homosexuality combine Christian and traditional morality. Finally, the article will discuss how Christian churches and traditional Shona culture come to terms with homosexual practice today.

  12. A Discursive Construction of Homosexual Males in a Muslim-Dominant Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamsudin, Zainon; Ghazali, Kamila

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of identity construction of four young Malay homosexual men in Malaysia. Through narrative discourse of their lifeworlds (Habermas, Theory of communicative action, Polity Press, 1987), this study explores the participants' linguistic repertoire and discursive strategies in the formation, negotiation and establishment…

  13. The margin has many sides: diversity among gay and homosexually active men in Lima.

    PubMed

    Caceres, C F; Rosasco, A M

    1999-01-01

    This study provides a perspective on the sexual culture, self-representations and behaviors of men who have sex with men. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with gay-identified men from both working class and middle-class backgrounds, non-gay-identified men who had sex with men, "fletes" (young men who sell homosexual sex), and transvestites. Ages among the study group ranged from 18 to 35. Issues explored included homosexuality and bisexuality, sexual experiences, socialization and support networks, "fleteo" and prostitution, AIDS-related concerns, emotional attachment, sexual identity and self-image. Findings suggest that a unitary homosexual culture does not exist in Lima. Ideologies structuring relationships within homoerotic culture range from more the more traditional, in which relationships are organized according to gender-transformed relationships, whereby ordinary males performed as "activos" with feminized "pasivo" males, to contemporary Western patterns involving equals who are able to exchange sexual roles. Awareness of this diversity should facilitate the identification of different sexual health needs and the protection of sexual rights, leading to the development of programs more sensitive to the cultural heterogeneity of male homosexualities in Lima.

  14. Mortality by homicide in homosexuals: characterization of the cases registered in Mexico between 1995 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Granados, José Arturo; Delgado, Guadalupe

    2008-03-01

    This work shows a first approximation to the magnitude and characteristics of mortality by homicide in homosexuals in Mexico using the cases registered between the years 1995 and 2000. A statistical analysis was performed of the homicides against homosexuals that were registered through the review of newspaper articles published by the National Press. Sex, age of the victims, kind and number of weapons used, wounds endured, and the situation in which the corpses found were registered. The greater mortality by homicide due to homosexual orientation was recorded in men (95%); it was found that the cases accumulated in the cohort of the third and fourth decades of their age (43%). The homicides were characterized by extreme violence which included the use of various arm types (33%) and wounds (32%). The most frequent situations that occurred were finding the corpses naked and tied (13%). The features of the homicide against homosexuals are associated to the general attributes of the predominant masculinity model; therefore, at a macro social level, some reasons are found in the social construction of homophobia. The degree of violence in these crimes adduces the consideration that they are hate crimes.

  15. Mortality by homicide in homosexuals: characterization of the cases registered in Mexico between 1995 and 2000.

    PubMed

    Granados, José Arturo; Delgado, Guadalupe

    2008-03-01

    This work shows a first approximation to the magnitude and characteristics of mortality by homicide in homosexuals in Mexico using the cases registered between the years 1995 and 2000. A statistical analysis was performed of the homicides against homosexuals that were registered through the review of newspaper articles published by the National Press. Sex, age of the victims, kind and number of weapons used, wounds endured, and the situation in which the corpses found were registered. The greater mortality by homicide due to homosexual orientation was recorded in men (95%); it was found that the cases accumulated in the cohort of the third and fourth decades of their age (43%). The homicides were characterized by extreme violence which included the use of various arm types (33%) and wounds (32%). The most frequent situations that occurred were finding the corpses naked and tied (13%). The features of the homicide against homosexuals are associated to the general attributes of the predominant masculinity model; therefore, at a macro social level, some reasons are found in the social construction of homophobia. The degree of violence in these crimes adduces the consideration that they are hate crimes. PMID:19749616

  16. [Sexual partners and practices of young homosexuals in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Rios, Luís Felipe

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on the organization of the erotic lives of young men who engage in homosexual practices. The reflections presented here are based on ethnographic research including observation in places of homosociability and interviews with young men in Rio de Janeiro reporting homosexual practices. By presenting erotic scenes pertaining to a homoerotic circuit and recording the sexual trajectories of young men engaging in homosexual practices, the article seeks to identify the implications of the observed erotic scripts and sex-partner patterns for the sexual health of these individuals. The text calls special attention to reports concerning the emergence of different forms of erotic interaction in childhood, as well as cross-age and crossgenerational partnerships that extend into adulthood, with a growing trend toward seeking younger partners as the young men themselves grow older. The article suggests that such phenomena require a more in-depth understanding, since they have serious implications for planning sexual health measures for young men (and boys) who engage in homosexual practices. PMID:15029342

  17. The Effects of Premarital Heterosexual and Homosexual Experience on Dating and Marriage Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…

  18. "Dicks are for Chicks": Latino Boys, Masculinity, and the Abjection of Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Employing social constructivist theories and the concept of abjection from gender studies, this article examines how and why a group of low-income, USA-born Dominican and Puerto Rican middle-school boys constructed masculine identities by invoking and repudiating homosexuality. Ethnographic data from a 2.5-year study indicate that the abjection of…

  19. Support for Homosexuals' Civil Liberties: The Influence of Familial Gender Role Attitudes across Religious Denominations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenneavy, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Religious denominations vary in both their approach to the roles that men and women play in familial contexts, as well as their approach to homosexuality. This research investigates whether gender attitudes, informed by religious tradition, predict a person's support for civil liberties extended to gays and lesbians. Using data from the 1996 and…

  20. AIDS: Its Effects on Sexual Practices among Homosexual and Heterosexual College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that assessed high-risk/low-risk safer sex behaviors among homosexual and heterosexual college students. Surveys indicated most students engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors that put them at risk for HIV infection regardless of their sexual orientation or fraternity/sorority affiliation. (SM)

  1. Religious Alienation and "Homosexual Consciousness" in "City of Night" and "Go Tell it on the Mountain"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, James R.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison of the works of two homosexual authors, John Rechy and James Baldwin, reveals similarities--the hating father, an oppressive religion--but also differences in the extent to which the two authors come to terms with themselves. (JH)

  2. The Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals 30 Years Later: A Psychometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Killian, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors report a validation study of the Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals (IAH) to examine its ongoing usefulness. Method: Students (n = 331) completed surveys anonymously. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted and group differences analyzed. Results: Content validity was established conceptually, and preliminary…

  3. Religiosity, Gender, Sex Anxiety, and AIDS Attitudes as They Affect Attitudes Towards Homosexuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, C. Denise; Ellis, Jon B.

    Homophobia is a term used to describe irrational fears about, prejudice, and discrimination against homosexuals. Past research has shown that religious people were more homophobic than nonreligious ones and that these same individuals were more likely to have a high level of sex anxiety. In recent research, it has been found that with the onset of…

  4. Refocusing HIV / AIDS interventions in Thailand: the case for male sex workers and other homosexually active men.

    PubMed

    Mccamish, M; Storer, G; Carl, G

    2000-01-01

    Although studies have shown that male sex workers in Thailand are at increased risk of HIV infection, no sustained strategy have so far been directed towards homosexually active men in the country. This paper brings together data from qualitative research carried out in Pattaya and Bangkok, with data generated during a bar-based intervention in Bangkok, to develop a taxonomy of sites in which the recruitment of male commercial sex can occur. The researchers also examined the sexual networks of Thai male sex workers and their clients in order to show the overlap of commercial and non-commercial male-male sex sites, and the intersection of male commercial sex with heterosexual sex. Previous efforts directed towards Thai male sex workers have been non-continuous; largely restricted to high-profile tourist areas; have not acknowledged the importance of recreational sex; and have not built up a capacity for ongoing intervention. With a change of focus, interventions targeted at sex workers could reduce the risks of HIV infection among organized and freelance sex workers as well as their commercial and male and female casual sex partners. Foremost, however, is the need to commit to well planned and long range interventions directed by and at male sex workers. PMID:12295881

  5. Homosexual parents: testing "common sense"--a literature review emphasizing the Golombok and Tasker longitudinal study of lesbians' children.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P

    1999-08-01

    Counter to claims by the American Psychological Association and the National Association of Social Workers as well as numerous reviewers that children raised by homosexuals and married heterosexuals do not differ, the elaborate social-personality theory called "common sense" predicts that because "like produces like" and because psychopathy/sociopathy informs the major expressions of social deviance including homosexuality, children of homosexuals will (1) be more frequently subjected to parental instability (of residence and sexual partners) and (2) have poorer peer and adult relationships. Also, as is held to be true of their parents, homosexuals' children will be more apt to (3) become homosexual, (4) be unstable (have emotional problems and difficulty forming lasting bonds) with reduced interest in natality, and (5) be sexually precocious and promiscuous. Differences between homosexual and heterosexual comparison groups that bore on "common sense" were considered suggestive "bits" of empirical evidence. Differences that emerged within studies conducted by sympathetic researchers utilizing volunteer samples were considered bits of adverse evidence. Of 171 bits, 82 adverse and 55 nonadverse bits supported, while 34 bits fell against "common sense." From this tentative method of counting, support was found for common sense beliefs that children of homosexuals will be more apt to become homosexual and have poorer peer relationships, while weaker support was found for some of the other predictions. As assessed in this way, the empirical evidence in the literature tended to lean against claims of "no differences" between children raised by homosexuals and heterosexuals. In particular, the strongly worded official claims of there being "no differences" are overstatements. They amount to the organizations and some prominent researchers asserting that they have proven the null hypothesis, which is fundamentally impossible. It is likely that the nonsignificant

  6. Christian social policy and homosexuality in The Netherlands, 1900-1970.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, H

    1996-01-01

    This essay explores the historical process in which homosexuality became an object for pastoral, medical, and mental health care in the Dutch Catholic community during the twentieth century. The confrontation between a moral-religious approach and the professional (medical and psychological) treatment of homosexuality is the central issue. In a continuing dialogue and a process of changing power relations between clergymen, physicians, psychiatrist, psychologists, and pedagogues as well as Catholic homosexuals themselves, homosexuality was transformed from sin and pathology into a psychological and social problem that could be treated in pastoral and mental health care. The changing attitudes of Catholics towards homosexuality can be explained in the context of the changing relations between religion on the one hand and health care on the other hand. Current viewpoints resulting from sociohistorical studies on the development of the medical and welfare professions have concluded that religion lost importance in modern society because physicians, psychiatrists, psycho-therapists, and social workers not only created new areas of intervention in people's private lives, but also took over the traditional tasks of the church in the field of charity and pastoral care. Medical anamnesis, psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy took the place of confession and pastoral care, thus the argument runs, and remission of sins and redemption were replaced by health and welfare. However, especially in the case of the development of the Dutch welfare state, there was a more complicated interplay between changing religious values and professional strategies. In the Netherlands professional health care and welfare institutions often were organized in a religious context and it is difficult to make a clear differentiation between religious and moral discourses on the one hand and medical and psychological ones on the other hand. Moreover, professional interventions did not take the place of

  7. Physicians' attitudes toward homosexuality and HIV: survey of a California Medical Society- revisited (PATHH-II).

    PubMed

    Smith, Davey M; Mathews, Wm Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In 1982, Mathews et al. surveyed San Diego County Medical Society's (SDCMS) physicians about their attitudes toward homosexuality. They found significant differences in prevalence of homophobic attitudes by gender, year of medical school graduation, specialty, and practice setting. To assess current physicians' attitudes toward homosexuality and persons with HIV infection, an anonymous, self-administered, 17-item survey was mailed to all 4,385 members of the SDCMS and 1,271 UCSD physicians. The survey included items measuring attitudes toward homosexuality and toward entry to medical school and referral patterns, conditional on sexual orientation and HIV status of hypothetical referents. Only 3% of respondents would not admit a highly qualified homosexual applicant to medical school compared with 30% in 1982. Similarly, 9% would discontinue referrals to a gay pediatrician compared with 46% of respondents in 1982. Forty-two percent would not admit a "highly qualified but asymptomatic HIV-infected applicant with excellent response to antiretroviral therapy to medical school" and 66% would discontinue referral to a general surgeon known to be HIV infected. In multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex and medical school affiliation, significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors of being in the highest 10% on an HIV-phobia scale were year of graduation from medical school and degree of homophobia (model ROC = 0.77). This survey suggests a substantial reduction in homophobia since 1982. However, attitudes toward homosexuals and year of graduation from medical school appear to be significant predictors of attitudes toward persons with HIV infection.

  8. Acceptance threshold theory can explain occurrence of homosexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Engel, Katharina C; Männer, Lisa; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has been documented in a wide range of animals, but its evolutionary causes are not well understood. Here, we investigated SSB in the light of Reeve's acceptance threshold theory. When recognition is not error-proof, the acceptance threshold used by males to recognize potential mating partners should be flexibly adjusted to maximize the fitness pay-off between the costs of erroneously accepting males and the benefits of accepting females. By manipulating male burying beetles' search time for females and their reproductive potential, we influenced their perceived costs of making an acceptance or rejection error. As predicted, when the costs of rejecting females increased, males exhibited more permissive discrimination decisions and showed high levels of SSB; when the costs of accepting males increased, males were more restrictive and showed low levels of SSB. Our results support the idea that in animal species, in which the recognition cues of females and males overlap to a certain degree, SSB is a consequence of an adaptive discrimination strategy to avoid the costs of making rejection errors.

  9. Stigma towards PLWHA: the role of internalized homosexual stigma in Latino gay/bisexual male and transgender communities.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica

    2013-06-01

    Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection.

  10. Self-reported sexual desire in homosexual men and women predicts preferences for sexually dimorphic facial cues.

    PubMed

    Welling, Lisa L M; Singh, Kevin; Puts, David A; Jones, Benedict C; Burriss, Robert P

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies investigating the relationship between self-reported sexual desire and attraction to same- and opposite-sex individuals have found that homosexual men's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to own-sex individuals only, while homosexual women's sexual desire is positively correlated with their self-reported attraction to both men and women. These data have been interpreted as evidence that sexual desire strengthens men's pre-existing (i.e., dominant) sexual behaviors and strengthens women's sexual behaviors in general. Here we show that homosexual men's (n = 106) scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 (SDI-2) were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in own-sex, but not opposite-sex, faces. Contrary to the hypothesis that sexual desire strengthens women's preferences for sexual dimorphism generally, homosexual women's (n = 83) SDI-2 scores were positively correlated with their preferences for exaggerated sex-typical shape cues in opposite-sex faces only. Together with previous research in heterosexual subjects, our findings support the proposal that sexual desire increases the incidence of existing sexual behaviors in homosexual and heterosexual men, and increases the incidence of sexual responses more generally in heterosexual women, although not necessarily in homosexual women.

  11. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  12. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  13. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  14. To welcome or affirm: Black clergy views about homosexuality, inclusivity, and church leadership.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    When the subject of the Black Church and homosexuality is broached, research often focuses on homophobia and correlates with HIV/AIDS. Fewer studies examine other problematic issues germane to gay and lesbian involvement in Black congregations. In this analysis, Black clergy dialogue during focus groups about inclusivity and church leadership by gays and lesbians. Informed by Cultural Theory, of equal interest is whether discourses are influenced by Black Church cultural tools, as well as cultural dynamics, from the broader Black community. As anticipated, findings suggest the tendency for clergy to promote welcoming church spaces, but to be reticent about affirming homosexuality as an acceptable lifestyle. Furthermore, although clergy are generally supportive of involvement by closeted gays and lesbians as lay leaders, most do not support their involvement in the clergy, particularly as pastors. However, views vary based on denomination and gender, and are informed by Black Church cultural components such as scripture and the call-and-response tradition.

  15. Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: a testing protocol for a new epigenetic model.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-09-01

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring--the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model.

  16. Taking up the cudgels against gay rights? Trends and trajectories in African Christian theologies on homosexuality.

    PubMed

    van Klinken, Adriaan S; Gunda, Masiiwa Ragies

    2012-01-01

    Against the background of the HIV epidemic and the intense public controversy on homosexuality in African societies, this article investigates the discourses of academic African Christian theologians on homosexuality. Distinguishing some major strands in African theology, that is, inculturation, liberation, women's and reconstruction theology, the article examines how the central concepts of culture, liberation, justice, and human rights function in these discourses. On the basis of a qualitative analysis of a large number of publications, the article shows that stances of African theologians are varying from silence and rejection to acceptance. Although many African theologians have taken up the cudgels against gay rights, some "dissident voices" break the taboo and develop more inclusive concepts of African identity and African Christianity.

  17. Religion, religiosity, and the attitudes toward homosexuality--a multilevel analysis of 79 countries.

    PubMed

    Jäckle, Sebastian; Wenzelburger, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Although attitudes toward homosexuality have become more liberal, particularly in industrialized Western countries, there is still a great deal of variance in terms of worldwide levels of homonegativity. Using data from the two most recent waves of the World Values Survey (1999-2004, 2005-2009), this article seeks to explain this variance by means of a multilevel analysis of 79 countries. We include characteristics on the individual level, as age or gender, as well as aggregate variables linked to specificities of the nation-states. In particular, we focus on the religious denomination of a person and her religiosity to explain her attitude toward homosexuality. We find clear differences in levels of homonegativity among the followers of the individual religions.

  18. Infantile bisexuality and the 'complete oedipal complex': Freudian views on heterosexuality and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Heenen-Wolff, Susann

    2011-10-01

    In the psychoanalytical discussion of what is 'mature' sexuality we speak of the 'genital' stage and the 'resolution' of the oedipal complex in the form of identification with the parent of the same sex and a heterosexually-directed object choice. A close reading of Freud's texts about sexuality shows that such a normative view cannot be corroborated by his viewpoint. He suggests that infantile sexuality is bisexually orientated, the final object choice due to repression of either homosexual or heterosexual desires. As Freud puts it, genital heterosexuality occurs out of necessity for procreation. In order to enrich the present psychoanalytical discussion about homosexuality and bisexuality the author returns to Freud's theories in this context.

  19. What ever happened to ritualized homosexuality? Modern sexual subjects in Melanesia and elsewhere.

    PubMed

    Knauft, Bruce M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the legacy of ritualized homosexuality as a behavioral practice and as an analytic category of research in Melanesia since the early 1980s. A case study of striking change among the Gebusi of Papua New Guinea suggests that ritualized homosexuality and insemination of boys have become behaviorally vestigial or moribund and that characterizing sexual practices in these terms has been difficult to begin with (as the original proponent of these terms has himself suggested). Historical change in Melanesia reveals linkage between the contemporary construction of heterosexual norms and desires for locally modern development and progress. A larger issue is how researchers of sexuality may unwittingly accept Western ideologies of sexual choice and freedom while positing historical and non-Western practices as culturally bound rather than being open to individual exploration and interpersonal diversity. PMID:15287161

  20. Anti-sperm antibodies in homosexual men: prevalence and correlation with sexual behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    Mulhall, B P; Fieldhouse, S; Clark, S; Carter, L; Harrison, L; Donovan, B; Short, R V

    1990-01-01

    The sera of 60 homosexual males were examined for the presence of antibodies to sperm using an indirect immunobead test (IBT). Six of 60 (10%) had antibodies of IgG isotype; in addition two of the six had antibodies of IgA isotype. The presence of antibodies was associated with the practice of unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the previous six months. Antibodies were not found in homosexual men who were celibate, or who practised only oral intercourse during the same period. There was no correlation between the presence of anti-sperm antibodies and antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or numbers of T lymphocytes. These preliminary results lend support to the hypothesis that antigen presentation in the lower gut may be a source of sensitisation against sperm. The possibility that anti-sperm antibodies may be a marker of receptive anal intercourse merits further investigation. PMID:2312123

  1. Homosexuality via canalized sexual development: A testing protocol for a new epigenetic model

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    We recently synthesized and reinterpreted published studies to advance an epigenetic model for the development of homosexuality (HS). The model is based on epigenetic marks laid down in response to the XX vs. XY karyotype in embryonic stem cells. These marks boost sensitivity to testosterone in XY fetuses and lower it in XX fetuses, thereby canalizing sexual development. Our model predicts that a subset of these canalizing epigenetic marks stochastically carry over across generations and lead to mosaicism for sexual development in opposite-sex offspring – the homosexual phenotype being one such outcome. Here, we begin by outlining why HS has been under-appreciated as a commonplace phenomenon in nature, and how this trend is currently being reversed in the field of neurobiology. We next briefly describe our epigenetic model of HS, develop a set of predictions, and describe how epigenetic profiles of human stem cells can provide for a strong test of the model. PMID:23868698

  2. Coincidence of deficient delayed hypersensitivity and intestinal protozoa in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Jokipii, L; Sargeaunt, P G; Jokipii, A M

    1989-01-01

    Stool samples of 134 subjectively and apparently healthy male homosexual volunteers were studied, and in 86 men (64.2%) 190 parasite infestations, up to 6 per host, were identified. The most frequent species were Endolimax nana (40), Entamoeba coli (38), Entamoeba histolytica (34), Entamoeba hartmanni (32), and Iodamoeba bütschlii (22); Cryptosporidium was not found. All 11 isolates of Entamoeba histolytica analysed belonged to a noninvasive zymodeme: 10 were of zymodeme I and I of zymodeme III. In 172 healthy control adults 6 parasite infestations were found. In the homosexual men, a negative tuberculin test was more frequent in the presence than in the absence of parasites. Entamoeba histolytica (p = 0.005) Entamoeba coli (p = 0.013) and Iodamoeba bütschlii (p = 0.004) were associated with the anergy. PMID:2555912

  3. The Influence of Pastors' Ideologies of Homosexuality on HIV Prevention in the Black Church.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Young, Staci

    2016-10-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and Black Churches may be a source of stigma which can exacerbate HIV risk and contribute to negative health and psychosocial outcomes. Findings from this study are based on 21 semi-structured interviews with pastors and ethnographic observation in six Black Churches. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis. Although pastors espoused messages of love and acceptance, they overwhelmingly believed homosexuality was a sin and had difficulty accepting YBMSM into their churches. The tension around homosexuality limited pastors' involvement in HIV prevention efforts, although there still may be opportunities for some churches. PMID:27099095

  4. AIDS and the new medical gaze: bio-politics, AIDS, and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Dennis, D

    1997-01-01

    The essay argues that the contemporary resurgence of homophobia and the remedicalization of homosexuals in the wake of AIDS is, in part, an unintended but predictable effect of a quarter century of fractious identity-politics. Prominent gay and lesbian political strategies of the 1970s and 1980s borrowed heavily from increasingly discredited, if once politically correct, discourses that valorized individuals on the basis of membership in governmentally constructed bio-bureaucratic categories. Drawing on the work of prominent gay intellectuals, such as Foucault, Watney, and Richard Rodriguez, and locating their insights within the context of contemporary cultural and political conflicts, the essay argues that gay advocates who essentialize homosexual identity, however benignly, unwittingly participate in constituting the ground for an emergence of a neoeugenic movement at millennium's end. The essay concludes with the observation that escaping the conceptual prison of bio-bureaucratic categories is not a uniquely gay or lesbian task. It is a human task.

  5. Oedipus or Orestes? Homosexual men, their mothers, and other women revisited.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, S J

    2001-01-01

    The psychodynamic relationship between homosexual sons, their mothers, and other women in their lives is reexamined. The limitations of earlier writings on the topic are discussed, and a reconceptualized psychoanalytic model is presented for understanding some aspects of the relationships between these sons and their mothers during childhood. In particular, the oedipal stage of development is reformulated to coincide with the sexual orientation of the developing boy. This stage is then examined in the context of the discordant psychosocial environment in which it is often played out. The usefulness of this construct for understanding aspects of the psychosocial development of gay men throughout their lives, particularly their relationships with women, is explored through the examination of clinical data from a number of sources. Finally, the implications of this model for psychotherapeutic endeavors with homosexual men are considered. PMID:11809023

  6. Behavioral change in longitudinal studies: adoption of condom use by homosexual/bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Joseph, J G; Adib, S M; Koopman, J S; Ostrow, D G

    1990-12-01

    We compared reporting serial cross-sectional prevalence of sexual behavior over time, to reporting individual patterns of behavioral change in a cohort of homosexual men at a six-month interval. Aggregate prevalence rates underestimated the magnitude of change to safer practices, and failed to provide information on relapse to less safe practices. We conclude that it is important to report data based on individual fluctuations in behavior for the evaluation of change over time.

  7. Should CAH in Females Be Classified as DSD?

    PubMed Central

    González, Ricardo; Ludwikowski, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    Great controversies and misunderstandings have developed around the relatively recently coined term disorders of sex development (DSD). In this article, we question the wisdom of including XX individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in the DSD category and develop arguments against it based on the published literature on the subject. It is clear that females with CAH assigned the female gender before 24 months of age and properly managed retain the female gender identity regardless of the Prader grade. Females with CAH and low Prader grades have the potential for a normal sexual and reproductive life. Those with greater degrees of prenatal androgen exposure (Prader grades IV and V) raised as females also identify themselves as females but experience more male-like behavior in childhood, have a greater rate of homosexuality, and have greater difficulty with vaginal penetration and maintaining pregnancies. Improvement in surgical techniques, better endocrinological, psychological, and surgical follow-up may lessen these problems in the future. Given the fact that the term DSD includes many conditions with problematic gender identity and conflicts with the gender assigned at birth, it may be appropriate to exclude females with CAH from the DSD classification. PMID:27242977

  8. Queer diagnoses revisited: The past and future of homosexuality and gender diagnoses in DSM and ICD.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) recently completed a several year process of revising the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). During that time, there were objections raised to retaining DSM's gender identity disorder diagnoses and calls to remove them, just as homosexuality had been removed from DSM-II in 1973. At the conclusion of the DSM-5 revision process, the gender diagnoses were retained, albeit in altered form and bearing the new name of 'gender dysphoria'. The author of this paper was a member of the DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders and presently serves on the WHO Working Group on Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health. Both groups faced similar tasks: reconciling patients' needs for access to care with the stigma of being given a psychiatric diagnosis. The differing nature of the two diagnostic manuals led to two different outcomes. As background, this paper updates the history of homosexuality and the gender diagnoses in the DSM and in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) as well as what is expected to happen to the homosexuality and gender diagnoses following the current ICD-11 revision process.

  9. Queer diagnoses revisited: The past and future of homosexuality and gender diagnoses in DSM and ICD.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) recently completed a several year process of revising the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). During that time, there were objections raised to retaining DSM's gender identity disorder diagnoses and calls to remove them, just as homosexuality had been removed from DSM-II in 1973. At the conclusion of the DSM-5 revision process, the gender diagnoses were retained, albeit in altered form and bearing the new name of 'gender dysphoria'. The author of this paper was a member of the DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders and presently serves on the WHO Working Group on Sexual Disorders and Sexual Health. Both groups faced similar tasks: reconciling patients' needs for access to care with the stigma of being given a psychiatric diagnosis. The differing nature of the two diagnostic manuals led to two different outcomes. As background, this paper updates the history of homosexuality and the gender diagnoses in the DSM and in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) as well as what is expected to happen to the homosexuality and gender diagnoses following the current ICD-11 revision process. PMID:26242413

  10. Belief in the "free choice" model of homosexuality: a correlate of homophobia in registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    A great amount of social science research has supported the positive correlation between heterosexuals' belief in the free choice model of homosexuality and homophobia. Heterosexuals who believe gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) persons consciously choose their sexual orientation and practice a lifestyle conducive to that choice are much more likely to possess discriminatory, homophobic, homonegative, and heterosexist beliefs. In addition, these individuals are less likely to support gay rights initiatives such as nondiscrimination policies or same-sex partner benefits in the workplace or hate crime enhancement legislation inclusive of GLBT persons. Although researchers have demonstrated this phenomenon in the general population, none have specifically assessed it in the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine registered nurses' overall levels of homophobia and attitudes toward a workplace policy protective of gays and lesbians. These variables were then correlated with belief in the free choice model of homosexuality. Results indicated that belief in the free choice model of homosexuality was the strongest predictor of homophobia in nurses. Implications for nursing leadership and management, nursing education, and future research are discussed.

  11. Determinants of HIV risk among men who have homosexual sex and inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Crofts, N; Marcus, L; Meade, J; Sattler, G; Wallace, J; Sharp, R

    1995-01-01

    Men with histories of both homosexual contact and injecting drug use (IDU) are at increased risk of HIV infection over men who have only one such risk. Despite this, their special needs and circumstances have been neglected by AIDS prevention programmes. A survey of a wide spectrum of homosexual male IDUs was carried out in Melbourne and Sydney in 1993 to inform the development of specific policy and programmes for HIV prevention in these subcultures. Of 169 men, self-reported HIV prevalence was 27%. Decreasing compliance with safe sex guidelines (as measured by numbers of casual partners, participation in anal intercourse and use of condoms) was associated with HIV seropositivity, increased age, and increased participation in sex work; having a regular male partner was not protective against unsafe sexual behaviour, no matter the length of the relationship. A substantial proportion (15%) reported inconsistent condom use during anal sex with more than two partners in the preceding month: they were slightly more likely to be engaging in sex work, less 'stable' and more likely to be HIV infected. Sexual risk was not strongly associated with unsafe injecting, which was in general safe. Men who both have homosexual sex and inject drugs are groups at high risk of HIV, more from unsafe sex than from shared injecting equipment; men who believed themselves to be HIV infected were continuing to have sex in such a way that would allow transmission. These are clearly groups in need of priority targeted interventions. PMID:8652699

  12. Pierre Elliott Trudeau and bill C-150: a rational approach to homosexual acts, 1968-69.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Between 1968 and 1969, Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau sparked a controversy surrounding his liberal government's passage of Bill C-150, which not only decriminalized homosexual acts between consenting adults in private, but also polarized supporters of natural law and positive law. What tipped the balance in favor of a more secular analysis of homosexuality? In the post-World War II era, three events were particularly relevant to the successful passage of Bill C-150: the Kinsey (1948) studies, Britain's Wolfenden Report (1957), and the Supreme Court of Canada case Klippert v. The Queen (des Rivieres & Shipley, 1967). However, the Liberals, Conservatives, Social Credit Party, and the Ralliement Creditistes were all influenced by the social construction of inversion, openly expressing a Judeo-Christian natural law bias during Debates of the House of Commons (1968-69). Nonetheless, it was the Liberals that were identified as forces within Canadian politics that could separate legalism from moralism, even while retaining personal moral stances against homosexuals. It is this paradox that is often forgotten when discussing liberal policy in Canada during the late 1960s.

  13. Integration of one's religion and homosexuality: a weapon against internalized homophobia?

    PubMed

    Wagner, G; Serafini, J; Rabkin, J; Remien, R; Williams, J

    1994-01-01

    Internalized homophobia as a psychological phenomenon has attracted little systematic research despite its destructive impact on the mental health of the gay community. This study looks at the relationship between internalized homophobia and the process of integrating one's religious faith and homosexuality by comparing levels of internalized homophobia among male participants of Dignity, an organization of Catholic gay men and lesbians, with a community sample of gay men with Catholic backgrounds. While many gay men believe they must abandon their religious faith (nearly 50% of this community sample no longer endorse a "formal religion") in order to accept their sexuality, Dignity members are actively integrating their religion and homosexuality--a process which we hypothesized would result in the Dignity participants being less homophobic than the community sample. While results showed no significant differences between the groups with regard to level of internalized homophobia, there are suggestions that involvement in Dignity does foster positive attitudes towards one's homosexuality by helping to overcome a delay in the development of a gay orientation. We also examined how other variables such as HIV status, psychological distress, conservative versus liberal ideology, and integration into the gay community would be associated with internalized homophobia.

  14. Coming out of the Hasidic closet: Jiří Mordechai Langer (1894–1943) and the fashioning of homosexual-Jewish identity.

    PubMed

    Halper, Shaun Jacob

    2011-01-01

    This essay inaugurates the historical study of the modern homosexual Jewish experience before Stonewall. I begin with a historiographic introduction to the emerging subfield of gay Jewish history. I then turn to reintroduce Jiri Langer, a homosexual and Hasidic writer affiliated with the interwar "Prague circle" (and friend of Franz Kafka and Max Brod) into the purview of modern Jewish Studies. I take up two questions: first, how Langer reconciled his homosexual and Orthodox religious identity; and second, why Langer"s homosexuality became exigent as a Jewish question at this particular historical moment. In his key text, Die Erotik der Kabbala, Langer engages with the dominant interwar debates on homosexuality, but most directly with the work of Hans Blüher, the major theoretician of the German Wandervogelbewegung. In the course of correcting Blüher's antisemitic claims about Jews and homosexuality, Langer managed to delineate a specifically homosexual Jewish identity by renegotiating the relationship between homosexuality and Judaism and by adumbrating a history of "gay" Jews. I contextualize this long-neglected text within Langer's fascinating biography; the debates in the early homosexual rights movement; the particular cultural features of the "Prague circle" in which Langer wrote; and the dislocation and devastation of Langer's beloved eastern-European Hasidic communities caused by World War I—communities that Langer experienced as deeply homoerotic.

  15. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  16. A comparative analysis of homosexual behaviors, sex role preferences, and anal sex proclivities in Latino and non-Latino men.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, William L

    2009-10-01

    Machismo prescribes that homosexual encounters among Latino men are conducted along highly gendered lines: men tend to be anally insertive or receptive over the lifecourse, but not both. Some have argued that Latino men have more lifecourse homosexual behaviors in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. This is often due to the perception that Latin America has quasi-institutionalized homosexuality, which sharply contrasts it with the United States. Although scholars suggest that sex role preferences and greater likelihoods for homosexual behaviors exist among Latino men in the United States, limited empirical data validate these claims. Latino/non-Latino differences in male homosexual behaviors and sex role preferences were analyzed by using the 2002 cycle of the National Survey of Family Growth, a nationally representative, probability sample of 4,928 men. Findings revealed that non-Mexican Latino, but not Mexican, men had increased likelihoods of ever having anal sex than non-Latino Whites and oral sex than non-Latino Blacks. These relationships remained after controlling for age, education, and foreign birth. Latino men preferred insertive or receptive sex in comparison to non-Latino Blacks and Whites, but this difference disappeared after education was controlled. In full and reduced models, Mexican men tended to be orifice-specific (oral or anal), while non-Mexican Latinos were more oriented to both oral and anal sex. Controlling for other factors, all Latinos were more likely than non-Latino Blacks and Whites to refuse to answer male homosexual behavior questions. The implications of race/ethnicity are discussed for homosexual behavior patterns among U.S. men.

  17. Prevalence of non-medical drug use and dependence among homosexually active men and women in the US population

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Susan D.; Ackerman, Deborah; Mays, Vickie M.; Ross, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare patterns of drug use and dependence between homosexually experienced and exclusively heterosexually experienced individuals. Design We used a cross-sectional national household interview survey conducted in the United States. Setting Secondary data analysis of the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse was employed. Participants Participants were sexually active individuals, aged 18 years and older, who reported the genders of their sexual partners in the past 12 months; included 174 homosexually experienced (98 men, 96 women) and 9714 exclusively heterosexually experienced (3922 men, 5792 women) respondents. Measurements Life-time, past 30 days and daily use of nine classes of drugs. Symptoms of dysfunctional use and dependence. Findings There were consistent patterns of elevated drug use in homosexually experienced individuals for life-time drug use, but these were greatly attenuated for recent use. Homosexually experienced men were more likely to report use of marijuana, cocaine and heroin, and homosexually experienced women more likely to report use of marijuana and analgesics than individuals reporting only opposite-sex partners. Both homosexually active men and women were more likely than exclusively heterosexually active respondents to report at least one symptom indicating dysfunctional drug use across all drug classes, and to meet criteria for marijuana dependence syndrome. The only difference between homosexually experienced men and women was that men were more likely to report any daily drug use. Conclusions These data are consistent with surveys suggesting that there is a moderate elevation of drug, particularly marijuana, use and dependence in gay and bisexual men and women when compared to heterosexual men and women. PMID:15265096

  18. Nursing staff and nursing students' emotions towards homosexual patients and their wish to refrain from nursing, if the option existed.

    PubMed

    Röndahl, Gerd; Innala, Sune; Carlsson, Marianne

    2004-03-01

    Studies have reported that homosexual patients fear they will not receive adequate care if they openly show their sexual orientation, for example, when introducing their partner. The aims of this study were to investigate the emotions of nursing staff and nursing students, and possible relations to cultural background and gender, towards homosexual patients; whether nursing staff and nursing students would choose to refrain from nursing homosexual patients, if the option existed; and, if so, how they express their wish to refrain from nursing this group of patients. All participants received verbal and written information before the study started. Returning a completed questionnaire indicated a participant's tacit consent. Approval was obtained from the heads of departments and persons in charge of nursing and nursing assistant programmes. The study had a descriptive, comparative design, and an Affect Adjective Checklist (AAC) and specially designed Nursing Behaviour Questionnaire (NBQ) were used. The participants included nurses and assistant nurses from an infectious disease clinic, and students enrolled in a university nursing programme and upper secondary assistant nurses' training, all in central Sweden. The findings showed that both professional nursing staff (response rate 67%, n = 57), and students (response rate 62%, n = 165), expressed emotions of homophobic anger, homophobic guilt and delight. Groups with a cultural background other than Swedish expressed more homophobia. No gender differences were indicated for homophobic emotions. In the professional group, 36% would refrain from nursing for homosexual patients if given the option. The corresponding figure for the students was 9%. The limitations were that the sample was small and not randomly selected, and as participation was anonymous no follow-up could be done. It was concluded that the emotional factors of homosexual anger and homosexual guilt might be of value in helping to explain and predict

  19. Female condoms.

    PubMed

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  20. MALE HOMOSEXUAL IDENTITIES, RELATIONSHIPS, AND PRACTICES AMONG YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN VIETNAM: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIV PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Duc Anh; Ross, Michael W.; Phan, Ha; Ratliff, Eric A.; Trinh, Thang; Sherburne, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Rapid socioeconomic transformation in Vietnam in last 15 years has been followed by more liberation of sexual expression and representation of sexual identity among young people. There has been an increase in the visibility of homosexual men in major cities of Vietnam who were largely an unknown population until the emergence of the HIV epidemic. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are now considered as one of the target groups in many HIV prevention programs. This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15–24 in the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Our analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. Data document the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. Data also highlight the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual identity, relationships, and practices. In light of the findings, we suggest that the continuing development and elaboration of a homosexual community in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City offers significant opportunities for targeted HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the Vietnamese MSM population. PMID:19519239

  1. Male homosexual identities, relationships, and practices among young men who have sex with men in Vietnam: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Duc Anh; Ross, Michael W; Phan, Ha; Ratliff, Eric A; Trinh, Thang; Sherburne, Lisa

    2009-06-01

    Rapid socioeconomic transformation in Vietnam in last 15 years has been followed by more liberation of sexual expression and representation of sexual identity among young people. There has been an increase in the visibility of homosexual men in major cities of Vietnam who were largely an unknown population until the emergence of the HIV epidemic. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are now considered as one of the target groups in many HIV prevention programs. This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15-24 in the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Our analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. Data document the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam. Data also highlight the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual identity, relationships, and practices. In light of the findings, we suggest that the continuing development and elaboration of a homosexual community in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City offers significant opportunities for targeted HIV/AIDS prevention activities in the Vietnamese MSM population.

  2. Condom Use and High-Risk Sexual Acts in Adult Films: A Comparison of Heterosexual and Homosexual Films

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Marc N.; Kerndt, Peter R.; Schuster, Mark A.; Brook, Robert H.; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the prevalence of condom use during a variety of sexual acts portrayed in adult films produced for heterosexual and homosexual audiences to assess compliance with state Occupational Health and Safety Administration regulations. Methods. We analyzed 50 heterosexual and 50 male homosexual films released between August 1, 2005, and July 31, 2006, randomly selected from the distributor of 85% of the heterosexual adult films released each year in the United States. Results. Penile–vaginal intercourse was protected with condoms in 3% of heterosexual scenes. Penile–anal intercourse, common in both heterosexual (42%) and homosexual (80%) scenes, was much less likely to be protected with condoms in heterosexual than in homosexual scenes (10% vs 78%; P < .001). No penile–oral acts were protected with condoms in any of the selected films. Conclusions. Heterosexual films were much less likely than were homosexual films to portray condom use, raising concerns about transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, especially among performers in heterosexual adult films. In addition, the adult film industry, especially the heterosexual industry, is not adhering to state occupational safety regulations. PMID:19218178

  3. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  4. Societal individualism predicts prevalence of nonhomosexual orientation in male-to-female transsexualism.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2010-04-01

    There are two distinct subtypes of male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals: homosexual and nonhomosexual. The relative prevalence of these two subtypes varies dramatically between countries, but no explanation of this variability has yet been proposed. This study examined the hypothesis that the prevalence of nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism, relative to homosexual MtF transsexualism, would be higher in individualistic countries than in collectivistic countries. I analyzed data from 22 studies of MtF transsexualism, conducted in 16 countries, examining the association between percentage of nonhomosexual participants and Hofstede's (Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations, 2001) Individualism Index (IDV). IDV accounted for 77% of observed variance in the percentage of nonhomosexual MtF participants (r = 0.88, p < .0001). Controlling for differences in national wealth and in Hofstede's other indices of societal values (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity) did not significantly change the ability of IDV to account for variance in the percentage of nonhomosexual participants. The factors that contribute to the observed association between societal individualism and the relative prevalence of nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism remain to be determined, but a greater tolerance within individualistic countries for socially disruptive gender transitions by nonhomosexual gender dysphoric men, and the availability within many collectivistic countries of socially approved transgender roles for pervasively feminine homosexual gender dysphoric men, are plausible contributors.

  5. "Requestioning" AIDS: An Ethical Reflection From 1993 to Today. Reflections on Claude Vandevyer's "Homosexuals and AIDS: A New Approach to the Illness" from Journal of Homosexuality 25(3).

    PubMed

    Lau, Travis

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines the first feature-length article to address the relationship between HIV status and homosexuality. Lingering on both the temporal gap between the dawn of AIDS in American discourse and its inclusion in this journal, the author asks us to consider (in hindsight) such a delay bearing in mind queer theoretical projects of the present such as gay shame, stigma, and queer biopolitics.

  6. "Requestioning" AIDS: An Ethical Reflection From 1993 to Today. Reflections on Claude Vandevyer's "Homosexuals and AIDS: A New Approach to the Illness" from Journal of Homosexuality 25(3).

    PubMed

    Lau, Travis

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines the first feature-length article to address the relationship between HIV status and homosexuality. Lingering on both the temporal gap between the dawn of AIDS in American discourse and its inclusion in this journal, the author asks us to consider (in hindsight) such a delay bearing in mind queer theoretical projects of the present such as gay shame, stigma, and queer biopolitics. PMID:26642922

  7. Homosexual inclinations and the passions: A Thomistic theory of the psychogenesis of same-sex attraction disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Robert Loyd

    2014-01-01

    The Catholic Church has held that every human being is a child of God, and every person deserves to be treated with dignity and love regardless of their actions. The phrase “love the sinner, hate the sin” is a simple summary of the approach the Church takes to loving all human beings. The Church has also held firmly that both homosexual acts and homosexual inclinations are disordered, although the origins or contributing factors of homosexual inclinations are not entirely understood. In this paper, I apply principles from St. Thomas Aquinas's treatise on the passions to show that habitual mis-identification of the cause of pleasure associated with the apprehension of beauty, or misjudgments, may be involved in the psychogenesis of same-sex attraction disorder. PMID:24899749

  8. Agapé Christian reconciliation conversations: exploring the intersections of culture, religiousness, and homosexual identity in Latino and European americans.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Peter; Torres, Hector; Silva, Marc Anthony; Khan, Noshaba

    2010-01-01

    To understand how homophobia manifests itself through a Latino cultural lens of identity, a program was designed to address the issues connecting homosexual identity, culture, and Christianity. The program included screening of one of two documentary films about lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identity and family relations. This was followed by group sharing and biblical reflections. Participants (N = 122) were asked to complete measures of homophobic attitudes and qualitative appraisal of the program. Pearson product moment correlations analyses revealed that age and political ideology were related negatively to homophobia. Eighty-five percent found the program to be very useful or useful and 95% indicated that they would recommend it to others. The complexities of the intersections of Christianity, culture, and attitudes toward homosexuality in an individual's identity were examined. The data illustrates a positive trend in changing attitudes towards homosexuality in the Latino Christian community.

  9. Application of the capture-recapture method in estimating the size of the active homosexual male population in Hangzhou city of China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weihua; Huang, Manli; Wei, Ning; Hu, Shaohua; Wei, Erqing; Xu, Yi

    2015-03-01

    The homosexual population is particularly susceptible to sexually transmitted disease because of various high-risk sexual behaviors among them. The authors explored the application of capture-recapture methods in estimating the size of the sexually active homosexual male population in Hangzhou. Homosexual men at 9 activity sites were investigated in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. The total active homosexual male population of Hangzhou estimated by the capture-recapture method and multiplier method was 2014 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1899-2129) and 2012.5 (95% CI 1925 to 2101), respectively. This study shows that the capture-recapture method can be used to enumerate and provide accurate and reliable estimates of the active homosexual population in any area, provided that certain conditions are controlled.

  10. Changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Croxson, T S; Chapman, W E; Miller, L K; Levit, C D; Senie, R; Zumoff, B

    1989-02-01

    Serum total testosterone, total 17 beta-estradiol, LH, FSH, and PRL concentrations were measured by RIA in 59 homosexual men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (32 clinically healthy antibody-positive men (HH+), 20 men with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 7 men with AIDS-related complex (ARC). The results were compared with those of 26 antibody-negative homosexual men (HH-) who served as controls. The mean serum total testosterone concentration was significantly lower in the men with AIDS [414 +/- 230 (+/- SD) ng/dL (14.5 +/- 8.0)] than in the HH- men [550 +/- 172 ng/dL (19.0 +/- 6.0 nmol/L); P less than 0.05]. The mean serum LH level was significantly higher in the men with AIDS (26 +/- 14 vs. 14 +/- 4 IU/L in HH- men; P less than 0.01) and slightly but significantly higher in the men with ARC (19 +/- 8 IU/L; 0.10 greater than P greater than 0.05). Serum FSH also was significantly higher in the men with AIDS (P less than 0.05). Serum PRL was significantly higher in the men with ARC (10 +/- 2 micrograms/L; P less than 0.05) and AIDS (16 +/- 10 micrograms/L; P less than 0.001) than in the HH- men (8 +/- 3 micrograms/L). Serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels were similar in HH- men and men with AIDS as were serum T responses to hCG administration for 2 days. These results suggest that alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis indicative of primary hypogonadism accompany human immunodeficiency virus infection in homosexual men.

  11. Neural correlates of sexual arousal in heterosexual and homosexual women and men.

    PubMed

    Sylva, David; Safron, Adam; Rosenthal, A M; Reber, Paul J; Parrish, Todd B; Bailey, J Michael

    2013-09-01

    Most men have a category-specific pattern of genital and subjective sexual arousal, responding much more strongly to erotic stimuli depicting their preferred sex than to erotic stimuli depicting their nonpreferred sex. In contrast, women tend to have a less specific arousal pattern. To better understand this sex difference, we used neuroimaging to explore its neural correlates. Heterosexual and homosexual women viewed erotic photographs of either men or women. Evoked neural activity was monitored via fMRI and compared with responses to the same stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men. Overall, a network of limbic (as well as the anterior cingulate) and visual processing regions showed significantly less category-specific activity in women than men. This was primarily driven by weaker overall activations to preferred-sex stimuli in women, though there was also some evidence of stronger limbic activations to nonpreferred-sex stimuli in women. Primary results were similar for heterosexual and homosexual participants. Women did show some evidence of category-specific responses in the visual processing regions, although even in these regions they exhibited less differential activity than men. In the anterior cingulate, a region with high concentrations of sex-hormone receptors, subjective and neural category specificity measures correlated positively for women but negatively for men, suggesting a possible sex difference in the role of the anterior cingulate. Overall, results suggest that men tend to show more differentiated neural responses than do women to erotic photographs of one sex compared to the other sex, though women may not be entirely indifferent to which sex is depicted.

  12. Sadistic homosexual pedophilia: treatment with cyproterone acetate: a single case study.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J M; Pawlak, A

    1987-02-01

    This single case study demonstrates the effects of antiandrogen treatment on a subject with a very serious sexual deviation and a poor prognosis. It assesses the effects of cyproterone acetate (CPA) on an individual with a serious chronic organic brain syndrome combined with sadistic homosexual pedophilia. Furthermore, this individual had failed to respond to a behavioural treatment program and long-term milieu therapy. Finally, this case study is the first report of CPA differentially affecting penile responses to deviant and non-deviant stimuli.

  13. Seroprevalence of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of homosexually active men.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, A J; Christofinis, G; Coxon, A P; Davies, P M; McManus, T J; Sutherland, S; Weatherburn, P

    1990-01-01

    A non-clinic cohort of 525 homosexually active men from London and South Wales were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. A sample of blood was tested for HIV-1 antibodies. Seropositivity in London was 9.2% compared with 3.4% in South Wales. Men who were not regular STD clinic attenders had a lower rate of seropositivity than did those who were regular attenders. Men who were seropositive reported more sexual partners with whom they had anal intercourse and also reported more episodes of syphilis. Overall, rates of seropositivity were lower than those reported by studies from STD clinics. PMID:2265839

  14. The birth of modern criminology and gendered constructions of homosexual criminal identity.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jordan Blair

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of engagement with LGBTQ populations, and sexual orientation and gender identity more broadly, in the field of criminology. This article analyzes the treatment of sexual orientation and gender identity at the birth of the discipline around the 1870 s. Through an analysis of Cesare Lombroso's writings, the article argues that a multifaceted stigma of deviance attached to homosexuality and gender nonconformity in early criminological theory. The article explains this multifaceted stigma in terms of broader political, social, cultural, and legal developments before and during the late nineteenth century that shaped modern Western conceptions of sexual orientation and gender identity.

  15. The association between the fraternal birth order effect in male homosexuality and other markers of human sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi

    2005-12-22

    Later fraternal birth order (FBO) is a well-established correlate of homosexuality in human males and may implicate a maternal immunization response in the feminization of male sexuality. This has led to the suggestion that FBO may relate to other markers of male sexual orientation which are robustly sexually dimorphic. If so, among homosexual males the number of older brothers should strongly correlate with traits such as spatial ability and psychological gender, indicative of greater behavioural feminization, compared to heterosexual males. The present study failed to find significant associations between number of older brothers and these traits.

  16. The homosexual rights movement in the United States: a traditionally overlooked area of American history.

    PubMed

    Licata, S J

    In this short account, the homosexual rights movement in the United States, traditionally overlooked by historians, is presented as a minority movement. References are made to the European origins and the early efforts in America. The author sees eight stages in the growth of the movement. In Stage 1, from 1908 through 1945, there were sporadic individual attempts to defend the rights of homosexual men and women. In the years immediately following World War II, Stage 2 witnessed the dawning of a minority consciousness among gay people living in the cities. Stage 3, from 1950 to 1952, represented a search for identity. During the years 1952-1953, Stage 4, righteous indignation flared up within the movement. In Stage 5, from 1953 to 1960, the movement emphasized information and educational approaches. The decade of the sixties, Stage 6, brought civil-rights activism to the homophile movement. In Stage 7, beginning in 1969, gay liberation emerged. Finally, in Stage 8 (1973-1979), the movement and the government responded to each other through institutional channels. The 1970s ended with two major confrontations, giving the decade of 1969 to 1979 a unity and sense of accomplishment.

  17. Remembering gay/lesbian media characters: can Ellen and Will improve attitudes toward homosexuals?.

    PubMed

    Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M; Cady, Elizabeth T; Schlegel, Rebecca; Harris, Richard J; Firebaugh, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was twofold. First, a pilot study was conducted in which participants were asked to recall any memorable gay or lesbian television or film character and complete a survey about their perceptions of the character. Results indicated that over two-thirds of heterosexual participants recalled either Ellen or Will, and evaluative ratings for these characters were generally positive. The second purpose of this research was to examine the priming effects of remembering portrayals of homosexual characters in the media. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to directly assess the effects of thinking about either a positive or negative homosexual character on general heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Results indicated that those recalling a positive portrayal later showed a more positive attitude toward gay men than those recalling a negative portrayal, and women had a more positive attitude overall than men toward gay men and lesbians. Such findings illustrate the importance of positive role models in entertainment media as potential primes of social attitudes. PMID:18032285

  18. Prevalence of enteric parasites in homosexual patients attending an outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Peters, C S; Sable, R; Janda, W M; Chittom, A L; Kocka, F E

    1986-10-01

    A total of 372 pooled stool specimens from 274 homosexual men with diarrhea were submitted for parasitologic examination over a 2.5-year period. Each two-vial pooled specimen set contained portions of stool from 3 consecutive days in Formalin and polyvinyl alcohol. Of the 274 patients, 133 (48.5%) harbored one or more intestinal protozoa, with 161 (43.3%) of the 372 specimens submitted being positive for one or more organisms. The parasites identified included Entamoeba histolytica (71 patients), Giardia lamblia (22 patients), Endolimax nana (106 patients), Entamoeba coli (39 patients), Entamoeba hartmanni (25 patients), Dientamoeba fragilis (3 patients), Iodamoeba bütschlii (2 patients), and Chilomastix mesnili (2 patients). Cryptosporidium sp. (2 patients) and Isospora belli (1 patient) were also detected. Results of this study support the experience of other workers regarding high rates of infection with intestinal parasites in the homosexual population and also indicate that symptomatic individuals belonging to this acquired immunodeficiency syndrome risk group be screened for both common and uncommon intestinal pathogens. PMID:2877006

  19. Effect of sexual behavior change on long-term human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Morris, M; Dean, L

    1994-08-01

    Substantial changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related sexual behavior have been reported by virtually every survey of homosexual/bisexual men in the last decade. This paper uses a behavior-based simulation to examine how such changes are likely to affect the long-term future of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic among homosexual men. Data from the Longitudinal AIDS Impact Project in New York City are used to estimate age-specific patterns of unprotected anogenital contact and behavioral change from 1980 to 1991. Model projections are validated using New York City surveillance data on AIDS incidence from 1981 to 1991. The current levels of unsafe sex reported in the Longitudinal AIDS Impact Project are shown to be almost exactly on the epidemic threshold. If this behavior were maintained, HIV prevalence would slowly decline in the population, but with just one additional unsafe sexual partner per year HIV would instead become endemic, with seroprevalence of about 65% in the oldest group and about 25% in the youngest. Transmission dynamics in the youngest group are analyzed in detail. For this group, the assortative age-matching bias in partner selection patterns raises the unsafe behavior threshold slightly in the long run. PMID:8030625

  20. Taking prisoners: Havelock Ellis, Sigmund Freud, and the construction of homosexuality, 1897-1951.

    PubMed

    Crozier, I D

    2000-12-01

    This paper addresses the efforts of both Havelock Ellis and Sigmund Freud to posit a theory of homosexuality, and especially considers their efforts to (re-)negotiate each other's theories. Its central premise derives from the sociology of scientific knowledge: that it is not what is written, but the way that what is written is treated by ensuing experts, that makes knowledge. In the case study used in this paper, Ellis and Freud struggle to posit what they consider to be the proper model for understanding homosexual desire. They utilize aspects of each other's word, but are careful not to appear to be following each other too closely. Such a struggle to establish different schools of thought is exemplified by the informal negotiations engaged in when a student, Joseph Wortis, made contact with both Freud and Ellis. Again following sociology of scientific knowledge precepts, these informal negotiations (contained in published and archival letters) are used to show how knowledge claims are constructed, deconstructed any reconstructed by the actors who have stakes in the outcome of what is to be regarded as knowledge in the relevant communities.

  1. Review and theory of handedness, birth order, and homosexuality in men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Research has repeatedly shown that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This phenomenon has been called the fraternal birth order effect. The most highly developed explanation of this phenomenon is the maternal immune hypothesis, which proposes that the fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunisation of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male foetus and the concomitantly increasing effects of anti-male antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male foetus. Recent studies indicate that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in right-handed males but not in non-right-handed males. The present article explores how the maternal immune hypothesis might be extended or modified to account for the apparent interaction of older brothers and handedness. Two possibilities are considered: (1) non-right-handed foetuses are insensitive to the presence of maternal anti-male antibodies, and (2) mothers of non-right-handed foetuses do not produce anti-male antibodies.

  2. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    PubMed

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.

  3. [Mental health of homosexual and bisexual people--review of research and presentation of phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Grabski, Bartosz; Iniewicz, Grzegorz; Mijas, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    The issues of mental health and psychological well-being of sexual minorities have become one of the ponderable scientific questions in recent years. Not only do they attract the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists or sexologists, but also of public health professionals. It is because psychiatric disorders in sexual minorities are not only the source of individual suffering and dysfunction, but also a big and so far unappreciated social problem. The research results in this field were mostly unreliable in the past, because they were based on the false paradigm, assuming that homosexuality unquestionably belongs in the realms of psychopathology. This became a major selection bias in which researchers tried to draw conclusion upon the mental status of the hole population of homosexual people only from studies of clinical populations. New studies analyse the mental status of this relatively big social group implementing data from epidemiological population-based studies, which allows the more realistic assessment of the problem. In this work we presented new data indicating the elevated risk of psychiatric disorders within the sexual minorities. The problem was discussed in the context of living in the reluctant and hostile environment (minority stress exposure).

  4. Response: Avuncularity and Kin Selection in Homosexuals: A Problematic Test or a Problematic Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S; Battaglia, Umberto; Liotta, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Here we respond to Vasey et al.'s critical comments regarding our article, "Societal norms rather than sexual orientation influence kin altruism and avuncularity in tribal Urak-Lawoi, Italian, and Spanish adult males" (Camperio Ciani, Battaglia, & Liotta, 2015 , JSR doi:10.1080/00224499.2014.993748). The first regards the selection of the Urak-Lawoi population of Ko Lipeh, which is considered too modern and touristic to be adequate to test the kin selection and avuncular hypothesis for homosexuality. We provide historical evidence of the contrary, and show that the population at the inception of our 10 years research was indeed primitive and tribal, and probands actually grew and lived in such a society. Only a few years after the 2004 tsunami, the island was developed and invaded by mass tourism. The second comment regarded the statistical analysis and interpretation of data. We show that we consistently and conservatively considered the effects of all confounding variables, both with comparative tests, and by a series of multivariate regression analyses. This was the orthodox procedure approved by all other reviewers. In conclusion, even addressing these comments, we maintain that the kin selection and avuncularity hypothesis for homosexuality is not supported by empirical data even in this primitive and tribal society. PMID:26752608

  5. Assessing the effects of anti-homosexuality legislation in Uganda on HIV prevention, treatment, and care services.

    PubMed

    Semugoma, Paul; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Uganda's response to the HIV epidemic has been lauded for its robustness and achievements. However, a key component of HIV prevention programming has been missing, for men who have sex with men (MSM). The main reason cited has been criminalization of male homosexual behavior. In 2009, the Anti-Homosexuality Bill (AHB) was introduced in the parliament to enhance existing anti-homosexuality law. A multi-disciplinary team made a Health Impact Assessment of the proposed AHB. The bill as tabled would severely increase punishments, increased closeting. Social capital of MSM would be eroded by clauses mandating reporting by friends, relatives, and acquaintances. Health-care professionals would have to inform on homosexuals. Mandatory HIV testing would be a blow to programming. Probable disclosure of HIV status in a public space (court) would also be a deterrent. Heftier punishments for those testing positive increases stigma and hobbles subsequent care. The AHB argues for exclusion, and more discrimination targeting persons living with HIV and sexual minorities. It will exacerbate the negative public health consequences of the existing legislation. The government of Uganda should review guidance documents published by authoritative bodies including the World Bank, World Health Organization to develop and bring to scale Human rights-affirming HIV prevention, treatment, and care responses.

  6. From exclusion to acceptance: a case history of homosexuality in the U.S. Court of Military Appeals.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Buford, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    Policing the legality and normalcy of service members' sexual lives was a contentious process for military courts throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s that resulted in the inconsistent enforcement of the homosexual exclusion policy. Military personnel of all ranks and occupations harbored a variety of attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality that challenged the legitimacy and uniformity of the military's legal assault on sexual deviance. Over half of the active duty personnel originally accused of homosexual tendencies received either sentence reductions or sentence reversals as a result of this highly contested process by which official military policy was translated into practice via courts-martial. Paradoxically, the very policies that discriminated against alleged homosexual service members generated legal avenues through which gays and lesbians exercised their rights to due process, and, ultimately, their rights as American citizens embodied in the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. Rather than being an ideologically homophobic monolith, the Cold War American military rocked with contestation over an exclusion policy that attempted--unsuccessfully--to eliminate all gay and lesbian service members.

  7. From exclusion to acceptance: a case history of homosexuality in the U.S. Court of Military Appeals.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Buford, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    Policing the legality and normalcy of service members' sexual lives was a contentious process for military courts throughout the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s that resulted in the inconsistent enforcement of the homosexual exclusion policy. Military personnel of all ranks and occupations harbored a variety of attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality that challenged the legitimacy and uniformity of the military's legal assault on sexual deviance. Over half of the active duty personnel originally accused of homosexual tendencies received either sentence reductions or sentence reversals as a result of this highly contested process by which official military policy was translated into practice via courts-martial. Paradoxically, the very policies that discriminated against alleged homosexual service members generated legal avenues through which gays and lesbians exercised their rights to due process, and, ultimately, their rights as American citizens embodied in the repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy. Rather than being an ideologically homophobic monolith, the Cold War American military rocked with contestation over an exclusion policy that attempted--unsuccessfully--to eliminate all gay and lesbian service members. PMID:23414272

  8. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil. PMID:24914634

  9. Assessing the effects of anti-homosexuality legislation in Uganda on HIV prevention, treatment, and care services.

    PubMed

    Semugoma, Paul; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Uganda's response to the HIV epidemic has been lauded for its robustness and achievements. However, a key component of HIV prevention programming has been missing, for men who have sex with men (MSM). The main reason cited has been criminalization of male homosexual behavior. In 2009, the Anti-Homosexuality Bill (AHB) was introduced in the parliament to enhance existing anti-homosexuality law. A multi-disciplinary team made a Health Impact Assessment of the proposed AHB. The bill as tabled would severely increase punishments, increased closeting. Social capital of MSM would be eroded by clauses mandating reporting by friends, relatives, and acquaintances. Health-care professionals would have to inform on homosexuals. Mandatory HIV testing would be a blow to programming. Probable disclosure of HIV status in a public space (court) would also be a deterrent. Heftier punishments for those testing positive increases stigma and hobbles subsequent care. The AHB argues for exclusion, and more discrimination targeting persons living with HIV and sexual minorities. It will exacerbate the negative public health consequences of the existing legislation. The government of Uganda should review guidance documents published by authoritative bodies including the World Bank, World Health Organization to develop and bring to scale Human rights-affirming HIV prevention, treatment, and care responses. PMID:23237074

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Homosexuality and Sport among the Teammates of a Small, Midwestern Catholic College Soccer Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Adi; Anderson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Despite decreasing homophobia, openly gay male athletes are still rare in organized, competitive teamsports. In this action research, we explore two aspects of homosexuality and sport: (1) the effect of a gay male soccer player coming out to his teammates; and (2) the effect of having an openly gay researcher in the field. This is, therefore, the…

  11. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil.

  12. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  13. "Homosexuality/Homophobia Is Un-African"?: Un-Mapping Transnational Discourses in the Context of Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill/Act.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Amar

    2016-01-01

    This article un-maps the recent impasse between pro- and antigay mobilization around Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Act (AHA, 2009-2014). Drawing on scholarly and social media sources, it summarizes the increasing influence of (U.S.) transnational evangelism that has precipitated a state-religious complex of "anticipatory political homophobia" in Uganda. If transnational evangelism against same-sex sexuality in Uganda has generated a strong reaction from global LGBT human-rights advocates, this article critiques this Western homotransnationalist response by analyzing its limited terms of operation, focusing on the ways in which Uganda is hailed into the biopolitical project of a Western queer modernity. The author focuses on the copresence between homotransnationalist mobilization and "homophobic anticipatory countermobilization" as (re)organizing/suturing a global ordering project that is deeply invested in biopolitics and necropolitics. This suggests that the global flashpointing of Uganda in the context of the AHA incites further questions concerning the transnationality of "gay human rights" discourse under neoliberalism.

  14. "Homosexuality/Homophobia Is Un-African"?: Un-Mapping Transnational Discourses in the Context of Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill/Act.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Amar

    2016-01-01

    This article un-maps the recent impasse between pro- and antigay mobilization around Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Act (AHA, 2009-2014). Drawing on scholarly and social media sources, it summarizes the increasing influence of (U.S.) transnational evangelism that has precipitated a state-religious complex of "anticipatory political homophobia" in Uganda. If transnational evangelism against same-sex sexuality in Uganda has generated a strong reaction from global LGBT human-rights advocates, this article critiques this Western homotransnationalist response by analyzing its limited terms of operation, focusing on the ways in which Uganda is hailed into the biopolitical project of a Western queer modernity. The author focuses on the copresence between homotransnationalist mobilization and "homophobic anticipatory countermobilization" as (re)organizing/suturing a global ordering project that is deeply invested in biopolitics and necropolitics. This suggests that the global flashpointing of Uganda in the context of the AHA incites further questions concerning the transnationality of "gay human rights" discourse under neoliberalism. PMID:26503528

  15. Kaposi Sarcoma Incidence and Survival Among HIV-Infected Homosexual Men After HIV Seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Guiguet, Marguerite; Costagliola, Dominique; Fisher, Martin; de Luca, Andrea; Porter, Kholoud

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in reducing the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma, HIV-infected individuals who have responded to treatment continue to be diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma. We examine factors associated with the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma among cART-treated HIV-infected homosexual men and changes in their survival after its diagnosis over calendar time. Methods Data were from HIV-infected homosexual men with well-estimated dates of HIV seroconversion (ie, change in status from being HIV negative to having HIV antibodies detected). Incidence of Kaposi sarcoma was calculated. We used Kaplan–Meier methods to determine survival after Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis in three calendar periods: before 1996, 1996–2000, and 2001–2006. Poisson models were used to examine the effect of risk factors such as current and nadir CD4 cell count (ie, the lowest CD4 cell count ever recorded for a person), duration of infection, and age at diagnosis for Kaposi sarcoma incidence in cART-treated men. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among the 9473 men, 555 were diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma in the period 1986–2006, of whom 319 died. The percentage surviving 24 months after Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis rose statistically significantly during the study period from 35% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 29% to 42%) before 1996 to 84% (95% CI = 76% to 90%) in 1996–2000 and to 81% (95% CI = 70% to 88%) in 2001–2006 (P < .001). Seventy men were diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma after starting cART. Current (ie, within 6 months) CD4 cell count was associated with incidence of Kaposi sarcoma among cART-treated men (rate ratios [RRs] = 18.91, 95% CI = 8.50 to 42.09, for CD4 level category <200 cells per cubic millimeter; RR = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.40 to 9.00, for 200–349 cells per cubic millimeter; and RR = 4.11, 95% CI = 1.74 to 9.70, for 350–499 cells per cubic millimeter; all compared with ≥500 cells per cubic millimeter). After

  16. The HMS African revisited: the Royal Navy and the homosexual community.

    PubMed

    Burg, B R

    2009-01-01

    The article contains both a survey of writings on homosexuality in military organizations since the early 1970s, and a reexamination of the homoerotic involvements on the Royal Navy's HMS Africaine from 1811 to 1815. The Africaine affair, first studied by Arthur N. Gilbert in 1974, involved a sexually active coterie on board the ship that included a large segment of the crewmembers. Analytical structures for studying all-male sexuality 30 years ago have gradually been superseded by new theoretical paradigms, and these more recently developed approaches can be used effectively to provide a greater understanding of the events that led to a series of courts martial and the hanging of four of the Africaine's men in 1816. PMID:19197648

  17. The rise of homosexuality and the dawn of communism in Hong Kong film: 1993-1998.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A

    2000-01-01

    I have designed this essay as a general overview of the self-evident trend towards queer subject matter in the past decade in Hong Kong film, a trend that not only coincides historically with the 1997 handover to the Mainland but also frequently comes equipped with parent-child relationships that can be read as allegories for the colony's future as the "child" to its mother country. Queerness in HK films has both alternated between and combined indigenous forms of queerness and the imported Western variety; by charting courses through internationalized concepts of homosexuality, HK films have posited their queerness not only as an existential allegory of (post)colonialism but also as a claim (or hope) for a utopian sexuality cum utopian international politics.

  18. Discomfort with homosexuality: a new measure captures differences in attitudes toward gay men and lesbians.

    PubMed

    Monto, Martin A; Supinski, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This study describes a creative and psychometrically sound method that allows researchers to measure homonegativity at a lower threshold than existing measures and to differentiate between homonegativity toward gay men and lesbians. Four hundred and thirty-one undergraduate students at a Western comprehensive university were asked to respond to a series of vignettes describing situations in which heterosexuals sometimes experience discomfort in the presence of homosexuals, indicating the degree to which they would feel comfortable or uncomfortable. The 12-item Homonegativity as Discomfort Scale (HADS) has adequate alpha reliability (.92) as well as good criterion and construct validity. Suggestions are made as to how the measure could be employed in research. Testing on this sample shows greater discomfort with gay men than with lesbians and greater discomfort among men than among women.

  19. Explaining attitudes about homosexuality in Confucian and non-Confucian nations: is there a 'cultural' influence?

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Amy; Cheng, Yen-hsin Alice

    2015-05-01

    The majority of research on attitudes about homosexuality has concentrated on the global North and on Christian and Muslim majority nations. Little research attention has been given to the factors that shape tolerance in societies with a Confucian heritage. Residents of Confucian counties are less tolerant than Europeans and Americans. One reason given for this difference is the emphasis on Confucian values in many Asian societies. Using data from the World Values Survey, we examine whether values that could be described as Confucian influence attitudes in Confucian and non-Confucian nations. We find a unique Confucian cultural effect, which can partially be explained with concerns about keeping the family intact. Conversely, in Confucian societies values related to obedience, conformity, and filial piety are unrelated to attitudes. There is also a small Buddhist contextual effect, resulting in more tolerant attitudes, and the Confucian influence cannot be reduced to an Asian regional effect.

  20. New phylism theory and the homosexualization of the visualization of lust.

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1999-09-01

    Nature needs nurture is the paradigm that replaces nature versus nurture. Nature's determinants are phylismic, i.e. they belong to the person phylogenetically as a member of the species and are not individually fortuitous. Phylismically, in the human species, vision and contrectation supplant pheromones as procreative attractants. The primary visual attractant, the sexual body morphology of a potential partner, is in all likelihood hormonally encoded into the sexual brain in fetal and/or neonatal life. Should the prenatal or neonatal encoding of the visual attractant become transposed from the visual image of the body morphology of the other sex to that of the same sex, then the brain would be biased in subsequent development toward some degree or variation of homosexual or bisexual attraction. PMID:10580527

  1. Syphilis presenting as inflammatory tumors of the liver in HIV-positive homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Catherine E; Kamionek, Michal; McKinsey, David S; Misdraji, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, has seen a resurgence since 2001, particularly in men who have sex with men. Syphilis can affect the liver during the secondary stage as syphilitic hepatitis and during the tertiary stage as gummas. We describe 3 cases of syphilis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive homosexual men that presented as hepatic mass lesions clinically suspected of being malignant tumors. Histologically, 2 of the 3 cases showed a plump spindle cell proliferation, mixed inflammatory infiltrate with numerous neutrophils, and abscesses, whereas the third case showed granulomas and pericholangitis/cholangitis. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum showed innumerable organisms in 2 of the cases. Pathologists must be aware of the possibility of syphilis causing hepatic inflammatory masses in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men in order to avoid misdiagnosis or delayed treatment. PMID:24921640

  2. Age preferences in dating advertisements by homosexuals and heterosexuals: from sociobiological to sociological explanations.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Kathryn

    2013-02-01

    Current sociobiological thought suggests that significant components of mate selection are based on indicators that correlate with the ability to produce and support offspring. Theorists have suggested that men tend to be attracted to and marry younger women, while women tend to be attracted to and marry older men. This behavior is referred to as age hypergamy. I complicate this picture by using gay men as a population in which to explore alternative components of mate selection as reflected in our behavior. Analyses of 120 dating advertisements from gay men and heterosexual men and women indicated that there exists a good measure of hypergamic age preference that is comparable to the heterosexual population and that relates to subjects' gender presentation. Data suggest that the biological-reproductive theory of age hypergamy is incomplete and support a cultural reproduction model of gender role behavior and preference in both heterosexuals and homosexuals. PMID:23179236

  3. Enhancing masculinity by slandering homosexuals: the role of homophobic epithets in heterosexual gender identity.

    PubMed

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Maass, Anne; Fasoli, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The current studies investigate the effects of homophobic labels on the self-perception of heterosexual males, hypothesizing that when exposed to homophobic epithets, they are motivated to underline their masculinity and claim a distinctly heterosexual identity by taking distance from homosexuals and, to a lesser degree, from women. Heterosexual male participants were subliminally (Study 1) and supraliminally (Study 2) primed either by a homophobic epithet or by a category label, and completed the Traditional Beliefs About Gender and Gender Identity scale. Participants stressed their heterosexual identity, but not their gender distinctiveness, when exposed to homophobic epithets, compared to category labels. Study 2 demonstrated that the relation between the homophobic label and the participants' heterosexual identity was mediated by how negatively they reacted to the antigay label. Heterosexual identity was enhanced in reaction to homophobic labels but not to an equally derogatory label referring to regional identity. Results are discussed within an intergroup framework.

  4. Syphilis presenting as inflammatory tumors of the liver in HIV-positive homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Catherine E; Kamionek, Michal; McKinsey, David S; Misdraji, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, has seen a resurgence since 2001, particularly in men who have sex with men. Syphilis can affect the liver during the secondary stage as syphilitic hepatitis and during the tertiary stage as gummas. We describe 3 cases of syphilis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive homosexual men that presented as hepatic mass lesions clinically suspected of being malignant tumors. Histologically, 2 of the 3 cases showed a plump spindle cell proliferation, mixed inflammatory infiltrate with numerous neutrophils, and abscesses, whereas the third case showed granulomas and pericholangitis/cholangitis. Immunohistochemical staining for T. pallidum showed innumerable organisms in 2 of the cases. Pathologists must be aware of the possibility of syphilis causing hepatic inflammatory masses in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men in order to avoid misdiagnosis or delayed treatment.

  5. Preferences for facial and vocal masculinity in homosexual men: the role of relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-perceived masculinity.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Jaroslava; Roberts, S Craig; Havlícek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on mate preferences usually examine heterosexual attraction; comparatively little is known about preferences of individuals whose sexuality is aimed at the same sex. We examined preferences of two groups of androphilic individuals--homosexual men and heterosexual women--for male facial and vocal level of masculinity. Facial images of 58 men and vocal recordings of 30 men were rated by 51 heterosexual women and 33 homosexual men for their attractiveness and masculinity--femininity. In both groups of raters, ratings of vocal attractiveness and masculinity were positively correlated, but there was no overall preference for facial masculinity. After splitting raters according to their relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-rated masculinity, we found significant preferences for masculine voices only in single homosexual men and coupled heterosexual women, while a preference for feminine male faces was found in coupled homosexual men. Furthermore, homosexual men describing themselves as relatively masculine significantly preferred masculine voices but also more feminine male faces. Our results demonstrate that conditional mate preferences are not restricted to heterosexual interactions, and homosexual men prefer a mixture of masculine and feminine traits in their potential male partners.

  6. Preferences for facial and vocal masculinity in homosexual men: the role of relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-perceived masculinity.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Jaroslava; Roberts, S Craig; Havlícek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on mate preferences usually examine heterosexual attraction; comparatively little is known about preferences of individuals whose sexuality is aimed at the same sex. We examined preferences of two groups of androphilic individuals--homosexual men and heterosexual women--for male facial and vocal level of masculinity. Facial images of 58 men and vocal recordings of 30 men were rated by 51 heterosexual women and 33 homosexual men for their attractiveness and masculinity--femininity. In both groups of raters, ratings of vocal attractiveness and masculinity were positively correlated, but there was no overall preference for facial masculinity. After splitting raters according to their relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-rated masculinity, we found significant preferences for masculine voices only in single homosexual men and coupled heterosexual women, while a preference for feminine male faces was found in coupled homosexual men. Furthermore, homosexual men describing themselves as relatively masculine significantly preferred masculine voices but also more feminine male faces. Our results demonstrate that conditional mate preferences are not restricted to heterosexual interactions, and homosexual men prefer a mixture of masculine and feminine traits in their potential male partners. PMID:23700957

  7. Errors by the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Educational, Association in representing homosexuality in amicus briefs about Amendment 2 to the U.S. Supreme Court.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K; Landess, T

    1996-10-01

    In October 1995, consortiums of psychiatric and educational profes sional organizations, including the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association and the National Educational Association, submitted amicus briefs to the U.S. Supreme Court asserting that the scientific literature unequivocally supports the following propositions (a) that homosexuals, including homosexual teachers, do not disproportionately molest children, (b) that children of homosexual patients are not more likely to become homosexuals, (c) that professionals agree that homosexuality is not a pathology, and (d) that homosexual attractions are biologically or genetically predetermined and are therefore beyond the control of the individual. The first two contentions are inconsistent with the scientific literature, and the second two grossly oversimplify a contentious and uncertain literature.

  8. Association football and the representation of homosexuality by the print media: a case study of Anton Hysén.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    In March 2011, Anton Hysén (a semiprofessional footballer currently playing in the Swedish fourth division) became only the second association football (soccer) player of any professional disposition to publicly declare his homosexuality while still playing the game. This article provides a textual analysis of the print media's reaction to Hysén coming out and examines whether, in 2011, they portray more inclusive notions toward homosexuality than they did in 1990 when British footballer Justin Fashanu came out. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory as a number of print media sources (mostly British) interview Hysén in the weeks immediately after he came out and publish articles that challenge homophobia. Highlighting a change since 1990, a significant number of articles stress the need for the key stakeholders in football (players, fans, clubs, agents, the authorities, and the media) to accept gay players.

  9. Nutritional attitudes of homosexual people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Chongqing, Southwest China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjie; Ma, Rui; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    This article aimed at understanding nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of homosexual persons living with HIV/AIDS in Chongqing, China. A cross sectional design using a valid and reliable survey was used. The survey was completed in Chongqing, Southwest China (n = 172). Knowledge of nutrition was deficient regarding sources of nutrients such as calcium and iron, relationships between diet/nutrients and disease, and only 36.1% of participants knew about the Balanced Diet Pagoda for Chinese. Eating habits did not meet the nutritional requirements, and a majority (59.3%) did not eat breakfast every day. The average score on the knowledge quiz was 51.8%. This study showed that homosexual persons with HIV/AIDS in China longed for nutrition knowledge, and this was supported by objective data. Efforts and targeted education programs aiming to improve their nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors need to be emphasized.

  10. Association football and the representation of homosexuality by the print media: a case study of Anton Hysén.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    In March 2011, Anton Hysén (a semiprofessional footballer currently playing in the Swedish fourth division) became only the second association football (soccer) player of any professional disposition to publicly declare his homosexuality while still playing the game. This article provides a textual analysis of the print media's reaction to Hysén coming out and examines whether, in 2011, they portray more inclusive notions toward homosexuality than they did in 1990 when British footballer Justin Fashanu came out. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory as a number of print media sources (mostly British) interview Hysén in the weeks immediately after he came out and publish articles that challenge homophobia. Highlighting a change since 1990, a significant number of articles stress the need for the key stakeholders in football (players, fans, clubs, agents, the authorities, and the media) to accept gay players. PMID:24871942

  11. Queer diagnoses: parallels and contrasts in the history of homosexuality, gender variance, and the diagnostic and statistical manual.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2010-04-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is in the process of revising its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), with the DSM-V having an anticipated publication date of 2012. As part of that ongoing process, in May 2008, APA announced its appointment of the Work Group on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders (WGSGID). The announcement generated a flurry of concerned and anxious responses in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, mostly focused on the status of the diagnostic categories of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) (for both children and adolescents and adults). Activists argued, as in the case of homosexuality in the 1970s, that it is wrong to label expressions of gender variance as symptoms of a mental disorder and that perpetuating DSM-IV-TR's GID diagnoses in the DSM-V would further stigmatize and cause harm to transgender individuals. Other advocates in the trans community expressed concern that deleting GID would lead to denying medical and surgical care for transgender adults. This review explores how criticisms of the existing GID diagnoses parallel and contrast with earlier historical events that led APA to remove homosexuality from the DSM in 1973. It begins with a brief introduction to binary formulations that lead not only to linkages of sexual orientation and gender identity, but also to scientific and clinical etiological theories that implicitly moralize about matters of sexuality and gender. Next is a review of the history of how homosexuality came to be removed from the DSM-II in 1973 and how, not long thereafter, the GID diagnoses found their way into DSM-III in 1980. Similarities and differences in the relationships of homosexuality and gender identity to psychiatric and medical thinking are elucidated. Following a discussion of these issues, the author recommends changes in the DSM-V and some internal and public actions that the American Psychiatric Association should take.

  12. Queer diagnoses: parallels and contrasts in the history of homosexuality, gender variance, and the diagnostic and statistical manual.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2010-04-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is in the process of revising its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), with the DSM-V having an anticipated publication date of 2012. As part of that ongoing process, in May 2008, APA announced its appointment of the Work Group on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders (WGSGID). The announcement generated a flurry of concerned and anxious responses in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, mostly focused on the status of the diagnostic categories of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) (for both children and adolescents and adults). Activists argued, as in the case of homosexuality in the 1970s, that it is wrong to label expressions of gender variance as symptoms of a mental disorder and that perpetuating DSM-IV-TR's GID diagnoses in the DSM-V would further stigmatize and cause harm to transgender individuals. Other advocates in the trans community expressed concern that deleting GID would lead to denying medical and surgical care for transgender adults. This review explores how criticisms of the existing GID diagnoses parallel and contrast with earlier historical events that led APA to remove homosexuality from the DSM in 1973. It begins with a brief introduction to binary formulations that lead not only to linkages of sexual orientation and gender identity, but also to scientific and clinical etiological theories that implicitly moralize about matters of sexuality and gender. Next is a review of the history of how homosexuality came to be removed from the DSM-II in 1973 and how, not long thereafter, the GID diagnoses found their way into DSM-III in 1980. Similarities and differences in the relationships of homosexuality and gender identity to psychiatric and medical thinking are elucidated. Following a discussion of these issues, the author recommends changes in the DSM-V and some internal and public actions that the American Psychiatric Association should take. PMID:19838785

  13. The removal of Pluto from the class of planets and homosexuality from the class of psychiatric disorders: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2012-01-01

    We compare astronomers' removal of Pluto from the listing of planets and psychiatrists' removal of homosexuality from the listing of mental disorders. Although the political maneuverings that emerged in both controversies are less than scientifically ideal, we argue that competition for "scientific authority" among competing groups is a normal part of scientific progress. In both cases, a complicated relationship between abstract constructs and evidence made the classification problem thorny. PMID:22244039

  14. The removal of Pluto from the class of planets and homosexuality from the class of psychiatric disorders: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Peter; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2012-01-13

    We compare astronomers' removal of Pluto from the listing of planets and psychiatrists' removal of homosexuality from the listing of mental disorders. Although the political maneuverings that emerged in both controversies are less than scientifically ideal, we argue that competition for "scientific authority" among competing groups is a normal part of scientific progress. In both cases, a complicated relationship between abstract constructs and evidence made the classification problem thorny.

  15. Is Cass's Model of Homosexual Identity Formation Relevant to Today's Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenneady, Donna Ann; Oswalt, Sara B.

    2014-01-01

    Cass's Homosexual Identity Formation Model (1979) is one of the most well-known and well-referenced models of identity development for gay males and lesbians. This article provides a review of Cass's six steps of the model, as well as research support for and critiques of the model. As the model was developed more than 30 years ago, the…

  16. The removal of pluto from the class of planets and homosexuality from the class of psychiatric disorders: a comparison

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We compare astronomers' removal of Pluto from the listing of planets and psychiatrists' removal of homosexuality from the listing of mental disorders. Although the political maneuverings that emerged in both controversies are less than scientifically ideal, we argue that competition for "scientific authority" among competing groups is a normal part of scientific progress. In both cases, a complicated relationship between abstract constructs and evidence made the classification problem thorny. PMID:22244039

  17. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  18. A premodern legacy: the "easy" criminalization of homosexual acts between women in the Finnish Penal Code of 1889.

    PubMed

    Löfström, J

    1998-01-01

    Homosexual acts between women were criminalized in Finland in the 1889 Penal Code which also criminalized men's homosexual acts for the first time explicitly in Finnish legislation. The inclusion of women in the Penal Code took place without much ado. In the article it is argued that the uncomplicated juxtaposing of men and women was due to the legacy of a cultural pattern where man and woman, as categories, were not in an all-pervasive polarity to each other, for example, in sexual subjectivity. A cultural pattern of low gender polarization was typical of preindustrial rural culture, and it can help us apprehend also certain other features in contemporary Finnish social and political life, for example, women obtaining a general franchise and eligibility for the parliament first in the world, in 1906. A modern image of "public man" and "private woman" was only making its way in Finnish society; hence, there was not much anxiety at women's entry in politics, or, for that matter, at their potential for (homo)sexual subjectivity becoming recognized publicly in criminal law.

  19. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  20. A lovely war: male to female cross-dressing and Canadian military entertainment in World War II.

    PubMed

    Halladay, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the Canadian military entertainment units during World War II (WWII), specifically those formed by the Navy, Army and Air Force from talent found amongst their own personnel. These entertainment units toured extensively in Canada, the United Kingdom and Europe with the goal of increasing the morale of combat troops while encouraging the enlistment of Canada's domestic populations in the war effort generally and the armed forces specifically. By focusing on male to female cross-dressing in the performances of these entertainment units and their pre-WWII antecedents, it will become clear that the nature and importance of the representation of femininity within the virtually all-male milieu that existed near the battlefront changed over time in response to the demands of the audiences. Until the second half of WWII, soldier audiences were generally unwilling to form any ideological links between cross-dressing and homosexuality. Female impersonators were the key cast members in troop shows during the Great War, but eventually fell out of favor in the last years of WWII after women were recruited in large numbers into the Canadian military and thus its entertainment infrastructure. With women then on the military stage, men who persisted in female impersonation were decreasingly popular with audiences, ultimately under growing suspicion of being homosexuals and gradually removed from the productions.

  1. Psychophysiological response patterns and risky sexual behavior in heterosexual and homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Petrocelli, John V; Bancroft, John

    2009-08-01

    The past few years have seen an increased awareness of the relevance of studying the role of sexual response, emotion, and traits such as sensation seeking and the propensity for sexual inhibition in risky sexual behavior. The current study examined the association between self-reported sexual risk taking and psychophysiological response patterns in 76 heterosexual and homosexual men. Measures included genital, electrodermal, startle eyeblink, and cardiovascular responses, and stimuli included threatening (depicting coercive sexual interactions) and nonthreatening (depicting consensual sexual interactions) sexual film excerpts. Sexual risk taking was hypothesized to be associated with decreased inhibition of sexual arousal and hyporeactive affective and autonomic responses to threatening sexual stimuli. Controlling for age and number of sexual partners in the past year, sexual risk taking (number of partners during the past 3 years with whom no condoms were used) was found to be associated with stronger genital responses and smaller eyeblink responses to both threatening and nonthreatening sexual stimuli. Correlations between genital and subjective sexual arousal were relatively low. Sexual risk taking was related to sensation seeking but not to the propensity for sexual inhibition. The findings suggest that risky sexual behavior may involve a role for psychophysiological mechanisms that are specific to sex as well as for ones that are associated with more general approach/avoidance response tendencies.

  2. An agent-based epidemic simulation of social behaviors affecting HIV transmission among Taiwanese homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations are currently used to identify epidemic dynamics, to test potential prevention and intervention strategies, and to study the effects of social behaviors on HIV transmission. The author describes an agent-based epidemic simulation model of a network of individuals who participate in high-risk sexual practices, using number of partners, condom usage, and relationship length to distinguish between high- and low-risk populations. Two new concepts-free links and fixed links-are used to indicate tendencies among individuals who either have large numbers of short-term partners or stay in long-term monogamous relationships. An attempt was made to reproduce epidemic curves of reported HIV cases among male homosexuals in Taiwan prior to using the agent-based model to determine the effects of various policies on epidemic dynamics. Results suggest that when suitable adjustments are made based on available social survey statistics, the model accurately simulates real-world behaviors on a large scale.

  3. Supplementary analyses regarding Langevin, Langevin, and Curnoe's (2007) findings on fraternal birth order in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2007-08-01

    A recent article by Langevin, Langevin, and Curnoe (2007) reported mixed results regarding the fraternal birth order effect, that is, the repeatedly observed finding that older brothers correlate with homosexuality in later-born males. Using a fraternal birth order index computed as older brothers minus younger brothers, Langevin et al. found that the "homoerotic" probands were born later among their brothers than were the "heteroerotic" probands in their full sample (N = 1194) and in their subsample over age 19 (N = 1122), but not in their subsample over age 31 (N = 698) or in their subsample with mothers over age 46 at the proband's birth (N = 727). The present writer concluded that the results obtained with the larger samples are more reliable, based on analyses demonstrating that (1) the larger samples are unlikely to be seriously affected by incomplete sibships, and (2) the smaller samples have poor statistical power. A separate analysis, based on an approximate reconstruction of Langevin et al.'s raw data, indicated that their heteroerotic probands reported a ratio of 104 older brothers per 100 older sisters, which is close to the normative population value of 106, whereas their homoerotic probands reported a ratio of 137, indicating a statistically significant excess of older brothers. These results suggest that Langevin et al.'s data showed significant evidence of a fraternal birth order effect and that their data were consistent with previous studies of this phenomenon.

  4. A homosexual militant at the beginning of the century: Marc André Raffalovich.

    PubMed

    Cardon, P

    1993-01-01

    This work is based on my thesis from Aix en Provence on French Civilisation and Letters (1984). The head of the examinations was the writer Raymond Jean. My idea is to show how the decadent writer and poet Marc André Raffalovich fought against the personalities in science concerning homosexuality with a new point of view and with great difficulty, shedding new light on this subject in a review from 1886 to 1914 under the direction of Dr. Alexandre Lacassagne Les Archives d'Anthropologie Criminelle de Médecine Légale et de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique published in 1886, edited by the director A. Lacassagne, professor and chairman of legal medicine, Lyon, and author of the article "Pederastie," Dictionnaire Encyclopedique des Sciences Medicales, volume XXII published in 1886. In 1893, he wrote an introduction for l'Inversion Sexuelle of Dr. Julien Chevalier (Paris: Masson-Lyon Storck). This monthly review "d'au moins 80 pages" was called L'Ecole Lyonnaise, and so to say, l'Ecole Francaise d'Anthropologie Criminelle, which defends against l'Ecole Italienne of Lombroso, the culturalist theory of the birth of the criminal; according to this école du milieu social: "La Société a les criminels qu'elle merite" (The society has criminals it deserves). After the first world war, it was to be overridden by the Marxist analysis. PMID:8301079

  5. The social construction of male 'homosexuality' in India: implications for HIV transmission and prevention.

    PubMed

    Asthana, S; Oostvogels, R

    2001-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a growing recognition of the relativity of sexual norms and of the difficulties of exporting Western conceptions of sexuality to different socio-cultural settings. This view has been most clearly articulated in studies of men who have sex with men (MSM) which suggest that the ways in which male-male sexual activity is shaped and constituted vary significantly from place to place. Despite this, 'homosexuality' continues to be treated as an unproblematic category in HIV/AIDS discourse, epidemiological studies of and HIV prevention strategies for MSM in widely different contexts being based on the North American/West European example of gay men. This paper, which draws upon ethnographic research in Madras, highlights important differences between India and the West, not only in the sexual identities and circuits of MSM, but in their sexual partnerships and practices. These differences, it is argued, are not only significant to the epidemiology of HIV transmission, but have important implications for the development and implementation of HIV prevention strategies. PMID:11218175

  6. Return of the past: the policy of the SED and the laws against homosexuality in Eastern Germany between 1946 and 1968. Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands.

    PubMed

    Grau, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1968 the Government of Eastern Germany adopted a New Penal code of the GDR. In the new code, there was no Paragraph 175-the paragraph in the German Penal code punishing homosexuality. So-called "mere" homosexuality (consensual sexual activities between two adult men) was no longer punishable. With the repeal of Paragraph 175 the efforts started in 1952 to eliminate the legal discrimination of homosexuals in the GDR came to a provisional end. Through analysis of recently available files the author describes the political and social conditions which resulted in the reform being delayed until 1968. He also pointed out that the legal solution to the question of homosexuality was an instrument of politics and subjected to the power interests of the Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands (Socialist Unity Party, SED). The delay in the reform of decriminalization of homosexuality established a trend which aimed to control sexual behavior in the interests of the socialist utopia of the new "socialist humanity." Individuals and groups which diverged from this model character were to be led toward sexual "normality" by maintaining the threat of legal punishment. In other words: In the GDR, as in other countries where state socialism became the ruling system, the overthrow of the bourgeois society was not accompanied by sexual revolution. The relationship between respectability and socialism shows clearly how effectively bourgeois morality has penetrated all layers of the population.

  7. The Female Gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  8. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  9. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans.

  10. Induction of antibody to asialo GM1 by spermatozoa and its occurrence in the sera of homosexual men with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed Central

    Witkin, S S; Sonnabend, J; Richards, J M; Purtilo, D T

    1983-01-01

    Compared to healthy homosexual and heterosexual men, homosexual men with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) possessed significantly higher levels of IgG antibody to the neutral glycolipid asialo GM1 (ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide) (P less than 0.01). Of 31 homosexuals with AIDS, 36% possessed levels of this antibody that were at least two standard deviations above the mean of the healthy men. Furthermore, asialo GM1 antibody could be removed from serum by adsorption with spermatozoa. Weekly rectal insemination of male rabbits with rabbit semen also led to the appearance of antibody to asialo GM1 by 15 weeks. These results suggest that asialo GM1 is a component of ejaculated spermatozoa and demonstrate that rectal insemination by itself can lead to the production of antibodies to this glycolipid in the rabbit. In addition, asialo GM1 antibodies may be of value as a serological marker for the early detection of individuals with AIDS. PMID:6652964

  11. Short Communication: Investigating a Chain of HIV Transmission Events Due to Homosexual Exposure and Blood Transfusion Based on a Next Generation Sequencing Method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Chen; Jiang, Yan; Wen, Yujie; Pan, Pinliang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Guiyun; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, Maofeng

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates a chain of HIV transmission events due to homosexual exposure and blood transfusion in China. The MiSeq platform, a next generation sequencing (NGS) system, was used to obtain genetic details of the HIV-1 env region (336 base pairs). Evolutionary analysis combined with epidemiologic evidence suggests a transmission chain from patient T3 to T2 through homosexual exposure and subsequently to T1 through blood transfusion. More importantly, a phylogenetic study suggested a likely genetic bottleneck for HIV in homosexual transmission from T3 to T2, while T1 inherited the majority of variants from T2. The result from the MiSeq platform is consistent with findings from the epidemiologic survey. The MiSeq platform is a powerful tool for tracing HIV transmissions and intrapersonal evolution.

  12. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in homosexual men in the San Francisco Bay Area: occupational, chemical, and environmental exposures.

    PubMed

    Holly, E A; Lele, C; Bracci, P

    1997-07-01

    Chemical, occupational, and other exposures as risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) among homosexual men are reported from a population-based case-control study of 1593 eligible subjects with NHL and 2515 control subjects conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1988 and 1995. Results are presented for 312 homosexual men with NHL and 420 homosexual control subjects. HIV-positive patients were less likely than control subjects to have worked in technical, sales, and administrative occupations; service occupations; and precision production, craft, or repair-related occupations. They were likely to have had less exposure to petroleum products, aldehydes, cleaning solvents, adhesives, insecticides, welding fumes, and tar, pitch, soot, or ash. The HIV-negative patients were less likely than the control subjects to have worked in managerial or professional specialty occupations and in technical, sales, or administrative occupations. HIV-negative patients were somewhat more likely than control subjects to have been exposed to herbicides (OR = 2.0, CI = 0.89 to 4.7), to radioactivity (OR = 4.7, CI = 1.7 to 13), and to tar, soot, pitch, or ash (250+ hours: OR = 2.3, CI = 0.96 to 5.6). HIV-negative NHL patients also were somewhat more likely to have lived on a farm as children than the control subjects (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.0 to 5.6). Pooled over HIV status, patients were somewhat more likely to have worked as motor vehicle or rail operators for more than 1 year (OR = 2.1, CI = 0.98 to 4.4). Most occupational exposures were of brief duration and many chemical exposures were reported as minimal. No clear and strong associations were found, although the risk for NHL related to exposure to several chemicals generally was reduced among HIV-positive men and elevated among HIV-negative men. PMID:9257657

  13. Why do homosexual men relapse into unsafe sex? Predictors of resumption of unprotected anogenital intercourse with casual partners.

    PubMed

    de Wit, J B; van Griensven, G J; Kok, G; Sandfort, T G

    1993-08-01

    The objective was to assess predictors of relapse into unprotected anogenital intercourse with casual partners among homosexual men in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. In the period 1984-91 1103 predominantly white, well-educated, homosexual men participated in the study. 340 participants were HIV-antibody-positive, and 763 men were HIV-antibody-seronegative. Self-reported data on sexual behavior were obtained at 12 semi-annual intervals. Mean age of the participants at wave 12 was 41.2 years, and participants had been homosexually active for an average of 23.2 years, Participants were categorized according to sexual behavior in waves 11 and 12, the interval in which an increase in unprotected anogenital intercourse with casual partners was observed. Participants who reported unprotected anogenital intercourse with casual partners at wave 12, but not at wave 11, were considered to have relapsed into unsafe sex (n=47). Men who did not report unprotected anogenital intercourse at wave 11 or at wave 12 were considered to have maintained a behavior change (n=197). Possible predictors of relapse into unprotected anogenital intercourse with casual partners included a large number of variables assessed from wave 9 up to wave 12. Bivariate relations between outcome measure and predictors were first assessed. Significant variables were entered in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. 4 variables were multivariately reacted to maintenance of safer sex behaviors versus relapse into unprotected anogenital intercourse with casual partners. The relationships found indicated that relapse was more likely to occur among participants who had less intention to avoid unprotected anal sex with casual partners (odds ratio (OR) 3.75), were less convinced that they can use condoms with casual sex partners (OR 3.54), had a less favorable attitude towards the use of condoms (OR 3.2), and were not involved in a primary relationship PMID:8397949

  14. Right-wing authoritarianism predicts prejudice equally toward "gay men and lesbians" and "homosexuals".

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Mallinas, Stephanie R

    2016-08-01

    Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect-that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled "gay men and lesbians" rather than "homosexuals" (Rios, 2013). Although this appears a promising approach to reduce self-reported sexual prejudice, with both theoretical implications for the meaning of RWA itself and practical implications for question wording for assessing these attitudes, there are several reasons to further examine these findings, including (a) inconsistencies with extant evidence, (b) small sample sizes in the original 2 experiments, and (c) concerns with the RWA measures used in the 2 experiments. We tested the SCL hypothesis with a nationally representative sample (Study 1) and close and conceptual replications of Rios' (2013) 2 studies (Studies 2-5) using multiple measures of RWA and prejudice. Across 23 tests of the SCL hypothesis, we obtained 1 statistically significant and 1 marginally significant effect consistent with the hypothesis, 2 significant effects opposite the hypothesis, and 19 nonsignificant effects. A meta-analysis of evidence reported here and in Rios (2013) indicates that RWA strongly predicts antigay prejudice, with no significant variation by label. This confirms the typically robust association between RWA and antigay prejudice and confirms that the SCL effect is not robust. We discuss potential limitations of these studies, theoretical, methodological, and practical implications for our failures to replicate the original SCL studies, and future directions for examining social category label effects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. [Syphilis epidemic and an increase of the number of HIV infections among homosexual men attending the Amsterdam venereal disease clinic].

    PubMed

    Fennema, J S A; Cairo, I; Spaargaren, J; Dukers, N H T M; Coutinho, R A

    2002-03-30

    The registered number of cases of early infectious syphilis and of (ano)genital gonorrhoea among the attendees of the outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases of the Amsterdam municipal health service shows a strong increase for both diagnoses in the period 1990-2001, notably in the last few years. Nearly all of this increase is accounted for by homosexual men. Syphilis increased mostly among men aged 35 years and over, gonorrhoea mostly among younger men. The population of older men also showed a distinct increase since 1997 in HIV incidence.

  16. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  17. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.

  18. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  19. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, D L; Wiggins, M E

    1997-10-01

    Women's participation in sporting activities is now diverse with new opportunities arising yearly. As a result, care of the the female athlete's unique medical concerns has become an important challenge and issue to the primary care physician. The major focus when caring for the female athlete should be the diagnosis and treatment of the female athlete triad. The components of the triad--disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis--can have serious implications for the health of the female athlete. Appropriate prevention and screening methods for early diagnosis of the female athlete triad require future study and improvement. Healthy pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women can continue to maintain physical activity. Musculoskeletal injuries from sports are, in general, not gender specific but are more often sport specific. One exception is the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries occurring in women soccer and basketball players. The exact cause of this is unknown but is continuing to be investigated.

  20. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415