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Sample records for homosexuality female

  1. Personality Variables in Female Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Lee

    Most of the debate among the behavioral sciences about the interaction between choice of sexual object and personality characteristics has dealt with male homosexuality. To explore the personality variables of female homosexuals, 46 heterosexual and 46 homosexual women took the California Psychological Inventory. Comparison of the results…

  2. Familiality of female and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M; Bell, A P

    1993-07-01

    We examined data from a large cohort of homosexual and heterosexual females and males concerning their siblings' sexual orientations. As in previous studies, both male and female homosexuality were familial. Homosexual females had an excess of homosexual brothers compared to heterosexual subjects, thus providing evidence that similar familial factors influence both male and female homosexuality. Furthermore, despite the large sample size, homosexual females and males did not differ significantly from each other in their proportions of either homosexual sisters or homosexual brothers. Thus, results were most consistent with the possibility that similar familial factors influence male and female sexual orientation. However, because results conflicted with those of some other studies, and because siblings' sexual orientations were obtained in a manner likely to yield more errors than in these other, smaller studies, further work is needed using large samples and more careful methods before the degree of cofamiliality of male and female homosexuality can be resolved definitively. We also examined whether some parental influences comprised shared environmental effects on sexual orientation. Scales attempting to measure such influences failed to distinguish subjects with homosexual siblings from subjects with only heterosexual siblings and, thus, did not appear to measure shared environmental determinants of sexual orientation.

  3. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T.; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour—although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom—remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  4. Parent-Child Relationship and Sexual Identity in Male and Female Homosexuals and Heterosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jr., Norman L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Striking features of the studies of male and female homosexuality reported here are (a) the prominent role played by weak and/or hostile fathers in the etiology of homosexuality for both women and men; (b) the lack of a clear role of mothers in female homosexual etiology but the striking role of mothers in the etiology of male homosexuals; (c) the…

  5. Parent-Child Relationship and Sexual Identity in Male and Female Homosexuals and Heterosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jr., Norman L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Striking features of the studies of male and female homosexuality reported here are (a) the prominent role played by weak and/or hostile fathers in the etiology of homosexuality for both women and men; (b) the lack of a clear role of mothers in female homosexual etiology but the striking role of mothers in the etiology of male homosexuals; (c) the…

  6. Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity.

    PubMed

    Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Corna, Francesca; Capiluppi, Claudio

    2004-11-07

    The Darwinian paradox of male homosexuality in humans is examined, i.e. if male homosexuality has a genetic component and homosexuals reproduce less than heterosexuals, then why is this trait maintained in the population? In a sample of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives (a total of over 4600 individuals), we found that female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives. The study confirms previous reports, in particular that homosexuals have more maternal than paternal male homosexual relatives, that homosexual males are more often later-born than first-born and that they have more older brothers than older sisters. We discuss the findings and their implications for current research on male homosexuality.

  7. Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity.

    PubMed Central

    Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Corna, Francesca; Capiluppi, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The Darwinian paradox of male homosexuality in humans is examined, i.e. if male homosexuality has a genetic component and homosexuals reproduce less than heterosexuals, then why is this trait maintained in the population? In a sample of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives (a total of over 4600 individuals), we found that female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives. The study confirms previous reports, in particular that homosexuals have more maternal than paternal male homosexual relatives, that homosexual males are more often later-born than first-born and that they have more older brothers than older sisters. We discuss the findings and their implications for current research on male homosexuality. PMID:15539346

  8. Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-05-01

    We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality.

  9. Fecundity of paternal and maternal non-parental female relatives of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Pellizzari, Elena

    2012-01-01

    A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts) from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis.

  10. Fecundity of Paternal and Maternal Non-Parental Female Relatives of Homosexual and Heterosexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Pellizzari, Elena

    2012-01-01

    A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts) from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis. PMID:23227237

  11. Effect of Female-Biased Sex Ratios on Female Homosexual Behavior in Japanese Macaques: Evidence for the "Bisexual Preference Hypothesis".

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to explain the frequent and prevalent female homosexual behavior in the context of female-biased operational sex ratios (OSR) and qualified sex ratios (Q) in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Japan. Our data included the average availability of sexually mature males during females' putative fertile period (OSR), the ratio of sexually mature males to sexually mature females (Q), as well as heterosexual and female homosexual solicitations and consortships collected during 13 mating seasons from 136 females. Our results did not support the "heterosexual deprivation hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to a shortage of male mates. Likewise, our results did not support the "lack of opposite-sex sexual competitor hypothesis," which holds that females have more access to female mates when male sexual rivals are scarce. Of the 11 predictions tested, only one yielded statistically significant results: we found that higher ratios of availability of preferred female partners to preferred male partners were associated with female homosexual consortships rather than female heterosexual consortships. This result supported the "bisexual preference hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to female preference for certain female mates relative to certain male mates. We conclude that when a female targets another female as a mate, it is an active choice for a female sexual partner over available male alternatives, rather than a by-default situation that occurs because males are not available as sexual partners, or because females are better able to access female sexual partners due to a scarcity of male sexual competitors.

  12. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Cyril C.; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a ‘pornographic’ effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation. PMID:27167861

  13. Factors associated with higher fecundity in female maternal relatives of homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S; Fontanesi, Lilybeth; Iemmola, Francesca; Giannella, Elga; Ferron, Claudia; Lombardi, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that sexually antagonistic genetic factors in the maternal line promote homosexuality in men and fecundity in female relatives. However, it is not clear if and how these genetic factors are phenotypically expressed to simultaneously induce homosexuality in men and increased fecundity in their mothers and maternal aunts. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenotypic expression of genetic factors that could explain increased fecundity in the putative female carriers. Using a questionnaire-based approach, which included also the Big Five Questionnaire personality inventory based on the Big Five theory, we investigated fecundity in 161 female European subjects and scrutinized possible influences, including physiological, behavioral, and personality factors. We compared 61 female probands who were either mothers or maternal aunts of homosexual men. One hundred females who were mothers or aunts of heterosexual men were used as controls. Personality traits, retrospective physiological and clinical data, behavior and opinions on fecundity-related issues were assessed and analyzed to illustrate possible effects on fecundity between probands and control females. Our analysis showed that both mothers and maternal aunts of homosexual men show increased fecundity compared with corresponding maternal female relatives of heterosexual men. A two-step statistical analysis, which was based on t-tests and multiple logistic regression analysis, showed that mothers and maternal aunts of homosexual men (i) had fewer gynecological disorders; (ii) had fewer complicated pregnancies; (iii) had less interest in having children; (iv) placed less emphasis on romantic love within couples; (v) placed less importance on their social life; (vi) showed reduced family stability; (vii) were more extraverted; and (viii) had divorced or separated from their spouses more frequently. Our findings are based on a small sample and would benefit from a larger

  14. Sexual orientation of female-to-male transsexuals: a comparison of homosexual and nonhomosexual types.

    PubMed

    Chivers, M L; Bailey, J M

    2000-06-01

    Homosexual and nonhomosexual (relative to genetic sex) female-to-male transsexuals (FTMs) were compared on a number of theoretically or empirically derived variables. Compared to nonhomosexual FTMs, homosexual FTMs reported greater childhood gender nonconformity, preferred more feminine partners, experienced greater sexual rather than emotional jealousy, were more sexually assertive, had more sexual partners, had a greater desire for phalloplasty, and had more interest in visual sexual stimuli. Homosexual and nonhomosexual FTMs did not differ in their overall desire for masculinizing body modifications, adult gender identity, or importance of partner social status, attractiveness, or youth. These findings indicate that FTMs are not a homogeneous group and vary in ways that may be useful in understanding the relation between sexual orientation and gender identity.

  15. Sexual orientation, theory of mind and empathy: a comparison of male homosexual and male and female heterosexuals

    PubMed Central

    Shapouri, Soheil; Nejati, Vahid; Eftekhar Ardebili, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Researchers have been investigating similarities of and differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals for past few decades. Several studies have shown that in the particular domain (e.g., spatial ability), male homosexuals would resemble female heterosexuals better than male heterosexuals. Executive function, however, has received more attention than social cognition in this line of research. Methods: This study focuses on theory of mind and empathy as two important components of social cognition in male homosexuals (N=14), male heterosexuals (N=15) and female heterosexuals (N=14). Results: Applying Reading the Mind in the Eyes test and the Empathy Quotient, no significant difference between groups was identified. Conclusion: This study suggests that similarities of male homosexuals and female heterosexuals may be confined to executive function and not extended to some social cognition abilities like theory of mind or empathy. PMID:26913249

  16. A possible second type of maternal-fetal immune interaction involved in both male and female homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has found that the mothers of firstborn homosexual sons produce fewer subsequent offspring than do the mothers of firstborn heterosexual sons. It was hypothesized that a subset of mothers of firstborn homosexuals may be responsible for this finding. If there is a subset of mothers whose immune reactions cause their first male fetus to be homosexual and their subsequent fetuses to die, then their immune reactions should also cause their first male fetus to have a lower birth weight. This leads to the prediction that, within the population of firstborn homosexual men, those with no younger siblings should also tend to have lower birth weights. This prediction was tested using a previously published sample of 1,445 firstborn subjects: 929 heterosexual females, 47 homosexual females, 409 heterosexual males, and 60 homosexual males. The results showed that firstborn homosexuals with no younger siblings (i.e., only children) did have lower birth weights compared with all the other subjects, but the finding applied to firstborn lesbian women as well as firstborn gay men.

  17. [Doctor and poet as rivals. Sigmund Freud, Alfred von Berger and the narrative of female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Starting from a passage in the Dora case history where Freud suggests some differences between a literary and a clinical narrative of female homosexuality, this paper presents examples which he might have had in mind. Besides Balzac's "La fille aux yeux d'or" (1834/35) it is in particular Alfred v. Berger's novella "Die Italienerin [The Italian woman]" (1904) which may have served as a model and counterpoint to the literary strategies used in Freud's case history. Freud had a relationship of long standing with Berger. This newly discovered source may provide a clue for the date at which Freud finalized the Dora manscript which he had held back for years.

  18. The Self Perception of Male and Female Homosexuals. Criminal Justice Monograph: Vol. 6, No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, William Henry, III

    This monograph presents a historical and theoretical review of homosexuality followed by a study of the self-perception of homosexuals. History bears out that homosexuality has always been one aspect of human sexuality and was more prominent in other periods of human history, depending on societal attitudes and mores. At present, many authors…

  19. Male and Female Homosexuality: A Review of Differential Factors in Etiology and Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strautin, Astra Lydia

    Today's society, in large part, has granted public acknowledgment of the practice of homosexuality as an "alternative lifestyle" and as a valid expression of sexuality and self. However, there are men and women who, having engaged in an active homosexual lifestyle for varying lengths of time, feel regretful about their homosexuality and want to…

  20. Male and Female Homosexuality: A Review of Differential Factors in Etiology and Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strautin, Astra Lydia

    Today's society, in large part, has granted public acknowledgment of the practice of homosexuality as an "alternative lifestyle" and as a valid expression of sexuality and self. However, there are men and women who, having engaged in an active homosexual lifestyle for varying lengths of time, feel regretful about their homosexuality and want to…

  1. Female homosexual behavior and inter-sexual mate competition in Japanese macaques: possible implications for sexual selection theory.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we review research related to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), including our 20-year program of research on this species. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in this species is sexually motivated. In contrast, many sociosexual hypotheses have been tested in relation to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques, but none have been supported. Female Japanese macaques sometimes engage in same-sex sexual activity even when motivated opposite-sex alternatives are available. Within this context of mate choice, males compete inter-sexually for opportunities to copulate with females above and beyond any intra-sexual competition that is required. Anecdotal evidence suggests that inter-sexual competition for female sexual partners has been observed in a number of other species, including humans. At present it is unclear whether inter-sexual competition for sexual partners influences patterns of reproduction. Our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems may be improved by investigating whether inter-sexual mate competition influences the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive partners in those species in which such interactions occur.

  2. Six homosexual siblings.

    PubMed

    Dank, B M

    1971-09-01

    A family consisting of several homosexual siblings is reported. All ten of the siblings in this family were to some degree homosexually experienced. Six were homosexual or predominantly homosexual, and five had a homosexual identity. The sex composition of the family was three females and seven males. Of the three females, one was homosexual, one was bisexual, and one had had some homosexual experience. There was one set of male dizygotic twins concordant for homosexuality in the family. All ten siblings were exposed to relatively similar family dynamics. The father's behavior toward the children and his wife was characterized by hostility, violence, and alcoholism. He was eventually murdered when the youngest child was 6 years old. The mother demonstrated qualities that were essentially opposite those of the father. She was described as affectionate and loving toward all the children, and she did not display violent behavior. The male homosexual sibling who was interviewed displayed a strong identification with his mother via a feminine self-identification, the adoption of the housewife role in a homosexual marriage, and the adoption of the passive role in anal intercourse. Only one other multiple homosexual sibling family has been reported in the scientific literature. This family consisted of 14 siblings, 11 male and three female. The four homosexual siblings in this family were all male and consisted of two sets of dizygotic twins. The behavior of the parents of this family was quite similar to the behavior of the parents in this study-a hostile and violent father and an affectionate and loving mother. These two multiple homosexual sibling families provide support for theories that emphasize the importance of early family relationships in the development of a homosexual adaptation. It is held that multiple homosexual sibling families can be employed as strategic data in testing various etiological theories of homosexuality.

  3. Somali American female refugees discuss their attitudes toward homosexuality and the gay and lesbian community.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Shanda L; Connor, Jennifer J; Ciesinski, Amanda; Abdi, Cawo; Robinson, Beatrice 'Bean' E

    2017-08-31

    Minnesota is home to the largest population of Somalis in the USA - most arriving as refugees from the civil war in Somalia. As Somali Americans adjust to life in the USA, they are likely to undergo shifts in their belief systems - including changes in their attitudes toward gays and lesbians. We examined the attitudes of 29 Somali American women in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area toward homosexuality via face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Transcripts were translated, transcribed and analysed using an approach informed by grounded theory. Three major themes were identified: (1) Islamic prohibitions against homosexuality; (2) homosexuals exiled to a hidden community; and (3) community members exploring tolerance. Participants' attitudes toward homosexuality were heavily influenced by religious doctrines and cultural contexts. This is the first known study in the USA of Somali American attitudes toward gays and lesbians. As people mass migrate from nations with negative attitudes toward homosexuality to countries with more progressive attitudes toward varied sexual orientations, refugee attitudes about homosexuality will undergo change. Through research and education, we can better understand how to increase tolerance toward and opportunities for visibility among gay and lesbian refugees throughout the diaspora.

  4. Bisexually concordant, heterosexually and homosexually discordant: a matched-pair comparison of male and female adrenogenital syndrome.

    PubMed

    Money, J; Lewis, V G

    1987-05-01

    Prenatal hormonal experiments in subprimate species demonstrate conclusively that the pattern of adult mating behavior is masculinized or feminized as a function of prenatal hormonalization of the brain. In primates, especially human beings, postnatal socialization is superimposed on prenatal hormonalization. The syndrome of congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia [CVAH] is an experiment of nature in which the fetal brain is prenatally hormonalized by a masculinizing excess of androgen from abnormally functioning adrenal cortices. The syndrome was diagnosed in two children, one a chromosomal, 46,XX female, and one a 46,XY male, who amongst many others were psychoendocrinologically followed into adulthood. Each was able to fall in love exclusively with a female as a partner in sexuoerotic activity, though each experienced also, on an investigative basis, at least one genitosexual encounter with a male. On a behavioral technicality, therefore, each had a history of bisexual practices, whereas subjectively the woman identified herself as a lesbian, and the man as a Kinsey-one heterosexual. Hormonally, it may be inferred that in prenatal life both were ultramasculinized to such a degree that it was impossible for any postnatal interventions to permit the man to become a bona fide homosexual, or the woman a bona fide heterosexual. The full implication of these findings and those of similar cases for homosexual/heterosexual theory remains to be ascertained.

  5. Common genetic factors among sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and number of sex partners in female twins: implications for the evolution of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Spector, Tim; Rahman, Qazi

    2015-04-01

    Homosexuality is a stable population-level trait in humans that lowers direct fitness and yet is substantially heritable, resulting in a so-called Darwinian "paradox." Evolutionary models have proposed that polymorphic genes influencing homosexuality confer a reproductive benefit to heterosexual carriers, thus offsetting the fitness costs associated with persistent homosexuality. This benefit may consist of a "sex typicality" intermediate phenotype. However, there are few empirical tests of this hypothesis using genetically informative data in humans. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that common genetic factors can explain the association between measures of sex typicality, mating success, and homosexuality in a Western (British) sample of female twins. Here, we used data from 996 female twins (498 twin pairs) comprising 242 full dizygotic pairs and 256 full monozygotic pairs (mean age 56.8) and 1,555 individuals whose co-twin did not participate. Measures of sexual orientation, sex typicality (recalled childhood gender nonconformity), and mating success (number of lifetime sexual partners) were completed. Variables were subject to multivariate variance component analysis. We found that masculine women are more likely to be nonheterosexual, report more sexual partners, and, when heterosexual, also report more sexual partners. Multivariate twin modeling showed that common genetic factors explained the relationship between sexual orientation, sex typicality, and mating success through a shared latent factor. Our findings suggest that genetic factors responsible for nonheterosexuality are shared with genetic factors responsible for the number of lifetime sexual partners via a latent sex typicality phenotype in human females. These results may have implications for evolutionary models of homosexuality but are limited by potential mediating variables (such as personality traits) and measurement issues. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. The inquisitorial trial of a cross-dressing lesbian: reactions and responses to female homosexuality in 18th-century portugal.

    PubMed

    Soyer, François

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the inquisitorial trial of Maria Duran, a Catalan novice in the Dominican convent of Nossa Senhora do Paraíso in Portugal. Maria Duran was arrested by the Inquisition in 1741 and, after a lengthy trial, condemned in 1744 to a public lashing and exile. She was suspected of having made a pact with the Devil and was accused by many female witnesses of possessing a "secret penis" that she had allegedly used in her amorous relations with fellow nuns and novices. Her voluminous trial dossier offers a rare and fascinating documentary insight into the often extreme reactions that female homosexuality provoked from both men and women in early modern Portugal. Using the evidence offered by the 18th-century trial of Maria Duran, this article highlights female bewilderment when faced with female-on-female sexual violence and the difficulty that men (in this case, churchmen) had coming to terms with the existence of female homosexuality. It also discusses the case in light of the acts/identity debate among historians of the history of sexuality.

  7. Homosexuality tolerance among male and female Vietnamese youth: an examination of traditional sexual values, self-esteem, and demographic/contextual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Blum, Robert W

    2014-12-01

    Disapproval of homosexuality is the cause of tremendous suffering among sexual minorities. No research has examined determinants of Vietnamese attitudes toward homosexuality. This article examined predictors of such attitudes among Vietnamese youth. Data were from Vietnamese youth aged 15-24 years nationally surveyed in 2009 (Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth II). We evaluated structural equation models in which homosexuality tolerance was conceptualized to be influenced by two tiers of predictors: tier 1 (more proximal) including traditional sexual values and self-esteem and tier 2 (more distal) including demographic/contextual variables (urban residence, college education, Internet use, age, and marital status). Female (n = 3,135) and male (n = 3,072) data were analyzed separately. Sexual conservativeness predicted intolerance in both men and women; value of fidelity also predicted intolerance in women. Self-esteem was nonsignificant for women; for men, positive self-perception was nonsignificant, but negative self-perception predicted tolerance. College education, urban residence, and Internet use predicted tolerance, with gender differences. Findings about traditional sexual values, college education, urban residence, and the gender difference in whether self-esteem matters are consistent with the literature. The positive association of Internet use with tolerance was first theorized and tested in this study. The study informs discussions on practice, in terms of tailoring/targeting attitude change interventions to rural versus urban youth and male versus female youth, capitalizing on the Internet to promote respect of sexual diversity, and locating attitudes toward homosexuality within the broader approach to sexuality. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Homosexuality, biology, and ideology.

    PubMed

    Haumann, G

    1995-01-01

    This paper critically examines the complex relationships and interdependencies between biological theories on homosexuality and sociosexual ideologies. It challenges the privileged status of biology as the ultimate authority on homosexuality. This status is based on the belief that biology is a value-free science. On the contrary, this essay shows how unacknowledged assumptions and culturally bound patterns of thinking about sexuality taint biological research. Sociosexual ideologies are defined as principles that organize the ways we express our sexualities and the way we theorize about them in biology. The following ideologies are identified: (1) sexuality-as-heterosexuality, (2) sexuality-as-reproduction, (3) sexual dualism (male vs. female), and (4) the view the homosexuality is a sexual inversion. The process by which these ideologies are incorporated into biology is two-fold: (1) as a projective act from society onto nature and (2) as a reflective act from nature back into society. It is further argued that biological knowledge of homosexuality resulting from that process can be used for diverse political interests. Finally, it is proposed that since biological theories on homosexuality are inseparable from the context of their paradigmatic origin, it is possible that new theories could be derived from new ideologies.

  9. Aztec homosexuality: the textual evidence.

    PubMed

    Kimball, G

    1993-01-01

    Male and female homosexuality among the Aztecs during the period immediately prior to the Spanish Conquest has been studied infrequently, even though a Nahuatl document, the Florentine Codex, written shortly after the Spanish Conquest, contains a number of texts on the subject. The Florentine Codex has been translated into English; however, the translators use biased and erroneous translations in the sections of the manuscript which mention homosexuality, and the actual meaning is unavailable to anyone who does not know Nahuatl. This paper is a new translation and an introductory study of the available texts on homosexuality in the Florentine Codex. The attitudes of the Aztecs toward homosexual men and women can be inferred from these texts, and there are tantalizing fragments which given an indication of how homosexuality fit into Aztec society.

  10. Adolescent homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G

    1998-01-01

    Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.

  11. Attitudes Toward Homosexuality and Social Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Stephen F.; And Others

    Chair placement was used to determine the effect on social distance created by a person being perceived as homosexual in orientation. Eighty undergraduates subjects, 40 male and 40 female, were interviewed for 10 minutes by either a male or a female experimenter who orally administered a specifically designed Attitude Towards Homosexuality Scale.…

  12. Homosexuality and Personnel Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    would discuss male and female homosexuality separately. Public attitudes toward gay men are not the same as public attitudes toward lesbians . In this...two main sources: (1) deductive statements that reflect the implicit fashioning of beliefs, imaginings, and attitudes , and (2) authority. (1) Beliefs...advocates of different theological doctrines have been reflected in attitudes toward sex. In the formation of attitudes , two ideas stand out in the

  13. [Vulvoplethysmographic reaction in homosexually-oriented women].

    PubMed

    Tichý, P

    1990-09-21

    The author examined, using an electrocapacitance VPG apparatus, 50 women reporting homosexual orientation. The results were compared with a control group of 50 women volunteers who reported a defined heterosexual orientation and had no marked complaints and problems in their sexual life. The general vasomotor reactivity in response to erotic stimuli did not differ in the two groups of women (the number of recorded vasomotor reactions differed only insignificantly). During evaluation of the total number of positive reactions to heterosexual and homosexual categories of stimuli the difference between the two groups was highly significant (similarly as during evaluation of the number of positive reactions which were described as major reactions). Women of the homosexually oriented group responded as expected, significantly more frequently and more markedly to homosexual stimuli. As compared with the control group of heterosexually oriented women, they had a generally poorer capacity to differentiate between different categories of erotic stimuli and a lower reactivity during projection of slides of homosexual partnership activities than during projection of slides of homosexual objects (nudes). In all examined women of the control group an unequivocal heterosexual orientation was recorded, in the group of homosexual women a more or less defined homosexual orientation was confirmed. In both groups was a high correlation between the subjectively reported sexual orientation and the results of the VPG examination. The authors confirmed that it is possible to use electrocapacitance vulvoplethysmography as evidence of the homosexual orientation in women and that this psychophysiological examination method is relatively reliable in the diagnosis of female homosexuality.

  14. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified.

  15. Homosexuality: An Educational Confrontation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Walter M.

    The school's reaction to homosexuality, in particular as related to the teacher, is discussed, and studies relating to the homosexual are referenced. What the educator can do to prevent homosexual behavior is, according to Hooker (1961): (1) create a climate that allows homosexuality to be openly and sensibly discussed and objectively handled; (2)…

  16. Homosexuality, type 1: an Xq28 phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Turner, W J

    1995-04-01

    Despite the absence of phenotypic manifestations in alternating generations characteristic of X-linked disorders, a thesis is presented that a major type of Kinsey grades 5 and 6 male homosexuality is determined by a gene in the Xq28 region. A total of 133 families in 78 kinshps of male and female homosexual probands, in addition to 116 families (including those of 40 famous homosexuals) from the literature, revealed an unbalanced secondary sex ratio in the maternal generation of male, but not of female, homosexuals. On the maternal side, in this study, the ratio of all uncles to all aunts of 90 males homosexuals was 132/209, chi 2 = 8.52, p = 0.004. On the maternal side for the total of all sources, the ratio of uncles to aunts of male homosexuals was 241/367, chi 2 = 13.20; p < 0.0001. The male/female ratio of the total number of maternal sibships bearing homosexuals (310/628: 0.491) was a measure of fetal wastage of the mothers' male sibs; 49%. This ratio was very close to that of the total number of children born to fathers affected with any one of nine Xq28-linked male semilethal conditions (255/508: ratio 0.556); for the difference between the two populations chi 2 = 0.859, p = 0.354. The male/female ratio of the total number of children born to female carriers of any one of these same conditions (1,232/1,062: ratio 1.16), chi 2 = 13.8 p < or = 0.0001, is close to that of the total number of children in homosexual sibships: 511/413, chi 2 = 10.4, p = 0.005. Between the number of children born to Xq28 mothers and to those born of mothers of homosexuals chi 2 = 0.581, p = 0.446. One may readily surmise that the maternal influence so often related to homosexuality may lie in the mother being a genetic carrier, with traits thereto associated. In this study, 65% of the mothers of homosexuals had no or only one live-born brother. Additional support for a genetic hypothesis is found in the occurrence of multiple instances--almost exclusively among maternal relatives

  17. Homosexuality and the U.S. Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    homosexual experience to the point of orgasm between adolescence and old age...This accounts for nearly 2 males out of every 5 that one may meet. 25 per cent...in this paper, represent both male and female members of the gay community. The term lesbian will be used when referring solely to homosexual females...Sexual Behavior in the Human Male . In an attempt to provide a better understanding of human sexuality Kinsey et.al. (1948) conducted sexuality-related

  18. The role of unconscious homosexuality in the paranoid constellation.

    PubMed

    Frosch, J

    1981-10-01

    The literature dealing with Freud's original concept of unconscious homosexuality in the paranoid constellation is reviewed. Many of the more recent contributions view unconscious homosexual features as secondary to others; as such, they are pseudophenomena. This communication suggests that unconscious homosexuality in the male is denied, rejected, and projected because the passive, anal, sadomasochistic aspects are felt as degrading and humiliating. In the female, unconscious homosexuality is also felt as degrading and humiliating. In both sexes, the feeling of humiliation derives from real experiences in childhood. Unconscious homosexuality is viewed as the organizing principle in the paranoid constellation.

  19. When Christianity and homosexuality collide: understanding the potential intrapersonal conflict.

    PubMed

    Subhi, Nasrudin; Geelan, David

    2012-01-01

    Reconciling sexual orientation with religious and spiritual beliefs can be challenging for Christian homosexuals, since many Christian churches teach that homosexual behavior is sinful. A qualitative study of 10 male and 10 female Christian homosexuals was conducted via semistructured interviews. This article seeks to explore the potential conflict between Christianity and homosexuality faced by the respondents. Participants' life stories and experiences varied widely. A few respondents were unaffected by the potential conflict between Christianity and homosexuality, however, the majority were affected. Effects included depression, guilt, anxiety, suicidal ideation, and alienation. Implications of the findings for support personnel are included.

  20. Homosexuals and Title VII

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Juan R.; Galvan, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    A method of dealing with the problems of discrimination against homosexuals in private employment through the application of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is discussed. The scope of the paper is limited to male homosexuals. (LBH)

  1. Homosexuality and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domino, George

    1977-01-01

    This study compared four groups of homosexuals and heterosexuals matched on age, educational level, and verbal intelligence on nine measures of creativity. Homosexuals were not found to be more creative. Presented at the American Psychological Association Convention, Montreal, 1973. (Author)

  2. "Homosexual occupations" in Mesoamerica?

    PubMed

    Murray, S O

    1991-01-01

    Data gathered among self-identified homosexual men in Guatemala City and Mexico City call into question the intrinsic connection between homosexuality and occupational choice posited by Whitam and Mathy (1986). Concentrations of homosexual men in some occupations can be explained as effects of discrimination and of the normal transmission through personal networks of information about job opportunities, and does not require recourse to any innate drive for homosexual men to be actors, hairdressers or interior decorators.

  3. Homosexuality: The Ethical Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    In three articles about homosexuality, the first author argues that homosexuals should be helped to accept their sexual situation; the second author categorically opposes this approach and proposes instead to help homosexuals change to heterosexuality. The third author assumes a more flexible position on the question. (SE)

  4. Homosexuality: The Ethical Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Gerald C.

    1976-01-01

    In three articles about homosexuality, the first author argues that homosexuals should be helped to accept their sexual situation; the second author categorically opposes this approach and proposes instead to help homosexuals change to heterosexuality. The third author assumes a more flexible position on the question. (SE)

  5. Homosexuality and the military.

    PubMed

    Jones, F D; Koshes, R J

    1995-01-01

    Homosexuality has remained a focus of military concern despite society's increasing acceptance of homosexual men and women and evidence that homosexuals have served and currently serve in the U.S. armed forces. President Clinton has stated a determination to end discrimination against homosexuals in the military and reverse the exclusionary policy on homosexuals serving in the armed forces. The authors review the history of the policy of the U.S. military to exclude homosexuals from serving in the armed forces. The data for this study were drawn from military archives and court cases that have shaped U.S. policy excluding homosexuals from serving in the armed forces. The three main arguments are addressed: 1) homosexuality is a mental disorder rendering a person unstable, 2) homosexual service members are a source of poor morale for military units, and 3) homosexual service members are poor security risks. Considerable evidence demonstrates that homosexuals in the military pose no documented threat to national security and show no evidence of poor work performance. Although issues of morale and fraternization in the military remain challenges, no evidence in this review supports the exclusion of homosexuals from service in the U.S. armed forces.

  6. Homosexuality in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Glasser, M

    1977-09-01

    This paper asserts that homosexuality in adolescence should not be regarded in the same way it would be in adults. Different types of homosexuality emerge during adolescence according to the different psychodynamic conditions which occur at different stages of adolescence, particularly the changing relationship to the individual's parents, and these may subside or make an important contribution to the establishment and nature of an individuals' homosexuality in adulthood. The characteristic 'identificatory facility' of adolescence is discussed and it is suggested that this is retained in the make-up of the adult homosexual. Some comments on the clinical assessment of homosexuality in adolescence are briefly made.

  7. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  8. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-06-18

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  9. Medical students and interns’ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341

  10. Medical students and interns' knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Medical professionals' attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns' knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from 'true', 'false', or 'don't know'. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice.

  11. Potential for homosexual response is prevalent and genetic.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Harlaar, Nicole; Varjonen, Markus; Alanko, Katarina; von der Pahlen, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the potential to engage in homosexual behavior in 6001 female and 3152 male twins and their siblings finding that 32.8% of the men and 65.4% of the women reported such potential (p<0.001). 91.5% of these men and 98.3% of these women reported no overt homosexual behavior during the preceding 12 months. The potential to engage in homosexual behavior was influenced by genetic effects for both men (37.4%) and women (46.4%) and these overlapped only partly with those for overt homosexual behavior.

  12. "Physical attractiveness stereotype" and the attribution of homosexuality revisited.

    PubMed

    Dunkle, J H; Francis, P L

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigated whether subjects would perceive male and female faces as homosexual based upon facial attractiveness while statistically controlling for facial masculinity/femininity. Also of interest was the extent to which the subjects' gender and attitudes toward homosexuality would influence their perceptions. Eighty undergraduates indicated how likely they thought it was that six male and six female faces were homosexual. The targets were also rated on attractiveness and masculinity/femininity. The present sample also completed the Index of Homophobia, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Attitude Toward Women Scale, a conservatism scale, and a demographic questionnaire. The subjects assigned higher homosexuality ratings to the unattractive males and females compared to their attractive counterparts. Gender of subject and attitudes toward homosexuality did not significantly affect evaluations.

  13. Intergroup Contact and Beliefs about Homosexuality in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Justin E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around…

  14. Intergroup Contact and Beliefs about Homosexuality in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Justin E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around…

  15. The relationship between sexism and attitudes toward homosexuality in a sample of Turkish college students.

    PubMed

    Sakalli, Nuray

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of sexism, having traditional and conservative values, and contact with homosexual individuals to attitudes toward homosexuality. Two hundred seven male and female students from Middle East Technical University completed Hudson and Rickett's Homophobia scale, Glick and Fiske's Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and questions about: (1) their sexual preferences, (2) whether they described themselves as traditional and conservative, and (3) whether they knew a homosexual or not. Sexist attitudes, being more traditional and conservative, and not knowing any homosexual individuals all predicted more negative attitudes toward homosexuality. The correlation between hostile sexism and anti-homosexual attitudes was higher than the correlation between benevolent sexism and anti-homosexual attitudes. In addition, male, as compared to female, respondents were both more sexist and held more negative attitudes toward homosexuality.

  16. Death in Venice: the homosexuality enigma.

    PubMed

    Schuiling, G A

    2004-03-01

    A hypothesis is presented which regards homosexuality neither as an aberration of 'normal' human sexuality, i.e. heterosexuality, nor as a 'defect', genetically transmitted from parent(s) to offspring. Nor is homosexuality regarded as the regrettable result of accidental circumstances. Homosexuality, it is maintained, is simply inherent in the human reproductive strategy; an option which evolved during the millions of years of human evolution as a solution for problems inherent in a polygynic, yet social species living in relatively small groups: homosexuality diminishes intra-male competition on the 'reproductive market'. This enables males to work closely together in all fields of society (hunting, war etc), rather than competing with each other for access to females. Homosexuality thus largely contributes to group stability. However, because our present-day situation differs vastly from the situation in which the human reproductive strategy evolved, the phenomenon hardly plays a role any more in the maintainance of the fitness and the stability of the population as a whole. Instead, due to 'cultural', often religious prejudices, homosexuals nowadays are treated as belonging to an 'out-group', and discriminated against accordingly.

  17. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  18. Sex-dimorphic face shape preference in heterosexual and homosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Glassenberg, Aaron N; Feinberg, David R; Jones, Benedict C; Little, Anthony C; Debruine, Lisa M

    2010-12-01

    Studies have used manipulated faces to test the preferences of heterosexual individuals for sexually dimorphic facial cues. In contrast to previous studies, which have generally excluded homosexual participants, we directly compared homosexual and heterosexual male and female preferences for manipulated sexual dimorphism in faces (homosexual males: n = 311; heterosexual males: n = 215; homosexual females: n = 159; heterosexual females: n = 218). Prior studies on sexual orientation and preferences for faces that were paired with masculine and feminine behavioral descriptors suggest that homosexual men prefer more masculine men and that homosexual women demonstrate no preference for either masculinity or femininity in women. In our study, we tested for similarities and differences among heterosexual and homosexual males and females with regard to their preferences for a more specific aspect of faces: sexual dimorphism of face shape. Homosexual men demonstrated stronger preferences for masculinity in male faces than did all of the other groups. Homosexual women demonstrated stronger preferences for masculinity in female faces than did heterosexual women. These results suggest attractiveness judgments of same-sex faces made by homosexual individuals are not a mirror image of those made by heterosexual individuals of the opposite sex. Our data suggest that face preferences of homosexual individuals reflect a system of biologically and socially guided preferences at least as complex as those found among heterosexual individuals.

  19. Controlled comparison of attitudes of psychiatrists, general practitioners, homosexual doctors and homosexual men to male homosexuality.

    PubMed Central

    Bhugra, D; King, M

    1989-01-01

    A controlled analysis of the attitudes of doctors and homosexual men to male homosexuality is reported. Not surprisingly the homosexual men held the most liberal attitudes which served as a yard-stick against which the doctors' attitudes could be assessed. The implications of these data, collected before the AIDS era, are discussed in terms of the current needs of homosexual patients. PMID:2810298

  20. Male homosexuality reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Leavy, S A

    Prevailing psychoanalytic attitudes toward male homosexuality are predisposed to the treatment of it as a psychopathological disorder. This study proposes that the appearance of disorder follows from the distortions imposed on the personality during development. Superego conflicts ensue that are relieved rather than resolved in the analysis, if the analyst shares the patient's conviction that it is sexuality that is disordered. The study's second point is the suggestion that the unifying characteristic of male homosexuals is to be found in the particular form of body narcissism that leads to same-sex choice. Third, it is proposed that analysts reconsider the likelihood that biogenetic elements enter into the homosexual outcome.

  1. Homosexual foot fetishism.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, M S; Williams, C J; Calhan, C

    1994-12-01

    262 respondents from an organization for homosexual foot fetishists provide information from a broader sample than clinical cases and allow examination of the effects of sexual preference on fetishism. Data show a wide range of feet/footwear objects to be arousing. Such interests were often associated with particular types of men, yet interests were subject to change over time. Fetishistic arousal rested on both sensual and symbolic aspects of the fetish. Symbolically, it was the theme of "masculinity" that made male feet/footwear arousing, showing parallels to "femininity" evoked by female feet/footwear for male heterosexual fetishists. For many of the respondents, fetishism did not seem to be a substitute for living persons. Respondents had intimate relationships and were able to incorporate their fetish interests into stable relationships and less intimate ones. Considerable involvement in sadomasochistic practices was also found as was involvement in the gay world. Finally, nothing about a fetishistic interest seemed to preclude the development of subcultural forms around the practice.

  2. Gonorrhea in homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, T. W.; Lent, B.; Pattison, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    Extragenital gonorrhea was seen in 65% of 54 cases of gonorrhea in 43 homosexual men attending a venereal diseases clinic between 1974 and 1977; in 21 cases the infection was extragenital only. This type of gonorrhea was often asymptomatic and was associated with a high rate of failure of initial treatment in 6 of the 50 cases in which the patient returned for follow-up assessment, and in 5 of the 6 the persistent infection was extragenital. Syphillis was seen concomitantly or had previously occurred in 6 of the 54 cases. Fifteen of 28 cases of primary, secondary or early latent syphilis seen in men during the same study period had occurred in homosexuals. Appropriate testing for extragenital gonorrhea and for syphilis is important in homosexual men who present for examination, and homosexuality with the possibility of extragenital gonorrhea should be considered in a man with syphilis of recent onset. PMID:709473

  3. Juvenile homosexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Limited information exists on juvenile homosexual homicide (JHH), that is, youths who perpetrate sexual homicides against same-sex victims. Only a handful of cases from the United States and internationally have been described in the literature. This study, the first of its kind, examines the epidemiology, victimology, victim-offender relationship, and weapon-use patterns in JHH offenders using a large U.S. database on homicide spanning three decades. The data for this study were derived from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs) for the years 1976 through 2005. A total of 93 cases of JHH were identified. On average, three of these crimes occurred annually in the U.S., and there was a marked decline in its incidence over the study period. Ninety-five percent were male offender-male victim cases and 5% were female offender-female victim cases. JHH offenders were over-represented amongst all juvenile sexual murderers, similar to their adult counterparts. The majority of these boys were aged 16 or 17 and killed adult victims. They were significantly more likely to kill adult victims than other age groups, to be friends or acquaintances of the victims, and to use contact/edged weapons or firearms. Most offenders killed same-race victims, although Black offenders were significantly more likely than White offenders to kill interracially. A case report is provided to illustrate JHH. Further research is needed to promote our understanding of the pathogenesis, etiology, and associated risk factors for this aberrant form of murder by children. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Participants in urban Mexican male homosexual encounters.

    PubMed

    Carrier, J M

    1971-12-01

    Preliminary data are presented on 53 urban Mexican males interviewed during 1970-1971 in a study of homosexual encounters in a large Mexican city. These data are compared with data from recent studies in the United States and England of male homosexual behavior. Although preliminary and limited, the Mexican data indicate that cultural factors are important determinants of life styles and sex practices of homosexual males. Forty-eight of the 53 (90%) preferred and usually practiced anal intercourse, four preferred oral contacts, and one preferred mutual masturbation. Interviewees were also grouped according to major type of sex activity during the first sustained year of homosexual activity after puberty. One intragroup comparison indicates significant differences between anal active and anal passive interviewees. For example, as children anal passive subjects had significantly more homosexual contacts with adults; they also considered themselves more effeminate and as children were more involved with female sex-typed activities. Comparison of data from the English and United States studies with the present data suggests that preference for a particular sexual technique is not as developed in the former two countries; when there is a preference, it is not usually for anal intercourse.

  5. Homosexuality and love.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, R E

    1967-01-01

    The following points have been made in this paper and are offered as preliminary conclusions: 1) Homosexuality is condemned by the Bible only as it detracts from the purpose of man's creation-to love God and neighbor and self. The story of Sodom and Gomorrah cannot be taken as proof of God's condemnation of homosexuality. 2) While there may be constitutional and existential factors to be considered, homosexuality seems to be best explained and treated when it is held to be a psychological illness. It is characterized by narcissistic and schizoid fantasy with an aggressive orientation toward others. 3) As an illness, homosexuality may have interpersonal consequences that are immoral but, in itself, it is as moral in its relation to its victim as is any other disease. 4) A mature love, characterized by care, responsibility, respect, and knowledge, is precluded in the homosexual's relationships by the nature of his illness. It is possible, however, for the heterosexual to become more accepting and loving of the homosexual once he faces the dynamics behind his own feelings.

  6. Analysis of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in Japan from 1985-2011-infection detection pattern for male homosexuals different from that for male heterosexuals but similar to that for females.

    PubMed

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews Japanese HIV/AIDS surveillance data from 1985 to 2011. It revealed that heterosexual males are more prone to be detected as "AIDS cases," whereas male homosexuals and females are more prone to be detected as "HIV cases," irrespective of the gender, age, infection route, residential area, and nationality. The probability of being detected as an "AIDS case" increased with advanced age, irrespective of the gender and infection route. Interpretation of the data requires further information on the clinical latency of AIDS that could differ depending on differences in infection routes, gender, age, nature of the acute-phase syndrome and factors enhancing it, e.g., route and dose of infection, and mucosal immunity involved in sexually transmitted HIV/AIDS infection and the influence of age and gender on it.

  7. Sexual partner age preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Silverthorne, Z A; Quinsey, V L

    2000-02-01

    The sexual age preferences of 192 adults (equal groups of heterosexual men, heterosexual women, homosexual men, and homosexual women) were examined. Participants rated the sexual attractiveness of pictures of 15 male and 15 female faces arranged into five apparent average age categories ranging from 18 to 60 years. It was predicted that homosexual and heterosexual men would prefer younger partners of their preferred sex than would homosexual and heterosexual women and that age preference would not vary with participant age. Both predictions were supported, although homosexual women preferred older partners than expected. Results suggest that age and sex preferences develop independently.

  8. A Further Assessment of Blanchard’s Typology of Homosexual Versus Non-Homosexual or Autogynephilic Gender Dysphoria

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Mason, Mona; Hwahng, Sel; Rosenblum, Andrew; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    In a series of important but now highly controversial articles, Blanchard examined associations of sexual orientation and transvestic fetishism among male-to-female (MTF) transgender persons in Toronto, Canada. Transvestic fetishism was rare among the homosexuals but prevalent among the non-homosexuals. Subtypes of non-homosexual MTFs (heterosexual, bisexual, and asexual) were consistently high with regard to transvestic fetishism. Non-linear associations of a continuous measurement of sexual attraction to women (gynephilia) and transvestic fetishism were interpreted in terms of an etiological hypothesis in which transvestic fetishism interferes with the early development of heterosexuality. Blanchard concluded that homosexual versus non-homosexual sexual orientation is a dominant and etiologically significant axis for evaluating and understanding this population. We further assessed these findings among 571 MTFs from the New York City metropolitan area. Using the Life Chart Interview, multiple measurements of transvestic fetishism were obtained and classified as lifetime, lifecourse persistent, adolescent limited, and adult onset. Large (but not deterministic) differences in lifetime, lifecourse persistent, and adolescent limited transvestic fetishism were found between the homosexuals and non-homosexuals. Contrary to Blanchard, differences in transvestic fetishism were observed across subtypes of the non-homosexuals, and linear (not curvilinear) associations were found along a continuous measurement of gynephilia and transvestic fetishism. Age and ethnicity, in addition to sexual orientation, were found to be statistically significant predictors of transvestic fetishism. The clinical, etiological, and sociopolitical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20039113

  9. A pair of monozygotic twins discordant for homosexuality: sex-dimorphic behavior and penile volume responses.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N; Blaszczynski, A

    1980-04-01

    In reports of identical twins discordant for homosexuality, the homosexual twins showed the effeminacy syndrome in childhood. This has been considered evidence that the homosexuality comes from the twin himself. The possibility that the heterosexual twin was denying homosexuality has never been excluded. A pair of identical male twins discordant for homosexuality are reported. They showed significant differences in their penile volume responses to moving pictures of male and female nudes indicative of sexual orientations consistent with their statements. The homosexual twin showed the effeminacy syndrome. Aspects of the syndrome can be induced in mammals by altering their hormonal environment during some critical period in their intrauterine development. Discordance for homosexuality in identical twins could be due to one's being exposed to a different hormonal level during such a critical period.

  10. Can Homosexuals Change With Psychotherapy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatterer, Lawrence J.; Tripp, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    Presented is a debate between a physician and a psychologist concerning the possibility of successful intervention with homosexual behavior. The physician argues that homosexuality results from disturbed patterns of gender identity, while the psychologist sees homosexuality as an urge to respond to members of the same sex. From this urge may stem…

  11. Intelligence and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The origin of preferences and values is an unresolved theoretical problem in behavioural sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals are more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel preferences and values than less intelligent individuals, but general intelligence has no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar preferences and values. Ethnographies of traditional societies suggest that exclusively homosexual behaviour was probably rare in the ancestral environment, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent individuals are more likely to identify themselves as homosexual and engage in homosexual behaviour. Analyses of three large, nationally representative samples (two of which are prospectively longitudinal) from two different nations confirm the prediction.

  12. Is homosexuality hormonally determined?

    PubMed

    Birke, L I

    1981-01-01

    This paper suggest there is insufficient evidence to conclude that homosexuality has endocrine bases. The search for hormonal correlates occurs within a model that views homosexuality as a medical problem requiring biological explanations and a program of treatment or prevention. This search is heavily rooted in popular conceptions of gender-appropriate behavior, as well as in naive concepts of the significance of hormonal changes. Two kinds of hormonal study are considered here. Researchers may either (a) investigate hormone levels in adult populations or (b) investigate hypotheses of behavioral determination by prenatal hormones. Much of the latter information derives from animal studies, commonly on the laboratory rat. This paper questions the validity of assumptions underlying these studies--assumptions about the behavior of the laboratory rat itself and, more importantly, about the legitimacy of this animal as a model for human behavior. It is suggested that, although such hypotheses are naive, their current popularity arises from their potential role in "controlling" homosexuality.

  13. Autonomic responses of transsexual and homosexual males to erotic film sequences.

    PubMed

    Barr, R; Blaszczynski, A

    1976-05-01

    Penile volume and galvanic skin responses to nude female and male film sequences were studied in 10 transsexual patients, 44 patients requesting treatment for homosexual impulses, and 60 heterosexual students. Student controls and homosexuals showed significantly greater galvanic skin responses to the preferred than to the nonpreferred sex. Transsexuals tended to show larger galvanic skin responses to females than did male homosexuals. No strong relationships were found between penile volume and galvanic skin response to the preferred sex. It is concluded that transsexual patients differ significantly from homosexual patients in autonomic responsivity, which may have diagnostic usefulness.

  14. [Homosexuality in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Günther, E; Hoyer, H; Vogel, M; Broening, T; Schaum, B

    1992-05-01

    Every second homosexual man has a presentiment of his own homosexuality during childhood. 86 percent of the homosexual men feel it till eighteen. The selfrecognition is a way full of conflicts between ignoration and acceptance; sometimes it ends in deformation of the personality or even in suicide. For well advice of homosexual children and adolescents we indicate: firstly an early sexual education in the school including information on homosexuality and secondly the academic and postgradual education of physicians, psychologists and pedagogues on natural variants of human sexuality.

  15. Maternal inheritance and familial fecundity factors in male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi; Collins, Anthony; Morrison, Martine; Orrells, Jennifer Claire; Cadinouche, Khatija; Greenfield, Sherene; Begum, Sabina

    2008-12-01

    This study, following Camperio-Ciani, Corna, and Capiluppi [(2004), Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 271, 2217-2221] aimed to examine the familial history of male homosexuality, and test the so-called "fertile female" hypothesis for this trait in a contemporary British sample. Using a comparative survey design, we found that white (comprising those of Anglo-European descent) and non-white (comprising ethnic "Blacks, "South Asians," "East Asians," "Hispanics," and "Others") homosexual men (n = 147) had a significant excess of maternal but not paternal line male homosexual relatives compared to heterosexual men (n = 155). We also found significantly elevated fecundity of maternal aunts of white homosexual men compared to white heterosexual men, whereas non-white heterosexual men showed elevated fecundities of almost every class of relative compared to non-white homosexual men. No significant excess of older brothers was found in homosexual compared to heterosexual men, irrespective of ethnic grouping. These data were discussed in relation to possible population-related factors in evolutionary explanations for human male homosexuality.

  16. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  17. Clio, fallacies, and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R J

    1984-01-01

    Major fallacies occur in historical writing on male homosexuality. These include: the assertion of controversial assumptions as proven; attributing complex phenomena to a single cause; semantic distortion; ethnocentricism; and anachronism. History itself is fallaciously conceived as historical "forces" (historicism) and intrinsic "will" (the pathetic fallacy). Finally there is "tunnel history," viewing events outside of a broad historical context.

  18. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  19. Parental Relationships and Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Ray B.

    1971-01-01

    Confirmed is Bieber's finding (1962) that childhood parental relationships of homosexual men are less desirable than those of heterosexual men. However, while parental impact on children may be greater than the other way around, child impact on the parent probably determines parental attitudes toward that child. (CJ)

  20. Homosexuality, birth order, and evolution: toward an equilibrium reproductive economics of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Miller, E M

    2000-02-01

    The survival of a human predisposition for homosexuality can be explained by sexual orientation being a polygenetic trait that is influenced by a number of genes. During development these shift male brain development in the female direction. Inheritance of several such alleles produces homosexuality. Single alleles make for greater sensitivity, empathy, tendermindedness, and kindness. These traits make heterosexual carriers of the genes better fathers and more attractive mates. There is a balanced polymorphism in which the feminizing effect of these alleles in heterosexuals offsets the adverse effects (on reproductive success) of these alleles' contribution to homosexuality. A similar effect probably occurs for genes that can produce lesbianism in females. The whole system survives because it serves to provide a high degree of variability among the personalities of offspring, providing the genotype with diversification and reducing competition among offspring for the same niches. An allele with a large effect can survive in these circumstances in males, but it is less likely to survive in females. The birth order effect on homosexuality is probably a by-product of a biological mechanism that shifts personalities more in the feminine direction in the later born sons, reducing the probability of these sons engaging in unproductive competition with each other.

  1. Intergroup contact and beliefs about homosexuality in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Justin E; Horn, Stacey S

    2009-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between intergroup contact and adolescents' attitudes regarding homosexuality and the treatment of lesbian and gay (LG) peers. Fourteen- through 18-year-olds (n = 1,069, 59.7% females) completed self-report attitude and judgment questionnaires about the acceptability of homosexuality, levels of comfort around LG peers, and the acceptability of excluding or teasing an LG peer. The results suggest that having an LG friend is related to more positive attitudes toward homosexuals/homosexuality and less tolerance toward the unfair treatment of LG peers. The findings lend further support to intergroup contact theory and provide evidence that the intimacy of contact is related to prejudice reduction, and offer general support that age is related to prejudicial attitudes, but less so to prejudicial behaviors.

  2. Testing multiple hypotheses for the maintenance of male homosexual copulatory behaviour in flour beetles.

    PubMed

    Levan, K E; Fedina, T Y; Lewis, S M

    2009-01-01

    Diverse animal groups exhibit homosexual interactions, yet the evolutionary maintenance of such behaviours remains enigmatic as they do not directly increase reproductive success by generating progeny. Here, we use Tribolium castaneum flour beetles, which exhibit frequent male homosexual copulations, to empirically test several hypotheses for the maintenance of such behaviours: (1) establishing social dominance; (2) practice for future heterosexual encounters; and (3) indirect sperm translocation. We found no evidence that Tribolium males use homosexual copulations either to establish dominance or to practice behaviours that increase their subsequent heterosexual reproductive performance. Our results provide limited support for the hypothesis of indirect sperm translocation: when males from two genetic strains mated with females immediately following a homosexual copulation, females produced progeny sired not only by the directly mating male, but also by that male's homosexual partner. However, this phenomenon was detected in only 7% of homosexual pairs, and in each case such indirectly sired progeny accounted for < 0.5% of females' total progeny. Direct observations indicated that mounting males often released spermatophores during homosexual copulations. These observations suggest that homosexual copulations may be a behavioural mechanism that allows males to expel older, potentially low-quality sperm. Additional work is needed to test this new hypothesis, and to determine whether sperm release during homosexual copulations occurs in other groups.

  3. Reanalysis of Bell, Weinberg, and Hammersmith's data on birth order, sibling sex ratio, and parental age in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R; Zucker, K J

    1994-09-01

    The authors compared parental age, birth order, and sex ratio of siblings for 575 homosexual men and 284 heterosexual men, matched on age and education. They were originally part of Bell, Weinberg, and Hammersmith's large-scale study of male and female homosexuality. The results confirmed the previous findings that homosexual men have older fathers and later births than do heterosexual men but not the finding that homosexual men have larger proportions of brothers. The collective findings suggest that birth order is perhaps the single most reliable demographic difference between homosexual and heterosexual men.

  4. Ego-dystonic homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Lief, H I; Kaplan, H S

    1986-01-01

    The patient coming in with a dysphoria over his or her homosexual feelings, fantasies or behavior must be given the choice of working through the homophobia or the heterophobia. With the first choice, treatment is directed toward decreasing shame over the homosexual orientation and integrating the patient's social role and personal identity. If a move toward greater heterosexuality is chosen, techniques range from psychoanalysis to time-limited psychodynamic psychotherapy to behavioral techniques. Behavioral techniques may involve in vitro or in vivo desensitization. Issues in selecting the appropriate form of therapy are sometimes subtle and complex, and ethical issues frequently beset the therapist. The patient must be kept fully informed of his or her options, and the choice and the goals of therapy must be arrived at by both patient and therapist.

  5. PROBLEMS OF HOMOSEXUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Reider, Norman

    1957-01-01

    Moral, religious and legal attitudes in attempts to control sexual behavior have interfered with a clear view of the medical and psychological aspects of homosexuality. This phenomenon is probably much less destructive of social aspects of our society and culture than is generally believed, since it is actually more widespread than is generally acknowledged. Homosexuality probably has hormonal and undoubtedly social and psychological factors, the latter of which are the only ones which can be worked with successfully in our present state of knowledge. A general practitioner's task is to aid those who wish and need help with this problem in finding psychiatric treatment in the same way that persons with any other emotional disturbance are referred. This should be carried out without bias just as with any other emotional disturbance. PMID:13426813

  6. High School Students' Attitudes Toward Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.

    1982-01-01

    A review of research concerning attitudes toward homosexuality and a study of 278 high school students' attitudes toward homosexuality show that males have significantly greater negative attitudes toward homosexuality. Tables display results of the study. (CJ)

  7. An Advocate Model for Intervention with Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Raymond M.

    1977-01-01

    Homosexual behavior has received little attention from social workers. Starting with the premise that homosexuality is a legitimate variation of life-style, the author suggests a model for social work intervention with the homosexual. (Author)

  8. Heterosexual Male Carriers Could Explain Persistence of Homosexuality in Men: Individual-Based Simulations of an X-Linked Inheritance Model.

    PubMed

    Chaladze, Giorgi

    2016-10-01

    Homosexuality has been documented throughout history and is found in almost all human cultures. Twin studies suggest that homosexuality is to some extent heritable. However, from an evolutionary perspective, this poses a problem: Male homosexuals tend to have on average five times fewer children than heterosexual males, so how can a phenomenon associated with low reproductive success be maintained at relatively stable frequencies? Recent findings of increased maternal fecundity of male homosexuals suggest that the genes responsible for homosexuality in males increase fecundity in the females who carry them. Can an increase in maternal fecundity compensate for the fecundity reduction in homosexual men and produce a stable polymorphism? In the current study, this problem was addressed with an individual-based modeling (IBM) approach. IBM suggests that male homosexuality can be maintained in a population at low and stable frequencies if roughly more than half of the females and half of the males are carriers of genes that predispose the male to homosexuality.

  9. A Foucauldian Analysis of Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazenovich, George

    2012-01-01

    The present research paper approaches homosexuality from a Foucauldian perspective. Foucault's place and standing in a postmodern historical and cultural context will be explained. The paper outlines how homosexuality has been historically constructed and socially constituted. How sexuality became understood as a particular form of discourse, that…

  10. A Foucauldian Analysis of Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazenovich, George

    2012-01-01

    The present research paper approaches homosexuality from a Foucauldian perspective. Foucault's place and standing in a postmodern historical and cultural context will be explained. The paper outlines how homosexuality has been historically constructed and socially constituted. How sexuality became understood as a particular form of discourse, that…

  11. Familial aspects of male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Dawood, K; Pillard, R C; Horvath, C; Revelle, W; Bailey, J M

    2000-04-01

    Research has generally supported the existence of familial-genetic factors for male sexual orientation, but has not shed much light on the specific nature of those influences. Gay men with gay brothers provide the opportunity to examine several hypotheses. Sixty-six men, representing 37 gay male sibling pairs, completed questionnaires assessing behavior on various measures including childhood and adult gender nonconformity, timing of awareness of homosexual feelings, self-acceptance, and the quality of family relationships. Consistent with prior findings using twins, gay brothers were similar in their degree of childhood gender non-conformity, suggesting that this variable may distinguish etiologically (e.g., genetically) heterogeneous subtypes. The large majority of gay men with brothers knew about their own homosexual feelings before they learned about their brothers' homosexual feelings, suggesting that discovery of brothers' homosexuality is not an important cause of male homosexuality.

  12. Homosexuality and totalitarianism.

    PubMed

    Birken, L

    1997-01-01

    Since the dissolution of Communism left the Right with no unifying enemy, some conservatives may be turning to the gay world as the new "evil empire." This article explores the ideology that underpins the recent upsurge of gay-baiting. Its central thesis is that in identifying the homosexual as the demonic "other" the cultural Right is offering us another form of ersatz Christianity masquerading as tradition but actually infected with the virus of modernity. The paper classifies homophobia as an essentially secular phenomenon, reminiscent of other ideologies which have arisen as a substitute for religion.

  13. Family and sexual orientation: the family-demographic correlates of homosexuality in men and women.

    PubMed

    Francis, Andrew M

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of young adults, I identify the family-demographic correlates of sexual orientation in men and women. Hence, I test the maternal immune hypothesis, which posits that the only biodemographic correlate of male homosexuality is the number of older brothers, and there are no biodemographic correlates of female homosexuality. For men, I find that having one older brother does not raise the likelihood of homosexuality. Although having multiple older brothers has a positive coefficient, it is not significant. Moreover, having any older sisters lowers the likelihood of homosexual or bisexual identity. For women, I find that having an older brother or having any sisters decreases the likelihood of homosexuality. Family structure, ethnicity, and education are also significantly correlated with male and female sexual orientation. Therefore, the maternal immune hypothesis cannot explain the entire pattern of family-demographic correlates. The findings are consistent with either biological or social theories of sexual orientation.

  14. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship.

  15. Homosexuality in America: At 200 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brudnoy, David

    1976-01-01

    This paper takes the position that homosexuality is still considered deviant and that homosexuals are still discriminated against in many ways. The author views the present response to homosexuality as not advancing the homosexual's cause and feels that true acceptance is yet to be achieved. (NG)

  16. Homosexuality, the Law, and Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Kenneth W.; And Others

    This paper discusses the current issues of homosexuality, the law, and public schools. It states that school administrators need to understand homosexuality as a concept and as a legal issue because research on homosexuality has historically been remiss and court cases regarding the rights of homosexuals are increasing. Following a brief summary…

  17. Homosexuality, the Law, and Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Kenneth W.; And Others

    This paper discusses the current issues of homosexuality, the law, and public schools. It states that school administrators need to understand homosexuality as a concept and as a legal issue because research on homosexuality has historically been remiss and court cases regarding the rights of homosexuals are increasing. Following a brief summary…

  18. Homosexuality in ancient and modern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Gwan; Hahn, Sook-Ja

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines Korean views on the subject of male homosexuality. Using historical and contemporary sources, it seeks to explain elements of new cultural openness towards homosexuality in modern Korea. Korean people's understanding and knowledge of male homosexuality is ambiguous and limited. In the absence of knowledge and open communication, most Korean people imagine that male homosexuality is an abnormal and impure modern phenomenon. Prejudice and confusion lead most Korean male homosexuals to be estranged from their families, religious communities and non-homosexual peers. Moreover, they are often viewed as the 'carriers' of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). The purpose of this paper is to examine current Korean perspectives on male homosexuality by exploring both the ancient history of the practice of male homosexuality and current thinking about homosexual life among Koreans, which has played an important part in the formation of contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality.

  19. Birth order and sibling sex ratio in two samples of Dutch gender-dysphoric homosexual males.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R; Zucker, K J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Gooren, L J; Bailey, J M

    1996-10-01

    Two studies were undertaken to confirm the previous findings that homosexual men in general tend to have a later than expected birth order and that extremely feminine homosexual men also tend to have a higher than expected proportion of brothers (i.e., a higher sibling sex ratio). Subjects in Study 1 were Dutch, adult and adolescent, biological male patients with gender dysphoria (persistent and recurrent desires to belong to the opposite sex), who were undergoing treatment with feminizing hormones. These comprised 83 patients who reported sexual attraction to other males (the homosexual group) and 58 who reported sexual attraction to females or equal attraction to males and females (the non-homosexual group). Subjects in Study 2 were Dutch adolescent male patients at another hospital. The homosexual group consisted of 21 gender-dysphoric homosexual teenagers referred to a gender identity clinic for children and adolescents. The control group were 21 adolescent males referred to the child psychiatry department of the same hospital for reasons other than gender identity disorder, homosexuality, or transvestism. These were individually matched to the homosexual subjects on age and sibship size. In both studies, the homosexual group had a significantly later average birth order than the comparison group. In Study 1, the homosexual group had a significantly elevated sibling sex ratio; this was not tested in Study 2 because of its small sample size. These studies add to the mounting evidence that late birth orders are common to all homosexual samples and that elevated sibling sex ratios are an additional characteristic of extremely feminine ones.

  20. Out of DSM: Depathologizing Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2015-12-04

    In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the diagnosis of "homosexuality" from the second edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I and DSM-II as well as alternative theories that eventually led to its removal from DSM III and subsequent editions of the manual. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sociocultural aftermath of that 1973 decision.

  1. Attitudes toward Homosexuals among Students at a Canadian University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Hirt, Jessie; Sears, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward homosexuals among 199 male and female students at a Canadian university. Attitudes toward gay men were more negative than attitudes toward lesbians. For male students, attitudes toward gay men improved with time spent at college, suggesting the influence of college in reducing antihomosexual prejudice. (SLD)

  2. Homosexuality or homoeroticism? 'Narcissistic eroticism'.

    PubMed

    Bergeret, Jean

    2002-04-01

    It may be dangerous for a psychoanalyst to let him/herself be influenced by the social and media pressure that proposes the use of the term 'homosexual' to describe the affective functioning of a homophile, for this assumes--from the outset--that it is of a truly sexual nature. However, following certain Freudian writings and the works of Ferenczi in 1911, we know the different mechanisms of the narcissistic register that come into play in the quite particular relational behaviour that should more relevantly be called 'homoeroticism'. On the other hand, our diagnostic and therapeutic approach will benefit from not considering, at the outset, all the economically and psychogenetically very different varieties of homoeroticism, male or female, latent or manifest, in too global a fashion, with reference also to the Freudian concept of psychic bisexuality. The French psychoanalytical research team working with the author has focused on these important issues for a number of years now. This article aims to give a fairly brief account of its work, with the objective of opening up a discussion amongst psycho-analysts, within the framework of Freudian thought.

  3. Homosexuality: a dilemma in discourse!

    PubMed

    Gulia, K K; Mallick, H N

    2010-01-01

    Homosexuality has been in practice even prior to its recorded history. In the Indian cultural context, discourse on sexuality had never gained an agreeable consensus from any platform. However, in the recent past, efforts were made by governmental and nongovernmental organizations to bring sex-related issues to the masses after speculation on presumably the fast spread of AIDS (acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome) particularly through illegal homosexual activities. Nevertheless, strong cultural and religious ideologies discouraged any valid discussions on homosexuality. In light of the given scenario, the present essay aimed to highlight several aspects of homosexuality that include a brief history, biological basis, effect of nature versus nurture, evolutionary perspective and related issues concerning general well-being and health.

  4. Boeotian swine: homosexuality in Boeotia.

    PubMed

    Hupperts, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This article shows that the accounts in our ancient sources regarding Boeotian attitudes towards homosexuality, namely that the Boeotians were different from other Greeks in that they enjoyed great freedom in this respect and seemingly everything was permissible to them, present a distorted picture of the homosexual practices in this region. In fact, vase paintings with homosexual iconography dating from the sixth century BC reveal marked similarities with Attic and Corinthian pottery ware of the same period. The view that the Boeotians conducted themselves in an 'uncivilized' manner in their homosexual relations is therefore better understood as an attempt by other Greeks to distinguish themselves from the 'boorish' Boeotians and to justify their own aversion to this form of erotic love.

  5. Attitudes Toward Homosexuality in Adolescence: An Italian Study.

    PubMed

    Santona, Alessandra; Tognasso, Giacomo

    2017-04-14

    This study investigates Italian adolescents' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and same-sex marriage, and their beliefs about the origins of homosexuality. The sample consists of 449 subjects (226 males), aged between 14 and 21 years. The principal instruments used are: the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay men (ATLG), the Modern Homonegativity Scale (MHS), and the Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage (ATSM). Results suggest that males show a more negative attitude than females toward homosexuals. Furthermore data reveal that respondents with a lack of personal direct contact with gay people have less positive attitudes toward homosexual people and same-sex marriage. The data in this study suggest that homophobia could be deeply rooted in a traditional value system that refutes gender equality.

  6. Detection of sexual orientation by heterosexuals and homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Berger, G; Hank, L; Rauzi, T; Simkins, L

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual orientation can be correctly identified under controlled conditions. A series of 24 brief videotaped interviews with homosexual and heterosexual men and women were presented to a sample of 143 subject raters divided into four sexual preference and gender groups. None of the groups were able to exceed levels of correct detection. Approximately 20% of the total subject pool did exceed chance levels. There were significantly more women than men in this sub-sample and homosexual women were represented disproportionately. Although there were some differences in the types of behavioral cues used by the different sexual preference groups to make their judgments, with the possible exception of homosexual women, these cues were unrelated to accurate identification of sexual orientation. The relatively better performance of female raters is discussed in terms of differences in the socialization process of men and women.

  7. Birth order among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray; Siegelman, Marvin

    2003-02-01

    Nicolosi and Byrd in 2002 summarized empirical research on birth order and sexual orientation in men, which research has documented that homosexual men have a later birth order than heterosexual men. They did not, however, note a more refined analysis of an earlier null finding by Siegelman. This 1998 reanalysis by Blanchard, Zucker, Siegelman, Dickey, and Klassen also confirmed the later birth order of homosexual men.

  8. [Male sexual dysfunctions and homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Leuillet, P; Cour, F; Droupy, S

    2013-07-01

    The homosexuality, which expresses itself through a varied and complex behavior that those whom are shared by the heterosexual majority, is not that a simple sexual behavior, obvious or not, but a whole set of attitudes, affects, preferences, values, lifestyle which concern profoundly the individual, as the heterosexuality. A review of the literature using PubMed database has been performed to select 38 articles. Among sexual difficulties met by the gays, erectile dysfunction and hypoactive sexual desire are the more frequent. Concerning the ejaculation disorders observed in the gay population, premature ejaculation is rather rare in comparison with heterosexual men; however delayed ejaculation or anejaculation are more frequent. Painful sexual disorders in particular anodyspareunia are also reported. Sexual disorder management must follows the classic rules but it is necessary to be aware how to approach the specific questions affecting the homosexual persons. Still the homosexual person has to find a competent therapist, "opened" to the sexual problem of the homosexuals, with the aim of a care privileging the efficiency to efficacy in the respect for the truth of the homosexual person. The homosexuality is the only one of the "unusual" sexual conducts to possibly concern the daily medical practice due to is prevalence. The management of sexual dysfunctions must privilege the "meeting" in a quest of sense in front of any sexual symptom, whatever the individual sexual orientation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of social contact with homosexuals on heterosexual Turkish university students' attitudes towards homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Sakalli, N; Uğurlu, O

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of social interaction with homosexuals on attitudes toward homosexuality in a sample of heterosexual Turkish university students. Hudson and Ricketts' 25-item scale was translated from English into Turkish and used to measure students' attitudes toward homosexuality. Findings, in general, suggested that exposure to and contact with homosexuals resulted in more positive attitudes toward homosexuality. Performed factor analysis demonstrated that there were three factors for the scale. The factors were labelled as "Social interaction with homosexuals," "Probable family ties with homosexuals," and "Tendency to be a homosexual." Subjects' negative attitudes toward homosexuality increased on the last two factors, which were about having a homosexual child or sibling, and being comfortable with being attracted to a homosexual. Results were discussed in terms of prejudice and intergroup contact.

  10. Homosexual orientation-from nature, not abuse: A critique of Roberts, Glymour, and Koenen (2013).

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Roberts, Glymour, and Koenen (2013), using instrumental variable models, argued that child abuse causes homosexual orientation, defined in part as any same-sex attractions. Their instruments were various negative family environment factors. In their analyses, they found that child sexual abuse (CSA) was more strongly related to homosexual orientation than non-sexual maltreatment was, especially among males. The present commentary therefore focused on male CSA. It is argued that Roberts et al.'s "abuse model" is incorrect and an alternative is presented. Male homosexual behavior is common in primates and has been common in many human societies, such that an evolved human male homosexual potential, with individual variation, can be assumed. Cultural variation has been strongly influenced by cultural norms. In our society, homosexual expression is rare because it is counternormative. The "counternormativity model" offered here holds that negative family environment weakens normative controls and increases counternormative thinking and behavior, which, in combination with sufficient homosexual potential and relevant, reinforcing experiences, can produce a homosexual orientation. This is a benign or positive model (innate potential plus release and reinforcement), in contrast to Roberts et al.'s negative model (abuse plus emotional compensation or cognitive distortion). The abuse model is criticized for being based on the sexual victimological paradigm, which developed to describe the female experience in rape and incest. This poorly fits the gay male experience, as demonstrated in a brief non-clinical literature review. Validly understanding male homosexuality, it is argued, requires the broad perspective, as employed here.

  11. A Homosexual Teacher's Argument and Plea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Homosexual teachers do not influence children toward homosexuality nor do they proselytize. Teachers should be judged on their effectiveness in the classroom, not by their sexual preference. (Author/IRT)

  12. Male homosexuality: the adolescent's perspective.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G

    1987-03-01

    Although homosexual activity is prevalent among US teenagers, adolescent homosexuality per se has been a poorly understood phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the meaning and experience of homosexuality from the adolescent's perspective. Twenty-nine male teenagers, self-described as gay (79%) or bisexual (21%), volunteered to participate in a structured interview, the purpose of which was to examine the definition of homosexuality, the acquisition of a gay identity, and the impact of sexuality on family, peers, and community. The youths demonstrated well-established sexual identities by the consistency of their sexual fantasies, interests, and behaviors over time. Homosexuality was more frequently described as a general attraction to men (48%) and an indicator of positive personal attributes (33%) than as an isolated sexual behavior. The subjects reported strong negative attitudes from parents (43%) and friends (41%) toward their sexualities. Discrimination (37%), verbal abuse from peers (55%), and physical assaults (30%) were frequently cited problems. These stressors may place the boys at high risk for physical and psychosocial dysfunction.

  13. Cultural factors affecting urban Mexican male homosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Carrier, J M

    1976-03-01

    Some aspects of the mestizoized urban culture in Mexico are linked to male homosexuality in support of the theory that cultural factors play an important role in the kind of life styles and sex practices of males involved in homosexual behavior. The following factors are considered relevant: the sharp dichotomization of gender roles, dual categorization of females as good or bad, separate social networks maintained by males before and after marriage, proportion of unmarried males, and distribution of income. One result of the sharp dichotomization of male and female gender roles is the widely held belief that effeminate males generally prefer to play the female role rather than the male. Effeminacy and homosexuality are also linked by the belief that as a result of this role preference effeminate males are sexually interested only in masculine males with whom they play the passive sex role. The participation of masculine males in homosexual encounters is related in part to a relatively high level of sexual awareness in combination with the lack of stigmatization of the insertor sex role and in part to the restraints placed on alternative sexual outlets by available income and/or marital status. Males involved in homosexual behavior in Mexico operate in a sociocultural environment which gives rise to expectations that they should play either the insertee or insertor sex role but not both and that they should obtain ultimate sexual satisfaction with anal intercourse rather than fellatio. In spite of cultural imperatives, however, individual preferences stemming from other variables such as personality needs, sexual gratification, desires of wanted partners, and amount of involvement may override the imperatives with resulting variations in sexual behavior patterns.

  14. Out of DSM: Depathologizing Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Jack

    2015-01-01

    In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the diagnosis of “homosexuality” from the second edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). This resulted after comparing competing theories, those that pathologized homosexuality and those that viewed it as normal. In an effort to explain how that decision came about, this paper reviews some historical scientific theories and arguments that first led to the placement of homosexuality in DSM-I and DSM-II as well as alternative theories that eventually led to its removal from DSM III and subsequent editions of the manual. The paper concludes with a discussion of the sociocultural aftermath of that 1973 decision. PMID:26690228

  15. [Genetic evaluation of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Gasztonyi, Z

    1998-02-01

    The family trees of 16 homosexual males are evaluated in the material of their Genetic Counselling Clinic. The familial cluster of three cases corresponded to the X-linked recessive inheritance. The results of family, twin and adoption studies are reviewed and the recent findings of molecular genetic and brain researches are summarised. Male homosexuality comprises of different subgroups, but one major entity is caused by X-linked recessive gene(s). This genetic background represent a predisposition which is triggered or suppressed by external factors.

  16. Homosexuality : treatment by behaviour modification.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, P V; Ayyar, K S; Bagadia, V N

    1982-01-01

    We present here the treatment of thirteen homosexuals by behaviour modification techniques. With classical electrical aversion and positive conditioning 8(61%) out of thirteen patients showed a change in orientation lasting on a six-month 1 year follow up. A marriageable age and indirect social pressures were positively correlated with improvement whereas the presence of a steady homosexual partner and habitual passive anal intercourse indicated a poor response. The techniques, the assessments, the onset and course of improvement and complications arc discussed. Our results and techniques are compared with those of other workers.

  17. Neural circuits of disgust induced by sexual stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual men: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minming; Hu, Shaohua; Xu, Lijuan; Wang, Qidong; Xu, Xiaojun; Wei, Erqing; Yan, Leqin; Hu, Jianbo; Wei, Ning; Zhou, Weihua; Huang, Manli; Xu, Yi

    2011-11-01

    Few studies demonstrated neural circuits related to disgust were influenced by internal sexual orientation in male. Here we used fMRI to study the neural responses to disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men to investigate that issue. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers (sixteen homosexual and sixteen heterosexual) were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of three types of erotic film: heterosexual couples (F-M), male homosexual couples (M-M), and female homosexual couples (F-F) engaged in sexual activity. All the participants rated their level of disgust and sexual arousal as well. The F-F and M-M stimuli induced disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men, respectively. The common activations related to disgusting stimuli included: bilateral frontal gyrus and occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, and right thalamus. Homosexual men had greater neural responses in the left medial frontal gyrus than did heterosexual men to the sexual disgusting stimuli; in contrast, heterosexual men showed significantly greater activation than homosexual men in the left cuneus. ROI analysis showed that negative correlation were found between the magnitude of MRI signals in the left medial frontal gyrus and scores of disgust in homosexual subjects (p<0.05). This study indicated that there were regions in common as well as regions specific for each type of erotic stimuli during disgust of homosexual and heterosexual men.

  18. Reconsiderations about Greek homosexualities.

    PubMed

    Percy, William Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    Focusing his analysis on (mostly Athenian) vase paintings of the sixth- and early fifth-century and on a handful of texts from the late fifth- and early fourth-century (again Athenian), Dover depicted the pederastic relationship of erastes (age 20 to 30) and eromenos (age 12-18) as defined by sexual roles, active and passive, respectively. This dichotomy he connected to other sexual and social phenomena, in which the active/ penetrating role was considered proper for a male adult Athenian citizen, while the passive/penetrated role was denigrated, ridiculed, and even punished. Constructing various social and psychological theories, Foucault and Halperin, along with a host of others, have extended his analysis, but at the core has remained the Dover dogma of sexual-role dichotomization. Penetration has become such a focal point in the scholarship that anything unable to be analyzed in terms of domination is downplayed or ignored. To reduce homosexuality or same-sex behaviors to the purely physical or sexual does an injustice to the complex phenomena of the Greek male experience. From Sparta to Athens to Thebes and beyond, the Greek world incorporated pederasty into their educational systems. Pederasty became a way to lead a boy into manhood and full participation in the polis, which meant not just participation in politics but primarily the ability to benefit the city in a wide range of potential ways. Thus the education, training, and even inspiration provided in the pederastic relationship released creative forces that led to what has been called the Greek 'miracle.' From around 630 BCE we find the institution of Greek pederasty informing the art and literature to a degree yet to be fully appreciated. Moreover, this influence not only extends to the 'higher' realms of culture, but also can be seen stimulating society at all levels, from the military to athletic games, from philosophy to historiography. An understanding of sexual practices-useful, even essential, to

  19. Children of homosexual parents report childhood difficulties.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul; Cameron, Kirk

    2002-02-01

    Referenced as both supporting and weakening the case for parenting by homosexuals, 57 life-story narratives of children with homosexual parents published by Rafkin in 1990 and Saffron in 1996 were subjected to content analysis. Children mentioned one or more problems or concerns in 48 (92%) of 52 families. Of the 213 scored problems, 201 (94%) were attributed to the homosexual parent(s). Older daughters in at least 8 (27%) of 30 families and older sons in at least 2 (20%) of 10 families described themselves as homosexual or bisexual. These findings are inconsistent with propositions that children of homosexuals do not differ appreciably from those who live with married parents or that children of homosexuals are not more apt to engage in homosexuality.

  20. Multiple dimensions of attitudes about homosexuality: development of a multifaceted scale measuring attitudes toward homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Adolfsen, Anna; Iedema, Jurjen; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Attitudes toward homosexuality are complex. To get a comprehensive view on the attitudes of people, different dimensions need to be included in research. Based on a review of the literature, we distinguish five dimensions: acceptance of homosexuality in a general sense; attitude toward equal rights; reactions to homosexuality "at close quarters"; reactions to homosexuality in public; and so-called modern homonegativity. In a study on a representative sample of Dutch Defence personnel (N = 1,607) we tested this model. Structural equation modeling of several items measuring the attitude toward homosexuality offers a six factor solution. These six factors are more or less comparable to the five dimensions we distinguished. The dimension "reactions to homosexuality at close quarters" is, however, empirically split in a dimension on affective reactions to homosexuality and homosexual persons in general and a dimension on affective reaction to homosexual friends or acquaintances.

  1. Teaching about Homosexuality and Heterosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines arguments for and against teaching about homosexuality and heterosexuality, concluding that secondary schools should, provided that certain conditions are met. Examines the aims and possible approaches to teaching about sexual orientation; argues that it should enable students to be better informed, to understand others, and to clarify…

  2. Should Homosexuality Arouse Therapeutic Concern?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Kurt

    1977-01-01

    With homosexuals, counseling toward self-acceptance is advisable; counseling toward heterosexual adjustment is feasible only as a second-best choice and should be combined with continued efforts of counseling of the first type. Presented at the Annual Convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, 13 December…

  3. The differential diagnosis of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Limentani, A

    1977-09-01

    The treatment of homosexuality presents serious difficulties owing to its multifactorial aetiology and variety of psychopathological views. It is suggested that the combined use of psychiatric and psychoanalytic models can contribute to the establishment of a satisfactory differential diagnosis. Out of the innumerable clinical types seen in practice and described in the literature, three major groups can be isolated. The homosexuality which occurs on the background of hysterical, obsessional and other neurotic personality types and related psychiatric conditions, tends to be linked with latent heterosexuality and responds well to all forms of psychotherapy. On the other hand, true homosexuality is often the major presenting symptom of borderline states, narcissistic disorders, psychopathy and the schizo-affective psychoses and carries an unfavourable prognosis with any form of treatment. Cases of actual bisexuality form the third group with its own specific psychopathology. The homosexual solution is seen as a defence and is regarded as a matter of survival for many individuals. It should be treated with the utmost caution by anyone who attempts to remove it.

  4. Homosexuality and adoption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uziel, A P

    2001-11-01

    Western societies are undergoing legal and policy changes in relation to laws governing the family, marital status, sexual orientation and the welfare of children, including in Brazil where, in the 1990s, the rights of homosexuals were incorporated into ongoing debates about what constitutes a family. This paper discusses the issue of adoption of children by homosexual men in Brazil, using information from court records from 1995-2000 in Rio de Janeiro, and from interviews with two judges, five psychologists and four social workers who evaluate those wishing to adopt. It uses the case records of one man's application to adopt, in which homosexuality became a central issue. Both the construction of masculinity in relation to parenting and concepts of the family were the parameters upon which the decision to allow him to adopt or not depended. Because the legislation does not specify what the sexual orientation of would-be adoptive parents should be, it is possible for single persons to adopt if they show they can be good parents. As more single people, alone or in couples, seek to adopt, it is important to clarify the criteria for judicial decisions on adoption applications. A dialogue is therefore needed on the meaning of family and whether and how it relates to sexual orientation. It is only on this basis that the courts can take a clear decision as to whether being homosexual is a relevant issue in regard to applications to adopt or not.

  5. Homosexuality, Morality, and Military Policy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    religious heritage of the United States, the First Amendment to the Constitution, and the history of military policies toward homosexuals; and an...heritage, and that the First Amendment to the Constitution was not written to exclude Christian moral influence from the public-decision making

  6. Implicit sexual associations in heterosexual and homosexual women and men.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Robert J; Gray, Nicola S

    2013-04-01

    Patterns of genital arousal to sexual stimuli are somewhat different between men and women. Heterosexual males and homosexual males show clear category specific arousal that is consistent with their self-reported sexual preference. However, heterosexual women do not show this category specificity. In the present study, we attempted to measure a person's automatic appraisals of stimuli with respect to the concept of sex via the use of implicit measures (the Implicit Association Test and the priming task). In three experiments, we showed that heterosexual females did not show a sex-related category specific response in favor of male versus female stimuli. However, this lack of specificity was not due to a lack of sex-related appraisals, but by equal appraisals of both male and female stimuli. On the other hand, heterosexual men, homosexual men, and homosexual women all showed automatic sex-related appraisals of stimuli that were category specific and in line with their self-reported sexual preference. The study shows difference in the pattern of sexual interest between genders at the earliest stages of the evaluation of a stimulus.

  7. Human homosexuality: a paradigmatic arena for sexually antagonistic selection?

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Battaglia, Umberto; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-01-29

    Sexual conflict likely plays a crucial role in the origin and maintenance of homosexuality in our species. Although environmental factors are known to affect human homosexual (HS) preference, sibling concordances and population patterns related to HS indicate that genetic components are also influencing this trait in humans. We argue that multilocus, partially X-linked genetic factors undergoing sexually antagonistic selection that promote maternal female fecundity at the cost of occasional male offspring homosexuality are the best candidates capable of explaining the frequency, familial clustering, and pedigree asymmetries observed in HS male proband families. This establishes male HS as a paradigmatic example of sexual conflict in human biology. HS in females, on the other hand, is currently a more elusive phenomenon from both the empirical and theoretical standpoints because of its fluidity and marked environmental influence. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter involving sexually antagonistic components, have been hypothesized for the propagation and maintenance of female HS in the population. However, further data are needed to truly clarify the evolutionary dynamics of this trait. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Human Homosexuality: A Paradigmatic Arena for Sexually Antagonistic Selection?

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Andrea Camperio; Battaglia, Umberto; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Sexual conflict likely plays a crucial role in the origin and maintenance of homosexuality in our species. Although environmental factors are known to affect human homosexual (HS) preference, sibling concordances and population patterns related to HS indicate that genetic components are also influencing this trait in humans. We argue that multilocus, partially X-linked genetic factors undergoing sexually antagonistic selection that promote maternal female fecundity at the cost of occasional male offspring homosexuality are the best candidates capable of explaining the frequency, familial clustering, and pedigree asymmetries observed in HS male proband families. This establishes male HS as a paradigmatic example of sexual conflict in human biology. HS in females, on the other hand, is currently a more elusive phenomenon from both the empirical and theoretical standpoints because of its fluidity and marked environmental influence. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, the latter involving sexually antagonistic components, have been hypothesized for the propagation and maintenance of female HS in the population. However, further data are needed to truly clarify the evolutionary dynamics of this trait. PMID:25635045

  9. Deep fellowship: homosexuality and male bonding in the life and fiction of Joseph Conrad.

    PubMed

    Hodges, R R

    1979-01-01

    Conrad's biography reveals only peripheral, though suggestive, awareness of homosexuality. His fiction, however, shows a continuing concern with some underlying features of female and male homosexuality. Suggestions of a positive view of homoerotic relations can be discerned in the strong works of his early career, specifically Lord Jim and "The Secret Sharer." The later novels and stories, usually characterized as sentimental and conventional, dramatize an overt fear of homosexuality consistent with Conrad's hostile reaction to the Casement revelations. Chance features an evil lesbian, Victory an equally destructive homosexual male. Only the autobiographical A Shadow Line shows a return to the earlier positive attitude toward male bonding with sexual overtones. Scholars have been reluctant to notice these concerns, since Conrad is considered a "man's" writer.

  10. Children of homosexuals and transsexuals more apt to be homosexual.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul

    2006-05-01

    Do the sexual inclinations of parents influence those of their children? Of 77 adult children of homosexual parents who volunteered for three different investigations, at least 23 (30%) were currently homosexual: twelve (55%) of 22 daughters and three (21%) of fourteen sons of lesbians; five (29%) of seventeen daughters and three (17%) of eighteen sons of gays; none of six sons with both a gay and a lesbian parent. At least 25 (32%) were currently heterosexual. Of the ten with transsexual parents, one of nine daughters was currently lesbian, one was currently heterosexual, and one was transsexual. The son's sexual preference was not reported. These findings suggest that parents' sexual inclinations influence their children's.

  11. India's homosexual discrimination and health consequences.

    PubMed

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Minna, J Hsu

    2007-08-01

    A large number of countries worldwide have legalized homosexual rights. But for 147 years, since when India was a British colony, Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code defines homosexuality as a crime, punishable by imprisonment. This outdated law violates the fundamental rights of homosexuals in India. Despite the fact that literature drawn from Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim, and modern fiction testify to the presence of same-sex love in various forms, homosexuality is still considered a taboo subject in India, by both the society and the government. In the present article, the continuation of the outdated colonial-era homosexuality law and its impact on the underprivileged homosexual society in India is discussed, as well as consequences to this group's health in relation to HIV infection.

  12. Male homosexuality: nature or culture?

    PubMed

    Jannini, Emmanuele A; Blanchard, Ray; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bancroft, John

    2010-10-01

    Debate continues on whether or not male homosexuality (MH) is a result of biological or cultural factors. The debate persists despite the fact that these two sides have different abilities to create a scientific environment to support their cause. Biological theorists produced evidence, however, that these are not always robust. On the other hand, social theorists, without direct evidence confirming their positions, criticize, with good argument, methods and results of the other side. The aim of this Controversy is to understand the reasons of both perspectives. Two scientists (R.B. and A.C.C.) with expertise in the area of biology of MH were asked to contribute their opinions. The nurture position is discussed by a third expert in sexology (J.B.). Expert opinion supported by the critical review of the currently available literature. The role of the Controversy's editor (E.A.J.) is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both sides. The two experts of the biological issue answer with their data to the questions: “Is male homosexuality partly explainable by immunology?” and “How is male homosexuality a Darwinian paradox?”, respectively. Genetic and immunological factors, birth order, and fertility of relatives are largely discussed. Finally, the expert sustaining the idea that culture and experiences are important determining factors in sexual orientation used a psychosocial and holistic perspective to explain his position. The JSM's readers should recognize that there are several biological factors in MH. However, these findings do not seem to be able to explain all cases of homosexuality. Some others may be due to particular environmental factors. The issue is complicated and multifactorial, suggesting that further research should be undertaken to produce the final answer to the question raised in this Controversy section.

  13. Counselors', Psychologists', and Homosexuals' Philosophies of Human Nature and Attitudes Toward Homosexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Eugene P.

    1974-01-01

    Using the Philosophies of Human Nature Scale (PHN), counselors, psychologists, and homosexuals were studied to determine their beliefs about human nature and homosexuals. The results suggest that counselors were significantly stronger than homosexuals and psychologists in the belief that people control their own outcomes. (Author/BW)

  14. Fulminant amebic colitis in a homosexual man.

    PubMed

    Saltzberg, D M; Hall-Craggs, M

    1986-03-01

    This report describes a case of fulminant amebic colitis leading to perforation and death in a 35-yr-old homosexual man. Although Entamoeba histolytica may be isolated from stool specimens in 20 to 30% of selected homosexual populations, reports of severe or invasive disease are rare. Some workers have suggested that amebae are only passive colonizers of the colon in homosexual men. In our patient, pathological examination confirmed the presence of extensive colitis with penetration of amebae through the bowel wall. Pertinent data concerning pathogenicity of E. histolytica in homosexuals are reviewed and the public health implications of a virulent strain of amebae are discussed.

  15. Homosexuality: coming out of the confusion.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sidney H

    2003-12-01

    The author asserts that earlier theoretical assumptions contribute to the conceptual confusion about homosexuality in much contemporary psychoanalytic research. Bergeret's article, recently published in this Journal, is exemplary of this confusion. The author refutes his contention that homosexuality is not 'true' sexuality but merely a defensive, narcissistic fixation away from, or a nearly psychotic denial of, heterosexuality. He then clarifies specific areas of conceptual confusion regarding homosexuality still prevalent in psychoanalytic discourse that derive from earlier theoretical premises. These areas of confusion include manifest versus latent homosexuality, narcissism and bisexuality, oedipal dynamics and development, and transference and technique.

  16. Some cultural aspects of Greek male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R J

    1980-01-01

    A brief examination of Greek social structures, history, and cosmology reveals several points about the nature of, and attitudes towards, male homosexual practices in the classical period. First, due to the overwhelming importance of the Hellenic family, few men seem to have engaged exclusively in homosexual acts. Second, historical sources for Attica indicate that, although most men may have married, homosexual behavior was widespread among all levels of society and was considered no more opprobrious than heterosexual behavior. Third, the Greek cosmology, with its unbounded sexuality and constant blurring of sex roles, provided an atmosphere in which homosexuality was regarded by Athenians as neither irreligious nor unnatural.

  17. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-08-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner. Fewer men described themselves as bisexual than would be expected from the sample's recent sexual histories. More attention is needed to the definition and measurement of "bisexuality" to understand its role in HIV transmission.

  18. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner. Fewer men described themselves as bisexual than would be expected from the sample's recent sexual histories. More attention is needed to the definition and measurement of "bisexuality" to understand its role in HIV transmission. PMID:2807286

  19. Adolescent Homosexuality and Concerns Regarding Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Therese W.

    2003-01-01

    With threats of being labeled abnormal or facing rejection, homosexual adolescents are pressured to hide their sexual identities. To provide optimal anticipatory guidance and support, professionals must understand the natural development of sexual attraction and the disclosure concerns and risks for developing homosexual adolescents (e.g., risk…

  20. Homosexuality Goes to School . . . Options in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    This publication is the complete transcript of a weekly radio program devoted to contemporary issues in American education. This particular program focuses on the topic of homosexual teachers. Throughout the program, a number of educators and authorities on homosexuality present their views on various legal, political, moral, and educational…

  1. [A sexo-analytic view on homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Crépault, C

    1994-01-01

    After having defined the terminology, the author attempts to identify homosexuality through the sexual individuation process and to trace its different ontogenic inconsistencies. A typology based on non conformity of gender and the heterophobia is suggested. Two clinical case examples will be given to further illustrate the sexoanalytic treatment of egodystonic homosexuality.

  2. Family Attitudes and Mexican Male Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Given the family grasp on single males and the relatively late age at marriage it seems clear that the attitudes and behavior of the "mestizoized" Mexican family toward homosexuality play an important role in shaping the behavior of family members who are homosexually active. (Author)

  3. Psychiatric Opinion and Homosexuality: A Short Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, R. F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    In a survey of opinion among 100 psychiatrists and 93 trainees in Australia, the majority endorsed the view either that "homosexuality is a developmental anomaly not necessarily or commonly associated with neurotic symptoms" or that "homosexuality is a normal variant like left-handedness." (Author)

  4. The Only Child Factor in Homosexual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the life experiences and attitudes of homosexual women with only-child status reveals that their emotional and social development is less favorable than that of homosexual women who had siblings. Only-child status is an important variable in understanding child development. (Author/CS)

  5. What Undergraduates Want to Know about Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, David M.; Herzog, Harold A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a program in which undergraduate psychology students submitted questions about homosexuality prior to a panel discussion by a gay rights organization. Suggests that such a program helps students understand that discrimination and abuse are not justifiable responses to homosexuals. Includes questions about family relationships,…

  6. Family Therapy with the Homosexual: A Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Dennis M.

    1974-01-01

    The author discusses some generalizations that have come out of his 12 years of experience in working professionally with individuals and couples involved in homosexual relationships. He concludes that the concept of family therapy is a viable approach to use with homosexual couples. Hypotheses worthy of further testing are suggested. (BW/Author)

  7. Homosexuality: some diagnostic perspectives and dynamic considerations.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, F M

    1975-04-01

    Homosexuality as a diagnostic category has been of limited value since the sexual functioning, ego development, and object relations of patients are not always correlated. Considering homosexuality as a complex configuration resulting from the interplay of unconscious drives with defensive processes and adaptive implications offers a comprehensive dynamic approach. Illustrative case material is presented.

  8. Psychiatric Opinion and Homosexuality: A Short Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, R. F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    In a survey of opinion among 100 psychiatrists and 93 trainees in Australia, the majority endorsed the view either that "homosexuality is a developmental anomaly not necessarily or commonly associated with neurotic symptoms" or that "homosexuality is a normal variant like left-handedness." (Author)

  9. Adolescent Homosexuality and Concerns Regarding Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Therese W.

    2003-01-01

    With threats of being labeled abnormal or facing rejection, homosexual adolescents are pressured to hide their sexual identities. To provide optimal anticipatory guidance and support, professionals must understand the natural development of sexual attraction and the disclosure concerns and risks for developing homosexual adolescents (e.g., risk…

  10. Conflict and Compromise over Homosexual Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foerstel, Herbert

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the censorship of school and public library materials dealing with homosexuality. Topics addressed include social pressures; conservative critics of homosexuality; examples of requests for limited access or removal of materials; and purchasing additional materials to represent other points of view as a more positive solution. (LRW)

  11. Attitudes toward Homosexuality: Implications for Responsible Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuoid, Daniel W.

    This review examines previous research on societal attitudes toward homosexuality. It notes that sex-role rigidity in society has an impact on societal attitudes toward homosexuality; in societies with rigid sex-roles, gay men and lesbian women are disliked and rejected more than in societies with liberal sex-roles. Society's stereotypes of gay…

  12. Homosexuality as a consequence of epigenetically canalized sexual development.

    PubMed

    Rice, William R; Friberg, Urban; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2012-12-01

    Male and female homosexuality have substantial prevalence in humans. Pedigree and twin studies indicate that homosexuality has substantial heritability in both sexes, yet concordance between identical twins is low and molecular studies have failed to find associated DNA makers. This paradoxical pattern calls for an explanation. We use published data on fetal androgen signaling and gene regulation via nongenetic changes in DNA packaging (epigenetics) to develop a new model for homosexuality. It is well established that fetal androgen signaling strongly influences sexual development. We show that an unappreciated feature of this process is reduced androgen sensitivity in XX fetuses and enhanced sensitivity in XY fetuses, and that this difference is most feasibly mused by numerous sex-specific epigenetic modifications ("epi-marks") originating in embryonic stem cells. These epi-marks buffer XX fetuses from masculinization due to excess fetal androgen exposure and similarly buffer XY fetuses from androgen underexposure. Extant data indicates that individual epi-marks influence some but not other sexually dimorphic traits, vary in strength across individuals, and are produced during ontogeny and erased between generations. Those that escape erasure will steer development of the sexual phenotypes they influence in a gonad-discordant direction in opposite sex offspring, mosaically feminizing XY offspring and masculinizing XX offspring. Such sex-specific epi-marks are sexually antagonistic (SA-epi-marks) because they canalize sexual development in the parent that produced them, but contribute to gonad-trait discordances in opposite-sex offspring when unerased. In this model, homosexuality occurs when stronger-than-average SA-epi-marks (influencing sexual preference) from an opposite-sex parent escape erasure and are then paired with a weaker-than-average de novo sex-specific epi-marks produced in opposite-sex offspring. Our model predicts that homosexuality is part of a

  13. Enteric diseases of homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Baker, R W; Peppercorn, M A

    1982-01-01

    Certain enteric ailments are particularly common among homosexual men. They are primarily infectious diseases and include not only such common venereal diseases as gonorrhea and syphilis but also infections not usually regarded as being sexually transmitted. Among the latter are shigellosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, and amebiasis. Patients' symptoms are non-specific and seldom helpful in diagnosing particular diseases. The practitioner must be prepared to identify a number of infections with similar presentations that may occur singly or together in gay men. Gonorrhea is probably the most common bacterial infection in gay men. Carriage rates as high as 50% have been reported, and extra-genital carriage is common; this necessitates culturing the urethra, rectum, and pharynx. Procaine penicillin G is the treatment of choice for most patients; spectinomycin is probably the drug of choice in penicillin-sensitive patients. In contrast to other venereal diseases, syphilis may have a characteristic protoscopic presentation. Benzathine penicillin G is the treatment of choice for most patients. Lymphogranuloma venereum causes penile lesions and inguinal lymphadenitis in heterosexual men, whereas homosexual men are more prone to proctitis. The disease may mimic Crohn's disease. Recommended treatment includes tetracycline or sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Shigellosis usually presents as an acute diarrheal illness. Patients generally require only supportive treatment with fluids. Herpes simplex viral infection is difficult to diagnose and has several different presentations, including lumbosacral radiculomyelopathy. Symptomatic treatment with sitz baths, anesthetic ointment, and analgesics is recommended. Venereal warts are believed to be caused by the same virus that causes verrucous warts; they are usually found in the anal canal or around the anal orifice. They are commonly treated with 25% podophyllin solution. Parasitic infections include giardiasis, amebiasis, and

  14. A history of homosexuality and organized psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Today the Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry welcomes its gay and lesbian members. Yet at the time of its 1956 founding, organized psychoanalytic attitudes toward homosexuality could be reasonably characterized as hostile. First there was a transition from Freud's early views of homosexuality as immature to later neofreudian theories that pathologized same-sex attractions and behavior. Following the 1973 decision of the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the DSM, homosexuality is now more commonly regarded as a normal variant of human sexuality. The history of psychoanalytic attitudes toward homosexuality reinforces the impression that psychoanalytic theories cannot be divorced from the political, cultural, and personal contexts in which they are formulated. This history also shows that analysts can take positions that either facilitate or obstruct tolerance and acceptance.

  15. Homosexual parents in British custody appeals.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul

    2003-04-01

    6 British child custody appeal cases including a homosexual parent were compared with 6 randomly drawn appeal cases between heterosexual parents for parental and mental instability, partners' instability, residential instability, criminality, and lying, and having harmed the children and exposing children to harms. In 3 of the 6 cases the homosexual or his associates were recorded as engaging in criminality, in another 2 cases with lying. In one of the 6 homosexual cases the children were recorded as harmed. The 9 recorded harms or probable harms to children in cases involving a homosexual parent were attributed to the homosexual or her associates: children were recorded as harmed and exposed to the harm of neglect in one of the 6 comparison cases.

  16. Childhood photographs of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Grellert, E A

    1989-08-01

    20 homosexual men and 20 heterosexual men, including a pair of discordant identical twins, contributed photographs of themselves at 6 mo. to 6 yr. of age for judging on personality. 18 traits were rated successfully. Factor analysis yielded two factors, Extroversion and Toughness. Data for only 19 homosexual and 11 heterosexual men were usable for the t tests; no significant differences were found, although trends for the homosexual group suggested less Extroversion and less Toughness. For the twins, photographs the mother identified as the homosexual twin were rated as showing less Extroversion and less Toughness. In conclusion, no obvious differences were found in the ratings of homosexuals' childhood photographs but slight differences were hinted at.

  17. The role of perceived relative parent personality in the development of heterosexuals, homosexuals, and transvestites.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, M D

    1985-04-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that non-normative parent sex-role qualities contribute to homosexual and transvestite development. Using the Parent Characteristics Questionnaire (PCQ), this hypothesis was tested among samples of male and female heterosexuals, male and female homosexuals, and male transvestites. The PCQ assesses the relative distribution of five personality traits between mother and father: R-F (relative father) intellectuality, R-F dependence, R-F affiliation, R-F endurance, and R-F aggressive-dominance. No significant differences were noted for the male homosexuals, while the hypothesized effects were evident for lesbian women and male transvestites, even when statiscally controlling for age and education differences. Theoretical interpretations of the results are offered in the context of a nonpathological explanation of sexual orientation and preference.

  18. The sex ratio of older siblings in non-right-handed homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Lippa, Richard A

    2008-12-01

    This study tested the prediction, based on prior research, that non-right-handed homosexual men will report fewer than expected older brothers. Participants were 2486 heterosexual and homosexual, right-handed and non-right-handed, male and female adults, representing five samples collected for various projects by the second author. Data on sibship composition, sexual orientation, and hand-preference were gathered in the original research using on-line (Internet) or self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires. The non-right-handed homosexual men reported 83 older brothers per 100 older sisters, which was significantly lower than the human sex ratio of 106 live-born males per 100 live-born females. In contrast, the right-handed homosexual men reported 125 older brothers per 100 older sisters, which was significantly higher than the expected ratio. One possible explanation of these results is that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in right-handed males but decrease the odds of homosexuality in non-right-handed males. A second possibility is that older brothers decrease the probability that non-right-handed homosexual males will be represented in survey research. The latter scenario could arise if the combination of some biological factor associated with older brothers and some biological factor associated with non-right-handedness is so toxic that it kills the fetus or predisposes the individual to a condition (e.g., mental retardation, major mental illness) that makes him less likely to be available for research recruitment at Gay Pride parades (etc.) than other members of the gay community.

  19. Attitudes towards and knowledge about homosexuality among medical students in Zagreb.

    PubMed

    Grabovac, Igor; Abramović, Marija; Komlenović, Gordana; Milosević, Milan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p < 0.001) with 38% of explained variance. The significant predictor variables that indicate lower attitudes about homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.

  20. University Students' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Joel W.; Franken, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    Assessed university students' knowledge about homosexuality in relation to their degree of homonegativism, i.e., physical, social, and emotional distancing from homosexuals, and selected personal variables. Respondents who were better informed about homosexuality proved less homonegative, particularly those with homosexual friend or family member.…

  1. Homosexual behavior in wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii).

    PubMed

    Fox, E A

    2001-11-01

    Wild male Sumatran orangutans at two study sites engaged in homosexual behavior. These observations demonstrate that homosexual behavior is not an artifact of captivity or contact with humans. In separate instances, homosexual behavior was associated with affiliative and agonistic behaviors. These observations add orangutans to the list of primates in which homosexual behavior forms part of the natural repertoire of sexual or sociosexual behavior.

  2. Homosexual inmates in the Buchenwald Concentration Camp.

    PubMed

    Röll, W

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of homosexual inmates in Nazi concentration camps is a subject which was largely ignored by historians in both West and East Germany after the war. Not until the 1980s, when research began to focus on some of the lesser-known victims of Nazi terror, did attention shift to the fate of homosexuals. This process can be seen clearly at the Buchenwald Memorial in the former GDR, the site of the persecution and also the death of considerable numbers of prisoners identified by the pink triangle on their clothing. The persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany began in 1933, even before Buchenwald was built in 1937. The Nazis aimed to eradicate homosexuality, which they saw as a threat to the survival of the German people. Incarceration in concentration camps like Buchenwald marked a stage in the radicalization of Nazi policy against homosexuals. There they were subjected to the harshest conditions and treated as the lowest of the low in the camp hierarchy. They were continually exposed to the terror of the SS but also the latent prejudices of the rest of the camp population. The culminating points of their maltreatment in Buchenwald were the use of homosexuals in experiments to develop immunization against typhus fever and the attempt by an SS doctor to "cure" homosexuality through the implantation of sexual hormones.

  3. On the question of homosexuality in actors.

    PubMed

    Neuringer, C

    1989-12-01

    There is a belief that a high percentage of male actors are homosexual. The specific linking of actors and homosexuality seems to have first appeared in the Elizabethan Puritan condemnations of the theater. Psychoanalytic theory has tended to further promulgate the linkage between effeminacy, homosexuality, and acting. An analysis of the relevant existing empirical literature indicates that few studies have addressed themselves to evaluating this relationship. Those studies supporting the effeminacy-actor relationship were seriously flawed both in design (e.g., use of indirect measures to infer homosexuality) and interpretation of the data. Only one study used direct measures of sexual orientation. Even though that study had methodological problems, its results indicated that the percentage of homosexuality among actors was not verifiably greater than that found in the general population. It is felt that the current belief of greater homosexuality in actors, as compared to the general population, is a product of our Puritan heritage, the actor's unconventionality, and of public flaunting of the homoerotic behavior of that portion of actors that are homosexual.

  4. Adolescent homosexuality and concerns regarding disclosure.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Therese W

    2003-03-01

    Development of sexual identity in middle childhood and early adolescence is a natural process. However, it is more stressful for homosexual adolescents. Society continues to stigmatize and marginalize homosexuality. To avoid rejection and hostility, homosexual adolescents are pressured to hide their sexual identities. This fact compounds the anticipated normal developmental concerns of adolescence, and can create unique problems for the homosexual adolescents. Homosexuality can place them at risk for social stigmatization, isolation, depression, suicide, abuse, and rejection by their families and friends. During this exceptionally stressful time, both adolescent students and their families need anticipatory guidance and support. In providing anticipatory guidance, this article discusses critical roles played by professionals who work with adolescents in community or school settings. Included are insights into development of this normal variant of sexual attraction and orientation, risks that homosexual adolescent students may face as well as their disclosure concerns, and possible reactions families may have following disclosure. Supporting homosexual adolescents and their families is emphasized with regard to sensitively providing information, disclosure decisions, coping with stigmatization, and resiliency factors.

  5. Homosexual Discretion and Good Taste: Two Rules That Govern Homosexual Sociability Space in Santiago de Chile.

    PubMed

    Lizama, Pablo Astudillo

    2015-01-01

    Homosexual sociability space in Santiago is not socially homogenous. Beyond non-heterosexual identities segmentation (gay, lesbian, queer, BDSM, etc.), the present article proposes a reflection observing certain social distinctions or differences that come into play to create a hierarchy among gay and lesbian individuals within that space. Using a qualitative approximation, we analyze the discourse of homosexual men and women about ways to display homosexuality in different places in the city, as well as some sociability practices used in homosexual venues. The resulting social hierarchy is understood through two central subjective rules: discretion and good taste, dynamic mechanisms that perpetuate the distance among groups within the same sociability space, and to some extent reproduce the city's class structure. Given that material means to privatize and sophisticate homosexual expression are unequally distributed in Santiago, the resulting differentiated social networks end up configuring the visibility strategies of homosexual identity played out in the city in the last years.

  6. Adolescents' and young adults' perception of homosexuality and related factors in three Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yongliang; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Tu, Xiaowen; Cheng, Yan; Emerson, Mark R; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    Adolescents' and young adults' perception of homosexuality plays an important role in the marginalization and stigmatization of the homosexual, thereby influencing his or her health. This article aims to study that perception and to examine its predictors in three Asian cities that are culturally dominated by Confucianism. From May 2006 to January 2007, a cross-sectional survey of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15-24 years old, in both urban and rural sites of three Asian cities (Hanoi in Vietnam, Shanghai in the mainland of China, and Taipei in Taiwan) was conducted through interview and computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify the predictors for their perception of homosexuality. The percentage of adolescents and young adults who hold a positive view of homosexuality (i.e., thought it was normal and/or acceptable) was low, especially in Hanoi and Shanghai; these figures increased from Hanoi to Shanghai to Taipei for both males and females. Overall, those factors significantly associated with adolescents' and young adults' perception of homosexuality included individuals' demographic characteristics (urban/rural, age, economic status, student status, and educational level), preferred origin of movies/videos, self-identified sexual orientation, sexual and reproductive health knowledge, family values, gender role values, and attitudes toward premarital sex. In these three Asian cities composed of populations whose views are largely influenced by Confucianism, adolescents and young adults mainly hold a negative perception of homosexuality. The most common and important predictors for a respondent's perception of homosexuality were his or her knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and how traditional his/her values may be. Greater attention needs to be paid to the popularization of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health including homosexuality

  7. Recommended DoD Homosexual Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    practices, active male homosexuals in the military could be expected to bring an increased incidence of sexually transmitted di--ases and other diseases...President directed the Secretary of Defense to da¢,elop a policy "ending discrimina!;on on the basis of sexual oriesa-664ýn in determining who may serve in...cnds to engage in homosexual acts. (DoDDir 1332.14 of 28 January 1982) 3. Homosexual act. Bodily contact, actively undertaken or

  8. Homosexuality in Turkey: strategies for managing heterosexism.

    PubMed

    Bakacak, Ayça Gelgeç; Oktem, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the strategies used by young homosexuals to manage their sexual minority status in Turkey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 self-identified homosexual university students. The data on the strategies employed by homosexuals suggested a categorization of these strategies into four interrelated areas: strategies employed in the process of self-acceptance; strategies to manage sexual stigma and prejudice; strategies specific to the coming-out process; and the strategies used while openly expressing their sexual identities.

  9. Psychological adaptation of the older homosexual male.

    PubMed

    Berger, R M

    1980-01-01

    Social, psychological, and demographic characteristics of older homosexual males were examined through analysis of the questionnaire responses of 112 homosexual men 40 years of age or older. Few of the negative stereotypes that usually characterize descriptions of this group were supported. Most respondents were well adjusted and satisfied with their lives. Variables relating to good psychological adaptation included integration into the gay community, commitment to homosexuality, a low concern with concealment of sexual preference, a current exclusive relationship, and a satisfactory sex life. There was some evidence to indicate that age is positively related to several aspects of psychological adaptation.

  10. Catholic High School Students' Attitudes toward Homosexuality: A Snapshot of Incoming College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This study is a survey of incoming freshmen at a Midwestern Catholic university on their agreement with Church teachings on homosexuality. In general, females had more homo-positive attitudes than males, graduates of catholic high schools had more homo-positive attitudes than graduates from non-Catholic high schools, and graduates from…

  11. [Assessment of psychosocial attitudes among homosexual men].

    PubMed

    Tokarski, Zbigniew; Florkowski, Antoni; Talarowska, Monika; Orzechowska, Agata; Wierzbiński, Piotr; Łopacińska, Iwona; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2012-03-01

    Homosexuality, though more than 20 years no longer exists in the classification of diseases as a deviation, it is still by many people seen as such behavior. The aim of the study was to assess the situation and psychosocial attitudes in the group of homosexual men. The study involved a group of 187 men aged 20-54 years. The study population was characterized by hiding homosexual orientation, lack of a permanent partner for more than half of them and the tendency to avoid safe sex and taking a passive role in intimate contact. In the study a questionnaire prepared by the authors was used. Most respondents hid his homosexuality from others, and over half of them do not have a permanent partner. Representatives of the study group, in most cases do not prefer safe sex and in intimate contact acted as passive.

  12. Genetic models of homosexuality: generating testable predictions

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilets, Sergey; Rice, William R

    2006-01-01

    Homosexuality is a common occurrence in humans and other species, yet its genetic and evolutionary basis is poorly understood. Here, we formulate and study a series of simple mathematical models for the purpose of predicting empirical patterns that can be used to determine the form of selection that leads to polymorphism of genes influencing homosexuality. Specifically, we develop theory to make contrasting predictions about the genetic characteristics of genes influencing homosexuality including: (i) chromosomal location, (ii) dominance among segregating alleles and (iii) effect sizes that distinguish between the two major models for their polymorphism: the overdominance and sexual antagonism models. We conclude that the measurement of the genetic characteristics of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) found in genomic screens for genes influencing homosexuality can be highly informative in resolving the form of natural selection maintaining their polymorphism. PMID:17015344

  13. Genetic models of homosexuality: generating testable predictions.

    PubMed

    Gavrilets, Sergey; Rice, William R

    2006-12-22

    Homosexuality is a common occurrence in humans and other species, yet its genetic and evolutionary basis is poorly understood. Here, we formulate and study a series of simple mathematical models for the purpose of predicting empirical patterns that can be used to determine the form of selection that leads to polymorphism of genes influencing homosexuality. Specifically, we develop theory to make contrasting predictions about the genetic characteristics of genes influencing homosexuality including: (i) chromosomal location, (ii) dominance among segregating alleles and (iii) effect sizes that distinguish between the two major models for their polymorphism: the overdominance and sexual antagonism models. We conclude that the measurement of the genetic characteristics of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) found in genomic screens for genes influencing homosexuality can be highly informative in resolving the form of natural selection maintaining their polymorphism.

  14. Attitudes among nurse educators toward homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Sirota, Theodora

    2013-04-01

    Homosexual populations have unique and specific cultures, psychosocial characteristics, health issues, and health care disparities that are currently ignored or insufficiently addressed in nursing education. To understand the reasons for these omissions, this descriptive study explores the attitudes of nurse educators (N = 1,282) toward homosexuality and the extent to which demographic, educational, and occupational factors are related to their attitudes. Responding to a direct online survey solicitation, self-selected participants completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG) and a supplementary data questionnaire. Results indicate that the majority of participants have positive attitudes toward homosexuality, which is consistent with prior findings. Most participants believe it is important to teach nursing students about homosexuality, but they consider themselves unprepared to teach this content. Effects of various demographic and occupational factors on participants' ATLG scores and implications of the findings for nursing education and nursing health care policy are discussed. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Adolescent Homosexual Behavior and the Health Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye

    1980-01-01

    Approaches for teaching about homosexuality as part of the school health curriculum are offered. Suggestions include discussion of popular values and stereotypes, teaching by example, and teaching through role playing. (JMF)

  16. Handedness, dyslexia and twinning in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Götestam, K O; Coates, T J; Ekstrand, M

    1992-04-01

    A study of handedness, dyslexia, stuttering and twinning, was included in a study of sexual habits of homosexual men. A questionnaire was mailed to homosexuals, and 394 forms suitable for data analysis were received. The results showed an increased rate of lefthand writing (17.5% compared to 8-8.4%), and a clear left shift. There were increased occurrence of both stuttering (7.1% compared to 1.6%) and reading difficulties (7.9% compared to 1-3%). The incidence of twins was lower than the population (1.3%). The results confirm earlier attempts to show a left shift in homosexuals, and support Geschwind's hypotheses about etiological factors for both lefthandedness and homosexuality.

  17. Japan's progressive sex: male homosexuality, national competition, and the cinema.

    PubMed

    Hall, J M

    2000-01-01

    This essay serves as a broad investigation of the origins of what came to be called the "gay boom" in 1990's Japanese cinema: a culmination of print media, television, and especially films which made the gay male not merely a visible (political) subject but also the site of displaced contestations of gendered (female) desire. The most visible transnational signifier of the "gay boom" was the 1992 film Okoge, a film which, in keeping with a Japanese trend which relocates the gay male as a safe displacement of female desire, posits the heterosexual female as the audience's point of identification in a film about the lives of gay Japanese men. Using this as a starting point, this essay seeks to explore how male homosexuality and gender construction operate within both Japanese nationalism and the transnational discourse of Japanese cinema's dissemination.

  18. A test of the maternal stress theory of human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M; Willerman, L; Parks, C

    1991-06-01

    Both the neurohormonal theory of sexual orientation and previous research on humans and animals suggest that male homosexuality may arise from prenatal stress during the brain's sexual differentiation. Stress-proneness and retrospective reports of stress during pregnancy were obtained from mothers of male and female heterosexuals, bisexuals, and homosexuals. Each mother also rated pregnancy stress for a heterosexual sibling of the subject. For males, neither between-family nor within-family analyses revealed a maternal stress effect for either sexual orientation or childhood gender nonconformity. However, mothers of effeminate children reported more stress-proneness than other mothers. Male homosexuality nevertheless was strongly familial, suggesting a reconsideration of genetic and familial environmental mechanisms.

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Individual Differences in Attitudes Toward Homosexuality: An Australian Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Sri N.; Zietsch, Brendan P.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Bailey, J. Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes, including attitudes toward homosexuality. Results show that, in accordance with literature, males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. In contrast with some earlier findings, age had no significant effect on the homophobia scores in this study. Genetic modelling showed that variation in homophobia scores could be explained by additive genetic (36%), shared environmental (18%) and unique environmental factors (46%). However, corrections based on previous findings show that the shared environmental estimate may be almost entirely accounted for as extra additive genetic variance arising from assortative mating for homophobic attitudes. The results suggest that variation in attitudes toward homosexuality is substantially inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor. PMID:18347968

  20. Slavery and the social dynamics of male homosexual relations in ancient Rome.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, B C

    1980-01-01

    More than any other institution, slavery placed its stamp on male homosexual relations in ancient Rome. While the pervasive Hellenization of Roman society in the second and first centuries B.C. mitigated the traditional hostility towards homosexuality and homosexual relations and even, in cultured circles, fostered an idealizing acceptance of male pederastic relations patterned after the model of classical Greece, this transformation of attitudes would have produced less concrete effects had Rome not concurrently become a slave-owning society on a large scale, due to overseas conquests. The strictures of Roman law and tradition applied only to sexual relations among free men and women; sexual relations between freemen and female or male slaves were unlikely to incur much social stigma. Although there is evidence that some Romans did indeed exploit their slaves, fortunately the great lacuna within the law and tradition, together with the emergence of more humane values regarding slavery and sexual relations, allowed genuine love-relationships (both heterosexual and homosexual) to receive a large measure of social sanction as a form of concubinage. Roman culture, however, unlike classical Green civilization, made little contribution to an informed acceptance of homosexual relations grounded in an understanding of human ethics and psychology.

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality: an Australian twin study.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Karin J H; Shekar, Sri N; Zietsch, Brendan P; Eaves, Lindon J; Bailey, J Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I; Martin, Nicholas G

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has shown that many heterosexuals hold negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality (homophobia). Although a great deal of research has focused on the profile of homophobic individuals, this research provides little theoretical insight into the aetiology of homophobia. To examine genetic and environmental influences on variation in attitudes toward homophobia, we analysed data from 4,688 twins who completed a questionnaire concerning sexual behaviour and attitudes, including attitudes toward homosexuality. Results show that, in accordance with literature, males have significantly more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than females and non-heterosexuals are less homophobic than heterosexuals. In contrast with some earlier findings, age had no significant effect on the homophobia scores in this study. Genetic modelling showed that variation in homophobia scores could be explained by additive genetic (36%), shared environmental (18%) and unique environmental factors (46%). However, corrections based on previous findings show that the shared environmental estimate may be almost entirely accounted for as extra additive genetic variance arising from assortative mating for homophobic attitudes. The results suggest that variation in attitudes toward homosexuality is substantially inherited, and that social environmental influences are relatively minor.

  2. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  3. On the history of biological theories of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Herrn, R

    1995-01-01

    Biological theories of homosexuality fit into the discourse on reproduction and sexuality that began in the nineteenth century. They arose in the context of the early homosexual rights movement, with its claim for natural rights, and the psychiatric discussions about sexual perversions. With the classification of homosexuality as a distinct category, homosexuals were excluded from the "normal". Biological theories of homosexuality were attempts not only to explain its causes, but also to maintain the exclusion of homosexuals as the "other". Biological explanations can be categorized as genetic, constitutional, endocrinological, and ethological. On the one hand, biological theories were used in the struggle for homosexual rights. On the other hand, they were used to "cure"e homosexuals. Every theory led to a specific therapy. This paper points out the roots of this thinking, traces the development of various theories, and shows the utilization of biological theories in treating homosexuality.

  4. Perceptions of general practice among homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Dawson, J; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Hart, G; Brookes, M

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Primary care has an important role to play in the prevention and management of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been suggested that homosexual men experience a variety of problems in relation to primary care. AIM. As part of a larger study, it was decided to examine the extent to which a sample of homosexually active men experienced difficulties in general practice and whether they consulted their general practitioner for problems related to HIV or the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). METHOD. Homosexual men were recruited for interview in 1991-92 from a variety of sources including genitourinary clinics and homosexual organizations. RESULTS. Of 623 men registered with a general practitioner 44% had not informed their general practitioner of their sexual orientation and 44% of the 77 men who were HIV antibody positive, as confirmed by the study, had not informed their general practitioner of this fact. Men who viewed their practice as unsympathetic towards homosexual men were less likely to have informed their general practitioner of their sexual orientation or HIV status. The majority of men (87%) nevertheless viewed primary care as an appropriate source of HIV/AIDS advice. CONCLUSION. There is considerable scope for improvement in the acceptability of general practice to homosexual men. PMID:8179951

  5. Correlates of attitudes toward homosexuality and intention to care for homosexual people among psychiatric nurses in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shu-Ying; Pan, Shung-Mei; Ko, Nai-Ying; Liu, Hsiu-Chin; Wu, Shu-Jung; Yang, Wen-Chiung; Yang, Hsing-Hu; Shieh, Shiu-Fen; Chuang, Li-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the association between attitudes toward homosexual individuals and intention to provide care and demographic and occupational factors, sexual orientation, knowledge about homosexuality, and experiences of contact with homosexual people among psychiatric nurses in southern Taiwan. In total, 133 psychiatric nurses from a medical center, three regional teaching hospitals, and one psychiatric hospital in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study. Their attitudes toward homosexual people as recorded on the Attitudes Toward Homosexuality Questionnaire, intention to provide care to homosexual individuals, and related factors were examined. The results revealed that psychiatric nurses who had a bachelor's or master's degree, higher level of knowledge about homosexuality, and friends or relatives with a homosexual orientation had a more positive attitude toward homosexuality. These psychiatric nurses, with more positive attitudes, and who worked in the medical center or regional teaching hospitals had a higher intention to care for homosexual people. The factors related to attitudes toward homosexuality and intention to care for homosexual people identified in this study should be taken into consideration when intervening in psychiatric nurses' attitudes toward homosexuality and intention to care for homosexual people.

  6. The Catholic Church, the American military, and homosexual reorientation therapy.

    PubMed

    Lutz, David

    2004-01-01

    Homosexual activist groups have targeted the Catholic Church and the American military as institutions especially in need of transformation. Associations of healthcare professionals are also under assault from homosexual activists. It is, nevertheless, appropriate for the Church and the military to defend themselves against this assault, to affirm that homosexuality is incompatible with Christian ethics and military service, and to help homosexuals free themselves from the vice of homosexuality. Arguments that homosexual reorientation therapy is unethical are unsound. Such therapy is consistent with the Christian virtue of charity.

  7. From reassurance to irrelevance: adolescent psychology and homosexuality in America.

    PubMed

    Spurlock, J C

    2002-02-01

    American psychology by the 1920s contained a greater capacity for viewing some homosexual experiences as normal than most current historical literature suggests. Developmental psychologists agreed with psychiatrists that adult homosexuality was pathological, but they also agreed that adolescent sexual development included a homosexual phase. Until the late 1960s, developmental texts reassured parents and teachers that homosexual behavior among adolescents was transitory and quite normal. The psychiatric view of homosexuality as pathology came under attack after the middle of the century and eventually was abandoned. The developmental concern with a transitory homosexual phase disappeared gradually. This trend in psychology suggests underlying social and cultural changes.

  8. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perception of Homosexuality and Related Factors in Three Asian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yongliang; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Tu, Xiaowen; Cheng, Yan; Emerson, Mark R.; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents’ and young adults’ perception of homosexuality plays an important role in the marginalization and stigmatization of the homosexual, thereby influencing his or her health. This article aims to study that perception and to examine its predictors in three Asian cities that are culturally dominated by Confucianism. Methods From May 2006 to January 2007, a cross-sectional survey of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15–24 years old, in both urban and rural sites of three Asian cities (Hanoi in Vietnam, Shanghai in the mainland of China, and Taipei in Taiwan) was conducted through interview and computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify the predictors for their perception of homosexuality. Results The percentage of adolescents and young adults who hold a positive view of homosexuality (i.e., thought it was normal and/or acceptable) was low, especially in Hanoi and Shanghai; these figures increased from Hanoi to Shanghai to Taipei for both males and females. Overall, those factors significantly associated with adolescents’ and young adults’ perception of homosexuality included individuals’ demographic characteristics (urban/rural, age, economic status, student status, and educational level), preferred origin of movies/videos, self-identified sexual orientation, sexual and reproductive health knowledge, family values, gender role values, and attitudes toward premarital sex. Conclusions In these three Asian cities composed of populations whose views are largely influenced by Confucianism, adolescents and young adults mainly hold a negative perception of homosexuality. The most common and important predictors for a respondent's perception of homosexuality were his or her knowledge of sexual and reproductive health and how traditional his/her values may be. Greater attention needs to be paid to the popularization of knowledge about sexual and

  9. The Philosophy of Existentialism and a Psychology of Irreversible Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This paper shows that a relationship exists between existentialism and homosexual behavior. The writers suggest that for obligatory homosexuals, who remain well adjusted and continue to make wholesome contributions to society, their behavior is existential in nature. (Author)

  10. Legal Rights and Responsibilities of Homosexuals in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Morte, Michael W.

    1975-01-01

    Examines reported decisions that deal with questions of the employment, contract nonrenewal or dismissal, and revocation of teaching certificates of homosexuals in public education. Discusses emerging issues and legal principals dealing with the homosexual-educator. (Author)

  11. The Philosophy of Existentialism and a Psychology of Irreversible Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangemi, Joseph P.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This paper shows that a relationship exists between existentialism and homosexual behavior. The writers suggest that for obligatory homosexuals, who remain well adjusted and continue to make wholesome contributions to society, their behavior is existential in nature. (Author)

  12. The children of homosexual and heterosexual single mothers.

    PubMed

    Javaid, G A

    1993-01-01

    Children reared in homes headed by homosexual and heterosexual mothers were compared with respect to the mothers' and children's attitudes towards marriage, procreation and homosexuality. The mothers did not prefer their children to be homosexual; they desired them to marry and procreate. This was expressed more unambiguously for their sons. The children mirrored these expectations, boys with greater frequency than the girls. Most of the children expressed reservations about having a homosexual mother.

  13. Homosexuality and Employment: A Selected Bibliography. Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alan V., Comp.

    This bibliography represents the first in a series of three dealing with employment of homosexuals, to be published by the Ontario Ministry of Labour Library. All asterisked titles in the series deal with the employment problems of and discrimination against homosexuals. This bibliography of reading materials concerned with homosexuality and…

  14. Homosexuality and Human Rights: A Selected Bibliography. Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alan V., Comp.

    This bibliography represents the second in a series of three dealing with employment of homosexuals, to be published by the Ontario Ministry of Labour Library. All asterisked titles in the series deal with the employment problems of and discrimination against homosexuals. This bibliography of reading materials concerned with homosexuality and…

  15. Mapping the Journal of Homosexuality: A Preface.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Lance

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as a Preface to the supplementary section of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Born contemporaneously with the depathologization of "homosexuality" in the early 1970s, how does the Journal of Homosexuality's commitment to LGBT health issues the past four decades reveal longstanding tensions between medical pathology, cultural appropriation, and political progress? Introducing the articles that follow (each of which examines a seminal medical-themed subject from the journal's history), this article asks how LGBT-sensitive academic texts play complicit roles in both the reinforcement and the liberation of queer subjects in biomedical discourse.

  16. The paradox of evil/homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Woo, Juhyun

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I analyze "personal experience stories around the homosexual" that entered into the parliamentary debates on the Sexual Offences Act in Britain in the 1950s and 1960s and shaped understandings of sexual citizenship in particular ways. Specific attention is paid to the effects of political storytelling involved in the making of British sexual citizens. I explore how the paradoxical figure of the evil homosexual emerges and how politicians, in telling stories of the evil homosexuality, police the border that can effectively separate sexual outsiders from sexual citizens. I conclude with an analysis of these stories, and how their telling is closely linked to the postwar social welfare thinking in Britain.

  17. Attitudes toward homosexuality among young adults: connections to gender role identity, gender-typed activities, and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Harbaugh, Evan; Lindsey, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality have been linked to numerous personality and demographic variables. This study investigated the influence that gender role identity, involvement in gender-typed activities, and religiosity plays in this relationship. The sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Northeastern university. Analyses revealed that both males and females who held a more masculine gender role identity and individual commitment to religion scored higher on measures of homophobia and heteronormativity, whereas there was no association between spiritual meaning in life and attitudes toward homosexuality. Among males, but not females, more masculine gender identity and less spiritual meaning in life was associated with greater homophobia. The importance of the findings for research on the origins of attitudes toward individuals with a homosexual orientation are discussed, as well as the potential directions for future research on connections between gender role identity, religious affiliation, and attitudes toward gays and lesbians.

  18. Characteristics of homosexual men who donate blood.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W; Drew, P A; Beal, R W

    1985-03-18

    A number of demographic, psychological, medical, immunological and haematological indices, as well as sexual practices and partner numbers, were investigated in 97 homosexual men in Adelaide. A comparison of blood donors with non-donors among these men showed that the donors were younger, spent more time in the homosexual subculture, maintained a stable blood-donation pattern, and were significantly less likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease. Donors contacted their sexual partners in non-anonymous settings more frequently than did non-donors.

  19. Legal and social ambivalence regarding homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R G

    1977-01-01

    Social controversy and legal ambivalence have been prevalent regarding homosexuality. Guardians of tradition, such as the churches, the mental health professional organizations, and the legal experts, have all moved toward decriminalization in their own fashion. Yet this thrust has been halted by a recent Supreme Court decision. The homosexual may have to retreat to the closet unless renewal occurs. Some information is available on what societal and behavioral changes will occur as the laws change. However, a more scientifically adequate information base, as well as political courage, is required before those seeking decriminalization are likely to succeed.

  20. Homosexuality according to ancient Greek physicians.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2017-01-01

    Homosexuality and pedophilia in ancient Greece greatly concerned many researchers who were mainly interested in highlighting the social aspect of this phenomenon in ancient Greek society. An important source on the subject was the paintings of a man and his lover in attic black and red figured pottery, up to the end of the 5th century BC. Another main source was the information that derived from the texts of ancient Greek literature, especially poetry. Homosexuality was not only referring to relationships between males, but it was also manifested in lesbian love. It is believed that in the Homeric world homosexuality was not favored. In Greek society of the archaic period, the restriction of women at home, the satisfaction of sexual needs with courtesans, the marriage for the purpose of maintaining and managing the property, put women aside, marginalizing them in terms of social life, impeding the cultivation of emotional relationships between sexes. At the same time, in the society of those times, the aristocratic ideal, the constant communication of men during military training and the war, the male nudity in sports and the promotion of beauty and bravery in athletic contests, as well as the gatherings and the entertainment of men at the symposia, created a suitable substrate in which male homosexuality could develop. In this context, pedophile relationships were developed mainly during the archaic period, as recorded on vase paintings, where a mature man developed a special relationship with a teenager of the same social class. The mature man had the role of mentor for the juvenile, he would look after him and cover his living expenses and education cost. In this relationship, exhibiting predominantly the social dimension of an initiation process and introduction to adult life, the erotic homosexual intercourse could find a place to flourish. The above-mentioned relationship could not last forever, given that this would later transform into an emotional

  1. Demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual behavior over a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Kent; Heywood, Wendy; Simpson, Judy M; Pitts, Marian K; Richters, Juliet; Shelley, Julia M; Smith, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexual people's attitudes toward homosexual behavior. A nationally representative sample of Australian men and women were recruited via random digit dialling in 2004 through 2005. Participants completed annual computer-assisted telephone interviews over the next five years. Questions about attitudes toward male and female homosexual behavior were assessed at Wave 1 (2004-2005) and Wave 3 (2006-2007) of the study. The majority of the sample reported tolerance of both male and female homosexual behavior (with women slightly more tolerant than men). Multivariate analyses showed that those who regularly attended religious services were more likely to consistently disapprove of homosexual behavior and more likely to change from tolerant to disapproving. Among those who were initially tolerant, younger respondents and those with higher educations were less likely to become homophobic. The results of this study show that individual attitudes toward homosexual behavior are open to change, particularly toward a more tolerant position. Religiosity appears to be consistently associated with the development and reinforcement of homophobic tendencies.

  2. MALE HOMOSEXUALITY : A PSYCHIATRIC STUDY OF THIRTEEN CASES1

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, P.V.; Ayyar, K.S.; Bagadia, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY 13 male homosexuals who approached us for treatment were studied. They came from unusual family back-grounds, had early homosexual experiences which were repeated and later became pleasurable. They showed a variety of homoerotic activity. Belonging to a marriageable age group, the social disadvantages of their homosexual behaviour prompted them to seek treatment. It was observed that early childhood experiences are important in the causation of homosexuality, early channelization of the sexual drive or to objects of the same sex by homosexual seduction and subsequent habituation also played an important part. PMID:21965909

  3. Male homosexuality : a psychiatric study of thirteen cases.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, P V; Ayyar, K S; Bagadia, V N

    1982-04-01

    13 male homosexuals who approached us for treatment were studied. They came from unusual family back-grounds, had early homosexual experiences which were repeated and later became pleasurable. They showed a variety of homoerotic activity. Belonging to a marriageable age group, the social disadvantages of their homosexual behaviour prompted them to seek treatment. It was observed that early childhood experiences are important in the causation of homosexuality, early channelization of the sexual drive or to objects of the same sex by homosexual seduction and subsequent habituation also played an important part.

  4. Homosexual identity: a concept in need of definition.

    PubMed

    Cass, V C

    Despite the fact that the concept homosexual identity has been used extensively in the literature on homosexuality since the late 1960s, investigators have shown little concern for defining or discussing the manner in which it is used. As a result, the study of homosexual identity has been characterized by confusion, disarray, and ambiguity. A multiplicity of terminologies makes comparisons between studies difficult. There has been little attempt to place theoretical proposals or data within the framework of existing psychological literature on identity. A number of assumptions critical to an understanding of homosexual identity are commonly made, and several of these are discussed: The synonymity of homosexual identity and self-concept; homosexual identity as childhood identity; homosexual identity as sexual identity; and homosexuality as distinct essence. This review also considers the following issues: The distinction between identity and behavior; the utility of an identity construct as applied to the study of homosexuals; the definition of identity in developmental theories of homosexual identity; and homosexual group identity.

  5. [Age-related dynamics and conditions for developing male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Kachaev, A K; Ponomarev, G N

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive clinical and psychological investigation was performed in 240 homosexual men. Various factors were established as playing a role in the development of homosexual drive. Therapeutic and preventive methods were designed. Homosexual men were found to have increased sexuality at the age of 5 to 7. First signs of homosexual settings were evident since the age 14-16 and their final shape acquired by 18-20. Parts played by individual partners were largely determined by personality traits (extroversion prevailing in "active" group and introversion in "passive" one). Homosexual orientation was primarily due to psychopathological development of the personality, asociality and external cues providing first sexual impression. In the forced confinement homosexual settings could be easily suppressed with chlorpromazine and then with sulfadiazine treatment. The prevention of homosexuality should be arranged as a complex of means effected through a differentiated medicolegal approach.

  6. What proportion of heterosexuals is ex-homosexual?

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul; Cameron, Kirk

    2002-12-01

    How many heterosexuals are 'ex-homosexuals'? In 1984, a random sample of Dallas adults indicated that 8 (2.7%) of 294 currently heterosexual men and 4 (1.0%) of 393 currently heterosexual women said that they were ex-homosexual. Of an urban sample from 5 additional cities, 0.5% of current heterosexuals reported that they had been homosexually 'married'. It thus appears that perhaps 1-2% of heterosexuals are ex-homosexuals. Proportionately more adults than teenagers and more men than women moved from homosexuality to heterosexuality. Of the 18 who changed, 12 became heterosexual and 6 bisexual, suggesting that perhaps two-thirds of those who abandon "being" homosexual 'become' heterosexual and a third 'become' bisexual. Because labeling oneself 'homosexual' is so mutable and value-laden, the term 'omnisexual' is suggested.

  7. The Effects of Hypnotherapy on Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Peter

    1967-01-01

    Fifteen homosexuals were treated with hypnosis. The patients were selected from a general psychiatric practice and had a long history of confirmed homosexual behaviour and showed no evidence of organic or psychotic illness. The type of hypnotic induction attempted in all cases is described. In those where a satisfactory depth of hypnotic trance was achieved a change in sexual orientation was suggested to the patient. Before therapy, each patient was assessed using the Kinsey scale. Results were evaluated in terms of the patient's subsequent behaviour and his subjective feelings. Of the 15 patients, three showed no improvement, four showed a mild improvement and eight showed a marked improvement. There was a significant correlation between the depth of hypnosis achieved and the therapeutic outcome. Those patients who reached a deep level of hypnotic trance were most likely to show a marked improvement. There were no significant correlations with other factors such as degree of homosexuality as measured on the Kinsey scale and the patient's marital status. Treatment of homosexuals with hypnosis may produce more satisfactory results than those obtainable by other means. The best results are likely to be achieved in patients who are good hypnotic subjects. PMID:6017544

  8. Oedipus in Gethsemane: archetypal aspects of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Frey-Wehrlin, C T

    1992-04-01

    In the history of depth psychology, we often come upon the theme of 'father-son' relationships, which, although initially positive, ultimately become destructive. I submit that repressed homosexual aspects may be responsible for this turn of events and illustrate this hypothesis with archetypal motifs found in Greek and Judaeo-Christian culture.

  9. Characteristics of Male Homosexual College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromhart, Michael V.

    1971-01-01

    A limited comparative study of undergraduate homosexual males and control males were compared on referral source, therapy referral, academic interest and achievement, ordinal position, perceived relationship with parents, and personality adjustment as measured by the MMPI. Several differences were found and implications for treatment were…

  10. Characteristics of Male Homosexual College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromhart, Michael V.

    1971-01-01

    A limited comparative study of undergraduate homosexual males and control males were compared on referral source, therapy referral, academic interest and achievement, ordinal position, perceived relationship with parents, and personality adjustment as measured by the MMPI. Several differences were found and implications for treatment were…

  11. The Economic Cost of Homosexuality: Multilevel Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumle, Amanda K.; Poston, Dudley, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on earlier studies that have examined "the economic cost of homosexuality," by using data from the 2000 U.S. Census and by employing multilevel analyses. Our findings indicate that partnered gay men experience a 12.5 percent earnings penalty compared to married heterosexual men, and a statistically insignificant earnings…

  12. The Economic Cost of Homosexuality: Multilevel Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumle, Amanda K.; Poston, Dudley, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on earlier studies that have examined "the economic cost of homosexuality," by using data from the 2000 U.S. Census and by employing multilevel analyses. Our findings indicate that partnered gay men experience a 12.5 percent earnings penalty compared to married heterosexual men, and a statistically insignificant earnings…

  13. Gender-transposition theory and homosexual genesis.

    PubMed

    Money, J

    1984-01-01

    The genesis of homosexuality, and therefore of heterosexuality also, has traditionally been argued as either wholly biological or wholly social-environmental. The theory of gender transposition integrates findings regarding both prenatal hormonal programming of the sexual brain, and postnatal social programming.

  14. A Critique of Anthropological Research on Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Thomas K.

    1977-01-01

    Summarized are studies on the role of the "berdache" in primitive cultures, with a critique of the terminological problems associated; a review of some of the ethnographic accounts of homoerotic behavior among primitive folk; and, a discussion of the current typological approach to the study of the homosexual community. (Author)

  15. Social norms and prejudice against homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Annelyse; Monteiro, Maria Benedicta; Camino, Leoncio

    2009-11-01

    Different studies regarding the role of norms on the expression of prejudice have shown that the anti-prejudice norm influences people to inhibit prejudice expressions. However, if norm pressure has led to a substantial decrease in the public expression of prejudice against certain targets (e.g., blacks, women, blind people), little theoretical and empirical attention has been paid to the role of this general norm regarding sexual minorities (e.g., prostitutes, lesbians and gays). In this sense, the issue we want to address is whether general anti-prejudice norms can reduce the expression of prejudice against homosexual individuals. In this research we investigate the effect of activating an anti-prejudice norm against homosexuals on blatant and subtle expressions of prejudice. The anti-prejudice norm was experimentally manipulated and its effects were observed on rejection to intimacy (blatant prejudice) and on positive-negative emotions (subtle prejudice) regarding homosexuals. 136 university students were randomly allocated to activated-norm and control conditions and completed a questionnaire that included norm manipulation and the dependent variables. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) as well as subsequent ANOVAS showed that only in the high normative pressure condition participants expressed less rejection to intimacy and less negative emotions against homosexuals, when compared to the simple norm-activation and the control conditions. Positive emotions, however, were similar both in the high normative pressure and the control conditions. We concluded that a high anti-prejudice pressure regarding homosexuals could reduce blatant prejudice but not subtle prejudice, considering that the expression of negative emotions decreased while the expression of positive emotions remained stable.

  16. "Proper Masculinities" and the Fear of Feminisation in Modern Cyprus: University Students Talk about Homosexuality and Gendered Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoufriou, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The present article attempts to pay attention to the ways in which a group of young Cypriot students engage in the construction of conventional notions of masculinities through the negation and the fear of homosexual desire. Drawing on interviews with 12 male and female university students, I argue that many young men go through complicated…

  17. "Proper Masculinities" and the Fear of Feminisation in Modern Cyprus: University Students Talk about Homosexuality and Gendered Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoufriou, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The present article attempts to pay attention to the ways in which a group of young Cypriot students engage in the construction of conventional notions of masculinities through the negation and the fear of homosexual desire. Drawing on interviews with 12 male and female university students, I argue that many young men go through complicated…

  18. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): male homosexuality among Arabic-speaking internet users in the Middle East--2010.

    PubMed

    Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Kamal

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of male homosexuality is difficult to elicit considering the sensitivity of one's sexual orientation. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is an online epidemiologic study of male and female sexuality. The online nature of GOSS allows more confidentiality and wider geographic reach, particularly important in investigating sexual issues within the more conservative societies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of male homosexuality among Internet users in the Arabic-speaking Middle East and the unique characteristics of this subset of the population. Prevalence of male homosexuality. In the year 2010, GOSS was offered to Arabic-speaking web surfers above 18 years of age in the Middle East. Potential participants were invited via advertising on Facebook®. Invitations were dispatched randomly with the exception of geographic region and age, regardless web surfing preferences. GOSS relied in part on validated questionnaires such as the International Index of Erectile Function, as well on other nonvalidated questions. 17.1% reported desire toward the same sex, of whom 5.6% had homosexual encounters, mostly in the form of external stimulation rather than intercourse, and exclusively undercover. An overwhelming majority was ego-dystonic (78.2%). This is--to our knowledge--the first online survey to address the prevalence of homosexual orientation and practice in the Middle East, discriminating desire from practice, ego-syntonic from ego-dystonic, and investigating the pattern of practice. Homosexual desire is present in the Middle East as it is around the world, and homosexual encounters are as prevalent. Yet, the undercover and ego-dystonic states prevail. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Oxytocin's impact on social face processing is stronger in homosexual than heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Thienel, Matthias; Heinrichs, Markus; Fischer, Stefan; Ott, Volker; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved neuropeptide that contributes to the regulation of social interactions including the processing of facial stimuli. We hypothesized that its improving effect on social approach behavior depends on perceived sexual features and, consequently, on sexual orientation. In 19 homosexual and 18 heterosexual healthy young men, we investigated the acute effect of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo, respectively, on the processing of social stimuli as assessed by ratings of trustworthiness, attractiveness and approachability for male and female faces. Faces were each presented with a neutral, a happy, and an angry expression, respectively. In heterosexual subjects, the effect of oxytocin administration was restricted to a decrease in ratings of trustworthiness for angry female faces (p<0.02). In contrast, in homosexual men oxytocin administration robustly increased ratings of attractiveness and approachability for male faces regardless of the facial expression (all p ≤ 0.05), as well as ratings of approachability for happy female faces (p<0.01). Results indicate that homosexual in comparison to heterosexual men display higher sensitivity to oxytocin's enhancing impact on social approach tendencies, suggesting that differences in sexual orientation imply differential oxytocinergic signaling.

  20. Perceptions & Attitudes of Male Homosexuals from Differing Socio-Cultural & Audiological Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Daniel B.

    This study examined four male homosexual, sociocultural groups: normal-hearing homosexuals with normal-hearing parents, deaf homosexuals with normal-hearing parents, deaf homosexuals with hearing-impaired parents, and hard-of-hearing homosexuals with normal-hearing parents. Differences with regard to self-perception, identity, and attitudes were…

  1. Sexual behavior and status for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 among homosexual and bisexual males in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, M; Uribe, P; Gortmaker, S; Avila, C; De Caso, L E; Mueller, N; Sepulveda, J

    1992-04-15

    The authors examined sexual behaviors, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and condom use among 2,314 homosexual and bisexual men tested during 1988-1989 at the AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) National Center in Mexico City. Bisexuals constituted 24% of the sample; the seroprevalence rate was lower for bisexuals than homosexuals (21 vs. 34%). In logistic regressions, HIV-1 seropositivity was independently related to age, education, pattern of insertive/receptive behavior in anal sex, lifetime number of male sex partners, having sex with someone with AIDS, homosexual versus bisexual behavior, and a history of condyloma. The same logistic regressions were found to fit bisexuals and homosexuals. The rate of HIV-1 was reduced in individuals who indicated always requiring their partners to use a condom when practicing receptive anal sex (1% of the total). The most common practice for both homosexuals and bisexuals was "mixed" behavior (i.e., both insertive and receptive anal sex); this was also the practice with the highest risk. Bisexuals practiced both vaginal and anal sex with women and reported little condom use. The substantial seroprevalence among bisexuals, their frequent sexual contact with women, and their low rate of condom use imply a continuing role as a bridge of infection to females. Whether this risk will lead to a sustained heterosexual epidemic remains to be determined.

  2. Can some gay men and lesbians change their sexual orientation? 200 participants reporting a change from homosexual to heterosexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Robert L

    2003-10-01

    Position statements of the major mental health organizations in the United States state that there is no scientific evidence that a homosexual sexual orientation can be changed by psychotherapy, often referred to as "reparative therapy." This study tested the hypothesis that some individuals whose sexual orientation is predominantly homosexual can, with some form of reparative therapy, become predominantly heterosexual. The participants were 200 self-selected individuals (143 males, 57 females) who reported at least some minimal change from homosexual to heterosexual orientation that lasted at least 5 years. They were interviewed by telephone, using a structured interview that assessed same sex attraction, fantasy, yearning, and overt homosexual behavior. On all measures, the year prior to the therapy was compared to the year before the interview. The majority of participants gave reports of change from a predominantly or exclusively homosexual orientation before therapy to a predominantly or exclusively heterosexual orientation in the past year. Reports of complete change were uncommon. Female participants reported significantly more change than did male participants. Either some gay men and lesbians, following reparative therapy, actually change their predominantly homosexual orientation to a predominantly heterosexual orientation or some gay men and women construct elaborate self-deceptive narratives (or even lie) in which they claim to have changed their sexual orientation, or both. For many reasons, it is concluded that the participants' self-reports were, by-and-large, credible and that few elaborated self-deceptive narratives or lied. Thus, there is evidence that change in sexual orientation following some form of reparative therapy does occur in some gay men and lesbians.

  3. Fertility in the mothers of firstborn homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2012-06-01

    This study tested the balancing selection hypothesis, that is, genes predisposing men to homosexuality escape elimination from the population because the decreased fertility of men with the heritable form of homosexuality is offset by an increased fertility among biological relatives who carry the same genetic variants. The index subjects (probands) were 40,197 firstborn heterosexual men and 4,784 firstborn homosexual men retrieved from six archival data sets, all of which had previously been used in published research. The measure of familial (specifically, parental) fertility was the proband's number of younger siblings. The results directly contradicted the prediction of the balancing selection hypothesis. In four of the six samples, the homosexual probands had significantly fewer younger siblings; in the other two samples, the means were not significantly different. It is possible that mothers who produce a homosexual son at their first delivery include a biologically distinct subpopulation of mothers of homosexual sons.

  4. Support for instruction about homosexuality in South Carolina public schools.

    PubMed

    Lindley, L L; Reininger, B M

    2001-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that recognition of sexual orientation begins in adolescence. However, students who identify as gay or lesbian report that the subject of homosexuality is virtually absent from classroom instruction. In South Carolina public schools, the subject of homosexuality may not be discussed except during instruction about sexually transmitted diseases. In 1997, survey data were obtained from 534 South Carolina registered voters to determine level of support for school-based sexuality education, including support for instruction about homosexuality. Overall, support for sexuality education was strong, however, homosexuality was the least-supported subject in the survey. In addition, registered voters were less sure as to what grade level instruction about homosexuality should begin. Characteristics of voters who supported and opposed instruction about homosexuality in the public schools were examined and compared. These data may be useful in building support for sexuality education programs that address this controversial topic.

  5. [Blood transfusion and homosexuality: Ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Béranger, A; Bellis, R; Bracconi, M; Mouysset, A

    2016-09-01

    Since the context of the contaminated blood affair in 1983, the homosexual male were excluded from the blood donation in France. This exclusion is often called into question in several countries and is an actual lively debate. In France, reform process is ongoing for a practical change. Three issues make up the discussion: the infectious risk bound to sexual behavior, the feasibility of the powerful biological tests but having a silent window and the protection of the blood recipient. The infectious risk in the homosexual male is higher for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in the rest of the population. Even if every person has his/her own individual risk depending on his/her habits, everyone is confronted to the same law. The challenge is to build a consensus, along with the precautionary principle, the non-discrimination policy, and the individual and collective responsibilities.

  6. Investigating the Islamic Perspective on Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, Junaid B; Abdul-Latif, Hussein

    2016-07-01

    In his 2006 article in the Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of North America (JIMA), Dr. Ahmed qualified the predominant psychiatric view on homosexuality by recourse to opinions prevalent within reparative therapy circles. Conservative Muslim thinkers, online counselors, and other professionals continue to hold opinions similar to those delineated by Dr. Ahmed in his journal article. We use his article as a focal point to critique the general opinions upheld by conservative Muslim thinkers by alluding to the harms associated with reparative therapy and by rejecting the unreasonable prescription of permanent celibacy. We critique Dr. Ahmed's association of homosexuality with mental health issues, fatal diseases, alcoholism, and illicit sexual intercourse. Investigating the Muslim tradition, we encourage conservative Muslim leaders to facilitate Muslim gays and lesbians in their legitimate human need for intimacy, affection, and companionship.

  7. [Homosexuality and adolescence. A primary health care center holistic view].

    PubMed

    Leyva Moral, Juan Manuel

    2006-09-01

    In spite of the fact that homosexuality has existed since time immemorial, homosexuality continues to be a taboo topic for many people. When time comes for a youth to reveal his/her sexual identify to his/her family many young homosexuals experience duress during this process which may have physical and psychological consequences for those youths. Therefore, it is important that all primary health care team members be capable to identify this process in order to apply the most appropriate measures.

  8. [Research progress on molecular genetics of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Tu, Dan; Xu, Ruiwei; Zhao, Guanglu; Wang, Binbin; Feng, Tiejian

    2016-08-01

    Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality.

  9. Theoretical perspectives accounting for adolescent homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Savin-Williams, R C

    1988-03-01

    Few topics in sexology elicit such a diversity of opinions and emotions as the question of etiology of homosexuality. Views frequently carry with them implicit or explicit messages concerning the psychologic health of this sexual orientation. Theories of sexual development usually portray adolescence as a critical time in the life course because of changes in: 1) anatomy and physiology; 2) psychologic functioning: the reawakening, renewal, and reliving of previously established sexual relations and drives; and/or 3) social conditions: an increased exposure and adherence to societal messages concerning appropriate and inappropriate social and sexual behaviors and relationships. This paper provides a brief overview of several major theories--evolutionary biology, psychoanalysis, and social processes--as they relate to the development of sexual orientation. In addition, an ethologic perspective that synthesizes various etiologic theories, as they relate to homosexuality during adolescence, is briefly reviewed. In these discussions, the issue of whether homosexuality is a normal or abnormal developmental state during adolescence is also addressed.

  10. Neural Correlates of Sexual Orientation in Heterosexual, Bisexual, and Homosexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Safron, Adam; Sylva, David; Klimaj, Victoria; Rosenthal, A. M.; Li, Meng; Walter, Martin; Bailey, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Studies of subjective and genital sexual arousal in monosexual (i.e. heterosexual and homosexual) men have repeatedly found that erotic stimuli depicting men’s preferred sex produce strong responses, whereas erotic stimuli depicting the other sex produce much weaker responses. Inconsistent results have previously been obtained in bisexual men, who have sometimes demonstrated distinctly bisexual responses, but other times demonstrated patterns more similar to those observed in monosexual men. We used fMRI to investigate neural correlates of responses to erotic pictures and videos in heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men, ages 25–50. Sixty participants were included in video analyses, and 62 were included in picture analyses. We focused on the ventral striatum (VS), due to its association with incentive motivation. Patterns were consistent with sexual orientation, with heterosexual and homosexual men showing female-favoring and male-favoring responses, respectively. Bisexual men tended to show less differentiation between male and female stimuli. Consistent patterns were observed in the whole brain, including the VS, and also in additional regions such as occipitotemporal, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices. This study extends previous findings of gender-specific neural responses in monosexual men, and provides initial evidence for distinct brain activity patterns in bisexual men. PMID:28145518

  11. The Homosexual Adolescent: Developmental Issues and Social Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malyon, Alan K.

    1981-01-01

    Relates the special problems of the homosexual adolescent, focusing specifically on negative social bias and its effect on the adolescent's psychological development and identity formation. (Author/CM)

  12. A Mediational Model Explaining the Connection Between Religiosity and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes in Italy: The Effects of Male Role Endorsement and Homosexual Stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Piumatti, Giovanni

    2017-01-31

    This study aimed to better understand the relationship between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes in Italy by examining the mediation effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping. A sample of 5,522 Italian residents (age range = 18-74) was drawn from a cross-sectional national representative survey carried out in 2011. Measures included general religiosity, male role endorsement, homosexual stereotyping, social acceptance of homosexuality, and homosexual rights endorsement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping on the relationship between general religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Results showed that both male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping partially mediated the relationship. In a model where religiosity and both mediators positively explained anti-homosexual attitudes, male role endorsement was the strongest mediator. Endorsement of gender role beliefs and homosexual stereotyping may thus exacerbate the connection between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes among Italians.

  13. [Homosexual parenthood and child development: present data].

    PubMed

    Fond, G; Franc, N; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of existing studies on gay and lesbian parenthood and child development. Although 200,000 to 300,000 children could be concerned in 2010 in France, there is a lack of research on this issue in our country. Research among children raised by homosexual parents involves methodological issues, such as defining homosexual families, sampling cases and controls, and choosing structured or semi-structured evaluations. The fact that homosexual marriage, adoption and insemination are not presently legal in France could explain that only one study has been conducted in France in 2000 among 58 children raided by homosexual parents. This study concluded that these children did not show an increased rate of behavior or anxiety disorders. Concerns about lesbian parenting have focused on the absence of a father, the homosexual orientation of the mother, and their negative consequences on the development of the children. Research on parenting and child rearing has repeatedly compared lesbian and heterosexual families, and in the last 30 years a growing body of studies on lesbian parents and the development of their children has been published. Studies about child development, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender role behavior, emotional/behavioral development, social relationships and cognitive functioning showed no difference between children of lesbian mothers and those of heterosexual parents. Likewise, parental functioning, the mothers' psychological health and maternal skills were not significantly different among lesbian mothers than among heterosexual mothers. In studies concerning gay fathers, findings generally indicate no differences in sexual orientation, socialization, or psychological outcomes in children of gay fathers compared to children of heterosexual fathers. However, the first study on the adult attachment style dimensions of adult women who had gay or bisexual fathers suggested that they were

  14. Pictures of male homosexuals in the heads of Turkish college students: the effects of sex difference and social contact on stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Sakalli, Nuray

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to focus on the context of stereotypes of gay men, and how sex differences and social contact influence the stereotypic and counter-stereotypic attributes of them. To do that, 77 female and 106 male heterosexual undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants filled out a rating scale. The findings of the study demonstrated that male participants defined male homosexuals by using more stereotypic, less counter-stereotypic attributes, while female participants used less stereotypic and more counter-stereotypic attributes to define gay men. In the same way, participants who hadn't had any social contact with any homosexuals used more stereotypic and less counter-stereotypic attributes, while others who had had social contact with at least a homosexual defined gay men by using less stereotypic and more counter-stereotypic attributes. Both male participants and participants who hadn't had social contact with any homosexuals used more negative stereotypes than both females and participants who at least had had social contact with a homosexual. The findings were discussed in terms of gender-based judgments of gay men.

  15. Patterns of sexual arousal in homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Jerome A; Janssen, Erick

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this stimulus would induce relatively low levels of response in heterosexual and homosexual men. A sample of 59 men (19 homosexual, 13 bisexual, and 27 heterosexual) were presented with a series of 4-min sexual videos while their genital and subjective sexual responses were measured continuously. Bisexual men did not differ significantly in their responses to male homosexual stimuli (depicting men engaging in sex) from homosexual men, and they did not differ significantly in their responses to heterosexual (depicting two women, without same-sex contact, engaged in sex with a man) and lesbian (depicting women engaging in sex) stimuli from heterosexual men. However, bisexual men displayed significantly higher levels of both genital and subjective sexual arousal to a bisexual stimulus (depicting a man engaged in sex with both a man and a woman) than either homosexual or heterosexual men. The findings of this study indicate that bisexuality in men is associated with a unique and specific pattern of sexual arousal.

  16. "The Responsibilities of the Critic": F. O. Matthiessen's Homosexual Palimpsest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Charles E., III

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on American Studies, Literary Criticism, and Gay Historical Criticism by examining F. O. Matthiessen's "American Renaissance." Argues that criticism of the work misses its homosexual double-consciousness: a resistive form of "passing" labeled "homosexual palimpsest" that manifests itself in…

  17. A Study of Interpersonal Conflict in Homosexual Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cecco, John P.; Freedman, Mark

    1975-01-01

    This study examines how homosexual men and women deal with interpersonal conflict. Subjects (N=122) were asked to describe a conflict involving homosexuality and to rate the civil liberties and psychological issues involved. Results are discussed in terms of choices of issues for resolving conflict through negotiation. Implications for counseling…

  18. The Longevity of Homosexuals: Before and after the AIDS Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Paul; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obituaries spanning 13 years, from U.S. homosexual journals and conventional newspapers, were examined. For the homosexual and lesbian deaths, much lower median death ages than U.S. averages were recorded (whether or not AIDS was involved), with higher rates of accidental death, suicide, and murder. This pattern of early death calls the…

  19. Educating for Sexual Difference? Muslim Teachers' Conversations about Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanjakdar, Fida

    2013-01-01

    Homosexuality is widely perceived among many Muslims as a "western disease", a natural outcome of the West's secularity and cultural degeneracy. In spite of the emergence of more liberal attitudes towards sexual differences in modern times, moral issues have not lost their relevance in polemical discourse against homosexuality among many…

  20. Homosexual Teachers in the Classroom: The Debate Continues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Robert N.

    2006-01-01

    A few years ago a state legislator traveled throughout California to promote a referendum that would prohibit homosexuals from teaching in classrooms. Together with his companions, they said that allowing homosexuals to teach in the classroom would expose young people to the "wrong role models." In this article, the author shares his views on this…

  1. Stigmas, Work Environment, and Economic Discrimination Against Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escoffier, Jeffrey

    1975-01-01

    Homosexuals must begin to examine the unique economic oppression involved in gay identity. Psychological dangers of passing are discussed. Presented at Homosexual Community Counseling Center Conference on Vocational Guidance and Gay Lifestyles, Riverside Church, New York, New York, October 26, 1974. (Author)

  2. Homosexuals and U.S. Military Policy: Current Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-27

    fostered an atmosphere of “ homophobia ” in the military that encouraged violence against homosexuals. Others contend that Winchell’s death occurred in spite...representative of homophobia in the services or, at the least, lax attitudes toward preventing the harassment of those suspected of being homosexual

  3. Early Family Influences in the Etiology of Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Stephanie Anne

    The etiology of homosexuality is probably best explained from a multidimensional framework which takes into account socialization, family background, and individual developmental factors. A research review was conducted to examine the influence of parental characteristics in the etiology of homosexuality. The findings of the review support the…

  4. Early Family Influences in the Etiology of Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, Stephanie Anne

    The etiology of homosexuality is probably best explained from a multidimensional framework which takes into account socialization, family background, and individual developmental factors. A research review was conducted to examine the influence of parental characteristics in the etiology of homosexuality. The findings of the review support the…

  5. Support for Instruction about Homosexuality in South Carolina Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Lisa L.; Reiniger Belinda M.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed 534 South Carolina registered voters to determine their level of support for school-based sexuality education, including homosexuality education. Overall, support for sexuality education (and many sexuality education topics) was strong, but homosexuality was the least-supported subject in the survey. There was strong support for…

  6. Social Inequality on the College Campus: A Consideration of Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Larry M.

    2008-01-01

    Aversion to homosexuals for many in the American society comes close to a true phobia, as a persistent and irrational fear. National surveys investigating attitudes toward homosexual relations between adults reported a majority of those responding believed that such relations were wrong. Taken to an extreme, homophobia and antigay discrimination…

  7. Educating for Sexual Difference? Muslim Teachers' Conversations about Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanjakdar, Fida

    2013-01-01

    Homosexuality is widely perceived among many Muslims as a "western disease", a natural outcome of the West's secularity and cultural degeneracy. In spite of the emergence of more liberal attitudes towards sexual differences in modern times, moral issues have not lost their relevance in polemical discourse against homosexuality among many…

  8. Reasons for Living in Homosexual and Heterosexual Older Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Ellis, Jon B.

    Suicide rates among older adolescents is a major concern for researchers. A homosexual lifestyle, with its additional stresses, may erode one's adaptive characteristics. This study sought to identify and compare suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics in homosexual and heterosexual adolescents. Sixty-two individuals were divided into two…

  9. Social Inequality on the College Campus: A Consideration of Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Larry M.

    2008-01-01

    Aversion to homosexuals for many in the American society comes close to a true phobia, as a persistent and irrational fear. National surveys investigating attitudes toward homosexual relations between adults reported a majority of those responding believed that such relations were wrong. Taken to an extreme, homophobia and antigay discrimination…

  10. Homosexuality And The Ethics Of Behavioral Intervention: Paper 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begelman, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author recommends that behavior therapists abandon the administration of sexual reorientation techniques to homosexuals because he believes homosexuality is not a behavior disorder or a form of mental illness. This paper was presented at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, 13 December…

  11. Sexual partner preference in female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L

    2002-02-01

    Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques is a sexual behavior, not a sociosexual one. Additional evidence indicates that female Japanese macaques do not engage in homosexual behavior simply because acceptable male mates are unavailable or unmotivated to copulate. Patterns of sexual partner choice by female Japanese macaques that are the focus of intersexual competition indicate that females of this species choose same-sex sexual partners even when they are simultaneously presented with a motivated, opposite-sex alternative. Thus, in some populations of Japanese macaques, females prefer certain same-sex sexual partners relative to certain male mates, and vice versa. Taken together, this evidence suggests that female Japanese macaques are best characterized as bisexual in orientation, not preferentially homosexual or preferentially heterosexual.

  12. [Effects of the disclosure of homosexuality on heterosexual undergraduates' behaviors with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Wada, Minoru

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated heterosexual undergraduates' behavior with a same-sex close friend and their attitudes toward homosexuality after this friend disclosed his/her sexual orientation. The study also examined whether the heterosexual friend was regarded as a romantic love object or not. Participants were 77 male and 139 female undergraduates. Males decreased their behaviors with their close friend and adopted more positive attitudes toward gay men after they knew their friend's sexual orientation. Females decreased their behavior with their close friend more after learning that they were a romantic love object of their friend, compared to when tehy were not. Also females adopted more positive attitudes toward lesbians only after knowing they were not a romantic love object. These gender differences are discussed.

  13. The (homo)sexual temptation in Milton's Paradise regained.

    PubMed

    Summers, C J

    1997-01-01

    While the sexual temptation of Paradise Regained is tactful, it is also characteristically Miltonic in its daring. Despite its decorous presentation, the temptation is exceedingly bold in that it is not merely a heterosexual temptation but a homosexual one as well. Acknowledgement of the homosexual lure in the brief epic is essential to understanding the dynamics of the celebrated banquet scene and to appreciating the comprehensiveness of Milton's trial of the Son's humanity. Such a recognition also helps place in perspective the alleged misogyny of Paradise Regained, even as it also reveals the complexity of Milton's poetic technique, particularly his ability to work by indirection and implication and to exploit classical and biblical sources. Although Jesus rejects the homosexual temptation (as He does the heterosexual one), He does not condemn homosexuality. Milton's incorporation of a homosexual temptation provides evidence of his sophisticated recognition of the range of fully human sexual responses.

  14. Molestations by homosexual foster parents: newspaper accounts vs official records.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul

    2003-12-01

    To assess whether a systematic tally of newspaper accounts reflect official foster-parent molestation a review of 6,444 news stories on Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe from 1989 through 2002 about child molestation yielded 33 stories involving foster parents. Of the 25 foster-parent perpetrators, at least 15 (60%) engaged in homosexuality. In Illinois 1997-2002, 92 (34%) of 270 foster- or adoptive-parent perpetrators who engaged in "substantiated" sexual abuse homosexually abused their charges. These findings suggest that the proportion of homosexual perpetrators in a systematic tally of newspaper stories is similar to the proportion of homosexual perpetrators in datasets from large entities and put in question the current policy of utilizing homosexuals as foster and adoptive parents.

  15. "Masculine love," Renaissance writing, and the "new invention" of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Cady, J

    1992-01-01

    Contrary to the dominant claim in gay studies now that homosexuality is a relatively new historical "invention," the Renaissance had a definite recognition of a distinct homosexuality, acknowledged at least by those who were willing to face and discuss the subject frankly. A key example of that awareness is the earlier term "masculine love," which seems to have been particularly prominent in the Renaissance as a language for a male homosexual orientation. Significant differences have clearly occurred in the homosexual situation over time, and homosexuality can never be discussed totally independent of historical and social conditions, but the "new-inventionism" currently prevailing in gay studies has serious problems of concept and method and needs careful examining.

  16. Parenting behaviors of homosexual and heterosexual fathers.

    PubMed

    Bigner, J J; Jacobsen, R B

    1989-01-01

    Responses of 33 homosexual (gay) fathers were compared with those of 33 heterosexual (nongay) fathers on the Iowa Parent Behavior Inventory, an empirical measure of dimensions of parenting behavior. Gay fathers did not differ significantly from nongay fathers in their reported degree of involvement nor in intimacy level with children. Gay fathers tended to be more strict, more responsive to children's needs, and to provide reasons for appropriate behavior to children more consistently than nongay fathers. Several explanations are explored for these similarities and differences in parenting styles.

  17. A case of homosexual murder: a victim with testicular regression syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, K; Matsumoto, H; Abiru, H; Minowa, Y; Hayase, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamoto, K; Fukui, Y

    1997-10-01

    A 25-year-old male was killed with a survival knife by his business and homosexual partner. In addition to 22 wounds on the extremities, 16 wounds were found on the neck, chest and abdomen. The heart and lungs were penetrated, and three wound tracks reached the back of the body. The cause of death was diagnosed as hemorrhage. The genitalia of the victim was anomalous: the pubic hair pattern was that of a female, the penis was small and no testes were identified in the scrotal sac. According to his medical records, micropenis and bilateral cryptorchidism were present at birth, and neither hormonal treatments nor bilateral orchidopexy could enlarge his penis size. At the age of 17, his condition had been diagnosed as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. His genital anomalies were considered due to embryonic testicular regression syndrome, and his micropenis a possible cause of his homosexual orientation. Judging from the patulous anus with thickened margins, he was probably a passive homosexual. The motive of the murder was not monetary, but rather emotional entanglement. The court judged that the case was one of premeditated murder with a short-circuited motive, and sentenced the defendant to ten years imprisonment.

  18. Seropositivity, homosexuality and identity politics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Terto V

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the emergence of HIV seropositivity as a new identity, closely linked to male homosexuality, in Brazilian culture. Two distinct conceptions of seropositive identities that emerged in the Brazilian HIV/AIDS movement were examined. These two differing conceptions have taken shape as the basis for social action and activism around AIDS-related issues such as prevention, treatment and care. The first of these conceptions suggest that all people whose lives have been touched by HIV and AIDS can work together, based on principles of solidarity, in seeking to respond to the epidemic--whether or not they were themselves directly infected with HIV. The second, more specific conception suggests that those infected by HIV share a number of common experiences that distinguish them from others, while at the same time recognizing the specificity of homosexual men as opposed to heterosexual women or injecting drug users. Despite the differences, the two conceptions promote various common purposes such as the social integration and participation of HIV-positive persons in confronting AIDS, fighting for better life conditions, defending civil rights and breaking clandestineness and isolation. The differences appear mainly in the ways of organizing and political and social representation.

  19. Teachers' attitudes and beliefs about homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina

    2010-05-01

    Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality.

  20. Profile of a homosexual in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kok, L P; Ang, Y G; Fong, Y H; Siew, S H

    1991-12-01

    A study was done on 40 homosexual subjects and 47 controls between the ages of 18-19 years, matched for race and age. There was no significant difference in the educational level, and family background of the 2 groups. But homosexuals had a significantly more unhappy childhood than the controls, were more often reprimanded than physically punished and were often teased by their classmates and called names. They were not overprotected or infantilized by their parents and there was no overclose relationship with their mothers. The majority mixed with effeminate boys, admired a senior person in school and about a third had a physical relationship with this person. Almost half had been molested when they were young. Less than a fifth had girlfriends. About three-quarters knew of AIDS and of these less than a fifth felt they would give up their sexual practices because of fear of AIDS. The main problems faced by the subjects were confusion about their identity, their desire to find the right partner, relationship problems and difficulties in controlling their impulses.

  1. The Role of Cognitive and Situational Variables in Aggression Toward Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Miguel, Christopher L.; Millham, Jim

    1976-01-01

    Attitudes toward homosexuality, perceived similarity to the target homosexual, and type of prior contact with the target homosexual were found to interact in influencing such aggressiveness. The implication of these findings to the "personal threat" and "scapegoating" hypotheses of aggression toward homosexuals is discussed.…

  2. Masculorum concubitores: views on homosexuality among Catholics in Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luís Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Coelho, David Handerson; Oliveira, Cinthia; de Almeida, Vagner; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on Catholics' views towards homosexuality. The discussion is based on an ethnographic survey involving interviews with priests and lay leaders as well as participant observation of daily life in a working-class neighborhood in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The analysis points to persistent prejudice against homosexuality in the neighborhood and among Catholic clergy and lay leaders interviewed in the study. The priests base their assertions on the dialectics between desire/practice and chastity/reproduction. This interplay allows them to distinguish between “homosexuality,” condition of desire, and “homosexualism,” a sin of the flesh. Based on this understanding, they produce an attitude of tolerance towards homosexuals. Laypeople prove to be more intolerant and focus their assertions on the difference between the sexes as the condition for good, natural, and sanctified sexual interaction. This attitude appears to be consistent with the way the sex/gender system operates in the neighborhood, where homosexuality is evaluated in terms masculinity and femininity. In this setting, it is interesting to observe how the discourses of homosexual movements challenge lay people and destabilize their religious certainties. PMID:21822456

  3. Causal Attributions and Parents' Acceptance of Their Homosexual Sons.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Yael; Diamond, Gary M

    2015-01-01

    This Internet-based study examined the association between Israeli parents' attributions regarding the cause of their son's homosexuality and their level of acceptance of their homosexual son. The sample (N = 57) was recruited via Internet Web sites (gay forums and support groups). Findings suggest that more essentialist (versus constructivist) causal attributions were associated with higher levels of parental acceptance. Length of time parents knew of their son's homosexual orientation predicted the degree to which their attributions were essentialist. Implications are discussed.

  4. Conversion therapy for homosexuality: serious violation of ethics.

    PubMed

    Patra, Suravi

    2016-01-01

    Across the world, homosexuality is gaining legitimacy; stigma and discrimination are gradually giving way to equality and inclusion. The situation in India is in stark contrast to these trends. In this country, homosexuality is an offence as per Section 377 of the IPC. The homosexual community is fighting for its rights and continues to suffer from intense stigma and discrimination. Their healthcare needs are not at all attended to; their sexual orientation is conceptualised as a socially deviant mental disease that needs psychiatric treatment.

  5. Saying the Unsaid: Probing Homosexuality in The Hairdresser of Harare.

    PubMed

    Chitando, Anna; Manyonganise, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Homosexuality in Zimbabwe often evokes strong reactions. Due to a tradition of silence, the topic largely continues to be taboo. However, it has been used by some politicians and church leaders to strengthen arguments and to denounce opponents. It is against this background that The Hairdresser of Harare (Huchu, 2010) ought to be understood. The novel gives helpful clues into discourses on homosexuality in contemporary Zimbabwe. This article analyzes the author's approach to the subject and critiques it. It maintains that the author's view on homosexuality has been limited by attaching the theme to postcolonial politics and violence. However, the article appreciates his courage in exploring the theme.

  6. Mapping the terrain of homosexually-themed language.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I present a new model for understanding homosexually-themed language. By detailing how old conceptualizations of homophobic language no longer maintain heuristic utility in explaining the social dynamics of many sport and educational settings, I situate other conceptualizations of homosexually-themed language depending on the cultural context. I argue that whether language is considered homophobic, or whether it is better conceptualized as fag discourse, gay discourse or pro-gay language, is primarily dependent on the homohysteria of a setting. This model should enable scholars and educators to understand the operation of homosexually-themed language in society and properly evaluate the homophobia of a setting.

  7. Recollections of their fathers by homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Phelan, J E

    1996-12-01

    A nonrandom, nonclinical t-test comparison study of 30 homosexual and 30 heterosexual men was conducted to describe their memories of their fathers' behaviors toward them. Previous studies had identified the "classical pattern," that is, the fathers of homosexual men were considered cold, hostile, and distant. Those studies were sparked by Freudian theory which postulated the same. Therefore, a brief revisitation has been conducted. Again, the findings supported the earlier, that is, the homosexual men recalled their fathers as more rejecting and less loving than the heterosexual men.

  8. Homosexuality: Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish issues; a fishbone tale.

    PubMed

    Nugent, R; Gramick, J

    Homosexuality is compared to a fishbone caught in the church's throat that the church can neither eject nor swallow entirely. Authors in all denominations are questioning traditional church stances influenced by the model of clinical pastoral education. Most major denominations have made policy statements on homosexuality. Four such stances discussed here highlight some of the common issues denominations face in their reexamination of the subject. Homosexuals struggling for full acceptance in the church must confront the classical understanding of the human being and human sexual differentiation as these concepts have traditionally influenced the churches.

  9. Offender and victim characteristics of registered female sexual offenders in Texas: a proposed typology of female sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M; Kercher, Glen

    2004-04-01

    Victim and offender characteristic of all registered adult female sexual offenders in Texas (N = 471) were examined. The most common offenses the females were arrested for were indecency with a child--sexual contact, sexual assault on a child, and aggravated sexual assault on a child. The majority (88%) of the females were Caucasian and the ages ranged from 18 to 77 (M = 32). The results of Hierarchical Loglinear Modeling yielded a complex relationship between offender and victim characteristics; thus, identification of preferred victims is mitigated by more than one variable. Additionally, the employment of cluster analysis yielded 6 types of female sexual offenders. The most common group includes 146 offenders, heterosexual nurturers. They were the least likely to have an arrest for a sexual assault. The victims were males who averaged 12 years of age. The other types of offenders included, noncriminal homosexual offenders, female sexual predators, young adult child exploiters, homosexual criminals, and aggressive homosexual offenders.

  10. [The meaning of family for homosexual couples].

    PubMed

    Salomé, Geraldo Magela; Espósito, Vitória Helena Cunha; de Moraes, Ana Lúcia Horta

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the structure and the dynamics of the family of couples constituted by people of the same sex, approaching the basis of its experience. The phenomenological approach was used with interviews. From analysis of the testimonies added to our experiences and readings resulted in two thematic categories: "the meaning of the family, constituted by homosexuals" and "perceiving the impact and the value of the family". Based on the phenomenon understanding, new perspectives are glimpsed, therefore, when somebody you decide to compose a different family of that proposal for the traditional model, he/she also will be creating a new condition, or either, a new type of family. In nursing care it is necessary to be aware for new care needs in order that the different types of family can be attended with the same ethics and respect and also considering the privacy guarantee.

  11. [The behavioral-neuroendocrine mechanism of development of homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Tai, Fa-Dao

    2007-10-01

    In this review, we primarily focus on the behavioral-neuroendocrine mechanism of development of homosexuality from genetic, neuroendocrine neuroanatomical and behavioral studies. Besides the influence of genetics and environment, sexual orientation was determined by the early perinatal hormone exposure. Gonadal steroidal hormone interacted with many neurotransmitters in individual development by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis and hypothalamus pituitary gonadal axis, which regulated the individual's sexual orientation. It was summarized here about the future directions on sexual orientation and demonstrated problems which would have to investigate next step. All these may be beneficial for our understanding of the homosexuality and paying attention to psychological and physiological health of homosexuality, which is useful to prevent the development of teenage homosexuality.

  12. Is homosexuality a paraphilia? The evidence for and against.

    PubMed

    Cantor, James M

    2012-02-01

    Whether homosexuality should be described as one among many paraphilic sexual interests or an altogether different dimension of sexual interest has long been discussed in terms of its political and social implications. The present article examined the question instead by comparing the major correlates and other features of homosexuality and of the paraphilias, including prevalence, sex ratio, onset and course, fraternal birth order, physical height, handedness, IQ and cognitive neuropsychological profile, and neuroanatomy. Although those literatures remain underdeveloped, the existing findings thus far suggest that homosexuality has a pattern of correlates largely, but not entirely, distinct from that identified among the paraphilias. At least, if homosexuality were deemed a paraphilia, it would be relatively unique among them, taxonometrically speaking.

  13. Are over a third of foster parent molestations homosexual?

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul

    2005-04-01

    50% of foster parent abuse in a general population survey and 34% of abuse as determined by the Illinois DCFS was homosexual. In news stories in the 50 largest newspapers and wire services 1980-2003, 175 foster parents sexually abused 351+ charges. For the 169 whose sex of victim could be determined: 149 (88%) were men; 76 (53%) victimized homosexually; and 85 (50%) were unmarried. Men assaulted 319 (91%) victims, homosexual practitioners 222 (63%), and the unmarried 164 (47%). From 1980-1994 57% of the victims were girls; after 1994 56% were boys. In 21 group homes, the molestation was homosexual in 15 (71%) and 31 of the 32+ perpetrators were male and at least 334 of 349+ victims were boys.

  14. Numbers of homosexual parents living with their children.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul

    2004-02-01

    Those contending for the 'normalcy' of homosexuality claim there are 800,000 to 7 million homosexual parents raising between 1 and 9 million children. The 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, a nationally representative sample of 12,321 ages 18 through 59 yr., reported about 416,000 parents-most of whom were married-living with children under the age of 17 yr. who reported same-sex "vaginal, oral, or anal sex" in the past 12 months. Two random-sample surveys suggested that there are fewer than half a million homosexual parents, and a total sample of 14,000 mothers in Avon suggests even fewer. Thus, it is likely that fewer than 500,000 homosexual parents live with fewer than 750,000 children under 18 yr.

  15. Parental relationships during childhood in homosexuality, transvestism and transsexualism.

    PubMed

    Buhrich, N; McConaghy, N

    1978-06-01

    The nature of the relationships of 29 male homosexuals, 34 male transvestites and 29 male transsexuals with their parents, during childhood, was assessed on the basis of the subjects' reports, and on their responses to two tests, namely the Childhood Family Relationship test and a Semantic Differential. If the subjects' reports are valid significantly more mothers of transvestite and transsexual subjects hoped for a girl prior to the subject's birth. During childhood there was a trend for homosexual, transvestite and transsexual subjects to report that their fathers lacked interest in them or were absent from home. There was little evidence to support the view that homosexual, transvestite or transsexual subjects had pathological relationships with their mother. Intrafamilial childhood environmental factors reported by homosexuals, transvestites and transsexuals appear to be non-specific.

  16. Homosexual signification: a moral construct in social contexts.

    PubMed

    Green, Beatrice C

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary attempts to define homophobia argue that it is a composite prejudice reflecting attitudes toward masculinity, sexual license, and social norms. Influenced by studies of other forms of prejudice, researchers have focused on trying to identify characteristics of a "homophobic personality". Strategies to reduce homophobia emphasize education and tolerance. There has yet to be an engaged, respectful discussion of the validity of the fears which constitute the phobia in homophobia. This paper suggests a taxonomy of moral themes which recur in arguments against homosexuality. Judeo-Christian writers quote the scriptural proscription of male anal intercourse and the particularly Christian notion of homosexuality as sin (although it is but one particular in a general denunciation of all non-reproductive sexual acts). Secular concern with masculinity, sex and gender role conformity is also a source of homophobic angst. The contention that homosexual acts are against nature is premised on the biological imperative toward reproduction of the species. It does not address the possibility that human sexuality may have other ends and it certainly is not against an individual nature. Clerical and civic authority exist to maintain social order and to restrain individual license and that to justify the establishment of a normative sexuality. Among marginalized groups, the practice of exclusive homosexuality may provoke fears of ethnic extinction. Lastly, homosexuality has a history associated with social evils, debauchery, prostitution, criminality and pathology. That heritage still affects the desirability or fear of identification as a homosexual or association with homosexuals. It is my intent that this paper will contribute to understanding the etiology of antagonistic attitudes toward homosexuality and promote an overdue acceptance.

  17. Homosexual imagery in print advertisements: attended, remembered, but disliked.

    PubMed

    Angelini, James R; Bradley, Samuel D

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether print advertisements featuring homosexual imagery elicit greater attention and recall while eliciting more negative responses than advertisements featuring heterosexual images. Data indicate that these advertisements were indeed better remembered and required more time to cognitively process, likely because of the advertisement's imagery being inconsistent with existing gender schema. Other responses demonstrated that homosexual imagery negatively impacted opinions about the advertisement itself and the brand featured, and elicited more negative self-reported valence and arousal.

  18. Military Policy toward Homosexuals: Scientific, Historic, and Legal Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    sexual orientation . Part III is a history of the treatment of homosexuals in the Armed Forces, with emphasis on treatment in the U.S. Army. National and...have the discretion to retain homosexuals who meet certain criteria. Finally, the military should not separate personnel based on statements of sexual ... orientation alone, but should also require evidence of prejudice to good order and discipline. A multidisciplinary approach is used to reach these

  19. Homosexual behavior and child molestation: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Newton, D E

    1978-01-01

    Male homosexuality and child molestation tend to be associated with each other in the minds of a large percentage of the general public. Designing a research study to test this hypothesis presents a number of methodological problems which are not easily resolved. Existing studies which contain data on this general question provide no reason to believe that anything other than a random connection exists between homosexual behavior and child molestation.

  20. Dismantling reified African culture through localised homosexualities in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nyanzi, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill of 2009 aimed at protecting the cherished culture of the people against emergent threats to the traditional heterosexual family. The Bill's justification, however, lay in myopic imaginings of a homogenous African-ness and pedestrian oblivion to pluralities within African sexualities. This paper revisits the debate that homosexuality is 'un-African'. Rhetoric analysis of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill exposes how dominant discourses of law, medicine, religion, geography and culture reinforce the view that homosexuality is foreign to Africa. Based on ethnography in contemporary Uganda, I explore how self-identified same-sex-loving individuals simultaneously claim their African-ness and their homosexuality. Their strategies include ethnic belonging, membership to kinship structures, making connections with pre-colonial histories of homosexuality, civic participation in democratic processes, national identity, organising of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and questioning support groups, language and nomenclature, visibility and voice in local communal activities, solidarity and adherence to cultural rituals. In present-day Uganda, same-sex-loving men, women and transgender people variously assert their African-ness.

  1. Explaining homosexuality: philosophical issues, and who cares anyhow?

    PubMed

    Suppe, F

    1994-01-01

    Standard behavioral and biological attempts to explain the etiology of homosexuality are surveyed. These include genetic, physiological (e.g., hormonal), constitutional (e.g., wrong pubic hair configurations), childhood experience, parenting, and psychoanalytic accounts. These are criticized from a number of perspectives, including inadequate conceptualization of homosexuality and heterosexuality. The use of path analysis to assess etiological accounts is examined, with particular attention being paid to the Kinsey Institute's Sexual Preference efforts. Drawing from the sociology of science, recent philosophical work on the growth of scientific knowledge, and historical considerations, the legitimacy of homosexual etiology as a scientific research question is examined. It is argued that homosexual etiology is a degenerative research program. The research program's conceptual crudity with respect to sexual identity and sexual orientation precludes it from making any scientific contribution. Thus the claim that homosexual etiology is a legitimate scientific issue is plausible only against the background of a set of late Victorian normative assumptions about "normal love," some surrogate thereof, or a political agenda. Implications of the homosexuality etiology case study for more general philosophical treatments of explanation are considered briefly.

  2. An association between male homosexuality and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Colin S

    2003-02-01

    The existence of homosexuality in humans poses a problem for evolutionary theory. Exclusive male homosexuality has a catastrophic effect on reproduction and yet inherited factors appear to contribute to it. Previous attempts to resolve this conundrum are inconsistent with aspects of evolutionary theory. Additional limitations are as follows. Until recently, accounts of homosexuality have paid little attention to the probable existence of adaptive bisexuality in ancestral populations, from which further variations in sexual orientation may have evolved. Secondly, previous explanations have concentrated on the ancestral environment of two to three million years ago as the determinant of modern sexuality, when more recent influences are likely to have had considerable impact. I argue in favour of a longitudinal rather than cross-sectional model of the ancestral environment. Thirdly, they have often ignored the possibility of variable phenotypic expression, whereby those individuals with a genetic propensity for homosexuality exhibit different and adaptive qualities on most other occasions. It has been demonstrated in previous studies that homosexual men have superior linguistic skills compared to heterosexual men. This may be the result of an adaptive feminising effect on the male brain and apply to many practising heterosexuals. Other adaptations to the recent ancestral environment may include enhanced empathy, fine motor skills and impulse control. By drawing together these contributing factors an evolutionary basis for homosexuality can be demonstrated.

  3. Mirror rubbing: a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex eroticism.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical genealogy of pre-modern Chinese female same-sex relationships. Through the analysis of the primary source materials in history, fiction, and drama, the author shows that female homosexuality is silenced and suppressed. To Confucianism, female same-sex relationships threaten to exclude men from accessing female sex and keep women away from participating in extending the family line. Even the Daoist theory of sex can be used to discriminate against female homosexuality by denying women the ability to initiate and maintain the cycle of yin-yang interaction in sexual intercourse. There are 2 recurring themes in the male writers' imaginings of female same-sex eroticism. First, heterosexuality is the preferred sexual order, and female same-sex desire arises due to the lack of sexual access to men. Second, heterosexual relationships and intercourse are the norm that female homosexuality aspires to imitate.

  4. Female Friendship in Literature: Bonding and Betrayal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Libby

    This document presents the findings of research concerning female friendship as literature portrays it. Literal sisterhood is not the focus of the report, nor is cross gender friendship. The examination rejects the suggestion that homosexuality is at the root of same sex friendship. The document touches on the enmities that may arise between…

  5. Recalled separation anxiety and gender atypicality in childhood: a study of Canadian heterosexual and homosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Gothreau, Laura M; Bartlett, Nancy H; Vasey, Paul L

    2011-12-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that elevated childhood separation anxiety is associated with female-typical childhood behavior and identity by comparing retrospective reports of heterosexual and homosexual men and women (N = 399). Participants completed measures of recalled childhood separation anxiety and childhood gender-atypical behavior and identity. Heterosexual men reported significantly less childhood separation anxiety relative to all other groups. Childhood gender atypicality was significantly positively correlated with childhood separation anxiety among homosexual men, but not among members of other participant groups. Discussion focused on the implications of these findings for the proposed hypothesis as well as future directions for research examining the bases of developmental associations among sex, sexual orientation, gender atypicality, and childhood separation anxiety.

  6. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Boris; Krueger, Tillmann; Paul, Thomas; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Objective The neurobiological mechanisms of deviant sexual preferences such as pedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze whether brain activation patterns of homosexual pedophiles differed from those of a nonpedophile homosexual control group during visual sexual stimulation. Method A consecutive sample of 11 pedophile forensic inpatients exclusively attracted to boys and 12 age-matched homosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visual sexual stimulation procedure that used sexually stimulating and emotionally neutral photographs. Sexual arousal was assessed according to a subjective rating scale. Results In contrast to sexually neutral pictures, in both groups sexually arousing pictures having both homosexual and pedophile content activated brain areas known to be involved in processing visual stimuli containing emotional content, including the occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices. However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects. Conclusions Central processing of visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles seems to be comparable to that in nonpedophile control subjects. However, compared with homosexual control subjects, activation patterns in pedophiles refer more strongly to subcortical regions, which have previously been discussed in the context of processing reward signals and also play an important role in addictive and stimulus-controlled behaviour. Thus future studies should further elucidate the specificity of these brain regions for the processing of sexual stimuli in pedophilia and should address the generally weaker activation pattern in homosexual men. PMID:18197269

  7. Male Homosexual Preference: Where, When, Why?

    PubMed Central

    Barthes, Julien; Crochet, Pierre-André; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Male homosexual preference (MHP) has long been of interest to scholars studying the evolution of human sexuality. Indeed, MHP is partially heritable, induces a reproductive cost and is common. MHP has thus been considered a Darwinian paradox. Several questions arise when MHP is considered in an evolutionary context. At what point did MHP appear in the human evolutionary history? Is MHP present in all human groups? How has MHP evolved, given that MHP is a reproductively costly trait? These questions were addressed here, using data from the anthropological and archaeological literature. Our detailed analysis of the available data challenges the common view of MHP being a “virtually universal” trait present in humans since prehistory. The conditions under which it is possible to affirm that MHP was present in past societies are discussed. Furthermore, using anthropological reports, the presence or absence of MHP was documented for 107 societies, allowing us to conclude that evidence of the absence of MHP is available for some societies. A recent evolutionary hypothesis has argued that social stratification together with hypergyny (the hypergyny hypothesis) are necessary conditions for the evolution of MHP. Here, the link between the level of stratification and the probability of observing MHP was tested using an unprecedented large dataset. Furthermore, the test was performed for the first time by controlling for the phylogenetic non-independence between societies. A positive relationship was observed between the level of social stratification and the probability of observing MHP, supporting the hypergyny hypothesis. PMID:26267276

  8. Male Homosexual Preference: Where, When, Why?

    PubMed

    Barthes, Julien; Crochet, Pierre-André; Raymond, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Male homosexual preference (MHP) has long been of interest to scholars studying the evolution of human sexuality. Indeed, MHP is partially heritable, induces a reproductive cost and is common. MHP has thus been considered a Darwinian paradox. Several questions arise when MHP is considered in an evolutionary context. At what point did MHP appear in the human evolutionary history? Is MHP present in all human groups? How has MHP evolved, given that MHP is a reproductively costly trait? These questions were addressed here, using data from the anthropological and archaeological literature. Our detailed analysis of the available data challenges the common view of MHP being a "virtually universal" trait present in humans since prehistory. The conditions under which it is possible to affirm that MHP was present in past societies are discussed. Furthermore, using anthropological reports, the presence or absence of MHP was documented for 107 societies, allowing us to conclude that evidence of the absence of MHP is available for some societies. A recent evolutionary hypothesis has argued that social stratification together with hypergyny (the hypergyny hypothesis) are necessary conditions for the evolution of MHP. Here, the link between the level of stratification and the probability of observing MHP was tested using an unprecedented large dataset. Furthermore, the test was performed for the first time by controlling for the phylogenetic non-independence between societies. A positive relationship was observed between the level of social stratification and the probability of observing MHP, supporting the hypergyny hypothesis.

  9. Homosexual experience, desire and identity among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy; Kristiansen, Hans W

    2008-01-01

    Is young people's sexuality becoming more fluid and less tied to steady, stable identity patterns? Are we developing into a society where sexual relationships between individuals of the same sex are no longer reserved for the small minority of gay men and lesbian women? Adherents of so-called queer theory have promulgated such views. Using a population-based sample of young adults (aged 19 to 26, N 2753), we investigated homosexual experiences, desire and identity. We found that levels of prevalence of homosexuality were primarily a function of the criteria we used. Using the most restricted ("narrow") definitions, we found that about one percent of both genders reported "exclusive" homosexual interest and identity. Using the most inclusive criteria, we found that one of ten young men and one of four young women reported having some homosexual experience, interest or identity. Still, the most striking finding involved the substantial gender-specific differences: homoerotic activity and interest are far more interwoven with heterosexual activity for women. There are strong indications that homosexuality is a lot more threatening and potentially in conflict with traditional male gender roles than we find to be the case for women. In other words, while there may be signs of more fluid sexual identity categories, this phenomenon primarily applies to women.

  10. Sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual males in Seville, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Pichardo, A; Aznar, J; Camacho, F; Borobio, M V; Perea, E J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS--The absence of any official statistics on the prevalence of STD in homosexual men in Spain induced us to carry out a prospective study of new homosexual patients who consulted the STD Clinic of the School of Medicine in Seville, between January 1988 and December 1989. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in this group of patients. RESULTS--1805 patients were seen during the study period; 318 patients were homosexual of whom 309 agreed to participate in the study. Of the 309 homosexual men, 108 (35%) had symptoms and the remaining 201 (65%) were asymptomatic. In the symptomatic group the diagnoses were: syphilis 28 (25.9%); urethritis 40 (37%) (of these 40, 11 had Neisseria gonorrhoeae, five had Chlamydia trachomatis, five had Ureaplasma urealyticum, one had Herpes simplex virus and in 18 no pathogen was detected); genital herpes seven (6.4%). Eleven (10%) had concomitant infections. The following infections were found in the asymptomatic group: syphilis 23 (11.4%), N gonorrhoeae six (3%), C trachomatis two (1%), Herpes simplex virus one (0.5%). Antibodies against HIV were detected in 30 (9.6%) of the total group. CONCLUSIONS--Sexually transmitted diseases are common amongst homosexual men in Seville and many of these are asymptomatic. PMID:1916797

  11. A Survey of Attitudes and Knowledge About Homosexuality Among Secondary School Teachers in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Donald F.

    Many college students are either misinformed or unaware of certain aspects of homosexuality. A survey of university students enrolled in undergraduate teacher preparation programs indicated that nearly half agreed that teachers who have negative attitudes toward homosexuality should be able to request that a homosexual student enroll in another…

  12. Out of the Closet and Into the Classroom: Homosexuality in Books for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Laurel A.; Lobban, Marjorie

    This annotated bibliography focuses on the issue of homosexuality in books for young people. The 120 books listed represent a period of great change in the depiction of homosexuality in children's literature by indicating the way sexual preference and sexuality is presented to young people. The recognition that homosexuality is an inherent part of…

  13. Reason, Liberalism, and Democratic Education: A Deweyan Approach to Teaching about Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrovic, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching about homosexuality, especially in a positive light, has long been held to be a controversial issue. There is, however, a view of the capacity for reason that finds that those who deem homosexuality to be controversial will ultimately contradict themselves, becoming unreasonable. By this standard of reason, homosexuality should be treated…

  14. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mucherah, Winnie; Owino, Elizabeth; McCoy, Kaleigh

    2016-01-01

    While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students' sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%), suspension from school (61%), and expulsion from school (49%). Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed.

  15. Differences in Psychological Sex, Adjustment, and Familial Influences Among Homosexual and Nonhomosexual Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townes, Brenda D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study investigates differences in psychological sex, present and past adjustment, and parental influences among homosexual cross-dressers, homosexual non-cross-dressers, applicants for sex change surgery, and heterosexuals. Homosexual non-cross-dressers and heterosexual groups had the most masculine gender role, with the sex change group…

  16. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mucherah, Winnie; Owino, Elizabeth; McCoy, Kaleigh

    2016-01-01

    While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students’ perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students’ sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%), suspension from school (61%), and expulsion from school (49%). Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed. PMID:27672345

  17. Reason, Liberalism, and Democratic Education: A Deweyan Approach to Teaching about Homosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrovic, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching about homosexuality, especially in a positive light, has long been held to be a controversial issue. There is, however, a view of the capacity for reason that finds that those who deem homosexuality to be controversial will ultimately contradict themselves, becoming unreasonable. By this standard of reason, homosexuality should be treated…

  18. Is Changing Sexual Orientation a Viable Option for Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keener, Dana Ray

    This paper addresses the issue of homosexuals who want to change their sexual orientation. It is noted that many ego-dystonic homosexuals who want to become heterosexual, despite encouragement from psychotherapists to accept their homosexuality, are turning to self-help groups in an effort to change their sexual orientation. Studies that have…

  19. Pro-Recreational Sex Morality, Religiosity, and Causal Attribution of Homosexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embree, Robert A.

    Homosexual cognitive victimization is a term which emphasizes social evaluation of sexual behaviors judged in terms of sexual preference. Individual differences in cognitive victimization of homosexuals were examined in two studies. In the first study, undergraduate students (N=78) completed Likert-type rating scales measuring homosexual cognitive…

  20. Homosexuality in the Rorschach: A New Look at the Old Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendlin, Stephen J.

    1976-01-01

    In comparing educated, adjusted male homosexuals to educated, adjusted heterosexuals, no differences were found between the groups using the traditional index of homosexuality on the Rorschach. Results suggest the traditional index is not valid and should not be used in clinical settings as a measure to assess homosexuality. (Author)

  1. Differences in Psychological Sex, Adjustment, and Familial Influences Among Homosexual and Nonhomosexual Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townes, Brenda D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study investigates differences in psychological sex, present and past adjustment, and parental influences among homosexual cross-dressers, homosexual non-cross-dressers, applicants for sex change surgery, and heterosexuals. Homosexual non-cross-dressers and heterosexual groups had the most masculine gender role, with the sex change group…

  2. Homosexuality in the Rorschach: A New Look at the Old Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendlin, Stephen J.

    1976-01-01

    In comparing educated, adjusted male homosexuals to educated, adjusted heterosexuals, no differences were found between the groups using the traditional index of homosexuality on the Rorschach. Results suggest the traditional index is not valid and should not be used in clinical settings as a measure to assess homosexuality. (Author)

  3. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Willcox, R R

    1981-06-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses.

  4. Essentialism, social constructionism, and the history of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Halwani, R

    1998-01-01

    Social constructionism is the view that homosexuality is not an atemporal and acultural phenomenon. Rather, homosexuality exists only within certain cultures and within certain time periods, most obviously Europe and North America after the nineteenth century. Essentialism is the view that homosexuality is an essential feature of human beings and that it could be found, in principle at least, in any culture and in any time. In this paper, I argue that the historical evidence available to us does not show that social constructionism is the correct view, and that essentialism is fully compatible with such evidence. Furthermore, I argue that the historical evidence does not even render social constructionism more probable than essentialism, i.e., both views are equally probable in the face of this evidence.

  5. Homosexuality and the medical profession: a behaviourist's view.

    PubMed Central

    Bancroft, J

    1975-01-01

    That a homosexual -- man or woman -- is neither a sinner nor a sick person is the thesis of this paper by an authority on sexual deviation. Therefore, such a man or woman neither needs penance and pardon nor cure in the medical sense. Nevertheless such individuals sometimes need the help of doctors and must be treated with understanding. The medical profession also has, in the view of the behaviourist school of psychiatrists, of which Dr Bancroft is a member, the duty of influencing social attitudes towards homosexuals. Obviously homosexuals who come into conflict with the law are special cases, and must be treated as such but this is not 'medical' treatment so much as social control even if drugs and other forms of therapy are used. PMID:1225973

  6. Homosexuality and the medical profession: a behaviourist's view.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, J

    1975-12-01

    That a homosexual -- man or woman -- is neither a sinner nor a sick person is the thesis of this paper by an authority on sexual deviation. Therefore, such a man or woman neither needs penance and pardon nor cure in the medical sense. Nevertheless such individuals sometimes need the help of doctors and must be treated with understanding. The medical profession also has, in the view of the behaviourist school of psychiatrists, of which Dr Bancroft is a member, the duty of influencing social attitudes towards homosexuals. Obviously homosexuals who come into conflict with the law are special cases, and must be treated as such but this is not 'medical' treatment so much as social control even if drugs and other forms of therapy are used.

  7. Child molestations by homosexual foster parents: Illinois, 1997--2002.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul

    2005-02-01

    Do those who engage in homosexuality disproportionately sexually abuse foster or adoptive children as reported by child protective services? Illinois child services reported sexual abuse for 1997 through 2002. 270 parents committed "substantiated" sexual offenses against foster or subsidized adoptive children: 67 (69%) of 97 of these mother and 148 (86%) of 173 of these father perpetrators sexually abused girls; 30 (31%) of the mothers and 25 (14%) of the father perpetrators sexually abused boys, i.e., 92 (34%) of the perpetrators homosexually abused their charges. Of these parents 15 both physically and sexually abused charges: daughters by 8 of the mothers and 4 of the fathers, sons by 3 of the mothers, i.e., same-sex perpetrators were involved in 53%. Thus, homosexual practitioners were proportionately more apt to abuse foster or adoptive children sexually.

  8. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  9. Development of Attitudes Towards Homosexuality Scale for Indians (AHSI).

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Kanika K

    2017-02-02

    Attitudes towards homosexuality vary across cultures, with the legal and societal position being rather complicated in India. This study describes the process of developing and validating a Likert-type scale to assess attitudes toward homosexuality amongst heterosexuals. Phase 1 describes the development of the scale. Items were written based on thematic analysis of narratives generated from 50 college students and reviewing existing scales. After administering the 70-item scale to 68 participants, item analysis yielded 20 statements with item-total correlations over .70. Cronbach alpha was .97. In Phase 2, the 20-item Attitudes Towards Homosexuality Scale for Indians (AHSI) was administered to 142 participants. Analysis yielded a corrected split-half correlation of .91. Further, AHSI discriminated between women and men; between liberal arts and STEM/business students; and those who reported interpersonal contact with gay men and lesbian women and those who did not. The scale has satisfactory reliability and shows promising construct validity.

  10. Psychoanalysis and homosexuality: do we need a new theory?

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, E L; Vaughan, S C

    2001-01-01

    No need exists, it is argued, for a new psychoanalytic theory of homosexuality. Certainly psychoanalysis should not be expected to generate such a theory using its own methodology alone. The preoccupation with producing such a theory avoids more important questions about psychoanalytic theory building raised by an examination of the long relationship between psychoanalysis and homosexuality. These questions concern the problems related to using psychoanalytic methodology (1) to construct categories (including the categories normal and abnormal), (2) to construct causal theory (the problems include the limitations of psychoanalytic developmental theory and a long-standing confusion between psychoanalytic developmental theory, psychoanalytic genetic reconstruction, and psychodynamics), and (3) to identify "bedrock." Finally, the question is addressed of what might be needed that is new in the psychoanalytic approach to homosexuality.

  11. In-law relationships when a child is homosexual.

    PubMed

    Serovich, J M; Skeen, P; Walters, L H; Robinson, B E

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review related literature concerning in-law relationships and begin an empirical exploration of the relationship between parents of gay men and lesbians and their child's significant other. Three hundred forty-seven parents of lesbians and gay men were surveyed regarding their sexuality, religiosity, socioeconomic status, attitude toward homosexuality, years they have known their child was homosexual, number of other children in the family, and acceptance of their homosexual child's significant other. A model was designed and tested via analysis of covariance structures in the LISREL VII package (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1989). Results suggest that the proposed model and the model estimated for the data are not significantly different, indicating support for the model. Future research issues are offered.

  12. Homosexual sex as harmful as drug abuse, prostitution, or smoking.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul; Landess, Thomas; Cameron, Kirk

    2005-06-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court said same-sex sexual activity could not be prohibited by law. Analyzing data from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (N= 12,381) and comparing those who engaged in four recreational activities-homosexual sex, illegal drug use, participation in prostitution, and smoking --against those who abstained, participants (1) were more frequently disruptive (e.g., more frequently criminal, drove under the influence of drugs or alcohol, used illegal drugs, took sexual risks), (2) were less frequently productive (e.g., less frequently had children in marriage, more frequently missed work), and (3) generated excessive costs (e.g., more promiscuous, higher consumers of medical services). Major sexuality surveys have reported similar findings for homosexuals. Societal discrimination inadequately accounts for these differences since parallel comparisons of black and white subsamples produced a pattern unlike the differences found between homosexuals and nonhomosexuals.

  13. A role for 5alpha-reductase activity in the development of male homosexuality?

    PubMed

    Alias, A G

    2004-12-01

    Higher body hair with lower mesmorphism ratings were observed in Caucasian homosexual men compared with the general male population, reflecting elevated 5alpha-reductase (5alphaR) activity, and higher dihydrotestosterone-to-testosterone (DHT-to-T) ratio, in sharp contrast to 46,XY 5alphaR 2 deficiency subjects, who are often born with ambiguous, or female genitalia, but tend to grow up to be muscular, heterosexual men with very little body hair, or beard. One study also showed them scoring around dull normal IQs. A greater prevalence of liberal body hair growth in men with higher IQs and/or educational levels was also observed in several samples. The exceptions to this statistical trend are too unsettling, however. Nevertheless, the results of a number of published studies, including one showing higher DHT-to-T ratio in homosexual men, done with different objectives over a span of 80 years, together strongly support these findings. Furthermore, in an animal model, "cognitive-enhancing effects" of "5alpha-reduced androgen [metabolites]" were recently demonstrated.

  14. Fraternal birth order and the maternal immune hypothesis of male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, R

    2001-09-01

    In men, sexual orientation correlates with an individual's number of older brothers, each additional older brother increasing the odds of homosexuality by approximately 33%. It has been hypothesized that this fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to Y-linked minor histocompatibility antigens (H-Y antigens) by each succeeding male fetus and the concomitantly increasing effects of such maternal immunization on the future sexual orientation of each succeeding male fetus. According to this hypothesis, anti-H-Y antibodies produced by the mother pass through the placental barrier to the fetus and affect aspects of sexual differentiation in the fetal brain. This explanation is consistent with a variety of evidence, including the apparent irrelevance of older sisters to the sexual orientation of later born males, the probable involvement of H-Y antigen in the development of sex-typical traits, and the detrimental effects of immunization of female mice to H-Y antigen on the reproductive performance of subsequent male offspring. The maternal immune hypothesis might also explain the recent finding that heterosexual males with older brothers weigh less at birth than heterosexual males with older sisters and homosexual males with older brothers weigh even less than heterosexual males with older brothers.

  15. Sexual Excitability and Dysfunctional Coping Determine Cybersex Addiction in Homosexual Males.

    PubMed

    Laier, Christian; Pekal, Jaro; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Cybersex addiction (CA) has been mostly investigated in heterosexual males. Recent findings have demonstrated an association between CA severity and indicators of sexual excitability, and that coping by sexual behaviors mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA symptoms. The aim of this study was to test this mediation in a sample of homosexual males. Seventy-one homosexual males were surveyed online. Questionnaires assessed symptoms of CA, sensitivity to sexual excitation, pornography use motivation, problematic sexual behavior, psychological symptoms, and sexual behaviors in real life and online. Moreover, participants viewed pornographic videos and indicated their sexual arousal before and after the video presentation. Results showed strong correlations between CA symptoms and indicators of sexual arousal and sexual excitability, coping by sexual behaviors, and psychological symptoms. CA was not associated with offline sexual behaviors and weekly cybersex use time. Coping by sexual behaviors partially mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA. The results are comparable with those reported for heterosexual males and females in previous studies and are discussed against the background of theoretical assumptions of CA, which highlight the role of positive and negative reinforcement due to cybersex use.

  16. Homosexual Fellatio: Erect Penis Licking between Male Bonin Flying Foxes Pteropus pselaphon

    PubMed Central

    Sugita, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    A recent focus of interest has been on the functional significance of genital licking (fellatio and cunnilingus) in relation to sexual selection in Pteropodid bats. In the present paper, a form of fellatio in wild Bonin flying foxes, Pteropus pselaphon, performed between adult males has been reported. During the mating season, adult flying foxes roost in same-sex groups, forming ball-shaped clusters which provide warmth. The female clusters may also contain a few males. Unassociated with allogrooming, same-sex genital licking occurred among males in the all male clusters. As such, male-male fellatio can be considered as homosexual behavior, two functional explanations could account for this behavior; the social bonding and the social tension regulation hypotheses suggested in a previous review. Given that neither the simpler alternative that in all male groups such fellatio may represent misdirected sexual behavior, nor the two previously proposed functional hypotheses were supported by the data, I propose another functional hypothesis. Homosexual fellatio in this species could help males solve inconsistent situations in the roost when there are conflicts between cooperative behavior for social thermoregulation and competition for mating. PMID:27824953

  17. Floating call boys and agile homosexuals: homophobia/Venice/history.

    PubMed

    Champagne, John

    2014-01-01

    Because works of nonfiction are always composed of literary tropes and metaphors, they have to be read critically for the ways in which their truth claims are potentially structured by ideologies and stereotypes. This essay reads passages from Richard Sennett's sociological analysis Flesh and Stone, The Body and the City in Western Civilization and Joseph Brodsky's memoir Watermark in order to demonstrate how these alleged works of nonfiction shore up some dishearteningly familiar literary stereotypes of male homosexuality and participate in a tradition, dating from the 19th century, of linking the city of Venice with homosexuality and death.

  18. Marriage and the homosexual body: it's about race.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body.

  19. Self-perceived origins of attitudes toward homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Hans, Jason D; Kersey, Megan; Kimberly, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 417) at a large southern university responded to open-ended questions designed to assess self-perceived origins of attitudes toward homosexuality and circumstances that may prompt a shift in attitudes. Inductively coded responses pointed to a positive correlation between attitudes toward homosexuality and experience interacting with gay men or lesbians; this is discussed in the context of Allport's (1954 ) contact hypothesis and Herek's (1984 , 1986 ) theory of functional attitudes. Implications are discussed for education and intervention efforts aimed at facilitating understanding and tolerance of gay men and lesbians.

  20. Openings: On the Journal of Homosexuality, Volume 1, Issue 1.

    PubMed

    Gotkin, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines Volume 1, Issue 1 of the Journal of Homosexuality and asks whether the journal's first contributors might reveal a historically problematic relationship whereby the categories of front-line LGBT health advocates in the 1970s might be incommensurate with the post-AIDS, queer politics that would follow in decades to come.

  1. Beyond the dichotomy: six religious views of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dawne

    2014-01-01

    Using published theological and scholarly evidence, this article disrupts the stereotypical "born gay"/"sinful choice" dichotomy widely assumed to characterize religious views of homosexuality in the United States. It argues that we need to keep moral questions separate from questions about the fixity or fluidity of sexual orientation. Rather than two, American Christian and Jewish views of homosexuality can been seen on a range from the "God Hates Fags" view through "Love the Sinner, Hate the Sin," "We Don't Talk About That," "They Can't Help It," "God's Good Gift," and a queer-theological view of the "Godly Calling."

  2. Fulminant amebic colitis in an HIV-infected homosexual man.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Haruhiko; Umezawa, Masami; Hatakeyama, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of fulminant amebic colitis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected homosexual man. The patient developed colonic perforation over a short time despite empirical therapy with metronidazole, and underwent right hemicolectomy. Amebic colitis was pathologically diagnosed by identifying invasive trophozoites of Entamoeba in a surgical specimen. Amebic colitis is one of the important differential diagnoses of acute abdomen in HIV-infected patients and/or homosexual men, especially in East Asia. Although fulminant amebic colitis is a rare manifestation of amebiasis, early diagnosis and treatment are thought to be important to improve the outcome of this highly fatal complication.

  3. Stereotype content and social distance: changing views of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Staats, G R

    1978-01-01

    This project examined effects of stereotype content and uniformity on social distance regarding homosexuals. Administration of an adjective checklist and social distance scale to 538 undergraduates resulted in identification of "traits" that change social distance. Those traits that positively correlated with distance at or beyond the .05 level were: "cowardly," "sly," "suspicious," "shrewd," "stupid," "impulsive," and "ignorant." Traits that correlated with reduced distance ("sensitive," individualistic," "intelligent," "honest," "imaginative," "neat," "reserved," "alert," "kind" "faithful," "courteous," "sophisticated," and "artistic") were more uniform. Both clusters of negative and positive traits were moderately intercorrelated within and suggest that they each represent underlying dimensions. It is suggested that sterotypes about homosexuals are changing in a more positive direction.

  4. [Counseling male adolescents with homosexual orientation and their parents].

    PubMed

    Rauchfleisch, U

    1996-01-01

    In counseling of adolescents with a homosexual orientation and their parents we are not only confronted with the typical conflicts of this developmental phase as those between autonomy and dependence. Moreover we are concerned with specific problems which--because of the coming out--result for the adolescent himself as well as for the whole family system. It is important in such counseling that the following three questions are considered: the characteristic tendencies of separation of the adolescent and the parental reactions to it, the parental acceptance of the homosexual orientation of their son, and the coming out process for the adolescent and the family as a whole.

  5. Shaping attitudes about homosexuality: the role of religion and cultural context.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Amy; Pitt, Cassady

    2009-06-01

    Across the globe, the debate over homosexuality continues, with great variation in public opinion about the acceptability of homosexuality, laws regulating same-sex unions and penalties for homosexual sex behaviors. Religion is often seen as an important predictor of attitudes about homosexuality. However, cross-national differences in cultural orientations suggest that the role religion has in explaining homosexual attitudes may depend on a nation's cultural context. In this study, we merge ideas from cultural sociology and religious contextual effects to explain cross-national variation in public opinion about homosexuality. Using data from the fourth wave of the World Values Survey and Hierarchical Modeling techniques, we find support for the micro and macro effects of religion and a survival vs. self-expressive cultural orientation. Moreover, we find that personal religious beliefs have a greater effect on attitudes about homosexuality in countries like the United States, which have a strong self-expressive cultural orientation.

  6. Teaching Literature Gay-Affirmatively: A Homosexual Individuation Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadownick, Douglas G.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of a "homosexual hermeneutic" by which the great literary works of the western canon can be taught. This "interpretative methodology" is based in the author's own individuation process as gay. The author details his personal journey from engulfment in heteronormativity to the first crisis of his homosexual…

  7. Queer Breeding: Historicising Popular Culture, Homosexuality and Informal Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Through an analysis of gay protest music (1975) and an educational kit for students (1978), both sponsored by the Campaign for Homosexual Equality in the UK, this paper brings into focus a history of gay rights activists' efforts to marshal popular culture in the development of informal sex education for young people in the second half of the…

  8. Queer Breeding: Historicising Popular Culture, Homosexuality and Informal Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Through an analysis of gay protest music (1975) and an educational kit for students (1978), both sponsored by the Campaign for Homosexual Equality in the UK, this paper brings into focus a history of gay rights activists' efforts to marshal popular culture in the development of informal sex education for young people in the second half of the…

  9. Teaching Literature Gay-Affirmatively: A Homosexual Individuation Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadownick, Douglas G.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of a "homosexual hermeneutic" by which the great literary works of the western canon can be taught. This "interpretative methodology" is based in the author's own individuation process as gay. The author details his personal journey from engulfment in heteronormativity to the first crisis of his homosexual…

  10. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  11. Homosexuality in the Family: Lesbian and Gay Spouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyers, Norman L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a 1983-84 study of the marital and parental behavior of lesbian wives and mothers and gay husbands and fathers. Discovered differences between the men and women in: overall demographics, marital history, marital problems and their impact, parenting issues, and dealing with homosexuality. (Author/ABB)

  12. Educating about Homosexuality: What Do American Catholics Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Brenda J.; Michaelson, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine American Catholics' attitudes regarding education about homosexuality. Participants were 1000 self-identified Catholic adults who were interviewed via telephone. The majority of respondents agreed that Catholic colleges should offer courses on human sexuality, although religious and political conservatives…

  13. Rectal gonorrhoea in male homosexuals. Presentation and therapy.

    PubMed

    Fluker, J L; Deherogoda, P; Platt, D J; Gerken, A

    1980-12-01

    In a review of rectal gonorrhoea 73 episodes were studied in 65 homosexual men. The presenting signs and symptoms were carefully noted. Treatment with a single injection of spectinomycin hydrochloride 2 g resulted in a cure rate of 94.5%. The relatively high treatment failure rate associated with rectal gonorrhoea may possibly be due to microbial mechanisms.

  14. Homosexuals and U.S. Military Policy: Current Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-10

    heterosexuals in uniform. As such, it is claimed that this policy fostered an atmosphere of “ homophobia ” in the military that encouraged violence against...homosexual rights advocacy groups viewed the Winchell murder as representative of homophobia in the services or, at the least, lax attitudes toward

  15. Comparison: attitudes toward homosexuality of international and American college students.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, J A; Wlazelek, B; Schumacher, L J

    2000-12-01

    Using the Index of Attitudes Toward Homosexuals to study the attitudes of 34 Asian students and 32 American students toward lesbians and gay men showed these Asian students were more likely to harbor homophobic attitudes than these American students. There were no significant sex differences between groups.

  16. Cultural change, hybridity and male homosexuality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, H

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes how contemporary perceptions of male homosexuality are being shaped in Mexico. Ethnographic analysis included four short case studies from 64 mostly middle class individuals for two years in Guadalajara City. Mexican sexual culture is often portrayed traditionally as grounded in values inherent in machismo and influenced by Catholicism. There is a contrast between these traditional interpretations of roles and sexual identities in Mexico and the identities that are being adopted by many contemporary Mexican homosexual men. The homosexual men were categorizable in terms of 1) those who dominated in the sexual relationship and who were capable of maintaining a nonstigmatized identity as regular men, 2) those who assumed a feminine role and were penetrated and who were stigmatized for their effeminate demeanor, and 3) a minority of men who assumed both roles and who were termed "anally active and passive". The study revealed that middle-class homosexuals established networks in which individuals, supported by their friends, acquired the strength to effect personal changes along with other larger cultural changes. Thus, individual actions are beginning to have a collective effect on the society at large.

  17. Prenatal Estrogens and the Development of Homosexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that prenatal estrogens contribute to the development of human sexual orientation. Several groups of women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) were compared with several samples of control women. Findings showed that more DES-exposed women than controls were rated as bisexual or homosexual,…

  18. Elderly Homosexual Women and Men: Report on a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.; Adelman, Marcy R.

    1978-01-01

    A pilot study is described in which four- to five-hour tape-recorded interviews were conducted with 11 homosexual women and men, 60-77 years of age. Areas examined included: physical change and physical health; work, retirement and leisure time; social behavior; psychological functioning; sexual behavior; and personal perspectives on the life…

  19. Homosexuality in the Family: Lesbian and Gay Spouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyers, Norman L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a 1983-84 study of the marital and parental behavior of lesbian wives and mothers and gay husbands and fathers. Discovered differences between the men and women in: overall demographics, marital history, marital problems and their impact, parenting issues, and dealing with homosexuality. (Author/ABB)

  20. Sin, Sickness or Status? Homosexual Gender Identity and Psychoneuroendocrinology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1987-01-01

    Sex hormones in the prenatal brain of humans influence the subsequent sexual status or orientation of the individual as bisexual, heterosexual, or homosexual. Postnatal socialization is another contributing factor. Sexual orientation is not under the direct governance of chromosomes and genes. (Author/VM)

  1. Educating about Homosexuality: What Do American Catholics Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Brenda J.; Michaelson, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine American Catholics' attitudes regarding education about homosexuality. Participants were 1000 self-identified Catholic adults who were interviewed via telephone. The majority of respondents agreed that Catholic colleges should offer courses on human sexuality, although religious and political conservatives…

  2. Legal and Ethical Implications of Refusing to Counsel Homosexual Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Mary A.; Herlihy, Barbara Richter

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, a federal appeals court upheld the job termination of a counselor who requested being excused from counseling a lesbian client on relationship issues because homosexuality conflicted with the counselor's religious beliefs ("Bruff v. North Mississippi Health Services, Inc.," 2001). This article provides the facts of the case and the legal…

  3. Legal and Ethical Implications of Refusing to Counsel Homosexual Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Mary A.; Herlihy, Barbara Richter

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, a federal appeals court upheld the job termination of a counselor who requested being excused from counseling a lesbian client on relationship issues because homosexuality conflicted with the counselor's religious beliefs ("Bruff v. North Mississippi Health Services, Inc.," 2001). This article provides the facts of the case and the legal…

  4. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  5. Contingent negative variation (CNV) and erotic preference in self-declared homosexuals and in child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Howard, R C; Longmore, F J; Mason, P A; Martin, J L

    1994-10-01

    Contingent negative variation (CNV) was recorded bilaterally from central electrodes using a "match/mismatch" paradigm in (Study 1) samples of heterosexual men (N = 6), gay men (N = 10) and lesbian women (N = 14) and (Study 2) in samples of child sex offenders (N = 34) and heterosexual control men (N = 19). Sexual orientation was assessed using the Multidimensional Scale of Sexuality (MSS) and the Human Sexuality Questionnaire (HSQ). Separate CNV averages were formed for each condition of stimulation: for Study 1, slides of adult male and female nudes; for Study 2, slides of child, pubescent and adult male and female nudes. Penile plethysmographic (PPG) data were also obtained from 15 of the child sex offender sample while they viewed stimuli of the same categories as were used in the CNV recording. On the basis of their PPG responses to children, child sex offenders were classified as either "pedophiles" or "non-pedophiles". In Study 1 significant Group x Sex (of slide) and Group x Electrode interactions indicated that: (i) heterosexual men (but neither homosexual group) showed significantly larger CNVs to female than to male slides; (ii) both homosexual groups showed significantly asymmetrical (R > L) CNVs. In Study 2, controls showed significantly greater CNVs to adult females than to both adult males and female children. Child sex offenders showed no significant differences in CNV to male and female slides for any age. "Non-pedophiles" showed significantly larger CNVs to female adults than to female children, but "pedophiles" did not. It is concluded that CNV has promise as a measure of both deviant and non-deviant sexual preference.

  6. The interrelationship between genes, microprolactinoma and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Roper, Walter Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    This hypothesis clearly proposes the true and previously undiscovered cause of male homosexuality or bisexuality and in most cases the predictability in infancy of the development of this sexuality in adulthood. It is based on compelling new evidence which has accumulated over many years. The fetal and neonatal periods are of the utmost importance in human development because they encompass critical periods which must be adhered to, for normal development. Biological variations may occur during these times, without implying the process of disease. This paper takes into account new paediatric hormonal and other evidence which has accumulated in the past two decades concerning the causation of male homosexuality or bisexuality. It includes indirect genetic influence which has now been shown to be present. It also includes the implications of infant male breast development in regard to sexuality. It is asserted that the major cause of male homosexuality is due to failure of masculinisation of the male brain due to temporary but critical prolactin secretion from microprolactinoma present in their pituitary glands. Genes appear to be involved in the production of these tumours and sometimes in their demise. The assessment of their numbers at any one time in infancy has not been correctly addressed. Secondly, there is absolutely compulsive evidence concerning increased male infant breast development and the true nature of "Witch's Milk" and how it is produced and the profound implications of its presence in male neonates. It adds much persuasion to the causation of male homosexuality as enunciated in this paper. Measurement of testosterone levels at exactly and precisely the right time, are able to predict homosexual or bisexual development in adults. This knowledge would be of great help to parents.

  7. Learners' perceptions of learners regarded as having a homosexual orientation in an independent secondary school environment.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Hendrik P; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2012-10-04

    In schools today discrimination based on sexual orientation takes place on a regular basis. This form of discrimination leads to aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual, as well as towards those with a homosexual orientation. For more than 15 years South Africa has been a democratic country with laws that protect learners who have a homosexual orientation. Nevertheless, aggression and discrimination towards these learners still occur in schools. Aggression often leads to verbal and physical bullying of the victims by perpetrators. The objectives of this research were to explore and describe Grade 11 learners' experiences of aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual as well as those with a homosexual orientation in an independent secondary school environment. The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual in nature. The data for this investigation consisted of essays based on a published newspaper photograph, phenomenological group interviews, observations and field notes. Tesch's method of data analysis was used, and an independent coder assisted. Three themes were identified, discussed and supported by a literature control: that learners experience that it is right and acceptable to have a homosexual orientation; that they experience ambivalence towards homosexual orientation of learners; and experienced feelings that it is wrong to have a homosexual orientation. Recommended guidelines are provided to address aggression towards learners perceived to be homosexual and those with a homosexual orientation.

  8. Homosexuality among People with a Mild Intellectual Disability: An Explorative Study on the Lived Experiences of Homosexual People in the Netherlands with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffelen, J.; Kok, G.; Hospers, H.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research on homosexuality among people with an intellectual disability (ID) is limited and, to date, very little is known regarding the personal experiences of gay and lesbian people with an ID. This study set out to answer the question: "What are the lived experiences of a specific cohort of homosexual people with an…

  9. Homosexuality among People with a Mild Intellectual Disability: An Explorative Study on the Lived Experiences of Homosexual People in the Netherlands with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffelen, J.; Kok, G.; Hospers, H.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empirical research on homosexuality among people with an intellectual disability (ID) is limited and, to date, very little is known regarding the personal experiences of gay and lesbian people with an ID. This study set out to answer the question: "What are the lived experiences of a specific cohort of homosexual people with an…

  10. Stalking by females.

    PubMed

    Carabellese, F; La Tegola, D; Alfarano, E; Tamma, M; Candelli, C; Catanesi, R

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this review was to study "female stalking" in the sense of the specific traits characterizing the phenomenon of stalking behaviour committed by women. The main medical databases were searched (Medline, Social Science Research Network, Apa Psyc Net), and 67 articles were selected, reporting studies conducted in clinical populations, case series, reports, reviews, retrospective studies and original articles. We outline a variety of different tactics adopted by female stalkers and a lesser propensity to pass on to physical violence. Nevertheless, female stalkers are more frequently affected by erotomania, and this condition generally increases the risk of violence. If there have previously been intimate relations between the stalker and her victim, this will increase the risk of violence. In a significant proportion of female stalkers, the behavior is carried out in the occupational setting, especially in the field of psychotherapy, where the male-female ratio is reversed. No significant differences emerged between the motivations of heterosexual or homosexual stalkers. In the category of crimes of harassment committed by women, stalking, at least in Italy, seems to be among the most prominent.

  11. Attitudes towards homosexuality in China: exploring the effects of religion, modernizing factors, and traditional culture.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ying; Peng, Minggang

    2017-09-28

    Using the zero-inflated model and nationally representative sample data from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2013, this study systematically explored the effects of religion, modernizing factors, and traditional culture on attitudes towards homosexuality in China. The findings indicate that most Chinese people generally hold conservative attitudes towards homosexuality, as approximately 78.53% of the respondents believed that "same-sex sexual behavior is always wrong". Modernizing factors (i.e., education, exposure to internet information and liberal inclinations) predicted greater tolerance for homosexuality, whereas Islamic beliefs negatively influenced respondents' attitudes towards homosexuality. In contrast to the findings of the existing literature, Christian beliefs and traditional culture did not have significant effects on attitudes towards homosexuality. These findings may contribute to the literature by not only quantitatively testing the applicability of several factors identified in most Western studies of this topic but also providing new knowledge of attitudes towards homosexuality in the social context of China.

  12. Homosexual parents in custody disputes: a thousand child-years exposure.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul; Harris, David W

    2003-12-01

    Through 1998, 78 custody appeal decisions involving 79 homosexual parents were evaluated. The 142 children involved in these cases were exposed to a thousand child-years of homosexual parenting. In appeals records (a) parents recorded as lying or engaging in criminality or homosexuality were more apt to be recorded as harming children; (b) homosexuals more frequently were recorded as lying or engaging in criminality; (c) in 54 (70%) disputes the homosexual parent or his associates and in 4 (5%) the heterosexual parent was recorded as having exposed the children to harm(s), e.g., neglect, seduction; and (d) homosexuals were responsible for 111 (97%) of the 115 recorded harms to children. For 78 nonhomosexual vs nonhomosexual control cases, in 11 (14%) the 141 children were exposed to 12 harms.

  13. Attitude change in response to information that male homosexuality has a biological basis.

    PubMed

    Oldham, J D; Kasser, T

    1999-01-01

    We assessed 28 college students' attitudes toward homosexuals immediately before and 1 week after the presentation of either an article suggesting that male homosexuality has a biological component or a control article. Change in attitude toward homosexuality for subjects exposed to the biological article depended on subjects' memory of the article and on their college major. Subjects undecided in their major and those who scored below average on a memory test of the article's content had the most positive attitude change, while biological science majors and those who scored above average on the memory test became more negative toward homosexuals. The results suggest biological information about homosexuality can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on attitudes toward homosexuals.

  14. Perception of homosexuality among Turkish university students: the roles of labels, gender, and prior contact.

    PubMed

    Cirakoğlu, Okan Cem

    2006-06-01

    The author examined three questions: (a) What constitutes participants' causal attributions for the labels "gay," "lesbian," and "homosexual"?; (b) Do participants' attitudes vary by labels?; and (c) Do participants' attitudes vary with previous social contact with homosexuals? Participants were 334 university students (140 women, 194 men). Three labels--"gay," "lesbian," and "homosexual"--served as probes. The author investigated participants' attributions toward causes of homosexuality with Principal-Component Analysis (PCA) and obtained 4 components: disorder, problems, modeling or sensation seeking, and preference. The author found the most negative attitudes toward the label "gay." Finally, participants who had previous contact with homosexual people held more positive attitudes toward homosexuality than did the others. The author also obtained some gender differences. The author discussed the results in the light of the current literature.

  15. Borderline immunodeficiency in male homosexuals: is life-style contributory?

    PubMed

    Pifer, L L; Wang, Y F; Chiang, T M; Ahokas, R; Woods, D R; Joyner, R E

    1987-06-01

    Results of our study suggest that white Southern male homosexuals without clinical evidence of AIDS who patronize "gay bars" may have significant zinc deficiency and moderately depressed T-helper/T-suppressor cell ratios. No single causative factor could be identified to explain the significantly low zinc and elevated copper levels measured in whole blood, as well as the depressed OKT4/OKT8 cell ratios. Seventy-four percent of the homosexual male subjects were "recreational" drug abusers, 81% used inhalant nitrites routinely, and 41% routinely treated themselves with antibiotics. Eighty-one percent practiced active and/or passive penile-oral insertion, and 55.5% practiced both active and passive anal intercourse. Of the latter, 19% reported anal bleeding. Clinically inapparent, though statistically significant, borderline immunodeficiency and aberrant zinc and copper levels may be a consequence of multiple factors comprising the gay bar life-style.

  16. On the subject of homosexuality: What Freud said.

    PubMed

    Flanders, Sara; Ladame, Francois; Carlsberg, Anders; Heymanns, Petra; Naziri, Despina; Panitz, Denny

    2016-06-01

    The article explores Freud's writing on homosexuality, from his early hypotheses, expressed in his letters to Fleiss to his last observations in The Outline of Psychoanalysis, published in 1940 after his death. We trace the continuities as well as changes in his thinking, and have organized the paper conceptually, under the headings: 1) Bisexuality 2) Narcissism and Object choice, 3) On Normality and Pathology, and 4) The Quantitative factor and Aggression. We show that Freud was the first to confirm the existence of homosexualities, that he offers no black and white solution to the question of normality and pathology, although he contributes to the understanding of the vehemence that surrounds the subject, and that, in the considerable body of work, he has offered a rich and varied foundation for further thinking on the subject.

  17. Enteric pathogenic protozoa in homosexual men from San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Ortega, H B; Borchardt, K A; Hamilton, R; Ortega, P; Mahood, J

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of enteric protozoa was studied in a survey conducted among 150 male homosexual patients in San Francisco. All patients were from a private practice in internal medicine. Each was asked to complete a questionnaire and to submit multiple stool specimens for examination. Of this group, 47% were positive for one or more potentially pathogenic intestinal protozoa; Entamoeba histolytica was found in 36%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 35%, Giardia lamblia in 5%, and Dientamoeba fragilis in 1.3%. Symptoms were unreliable as a diagnostic index of intestinal protozoan infection. Colonization rates could not be correlated with any specific sexual technique. The large number of homosexuals at risk, combined with the potential for difficulties in diagnosis and contact-tracing, indicate the possibility that enteric pathogenic protozoa will cause future health problems in this population.

  18. Health Concerns (excluding AIDS) for Male Homosexual Patients

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brian C.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1981, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as the major infectious epidemic of our time and has focused much attention on the male homosexual community. While AIDS is the most serious of gay-related health concerns, it is only one of several infectious diseases that have particular relevance for this group of patients. In addition, the mere acknowledgement of homosexuality by a male patient evokes unique psychosocial concerns that are important considerations for the primary health-care provider. The author of this article describes an approach to gay male patients for those who provide health care to such men and provides a review of specific infectious diseases (excluding AIDS) for which they are at risk. PMID:21253077

  19. A difference in hypothalamic structure between heterosexual and homosexual men.

    PubMed

    LeVay, S

    1991-08-30

    The anterior hypothalamus of the brain participates in the regulation of male-typical sexual behavior. The volumes of four cell groups in this region [interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH) 1, 2, 3, and 4] were measured in postmortem tissue from three subject groups: women, men who were presumed to be heterosexual, and homosexual men. No differences were found between the groups in the volumes of INAH 1, 2, or 4. As has been reported previously, INAH 3 was more than twice as large in the heterosexual men as in the women. It was also, however, more than twice as large in the heterosexual men as in the homosexual men. This finding indicates that INAH is dimorphic with sexual orientation, at least in men, and suggests that sexual orientation has a biological substrate.

  20. Fathers in the newer family forms: male or female?

    PubMed

    Agbayewa, M O

    1984-08-01

    Current social trends have produced significant changes in the family system, with the emergence of newer family forms -- single parent and homosexual families. The author used the example of a six year old boy in a female homosexual family to discuss the theories of sex role development. The literature on father-absence and the converging roles of father and mother, men and women, were reviewed with suggestions that women may function as fathers in the newer family forms. Longitudinal studies of children in these newer family forms are needed to define the implications of these social changes for personality development theories and mental health care delivery.

  1. Two hypotheses on the causes of male homosexuality and paedophilia.

    PubMed

    James, William H

    2006-11-01

    This note considers two hypotheses on the causes of homosexuality and paedophilia in men, viz. the hypotheses of maternal immunity and of postnatal learning. According to the maternal immune hypothesis, there is progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male fetus, and there are concomitantly increasing effects of anti-male antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male fetus. An attempt is made to assess the status of this hypothesis within immunology. Knowledge of the properties of anti-male antibodies is meagre and there has been little direct experimentation on them, let alone on their effects on the developing male fetal brain. Moreover until the relevant antigens are identified, it will not be possible to test mothers of male homosexuals or paedophiles for the presence of such antibodies. Yet until this experimentation has been done, it would seem premature to regard the hypothesis as more than a very provisional explanatory tool. The evidence in relation to the postnatal learning hypothesis is quite different. There is an abundance of data suggesting that male homosexuals and paedophiles report having experienced more sexual abuse (however defined) in childhood (CSA) than do heterosexual controls. The question revolves round the interpretation of these data. Many (though not all) of these studies are correlational and thus subject to the usual qualifications concerning such data. However, there are grounds for supposing that some of the reports are veridical, and there is support from a longitudinal study reporting a small but significant increase in paedophilia in adulthood following CSA. To summarize: most boys who experience CSA do not later develop into homosexuals or paedophiles. However, the available evidence suggests that a few do so as a result of the abuse.

  2. Homosexuals and the U.S. Military: Current Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-18

    homosexuality.” 30 U.S. Army, FORSCOM Mobilization and Deployment Planning System (FORMDEPS), FORSCOM Regulation 500-3-3, Volume III , Reserve Component Unit...for the nine-member majority in Thomasson v. Perry,51 Chief Judge J. Harvie Wilkinson III stressed Congress’ “plenary control” of the military and the...Thomasson to affirm a ruling by federal District Judge Ellis in Thorne v. U.S. Department of Defense.53 After reviewing the record in eight other

  3. Purulent Proctitis Caused by Prevotella bivia in a Homosexual Male

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Sarah; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Gerke, Henning

    2016-01-01

    A 32-year-old homosexual male presented with suprapubic pain. Computed tomography showed rectal wall thickening. Flexible sigmoidoscopy showed small pockets of pus that were opened with mucosal biopsies, and additional pus was diffusely expressed from the rectal wall by applying blunt pressure with the biopsy forceps. Cultures from the pus grew Prevotella bivia. Symptoms resolved after treatment with doxycycline and metronidazole. Proctitis due to P. bivia was not previously reported. PMID:28008411

  4. Common psychiatric problems in homosexual men and women consulting family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M F

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the commoner psychiatric difficulties of homosexual patients seen in a family practice. It is written primarily to aid general practitioners in deciding who should be referred to a psychiatrist. Recent developments in the study of homosexuality indicate that homosexual persons are no more likely than heterosexuals to suffer psychiatric problems. Practical suggestions are made for management and counseling, and some of the misconceptions about the gay community are dispelled. PMID:7020902

  5. The Impact of Education on Views of Homosexuality in the Senior Clergy of Hidalgo County, Texas.

    PubMed

    Park, John; Perez, Pamela R; Ramírez-Johnson, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    This study explores clergy perspectives on homosexuality and mental health. Interviews were conducted with 245 senior clergy of faith-based organizations in Hidalgo County, Texas. Analyses revealed that the less education the individual had, the more likely he or she viewed homosexuals as being more psychologically disturbed than heterosexuals. Clergy also expressed uncertainty in their views and actions regarding referral practices. A need for clergy education on views of homosexuality is documented. Suggestions are made for future research and education.

  6. Etiology and attitudes: beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and their implications for public policy.

    PubMed

    Overby, L Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality.

  7. 'Ego-dystonicity' in homosexuality: An Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Maroky, Ami Sebastian; Ratheesh, Aswin; Viswanath, Biju; Math, Suresh Bada; Chandrashekar, Channapatna R; Seshadri, Shekhar P

    2015-06-01

    Homosexual persons are targets of verbal and physical abuse, discrimination and face legal disadvantages in many countries, including India. These external factors could play a role in determining discomfort with their sexuality. We ascertained the association between ego-dystonicity of sexual orientation and indices of perceived acceptance, stigma and awareness of possible normative lifestyles. Fifty-one self-identified adult homosexual men were assessed using online questionnaires that covered information including their socio-demographic details; a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) that measured their degree of discomfort with their sexuality; Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Perceived Acceptance Scale, Modified China Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) Stigma scale; and trait version of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. The participants were also asked to provide a written narrative of their experiences which influenced their comfort with their sexuality. Discomfort with sexuality significantly correlated with education, acceptance by friends and family, legal disadvantages, awareness and accessibility to non-heteronormative lifestyles and support systems and trait affect. Only acceptance by friends and awareness showed significance on linear regression. Qualitative analyses revealed external attributions for discomfort. Modifying external factors, reducing legal restrictions and improving societal acceptance and support systems could reduce 'ego-dystonicity'. 'Ego-dystonicity' as a determinant for psychiatric classification and intervention needs to be reexamined. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Homosexuality and the human genome project: private and public choices.

    PubMed

    Gabard, D L

    1999-01-01

    Recent scientific research which offers evidence of genetic and biologic influence in homosexuality has created serious concerns. The intent of this article is to offer suggestions based in principles of bioethics in which perceived negative outcomes may be diminished and the positive qualities of the research enhanced. For a portion of the general population the concerns expressed in this article could be alleviated through public discussion and exposure to the findings and theories of the academic and scientific communities. For another portion of the population, however, additional safeguards against misuse of screening tests and somatic cell interventions may be advisable through efforts initiated by researchers themselves, general public policies, and additional medical policies. While these efforts are recommended as short term goals for the separate scientific and social paradigms of homosexuality, it is proposed that an equally important and related debate involves the subjects of disease, normality and the value of diversity. It is suggested that while it is imperative that the behavioral and biological sciences recognize the limitations of their separate approaches, the reductionist approach itself limits our understanding of what essentially are questions of attraction and relationships. In conclusion, homosexuality should be understood from the perspective of autonomy as every person's right to experience a full and meaningful life.

  9. Neural correlates of sexual arousal in homosexual and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Safron, Adam; Barch, Bennett; Bailey, J Michael; Gitelman, Darren R; Parrish, Todd B; Reber, Paul J

    2007-04-01

    Men exhibit much higher levels of genital and subjective arousal to sexual stimuli containing their preferred sex than they do to stimuli containing only the nonpreferred sex. This study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how this category-specific pattern would be reflected in the brains of homosexual (n = 11) and heterosexual (n = 11) men. Comparisons of activation to preferred sexual stimuli, nonpreferred sexual stimuli, and sports stimuli revealed large networks correlated with sexual arousal, spanning multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Both homosexual and heterosexual men exhibited category-specific arousal in brain activity. Within the amygdala, greater preference-related activity was observed in homosexual men, but it is unclear whether this is a cause or a consequence of their sexuality. In a subsequent analysis of regions hypothesized to support arousal, both participant groups demonstrated widespread increases in evoked activity for preferred stimuli. Aggregate data from these regions produced significant differences between stimulus types in 16 out of 22 participants. Significant activational differences matched reported sexual orientation in 15 of these 16 participants, representing an advance in psychophysiological measures of arousal.

  10. Comparison of Face-to-Face and Web Surveys on the Topic of Homosexual Rights.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingnan; Wang, Yichen

    2016-06-01

    Although academic research on homosexuality relies heavily on survey data, there has been limited study of the survey method of asking relevant questions. This study examines the effect of survey mode on responses to questions about homosexual rights. We find significant mode effects among heterosexual respondents, who are more likely to support equal access to employment, military service, adoption, and marriage for homosexual people in face-to-face surveys than in Web surveys. They are also more likely to choose to not respond when face-to-face than online. Homosexual respondents do not show mode effects for either substantive responses or item nonresponse rate.

  11. Knowledge: a possible tool in shaping medical professionals' attitudes towards homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Pantović, Maja; Vuković, Vuk; Randjelović, Dunja; Totić-Poznanović, Sanja; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Jašović-Gašić, Miroslava; Ivković, Maja

    2012-06-01

    The attitudes of medical professionals towards homosexuals can influence their willingness to provide these individuals with medical help. The study evaluated the medical professionals' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes towards it. The sample consisted of 177 participants (physicians n=79 and students n=98). The study respondents anonymously completed three questionnaires (socio-demographic questionnaire, the questionnaire on knowledge, and the questionnaire on attitudes towards homosexuals). Male and religious participants showed a lower level of knowledge and a greater tendency to stigmatize. Furthermore, the subjects who knew more about homosexuality tended to hold less stigmatizing attitude. Age group, specialty (psychiatry, gynecology, internal medicine and surgery), and student's/physician's status had no effect on stigmatization. The study showed that the final year students/ residents had more knowledge than the second year students/specialists did. Knowledge had significant negative predictive effect on attitudes in the analyzed predictive model. To our knowledge, this has been the first study in Serbia and Eastern Europe, which provides information on knowledge and attitudes of health professionals towards homosexuality. We would like to point out the degree of knowledge on homosexuality as a possible, but not exclusive tool in shaping the attitudes towards homosexuals and reducing stigmatization. However, regardless of the personal attitude, knowledge and variable acceptance of the homosexuals' rights, medical professionals' main task is to resist discriminative behavior and provide professional medical help to both homosexual and heterosexual patients.

  12. [The homosexual transmission of HIV/AIDS in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Izazola-Licea, J A; Avila-Figueroa, R C; Gortmaker, S L; del Río-Chiriboga, C

    1995-01-01

    To analyze HIV homosexual transmission in Mexico, epidemic trends and biological and social risk factors. This analysis is based on 19,090 notifications of AIDS cases and on a review of two previous studies that include 3,029 behavioral interviews (together with HIV serological screening tests) carried out at the Information Center of the Mexican Council for Control and Prevention of AIDS (CONASIDA) (1988-89) and during a 1988 study in six Mexican cities. Cities were included because they were the larger in the country and/or because they were the larger in the country and/or because they were touristic places (Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Acapulco, Tijuana and Merida). Logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios for HIV seropositivity and for condom use. Seventy-two percent of the total reported AIDS cases (19,090) up to June 30, 1994, were associated with male homosexual behaviors. In absolute numbers, cases under this category exhibited a rising trend until the end of 1993. HIV seroprevalence was 31% in 2,314 men with homosexual practices who attended "FLORA", the AIDS Information Center in Mexico, from January 1988 to June 30, 1989. The main predictive variables for seropositivity were exclusive homosexual behavior, more than 40 lifetime sexual partners, mixed sexual behavior (both insertive and receptive and intercourse), sex with a person with AIDS, history of syphilis, and anal or genital warts. In general, these risk factors (data from the Information Center) are similar to those found in the six Mexican cities study. There were significant differences in HIV prevalence among the high-risk city samples (the highest in Mexico City with 25% and the lowest in Monterrey with 2.4%). Reported condom use was very low in both studies: only 5% used a condom in all of their sexual relationships. A statistically significant protective effect for HIV infection was found only for those who reported using a condom in all sexual encounters. In the

  13. [Attitudes of adults towards homosexuality and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases: part one].

    PubMed

    Tritt, Remigiusz Jarosław

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is the first scientific article in Poland with an in-depth analysis of subjective attitudes of members of various social groups towards persons with a homosexual orientation. The dissertation includes definitions of terms related to homosexuality, as well as changing opinions on gays and lesbians over the centuries from antiquity till modern times. Special attention is devoted to the biological background of human and animal homosexuality. Opinions of various experts are presented and the fate of homosexuals throughout history is discussed together with examples of persecution on one side and growing tolerance on the other. The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the attitudes of adults representing various social groups towards homosexuality; (b) evaluate the knowledge of respondents concerning biological and social aspects of homosexuality; (c) determine the degree of tolerance and acceptance of gays and lesbians. The study was done in 2255 respondents - students of various university faculties, as well as in teachers, servicemen, and cadets of the Military Academy. The study tool was a 24-item anonymous questionnaire. 1. Knowledge of problems relating to homosexuality differed among various social groups. Knowledge was highest among students of cultural studies and teachers. 2. The level of tolerance and acceptance towards homosexuals continues to rise, particularly among students of the humanities. 3. The type and field of studies has an impact on the shaping of attitudes of students towards the homosexually-oriented population. The highest level of acceptance was found among students of cultural studies and philosophy. Students of the military academy and physical education revealed animosity and negative attitudes. 4. Biological factors - gender and environmental factors - parents' social class - have an impact on the shaping of attitudes towards homosexuality. Males and respondents of peasant descent do not accept

  14. New evidence of genetic factors influencing sexual orientation in men: female fecundity increase in the maternal line.

    PubMed

    Iemmola, Francesca; Camperio Ciani, Andrea

    2009-06-01

    There is a long-standing debate on the role of genetic factors influencing homosexuality because the presence of these factors contradicts the Darwinian prediction according to which natural selection should progressively eliminate the factors that reduce individual fecundity and fitness. Recently, however, Camperio Ciani, Corna, and Capiluppi (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 271, 2217-2221, 2004), comparing the family trees of homosexuals with heterosexuals, reported a significant increase in fecundity in the females related to the homosexual probands from the maternal line but not in those related from the paternal one. This suggested that genetic factors that are partly linked to the X-chromosome and that influence homosexual orientation in males are not selected against because they increase fecundity in female carriers, thus offering a solution to the Darwinian paradox and an explanation of why natural selection does not progressively eliminate homosexuals. Since then, new data have emerged suggesting not only an increase in maternal fecundity but also larger paternal family sizes for homosexuals. These results are partly conflicting and indicate the need for a replication on a wider sample with a larger geographic distribution. This study examined the family trees of 250 male probands, of which 152 were homosexuals. The results confirmed the study of Camperio Ciani et al. (2004). We observed a significant fecundity increase even in primiparous mothers, which was not evident in the previous study. No evidence of increased paternal fecundity was found; thus, our data confirmed a sexually antagonistic inheritance partly linked to the X-chromosome that promotes fecundity in females and a homosexual sexual orientation in males.

  15. [Study on the comparison of high risk behaviors related to AIDS between heterosexual and homosexual men among men who have had sex with men].

    PubMed

    Liao, Liu-Mei; Zhang, Bei-Chuan; Li, Xiu-Fang; Liu, Ming-Hua; Li, Hui; Wang, Ning; An, Quan-Ping; Yu, Zeng-Zhao

    2007-09-01

    To study the risk sexual behaviors related to AIDS between heterosexual and homosexual men who have had sex with men. Target sampling, anonymous questionnaires were adopted to compare sexual behaviors between the two groups. The total amount of sex partners with same-sex was 13.8 on average among heterosexual men including 3.8 with male partners in the past 6 months. Numbers of male partners who had oral sex with was 10.5 and anal sex was 12.4 which were both less than with same sex. Among heterosexual men, the total number of female partners was 4.9 on average but number of female partners in the past 6 months was 1.7 which were both more than that among the homosexuals who were all in marriage status. The rate of condom use was 68.8% (lower than that among homosexual men), among heterosexual men when having sex with men. The rate of condom use among heterosexual men during last anal intercourse was 91.3% with male partners or 63.7% with females. Both figures were higher than that among the homosexuals. The rates of condom use among the two groups were 91.3% and 71.0% respectively during the last anal intercourse with men which were higher than the corresponding rate of condom use during the last oral sex. The rate of heterosexual men who ever had engaged in group sex was 9.9% in the previous year and the incidence of bleeding was 16.7% during sexual intercourse. 11.4% of them reported ever having had sex with partners from other areas in the last year and 4.2% had experienced same-sex harassment before 16 years of age. 4.6% had paid for male-male sex. All these figures were lower than that of the homosexuals. The characteristics of high risk sexual behaviors related to AIDS showed much difference in the two groups which called for attention among these groups of MSM.

  16. Teaching Tolerance Through Literature: Dealing with Issues of Homosexuality in English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Adolescents view sexual orientation, especially homosexuality, as a very sensitive subject. Homosexuality is also a culturally sensitive topic; views on its appropriateness as a classroom subject vary widely from country to country. An English teacher at the International School of Brussels explains how he uses literature and essay writing to…

  17. Impaired production of alpha and gamma interferon in asymptomatic homosexual males.

    PubMed

    Bergström, T; Biberfeldt, G; Böttiger, B; Håkansson, C; Hellstrand, K; Hermodsson, S; Norkrans, G; Strannegård, O; Thorén, K

    1986-10-01

    In vitro production of alpha interferon and gamma interferon was examined in cell cultures from 90 asymptomatic homosexual males and 19 healthy heterosexual male controls. The production of alpha and gamma interferon was significantly suppressed in homosexuals as compared to that in heterosexual controls (p less than 0.005 and p less than 0.001, respectively). Forty-one of the homosexuals produced less gamma interferon than any of the heterosexual controls. Antibodies against the human immune system virus (HIV) were found in eight homosexuals, who produced significantly less alpha and gamma interferon than did the HIV-seronegative homosexuals (p less than 0.02). Neither carriage of Entamoeba histolytica or Giardia lamblia nor serological evidence of infection with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus or hepatitis B virus was associated with a significantly lower production of interferon than that found in homosexual males seronegative for these infections. No correlation was found between number of partners or practice of passive anal intercourse and production of interferons in homosexual men. It is concluded that the significantly lower production of both alpha and gamma interferon in asymptomatic homosexual males may play an important role in susceptibility to viruses, including HIV.

  18. [Lesbian, gay & grey : Specific needs and concerns of elderly homosexual women and men].

    PubMed

    Misoch, Sabina

    2017-04-01

    In 2050 society will face the challenge of the effects of demographic changes with approximately 30 % of the Swiss population aged 65 years and older. This change will also lead to a higher number of elderly persons who identify themselves as homosexual and who live together with a same sex partner. In the year 2050 approximately 90,000-300,000 homosexual persons who are 65 years and older will live in Switzerland. This article shows that the current state of research in gerontology is characterized by large gaps regarding homosexuals and research in homosexuality regarding ageing. With a focus on the third and fourth ages of life for homosexuals of both sexes and based on the latest international research data this article shows that elderly homosexual people face specific challenges and have specific needs, which should be taken into account in home care services and nursing homes. Due to their lifestyles elderly homosexuals are often single and live alone, have no biological children and are afraid of being discriminated or stigmatized particularly in the case of their need for nursing. As a further aggravating factor, studies have shown that elderly homosexuals have poorer health conditions than heterosexuals with an increased need for care at an earlier stage in life.

  19. Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with hepatitis A in a male homosexual

    PubMed Central

    Dunk, A; Jenkins, W J; Sherlock, S

    1982-01-01

    A 48-year-old male homosexual developed the Guillain-Barré syndrome in association with acute hepatitis. The hepatitis A virus was almost certainly transmitted sexually. Since the incidence of viral hepatitis is high in active male homosexuals, they are particularly at risk of developing such complications. PMID:7104658

  20. The Relationship between Gender and Heterosexual Attitudes toward Homosexuality at a Conservative Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar

    2014-01-01

    This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a…

  1. Teaching about Homosexualities to Nigerian University Students: A Report from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epprecht, Marc; Egya, Sule E.

    2011-01-01

    Nigeria's diverse cultures, religions and political parties appear to be unified by a strong taboo against homosexuality and gay rights. This has affected academic research, HIV/AIDS programmes, and sexuality education, all which commonly show evidence of heterosexism, self-censorship and even explicit condemnations of homosexuality. Yet a…

  2. Homosexual Subject(ivitie)s in Music (Education): Deconstructions of the Disappeared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to overstate music's persistent and uneasy relationship with homosexuality in Western society. Associated with femininity for centuries, particularly in North America, participation in music has been believed to emasculate and thus homosexualize men and boys. The linking of music to women and emotion (as opposed to men and reason)…

  3. Identity Development of the Homosexual Youth and Parental and Familial Influences on the Coming Out Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the literature on identity development of homosexual youth, and parental and familial influences on the coming out process. Research indicates that homosexual adolescents who have a close relationship with their parents and families tend to come out at a younger age and experience more positive identities than those who have a poor…

  4. Self-Concept and Psychological Adjustment Differences Between Self-Identified Male Transexuals and Male Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roback, Howard B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Self-concept and adjustment data from anatomical males seeking sexual reassignment surgery were compared with that from a male homosexual group. Findings indicated that the homosexual group had a better self-image and was better adjusted than the sex change group. (Author)

  5. Identity Development of the Homosexual Youth and Parental and Familial Influences on the Coming Out Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the literature on identity development of homosexual youth, and parental and familial influences on the coming out process. Research indicates that homosexual adolescents who have a close relationship with their parents and families tend to come out at a younger age and experience more positive identities than those who have a poor…

  6. Sex Instruction and the Construction of Homosexuality in New Zealand, 1920-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Historical analysis of sex education materials, as well as of the debates that surround them, can shed light upon the construction of sexuality in particular contexts. This article examines some of these materials and debates as a window into the construction of "homosexuality" and "the homosexual" in mid-twentieth century New…

  7. Should Educators Accommodate Intolerance? Mark Halstead, Homosexuality, and the Islamic Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    The ideological interface between Muslims and liberal educators undoubtedly is strained in the realm of sex education, and perhaps on no topic more so than homosexuality. Mark Halstead argues that schools should not try to "undermine the faith" of Muslims, who object to teaching homosexuality as an "acceptable alternative lifestyle." In this…

  8. Suicide and Homosexual Teens: What Can Biology Teachers Do to Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mike U.; Drake, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the teacher's role in helping students deal with homosexuality and suicide. Teachers can provide unbiased information about personal relevant biological issues; be good listeners and confidantes; and value each student without regard to race, gender, class, or sexual orientation. Provides useful information on addressing homosexuality in…

  9. Comparing the Impact of Homosexual and Heterosexual Parents on Children: Meta-Analysis of Existing Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; Burrell, Nancy

    The current legal standing of homosexual parents seeking custody of their children remains precarious. Courts determine custody and visitation on the basis of the "best interests of the child." Current judicial rulings reflect a bias against awarding custody or granting visitation rights to homosexual parents, favoring the heterosexual…

  10. Family Adjustment Following Disclosure of Homosexuality by a Member: Themes Discerned in Narrative Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Jeff; DiProva, Vicky

    1999-01-01

    Using a narrative approach, study explores how families respond to homosexual disclosure of a member over time and how families integrate the family member once their homosexuality has been accepted. Discusses the relationship between 12 themes found through these narratives and current models in the literature within the context of heterosexism.…

  11. Adolescent Attitudes Toward Homosexuality in Relation to Self Concept and Body Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Harry J.

    1976-01-01

    Collects comparative and descriptive data on adolescent attitudes on homosexuality and attempts to show that self-concept, and body self-image as one major aspect of self-concept, are significant correlates of an adolescent's attitude toward homosexuality. (Author/RK)

  12. Homosexual Subject(ivitie)s in Music (Education): Deconstructions of the Disappeared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to overstate music's persistent and uneasy relationship with homosexuality in Western society. Associated with femininity for centuries, particularly in North America, participation in music has been believed to emasculate and thus homosexualize men and boys. The linking of music to women and emotion (as opposed to men and reason)…

  13. Teaching about Homosexualities to Nigerian University Students: A Report from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epprecht, Marc; Egya, Sule E.

    2011-01-01

    Nigeria's diverse cultures, religions and political parties appear to be unified by a strong taboo against homosexuality and gay rights. This has affected academic research, HIV/AIDS programmes, and sexuality education, all which commonly show evidence of heterosexism, self-censorship and even explicit condemnations of homosexuality. Yet a…

  14. The Relationship between Gender and Heterosexual Attitudes toward Homosexuality at a Conservative Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar

    2014-01-01

    This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a…

  15. Should Educators Accommodate Intolerance? Mark Halstead, Homosexuality, and the Islamic Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    The ideological interface between Muslims and liberal educators undoubtedly is strained in the realm of sex education, and perhaps on no topic more so than homosexuality. Mark Halstead argues that schools should not try to "undermine the faith" of Muslims, who object to teaching homosexuality as an "acceptable alternative lifestyle." In this…

  16. Homosexuality in Classroom Discourse at an American Modern Orthodox High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Devra

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent developments in the Modern Orthodox community's approach to homosexuality, this article presents a classroom discussion on homosexuality that took place at a Modern Orthodox high school. An examination of the discussion's heteroglossia, or multiplicity of languages existing in tension, along with attention to the discussion's…

  17. Homosexuality in Classroom Discourse at an American Modern Orthodox High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Devra

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent developments in the Modern Orthodox community's approach to homosexuality, this article presents a classroom discussion on homosexuality that took place at a Modern Orthodox high school. An examination of the discussion's heteroglossia, or multiplicity of languages existing in tension, along with attention to the discussion's…

  18. Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette

    1983-01-01

    A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)

  19. Studies in homosexual patients with and without lymphadenopathy. Relationships to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    deShazo, R D; Penico, J P; Pankey, G A; Nordberg, J A; Newton, J L; Bozelka, B; Cortez, L M; Dalovisio, J R

    1984-06-01

    We studied the immunologic function of 19 sexually active homosexual men, ten of whom had persistent lymphadenopathy. Analysis of mononuclear cell populations distinguished homosexuals from heterosexual controls since, as a group, homosexuals had increased percentages of natural killer cells (Leu 7+), decreased helper-inducer T lymphocytes (OKT-4+), increased suppressor/cytotoxic (OKT-8+) T lymphocytes, low OKT-4:OKT-8 ratios, and depressed mitogenic responses. Homosexuals without lymphadenopathy were distinguishable from controls by increased percentages of Ia+ cells, decreased OKT-4+ cells, and decreased OKT-4:OKT-8 ratios. Four had positive findings simultaneously for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and surface antibody, and five had positive findings for HBsAg alone. Homosexuals with lymphadenopathy were distinguishable from controls by increased percentages of Leu 7+ cells, increased total lymphocyte numbers per cubic millimeter, decreased percentages of both OKT-4+ and OKT-8+ cells, abnormal OKT-4:OKT-8 ratios, and depressed mitogenic responses. Only histories of larger numbers of sexually acquired diseases, higher numbers of OKT-8+ cells per cubic millimeter, and lower mitogenic responses in homosexuals with lymphadenopathy distinguished this group from homosexuals without lymphadenopathy. Furthermore, none of the nine patients tested in this group was HBsAg positive. We conclude that homosexuals without lymphadenopathy are distinguishable from those with lymphadenopathy by both immunologic and serologic abnormalities.

  20. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in Homosexual Male Adolescents and Probably Prehomosexual Feminine Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Ray; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)

  1. Family Adjustment Following Disclosure of Homosexuality by a Member: Themes Discerned in Narrative Accounts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Jeff; DiProva, Vicky

    1999-01-01

    Using a narrative approach, study explores how families respond to homosexual disclosure of a member over time and how families integrate the family member once their homosexuality has been accepted. Discusses the relationship between 12 themes found through these narratives and current models in the literature within the context of heterosexism.…

  2. Homosexuality in Specific Fields: The Arts, the Military, the Ministry, Prisons, Sports, Teaching and Transsexuals. A Selected Bibliography. Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alan V., Comp.

    This bibliography represents the third in a series of three dealing with employment of homosexuals, to be published by the Ontario Ministry of Labour Library. All asterisked titles deal with the employment problems of and discrimination against homosexuals. This bibliography is concerned with homosexuality in the specific fields of the arts, the…

  3. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  4. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  5. Homosexuality in Specific Fields: The Arts, the Military, the Ministry, Prisons, Sports, Teaching and Transsexuals. A Selected Bibliography. Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alan V., Comp.

    This bibliography represents the third in a series of three dealing with employment of homosexuals, to be published by the Ontario Ministry of Labour Library. All asterisked titles deal with the employment problems of and discrimination against homosexuals. This bibliography is concerned with homosexuality in the specific fields of the arts, the…

  6. Portuguese Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lucas; Gato, Jorge; Esteves, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people still face discrimination in healthcare environments and physicians often report lack of knowledge on this population's specific healthcare needs. In fact, recommendations have been put forward to include lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender health in medical curricula. This study aimed to explore factors associated with medical students' knowledge and attitudes towards homosexuality in different years of the medical course. An anonymous online-based questionnaire was sent to all medical students enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine - University of Porto, Portugal, in December 2015. The questionnaire included socio-demographic questions, the Multidimensional Scale of Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (27 items) and a Homosexuality Knowledge Questionnaire (17 items). Descriptive statistics, ANOVAs, Chi-square tests and Pearson's correlations were used in the analysis. A total of 489 completed responses was analyzed. Male gender, religiosity and absence of lesbian, gay or bisexual friends were associated with more negative attitudes towards homosexuality. Attitudinal scores did not correlate with advanced years in medical course or contact with lesbian, gay or bisexual patients. Students aiming to pursue technique-oriented specialties presented higher scores in the 'Modern Heterosexism' subscale than students seeking patient-oriented specialties. Although advanced years in medical course correlated significantly with higher knowledge scores, items related with lesbian, gay or bisexual health showed the lowest percentage of correct answers. There seems to be a lack of exploration of medical students' personal attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, and also a lack of knowledge on lesbian, gay or bisexual specific healthcare needs. This study highlights the importance of inclusive undergraduate curriculum development in order to foster quality healthcare.

  7. Communists, Social Democrats, and the homosexual movement in the Weimar Republic.

    PubMed

    Herzer, M

    1995-01-01

    Two cliches of gay historiography concerning the relationship between homosexuals and the political parties of the Weimar Republic are here subjected to critical examination. The notion that the political left of that era was similar in its homophobia to the right-wing and centrist parties is challenged with a number of particulars showing that the goals of the homosexual movement were supported almost exclusively by the left, especially the Communist Party, and that leftist homophobia was an atypical exception. Attention is also devoted to the active involvement of homosexual men in the Nazi movement and the destruction of the Weimar Republic, which casts doubt on the notion that homosexuals were merely passive victims of Nazi homophobia and persecution. The possibility of a special affinity between homosexual men and the Nazi movement is explored using the example of the Nazi leader Ernst Röhm.

  8. Is Gaydar Affected by Attitudes Toward Homosexuality? Confidence, Labeling Bias, and Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Gayle; Lyons, Minna

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has largely ignored the relationship between sexual orientation judgement accuracy, confidence, and attitudes toward homosexuality. In an online study, participants (N = 269) judged the sexual orientation of homosexual and heterosexual targets presented via a series of facial photographs. Participants also indicated their confidence in each judgment and completed the Modern Homonegativity Scale (Morrison & Morrison, 2002). We found that (1) homosexual men and heterosexual women were more accurate when judging photographs of women as opposed to photographs of men, and (2) in heterosexual men, negative attitudes toward homosexual men predicted confidence and bias when rating men's photographs. Findings indicate that homosexual men and heterosexual women are similar in terms of accuracy in judging women's sexuality. Further, especially in men, homophobia is associated with cognitive biases in labeling other men but does not have a relationship with increased accuracy.

  9. Loneliness of homosexual male students: parental bonding attitude as a moderating factor.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationships of homosexual male students at the senior high school level and their loneliness using parental bonding attitude as a moderating factor. An amount of 127 homosexual male senior high school students in Taiwan is studied. The Pearson correlation analysis and the hierarchical regression analysis are adapted to examine two proposed hypotheses. Based on the results, homosexual male senior high school students in both hyper-masculine and feminine gender roles are found to feel loneliness, but levels of loneliness of those who possess hyper-masculine gender role are relatively lower than those in a feminine role. In addition, the levels of loneliness of homosexual male senior high school students could be negatively affected by parental bonding attitudes (Care). Recommendations and suggestions for parents as well as teachers of homosexual senior high school male students and future studies are underscored at the end of this article.

  10. Sociological and psychological predictors of STD infection in homosexual men: a study of four countries.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, M W

    1984-01-01

    I investigated over 600 homosexual men in four countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Australia) regarding the number of times they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and several psychological variables including masculinity and feminity, sex role conservatism, relationships with parents, number of sexual partners, attitudes towards homosexuality, and involvement in the homosexual subculture. Using multiple linear regression in each country, it was found that 19-42% of the variance of number of times infected could be accounted for by psychosocial factors, seven of which were common to all countries. The number of sexual partners was not a significant variable in any country. These data strongly suggest that numbers of infections in homosexual men are best predicted by psychological factors, and this has considerable implications for preventative and treatment programmes for homosexuals. PMID:6546702

  11. Homosexuality and illegal residency status in relation to substance abuse and personality traits among Mexican nationals.

    PubMed

    Tori, C D

    1989-09-01

    Maladaptive behavioral and personality reactions to severe stressors among Mexican homosexual men were assessed by comparing substance abuse and Rorschach data obtained from three samples: (a) homosexuals residing illegally in the United States (n = 40), (b) homosexuals living in Mexico (n = 21) and (c) heterosexuals living illegally in the United States (n = 25). The results of orthogonal contrasts showed very similar personality structure and substance abuse patterns among the participants in the two homosexual groups. As predicted, these men were found to be using alcohol or drugs to a greater extent than the heterosexual controls. Rorschach findings indicated that the homosexual subjects were experiencing dysphoric mood and distorted perceptions; they were also having significant difficulties coping with an environment that was discerned as increasingly dangerous. These results are relevant to the stress reduction hypothesis of addiction and provide quantitative information regarding the extent of psychopathology in this underserved Hispanic population.

  12. [The homosexual as a "molesting personality". Nikolaus Jensch and his psychiatric-genetic studies].

    PubMed

    Wolfert, Raimund; Steinberg, H

    2009-08-01

    For the first time ever, this study presents facts on the biography of Nikolaus Jensch (1913 - 1964), who worked in Wroclav, Leipzig, Strasbourg and Bremen, and on his psychiatric-genetic studies on homosexuality during the Nazi regime. Jensch tried, under methodologically rather doubtful presuppositions, to separate "genuine" from so-called "pseudo-homosexuals", who for him were receptive to psychotherapeutic and educational intervention. Ultimately he aimed to establish an empiric prediction as to the heredity of homosexuality, although even that would not exculpate homosexuals from prosecution. In a different study he analysed the curing effects of castration for homosexuality and other sexual deviances. Although acknowledging the mutilating character of castration and its due to high recrudescence rates rather poor therapeutic outcome, he never pleaded to refrain from this intervention.

  13. Sociological and psychological predictors of STD infection in homosexual men: a study of four countries.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W

    1984-04-01

    I investigated over 600 homosexual men in four countries (Sweden, Finland, Ireland, and Australia) regarding the number of times they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and several psychological variables including masculinity and feminity, sex role conservatism, relationships with parents, number of sexual partners, attitudes towards homosexuality, and involvement in the homosexual subculture. Using multiple linear regression in each country, it was found that 19-42% of the variance of number of times infected could be accounted for by psychosocial factors, seven of which were common to all countries. The number of sexual partners was not a significant variable in any country. These data strongly suggest that numbers of infections in homosexual men are best predicted by psychological factors, and this has considerable implications for preventative and treatment programmes for homosexuals.

  14. Effects of sex role attitudes and similarity on men's rejection of male homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Krulewitz, J E; Nash, J E

    1980-01-01

    The present study investigated reactions to homosexuals as a function of perceived attitude similarity and subjects' sex role attitudes. Male subjects, preselected on the basis of their profeminist, moderate, or antifeminist scores on the Attitude Toward Feminism Scale were assigned at random to one of the four experimental conditions. Using a standard attraction paradigm design, subjects rated a bogus "partner," who was represented as either homosexual or heterosexual and as having attitudes either similar or dissimilar to theirs. Consistent with predictions, similar partners were liked more than dissimilar partners, and heterosexual partners were liked more than homosexuals. Homosexuals were seen as more dissimilar to the subjects in all conditions. Further, liberals were more accepting of homosexuals and dissimilar partners than were traditionals. The results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role attitudes and tolerance of dissimilarity.

  15. The impact of parental homosexuality in child custody cases: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kleber, D J; Howell, R J; Tibbits-Kleber, A L

    1986-01-01

    As a result of the relatively high rate of divorce in this country and the increasing awareness that many parents (an estimated 1.5 million) are homosexual, the courts, as well as divorce mediators, have become actively involved in child custody placement decisions involving homosexual parents. While custody decisions have tended to reflect stereotyped beliefs or fears concerning the detrimental effects of homosexual parenting practices on child development, a review of the research consistently fails to document any evidence substantiating these fears. A number of specific custody issues are discussed as well as social factors relevant to lesbian motherhood. In conclusion, several authors call for increased awareness of the facts of homosexual parenting by lawyers, judges, and other professionals involved in homosexual parent-child custody cases.

  16. Narcissism and self-esteem among homosexual and heterosexual male students.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Gidi

    2010-01-01

    According to orthodox psychoanalytical theory, narcissism and homosexuality are strongly associated. This association played a major role in pathologizing homosexuality. The present study compared self-esteem and two measures of narcissism among 90 homosexual and 109 heterosexual male students, who filled in a demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, which addresses both grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissism. The hypothesis, which is based on the Freudian connection between narcissism and homosexuality, is supported by the results, indicating that the homosexual students score higher in both measures of narcissism and lower on the self-esteem measure, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Intra-psychic, as well as environmental, interpretations of the results are suggested in the discussion.

  17. Inventing the Pedophile in the Journal of Homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This article serves as one of the supplementary pieces of this special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," in which we take a solipsistic turn to "map" the Journal of Homosexuality itself. Here, the author examines one of the most controversial moments in the history of the journal, whereby a contributor was subject to governmental and popular rebuke for his scholarship on pederasty, pedophilia, and underage queer sexuality. In a chronological and intellectual appraisal of this pedophilia-themed text, the author asks us to recalibrate the disquietude we posit when same-sex affection, youthful sexuality, and sexual abuse are in close proximity.

  18. Homosexual parents: a comparative forensic study of character and harms to children.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K

    1998-06-01

    40 appeals cases of custody disputes drawn systematically from all cases involving a homosexual parent in the United States were compared to 38 appeals cases involving heterosexual custody disputes drawn randomly from listings under parental "character" and 18 appeals cases drawn randomly from "general" cases in Dicennial Digest from 1966 to 1991. Each case involving homosexual vs heterosexual claimants was examined for recorded information about (1) the character of the homosexual parent, the associates of the homosexual parent, the heterosexual parent, and the associates of the heterosexual parent, (2) the effects, particularly harms, upon the child(ren), and (3) psychiatric opinion. 82% of the homosexual vs 18% of the heterosexual parents and 54% of the homosexual's associates vs 19% of the heterosexuals' associates were recorded as having poor character in cases involving a homosexual claimant. Of the 66 recorded harms, e.g., molestation, physical abuse, to the 73 children, homosexual persons accounted for 64 (97%). Of the 32 lesbians, 6 were recorded as having engaged in criminal activity and 3 of bringing false charges of child sexual abuse against the father. Psychiatric opinion, however, ran 25 to 12 in favor of custody for the homosexual parent. In the 56 heterosexual vs heterosexual comparison cases, 38% of the heterosexual parents and 28% of their associates were recorded as having poor character. Six harms to their 105 children and 3 instances of criminality but no false charges of sexual abuse were recorded. In the appeals court literature, homosexual parents were disproportionately of poor character and disproportionately associated with various harms to their children.

  19. Anogenital infection with Neisseria meningitidis in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Judson, F N; Ehret, J M; Eickhoff, T C

    1978-04-01

    Among monosexual men anal infection with Neisseria meningitidis was more prevalent (15 of 731 men) than expected and significantly more prevalent than urethral infection with N. meningitidis (three of 669 men, P less than 0.01). Anal infection was also significantly more prevalent among homosexual men than among heterosexual women (two of 1,197 women, P less than 0.001). These differences in rates of prevalence may be best explained by a preference of meningococci for anal mucosa and by the common homosexual practice of oral-anal sexual contact. Serogrouping of the 17 anal and three urethral isolates revealed a broad representation of serogroups often found in meningococcal pharyngeal carriage in the community. Of 14 patients who returned for a test-of-cure culture within seven days of treatment with an antibiotic regimen recommended for anogenital gonococcal infection, each was culture-negative for N. meningitidis. Minor and symptoms in three men and profuse urethral discharges in two men resolved with treatment.

  20. Homosexuality and scientific evidence: On suspect anecdotes, antiquated data, and broad generalizations

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association have suggested for many years now that there is significant empirical evidence supporting the claim that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder. This paper summarizes and analyzes that purported scientific evidence and explains that much (if not all) of the evidence is irrelevant and does not support the homosexuality-is-not-a-mental-disorder claim. As a result of their deficiencies and arbitrariness, the credibility those two groups that are typically deemed authoritative and trustworthy is called into question. Lay summary: At one time, homosexuality was considered to be mentally disordered. Since the 1970s, however, major medical associations in the U.S. have labeled homosexuality as a normal counterpart of heterosexuality. Those medical associations have proposed that their homosexuality-is-normal claim is based on “scientific evidence.” This article critically reviews that “scientific evidence” and finds that much of their literature does not support the claim that homosexuality is normal. This article suggests that instead of supporting their claim with scientific evidence, those major medical associations arbitrarily label homosexuality as normal. PMID:26997677

  1. "Sex-role preference" as an explanatory variable in homosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Carrier, J M

    1977-01-01

    Sex-role preference is an important neglected variable in statistically controlled studies of homosexual behavior. This variable must accompany controls for degree of psychopathology of respondents and degree of heterosexual and homosexual behavior experienced by respondents. Cross-cultural differences exist. Mexican males have rigidly defined insertor-insertee roles, with earlier life events serving as predictors of these sex-role preferences. Greece is comparable to Mexico. In Turkey, stigmatization accompanies passive homosexuality. Role playing may be age graded, as in the Southwest Pacific. In lower socioeconomic classes of the United States, sex roles for homosexual males are more stereo-typically and unequivocably defined. Chicanos generally have strong sex-role preferences when involved in homosexual encounters; their attitude is similar to that found in Mexico. Among middle-class Anglo-American males, few or no sex-role feelings are associated with types of sex acts by most homosexually behaving males. This may be related to a focus on oral-genital rather than anal sex acts. The sharply dichotomized gender roles and the cultural formulation linking effeminacy and homosexuality appear to provide the necessary conditions for the development of sex-role preferences in many societies.

  2. Homosexuality and scientific evidence: On suspect anecdotes, antiquated data, and broad generalizations.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    The American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association have suggested for many years now that there is significant empirical evidence supporting the claim that homosexuality is a normal variant of human sexual orientation as opposed to a mental disorder. This paper summarizes and analyzes that purported scientific evidence and explains that much (if not all) of the evidence is irrelevant and does not support the homosexuality-is-not-a-mental-disorder claim. As a result of their deficiencies and arbitrariness, the credibility those two groups that are typically deemed authoritative and trustworthy is called into question. Lay summary: At one time, homosexuality was considered to be mentally disordered. Since the 1970s, however, major medical associations in the U.S. have labeled homosexuality as a normal counterpart of heterosexuality. Those medical associations have proposed that their homosexuality-is-normal claim is based on "scientific evidence." This article critically reviews that "scientific evidence" and finds that much of their literature does not support the claim that homosexuality is normal. This article suggests that instead of supporting their claim with scientific evidence, those major medical associations arbitrarily label homosexuality as normal.

  3. Recent challenges to traditional assumptions about homosexuality: some implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D

    1987-01-01

    During the last decade there has been a change in professional attitudes toward homosexuality reflected in the development of new models of treatment. Rather than offering a cure the aim is to help homosexuals adjust positively to their orientation. Such attitudinal change on the part of the practitioners has not, in the main, questioned the fundamental assumptions of theories which seek to explain homosexuality. Recent theoretical inquiry into homosexuality, however, has done this, posing an important challenge to the traditionally held view that people have an essential sexuality that is either homosexual or heterosexual and which remains fixed and unchanging throughout their lives. This paper addresses some of the more important clinical implications of these recent developments, in particular, the suggestion that "the homosexual" as a certain type of person is an "invention." In addition, the therapeutic value and difficulties associated with an acknowledgement that sexual preference and identity may change over time are considered. Finally, there is consideration of what the goals should be in the case of the person who seeks professional help in changing from a homosexual to a heterosexual orientation.

  4. The evolution of a social construction: the case of male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, Pieter R; De Block, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Male homosexuality has been viewed by evolutionary psychologists as a Darwinian paradox, and by other social scientists as a social construction. We argue that it is better understood as an evolutionary social construction. Male homosexuality as we now know it is an 18th-century invention, but nonexclusive same-sex sexual behavior has a long evolutionary history. According to the alliance-formation hypothesis, same-sex sexuality evolved by natural selection because it created or strengthened male-male alliances and allowed low-status males to reposition themselves in the group hierarchy and thereby increase their reproductive success. This hypothesis makes sense of some odd findings about male homosexuality and helps to explain the rise in exclusive male homosexuality in the 18th century. The sociohistorical conditions around 1700 may have resulted in an increase in same-sex sexual behavior. Cultural responses to same-sex sexuality led to the spread of exclusive homosexual behavior and to the creation of a homosexual identity. Understanding male homosexuality as an evolutionary social construction can help us move beyond the traditionally polarized debate between evolutionary psychologists and social constructionists.

  5. Experiences of homosexual patients' access to primary health care services in Umlazi, KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Cele, Nokulunga H; Sibiya, Maureen N; Sokhela, Dudu G

    2015-09-28

    Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of homosexual patients utilising primary health care (PHC) services in Umlazi in the province ofKwaZulu-Natal (KZN). A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted which was contextual innature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis. Two major themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at the primary health care facilities, and, homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel. Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes.

  6. A systematic review of instruments that measure attitudes toward homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Grey, Jeremy A; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Coleman, Eli; Bockting, Walter O

    2013-01-01

    Scientific interest in the measurement of homophobia and internalized homophobia has grown over the past 30 years, and new instruments and terms have emerged. To help researchers with the challenging task of identifying appropriate measures for studies in sexual-minority health, we reviewed measures of homophobia published in the academic literature from 1970 to 2012. Instruments that measured attitudes toward male homosexuals/homosexuality or measured homosexuals' internalized attitudes toward homosexuality were identified using measurement manuals and a systematic review. A total of 23 instruments met criteria for inclusion, and their features were summarized and compared. All 23 instruments met minimal criteria for adequate scale construction, including scale development, sampling, reliability, and evidence of validity. Validity evidence was diverse and was categorized as interaction with gay men, HIV/AIDS variables, mental health, and conservative religious or political beliefs. Homophobia was additionally correlated with authoritarianism and bias, gender ideology, gender differences, and reactions to homosexual stimuli. Internalized homophobia was validated by examining relationships with disclosing one's homosexuality and level of homosexual identity development. We hope this review will make the process of instrument selection more efficient by allowing researchers to easily locate, evaluate, and choose the proper measure based on their research question and population of interest.

  7. Contributions of parents, peers, and media to attitudes toward homosexuality: investigating sex and ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Ward, L Monique

    2009-01-01

    Although research on sexual socialization continues to grow, still little is known about the processes by which youth learn about homosexuality and about how ethnicity and sex influence their learning experiences. To explore these issues, 745 undergraduates were interviewed and asked to indicate the amount and content of parental, peer, and media communication they regularly encounter about homosexuality. Results indicated that media and peers addressed the topic of homosexuality more frequently than parents; men and Black participants tended to receive fewer positive messages than did women and members of other ethnic groups, although results were moderated by religiosity and parental education.

  8. Homosexuality and the Law: The Construction of Wolfenden Homonormativity in 1950s England.

    PubMed

    Suffee, Réshad

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses a television broadcast in England in 1957 in response to the Wolfenden Report (Wolfenden, 1957) into homosexuality and prostitution. Here I argue that those participants in the broadcast who are sympathetic with liberal reforms of the legislation on homosexuality utilize discourses related to normality and the public/private domains to discursively construct the Wolfenden homonormative male. In addition, I also show how, particularly through the trope of homonormativity, both the heterosexual and homosexual audiences are interpellated by the discourses exploited within the broadcast as publics whose subjectivities are reconfigured toward Wolfenden homonormativity.

  9. Brief Report: Increasing Acceptance of Homosexuality in the United States Across Racial and Ethnic Subgroups.

    PubMed

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Cleary, Sean D; Golden, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    After recent civil rights expansions for sexual minorities in the United States, we updated previous findings on population-level attitudes toward homosexuality measured in the General Social Survey. In 2014, 40.1% of respondents reported that homosexuality was "always wrong" compared with 54.8% in 2008 (P < 0.001). Although black and Hispanic respondents consistently reported more negative attitudes regarding homosexuality than white respondents throughout 2008 to 2014, the percentage declined among all racial/ethnic groups. Among MSM, more positive attitudes were associated with HIV testing. Research shows a potential association between homophobia and HIV risk; thus, these population-level changes may promote better health among MSM.

  10. [Between law and psychiatry: homosexuality in the project of the Swiss penal code (1918)].

    PubMed

    Delessert, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    In 1942 the Swiss penal code depenalises homosexual acts between agreeing adults under some conditions. The genesis of the penal article shows that it was constructed before the First World War and bears marks of the forensic theories of the turn of the century. Both by direct contacts and the authority of its eminent figures, Swiss psychiatry exerts an unquestionable influence on the depenalisation. The conceptualisation of homosexuality is also strongly influenced by the German psychiatric theories and discussed in reference to Germanic law. By the penal article, the Swiss lawyers and psychiatrists link the homosexual question with the determination of the irresponsibility of criminal mental patients and degeneracy.

  11. Nature/nurture: reflections on approaches to the study of homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Ruse, M

    1984-01-01

    There is understandable apprehension by many people towards claims that biology plays a significant role in the etiology of homosexuality. These worries should not be allowed to deter any such work on sexual orientation. It is argued that the only proper way to evaluate biological analyses is against the full background of Darwinian evolutionary theory. Moral issues pertaining to biological research on homosexuality are addressed. Finally, it is urged that both biological and environmental factors be considered in rendering a true picture of homosexuality.

  12. Parents of homosexuals--not guilty? Interpretation of childhood psychological data.

    PubMed

    van den Aardweg, G J

    1984-04-01

    Data obtained in a study of 200 Dutch male homosexuals in treatment contradict the idea that parents are not causing homosexuality in their sons. Notably, the combination of overconcernedness of the mother and detachment and hypercriticism of the father push the boy into avoidance of "masculine" behavior, which in turn is leading to a feeling of inferiority because the boy considers himself as lacking in manliness. The homosexual urge is an expression of an infantile longing for acceptance to counteract the loneliness and self-pity of not belonging and must be seen as a specific neurotic manifestation.

  13. [: an expert report by Dr. Egas Moniz on homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Molina Artaloytia, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, the noted Nobel prize-winning Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz made an expert analysis on homosexuality in a marriage annulment case of major value as an example of the effective application of sexological knowledge of that period. Contemporary republican legislation established marriage annulment in medical terms and punished relations between persons of the same sex, or contra natura. In his report, Moniz attempted to interpret distinctive elements of the life of the subject using sexological categories, illustrating the interaction between these categories and the changing forms adopted by homosexuality (or homosexual people) of the time.

  14. Male homosexuality: absence of linkage to microsatellite markers at Xq28.

    PubMed

    Rice, G; Anderson, C; Risch, N; Ebers, G

    1999-04-23

    Several lines of evidence have implicated genetic factors in homosexuality. The most compelling observation has been the report of genetic linkage of male homosexuality to microsatellite markers on the X chromosome. This observation warranted further study and confirmation. Sharing of alleles at position Xq28 was studied in 52 gay male sibling pairs from Canadian families. Four markers at Xq28 were analyzed (DXS1113, BGN, Factor 8, and DXS1108). Allele and haplotype sharing for these markers was not increased over expectation. These results do not support an X-linked gene underlying male homosexuality.

  15. Identifying With a Stereotype: The Divergent Effects of Exposure to Homosexual Television Characters.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Bryan; Rodriguez, Nathian S

    2017-01-01

    Scholars examining homosexual television characters have typically come to one of two conclusions: either exposure to homosexual characters can lead to increased acceptance, or homosexual characters serve to reaffirm negative stereotypes. We seek to bridge these two bodies of research by introducing the concept of stereotyped identification-the idea that cognitively and emotionally identifying with fictional characters can increase acceptance of minorities, while reinforcing implicit stereotypes about how they look, act, and talk. Results from our national survey (N = 972) offer support for this hypothesis.

  16. [Influence of socio-cultural context on risk perception and negotiation of protection among poor homosexual males on the Peruvian coast].

    PubMed

    Salazar, Ximena; Cáceres, Carlos; Maiorana, André; Rosasco, Ana M; Kegeles, Susan; Coates, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    This paper focuses on risk, conceived not as an individual action, but considering its social dimension, analyzing the various forms in the socio-cultural context related to internalized homophobia and hegemonic gender norms that allow barriers to be constructed in risk perception. Such barriers hinder negotiation and protection among homosexual men that have adopted a female gender identity, living in low-income barrios of Lima and Trujillo, Peru. Risk perception is analyzed on the socio-cultural plane, allowing one to explain the limited negotiating capacity of this population, even though they have extensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its consequences.

  17. Intergroup contact, attitudes toward homosexuality, and the role of acceptance of gender non-conformity in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Kate L.; Bos, Henny M.W.; Sandfort, Theo G.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored how contact with gay and lesbian persons affects adolescents' attitudes toward them, and whether this association is mediated or moderated by one's acceptance of gender non-conformity. We analyzed survey responses from 456 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 15 who reported having no same-sex attractions. Data were collected in 2008 at 8 schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Preliminary analyses showed that contact with lesbian/gay persons outside of school was positively associated with attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Multilevel analyses showed that acceptance of gender non-conformity mediated rather than moderated the relationship between intergroup contact and sexual prejudice in males. The effect of intergroup contact on females' attitudes toward lesbian women was no longer significant in multilevel analyses. The findings suggest that attention to both intergroup contact and acceptance of gender non-conformity would enhance our understanding of attitudes toward homosexuality in adolescents. PMID:22243627

  18. Sexual partner selectiveness effects on homosexual HIV transmission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Koopman, J; Simon, C; Jacquez, J; Joseph, J; Sattenspiel, L; Park, T

    1988-01-01

    Deterministic simulation models are used to show that HIV transmission dynamics in homosexual populations can be strongly affected by sexual partner selectiveness. The type of selectiveness or biased mixing examined is where individuals with similar new partnership formation rates are more likely to form a pair than would be expected by chance. The effect of such selectiveness could be strong even when the total number and distribution of new sexual partnerships and sex acts remains constant. This means that in order to predict the future course of HIV transmission and identify the populations at highest risk, we must have information not only on the frequency of new sexual partnerships and types of sex acts, but also on who has sex with whom. Given high sexual partner selectiveness, some groups of homosexuals with low rates of sex and new sex partners would take many decades before a single introduction would generate an epidemic. Epidemics in these groups can be markedly accelerated by only modest contact with higher risk groups. Even in very low activity groups, which if isolated would have no epidemic, an important proportion of their members can be infected when they are not selective. The relative risks of AIDS in groups making high numbers of new sexual partnerships compared to groups making low numbers are markedly affected by sexual partner selectiveness. The models developed were examined using information collected in 1984 from the Coping and Change Study in collaboration with the Chicago Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. This population was divided into activity groups by the rate at which individuals established new sexual partnerships and then a structure of new sexual partnerships between these activity groups was defined consistent with available data. Even without introducing any behavior change in the models, the proportion of the homosexual population infected was seen to level off temporarily at around 50% after several years as a consequence of

  19. Cytomegalovirus infections in homosexual men. An epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Mintz, L; Drew, W L; Miner, R C; Braff, E H

    1983-09-01

    Levels of cytomegalovirus antibody (IgG and IgM) were measured and urine viral cultures were done in 237 homosexual men over a mean period of 14.1 months. The initial prevalence of cytomegalovirus IgG antibody was 86.9%. By the 9th month of follow-up, 71% of serosusceptible men had become infected with cytomegalovirus. During the study period cytomegaloviruria was noted in 32% of seropositive men. Cytomegalovirus IgM antibody was intermittently present in the serum of 95% of IgG-seropositive men, suggesting that frequent reactivation of latent infection or reexposure to exogenous virus had occurred. Of seven sexual practices investigated, only passive anal-genital intercourse correlated with the acquisition of cytomegalovirus infection (p = 0.008).

  20. Sex role separation in sexual diaries of homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Coxon, A P; Coxon, N H; Weatherburn, P; Hunt, A J; Hickson, F; Davies, P M; McManus, T J

    1993-06-01

    To measure types of sex role prevalence in common and risk-related behaviours among gay men for modelling HIV transmission. Cohort study of 385 homosexually active men recording sexual diaries over 1-month periods. Measures of incidence of behavioural sex roles for masturbation, fellatio, anal intercourse and anilingus by relationship type, derived from 1-month sexual diary data. Low behavioural role rigidity for masturbation and fellatio, but higher rigidity for anal intercourse and anilingus. Participants with no regular partner showed a relatively low frequency of anal intercourse, whereas those in closed relationships showed a high frequency. Although anal intercourse shows a certain degree of behavioural role rigidity, this rigidity is not large enough to conclude that gay men exclusively engage in either an active or a passive role. Typical rates for exclusive active and passive roles for anal intercourse during the month the diaries were recorded were in the range of 12-15%; the dual role was significantly higher.

  1. The Bible on homosexuality: exploring its meaning and authority.

    PubMed

    Locke, Kenneth A

    2004-01-01

    Even within this secular age the Bible is still referred to in controversial matters of ethics and morality. Nowhere is this more evident than in the debate over the acceptability or unacceptability of homosexuality. This paper evaluates the Bible's statements on homoeroticism by explaining their historical, cultural, linguistic and narrative contexts. It finds that while the Bible is silent on matters of orientation, it does seem to adopt a negative attitude toward at least male same-sex sexual encounters. This finding, however, is in itself irrelevant unless it is related to how communities use and make sense of the Bible. There are many biblical prohibitions and condemnations that are ignored by even the most fundamentalist Christian groups. Whether the biblical passages on homoeroticism are treated authoritatively or not rests ultimately on the outlook and interpretive framework used by a Christian community to make coherent sense of the Bible.

  2. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-09-15

    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  3. Sexual and romantic jealousy in heterosexual and homosexual adults.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R

    2002-01-01

    Several theorists have claimed that men are innately more upset by a mate's sexual infidelity and women are more upset by a mate's emotional infidelity because the sexes faced different adaptive problems (for men, cuckoldry; for women, losing a mate's resources). The present work examined this theory of jealousy as a specific innate module in 196 adult men and women of homosexual and heterosexual orientations. As in previous work, heterosexuals' responses to a forced-choice question about hypothetical infidelity yielded a gender difference. However no gender differences were found when participants recalled personal experiences with a mate's actual infidelity. Men and women, regardless of sexual orientation, on average focused more on a mate's emotional infidelity than on a mate's sexual infidelity. Responses to hypothetical infidelity were uncorrelated with reactions to actual infidelity. This finding casts doubt on the validity of the hypothetical measures used in previous research.

  4. Homosexual mutuality: variation on a theme by Erik Erikson.

    PubMed

    Sohier, R

    The exploratory descriptive study described here was conducted in order to produce the initial empirical evidence to support reformulation of the theoretical construct of heterosexual mutuality (Erikson, 1975). Six persons were interviewed in depth on tape in order to locate them on one of four identity statuses constructed by Marcia (1964, 1966, 1973). The tool was modified and extended to meet the purposes of the study. The questions are directed toward illumination of conflictual moments in the life cycle when the ability to make appropriate decisions engenders character growth, and supports the personality integration of adulthood. An ability to make decisions results in personality integration. The small study provides evidence that there exists a homosexual mutuality (contrary to Erikson's position) which is no less valuable than heterosexual mutuality, and forms an equal basis for adult personality integration.

  5. Challenging the Black Church Narrative: Race, Class, and Homosexual Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Irizarry, Yasmiyn A; Perry, Ravi K

    2017-08-11

    In recent years, scholars have pointed to the Black church as the driving force behind Blacks' more conservative lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) attitudes. Although evidence suggests a robust association between religiosity and LGBT attitudes, contemporary scholarship has not examined the role of class or the extent to which religiosity actually explains these trends. Using the 2004-2014 waves of the General Social Survey, we find that class moderates in the effect of race on negative LGBT attitudes, resulting in a noticeably larger gap between middle-class Blacks and Whites than in the top or the bottom of the class distribution. Although religiosity and moralization explain a portion of racial differences in homosexual attitudes across class groups, we find that neither fully accounts for the more conservative attitudes of the Black middle class. We conclude by discussing the shortcomings of these narratives for understanding Blacks' more conservative LGBT attitudes.

  6. A Multicultural Study of University Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bryan S. K.; D'Andrea, Michael J.; Gaughen, Kiaka J. S.; Sahu, Poonam K.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether or not a relationship exists between university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward homosexuality. Reports significant results and discusses the implications of findings for educational and counseling practice. (Author/MKA)

  7. Negotiating homosexual identities: the experiences of men who have sex with men in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Haochu Howard; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lau, Joseph T F

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study of male homosexuality in contemporary Chinese society. The study focused on how men negotiated with the mainstream Chinese heterosexual society and in so doing constructed their sexual identities. The factors found to inform sexual identity were: the cultural imperative of heterosexual marriage, normative family obligations, desired gender roles, emotional experiences and a need for social belonging. The four types of sexual identities constructed included: establishing a deliberate non-homosexual identity, accumulating an individual homosexual identity, forming a collective homosexual identity and adopting a flexible sexual identity. For the men interviewed, sexual identity was both fluid and fragmented, derived from highly personalised negotiations between individualised needs and social and cultural constructs. The analysis is set against the background of China's rapid and recent economic development, shifting national and international social environments and improved access to the Internet.

  8. "Two men under one cloak"---the Sages permit it: homosexual marriage in Judaism.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jacob A; Ulmer, Rivka B Kern

    2008-01-01

    This article examines halakhic (Jewish legal) passages that relate to homosexuality and marriage between two males. The article sets forth the respective positions of contemporary Jewish denominations in regard to homosexual marriage. Homosexual marriage is a case of first impression in Judaism and requires new decisions and new marriage contracts. The principal thesis of the article is that contemporary Judaism can accommodate philosophically--but also legally--a halakhic framework of thinking, same-sex marriage between men. Judaism does not have to opt for the perspectives of Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism, which have, to a major extent, freed themselves from the traditions and rituals of Jewish law. After examining marriage contracts in Rabbinic literature, specific examples are presented of how homosexual marriage between two males may be implemented.

  9. Mainstream legitimization of homosexual men through Valentine's Day gift-giving and consumption rituals.

    PubMed

    Newman, P J; Nelson, M R

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the gay community has received increased attention from marketers through specially-made television commercials, direct mail pieces, and other media messages. However, little research in consumer behavior has examined the potential attitudinal and behavioral differences and similarities between heterosexuals and homosexuals. Specifically, this paper provides an exploratory look at the meaning and practices surrounding the consumer ritual of Valentine's Day from the perspective of homosexual men. Using depth interviews within an interpretative framework, our research suggests similarities exist for the celebration of Valentine's Day between homosexual and heterosexual singles, while differences may exist for the functions of Valentine's Day gift-giving between these groups. Some homosexual couples feel they cannot "legitimately participate" in the dominant rituals associated with the holiday due to oppression by a "heterosexual society". Marketing implications are discussed.

  10. The prevalence of male homosexuality: the effect of fraternal birth order and variations in family size.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Anthony F

    2004-09-07

    The prevalence of male homosexuality probably varies over time and across societies. One reason for this variation may be the joint effect of two factors: (1) variations in fertility rate or family size; and (2) the fraternal birth order effect, the finding that the odds of male homosexuality increases with each additional older brother. Because of these effects, the rate of male homosexuality may be relatively high (at least in terms of sexual attraction if not behavior) in societies that have a high fertility rate, but this rate has probably declined somewhat in some, particularly western, societies. Thus, even if accurately measured in one country at one time, the rate of male homosexuality is subject to change and is not generalizable over time or across societies.

  11. The role of beliefs on learning about homosexuality in a college course.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, James; Kennison, Shelia; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The present research investigated how personal beliefs about homosexuality influence learning in a college course. We tested students in introductory psychology over material on the science of homosexuality by Simon LeVay (2010). All students reported information about their typical academic habits and the extent to which homosexuality was consistent with their beliefs and values. The results showed that students' personal beliefs were related to academic behaviors (e.g., reading assignments, skipping class) and retention of the course material. The results also showed that students' recall of course material six weeks later was predicted by the extent to which they reported studying information that is inconsistent with their beliefs for an exam and then forgetting it. Students who reported the material to be inconsistent with their beliefs engaged in selective forgetting of the material on homosexuality. The results provide evidence that personal beliefs can reduce the retention of belief-inconsistent information in a college course.

  12. Comparing the impact of homosexual and heterosexual parents on children: meta-analysis of existing research.

    PubMed

    Allen, M; Burrell, N

    1996-01-01

    Courts determine custody and visitation on the basis of the "best interests of the child." Current judicial rulings in some jurisdictions reflect a bias against awarding custody or granting visitation rights to homosexual parents, favoring the heterosexual parent or heterosexual relative of the child(ren). Should the sexual orientation of the parent play a part in the determination of custody or visitation in order to protect the child? This meta-analysis summarizes the available quantitative literature comparing the impact of heterosexual and homosexual parents, using a variety of measures, on the child(ren). The analyses examine parenting practices, the emotional well-being of the child, and the sexual orientation of the child. The results demonstrate no differences on any measures between the heterosexual and homosexual parents regarding parenting styles, emotional adjustment, and sexual orientation of the child(ren). In other words, the data fail to support the continuation of a bias against homosexual parents by any court.

  13. Psychological adjustment of homosexual and heterosexual men: a cross-national replication.

    PubMed

    Siegelman, M

    1978-01-01

    The present investigation of British subjects replicated an investigation conducted in the United States. There was considerable agreement in the findings of the two studies. A multidimensional evaluation of adjustment, based on questionnaire data, indicated that the total sample of British homosexuals described themselves as less well adjusted than the heterosexuals on four factors, better adjusted on two factors, and not different on six factors. There was a significant difference on only one dimension, however, for selected groups of masculine homosexuals vs. heterosexuals. Homosexuals and heterosexuals low on feminity, in addition, tended to be better adjusted than homosexuals and heterosexuals high on femininity. The possible confusion between adjustment and masculinity-femininity, as well as the importance of using a multidimensional approach when considering adjustment, is discussed.

  14. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody in male homosexuals: a source for CMV immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Ikram, H; Prince, A M; Baker, L N

    1983-03-01

    Male homosexuals have been found to have an extraordinarily high prevalence, and high titers, of antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV), as determined by complement-fixation and passive hemagglutination tests. These findings support other data suggesting that CMV may be sexually transmitted. The high titers of CMV antibody found in this population suggest that the homosexual population may be a valuable source of plasma for preparations of CMV immune globulins. CMV immune globulins may be useful in passive immunoprophylaxis or immunotherapy in immunosuppressed patients.

  15. The Power to Raise and Support Armies: The Homosexual Exclusion Policy in Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    overriding principle in military personnel policies is "the good of the service." This principle clearly cannot be relinquished, even though it may cause a...of sexual gratification, range over a spectrum that is limited only by one’s imagination. Non-homosexual 64 preferences, such as pedophilia ...homosexuals reporting median lifetime numbers of partners in excess of 1,000.3° While public health concerns may have caused some downward trend in

  16. Some comments on "Marketing to the homosexual (gay) market: a profile and strategy implications".

    PubMed

    Bhat, S

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses some of the issues raised in the article "Marketing to the Homosexual (Gay) Market: A Profile and Strategy Implications." Strategic segmentation theory and practice suggest that segments should be based on consumers' responses or behaviors in relation to the marketer's product, thus calling into question the existence of a supposedly homogenous homosexual segment and the resultant profile of the average person in that segment.

  17. Interaction of fraternal birth order and handedness in the development of male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Cantor, James M; Bogaert, Anthony F; Breedlove, S Marc; Ellis, Lee

    2006-03-01

    The present study investigated evidence for an interaction between two of the best established etiologic factors, or markers of etiologic factors, in the literature on male homosexuality: fraternal birth order and hand preference. By combining five samples, the authors produced study groups of 1774 right-handed heterosexuals, 287 non-right-handed heterosexuals, 928 right-handed homosexuals, and 157 non-right-handed homosexuals. The results showed a significant (P = 0.004) handedness by older brothers interaction, such that (a) the typical positive correlation between homosexuality and greater numbers of older brothers holds only for right-handed males, (b) among men with no older brothers, homosexuals are more likely to be non-right-handed than heterosexuals; among men with one or more older brothers, homosexuals are less likely to be non-right-handed than heterosexuals, and (c) the odds of homosexuality are higher for men who have a non-right hand preference or who have older brothers, relative to men with neither of these features, but the odds for men with both features are similar to the odds for men with neither. These findings have at least two possible explanations: (a) the etiologic factors associated with non-right-handedness and older brothers-hypothesized to be hyperandrogenization and anti-male antibodies, respectively-counteract each other, yielding the functional equivalent of typical masculinization, and (b) the number of non-right-handed homosexuals with older brothers is smaller than expected because the combination of the older brothers factor with the non-right-handedness factor is toxic enough to lower the probability that the affected fetus will survive.

  18. Homosexual parents: why appeals cases approximate the "gold standard" for science--a reply to Duncan.

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K

    1999-06-01

    Unlike the unverifiable claims of volunteers in studies of homosexual parenting, an alert ex-spouse is ready to testify as to the falsity of any claim by the other spouse in custody proceedings. Further, a greater variety of professionals are involved in getting at the "truth." We argue that examination of an unbiased corpus of such appeals cases is far more apt to reflect the underlying "reality" about homosexual parenting than studies performed on volunteers.

  19. Effects of attractiveness and status in dating desire in homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexual men valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexual men and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire.

  20. Beliefs about the Etiology of Homosexuality and about the Ramifications of Discovering Its Possible Genetic Origin

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Jane P.; Pfeffer, Carla A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Feldbaum, Merle; Petty, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Homosexuality is viewed by many as a social problem. As such, there has been keen interest in elucidating the origins of homosexuality among many scholars, from anthropologists to zoologists, psychologists to theologians. Research has shown that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn are more likely to have tolerant attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, whereas those who believe it is a choice have less tolerant attitudes. The current qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended telephone interviews with 42 White and 44 Black Americans to gain insight into the public's beliefs about the possible genetic origins of homosexuality. Along with etiological beliefs (and the sources of information used to develop those beliefs), we asked respondents to describe the benefits and dangers of scientists discovering the possible genetic basis for homosexuality. We found that although limited understanding and biased perspectives likely led to simplistic reasoning concerning the origins and genetic basis of homosexuality, many individuals appreciated complex and interactive etiological perspectives. These interactive perspectives often included recognition of some type of inherent aspect, such as a genetic factor(s), that served as an underlying predisposition that would be manifested after being influenced by other factors such as choice or environmental exposures. We also found that beliefs in a genetic basis for homosexuality could be used to support very diverse opinions, including those in accordance with negative eugenic agendas. PMID:17594974

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases, T cell subsets, and sexual practices in homosexual men attending an STD clinic.

    PubMed

    Maw, R D; Connolly, J H; McFerran, K; McKirgan, J N; McNeill, T A; Merrett, J D; Russell, J D

    1985-06-01

    Sixty three homosexually active men and 42 heterosexual men answered questionnaires regarding aspects of their social life and sexual practices. Assessment of past sexually transmitted disease showed the homosexual group to have had a significantly greater incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea, perianal warts, and cytomegalovirus infections. T cell subset counts were carried out, and results for 60 of the homosexual men and 39 of the heterosexual men showed that the homosexuals had a significantly greater mean T cell suppressor cell count (p = 0.0019). The mean T helper cell count was not significantly different between the two groups, but it was significantly more (p = 0.033) in the more promiscuous homosexuals (who had more than 20 sexual partners a year) than in the heterosexuals. No relation was found between T cell subset counts and evidence of past cytomegalovirus infection. The practice of passive anal intercourse, oroanal sex, and swallowing semen during oral sex did not appear to influence T cell subset counts in the homosexuals.

  2. Persistence of racial differences in attitudes toward homosexuality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Golden, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stigma may mediate some of the observed disparity in HIV infection rates between African American and white men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods We used data from the General Social Survey to describe race-specific trends in the U.S. population’s attitude toward homosexuality, reporting of male same-sex sexual behavior, and behaviors that might mediate the relationship between stigma and HIV transmission among MSM. Results The proportion of African Americans who indicated that homosexuality was “always wrong” was 72.3% in 2008, largely unchanged since the 1970s. In contrast, among white respondents, this figure declined from 70.8% in 1973 to 51.6% in 2008, with most change occurring since the early 1990s. Participants who knew a gay person were less likely to have negative attitudes toward homosexuality (RR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.52–0.69). Among MSM, twice as many African American MSM reported that homosexuality is “always wrong” compared to white MSM (57.1% vs. 26.8%, p=0.003). MSM with unfavorable attitudes toward homosexuality were less likely to report ever testing for HIV compared to MSM with more favorable attitudes (RR=0.50, 95% CI: 0.31–0.78). Conclusions U.S. attitudes toward homosexuality are characterized by persistent racial differences, which may help explain disparities in HIV infection rates between African American and white MSM. PMID:20838226

  3. Persistence of racial differences in attitudes toward homosexuality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Golden, Matthew R

    2010-12-01

    Stigma may mediate some of the observed disparity in HIV infection rates between black and white men who have sex with men (MSM). We used data from the General Social Survey to describe race-specific trends in the US population's attitude toward homosexuality, reporting of male same-sex sexual behavior, and behaviors that might mediate the relationship between stigma and HIV transmission among MSM. The proportion of blacks who indicated that homosexuality was "always wrong" was 72.3% in 2008, largely unchanged since the 1970s. In contrast, among white respondents, this figure declined from 70.8% in 1973 to 51.6% in 2008 with most change occurring since the early 1990s. Participants who knew a gay person were less likely to have negative attitudes toward homosexuality (relative risk, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.69). Among MSM, twice as many black MSM reported that homosexuality is "always wrong" compared with white MSM (57.1% versus 26.8%, P = 0.003). MSM with unfavorable attitudes toward homosexuality were less likely to report ever testing for HIV compared with MSM with more favorable attitudes (relative risk, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.78). US attitudes toward homosexuality are characterized by persistent racial differences, which may help explain disparities in HIV infection rates between black and white MSM.

  4. How catholic college students think about homosexuality: the connection between authority and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Maher, Michael J; Sever, Linda M; Pichler, Shaun

    2008-01-01

    The researchers conducted a survey of undergraduates living in residence halls at Loyola University Chicago, a Jesuit Catholic university. The survey included 20 statements on topics currently being debated in the Church. The researchers hypothesized that those who indicated some level of agreement with the statement, Homosexuality is wrong, would show strong correlations with other statements about sexuality, while those indicating disagreement with the statement would show strong correlations with statements about discrimination. Results showed that the question of the morality of homosexuality seemed to be tied to a broader way of thinking that pits Catholic Church authority against a sort of wisdom of the world. This way of thinking is operational regardless of whether the young Catholic is accepting or not of homosexuality. The hypothesis was rejected. Attitudes toward homosexuality are tied with attitudes regarding sexuality and Church authority. Knowing gay and lesbian people seems to be the major factor that causes young Catholics to be more accepting of homosexuality. The majority of young Catholics is accepting of homosexuality and inclined to question Church teaching and Church authority.

  5. Beliefs about the etiology of homosexuality and about the ramifications of discovering its possible genetic origin.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Jane P; Pfeffer, Carla A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Feldbaum, Merle; Petty, Elizabeth M

    2007-01-01

    Homosexuality is viewed by many as a social problem. As such, there is a keen interest in elucidating the origins of homosexuality among many scholars, from anthropologists to zoologists, from psychologists to theologians. Research has shown that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn are more likely to have tolerant attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, whereas those who believe it is a choice have less tolerant attitudes. The current qualitative study used in-depth, open-ended telephone interviews with 42 White and 44 Black Americans to gain insight into the public's beliefs about the possible genetic origins of homosexuality. Along with etiological beliefs (and the sources of information used to develop these beliefs), we asked respondents to describe the benefits and dangers of scientists discovering the possible genetic basis for homosexuality. We found that although limited understanding and biased perspectives likely led to simplistic reasoning concerning the origins and genetic basis of homosexuality, many individuals appreciated the complex and interactive etiological perspectives. These interactive perspectives often included recognition of some type of inherent aspect, such as a genetic factor(s), that served as an underlying predisposition that would be manifested after being influenced by other factors such as choice or environmental exposures. We also found that beliefs in a genetic basis for homosexuality could be used to support very diverse opinions including those in accordance with negative eugenic agendas.

  6. The Gay Identity Questionnaire: a brief measure of Homosexual Identity Formation.

    PubMed

    Brady, S; Busse, W J

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Gay Identity Questionnaire (GIQ) which was derived from tenets of the Homosexual Identity Formation (HIF) model proposed by Cass in 1979. The GIQ is a brief measure that may be used by clinicians and researchers for identifying gay males in the various stages of homosexual identity formation. The test construction procedures included the selection of questionnaire items based upon constructs of the Homosexual Identity Formation Model, establishment of interrater and interitem reliability for those items, and refinement of the GIQ through two pilot tests. The final version of the GIQ was administered to two hundred twenty-five males who reported having same-sex fantasies or engaging in homosexual behavior. In addition, demographic and psychosocial data were collected and used to describe the sample and examine the relationship of these variables to subject stage of HIF. Results support the use of the Gay Identity Questionnaire as a brief measure for identifying subject stage of homosexual identity formation. The data also suggest that homosexual identity acquisition may be a two-stage process rather than the six-stage process proposed by Cass (1979). The differentiation between these stages includes whether or not a subject had resolved a coherent self-identity as gay and had a significant relationship to some aspect of the gay culture.

  7. Did the APA misrepresent the scientific literature to courts in support of homosexual custody?

    PubMed

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K

    1997-05-01

    In 1994, American Psychological Association amicus briefs informed two state Supreme Courts that (a) homosexual parents are not more apt to have homosexual children; (b) lesbians "score significantly higher than heterosexual parents" on a measure of parental effectiveness; and (c) no differences between the children raised by homosexuals and nonhomosexuals had been found "regardless of the geographic region within the United States where the children were raised." In fact, the evidence from these briefs shows to the contrary that (a) homosexual parents are more apt to have homosexual children; (b) the findings on parental effectiveness consisted of 15 fathers being less verbal than 45 mothers; and (c) the finding of no differences between homosexually and heterosexually raised children consisted of investigators visiting 11 states to test 89 offspring of 83 lesbian vs. 81 children of 69 nonlesbian volunteers. The APA's support for gay rights in these briefs may have violated its own ethical principles that "psychologists base their statements on scientifically acceptable psychological findings and techniques with full recognition of the limits and uncertainties of such evidence" and that psychologists must "provide thorough discussion of the limitations of their data, especially where their work touches on social policy" (APA, 1981).

  8. The relationship between socioeconomic factors, wellbeing, and homosexuality in the theatrical profession.

    PubMed

    Ivtzan, Itai; Goodhand, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This article relates to the theory suggesting that there is a prevalence of male homosexuality within the theatrical profession that can be explained through male performers becoming homosexual due to their low socioeconomic position. In a questionnaire-based study, the socioeconomic status (SES) is measured of 121 homosexual performers who considered themselves to have been heterosexual at the time of joining the profession, and results are compared with a control group of 121 heterosexual male performers. The experimental group was chosen in this way due to the suggestion of the hypothesis that the change in sexual orientation occurs after the man begins performing professionally. Results were not significant and little difference was noted in any of the parameters of SES, including annual earnings and home ownership. However, a marginal though insignificant increase in SES was noted in the experimental group of homosexual men. Consequently, existing theories for homosexuality and possible reasons for the high prevalence within the performing profession are discussed; the notions of adult performing and creativity being extensions of childhood gender atypical behavior are considered and possible links between sexual orientation and these traits. Elements of genetic heritability of homosexuality are likewise implicated.

  9. Specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies in sera from patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC) and healthy homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, R Q; Johnson, E A; Donnelly, R P; Lavia, M F; Tsang, K Y

    1988-01-01

    The presence and specificity of anti-lymphocyte antibodies (ALA) was investigated in sera from male homosexuals with AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) as well as healthy homosexuals. Individuals in the healthy homosexual group had no detectable antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antibodies reactive with normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells were detected by Western blot analysis in sera from both groups of homosexuals. Of those individuals whose sera contained ALA, 71% of ARC patients and 83% of healthy homosexuals had antibodies recognizing a 73 kilodalton (kD) molecule. ALA present in ARC sera reacted with CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes while little reactivity with B cells was observed. Our results indicate that ALA appear in homosexuals prior to HIV infection and are reactive primarily with T lymphocytes. A 73 kD structure associated with the T cell membrane is frequently the target for these antibodies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3052941

  10. Is the distant relationship of fathers and homosexual sons related to the sons' erotic preference for male partners, or to the sons' atypical gender identity, or to both?

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Blanchard, R

    1983-01-01

    Study 1 compared the retrospectively reported father-son relationships of four groups of adult males: (a) Gynephiles (males who erotically prefer physically mature females), (b) androphiles (who prefer physically mature males), (c) a combined group of heterosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter being attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent females), and (d) a combined group of homosexual pedophiles and pedohebephiles (the latter attracted to pubescent as well as prepubescent males). The gynephiles were paid volunteers; the latter three groups were patients. The androphiles, the only group among those compared known to exhibit a measurably greater degree of cross gender identity in childhood, were also the only group to report significantly poorer father-son relations. The homosexual pedo/pedohebephiles, who also prefer male partners but who exhibit typical male gender identity in childhood, did not differ in father-son relations from the gynephiles or the heterosexual pedo/pedohebephiles. Study 2 showed that, within a sample of nonpatient volunteer androphiles, those individuals who reported the greatest degree of cross gender behavior in childhood also tended to report the worst relationships with their fathers. This correlation was replicated within a sample of androphilic patients in Study 3. The consistent pattern of results obtained from these three studies suggests that the emotionally distant relationships of fathers and androphilic sons relate to the sons' atypical childhood gender identity (or observable gender role behavior) rather than to the sons' erotic preference for male partners per se.

  11. Inappropriate lubricant use with condoms by homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Martin, D J

    1992-01-01

    Use of condoms has been advocated as an important method of reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, prostitutes, intravenous drug users, adolescents, and hemophiliacs. Despite risk-reduction education campaigns directed to gay men since the early 1980s, evidence shows continued deficits in condom-use skills and knowledge among gay men. Because most failures in the use of condoms are attributed to errors in use, increasing knowledge and skills in condom use is important in preventing HIV infection. Two groups of homosexual and bisexual men were sampled, those entering a risk-reduction education program and participants in a Gay Pride event. They were surveyed on their current sex practices and their efforts to reduce their risk of HIV infection. They were asked about their numbers of sex partners, specific sexual behaviors, use of condoms, types of condoms used, and lubricants used for genital-anal sex. The characteristics of those surveyed were similar to those of respondents in other studies of risk reduction among gay men. The use of an oil-based lubricant with condoms has been shown to weaken latex and to increase the likelihood of condom breakage, which use of water-based lubricants does not. Among respondents who reported having genital-anal sex, 60 percent reported use of an oil-based lubricant with a condom at least once during the year before the survey. Gay men in sexually exclusive relationships engaged in less consistent use of condoms for receptive genital-anal sex than did single gay men. The duration of their relationship with a partner was unrelated to the consistency of risk reducing behaviors practiced by men in sexually exclusive relationships. Gay Pride participants engaged in sexual behavior that was relatively more risky for HIV transmission than did the other group. Gay Pride participants used condoms less consistently for genital-anal sex than did the

  12. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in homosexual and heterosexual men from Austria.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Manning, John T; Ponocny, Ivo

    2005-06-01

    Neurohormonal theories of sexual orientation emphasize the organizational effects of testosterone on the developing brain. A recent suggestion, that the ratio of the length of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D) is negatively correlated with prenatal testosterone, has led to a number of studies of 2D:4D in homosexual and heterosexual men and women. The results have been mixed. In comparison to heterosexual men, mean 2D:4D in gay men has been reported to be hypermasculinized (lower 2D:4D), hypomasculinized (higher 2D:4D), or to show no significant difference. Here, we report mean 2D:4D in Austrian homosexual and heterosexual men. We found no significant difference between means for homosexual and heterosexual 2D:4D, with values for both falling between 0.96 to 0.97. There are now 6 reports of 2D:4D in heterosexual and homosexual men. Considering Caucasian men, the studies from the United States show low heterosexual mean 2D:4D, and homosexual mean 2D:4D is higher or similar to that of heterosexuals. The European studies show high heterosexual mean 2D:4D, and comparisons with homosexuals reveal the latter to have lower or similar mean 2D:4D to that of heterosexuals. We discuss these results in relation to the suggestion that mean 2D:4D in heterosexual men differs across populations but mean 2D:4D in homosexuals shows less geographical variation (the "uniform mean hypothesis"). It is concluded that more data are required to clarify whether or not there is a 2D:4D effect for sexual orientation in men.

  13. Characteristics of pathogenic Neisseria spp. isolated from homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Janda, W M; Morello, J A; Lerner, S A; Bohnhoff, M

    1983-01-01

    Oropharyngeal, urethral, and rectal cultures for pathogenic Neisseria spp. were collected from 815 homosexual men attending a community clinic in Chicago. Meningococci were characterized by serogrouping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Gonococci were auxotyped, and susceptibilities to penicillin and tetracycline were determined. Of the 815 men tested, 42.5% carried meningococci in the oropharynx. Gonococci were recovered from the urethra, rectum, and oropharynx of 18.5, 16.3, and 5.6%, respectively. Meningococci were also recovered from the urethra (6 patients) and the rectum (15 patients). Some of these isolates were identical to the isolates from the oropharynges of the same patients, whereas others were distinct from the oropharyngeal isolates by serogroup or antimicrobial susceptibilities. Serogroups B, W135, and C comprised over 90% of the meningococci. Almost 80% of the gonococcal strains required minimal inhibitory concentrations greater than 0.06 micrograms of penicillin per ml, whereas greater than 90% of the meningococci were inhibited at this concentration. Auxotyping demonstrated three major auxotypes: Zero (required none of the nutrients tested), 60%; arginine requiring, 19.4%; and proline requiring, 12.3%. Only four strains (1.2%) required arginine, hypoxanthine, and uracil. PMID:6826712

  14. Paromomycin therapy of endemic amebiasis in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Sullam, P M; Slutkin, G; Gottlieb, A B; Mills, J

    1986-01-01

    A prospective evaluation was made of the therapeutic efficacy of paromomycin, an orally administered, nonabsorbable aminoglycoside, in 114 homosexual men with mild-to-moderate (nondysenteric) intestinal amebiasis. All patients received 25-35 mg/kg daily in three divided doses for seven days. Of the 80 patients with gastrointestinal complaints at the onset of therapy, 55 (80%) of 69 were asymptomatic within four to six weeks after completion of treatment; 11 patients were lost to follow-up. Paromomycin produced long-term eradication of intestinal Entameba histolytica infection in 92% of all men evaluated. The rate of microbiologic cure among patients with symptoms at the onset of therapy was comparable to that among asymptomatic individuals. Paromomycin was well tolerated, with mild diarrhea during therapy the only frequent adverse effect (67% of patients). Thus, paromomycin is an effective alternative to conventional multi-drug therapy for intestinal amebiasis, and it has the advantages of low toxicity, brief duration of therapy, and a high rate of patient compliance.

  15. Performative family: homosexuality, marriage and intergenerational dynamics in China.

    PubMed

    Choi, Susanne Yp; Luo, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Using in-depth interview data on nominal marriages - legal marriages between a gay man and a lesbian to give the appearance of heterosexuality - this paper develops the concept of performative family to explain the processes through which parents and their adult children negotiate and resolve disagreements in relation to marriage decisions in post-socialist China. We identify three mechanisms - network pressure, a revised discourse of filial piety and resource leverage - through which parents influence their gay offspring's decision to turn to nominal marriage. We also delineate six strategies, namely minimizing network participation, changing expectations, making partial concessions, drawing the line, delaying decisions and ending the marriage, by which gay people in nominal marriages attempt to meet parental expectations while simultaneously retaining a degree of autonomy. Through these interactions, we argue that Chinese parents and their gay adult children implicitly and explicitly collaborate to perform family, emphasizing the importance of formally meeting society's expectations about marriage rather than substantively yielding to its demands. We also argue that the performative family is a pragmatic response to the tension between the persistent centrality of family and marriage and the rising tide of individualism in post-socialist China. We believe that our findings highlight the specific predicament of homosexual people. They also shed light on the more general dynamics of intergenerational negotiation because there is evidence that the mechanisms used by parents to exert influence may well be similar between gay and non-gay people. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  16. Attitudes toward homosexuality in Shreveport-Bossier City, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Wills, G; Crawford, R

    2000-01-01

    Two anonymous questionnaires assessing attitudes toward gay issues were administered to adults living in the Shreveport/Bossier City, Louisiana area. In both, demographic data were obtained regarding gender, education, religion, age and marital status. In the second questionnaire, family groups were given the questionnaire. In the first survey, the results generally supported previous findings that religiosity, gender, and education at or below the high school level appeared to be associated with negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian issues. The variable most frequently associated with positive attitudes toward gay and lesbian issues was whether or not the individual had at least one gay friend, relative, or acquaintance. In the second study, the questionnaire was analyzed in terms of the entire group of subjects, family groups, and family positions. This second questionnaire indicated that similarities are most likely to exist among mothers and daughters, and same sex siblings. In regard to family members, wives/mothers and daughters had more positive attitudes toward homosexuality than sons, fathers, grandparents, other relatives, and in-laws.

  17. Characterization of Campylobacter-like organisms isolated from homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Fennell, C L; Totten, P A; Quinn, T C; Patton, D L; Holmes, K K; Stamm, W E

    1984-01-01

    Thirteen Campylobacter-like organisms (CLOs) isolated from rectal cultures from homosexual men were studied. Like catalase-positive Campylobacter species, CLOs were curved gram-negative rods that did not grow aerobically, were motile, were oxidase- and catalase-positive, and did not utilize glucose. However, CLOs could not be classified within any of the Campylobacter species because they grew slowly and had unusual colony morphology; did not grow at 25 C, hydrolyze hippurate, produce H2S in triple sugar-iron agar, or tolerate 2% NaCl; were inhibited by 30-micrograms disks of nalidixic acid; and tolerated 1% glycine and 0.04% triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Three groups of CLOs were identified based on differences in nitrate reduction, growth at 42 C, and sensitivity to cephalothin. By the colony hybridization technique, whole-cell DNA isolated from a strain in each CLO group hybridized with DNA from other strains in the same group, but not with strains in other groups or with reference strains of catalase-positive Campylobacter species.

  18. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... women; Contraception - female condom; Family planning - female condom; Birth control - female condom ... care provider or pharmacy for information about emergency contraception (Plan B) if the condom tears or the ...

  19. The role of conditioning on heterosexual and homosexual partner preferences in rats

    PubMed Central

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2012-01-01

    Partner preferences are expressed by many social species, including humans. They are commonly observed as selective contacts with an individual, more time spent together, and directed courtship behavior that leads to selective copulation. This review discusses the effect of conditioning on the development of heterosexual and homosexual partner preferences in rodents. Learned preferences may develop when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is associated in contingency with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that functions as a reinforcer. Consequently, an individual may display preference for a partner that bears a CS. Some UCS may be more or less reinforcing, depending on when they are experienced, and may be different for males and females. For example, it could be that, only during periods of early development, that stimuli associated with nurture and juvenile play become conditioned. In adulthood, other stimuli such as sexual reward, cohabitation, mild stress, or even pharmacological manipulations may function as reinforcers to condition partner preferences. Evolutionary biologists and psychologists must take into consideration the idea that an individual’s experience with reward (i.e. sexual and pharmacological) can override presumably ‘innate’ mate choices (e.g. assortativeness and orientation) or mate strategies (e.g. monogamy or polygamy) by means of Pavlovian and operant contingencies. In fact, it is likely as innate to learn about the environment in ways that maximize reward and minimize aversive outcomes, making so-called ‘proximate’ causes (e.g. pleasure) ultimately more powerful predictors of social behavior and choice than so-called ‘ultimate’ causes (e.g. genetic or reproductive fitness). PMID:24693350

  20. Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual marriages: a national cohort study of two million Danes.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Morten; Hviid, Anders

    2006-10-01

    Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood.

  1. Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy in homosexual men: clinical, pathological and immunologic characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Prchal, J. F.; Jothy, S.

    1983-01-01

    Eighteen homosexual men who had had lymphadenopathy in two or more extrainguinal sites for more than 5 months but had no evidence of other illnesses or infections were studied. All had extreme malaise, and 90% had additional symptoms (fever, night sweats, weight loss or gastrointestinal dysfunction). They were compared with 10 healthy homosexual and 10 healthy heterosexual male controls. The mean numbers of circulating T8 (suppressor) lymphocytes were increased equally in the two homosexual groups, but the mean number of T4 (helper) lymphocytes was decreased only in the group with lymphadenopathy. The response to testing for recall anergy was diminished in both homosexual groups but was significantly lower in the group with lymphadenopathy. The serum immunoglobulin and complement concentrations and the numbers of circulating B lymphocytes were normal in each group. Seven of nine lymph node biopsy specimens showed characteristic hyperplasia and confluence of follicles. Thus, idiopathic persistent, generalized lymphadenopathy in homosexual men without opportunistic infections or malignant diseases appears to be a distinct syndrome; it may also be related to the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Images FIG. 1 PMID:6231088

  2. Chinese Culture, Homosexuality Stigma, Social Support and Condom Use: A Path Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Feng, Tiejian; Ha, Toan; Liu, Hui; Cai, Yumao; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to examine the interrelationships among individualism, collectivism, homosexuality-related stigma, social support, and condom use among Chinese homosexual men. Methods A cross-sectional study using the respondent-driven sampling approach was conducted among 351 participants in Shenzhen, China. Path analytic modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships. Results The results of path analytic modeling document the following statistically significant associations with regard to homosexuality: (1) higher levels of vertical collectivism were associated with higher levels of public stigma [β (standardized coefficient) = 0.12] and self stigma (β = 0.12); (2) higher levels of vertical individualism were associated with higher levels self stigma (β = 0.18); (3) higher levels of horizontal individualism were associated with higher levels of public stigma (β = 0.12); (4) higher levels of self stigma were associated with higher levels of social support from sexual partners (β = 0.12); and (5) lower levels of public stigma were associated with consistent condom use (β = −0.19). Conclusions The findings enhance our understanding of how individualist and collectivist cultures influence the development of homosexuality-related stigma, which in turn may affect individuals’ decisions to engage in HIV-protective practices and seek social support. Accordingly, the development of HIV interventions for homosexual men in China should take the characteristics of Chinese culture into consideration. PMID:21731850

  3. Place matters: Contextualizing the roles of religion and race for understanding Americans' attitudes about homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Amy; Boyd, Katharine A; Hayes, Brittany E

    2016-05-01

    As laws and policies related to homosexuality have evolved, Americans' attitudes have also changed. Race and religion have been established as important indicators of feelings about homosexuality. However, researchers have given almost no attention to how county characteristics shape Americans' attitudes. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling techniques, we examine how personal characteristics and the religious and racial context of a county shape feelings about homosexuality drawing on data from the American National Election Survey and information about where respondents reside. We find that African Americans initially appear less tolerant than other racial groups, until we account for the geographical distribution of attitudes across the nation. Additionally, once we consider religious involvement, strength of belief, and religious affiliation African Americans appear to have warmer feelings about homosexuality than whites. Drawing on the moral communities' hypothesis, we also find that the strength of religiosity amongst county residents heightens the influence of personal religious beliefs on disapproving attitudes. There is also a direct effect of the proportion conservative Protestant, whereby people of all faiths have cooler attitudes towards homosexual individuals when they reside in a county with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants. Finally, we do not find any evidence for an African American cultural influence on attitudes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The burden of poofs: criminal pathology, clinical scrutiny, and homosexual etiology in queer cinema.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Lance

    2013-06-01

    Given the resurgence of scientific studies on the etiology of homosexuality in the wake of the AIDS epidemic, this article considers the effects these studies had on contemporaneous queer filmmakers. By using the subject of criminality as a way to talk about homosexual causality, queer films of the 1990s illustrate that contemporary scientific studies on homosexuality were historically and politically situated in relation to cultural anxieties about other forms of deviance. This article focuses on films that dissect the hetero-normative tendency to amalgamate forms of deviance in order to distinguish between the diseased and the healthy. Such products of New Queer Cinema highlight this amalgamation of criminality and homosexuality in order to challenge demands by the LGBT community of the 1980s and 1990s for "more positive images" in film. This article argues that queer filmmakers have manipulated the image of the queer criminal to usurp the medical tendency to biologize and pathologize the notion of queer transgression. In such a way, queer films that enthusiastically dramatize the queer outlaw perpetuate myths about homosexuality in order to dissect and discredit them.

  5. Lack of evidence for increased risk of hepatitis A infection in homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Corona, R.; Stroffolini, T.; Giglio, A.; Cotichini, R.; Tosti, M. E.; Prignano, G.; Di Carlo, A.; Maini, A.; Mele, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were evaluated in 146 homosexual and 286 heterosexual men attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Clinic in Rome, Italy. Total HAV antibody (anti-HAV) was detected in 60.3% of homosexuals and 62.2% of heterosexuals. After adjustment for the confounding effects of age, years of schooling, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, and history of STD, homosexuals were not found to be at increased risk of previous HAV exposure than heterosexuals (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.7-1.9). Independent predictors of the likelihood of anti-HAV seropositivity among homosexuals and heterosexuals were: age older than 35 years and positive syphilis serology which is likely a proxy of lifestyles that increase the risk of faecal-oral infections. These findings do not support a higher risk in homosexual men but could suggest a role for the vaccination of susceptible patients attending STD clinics. PMID:10487644

  6. Identity Management: Social Control of Identity by Children of Gay Fathers When They Know Their Father Is a Homosexual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozett, Frederick W.

    A study was conducted to examine how children cope with having a homosexual father so that helping professionals, and particularly nurses, might have a knowledge base upon which to base interventions. Data were obtained from indepth interviews with 19 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 35 who had a homosexual father. Two of the six male…

  7. Identity Management: Social Control of Identity by Children of Gay Fathers When They Know Their Father Is a Homosexual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozett, Frederick W.

    A study was conducted to examine how children cope with having a homosexual father so that helping professionals, and particularly nurses, might have a knowledge base upon which to base interventions. Data were obtained from indepth interviews with 19 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 35 who had a homosexual father. Two of the six male…

  8. Leftist sexual politics and homosexuality: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Hekma, G; Oosterhuis, H; Steakley, J

    1995-01-01

    For almost a full century now, the revolutionary prospect of socialism has fuelled opening forays first of the homosexual emancipation and later of the gay liberation movements, both in Europe and in North America. It inspired Edward Carpenter and Magnus Hirschfeld at the turn of the century; André Gide and Richard Linsert in the post-World War I years; Harry Hay and Jim Kepner in the post-World War II era; and the British and American Gay Liberation Front, the Italian Fuori!, the French FHAR, the German "Rotzschwule," and the Dutch Red Faggots following the Stonewall rebellion. While the official socialist parties of Northwestern Europe may have made only limited contributions to homosexual emancipation, they certainly have a better record than conservative and Christian parties and even the liberals, who have consistently, if contradictorily, underlined the freedom of private life. Even so, parties across the entire political spectrum have gradually come to endorse at least some of the movement's goals. As it has advanced, the gay movement has changed as well, and it now finds itself pulled in divergent directions. Gay leftists who still subscribe to the ideals expressed in Marxist and utopian socialist writings now find themselves at demonstrations shoulder-to-shoulder with members of ACT UP and Queer Nation, to say nothing of gay conservatives and gay Christians. The successes achieved by the contemporary gay movement despite or precisely because of its diversity support Foucault's argument that "there is no single locus of great Refusal, no soul of revolt, source of all rebellions, or pure law of the revolutionary. Instead there is a plurality of resistances, each of them a special case...." At the close of the twentieth century, the welfare state has reached its apogee in Northwestern Europe. As blue-collar workers historically committed to class struggle have become relatively well-to-do and minoritarian, socialist parties have increasingly lost their

  9. "Como Se Dice HIV?" Adapting Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Messages to Reach Homosexual and Bisexual Hispanic Men: The Importance of Hispanic Cultural and Health Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowdy, Matthew A.

    HIV/AIDS prevention messages catered to Anglo homosexual/bisexual men are not effective in teaching preventative behaviors to Hispanic homosexual/bisexual men. Hispanic sociocultural traits associated with homosexuality and bisexuality prevent the effectiveness of these messages. The Hispanic family is also extremely important in influencing…

  10. Homosexual men (and lesbian men) in a heterosexual genre: three gangster films from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Grossman, A

    2000-01-01

    Of the East Asian film genres that have captured the attention of film goers internationally, it should be of little surprise that martial and heroically masculine genres have been the most popular, for violent action translates well into any language. Although it has been no secret that male martiality often leaks into homoerotic desire (on the part of the audience, too), three Hong Kong films from 1998 have finally explicated the generic homosexuality that the action genre has been (defensively) ashamed to admit all along. However, rather than posit this textual homosexuality as transgressive, the generic forces under which these films operate rewrite their homosexualities, both gay and lesbian, into generic modes fashioned around regressive oppositions of gender, and not progressive liberations of sexuality.

  11. Perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality and their effects on Iranian and American sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Mireshghi, Sholeh I; Matsumoto, David

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between three mental health constructs and perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Specifically, differences in perceived cultural attitudes and depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress between 49 Iranians and 47 Americans were compared. It was hypothesized that (a) perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality would be more negative among Iranians than Americans; (b) perceived cultural attitudes would be related to depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress; and (c) that Iranian participants' scores on the depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress measures would reflect poorer mental health than that of their American counterparts. Results indicated more negative perceptions of cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among Iranians. Contrary to prediction, however, no difference was found in levels of depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress among American and Iranian participants. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural and familial differences with regard to sexual orientation disclosure.

  12. Political tolerance of homosexuals: the role of group attitudes and legal principles.

    PubMed

    Riggle, E D; Ellis, A L

    1994-01-01

    Individuals' attitudes toward and acceptance of general legal principles were assessed along with their willingness to extend application of these principles to various social and political groups, including homosexuals. Respondents then indicated their attitudes toward various social and political groups, including the groups to whom they had applied the general principles. Regression analyses were used to determine to what degree acceptance of the general principle and attitude toward the social group predicted application of the general principle to the group. For disliked groups such as the Ku Klux Klan and Nazis, individuals' acceptance of the general principle alone predicted the specific application. For homosexuals, however, the application of the general principle was affected both by acceptance of the general principle and by individuals' attitudes toward homosexuals. The implications of this difference in light of research addressing the cognitive and affective nature of attitudes and attitude change is discussed.

  13. Gender Atypicality and Anxiety Response to Social Interaction Stress in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Roi; Cohen, Hagit; Diamond, Gary M

    2016-04-01

    Gender non-conforming behavior and a homosexual sexual orientation have both been linked to higher levels of anxiety. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of gender atypicality and sexual orientation on levels of state anxiety immediately following a stressful social interaction task among a sample of homosexual and heterosexual Israeli men (n = 36). Gender atypicality was measured via both self-report and observer ratings. State anxiety was measured via both self-report immediately subsequent to the stressful social interaction task and pre- to post task changes in salivary cortisol. Results showed that self-reported gender atypicality and heterosexual sexual orientation predicted higher levels of self-reported social interaction anxiety, but not changes in cortisol. There were no sexual orientation by gender behavior interactions and there were no significant effects for observer rated gender atypicality. These findings suggest that gender atypicality, not homosexuality, place individuals at risk for increased anxiety.

  14. "It is what it is": masculinity, homosexuality, and inclusive discourse in mixed martial arts.

    PubMed

    Channon, Alex; Matthews, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    In this article we make use of inclusive masculinity theory to explore online media representations of male homosexuality and masculinity within the increasingly popular combat sport of mixed martial arts (MMA). Adopting a case-study approach, we discuss narratives constructed around one aspirational male MMA fighter, Dakota Cochrane, whose history of having participated in gay pornography became a major talking point on a number of MMA discussion/community Web sites during early 2012. While these narratives attempted to discursively rescue Cochrane's supposedly threatened masculinity, highlighting both his "true" heterosexuality and his prodigious fighting abilities, they also simultaneously celebrated the acceptance of homosexual men within the sport that Cochrane's case implied. Thus, we suggest that these media representations of homosexuality and masculinity within MMA are indicative of declining cultural homophobia and homohysteria and an inclusive vision of masculinity, as previously described by proponents of inclusive masculinity theory.

  15. Psychiatry and homosexuality in mid-twentieth-century Edinburgh: the view from Jordanburn Nerve Hospital.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Roger

    2009-12-01

    There has been little historical research into the post-war treatment of homosexuality, especially in Scotland. Using surviving records from the Jordanburn Nerve Hospital (JNH) in Edinburgh for the 1950s, this paper sets out to rectify this omission. The views of homosexuality held by the psychiatrists, and the main treatment strategies adopted (categorized as hospitalization, suppression, reorientation/'cure', and adjustment) are surveyed and illustrated from particular cases. The Edinburgh experience is also compared with perceptions and practices relating to the treatment of homosexual problems in Glasgow. It is concluded that psychiatrists at the JNH adopted a cautious, ad hoc approach to therapy, reflecting both ideological and resource constraints and an attachment to taxonomies of deviance rooted in established notions of sexual pathology.

  16. Outcome of untreated infection with Entamoeba histolytica in homosexual men with and without HIV antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Allason-Jones, E.; Mindel, A.; Sargeaunt, P.; Katz, D.

    1988-01-01

    Among homosexual men the prevalence of infection with Entamoeba histolytica is high. To determine the clinical importance of this infection 55 homosexual men carrying the parasite were investigated in detail. No clinical, serological, or histological evidence of invasive amoebiasis was found in any of them. The patients were not treated and were followed up for 12 to 29 months (mean 21.6 months), during which period none developed symptoms that could be attributed to E histolytica. Spontaneous loss of the parasite occurred in 17 patients, some of whom later became reinfected. Sixteen patients had antibody to human immunodeficiency virus, and infection with E histolytica showed the same benign course in them as in the patients who did not have antibody. Throughout the study classification of the isolates of E histolytica consistently showed that they belonged only to non-pathogenic zymodemes. The findings provide further evidence that E histolytica in homosexual men is a commensal organism. PMID:2902889

  17. Community-acquired bacterial pneumonias in homosexual men: presumptive evidence for a defect in host resistance.

    PubMed

    Murata, G H; Ault, M J; Meyer, R D

    Over a three year period, we encountered seven homosexual men who developed pneumonias due to S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae in the absence of apparent risk factors. When compared to heterosexual controls, the homosexual group had a much higher frequency of bacteremia, complicated primary infections, multilobar involvement, required longer antibiotic therapy, and took longer to defervesce. Three of our seven homosexual patients fulfilled criteria for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); two of the others had generalized lymphadenopathy and the other two likely AIDS-related abnormalities. Overall they presented with a spectrum of clinical findings. Two of the patients developed other opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Since recovery from these pyogenic pneumonias requires an appropriate antibody response, our patients may have had a defect in B-cell function. Moreover, these observations suggest that functional B-cell abnormalities may occur in AIDS and syndromes premonitory of AIDS.

  18. The painful reunion : the remedicalization of homosexuality and the rise of the queer.

    PubMed

    Wahlert, Lance

    2012-09-01

    This article considers the late 19th-century medical invention of the category of the homosexual in relation to homosexuality's moment of deliverance from medicine in the 1970s, when it was removed as a category of mental aberration in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). With the rise of the AIDS pandemic in gay communities in the early 1980s, I argue that homosexuals were forcibly returned to the medical sphere, a process I call "the painful reunion." Reading a collection of queer narratives across the 20th century, I show that historical and contemporaneous medical events prompted the mobilization of seropositive and queer artists at century's end to rehabilitate, revise, and offend the historiography of queer illness. Collectively, my conclusions redefine our understandings of queer theory and queer politics as distinctively 1990s projects invested in the present to ones that purposefully aim to challenge the past.

  19. When therapists do not want their clients to be homosexual: a response to Rosik's article.

    PubMed

    Green, Robert-Jay

    2003-01-01

    This commentary is a response to Rosik's "Motivational, Ethical, and Epistemological Foundations in the Treatment of Unwanted Homoerotic Attraction" (this issue). Such treatment raises complex questions that cannot be resolved by focusing on the therapist's conservative versus liberal values. Most such clients are deeply ambivalent about their homosexual attractions. The degree to which their homosexuality is "unwanted" is highly variable among them and sometimes within them over time. Clients who are exclusively homosexual are very unlikely to be able to change their sexual attractions, whereas some clients who are bisexual may be more able to "manage" their homoerotic attractions (acting only on their heterosexual feelings). Marriage and family therapists should be able to support a client along whatever sexual orientation path the client ultimately takes, and the client's sense of integrity and interpersonal relatedness are the most important goals of all.

  20. The mark of sexual preference in the interpretation of texts: preface to a homosexual reading.

    PubMed

    Flannigan-Saint-Aubin, A

    1992-01-01

    Since reading is an interaction or confrontation between the reader and the text--an interaction that depends upon the background and perspectives of the reader as well as on the text being read--we can assume that the dynamics of sexuality and sexual object choice will influence how readers ascribe meaning to literary texts. In fact, although other aspects of our identities come into play when we read, sexual identity is unique and central because of the role that it plays in the creation of subjectivity. Specifically, male homosexuality informs and structures the reading of texts. But what does it mean to be a homosexual reader or to effectuate a homosexual reading of a particular text?