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Sample records for honeycomb sandwich structures

  1. Detection of entrapped moisture in honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallmark, W. B.

    1967-01-01

    Thermal neutron moisture detection system detects entrapped moisture in intercellular areas of bonded honeycomb sandwich structures. A radium/beryllium fast neutron source bombards a specimen. The emitted thermal neutrons from the target nucleus are detected and counted by a boron trifluoride thermal neutron detector.

  2. Experimental study of acoustical characteristics of honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Portia Renee

    Loss factor measurements were performed on sandwich panels to determine the effects of different skin and core materials on the acoustical properties. Results revealed inserting a viscoelastic material in the core's mid-plane resulted in the highest loss factor. Panels constructed with carbon-fiber skins exhibited larger loss factors than glass-fiber skins. Panels designed to achieve subsonic wave speed did not show a significant increase in loss factor above the coincidence frequency. The para-aramid core had a larger loss factor value than the meta-aramid core. Acoustic absorption coefficients were measured for honeycomb sandwiches designed to incorporate multiple sound-absorbing devices, including Helmholtz resonators and porous absorbers. The structures consisted of conventional honeycomb cores filled with closed-cell polyurethane foams of various densities and covered with perforated composite facesheets. Honeycomb cores filled with higher density foam resulted in higher absorption coefficients over the frequency range of 50 -- 1250 Hz. However, this trend was not observed at frequencies greater than 1250 Hz, where the honeycomb filled with the highest density foam yielded the lowest absorption coefficient among samples with foam-filled cores. The energy-recycling semi-active vibration suppression method (ERSA) was employed to determine the relationship between vibration suppression and acoustic damping for a honeycomb sandwich panel. Results indicated the ERSA method simultaneously reduced the sound transmitted through the panel and the panel vibration. The largest reduction in sound transmitted through the panel was 14.3% when the vibrations of the panel were reduced by 7.3%. The influence of different design parameters, such as core density, core material, and cell size on wave speeds of honeycomb sandwich structures was experimentally analyzed. Bending and shear wave speeds were measured and related to the transmission loss performance for various material

  3. Characterizing Facesheet/Core Disbonding in Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, Martin; Ratcliffe, James G.; Adams, Daniel O.; Krueger, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental investigation into facesheet core disbonding in carbon fiber reinforced plastic/Nomex honeycomb sandwich structures using a Single Cantilever Beam test. Specimens with three, six and twelve-ply facesheets were tested. Specimens with different honeycomb cores consisting of four different cell sizes were also tested, in addition to specimens with three different widths. Three different data reduction methods were employed for computing apparent fracture toughness values from the test data, namely an area method, a compliance calibration technique and a modified beam theory method. The compliance calibration and modified beam theory approaches yielded comparable apparent fracture toughness values, which were generally lower than those computed using the area method. Disbonding in the three-ply facesheet specimens took place at the facesheet/core interface and yielded the lowest apparent fracture toughness values. Disbonding in the six and twelve-ply facesheet specimens took place within the core, near to the facesheet/core interface. Specimen width was not found to have a significant effect on apparent fracture toughness. The amount of scatter in the apparent fracture toughness data was found to increase with honeycomb core cell size.

  4. Piezoelectrically-induced guided wave propagation for health monitoring of honeycomb sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fei

    Honeycomb sandwich structures have been widely used in marine and aerospace applications due to their high strength/stiffness-to-weight ratio. However, an excessive load or repeated loading in the core tends to induce debonding along the skin-core interface, threatening the integrity and safety of the whole structure. This dissertation focuses on development of guided wave strategies for health monitoring of honeycomb sandwich structures, based on a piezoelectric actuator/sensor network. The honeycomb sandwich panels, which are composed of aluminum alloy (T6061) skins and hexagonal-celled Nomex core, are specifically considered in the study. First, elastic wave propagation mechanism in honeycomb sandwich structures is numerically and experimentally investigated, based on a piezoelectric actuator/sensor system. Influences of cell geometry parameters upon wave propagation are also discussed. Some wave propagation characteristics, such as wave group velocity dispersion relation and mode tuning capabilities, in the honeycomb composite panels are experimentally characterized. Secondly, effects of skin-core debonding upon the leaky guided wave propagation in honeycomb sandwich structures are studied by the finite element simulation. An appropriate signal difference coefficient is defined to represent the differential features caused by debonding. By means of probability analysis of differential features of transmitted guided waves and the image fusion, the final image of the structure is constructed with improved detection precision. A multilevel sensor network strategy is proposed to detect multiple debondings in the honeycomb sandwich structure. Thirdly, an analytical model considering coupled piezo-elastodynamics is developed to quantitatively describe dynamic load transfer between a surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer actuator and a prestressed plate. The finite element method is used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical prediction. Effects of prestresses on the

  5. Effect of the parameters of a sandwich structure with a honeycomb core on its soundproofing capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachev, A. A.

    Expressions for estimating the soundproofing capacity of sandwich structures with a honeycomb core are obtained by using equations of transverse vibrations of a plate with allowance for the flexural and shear waves. The expressions provide an adequate description of the experimentally observed effects and make it possible to predict the effect of the parameters of a structure on its soundproofing efficiency.

  6. High-Fidelity Modeling for Health Monitoring in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchinsky, Dimitry G.; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Tyson, Richard W.; Walker, James L.; Miller, Jimmy L.

    2011-01-01

    High-Fidelity Model of the sandwich composite structure with real geometry is reported. The model includes two composite facesheets, honeycomb core, piezoelectric actuator/sensors, adhesive layers, and the impactor. The novel feature of the model is that it includes modeling of the impact and wave propagation in the structure before and after the impact. Results of modeling of the wave propagation, impact, and damage detection in sandwich honeycomb plates using piezoelectric actuator/sensor scheme are reported. The results of the simulations are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the model is suitable for analysis of the physics of failure due to the impact and for testing structural health monitoring schemes based on guided wave propagation.

  7. Development of beryllium honeycomb sandwich composite for structural and other related applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogan, J. W.; Grant, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating large beryllium honeycomb panels was demonstrated. Both flat and curved sandwich structures were manufactured using practical, braze bonding techniques. The processes developed prove that metallurgically assembled beryllium honeycomb panels show decided potential where rigid, lightweight structures are required. Three panels, each 10 square feet in surface area, were fabricated, and radiographically inspected to determine integrity. This examination revealed a 97 percent braze in the final panel. It is believed that ceramic dies for forming and brazing would facilitate the fabrication techniques for higher production rates. Ceramic dies would yield a lower thermal gradient in the panel during the braze cycle. This would eliminate the small amount of face sheet wrinkling present in the panels. Hot forming the various panel components demonstrated efficient manufacturing techniques for scaling up and producing large numbers of hot formed beryllium components and panels. The beryllium honeycomb panel demonstrated very good vibrational loading characteristics under test with desirable damping characteristics.

  8. Measuring Core/Facesheet Bond Toughness in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines two test methods to evaluate the peel toughness of the skin to core debond of sandwich panels. The methods tested were the climbing drum (CD) peel test and the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. While the CD peel test is only intended for qualitative measurements, it is shown in this study that qualitative measurements can be performed and compare well with DCB test data. It is also shown that artificially stiffening the facesheets of a DCB specimen can cause the test to behave more like a flatwise tensile test than a peel test.

  9. Evaluation of the in-service performance behavior of honeycomb composite sandwich structures

    SciTech Connect

    Shafizadeh, J.E.; Seferis, J.C.; Chesmar, E.F.; Geyer, R.

    1999-12-01

    When honeycomb composite structures are fabricated for the aerospace industry, they are designed to be closed to their operating environment for the life of the composite structure. However, once in service, this design can break down. Damage can set in motion a chain reaction of events that will ultimately degrade the mechanical integrity of the composite structure. Through thermographic analysis, the tendency of honeycomb composite structures to absorb and retain water was investigated, and an attempt was made to quantify the extent of water ingression in the Boeing 767 aircraft. Through thermographic analysis, the exterior honeycomb composite structures were found to contain less than 50 kg of water per plane. On average, over 90% of the water found on an aircraft was contained in five problematic parts, which included the outboard flap wedge, the nose landing gear doors, the main landing gear doors, the fixed upper wing panels, and the escape slide door. Kevlar lamina induced microcracking, skin porosity problems, and cracked potting compound were the root causes of water ingression and migration in these structures. Ultimately, this research will aid in the fundamental understanding and design of future honeycomb composite sandwich structures.

  10. Application of Air Coupled Acoustic Thermography (ACAT) for Inspection of Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Pergantis, Charles; Flanagan, David; Deschepper, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The application of a noncontact air coupled acoustic heating technique is investigated for the inspection of advanced honeycomb composite structures. A weakness in the out of plane stiffness of the structure, caused by a delamination or core damage, allows for the coupling of acoustic energy and thus this area will have a higher temperature than the surrounding area. Air coupled acoustic thermography (ACAT) measurements were made on composite sandwich structures with damage and were compared to conventional flash thermography. A vibrating plate model is presented to predict the optimal acoustic source frequency. Improvements to the measurement technique are also discussed.

  11. Mechanical analysis of confectioning flaw of refractory alloy honeycomb sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaodong; Kong, Xianghao; Shi, Liping; Li, Mingwei

    2009-03-01

    Thermal protection system is one of the key technology of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). After C/C and ceramic-matrix composite used in space orbiter, one new-typed thermal protection systems (TPS)-ARMOR TPS is coming forth. ARMOR TPS is means adaptable, robust, metallic, operable, reusable TPS. The ARMOR TPS has many advantages, for example: fixing easily, longer life, good properties, short time of maintenance and service. The ARMOR TPS is one of important candidate structure of RLV. ARMOR thermal protection system in foreign countries for reusable launch vehicle is used instead of the traditional ceramic-matrix composite thermal protection system and C/C thermal protection system. Also the constituent feature of ARMOR thermal protection system is much better than the traditional TPS. In comparison with traditional TPS, the ARMOR TPS will be the best selection for all kinds of RLV. So the ARMOR thermal protection system will be used in aviation and spaceflight field more and more widely because of its much better performance. ARMOR TPS panel is above the whole ARMOR TPS, and the metal honeycomb sandwich structure is the surface of the ARMOR TPS panel. So the metal honeycomb sandwich structure plays an important role in the ARMOR TPS, while it bears the flight dynamic pressure and stands against the flight dynamic calefaction. The metal honeycomb sandwich structure is made using the technique of the whole braze welding. In the course of the vacuum high temperature braze welding, its surface will appear concave. The reasons which lead to the shortage are summarized and discussed. The difference of thermal expansion coefficient and pressure between the core and the panels may be the chief reasons. This paper will analyze the mechanics behavior of metal honeycomb sandwich structure in the course of the vacuum high temperature braze welding, then make sure the reasons and get a way to solve it. Haynes214 is a good material of face sheet at present. γ - TiAl and

  12. Mode I Toughness Measurements of Core/Facesheet Bonds in Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Ratcliffe, James G.

    2006-01-01

    Composite sandwich structures will be used in many future applications in aerospace, marine and offshore industries due to the fact that the strength and stiffness to mass ratios surpass any other structural type. Sandwich structure also offers advantages over traditional stiffened panels such as ease of manufacturing and repair. During the last three decades, sandwich structure has been used extensively for secondary structure in aircraft (fuselage floors, rudders and radome structure). Sandwich structure is also used as primary structure in rotorcraft, the most common example being the trailing edge of rotor blades. As with other types of composite construction, sandwich structure exhibits several types of failure mode such as facesheet wrinkling, core crushing and sandwich buckling. Facesheet/core debonding has also been observed in the marine and aerospace industry. During this failure mode, peel stresses applied to an existing facesheet/core debond or an interface low in toughness, results in the facesheet being peeled from the core material, possibly leading to a significant loss in structural integrity of the sandwich panel. In an incident during a test on a liquid hydrogen fuel tank of the X-33 prototype vehicle, the outer graphite/epoxy facesheet and honeycomb core became debonded from the inner facesheet along significant areas, leading to failure of the tank. As a consequence of the accident; significant efforts were made to characterize the toughness of the facesheet/core bond. Currently, the only standardized method available for assessing the quality of the facesheet/core interface is the climbing drum peel test (ASTM D1781). During this test a sandwich beam is removed from a panel and the lip of one of the facesheets is attached to a drum, as shown in Fig. 1. The drum is then rotated along the sandwich beam, causing the facesheet to peel from the core. This method has two major drawbacks. First, it is not possible to obtain quantitative fracture data

  13. Design and fabrication of a radiative actively cooled honeycomb sandwich structural panel for a hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, D. A.; Pagel, L. L.; Schaeffer, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The panel assembly consisted of an external thermal protection system (metallic heat shields and insulation blankets) and an aluminum honeycomb structure. The structure was cooled to temperature 442K (300 F) by circulating a 60/40 mass solution of ethylene glycol and water through dee shaped coolant tubes nested in the honeycomb and adhesively bonded to the outer skin. Rene'41 heat shields were designed to sustain 5000 cycles of a uniform pressure of + or - 6.89kPa (+ or - 1.0 psi) and aerodynamic heating conditions equivalent to 136 kW sq m (12 Btu sq ft sec) to a 422K (300 F) surface temperature. High temperature flexible insulation blankets were encased in stainless steel foil to protect them from moisture and other potential contaminates. The aluminum actively cooled honeycomb sandwich structural panel was designed to sustain 5000 cycles of cyclic in-plane loading of + or - 210 kN/m (+ or - 1200 lbf/in.) combined with a uniform panel pressure of + or - 6.89 kPa (?1.0 psi).

  14. A Damage Tolerance Comparison of Composite Hat-Stiffened and Honeycomb Sandwich Structure for Launch Vehicle Interstage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a direct comparison of the compression-after-impact (CAI) strength of impact-damaged, hat-stiffened and honeycomb sandwich structure for launch vehicle use was made. The specimens used consisted of small substructure designed to carry a line load of approx..3,000 lb/in. Damage was inflicted upon the specimens via drop weight impact. Infrared thermography was used to examine the extent of planar damage in the specimens. The specimens were prepared for compression testing to obtain residual compression strength versus damage severity curves. Results show that when weight of the structure is factored in, both types of structure had about the same CAI strength for a given damage level. The main difference was that the hat-stiffened specimens exhibited a multiphase failure whereas the honeycomb sandwich structure failed catastrophically.

  15. Guided wave propagation in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure in presence of a high density core.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik

    2016-09-01

    A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density.

  16. Guided wave propagation in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure in presence of a high density core.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik

    2016-09-01

    A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density. PMID:27290650

  17. Process Factors and Edgewise Compressive Properties of Scarf-repaired Honeycomb Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sui; Guan, Zhidong; Guo, Xia; Sun, Kai; Kong, Jiaoyue; Yan, Dongxiu

    2014-10-01

    Bonded repairs were conducted on flat and edge-closed composite sandwich panels that had undergone different levels of initial damage, and edgewise compression behaviors of repaired panel were tested. Experimental results indicate that these repair techniques can restore the compression performance of damaged panels effectively. The repaired specimens recovered an average of over 83 % of their strength. A k-sample Anderson-Darling test was used to analyze the influence of various parameters, including curing temperature, curing pressure, and repair configurations. After a thorough comparison, it was concluded that a high-temperature, high-pressure treatment can improve the mechanical performance of repaired panels, but the improvement is closely related to the structural complexity of the repaired region. A double-side repair scheme could be used to prevent the degradation of mechanical performance caused by the additional bending moment. The conclusions drawn in the present study provide further insight into the mechanical performance of repaired sandwich panels under edgewise compressive loads. These data facilitate the improved design methodology on bonded repair of composite sandwich structures.

  18. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolamo, D.; Girolamo, L.; Yuan, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies.

  19. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Girolamo, D. Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-03-31

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies.

  20. Evaluation of the Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) Bonding Process for Ti3Al-Based Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, R. Keith; Hoffman, Eric K.

    1998-01-01

    The suitability of using transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding to fabricate honeycomb core sandwich panels with Ti-14Al-21Nb (wt%) titanium aluminide (T3Al) face sheets for high-temperature hypersonic vehicle applications was evaluated. Three titanium alloy honeycomb cores and one Ti3Al alloy honeycomb core were investigated. Edgewise compression (EWC) and flatwise tension (FWT) tests on honeycomb core sandwich specimens and tensile tests of the face sheet material were conducted at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1500 F. EWC tests indicated that the honeycomb cores and diffusion bonded joints were able to stabilize the face sheets up to and beyond the face sheet compressive yield strength for all temperatures investigated. The specimens with the T3Al honeycomb core produced the highest FWT strengths at temperatures above 1000 F. Tensile tests indicated that TLP processing conditions resulted in decreases in ductility of the Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets. Microstructural examination showed that the side of the face sheets to which the filler metals had been applied was transformed from equiaxed alpha2 grains to coarse plates of alpha2 with intergranular Beta. Fractographic examination of the tensile specimens showed that this transformed region was dominated by brittle fracture.

  1. Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzenberger, H. D.

    1978-01-01

    Bismaleimide resins are prime candidates for nonflammable aircraft interior panels. Three resin types with different structures and processing characteristics were formulated. Resin M 751 was used to fabricate 100 kg of glass fabric prepregs which were used for the preparation of face sheets for honeycomb sandwich panels. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication are provided. In order to advance beyond the current solvent resin technology for fibre and fabric impregnation, a hot melt solvent-less resin system was prepared and characterized. Preliminary tests were performed to develop a wet bonding process for the fabrication of advanced sandwich honeycomb panels by use of polybismaleimide glass fabric face sheets and polybismaleimide Nomex honeycomb core. B-stage material was used for both the core and the face sheet, providing flatwise tensile properties equivalent to those obtained by the state-of-the-art 3-step process which includes an epoxy adhesive resin.

  2. Development of a portable mechanical hysteresis measurement and imaging system for impact characterization in honeycomb sandwich structures

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.

    2011-06-23

    Honeycomb sandwich materials are commonly used for aero-structures, but because the outer skins are typically thin, 2-10 plys, the structures are susceptible to impact damage. NDI methods such as tap tests, bond testers and TTU ultrasound are successfully deployed to find impact damage, but identifying the type/degree of damage is troublesome. As the type/degree of impact damage guides decisions by the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) community regarding repair, the ability to characterize impacts is of interest. Previous work demonstrated that additional impact characterization may be gleaned from hysteresis loop area, as determined from an out-of-plane load-vs-displacement plot, where this parameter shows a correlation with impact energy. This presentation reports on current work involving the development of a portable hysteresis measurement and imaging system based on an instrumented tapper. Data processing and analysis methods that allow production of the load/displacement data from a single accelerometer are discussed, with additional reporting of tests of software to automatically vary pixel size during scanning to decrease C-scans inspection time.

  3. Fatigue and impact properties of metal honeycomb sandwich panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Guang ping; Lu, Jie; Liang, Jun; Chang, Zhong liang

    2008-11-01

    Honeycomb sandwich structures are significant to be used as applied to thermal protection system on reusable launch vehicle. In this paper the fatigue and impact properties of a novel metallic thermal protection material have been investigated and predicted at room temperature. A series of strength tests are carried out to obtain parameters firstly for further experiments. A set of tension-tension stress fatigue tests and impact tests based on split-Hopkinson pressure bar are carried out. Different high strain rate impact experiments are accomplished. The curves of dynamical stress, strain and strain rate are obtained. Also the cell units images after impact are presented. The results show the fatigue properties of honeycomb sandwich panels are comparatively better. And it has the advantages of anti-impact resistance and high, energy absorption capability.

  4. Design and fabrication of brazed Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich structural panels for advanced space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Swegle, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    The design and fabrication of two large brazed Rene 41 honeycomb panels, the establishment of a test plan, the design and fabrication of a test fixture to subject the panels to cyclic thermal gradients and mechanical loads equivalent to those imposed on an advanced space transportation vehicle during its boost and entry trajectories are discussed. The panels will be supported at four points, creating three spans. The outer spans are 45.7 cm (18 in.) and the center span 76.2 cm (30 in). Specimen width is 30.5 cm (12 in.). The panels were primarily designed by boost conditions simulated by subjecting the panels to liquid nitrogen, 77K (-320 F) on one side and 455K (360 F) on the other side and by mechanically imposing loads representing vehicle fuel pressure loads. Entry conditions were simulated by radiant heating to 1034K (1400 F). The test program subjected the panels to 500 boost thermal conditions. Results are presented.

  5. Microsandwich honeycomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, T. Balakrishna; Wang, Taylor G.; Gibson, Lorna J.

    1989-01-01

    Microsandwich honeycombs are honeycombs in which the cell walls are themselves sandwich structures. This article develops the idea of microsandwich honeycombs, outlining their design principles, fabrication techniques and properties.

  6. Honeycomb-laminate composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A honeycomb-laminate composite structure was comprised of: (1) a cellular core of a polyquinoxaline foam in a honeycomb structure, and (2) a layer of a noncombustible fibrous material impregnated with a polyimide resin laminated on the cellular core. A process for producing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure and articles containing the honeycomb-laminate composite structure is described.

  7. Acoustic performance of reiterated hierarchical honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nainar, Naveen

    Sandwich panels constructed from honeycomb structures have been found to reduce sound transmission and improve vibration isolation. In this work, reiterated hierarchical honeycomb structures have been modeled for the core in sandwich panels and studied for sound transmission properties using finite element analysis. Several honeycomb unit cell geometries are considered, including, regular hexagonal, auxetic with properties of negative Poisson's ratio, and different reiterated hierarchical structures. Previous studies have shown that auxetic honeycomb structures exhibit improved sound transmission loss compared to regular honeycomb sandwich panels. Two different orientations of the honeycomb unit cell geometry have been studied, namely, the zigzag and armchair configurations, which are, rotated 90 degrees. Both regular and auxetic honeycombs have been used in both these configurations. The finite element model of the panels are used to extract natural frequencies and mode shapes and to perform steady state frequency response dynamic analysis up to 1000 Hz. The transmitted sound pressure levels on the surface of each structure is extracted and compared to study the influence of the reiterated hierarchy on sound transmission characteristics. The influence of corner reinforcement constructed by subtracting interior high-level hierarchical structure except at the vertices of the underlying lower-level honeycomb unit cell was also studied. Furthermore, a study was conducted to quantify the effect of changing the ratio of cell-wall thickness between various levels of hierarchy. Special focus on the limiting case of level-1 hierarchy with zero level-0 thickness is also studied. In all cases, the total mass was kept constant in order to isolate only stiffness and mass distribution effects. The results show that introduction of reiterated hierarchy in level-1 structures reduced the sound transmission of honeycomb sandwich panels compared to parent level-0 geometry. Results

  8. Dispersion of Lamb waves in a honeycomb composite sandwich panel.

    PubMed

    Baid, Harsh; Schaal, Christoph; Samajder, Himadri; Mal, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Composite materials are increasingly being used in advanced aircraft and aerospace structures. Despite their many advantages, composites are often susceptible to hidden damages that may occur during manufacturing and/or service of the structure. Therefore, safe operation of composite structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost effective method for defects monitoring in advanced structures due to their long propagation range and their sensitivity to defects in their propagation path. In this paper, some of the useful properties of guided Lamb type waves are investigated, using analytical, numerical and experimental methods, in an effort to provide the knowledge base required for the development of viable structural health monitoring systems for composite structures. The laboratory experiments involve a pitch-catch method in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on the outside surface of the structure for generating and recording the wave signals. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate, a woven composite laminate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The agreement between experimental, numerical and theoretical results are shown to be excellent in certain frequency ranges, providing a guidance for the design of effective inspection systems. PMID:25287973

  9. Dispersion of Lamb waves in a honeycomb composite sandwich panel.

    PubMed

    Baid, Harsh; Schaal, Christoph; Samajder, Himadri; Mal, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Composite materials are increasingly being used in advanced aircraft and aerospace structures. Despite their many advantages, composites are often susceptible to hidden damages that may occur during manufacturing and/or service of the structure. Therefore, safe operation of composite structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost effective method for defects monitoring in advanced structures due to their long propagation range and their sensitivity to defects in their propagation path. In this paper, some of the useful properties of guided Lamb type waves are investigated, using analytical, numerical and experimental methods, in an effort to provide the knowledge base required for the development of viable structural health monitoring systems for composite structures. The laboratory experiments involve a pitch-catch method in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on the outside surface of the structure for generating and recording the wave signals. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate, a woven composite laminate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The agreement between experimental, numerical and theoretical results are shown to be excellent in certain frequency ranges, providing a guidance for the design of effective inspection systems.

  10. Application of Wave Propagation and Vibration-based Structural Health Monitoring Techniques to Friction Stir Welded Plate and Sandwich Honeycomb Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaman, S.; White, J. R.; Adams, D. E.; Jata, K. V.

    2007-03-01

    Wave propagation and vibration-based structural health monitoring methodologies are presented to detect, locate and quantify dent/crack, thermal debond, and corrosion damage in a solid aluminum friction stir weld plate and a sandwich honeycomb thermal protection panel. A wave propagation based method can identify small defects because propagating waves typically consist of small wavelengths while a vibration-based scheme is better equipped to quantify damage over wide areas of large structures. Near-real time online diagnostics is achieved by using localized sensing (wave propagation) and distributed sensing (vibration-based) in an active measurement array. Sensor/actuator arrays have been developed to implement these techniques and portable health management systems have been developed based on the combination of damage detection algorithms, active sensing, and graphical user interfaces. Propagating waves are shown to have a heightened sensitivity to damage located at the anti-nodes of a friction stir wed plate forced by low frequency environmental vibrations. Measurement of the input forcing in the vibration-based method is shown to enable damage quantification.

  11. Analysis of an Aircraft Honeycomb Sandwich Panel with Circular Face Sheet/Core Disbond Subjected to Ground-Air Pressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, Martin; Krueger, Ronald; Ratcliffe, James

    2013-01-01

    The ground-air pressurization of lightweight honeycomb sandwich structures caused by alternating pressure differences between the enclosed air within the honeycomb core and the ambient environment is a well-known and controllable loading condition of aerospace structures. However, initial face sheet/core disbonds intensify the face sheet peeling effect of the internal pressure load significantly and can decrease the reliability of the sandwich structure drastically. Within this paper, a numerical parameter study was carried out to investigate the criticality of initial disbonds in honeycomb sandwich structures under ground-air pressurization. A fracture mechanics approach was used to evaluate the loading at the disbond front. In this case, the strain energy release rate was computed via the Virtual Crack Closure Technique. Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed.

  12. Load-dependent Optimization of Honeycombs for Sandwich Components - New Possibilities by Using Additive Layer Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riss, Fabian; Schilp, Johannes; Reinhart, Gunther

    Due to their feasible geometric complexity, additive layer manufacturing (ALM) processes show a highpotential for the production of lightweight components.Therefore, ALM processes enable the realization of bionic-designedcomponents like honeycombs, which are optimized depending upon load and outer boundary conditions.This optimization is based on a closed-loop, three-steps methodology: At first, each honeycomb is conformed to the surface of the part. Secondly, the structure is optimizedfor lightweight design.It is possible to achieve a homogeneous stress distribution in the part by varying the wall thickness, honeycombdiameter and the amount of honeycombs, depending on the subjected stresses and strains. At last, the functional components like threads or bearing carriers are integrated directly into the honeycomb core.Using all these steps as an iterative process, it is possible to reduce the mass of sandwich components about 50 percent compared to conventional approaches.

  13. Non-destructive inspection of drilled holes in reinforced honeycomb sandwich panels using active thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, R.; Venegas, P.; Guerediaga, J.; Vega, L.; López, I.

    2012-11-01

    The aerospace industry is in constant need of ever-more efficient inspection methods for quality control. Product inspection is also essential to maintain the safe operation of aircraft components designed to perform for decades. This paper proposes a method for non-destructive inspection of drilled holes in reinforced honeycomb sandwich panels. Honeycomb sandwich panels are extensively employed in the aerospace industry due to their high strength and stiffness to weight ratios. In order to attach additional structures to them, panels are reinforced by filling honeycomb cells and drilling holes into the reinforced areas. The proposed procedure is designed to detect the position of the holes within the reinforced area and to provide a robust measurement of the distance between each hole and the boundary of the reinforced area. The result is a fast, safe and clean inspection method for drilled holes in reinforced honeycomb sandwich panels that can be used to robustly assess a possible displacement of the hole from the center of the reinforced area, which could have serious consequences. The proposed method is based on active infrared thermography, and uses state of the art methods for infrared image processing, including signal-to-nose ratio enhancement, hole detection and segmentation. Tests and comparison with X-ray inspections indicate that the proposed system meets production needs.

  14. Development of honeycomb sandwich finite element modeling techniques for dynamic and static analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoonire, Ross A.

    2010-07-01

    Honeycomb sandwich core is typically modeled as an equivalent continuum for both static and dynamic analysis. The orthotropic material properties for such a continuum representation are difficult to predict. The objective of this work is to examine material and geometric parameters that affect the elastic and harmonic responses of honeycomb cores. A 3D shell FEA approach is adopted to model the core geometry. The model is compared to a typical homogeneous core finite-element representation in vibratory response. It is found that adhesive filleting can play a significant role in the response of honeycomb sandwich structure. Additionally, finite-element models using homogenized core approximations are shown to yield erroneous predictions for higher modes of vibration. Only through the modeling of actual honeycomb core geometry through finiteelement methods is it possible to predict higher modes. Vibration occurring strictly in the honeycomb cells can be observed by a tight band of resonances. This band occurs at different frequency ranges depending on the modeling technique. Achieving accurate homogeneous core model dynamic response for higher modes is restricted by computational inefficiency. Steady state harmonic analysis was only possible using the 3D shell core representation. The homogeneous core models were accurate in static shear and early modal response only. When it becomes necessary to predict shorter wavelengths of vibration, the homogeneous core models are either too computationally expensive or produce incorrect responses specifically with regard to modes isolated in the core.

  15. Sandwich construction solar structural facets

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, R.B.; Grossman, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Silver/glass mirrors have excellent optical properties but need a method of support in order to be used in concentrating solar thermal systems. In collaboration with the Cummins dish/Stirling development program, the authors started investigating sandwich construction as a way to integrate silver/glass mirrors into solar optical elements. In sandwich construction, membranes such as sheet metal or plastic are bonded to the front and back of a core (like a sandwich). For solar optical elements, a glass mirror is bonded to one of the membranes. This type of construction has the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio, and reasonable material and manufacturing cost. The inherent stiffness of sandwich construction mirror panels also facilitates large panels. This can have cost advantages for both the amount of hardware required as well as reduced installation and alignment costs. In addition, by incorporating the panels into the support structure reductions in the amount of structural support required are potentially possible. The authors have investigated sandwich construction panels that employ cores of polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyurethane foams as well as conventional aluminum and cardboard honeycombs. The authors investigations have involved fabricating 0.5 x 0.6-m (20 x 24-inch) spherical-contour panels and testing their optical properties and environmental durability. The authors have also performed preliminary cost and performance studies. Evaluations included optical testing with the SunLab 2f and VSHOT tools both before and after exposures to environmental chamber testing. The results showed that sandwich mirror panels are potentially very accurate. However, long-term degradation due to creep was evident in all of the foam core facets. The aluminum honeycomb core facets were accurate and durable. In this paper, the design principles that guided the investigations, estimates of cost, and the results of the experimental investigations are

  16. Fabrication and development of several heat pipe honeycomb sandwich panel concepts. [airframe integrated scramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing liquid metal heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for application on the NASA Langley airframe-integrated Scramjet engine was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts was evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. The chosen design consists of an all-stainless steel structure, sintered screen facesheets, and two types of core-ribbon; a diffusion bonded wire mesh and a foil-screen composite. Cleaning, fluid charging, processing, and process port sealing techniques were established. The liquid metals potassium, sodium and cesium were used as working fluids. Eleven honeycomb panels 15.24 cm X 15.24 cm X 2.94 cm were delivered to NASA Langley for extensive performance testing and evaluation; nine panels were processed as heat pipes, and two panels were left unprocessed.

  17. Compression After Impact Experiments and Analysis on Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels with Thin Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuigg, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    A better understanding of the effect of impact damage on composite structures is necessary to give the engineer an ability to design safe, efficient structures. Current composite structures suffer severe strength reduction under compressive loading conditions, due to even light damage, such as from low velocity impact. A review is undertaken to access the current state-of-development in the areas of experimental testing, and analysis methods. A set of experiments on honeycomb core sandwich panels, with thin woven fiberglass cloth facesheets, is described, which includes detailed instrumentation and unique observation techniques.

  18. Low-energy impact resistance of graphite-epoxy plates and ALS honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, David

    1989-01-01

    Low energy impact may be potentially dangerous for many highly optimized stiff structures. Impact by foreign objects such as birds, ice, and runways stones or dropping of tools occur frequently and the resulting damage and stress concentrations may be unacceptable from a designer's standpoint. The barely visible, yet potentially dangerous dents due to impact of foreign objects on the Advanced Launch System (ALS) structure are studied. Of particular interest is the computation of the maximum peak impact force for a given impactor mass and initial velocity. The theoretical impact forces will be compared with the experimental dropweight results for the ALS face sheets alone as well as the ALS honeycomb sandwich panels.

  19. Elastic constants for superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Formulae and the associated graphs are presented for contrasting the effective elastic constants for a superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded (SPF/DB) corrugated sandwich core and a honeycomb sandwich core. The results used in the comparison of the structural properties of the two types of sandwich cores are under conditions of equal sandwich density. It was found that the stiffness in the thickness direction of the optimum SPF/DB corrugated core (i.e., triangular truss core) was lower than that of the honeycomb core, and that the former had higher transverse shear stiffness than the latter.

  20. Methods for Assessing Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Wrinkling Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalewski, Bart F.; Dial, William B.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient closed-form methods for predicting the facesheet wrinkling failure mode in sandwich panels are assessed. Comparisons were made with finite element model predictions for facesheet wrinkling, and a validated closed-form method was implemented in the HyperSizer structure sizing software.

  1. Theoretical and numerical modeling of membrane and bending elastic wave propagation in honeycomb thin layers and sandwiches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tie, B.; Tian, B. Y.; Aubry, D.

    2016-11-01

    Elastic wave propagation in honeycomb thin layers and sandwiches is investigated theoretically and numerically by using the Bloch wave transform, so the modeling of a unique primitive cell is sufficient to understand the wave propagation phenomena through the whole periodic structure. Both in-plane (with respect to the plane of the honeycomb layer) and out-of-plane waves are analyzed by developing finite element models formulated within the framework of the Mindlin-Reissner theory of plates. The dispersion relations and the phase and group velocities as function of frequency and of direction of propagation are calculated. The anisotropic behaviors and the dispersive characteristics of the studied periodic media with respect to the wave propagation are then analyzed. According to our numerical investigation, it is believed that the existence of bandgaps is probably not possible in the frequency domain considered in the present work. However, as an important and original result, the existence of the "backward-propagating" frequency bands, within which Bloch wave modes propagate backwards with a negative group velocity, is highlighted. As another important result, the comparison is made between the first Bloch wave modes and the membrane and bending/transverse shear wave modes of the classical equivalent homogenized orthotropic plate model of the honeycomb media. A good comparison is obtained for honeycomb thin layers while a more important difference is observed in the case of honeycomb sandwiches, for which the pertinence of finite element models is discussed. Finally, the important role played by the honeycomb core in the flexural dynamic behaviors of the honeycomb sandwiches is confirmed.

  2. Vibroacoustic flexural properties of symmetric honeycomb sandwich panels with composite faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaumie, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    The vibroacoustic bending properties of honeycomb sandwich panels with composite faces are studied from the wavenumber modulus to the mechanical impedance, passing through the modal density. Numerical results extracted from finite element software computations are compared with analytical results. In both cases, the homogenization method is used to calculate the global properties of the sandwich panel. Since faces are made of composite material, the classical laminate theory serves as reference. With particular conditions used in the application for symmetric panels, the original orthotropic mechanical properties can be reduced simply to three parameters commonly used in vibroacoustic characterizations. These three parameters are the mass per unit area, the bending rigidity and the out-of-plane shear rigidity. They simultaneously govern the wavenumber modulus, the modal frequencies, the modal density and the mechanical impedance. For all of these vibroacoustic characterizations, a special frequency called the transition frequency separates two domains. In the first domain, below the transition frequency or for low frequencies, the orthotropic sandwich panel has a classical isotropic plate behavior. In the second domain, above the transition frequency or for high frequencies, the out-of-plane shear rigidity is very significant and changes the behavior. However, the results discussed are only valid up to a certain frequency which is determined by the thickness and out-of-plane shear stiffness of the honeycomb core, the thickness and the bending stiffness of the laminated face sheets and then the mass per unit area and bending stiffness of the total sandwich structure. All these parameters influence the final choice of model and simplifications presented. Experimental measurements of the bending wavenumber modulus and modal frequencies for our own application were carried out. In the vibroacoustic domain, the critical frequency is also an important frequency. It again

  3. Post-Buckling Analysis of Curved Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Containing Interfacial Disbonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Krivanek, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study on the effect of facesheet-core disbonds on the post-buckling response of curved honeycomb sandwich panels is presented herein. This work was conducted as part of the development of a damage tolerance plan for the next-generation Space Launch System heavy lift launch vehicle payload fairing. As such, the study utilized full-scale fairing barrel segments as the structure of interest. The panels were composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The panels were analyzed numerically using the finite element method incorporating geometric nonlinearity. In a predetermined circular region, facesheet and core nodes were detached to simulate a disbond, between the outer mold line facesheet and honeycomb core, induced via low-speed impact. Surface-to-surface contact in the disbonded region was invoked to prevent interpenetration of the facesheet and core elements and obtain realistic stresses in the core. The diameter of this disbonded region was varied and the effect of the size of the disbond on the post-buckling response was observed. Significant changes in the slope of the edge load-deflection response were used to determine the onset of global buckling and corresponding buckling load. Finally, several studies were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the numerical predictions to refinement in the finite element mesh.

  4. Ballistic Resistance of Honeycomb Sandwich Panels under In-Plane High-Velocity Impact

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu; Wang, Dong; Yang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic responses of honeycomb sandwich panels (HSPs) subjected to in-plane projectile impact were studied by means of explicit nonlinear finite element simulations using LS-DYNA. The HSPs consisted of two identical aluminum alloy face-sheets and an aluminum honeycomb core featuring three types of unit cell configurations (regular, rectangular-shaped, and reentrant hexagons). The ballistic resistances of HSPs with the three core configurations were first analyzed. It was found that the HSP with the reentrant auxetic honeycomb core has the best ballistic resistance, due to the negative Poisson's ratio effect of the core. Parametric studies were then carried out to clarify the influences of both macroscopic (face-sheet and core thicknesses, core relative density) and mesoscopic (unit cell angle and size) parameters on the ballistic responses of the auxetic HSPs. Numerical results show that the perforation resistant capabilities of the auxetic HSPs increase as the values of the macroscopic parameters increase. However, the mesoscopic parameters show nonmonotonic effects on the panels' ballistic capacities. The empirical equations for projectile residual velocities were formulated in terms of impact velocity and the structural parameters. It was also found that the blunter projectiles result in higher ballistic limits of the auxetic HSPs. PMID:24187526

  5. Method of fabricating a honeycomb structure

    DOEpatents

    Holleran, L.M.; Lipp, G.D.

    1999-08-03

    A method of fabricating a monolithic honeycomb structure product involves shaping a first mixture of raw materials and a binder into a green honeycomb, extruding a second mixture of raw materials and a binder into one or more green members that each define an opening extending longitudinally therethrough. The raw materials of the second mixture are compatible with the raw materials of the first mixture. The green honeycomb and member(s) are dried. The binders of the green honeycomb and member(s) are softened at the surfaces that are to be bonded. The green member(s) is inserted into the honeycomb and bonded to the honeycomb to form an assembly thereof, which is then dried and fired to form a unified monolithic honeycomb structure. The insertion is best carried out by mounting a member in the shape of a tube on a mandrel, and inserting the mandrel into the honeycomb opening to bond the tube to the honeycomb. 7 figs.

  6. Method of fabricating a honeycomb structure

    DOEpatents

    Holleran, Louis M.; Lipp, G. Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A method of fabricating a monolithic honeycomb structure product involves shaping a first mixture of raw materials and a binder into a green honeycomb, extruding a second mixture of raw materials and a binder into one or more green members that each define an opening extending longitudinally therethrough. The raw materials of the second mixture are compatible with the raw materials of the first mixture. The green honeycomb and member(s) are dried. The binders of the green honeycomb and member(s) are softened at the surfaces that are to be bonded. The green member(s) is inserted into the honeycomb and bonded to the honeycomb to form an assembly thereof, which is then dried and fired to form a unified monolithic honeycomb structure. The insertion is best carried out by mounting a member in the shape of a tube on a mandrel, and inserting the mandrel into the honeycomb opening to bond the tube to the honeycomb.

  7. Fabrication and evaluation of enhanced diffusion bonded titanium honeycomb core sandwich panels with titanium aluminide face sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, E. K.; Bird, R. K.; Bales, T. T.

    1989-01-01

    A joining process was developed for fabricating lightweight, high temperature sandwich panels for aerospace applications using Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets and Ti-3Al-2.5V honeycomb core. The process, termed Enhanced Diffusion Bonding (EDB), relies on the formation of a eutectic liquid through solid-state diffusion at elevated temperatures and isothermal solidification to produce joints in thin-gage titanium and titanium aluminide structural components. A technique employing a maskant on the honeycomb core was developed which permitted electroplating a controlled amount of EDB material only on the edges of the honeycomb core in order to minimize the structural weight and metallurgical interaction effects. Metallurgical analyses were conducted to determine the interaction effects between the EDB materials and the constituents of the sandwich structure following EDB processing. The initial mechanical evaluation was conducted with butt joint specimens tested at temperatures from 1400 - 1700 F. Further mechanical evaluation was conducted with EDB sandwich specimens using flatwise tension tests at temperatures from 70 - 1100 F and edgewise compression tests at ambient temperature.

  8. Sound Transmission through a Cylindrical Sandwich Shell with Honeycomb Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yvette Y.; Robinson, Jay H.; Silcox, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Sound transmission through an infinite cylindrical sandwich shell is studied in the context of the transmission of airborne sound into aircraft interiors. The cylindrical shell is immersed in fluid media and excited by an oblique incident plane sound wave. The internal and external fluids are different and there is uniform airflow in the external fluid medium. An explicit expression of transmission loss is derived in terms of modal impedance of the fluids and the shell. The results show the effects of (a) the incident angles of the plane wave; (b) the flight conditions of Mach number and altitude of the aircraft; (c) the ratios between the core thickness and the total thickness of the shell; and (d) the structural loss factors on the transmission loss. Comparisons of the transmission loss are made among different shell constructions and different shell theories.

  9. Elevated-Temperature Tests Under Static and Aerodynamic Conditions on Honeycomb-Core Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Joseph M.; Johnson, Aldie E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Stainless-steel honeycomb-core sandwich panels which differed primarily in skin thicknesses were tested at elevated temperatures under static and aerodynamic conditions. The results of these tests were evaluated to determine the insulating effectiveness and structural integrity of the panels. The static radiant-heating tests were performed in front of a quartz-tube radiant heater at panel skin temperatures up to 1,5000 F. The aerodynamic tests were made in a Mach 1.4 heated blowdown wind tunnel. The tunnel temperature was augmented by additional heat supplied by a radiant heater which raised the panel surface temperature above 8000 F during air flow. Static radiant-heating tests of 2 minutes duration showed that all the panels protected the load-carrying structure about equally well. Thin-skin panels showed an advantage for this short-time test over thick-skin panels from a standpoint of weight against insulation. Permanent inelastic strains in the form of local buckles over each cell of the honeycomb core caused an increase in surface roughness. During the aero- dynamic tests all of the panels survived with little or no damage, and panel flutter did not occur.

  10. Sound radiation and transmission loss characteristics of a honeycomb sandwich panel with composite facings: Effect of inherent material damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunkumar, M. P.; Jagadeesh, M.; Pitchaimani, Jeyaraj; Gangadharan, K. V.; Babu, M. C. Lenin

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical studies carried out on vibro-acoustic and sound transmission loss behaviour of aluminium honeycomb core sandwich panel with fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) facings. Layered structural shell element with equivalent orthotropic elastic properties of core and orthotropic properties of FRP facing layer is used to predict the free and forced vibration characteristics. Followed by this, acoustic response and transmission loss characteristics are obtained using Rayleigh integral. Vibration and acoustic characteristics of FRP sandwich panels are compared with aluminium sandwich panels. The result reveals that FRP panel has better vibro-acoustic and transmission loss characteristics due to high stiffness and inherent material damping associated with them. Resonant amplitudes of the response are fully controlled by modal damping factors calculated based on modal strain energy. It is also demonstrated that FRP panel can be used to replace the aluminium panel without losing acoustic comfort with nearly 40 percent weight reduction.

  11. Structural Physics of Bee Honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Forrest; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi

    2008-03-01

    Honeybee combs have aroused interest in the ability of honeybees to form regular hexagonal geometric constructs since ancient times. Here we use a real space technique based on the pair distribution function (PDF) and radial distribution function (RDF), and a reciprocal space method utilizing the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) to quantify the order for a range of honeycombs made by Apis mellifera. The PDFs and RDFs are fit with a series of Gaussian curves. We characterize the order in the honeycomb using a real space order parameter, OP3, to describe the order in the combs and a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller order parameter, u, is derived. Both OP3 and u take values from [0, 1] where the value one represents perfect order. The analyzed combs have values of OP3 from 0.33 to 0.60 and values of u from 0.83 to 0.98. RDF fits of honeycomb histograms show that naturally made comb can be crystalline in a 2D ordered structural sense, yet is more `liquid-like' than cells made on `foundation' wax. We show that with the assistance of man-made foundation wax, honeybees can manufacture highly ordered arrays of hexagonal cells.

  12. Light-weight sandwich panel honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin for electric vehicle application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Widodo, Angit; Anwar, Miftahul; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Triyono, Teguh; Hapid, A.; Kaleg, S.

    2016-03-01

    The carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite is relative high cost material in current manufacturing process of electric vehicle body structure. Sandwich panels consisting polypropylene (PP) honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber composite skin were investigated. The aim of present paper was evaluate the flexural properties and bending rigidity of various volume fraction carbon-glass fiber composite skins with the honeycomb core. The flexural properties and cost of panels were compared to the reported values of solid hybrid Carbon/Glass FRP used for the frame body structure of electric vehicle. The finite element model of represented sandwich panel was established to characterize the flexural properties of material using homogenization technique. Finally, simplified model was employed to crashworthiness analysis for engine hood of the body electric vehicle structure. The good cost-electiveness of honeycomb core with hybrid carbon-glass fiber skin has the potential to be used as a light-weight alternative material in body electric vehicle fabricated.

  13. Design data for brazed Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, A. K.; Arnquist, J.; Koetje, E. L.; Esposito, J. J.; Lindsay, V. E. J.; Swegle, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Strength data, creep data and residual strength data after cyclic thermal exposure were obtained at temperatures from 78 K to 1144 K (-320 F to 1600 F). The influences of face thickness, core depth, core gage, cell size and thermal/stress exposure conditions on the mechanical design properties were investigated. A braze alloy and process was developed that is adequate to fully develop the strength of the honeycomb core while simultaneously solution treating and aging the Rene 41 fact sheets. New test procedures and test specimen configurations were developed to avoid excessive thermal stresses during cyclic thermal exposure.

  14. Hypervelocity Impact Evaluation of Metal Foam Core Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasensky, John; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    A series of hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were conducted by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF) [1], building 267 (Houston, Texas) between January 2003 and December 2005 to test the HVI performance of metal foams, as compared to the metal honeycomb panels currently in service. The HITF testing was conducted at the NASA JSC White Sands Testing Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Eric L. Christiansen, Ph.D., and NASA Lead for Micro-Meteoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) Protection requested these hypervelocity impact tests as part of shielding research conducted for the JSC Center Director Discretionary Fund (CDDF) project. The structure tested is a metal foam sandwich structure; a metal foam core between two metal facesheets. Aluminum and Titanium metals were tested for foam sandwich and honeycomb sandwich structures. Aluminum honeycomb core material is currently used in Orbiter Vehicle (OV) radiator panels and in other places in space structures. It has many desirable characteristics and performs well by many measures, especially when normalized by density. Aluminum honeycomb does not perform well in Hypervelocity Impact (HVI) Testing. This is a concern, as honeycomb panels are often exposed to space environments, and take on the role of Micrometeoroid / Orbital Debris (MMOD) shielding. Therefore, information on possible replacement core materials which perform adequately in all necessary functions of the material would be useful. In this report, HVI data is gathered for these two core materials in certain configurations and compared to gain understanding of the metal foam HVI performance.

  15. Compression After Impact on Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels with Thin Facesheets, Part 2: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquigg, Thomas D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Walker, Sandra P.

    2012-01-01

    A two part research study has been completed on the topic of compression after impact (CAI) of thin facesheet honeycomb core sandwich panels. The research has focused on both experiments and analysis in an effort to establish and validate a new understanding of the damage tolerance of these materials. Part 2, the subject of the current paper, is focused on the analysis, which corresponds to the CAI testings described in Part 1. Of interest, are sandwich panels, with aerospace applications, which consist of very thin, woven S2-fiberglass (with MTM45-1 epoxy) facesheets adhered to a Nomex honeycomb core. Two sets of materials, which were identical with the exception of the density of the honeycomb core, were tested in Part 1. The results highlighted the need for analysis methods which taken into account multiple failure modes. A finite element model (FEM) is developed here, in Part 2. A commercial implementation of the Multicontinuum Failure Theory (MCT) for progressive failure analysis (PFA) in composite laminates, Helius:MCT, is included in this model. The inclusion of PFA in the present model provided a new, unique ability to account for multiple failure modes. In addition, significant impact damage detail is included in the model. A sensitivity study, used to assess the effect of each damage parameter on overall analysis results, is included in an appendix. Analysis results are compared to the experimental results for each of the 32 CAI sandwich panel specimens tested to failure. The failure of each specimen is predicted using the high-fidelity, physicsbased analysis model developed here, and the results highlight key improvements in the understanding of honeycomb core sandwich panel CAI failure. Finally, a parametric study highlights the strength benefits compared to mass penalty for various core densities.

  16. Compression After Impact on Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels With Thin Facesheets. Part 1; Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuigg, Thomas D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Walker, Sandra P.

    2012-01-01

    A two part research study has been completed on the topic of compression after impact (CAI) of thin facesheet honeycomb core sandwich panels. The research has focused on both experiments and analysis in an effort to establish and validate a new understanding of the damage tolerance of these materials. Part one, the subject of the current paper, is focused on the experimental testing. Of interest are sandwich panels, with aerospace applications, which consist of very thin, woven S2-fiberglass (with MTM45-1 epoxy) facesheets adhered to a Nomex honeycomb core. Two sets of specimens, which were identical with the exception of the density of the honeycomb core, were tested. Static indentation and low velocity impact using a drop tower are used to study damage formation in these materials. A series of highly instrumented CAI tests was then completed. New techniques used to observe CAI response and failure include high speed video photography, as well as digital image correlation (DIC) for full-field deformation measurement. Two CAI failure modes, indentation propagation, and crack propagation, were observed. From the results, it can be concluded that the CAI failure mode of these panels depends solely on the honeycomb core density.

  17. A Numerical Study on the Effect of Facesheet-Core Disbonds on the Buckling Load of Curved Honeycomb Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Myers, David E.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Krivanek, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical study on the effect of facesheet-core disbonds on the post-buckling response of curved honeycomb sandwich panels is presented herein. This work was conducted as part of the development of a damage tolerance approach for the next-generation Space Launch System heavy lift vehicle payload fairing. As such, the study utilized full-scale fairing barrel segments as the structure of interest. The panels were composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The panels were analyzed numerically using the finite element method. Facesheet and core nodes in a predetermined circular region were detached to simulate a disbond induced via low-speed impact between the outer mold line facesheet and honeycomb core. Surface-to-surface contact in the disbonded region was invoked to prevent interpenetration of the facesheet and core elements. The diameter of this disbonded region was varied and the effect of the size of the disbond on the post-buckling response was observed. A significant change in the slope of the edge load-deflection response was used to determine the onset of global buckling and corresponding buckling load.

  18. Identification of honeycomb sandwich properties by high-resolution modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebillat, M.; Boutillon, X.

    2010-06-01

    A method is proposed to identify the mechanical properties of the skin and core materials of honeycomb sandwich. All the elastic coefficients and loss-factors that matter in the dynamics of a panel in the thick-plate approximation are identified. To this end, experimental natural modes (i.e. eigenmodes of the damped system) are compared to the numerical modes of a large sandwich panel (lx,y/h ≃ 80). The chosen generic model for the visco-elastic behaviour of the materials is E (1 + jη). The numerical modes are computed by means of a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure and their dampings are predicted according to the visco-elastic model. The frequencies and dampings of the natural modes of the panel are estimated experimentally by means of a high-resolution modal analysis technique. An optimisation procedure yields the desired coefficients. A sensitivity analysis assess the reliability of the method.

  19. A variable transverse stiffness sandwich structure using fluidic flexible matrix composites (F2MC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suyi; Lotfi, Amir; Shan, Ying; Wang, K. W.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Bakis, Charles E.

    2008-03-01

    Presented in this paper is the development of a novel honeycomb sandwich panel with variable transverse stiffness. In this structure, the traditional sandwich face sheets are replaced by the fluidic flexible matrix composite (F2MC) tube layers developed in recent studies. The F2MC layers, combined with the anisotropic honeycomb core material properties, provide a new sandwich structure with variable stiffness properties for transverse loading. In this research, an analytical model is derived based on Lekhitskii's anisotropic pressurized tube solution and Timoshenko beam theory. Experimental investigations are also conducted to verify the analytical findings. A segmented multiple-F2MC-tube configuration is synthesized to increase the variable stiffness range. The analysis shows that the new honeycomb sandwich structure using F2MC tubes of 10 segments can provide a high/low transverse stiffness ratio of 60. Segmentation and stiffness control can be realized by an embedded valve network, granting a fast response time.

  20. Sandwich Construction Solar Structural Facets

    SciTech Connect

    Diver, R. B.; Grossman, J.W.

    1998-12-22

    Silver/glass mirrors have excellent optical properties but need a method of support in order to be used in concentrating solar thermal systems. In collaboration with the Cummins dish/Stirling development program, they started investigating sandwich construction as a way to integrate silver/glass mirrors into solar optical elements. In sandwich construction, membranes such as sheet metal or plastic are bonded to the front and back of a core (like a sandwich). For solar optical elements, a glass mirror is bonded to one of the membranes. This type of construction has the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio, and reasonable material and manufacturing cost. The inherent stiffness of sandwich construction mirror panels also facilitates large panels. This can have cost advantages for both the amount of hardware required as well as reduced installation and alignment costs. In addition, by incorporating the panels into the support structure reductions in the amount of structural support required are potentially possible.

  1. Water ingress detection in honeycomb sandwich panels by passive infrared thermography using a high-resolution thermal imaging camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Brault, L.; Marcotte, F.; Genest, M.; Farley, V.; Maldague, X.

    2012-06-01

    Water ingress in honeycomb structures is of great concern for the civil and military aerospace industries. Pressure and temperature variations during take-off and landing produce considerable stress on aircraft structures, promoting moisture ingress (by diffusion through fibers or by direct ingress through voids, cracks or unsealed joints) into the core. The presence of water (or other fluids such as kerosene, hydraulic fluid and de-icing agents) in any of its forms (gas vapor, liquid or ice) promotes corrosion, cell breakage, and induce composite layer delaminations and skin disbonds. In this study, testing specimens were produced from unserviceable parts from military aircraft. In order to simulate atmospheric conditions during landing, selected core areas were filled with measured quantities of water and then frozen in a cold chamber. The specimens were then removed from the chamber and monitored for over 20 minutes as they warm up using a cooled high-resolution infrared camera. Results have shown that detection and quantification of water ingress on honeycomb sandwich structures by passive infrared thermography is possible using a HD mid-wave infrared cameras for volumes of water as low as 0.2 ml and from a distance as far as 20 m from the target.

  2. Analysis of propagation characteristics of flexural wave in honeycomb sandwich panel and design of loudspeaker for radiating inclined sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    A loudspeaker for an auditory guiding system is proposed. This loudspeaker utilizes inclined sound transformed from a flexural wave in a honeycomb sandwich panel. We focused on the fact that the inclined sound propagates extensively with uniform level and direction. Furthermore, sound can be generated without group delay dispersion because the phase velocity of the flexural wave in the sandwich panel becomes constant with increasing frequency. These characteristics can be useful for an auditory guiding system in public spaces since voice-guiding navigation indicates the right direction regardless of position on a pathway. To design the proposed loudspeaker, the behavior of the sandwich panel is predicted using a theoretical equation in which the honeycomb core is assumed as an orthotropic continuum. We calculated the phase velocity dispersion of the flexural wave in the sandwich panel and compared the results obtained using the equation with those of a simulation based on the finite element method and an experiment in order to confirm the applicability of the theoretical equation. It was confirmed that the phase velocities obtained using the theoretical equation and by the simulation were in good agreement with that obtained experimentally. The obtained results suggest that the behavior of the sandwich panel can be predicted using the parameters of the panel. In addition, we designed an optimized honeycomb sandwich panel for radiating inclined sound by calculating the phase velocity characteristics of various panels that have different parameters of core height and cell size using the theoretical equation. Sound radiation from the optimized panel was simulated and compared with that of a homogeneous plate. It was clear that the variance of the radiation angle with varying frequency of the optimized panel was smaller than that of the homogeneous plate. This characteristic of sound radiation with a uniform angle is useful for indicating the destination direction. On

  3. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  4. Thermal inspection of composite honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-05-01

    Composite honeycomb structures continue to be widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Pulsed thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Pulsed thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are presented. In addition, limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. Other NDE techniques, such as computed tomography X-ray and ultrasound, are used for comparison to the thermography results.

  5. Thermal Inspection of Composite Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures continue to be widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Pulsed thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Pulsed thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are presented. In addition, limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. Other NDE techniques, such as computed tomography X-ray and ultrasound, are used for comparison to the thermography results.

  6. Evaluation of Composite Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Under Compressive Loads at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Sandra P.

    1998-01-01

    Fourteen composite honeycomb sandwich panels were tested to failure under compressive loading. The test specimens included panels with both 8 and 24-ply graphite-bismaleimide composite facesheets and both titanium and graphite-polyimide core materials. The panels were designed to have the load introduced through fasteners attached to pairs of steel angles on the ends of the panels to simulate double shear splice joints. The unloaded edges were unconstrained. Test temperatures included room temperature, 250F, and 300F. For the room and 250F temperature tests, the 24-ply specimen failure strains were close to the unnotched allowable strain values and failure loads were well above the design loads. However, failure strains much lower than the unnotched allowable strain values, and failure loads below the design loads were observed with several of the 8-ply specimens. For each individual test temperature, large variations in the failure strains and loads were observed for the 8-ply specimens. Dramatic decreases in the failure strains and loads were observed for the 24-ply specimens as the test temperature was increased from 250F to 300F. All 8-ply specimens appeared to have failed in a facesheet strength failure mode for all test temperatures. The 24-ply specimens displayed appreciably greater amounts of bending prior to failure than the 8-ply specimens, and panel buckling occurred prior to facesheet strength failure for the 24-ply room and 250F temperature tests.

  7. The Surface-Tension Method of Visually Inspecting Honeycomb-Core Sandwich Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzoff, Samuel

    1960-01-01

    When one face of a metal-honeycomb-core sandwich plate is heated or cooled relative to the other, heat transfer through the core causes the temperature on each face at the lines of contact with the core to be slightly different from that on the rest of the face. If a thin liquid film is applied to the face, the variation of surface tension with temperature causes the liquid to move from warmer to cooler areas and thus to develop a pattern corresponding to the temperature pattern on the face. Irregularities in the pattern identify the locations where the core is not adequately bonded to the face sheet. The pattern is easily observed when a fluorescent liquid is used and illumination is by means of ultraviolet light. Observation in ordinary light is also possible when a very deeply colored liquid is used. A method based on the use of a thermographic phosphor to observe the temperature pattern was found to be less sensitive than the surface-tension method. A sublimation method was found to be not only less sensitive but also far more troublesome.

  8. Facesheet Wrinkling in Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ley, Robert P.; Lin, Weichuan; Mbanefo, Uy

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise summary of the state-of-the-art for the analysis of the facesheet wrinkling mode of failure in sandwich structures. This document is not an exhaustive review of the published research related to facesheet wrinkling. Instead, a smaller number of key papers are reviewed in order to provide designers and analysts with a working understanding of the state-of-the-art. Designers and analysts should use this survey to guide their judgement when deciding which one of a wide variety of available facesheet wrinkling design formulas is applicable to a specific design problem.

  9. Evaluation of modal-based damage detection techniques for composite aircraft sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, J. A.; Kosmatka, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    Composite sandwich structures are important as structural components in modern lightweight aircraft, but are susceptible to catastrophic failure without obvious forewarning. Internal damage, such as disbonding between skin and core, is detrimental to the structures' strength and integrity and thus must be detected before reaching critical levels. However, highly directional low density cores, such as Nomex honeycomb, make the task of damage detection and health monitoring difficult. One possible method for detecting damage in composite sandwich structures, which seems to have received very little research attention, is analysis of global modal parameters. This study will investigate the viability of modal analysis techniques for detecting skin-core disbonds in carbon fiber-Nomex honeycomb sandwich panels through laboratory testing. A series of carbon fiber prepreg and Nomex honeycomb sandwich panels-representative of structural components used in lightweight composite airframes-were fabricated by means of autoclave co-cure. All panels were of equal dimensions and two were made with predetermined sizes of disbonded areas, created by substituting areas of Teflon release film in place of epoxy film adhesive during the cure. A laser vibrometer was used to capture frequency response functions (FRF) of all panels, and then real and imaginary FRFs at different locations on each plate and operating shapes for each plate were compared. Preliminary results suggest that vibration-based techniques hold promise for damage detection of composite sandwich structures.

  10. Optimal locations of piezoelectric patches for supersonic flutter control of honeycomb sandwich panels, using the NSGA-II method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezami, M.; Gholami, B.

    2016-03-01

    The active flutter control of supersonic sandwich panels with regular honeycomb interlayers under impact load excitation is studied using piezoelectric patches. A non-dominated sorting-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, called non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is suggested to find the optimal locations for different numbers of piezoelectric actuator/sensor pairs. Quasi-steady first order supersonic piston theory is employed to define aerodynamic loading and the p-method is applied to find the flutter bounds. Hamilton’s principle in conjunction with the generalized Fourier expansions and Galerkin method are used to develop the dynamical model of the structural systems in the state-space domain. The classical Runge-Kutta time integration algorithm is then used to calculate the open-loop aeroelastic response of the system. The maximum flutter velocity and minimum voltage applied to actuators are calculated according to the optimal locations of piezoelectric patches obtained using the NSGA-II and then the proportional feedback is used to actively suppress the closed loop system response. Finally the control effects, using the two different controllers, are compared.

  11. Heat Shielding Characteristics and Thermostructural Performance of a Superalloy Honeycomb Sandwich Thermal Protection System (TPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    Heat-transfer, thermal bending, and mechanical buckling analyses have been performed on a superalloy "honeycomb" thermal protection system (TPS) for future hypersonic flight vehicles. The studies focus on the effect of honeycomb cell geometry on the TPS heat-shielding performance, honeycomb cell wall buckling characteristics, and the effect of boundary conditions on the TPS thermal bending behavior. The results of the study show that the heat-shielding performance of a TPS panel is very sensitive to change in honeycomb core depth, but insensitive to change in honeycomb cell cross-sectional shape. The thermal deformations and thermal stresses in the TPS panel are found to be very sensitive to the edge support conditions. Slight corrugation of the honeycomb cell walls can greatly increase their buckling strength.

  12. Method of fabricating lightweight honeycomb structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goela, Jitendra S. (Inventor); Pickering, Michael (Inventor); Taylor, Raymond L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for fabricating lightweight honeycomb type structures out of material such as silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon (S). The lightweight structure consists of a core to define the shape and size of the structure. The core is coated with an appropriate deposit such as SiC or Si to give the lightweight structure strength and stiffness and for bonding the lightweight structure to another surface. The core is fabricated from extremely thin ribs of appropriately stiff and strong material such as graphite. First, a graphite core consisting of an outer hexagonal cell with six inner triangular cells is constructed from the graphite ribs. The graphite core may be placed on the back-up side of a SiC faceplate and then coated with SiC to produce a monolithic structure without the use of any bonding agent. Cores and methods for the fabrication thereof in which the six inner triangular cells are further divided into a plurality of cells are also disclosed.

  13. Damping capacity in shape memory alloy honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, M.-A.; Smith, C. W.; Scarpa, F.; Miller, W.; Hassan, M. R.

    2010-04-01

    SMA honeycombs have been recently developed by several Authors [1, 2] as innovative cellular structures with selfhealing capability following mechanical indentation, unusual deformation (negative Poisson's ratio [3]), and possible enhanced damping capacity due to the natural vibration dissipation characteristics of SMAs under pseudoelastic and superelastic regime. In this work we describe the nonlinear damping effects of novel shape memory alloy honeycomb assemblies subjected to combine mechanical sinusoidal and thermal loading. The SMA honeycomb structures made with Ni48Ti46Cu6 are designed with single and two-phase polymeric components (epoxy), to enhance the damping characteristics of the base SMA for broadband frequency vibration.

  14. Crystallography of rare galactic honeycomb structure near supernova 1987a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Near supernova 1987a, the rare honeycomb structure of 20-30 galactic bubbles measures 30 x 90 light years. Its remarkable regularity in bubble size suggests a single-event origin which may correlate with the nearby supernova. To test the honeycomb's regularity in shape and size, the formalism of statistical crystallography is developed here for bubble sideness. The standard size-shape relations (Lewis's law, Desch's law, and Aboav-Weaire's law) govern area, perimeter and nearest neighbor shapes. Taken together, they predict a highly non-equilibrium structure for the galactic honeycomb which evolves as a bimodal shape distribution without dominant bubble perimeter energy.

  15. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric; Lear, Dana

    2009-01-01

    Metallic foams are a relatively new class of materials with low density and novel physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical and acoustic properties. Although incompletely characterized, they offer comparable mechanical performance to traditional spacecraft structural materials (i.e. honeycomb sandwich panels) without detrimental through-thickness channeling cells. There are two competing types of metallic foams: open cell and closed cell. Open cell foams are considered the more promising technology due to their lower weight and higher degree of homogeneity. Leading micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields (MMOD) incorporate thin plates separated by a void space (i.e. Whipple shield). Inclusion of intermediate fabric layers, or multiple bumper plates have led to significant performance enhancements, yet these shields require additional non-ballistic mass for installation (fasteners, supports, etc.) that can consume up to 35% of the total shield weight [1]. Structural panels, such as open cell foam core sandwich panels, that are also capable of providing sufficient MMOD protection, represent a significant potential for increased efficiency in hypervelocity impact shielding from a systems perspective through a reduction in required non-ballistic mass. In this paper, the results of an extensive impact test program on aluminum foam core sandwich panels are reported. The effect of pore density, and core thickness on shielding performance have been evaluated over impact velocities ranging from 2.2 - 9.3 km/s at various angles. A number of additional tests on alternate sandwich panel configurations of comparable-weight have also been performed, including aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels (see Figure 1), Nomex honeycomb core sandwich panels, and 3D aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels. A total of 70 hypervelocity impact tests are reported, from which an empirical ballistic limit equation (BLE) has been derived. The BLE is in the standard form suitable for implementation in

  16. A Model for Simulating the Response of Aluminum Honeycomb Structure to Transverse Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Czabaj, Michael W.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2012-01-01

    A 1-dimensional material model was developed for simulating the transverse (thickness-direction) loading and unloading response of aluminum honeycomb structure. The model was implemented as a user-defined material subroutine (UMAT) in the commercial finite element analysis code, ABAQUS(Registered TradeMark)/Standard. The UMAT has been applied to analyses for simulating quasi-static indentation tests on aluminum honeycomb-based sandwich plates. Comparison of analysis results with data from these experiments shows overall good agreement. Specifically, analyses of quasi-static indentation tests yielded accurate global specimen responses. Predicted residual indentation was also in reasonable agreement with measured values. Overall, this simple model does not involve a significant computational burden, which makes it more tractable to simulate other damage mechanisms in the same analysis.

  17. Response of Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panel with Minimum Gage GFRP Face-Sheets to Compression Loading After Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuigg, Thomas D.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Walker, Sandra P.

    2011-01-01

    A compression after impact study has been conducted to determine the residual strength of three sandwich panel constructions with two types of thin glass fiber reinforced polymer face-sheets and two hexagonal honeycomb Nomex core densities. Impact testing is conducted to first determine the characteristics of damage resulting from various impact energy levels. Two modes of failure are found during compression after impact tests with the density of the core precipitating the failure mode present for a given specimen. A finite element analysis is presented for prediction of the residual compressive strength of the impacted specimens. The analysis includes progressive damage modeling in the face-sheets. Preliminary analysis results were similar to the experimental results; however, a higher fidelity core material model is expected to improve the correlation.

  18. Face Sheet/Core Disbond Growth in Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subjected to Ground-Air-Ground Pressurization and In-Plane Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhi M.; Krueger, Ronald; Rinker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Typical damage modes in light honeycomb sandwich structures include face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture, both of which can pose a threat to the structural integrity of a component. These damage modes are of particular interest to aviation certification authorities since several in-service occurrences, such as rudder structural failure and other control surface malfunctions, have been attributed to face sheet/core disbonding. Extensive studies have shown that face sheet/core disbonding and core fracture can lead to damage propagation caused by internal pressure changes in the core. The increasing use of composite sandwich construction in aircraft applications makes it vitally important to understand the effect of ground-air-ground (GAG) cycles and conditions such as maneuver and gust loads on face sheet/core disbonding. The objective of the present study was to use a fracture mechanics based approach developed earlier to evaluate the loading at the disbond front caused by ground-air-ground pressurization and in-plane loading. A honeycomb sandwich panel containing a circular disbond at one face sheet/core interface was modeled with three-dimensional (3D) solid finite elements. The disbond was modeled as a discrete discontinuity and the strain energy release rate along the disbond front was computed using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed. The commercial finite element analysis software, Abaqus/Standard, was used for the analyses. The recursive pressure-deformation coupling problem was solved by representing the entrapped air in the honeycomb cells as filled cavities in Abaqus/Standard. The results show that disbond size, face sheet thickness and core thickness are important parameters that determine crack tip loading at the disbond front. Further, the pressure

  19. Fatigue studies of polyurethane sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. C.; Krishna, M.; Narasimha Murthy, H. N.; Sathyamoorthy, M.; Bhattacharya, Debes

    2004-10-01

    The fatigue characteristics of polyurethane foam-cored (PUF) composite sandwich structures were investigated using three-point bending tests carried out according to ASTM C 393. Three types of specimens (epoxy/glass-PUF-epoxy/glass, polyester/glass-PUF-polyester/glass, and epoxy/glass-PUF-polyester/glass) were considered for investigation. Experimental results indicate that degradation of stiffness occurs due to debonding and sliding between the skin and the foam during fatigue cycles. Epoxy/glass-PUF-epoxy/glass sandwich structures exhibit higher bending strength along with higher stiffness degradation than the other two types of sandwich panels, due to higher initial fatigue loading. The lowest fatigue properties have been obtained for the polyester/glass-PUF-polyester/glass sandwich panel specimens. Better performance of the epoxy/glass-PUF-epoxy/glass sandwich panels is most likely due to the superior properties of the outer thin skins. Most of the specimens fail within the foam region and not at the skin level. This situation is possibly due to debonding between the foam and the skin. The fatigue damage development in the foam and skin has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Honeycomb Structures of Transition Metal-Group 6A Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataca, Can; Sahin, Hasan; Akturk, Ethem; Ciraci, Salim

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the structural, electronic, magnetic properties and stability of MoS2 like honeycomb structures, namely MX2 where M is a transition metal atom (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, Mo, W) and two group (X) 6A elements (O, S, Se, Te) in a unit cell, using first-principles density functional theory. The structure consists of three layers, two for group 6A elements and one for the transition metal atom. The stabilities of various new structures are further testified by phonon dispersion analysis. Unlike graphene, some of the new honeycomb structures resulted in magnetic ground states. It is also noted that metallic honeycomb structures also exist.

  1. Identical band gaps in structurally re-entrant honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu-Wei; Deng, Zi-Chen

    2016-08-01

    Structurally re-entrant honeycomb is a sort of artificial lattice material, characterized by star-like unit cells with re-entrant topology, as well as a high connectivity that the number of folded sheets jointing at each vertex is at least six. In-plane elastic wave propagation in this highly connected honeycomb is investigated through the application of the finite element method in conjunction with the Bloch's theorem. Attention is devoted to exploring the band characteristics of two lattice configurations with different star-like unit cells, defined as structurally square re-entrant honeycomb (SSRH) and structurally hexagonal re-entrant honeycomb (SHRH), respectively. Identical band gaps involving their locations and widths, interestingly, are present in the two considered configurations, attributed to the resonance of the sketch folded sheets, the basic component elements for SSRH and SHRH. In addition, the concept of heuristic models is implemented to elucidate the underlying physics of the identical gaps. The phenomenon of the identical bandgaps is not only beneficial for people to further explore the band characteristics of lattice materials, but also provides the structurally re-entrant honeycombs as potential host structures for the design of lattice-based metamaterials of interest for elastic wave control. PMID:27586722

  2. Structural Analysis of Sandwich Foam Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Huo, X. Sharon

    2010-04-01

    The Sandwich Panel Technologies including Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) can be used to replace the conventional wooden-frame construction method. The main purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and SGI Venture, Inc. was to design a novel high R-value type of metal sandwich panelized technology. This CRADA project report presents design concept discussion and numerical analysis results from thermal performance study of this new building envelope system. The main objective of this work was to develop a basic concept of a new generation of wall panel technologies which will have R-value over R-20 will use thermal mass to improve energy performance in cooling dominated climates and will be 100% termite resistant. The main advantages of using sandwich panels are as follows: (1) better energy saving structural panels with high and uniform overall wall R-value across the elevation that could not be achieved in traditional walls; and (2) reducing the use of raw materials or need for virgin lumber. For better utilization of these Sandwich panels, engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the actual performance of the panels and system. Detailed analysis and study on the capacities and deformation of individual panels and its assembly have to be performed to achieve that goal. The major project activity was to conduct structural analysis of the stresses, strains, load capacities, and deformations of individual sandwich components under various load cases. The analysis simulated the actual loading conditions of the regular residential building and used actual material properties of the steel facings and foam.

  3. Prospects and limitations of digital Shearography and Active Thermography in finding and rating flaws in CFRP sandwich parts with honeycomb core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, J.; Mayr, G.; Hendorfer, G.

    2012-05-01

    This work shows the prospects and limitations of the non-destructive testing methods Digital Shearography and Active Thermography when applied to CFRP sandwich parts with honeycomb cores. Two specimens with different core materials (aluminum, NOMEX) and artificial flaws such as delaminations, disbonds and inclusions of foreign material, are tested with Digital Shearography and Pulse Thermography including Pulse Phase Thermography. Both methods provide a good ability for finding and rating the flaws.

  4. Hollow needle used to cut metal honeycomb structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, E. A.

    1966-01-01

    Hollow needle tool cuts metal honeycomb structures without damaging adjacent material. The hollow needle combines an electrostatic discharge and a stream of oxygen at a common point to effect rapid, accurate metal cutting. The tool design can be varied to use the hollow needle principle for cutting a variety of shapes.

  5. Plate Deformation Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composite-Ti Honeycomb-Metal Sandwiches for Pressurized Propulsion Component Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertelsen, William D.; Shin, E. eugene; Thesken, John C.; Sutter, James K.; Martin, Rich

    2004-01-01

    THe objectives are: 1. To experimentally validate bi-axial plate flexural performance of PMC-Ti H/C-A286 sandwich panels for the internally pressurized RBCC combustion chamber support structure. 2. To explore ASTM 2-D plate flexure test (D 6416) to simulate the internal pressure loading and to correlate the results with analytical and FE modeling based on 2-D flexure properties.

  6. Development of Pyrrone structural forms for honeycomb filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, B. G.

    1973-01-01

    The development of techniques for the preparation of Pyrrone structural foams for use as honeycomb filler is described. The feasibility of preparing foams from polymers formed by the condensation of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), or 3,3',4,4'-tetraaminobenzophenone (TABP), with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) was investigated. Initially, most of the effort was devoted to preparing Pyrrone prepolymers with improved and more reproducible foaming properties for making chemically blown foams. When it became apparent that very high curing shrinkages would not allow the use of unfilled Pyrrone prepolymers in a foam-in-place process, emphasis was shifted from chemically blown foams to syntactic foams. Syntactic foam formulations containing hollow carbon microspheres were developed. Syntactic foams made from selected formulations were found to have very low coefficients of thermal expansion. A technique was developed for the emplacement of Pyrrone syntactic foam formulations in honeycomb core structures.

  7. Characterization of Thermal and Mechanical Impact on Aluminum Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Christen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study supports NASA Kennedy Space Center's research in the area of intelligent thermal management systems and multifunctional thermal systems. This project addresses the evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of metallic cellular solid (MCS) materials; those that are lightweight; high strength, tunable, multifunctional and affordable. A portion of the work includes understanding the mechanical properties of honeycomb structured cellular solids upon impact testing under ambient, water-immersed, liquid nitrogen-cooled, and liquid nitrogen-immersed conditions. Additionally, this study will address characterization techniques of the aluminum honeycomb's ability to resist multiple high-rate loadings or impacts in varying environmental conditions, using various techniques for the quantitative and qualitative determination for commercial applicability.

  8. A preliminary report on the effect of elevated temperature exposure on the mechanical properties of titanium-alloy honeycomb-core sandwich panels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Cain, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A study has been initiated to determine the effects of elevated-temperature exposure on the room-temperature mechanical properties of titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated by brazing or spot diffusion bonding. Only flatwise tensile properties following exposure have been determined to date. Preliminary results indicate very little change in the flatwise tensile strength of sandwich panels fabricated by spot diffusion bonding following exposures of 10,000 hr at 600 and 800 F and 1000 hr at 1000 F. Titanium panels fabricated by using a Ti-Zr-Be braze alloy are susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperature and experience flatwise tensile strength degradation after continuous exposures of 7500 hr at 600 F, 1000 hr at 800 F, and less than 100 hr at 1000 F. It is possible that the exposure life of the brazed panels may be substantially increased if the panel edges are sealed to prevent oxidation of the braze alloy.

  9. Efficient Design and Analysis of Lightweight Reinforced Core Sandwich and PRSEUS Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Yarrington, Phillip W.; Lucking, Ryan C.; Collier, Craig S.; Ainsworth, James J.; Toubia, Elias A.

    2012-01-01

    Design, analysis, and sizing methods for two novel structural panel concepts have been developed and incorporated into the HyperSizer Structural Sizing Software. Reinforced Core Sandwich (RCS) panels consist of a foam core with reinforcing composite webs connecting composite facesheets. Boeing s Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) panels use a pultruded unidirectional composite rod to provide axial stiffness along with integrated transverse frames and stitching. Both of these structural concepts are ovencured and have shown great promise applications in lightweight structures, but have suffered from the lack of efficient sizing capabilities similar to those that exist for honeycomb sandwich, foam sandwich, hat stiffened, and other, more traditional concepts. Now, with accurate design methods for RCS and PRSEUS panels available in HyperSizer, these concepts can be traded and used in designs as is done with the more traditional structural concepts. The methods developed to enable sizing of RCS and PRSEUS are outlined, as are results showing the validity and utility of the methods. Applications include several large NASA heavy lift launch vehicle structures.

  10. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel: Comparison of In- and Out-of-Autoclave Facesheet Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kellas, Sotiris; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration and the NASA Constellation Ares V programs. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.0 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3 ft. by 5 ft. panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections and tested under compressive loading. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3 ft. by 5 ft. panel. To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yielded good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  11. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 3; 8-ply Out-of-Autoclave Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Myers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10 m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800B/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of the 3- by 5-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, T40-800B/5320-1 facesheets (referred to as Panel C). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D), models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength.

  12. The dynamic shear properties of structural honeycomb materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R. D.; Maheri, M. R.

    A technique is described for measuring the dynamic modulus and damping of honeycomb materials. Results of tests on both aluminium and Nomex honeycombs are presented and compared with those reported in the literature.

  13. Sound transmission loss of composite sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ran

    Light composite sandwich panels are increasingly used in automobiles, ships and aircraft, because of the advantages they offer of high strength-to-weight ratios. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can be less desirable than those of equivalent metal panels. These undesirable properties can lead to high interior noise levels. A number of researchers have studied the acoustical properties of honeycomb and foam sandwich panels. Not much work, however, has been carried out on foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels. In this dissertation, governing equations for the forced vibration of asymmetric sandwich panels are developed. An analytical expression for modal densities of symmetric sandwich panels is derived from a sixth-order governing equation. A boundary element analysis model for the sound transmission loss of symmetric sandwich panels is proposed. Measurements of the modal density, total loss factor, radiation loss factor, and sound transmission loss of foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels with different configurations and thicknesses are presented. Comparisons between the predicted sound transmission loss values obtained from wave impedance analysis, statistical energy analysis, boundary element analysis, and experimental values are presented. The wave impedance analysis model provides accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thin foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels at frequencies above their first resonance frequencies. The predictions from the statistical energy analysis model are in better agreement with the experimental transmission loss values of the sandwich panels when the measured radiation loss factor values near coincidence are used instead of the theoretical values for single-layer panels. The proposed boundary element analysis model provides more accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thick foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels than either the wave impedance analysis model or the

  14. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S.; Ordonez, E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Open cell metallic foam core sandwich panel structures are of interest for application in spacecraft micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields due to their novel form and advantageous structural and thermal performance. Repeated shocking as a result of secondary impacts upon individual foam ligaments during the penetration process acts to raise the thermal state of impacting projectiles ; resulting in fragmentation, melting, and vaporization at lower velocities than with traditional shielding configurations (e.g. Whipple shield). In order to characterize the protective capability of these structures, an extensive experimental campaign was performed by the Johnson Space Center Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility, the results of which are reported in this paper. Although not capable of competing against the protection levels achievable with leading heavy shields in use on modern high-risk vehicles (i.e. International Space Station modules), metallic foam core sandwich panels are shown to provide a substantial improvement over comparable structural panels and traditional low weight shielding alternatives such as honeycomb sandwich panels and metallic Whipple shields. A ballistic limit equation, generalized in terms of panel geometry, is derived and presented in a form suitable for application in risk assessment codes.

  15. High Velocity Impact Response of Composite Lattice Core Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Zhang, Guoqi; Wang, Shixun; Ma, Li; Wu, Linzhi

    2014-04-01

    In this research, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite sandwich structures with pyramidal lattice core subjected to high velocity impact ranging from 180 to 2,000 m/s have been investigated by experimental and numerical methods. Experiments using a two-stage light gas gun are conducted to investigate the impact process and to validate the finite element (FE) model. The energy absorption efficiency (EAE) in carbon fiber composite sandwich panels is compared with that of 304 stainless-steel and aluminum alloy lattice core sandwich structures. In a specific impact energy range, energy absorption efficiency in carbon fiber composite sandwich panels is higher than that of 304 stainless-steel sandwich panels and aluminum alloy sandwich panels owing to the big density of metal materials. Therefore, in addition to the multi-functional applications, carbon fiber composite sandwich panels have a potential advantage to substitute the metal sandwich panels as high velocity impact resistance structures under a specific impact energy range.

  16. Thermographic nondestructive testing (TNDT) of honeycomb composite structural parts of Atlas space launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Burleigh, D.D.; Kuhns, D.R.; Cowell, S.D.; Engel, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    Thermography is a means of recording the patterns of heat emission from a surface. Thermographic nondestructive testing (TNDT) uses this technology to detect sub-surface defects. Generally, a heat pulse is applied to a surface that is thermographically monitored. If a sub-surface defect exists that locally reduces or improves the thermal properties of the material, the surface thermal pattern will be perturbed over the defect. TNDT has been used successfully on a wide variety of composite laminates, filament-wound structures, sandwich structures, and foam-insulated cryogenic tanks. Both real structures with real delamination and impact damage, as well as test panels with simulated delaminations, face sheet disbonds, and interply implants have been tested. For some of these applications, TNDT is the best technique. The thrust structure at the aft end of the Atlas space launch vehicle is a composite sandwich comprised of aluminum honeycomb core with fiberglass/phenolic face sheets. The surface area of this structure is approximately 600 ft{sup 2}. In 1992, General Dynamics Space Systems Division (GDSS) began using TNDT for quality verification of these complex composite parts. TNDT has been used on these parts during manufacture and assembly, and on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral. The NDT technique previously used on these parts, since their design in 1957, was ``coin tap.`` Compared to this method, TNDT provides a greatly improved inspection in less time and at a lower cost. A heat gun with a diffuser attachment is used to heat the inspection area while the area is monitored thermographically. TNDT is a rapid, remote, non-contact, highly portable, real-time scanning technique that can provide a well-documented video record of subsurface structural details including facesheet disbonds and skin delaminations. A specification and test procedure has been written, equipment has been procured, and personnel have been trained and certified.

  17. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Inspection of Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Composite honeycomb structures are widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Flash thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Flash thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are discussed. Limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. In addition to flash thermography, X-ray computed tomography is used. The aluminum honeycomb core provides excellent X-ray contrast compared to the composite face sheet. The X-ray CT technique was used to detect impact damage, core crushing, and skin to core disbonds. Additionally, the X-ray CT technique is used to validate the thermography results.

  18. Fiber Composite Sandwich Thermostructural Behavior: Computational Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Aiello, R. A.; Murthy, P. L. N.

    1986-01-01

    Several computational levels of progressive sophistication/simplification are described to computationally simulate composite sandwich hygral, thermal, and structural behavior. The computational levels of sophistication include: (1) three-dimensional detailed finite element modeling of the honeycomb, the adhesive and the composite faces; (2) three-dimensional finite element modeling of the honeycomb assumed to be an equivalent continuous, homogeneous medium, the adhesive and the composite faces; (3) laminate theory simulation where the honeycomb (metal or composite) is assumed to consist of plies with equivalent properties; and (4) derivations of approximate, simplified equations for thermal and mechanical properties by simulating the honeycomb as an equivalent homogeneous medium. The approximate equations are combined with composite hygrothermomechanical and laminate theories to provide a simple and effective computational procedure for simulating the thermomechanical/thermostructural behavior of fiber composite sandwich structures.

  19. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel. Part 2; 6-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Meyers, David E.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Dixon, Genevieve D.

    2013-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panel types, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), were manufactured and tested under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Constellation Ares V program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: in-autoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3- by 5-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analyses were performed to predict the compressive response of each 3- by 5-ft panel. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panels composed of 6-ply, IM7/977-3 facesheets (referred to as Panels B-1 and B-2). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was correctly predicted that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber angle misalignments, and three-dimensional (3-D) effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  20. Phosphorenes with Non-Honeycomb Structures: A Much Extended Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Menghao; Fu, Huahua; Zhou, Ling; Yao, Kailun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Huazhong University of Science; Technology Team; University of Nebraska-Lincoln Team

    We predict a new class of monolayer phosphorous allotropes, namely, ɛ-P, ζ-P, η-P and θ-P. Distinctly different from the monolayer α-P (black) and previously predicted β-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 176802 (2014)), γ-P and δ-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 046804 (2014)) with buckled honeycomb lattice, the new allotropes are composed of P4 square or P5 pentagon units that favor tricoordination for P atoms. The new four phases, together with 5 hybrid phases, are confirmed stable by first-principles calculations. In particularly, the θ-P is shown to be equally stable as the α-P (black) and more stable than all previously reported phosphorene allotropes. Prediction of nonvolatile ferroelastic switching and structural transformation among different phases under strains points out their potential applications via strain engineering. MHW was supported by start-up fund from Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

  1. Structural modeling of sandwich structures with lightweight cellular cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Deng, Z. C.; Lu, T. J.

    2007-10-01

    An effective single layered finite element (FE) computational model is proposed to predict the structural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels having two dimensional (2D) prismatic or three dimensional (3D) truss cores. Three different types of cellular core topology are considered: pyramidal truss core (3D), Kagome truss core (3D) and corrugated core (2D), representing three kinds of material anisotropy: orthotropic, monoclinic and general anisotropic. A homogenization technique is developed to obtain the homogenized macroscopic stiffness properties of the cellular core. In comparison with the results obtained by using detailed FE model, the single layered computational model can give acceptable predictions for both the static and dynamic behaviors of orthotropic truss core sandwich panels. However, for non-orthotropic 3D truss cores, the predictions are not so well. For both static and dynamic behaviors of a 2D corrugated core sandwich panel, the predictions derived by the single layered computational model is generally acceptable when the size of the unit cell varies within a certain range, with the predictions for moderately strong or strong corrugated cores more accurate than those for weak cores.

  2. Methods for Using Durable Adhesively Bonded Joints for Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III (Inventor); Lundgren, Eric C. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems, methods, and apparatus for increasing durability of adhesively bonded joints in a sandwich structure. Such systems, methods, and apparatus includes an first face sheet and an second face sheet as well as an insert structure, the insert structure having a first insert face sheet, a second insert face sheet, and an insert core material. In addition, sandwich core material is arranged between the first face sheet and the second face sheet. A primary bondline may be coupled to the face sheet(s) and the splice. Further, systems, methods, and apparatus of the present disclosure advantageously reduce the load, provide a redundant path, reduce structural fatigue, and/or increase fatigue life.

  3. Actively cooled plate fin sandwich structural panels for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. M.; Beuyukian, C. S.

    1979-01-01

    An unshielded actively cooled structural panel was designed for application to a hypersonic aircraft. The design was an all aluminum stringer-stiffened platefin sandwich structure which used a 60/40 mixture of ethylene glycol/water as the coolant. Eight small test specimens of the basic platefin sandwich concept and three fatigue specimens from critical areas of the panel design was fabricated and tested (at room temperature). A test panel representative of all features of the panel design was fabricated and tested to determine the combined thermal/mechanical performance and structural integrity of the system. The overall findings are that; (1) the stringer-stiffened platefin sandwich actively cooling concept results in a low mass design that is an excellent contender for application to a hypersonic vehicle, and (2) the fabrication processes are state of the art but new or modified facilities are required to support full scale panel fabrication.

  4. Monte Carlo study of the honeycomb structure of anthraquinone molecules on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangmoo; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-06-01

    Using Monte Carlo calculations of the two-dimensional (2D) triangular lattice gas model, we demonstrate a mechanism for the spontaneous formation of honeycomb structure of anthraquinone (AQ) molecules on a Cu(111) plane. In our model long-range attractions play an important role, in addition to the long-range repulsions and short-range attractions proposed by Pawin, Wong, Kwon, and Bartels [ScienceSCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1129309 313, 961 (2006)]. We provide a global account of the possible combinations of long-range attractive coupling constants which lead to a honeycomb superstructure. We also provide the critical temperature of disruption of the honeycomb structure and compare the critical local coverage rate of AQ’s where the honeycomb structure starts to form with the experimental observations.

  5. Surface deformation monitoring and reconstruction of honeycomb structure based on FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shulin; Lu, Jiyun; Zheng, Zhaoyu

    2015-07-01

    Honeycomb structure with high stiffness and light weight is expected to be more applied in the field of morphing wing. We propose a surface reconstruction algorithm based on FBG sensors to reconstruct the surface deformation of honeycomb structure real-timely and rapidly. When flexible honeycomb cores are driven by SMA actuators, the surface curvature monitored by FBG sensing array can be inferred from the changes of central wavelength. According to the surface reconstruction algorithm we proposed, the surface shape can be reconstructed. Composite single-row honeycomb structure specimen consisting of 8 cores, whose cell walls length and thickness is 8mm and 2mm respectively, is bended by electrified SMA actuators into the new steady shape. The experiment shows that the reconstructed surface shape has great agreement with the visual recording surface shape and the error is 5.76% on average.

  6. Thermal and structural tests of Rene 41 honeycomb integral-tank concept for future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, John L.; Fields, Roger A.; Reardon, Lawrence F.; Gong, Leslie

    1992-01-01

    Two flat 12 by 72 inch Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich panels were tested in a manner to produce combined thermal and mechanical longitudinal stresses that simulated those that would occur in a larger, more complex integral tank and fuselage structure of an earth to orbit vehicle. Elastic strains measured at temperatures below 400 F are compared with calculated values obtained from a linear elastic finite element analysis to verify the analytical model and to establish confidence in the calculated strains. Elastic strain measurement at higher temperatures (between 600 F and 1400 F), where strain measurement is more difficult and less certain, are also compared with calculated strains. Agreement between measured and calculated strains for the lower temperatures is good, but agreement for the higher temperatures is poor because of unreliable strain measurements. Test results indicate that an ascent and entry life cycle of 500 is attainable under high combined thermal and mechanical elastic strains.

  7. Directed Self-Assembly of Large Scaffold-free Multicellular Honeycomb Structures

    PubMed Central

    Tejavibulya, Nalin; Youssef, Jacquelyn; Bao, Brian; Ferruccio, Toni-Marie; Morgan, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    A significant challenge to the field of biofabrication is the rapid construction of large three dimensional (3D) living tissues and organs. Multi-cellular spheroids have been used as building blocks. In this paper, we create large multi-cellular honeycomb building blocks using directed self-assembly, whereby cell-to-cell adhesion, in the context of the shape and obstacles of a micromold, drives the formation of a 3D structure. Computer aided design, rapid prototyping and replica molding were used to fabricate honeycomb-shaped micro-molds. Nonadhesive hydrogels cast from these micro-molds were equilibrated in cell culture medium and seeded with two types of mammalian cells. The cells settled into the honeycomb recess, were unable to attach to the nonadhesive hydrogel and so cell-to-cell adhesion drove the self-assembly of a large multicellular honeycomb within 24 hours. Distinct morphological changes occurred to the honeycomb and its cells indicating the presence of significant cell-mediated tension. Unlike the spheroid, whose size is constrained by a critical diffusion distance needed to maintain cell viability, the overall size of the honeycomb is not limited. The rapid production of the honeycomb building unit, with its multiple rings of high density cells and open lumen spaces, offers interesting new possibilities for biofabrication strategies. PMID:21828905

  8. Fiber Composite Sandwich Thermostructural Behavior - Computational Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Aiello, Robert A.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1988-01-01

    Four computational simulation methods with different levels of sophistication were used to simulate thermal behavior and structural changes of composite sandwich panels with a honeycomb core subjected to a variety of environmental effects. The models on thich these methods are based include three-dimensional finite-element modeling, three-dimensional finite-element modeling assuming a homogeneous core, laminate theory, and simple equations for predicting the equivalent properties of the honeycomb core. A procedure was developed and embedded in a composite mechanics computer code, which made it possile to conduct parametric studies to determine 'optimum' composite sandwich configurations for specific applications. The procedure was applied for the evaluation of composite sandwich behavior at the global, local, laminate, ply, and micromechanics levels when the composite sandwich is subjected to hygral, thermal, and mechanical loading environments.

  9. Buckling Design and Imperfection Sensitivity of Sandwich Composite Launch-Vehicle Shell Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Marc R.; Sleight, David W.; Myers, David E.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Lovejoy, Andrew W.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Composite materials are increasingly being considered and used for launch-vehicle structures. For shell structures, such as interstages, skirts, and shrouds, honeycomb-core sandwich composites are often selected for their structural efficiency. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the structural response, including buckling, of sandwich composite shell structures. Additionally, small geometric imperfections can significantly influence the buckling response, including considerably reducing the buckling load, of shell structures. Thus, both the response of the theoretically perfect structure and the buckling imperfection sensitivity must be considered during the design of such structures. To address the latter, empirically derived design factors, called buckling knockdown factors (KDFs), were developed by NASA in the 1960s to account for this buckling imperfection sensitivity during design. However, most of the test-article designs used in the development of these recommendations are not relevant to modern launch-vehicle constructions and material systems, and in particular, no composite test articles were considered. Herein, a two-part study on composite sandwich shells to (1) examine the relationship between the buckling knockdown factor and the areal mass of optimized designs, and (2) to interrogate the imperfection sensitivity of those optimized designs is presented. Four structures from recent NASA launch-vehicle development activities are considered. First, designs optimized for both strength and stability were generated for each of these structures using design optimization software and a range of buckling knockdown factors; it was found that the designed areal masses varied by between 6.1% and 19.6% over knockdown factors ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. Next, the buckling imperfection sensitivity of the optimized designs is explored using nonlinear finite-element analysis and the as-measured shape of a large-scale composite cylindrical

  10. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekharan, N.; Thompson, L. L.

    2016-04-01

    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation.

  11. Response of fiber reinforced sandwich structures subjected to explosive loading

    SciTech Connect

    Perotti, Luigi E.; El Sayed, Tamer; Deiterding, Ralf; Ortiz, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The capability to numerically simulate the response of sandwich structures to explosive loading constitutes a powerful tool to analyze and optimize their design by investigating the influence of different parameters. In order to achieve this objective, the necessary models for foam core and fiber reinforced materials in finite kinematics have been developed together with a finite element scheme which includes C1 finite elements for shells and cohesive elements able to capture the fracture propagation in composite fiber reinforced materials. This computational capability has been used to investigate the response of fiber reinforced sandwich shells to explosive loading. Based on the dissipated fracture energy resulting from these simulations, a factorial design has been carried out to assess the effect of different parameters on the sandwich shell response creating a tool for its optimization.

  12. Performance of Novel Composites and Sandwich Structures Under Blast Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Arun; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun; Gardner, Nate; Jackson, Matt; Wang, Erheng

    The current chapter focuses on the experimental observations of the resistance of different composite material systems to air blast loadings. These material systems include traditional two dimensional (2D) woven laminated composites, layered composites and sandwich composite materials. A controlled blast loading of pre-defined pressure magnitude and rise time were obtained using a shock tube apparatus. Rectangular plate elements of the desired material system were subjected to such a controlled blast loading and the effect of the blast loading on these elements were studied using optical and residual strength measurements. A high speed imaging technique was utilized to study the damage modes and mechanisms in real time. It was observed that layering of a conventional composite material with a soft visco-elastic polymer provided better blast resistance and sandwiching the polymer greatly enhanced its survivability under extreme air blast conditions. Aside from layering the conventional composite material with a soft visco-elastic polymer, it was observed that layering or grading the core can successfully mitigate the impact damage and thus improve the overall blast resistance as well. In addition to these, three dimensional (3D) woven skin and core reinforcements were introduced in the conventional sandwich composites and their effects on the blast resistance were studied experimentally. It was observed that these reinforcements also enhance the blast resistance of conventional sandwich composites by changing the mechanism of failure initiation and propagation in these sandwich structures. The energies during the blast loading process were estimated to illustrate the energy absorption and energy redistribution properties of the composite panels. The effect of pre-existing impact damage on the failure mechanisms in sandwich structures was also studied.

  13. Star cell type core configuration for structural sandwich materials

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A new pattern for cellular core material used in sandwich type structural materials. The new pattern involves star shaped cells intermixed with hexagonal shaped cells. The new patterned cellular core material includes star shaped cells interconnected at points thereof and having hexagonal shape cells positioned adjacent the star points. The new pattern allows more flexibility and can conform more easily to curved shapes.

  14. Structural Performance of Eco-Core Sandwich Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivakumar, Kunigal; Chen, Huanchun

    Eco-Core, a fire resistant core material for sandwich composite structures developed under the US Navy (ONR) program, was used to study its performance as a sandwich beam with glass/vinyl ester face sheet. Performance of Eco-Core was compared with balsa and PVC core sandwich panels. Test specimens were designed to simulate shear, flexural, and edgewise compression loadings. These tests were conducted on Eco-Core as well as balsa and PVC sandwich composite specimens. Failure loads and modes were compared with each other and the analytical prediction. Both Eco-Core and balsa cored sandwich beams had similar failure modes in all three test conditions. In the case of transversely loaded (four-point) beams Eco-Core specimens failed by core shear for span/depth (S/d) ratio less than 4 and the failure mode changed to core tension for S/d >4. This is attributed to weak tensile strength of the core material. An expression for core tension failure load based on beam theory was derived. On the other hand, ductile materials like PVC failed by core indentation. Under edgewise compression, face sheet microbuckling and general buckling are the two potential failure modes for Eco-Core and balsa core sandwich composites. For specimen length/depth ratio L/d <7 the failure is by face sheet microbuckling, for 7 ≤L/d ≤13 the failure is a combination of face sheet microbuckling, debonding and buckling, and for L/d >13 the failure is by general buckling. Predictions from the existing equations agreed well with the experiment for both core materials. For PVC core, wrinkling/shear buckling and general buckling are the potential failure modes. For L/d ≤8.5 the failure is wrinkling and for L/d >8.5 the failure is general buckling.

  15. Detection of disbonds in a honeycomb composite structure using guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baid, Harsh; Banerjee, Sauvik; Joshi, Shiv; Mal, Siddhartha

    2008-03-01

    Advanced composites are being used increasingly in state-of-the-art aircraft and aerospace structures. In spite of their many advantages composite materials are highly susceptible to hidden flaws that may occur at any time during the life cycle of a structure and if undetected, may cause sudden and catastrophic failure of the entire structure. An example of such a defects critical structural component is the "honeycomb composite" in which thin composite skins are bonded with adhesives to the two faces of extremely lightweight and relatively thick metallic honeycombs. These components are often used in aircraft and aerospace structures due to their high strength to weight ratio. Unfortunately, the bond between the honeycomb and the skin may degrade with age and service loads leading to separation of the load-bearing skin from the honeycomb (called "disbonds") and compromising the safety of the structure. This paper is concerned with the noninvasive detection of disbonds using ultrasonic guided waves. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a composite honeycomb specimen containing localized disbonded regions. Ultrasonic waves are launched into the specimen using a broadband PZT transducer and are detected by a distributed array of identical transducers located on the surface of the specimen. The guided wave components of the signals are shown to be very strongly influenced by the presence of a disbond. The experimentally observed results are being used to develop an autonomous scheme to locate the disbonds and to estimate their size.

  16. Development of biobased sandwich structures for mass transit application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munusamy, Sethu Raaj

    Efforts to increase the biobased content in sandwich composites are being investigated to reduce the dependence on synthetically produced or mined, energy-intensive materials for numerous composite applications. Vegetable oil-based polyurethane foams are gaining recognition as good substitutes for synthetic counter parts while utilizing bast fiber to replace fiberglass is also gaining credence. In this study, soy oil-based polyurethane foam was evaluated as a core in a sandwich construction with facesheets of hybridized kenaf and E-glass fibers in a vinyl ester resin matrix to replace traditionally used plywood sheeting on steel frame for mass transit bus flooring systems. As a first step towards implementation, the static performance of the biobased foam was compared to 100% synthetic foam. Secondly, biobased sandwich structures were processed and their static performance was compared to plywood. The biobased sandwich composites designed and processed were shown to hold promise towards replacing plywood for bus flooring applications by displaying an increase of 130% for flexural strength and 135% for flexural modulus plus better indentation values.

  17. Probability of Detection Study on Impact Damage to Honeycomb Composite Structure using Thermographic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andrew J.; Walker, James L., II

    2008-01-01

    A probability of detection study was performed for the detection of impact damage using flash heating infrared thermography on a full scale honeycomb composite structure. The honeycomb structure was an intertank structure from a previous NASA technology demonstration program. The intertank was fabricated from IM7/8552 carbon fiber/epoxy facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The intertank was impacted in multiple locations with a range of impact energies utilizing a spherical indenter. In a single blind study, the intertank was inspected with thermography before and after impact damage was incurred. Following thermographic inspection several impact sites were sectioned from the intertank and cross-sectioned for microscopic comparisons of NDE detection and actual damage incurred. The study concluded that thermographic inspection was a good method of detecting delamination damage incurred by impact. The 90/95 confidence level on the probability of detection was close to the impact energy that delaminations were first observed through cross-sectional analysis.

  18. Star cell type core configuration for structural sandwich materials

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, R.M.

    1995-08-01

    A new pattern for cellular core material used in sandwich type structural materials is disclosed. The new pattern involves star shaped cells intermixed with hexagonal shaped cells. The new patterned cellular core material includes star shaped cells interconnected at points thereof and having hexagonal shape cells positioned adjacent the star points. The new pattern allows more flexibility and can conform more easily to curved shapes. 3 figs.

  19. A study of structurally efficient graphite-thermoplastic trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semi-sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1993-01-01

    The structural efficiency of compression-loaded trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semi-sandwich composite panels is studied to determine their weight savings potential. Sandwich panels with two identical face sheets and a trapezoidal corrugated core between them, and semi-sandwich panels with a corrugation attached to a single skin are considered. An optimization code is used to find the minimum weight designs for critical compressive load levels ranging from 3,000 to 24,000 lb/in. Graphite-thermoplastic panels based on the optimal minimum weight designs were fabricated and tested. A finite-element analysis of several test specimens was also conducted. The results of the optimization study, the finite-element analysis, and the experiments are presented.

  20. Creating "hotels" for cells by electrospinning honeycomb-like polymeric structures.

    PubMed

    Liang, T; Mahalingam, S; Edirisinghe, M

    2013-10-01

    It is well established that three-dimensional honeycomb-like nanofibrous structures enhance cell activity. In this work, we report that electrospun polymer nanofibres self-assemble into three-dimensional honeycomb-like structures. The underlying mechanism is studied by varying the polymer solution concentration, collecting substrates and working distance. The polymer solution concentration has a significant effect on the size of the electrospun nanofibres. The collection substrate and working distance affect the electric field strength, the evaporation of solvent and the discharging of nanofibres and consequently these two had a significant influence on the self-assembly of nanofibres.

  1. Flow past an array of catalyst blocks with a honeycomb structure

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalov, A.V.

    1992-07-10

    There is interest in an organized stationary catalyst beds consisting of block catalysts with a honeycomb structure: The flow is directed between vertically positioned blocks, in which the through channels are oriented perpendicularly to the direction of the incident flow ({alpha} = 90{degrees}). Calculations of the flow past a single block of honey comb structure were performed for this case, and it has been shown that the surface of the through channel is accessible to the reaction flow. The authors continued this effort to quantitate the flow with honeycomb catalysts. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Novel MRE/CFRP sandwich structures for adaptive vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowska, J.; Boczkowska, A.; Czulak, A.; Przybyszewski, B.; Holeczek, K.; Stanik, R.; Gude, M.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was the development of sandwich structures formed by embedding magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) between constrained layers of carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates. The MREs were obtained by mechanical stirring of a reactive mixture of substrates with carbonyl-iron particles, followed by orienting the particles into chains under an external magnetic field. Samples with particle volume fractions of 11.5% and 33% were examined. The CFRP/MRE sandwich structures were obtained by compressing MREs samples between two CFRP laminates composed. The used A.S.SET resin was in powder form and the curing process was carried out during pressing with MRE. The microstructure of the manufactured sandwich beams was inspected using SEM. Moreover, the rheological and damping properties of the examined materials with and without a magnetic field were experimentally investigated. In addition, the free vibration responses of the adaptive three-layered MR beams were studied at different fixed magnetic field levels. The free vibration tests revealed that an applied non-homogeneous magnetic field causes a shift in natural frequency values and a reduction in the vibration amplitudes of the CFRP/MRE adaptive beams. The reduction in vibration amplitude was attributed mainly to the stiffening effect of the MRE core and only a minor contribution was made by the enhanced damping capacity, which was evidenced by the variation in damping ratio values.

  3. Combination of plasma with a honeycomb-structured catalyst for automobile exhaust treatment.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo Seok; Lee, Dae Hoon; Lee, Jae-Ok; Hur, Min; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-10-01

    To activate a catalyst efficiently at low temperature by plasma for environmental control, we developed a hybrid reactor that combines plasma with a honeycomb-structured catalyst in a practical manner. The reactor developed generated stable cold plasma at atmospheric pressure because of the dielectric and conductive nature of the honeycomb catalyst by consuming low amounts of power. In this reactor, the applied voltage and temperature determined the balance between the oxidation and adsorption by the plasma and catalyst. The synergistic reaction of the plasma and catalyst was more effective at low temperatures, resulting in a reduction in a lowered light-off temperature.

  4. Elastic constants for superplastically formed/diffusion-bonded corrugated sandwich core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formulas and associated graphs for evaluating the effective elastic constants for a superplastically formed/diffusion bonded (SPF/DB) corrugated sandwich core, are presented. A comparison of structural stiffnesses of the sandwich core and a honeycomb core under conditions of equal sandwich core density was made. The stiffness in the thickness direction of the optimum SPF/DB corrugated core (that is, triangular truss core) is lower than that of the honeycomb core, and that the former has higher transverse shear stiffness than the latter.

  5. Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

  6. Compressive failure modes and parameter optimization of the trabecular structure of biomimetic fully integrated honeycomb plates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinxiang; Tuo, Wanyong; Zhang, Xiaoming; He, Chenglin; Xie, Juan; Liu, Chang

    2016-12-01

    To develop lightweight biomimetic composite structures, the compressive failure and mechanical properties of fully integrated honeycomb plates were investigated experimentally and through the finite element method. The results indicated that: fracturing of the fully integrated honeycomb plates primarily occurred in the core layer, including the sealing edge structure. The morphological failures can be classified into two types, namely dislocations and compactions, and were caused primarily by the stress concentrations at the interfaces between the core layer and the upper and lower laminations and secondarily by the disordered short-fiber distribution in the material; although the fully integrated honeycomb plates manufactured in this experiment were imperfect, their mass-specific compressive strength was superior to that of similar biomimetic samples. Therefore, the proposed bio-inspired structure possesses good overall mechanical properties, and a range of parameters, such as the diameter of the transition arc, was defined for enhancing the design of fully integrated honeycomb plates and improving their compressive mechanical properties. PMID:27612711

  7. Quiet Honeycomb Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Sandwich honeycomb composite panels are lightweight and strong, and, therefore, provide a reasonable alternative to the aluminum ring frame/stringer architecture currently used for most aircraft airframes. The drawback to honeycomb panels is that they radiate noise into the aircraft cabin veil- efficiently provoking the need for additional sound treatment which adds weight and reduces the material's cost advantage. A series of honeycomb panels was made -hick incorporated different design strategies aimed at reducing the honeycomb panels' radiation efficiency while at the same time maintaining their strength. The majority of the designs were centered around the concept of creating areas of reduced stiffness in the panel by adding voids and recesses to the core. The effort culminated with a reinforced/recessed panel which had 6 dB higher transmission loss than the baseline solid core panel while maintaining comparable strength.

  8. Evaluation of Sandwich Structure Bonding In Out-of-Autoclave Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung; Baughman, James M.; Zimmerman, Thomas J.; Sutter, James K.; Gardner, John M.

    2010-01-01

    The out-of-autoclave-vacuum-bag-only (OOA-VBO) process is low in capital expenditures compared to the traditional autoclave, however, the material challenges for OOA-VBO workable material systems are high. Presently there are few such aerospace grade prepreg materials available commercially. In this study, we evaluated processing and properties of honeycomb sandwich structure (HC/SS) panels fabricated by co-curing composite face sheet with adhesives by the OOA-VBO process in an oven. The prepreg materials were IM7/MTM 45-1 and T40-800B/5320. Adhesives studied were AF-555M, XMTA-241/PM15, FM-309-1M and FM-300K. Aluminum H/C cores with and without perforations were included. It was found that adhesives in IM7/MTM 45-1/AF-555M, T40-800B/5320/FM 309-1M and T40-800B/5320/FM-300K panels all foamed but yielded high flatwise tensile (FWT) strength values above 8,275 kPA (1,200 psi). IM7/MTM 45-1/XMTA-241/PM15 did not foam, yet yielded a low FWT strength. SEM photomicrographs revealed that the origin of this low strength was poor adhesion in the interfaces between the adhesive and face sheet composite due to poor wetting associated with the high initial viscosity of the XMTA-241/PM15 adhesive.

  9. Honeycomb vs. Foam: Evaluating Potential Upgrades to ISS Module Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon J.; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of honeycomb cells in a dual-wall structure is advantageous for mechanical performance and low weight in spacecraft primary structures but detrimental for shielding against impact of micrometeoroid and orbital debris particles (MMOD). The presence of honeycomb cell walls acts to restrict the expansion of projectile and bumper fragments, resulting in the impact of a more concentrated (and thus lethal) fragment cloud upon the shield rear wall. The Multipurpose Laboratory Module (MLM) is a Russian research module scheduled for launch and ISS assembly in 2011 (currently under review). Baseline shielding of the MLM is expected to be predominantly similar to that of the existing Functional Energy Block (FGB), utilizing a baseline triple wall configuration with honeycomb sandwich panels for the dual bumpers and a thick monolithic aluminum pressure wall. The MLM module is to be docked to the nadir port of the Zvezda service module and, as such, is subject to higher debris flux than the FGB module (which is aligned along the ISS flight vector). Without upgrades to inherited shielding, the MLM penetration risk is expected to be significantly higher than that of the FGB module. Open-cell foam represents a promising alternative to honeycomb as a sandwich panel core material in spacecraft primary structures as it provides comparable mechanical performance with a minimal increase in weight while avoiding structural features (i.e. channeling cells) detrimental to MMOD shielding performance. In this study, the effect of replacing honeycomb sandwich panel structures with metallic open-cell foam structures on MMOD shielding performance is assessed for an MLM-representative configuration. A number of hypervelocity impact tests have been performed on both the baseline honeycomb configuration and upgraded foam configuration, and differences in target damage, failure limits, and derived ballistic limit equations are discussed.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Inserts in Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyawanichakul, P.; Castanie, B.; Barrau, J.-J.

    2005-05-01

    In aeronautics, sandwich structures are widely used for secondary structures like flaps or landing gear doors. In the case of landing gear doors, the junction is made by a local reinforcement called an insert. This insert is made by a resin molded in the Nomex™ sandwich core. Such structures are still designed mainly using test results and the lack of an efficient numerical model remains a problem. The purpose of this study is on the one hand to perform experiments in order to be able to identify the failure modes and on the other hand to propose an efficient numerical model. Pull-out tests with cycling were conducted and 3D displacement measured by optical methods. The potential failure modes are numerous (delamination, local fiber breaking, skin/core debonding, core crushing, core shear buckling, potting failure, etc.). Experiments demonstrated that, for the lower loads, the non-linearity and the hysteresis are mainly due to core shear buckling. From this observation, the nonlinear behavior of the core is identified by a 3 point-bending test. The shear-modulus damage law is then implemented on a non-linear finite element model and an acceptable correlation of the tests is achieved. As a consequence, some improvements of the technology will be proposed, manufactured and tested.

  11. Choice of optimal properties of molding compounds for extrusion of block supports and catalysts with the honeycomb structure

    SciTech Connect

    Prokof`ev, V.Yu.; Il`in, A.P.; Shirokov, Yu.G.; Yurchenko, E.N.

    1995-09-20

    Properties of compounds for molding of block supports and catalysts with the honeycomb structure have been studied. The examples studied include ultraporcelain, alumina, titanium dioxide, clays, and graphite. The molding properties of these compounds are characterized by such parameters as the relationship between deformations, relaxation time, power for destruction of the coagulation structure, and flow index. For molding of blocks with the honeycomb structure compounds with enhanced plastic properties and a stable coagulation structure are suggested.

  12. Probabilistic Structural Evaluation of Uncertainties in Radiator Sandwich Panel Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuguoglu, Latife; Ludwiczak, Damian

    2006-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Space System is part of the NASA's Prometheus Program. As part of the JIMO engineering team at NASA Glenn Research Center, the structural design of the JIMO Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) is evaluated. An initial goal of this study was to perform sensitivity analyses to determine the relative importance of the input variables on the structural responses of the radiator panel. The desire was to let the sensitivity analysis information identify the important parameters. The probabilistic analysis methods illustrated here support this objective. The probabilistic structural performance evaluation of a HRS radiator sandwich panel was performed. The radiator panel structural performance was assessed in the presence of uncertainties in the loading, fabrication process variables, and material properties. The stress and displacement contours of the deterministic structural analysis at mean probability was performed and results presented. It is followed by a probabilistic evaluation to determine the effect of the primitive variables on the radiator panel structural performance. Based on uncertainties in material properties, structural geometry and loading, the results of the displacement and stress analysis are used as an input file for the probabilistic analysis of the panel. The sensitivity of the structural responses, such as maximum displacement and maximum tensile and compressive stresses of the facesheet in x and y directions and maximum VonMises stresses of the tube, to the loading and design variables is determined under the boundary condition where all edges of the radiator panel are pinned. Based on this study, design critical material and geometric parameters of the considered sandwich panel are identified.

  13. Experimental Analysis and Modeling of the Crushing of Honeycomb Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminanda, Y.; Castanié, B.; Barrau, J.-J.; Thevenet, P.

    2005-05-01

    In the aeronautical field, sandwich structures are widely used for secondary structures like flaps or landing gear doors. The modeling of low velocity/low energy impact, which can lead to a decrease of the structure strength by 50%, remains a designer’s main problem. Since this type of impact has the same effect as quasi-static indentation, the study focuses on the behavior of honeycomb cores under compression. The crushing phenomenon has been well identified for years but its mechanism is not described explicitly and the model proposed may not satisfy industrial purposes. To understand the crushing mechanism, honeycomb test specimens made of Nomex™, aluminum alloy and paper were tested. During the crushing, a CCD camera showed that the cell walls buckled very quickly. The peak load recorded during tests corresponded to the buckling of the common edge of three honeycomb cells. Further tests on corner structures to simulate only one vertical edge of a honeycomb cell show a similar behavior. The different specimens exhibited similar load/displacement curves and the differences observed were only due to the behavior of the different materials. As a conclusion of this phenomenological study, the hypothesis that loads are mainly taken by the vertical edge can be made. So, a honeycomb core subjected to compression can be modeled by a grid of nonlinear springs. A simple analytical model was then developed and validated by tests on Nomex™ honeycomb core indented by different sized spherical indenters. A good correlation between theory and experiment was found. This result can be used to satisfactorily model using finite elements the indentation on a sandwich structure with a metallic or composite skin and honeycomb core.

  14. Viscoelastic lithography for fabricating self-organizing soft micro-honeycomb structures with ultra-high aspect ratios

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Gi Seok; No, Da Yoon; Lee, JaeSeo; Yoon, Junghyo; Chung, Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    High-aspect ratio micro- and nano-structures have been used for the production of a variety of applications. In this paper, we describe a simple and cost-effective approach to fabricate an arrayed microarchitecture with an ultra-high aspect ratio using soft materials. The shapes and sizes of the honeycomb structure can be easily modulated by changing the dimensions and position of the base mould pattern and the pressure. The honeycomb structure is used to prepare a drug delivery patch and a microwell array to form cell spheroids without cell loss. The honeycomb structures prepared using natural ECM (collagen–Matrigel) materials are successfully fabricated. The hepatocytes and endothelial cells are seeded and co-cultured in the ECM-based micro-honeycomb to prepare a 3D liver model successfully mimicking an ultrastructure of liver and providing enhanced liver function. PMID:27157977

  15. Viscoelastic lithography for fabricating self-organizing soft micro-honeycomb structures with ultra-high aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Gi Seok; No, Da Yoon; Lee, Jaeseo; Yoon, Junghyo; Chung, Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-05-01

    High-aspect ratio micro- and nano-structures have been used for the production of a variety of applications. In this paper, we describe a simple and cost-effective approach to fabricate an arrayed microarchitecture with an ultra-high aspect ratio using soft materials. The shapes and sizes of the honeycomb structure can be easily modulated by changing the dimensions and position of the base mould pattern and the pressure. The honeycomb structure is used to prepare a drug delivery patch and a microwell array to form cell spheroids without cell loss. The honeycomb structures prepared using natural ECM (collagen-Matrigel) materials are successfully fabricated. The hepatocytes and endothelial cells are seeded and co-cultured in the ECM-based micro-honeycomb to prepare a 3D liver model successfully mimicking an ultrastructure of liver and providing enhanced liver function.

  16. Damping Properties of Sandwich Truss Core Structures by Strain Energy Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesolowski, M.; Rucevskis, S.; Janeliukstis, R.; Polanski, M.

    2015-11-01

    Sandwich panel structures with stiff face sheets and cellular cores are widely used to support dynamic loads. Combining face sheets made of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with an aluminium pyramidal truss improves the damping performance of the structure due to viscoelastic character of CRFP composites. To predict the damping characteristics of the pyramidal truss core sandwich panel the strain energy method is adopted. The procedure for evaluating the damping of the sandwich panel was performed using commercial finite element software NASTRAN and MATLAB. Non-contact vibration tests were performed on the real sandwich panels in order to extract the modal characteristics and compare them with the numerical predictions.

  17. An `H'-shape three-dimensional meta-material used in honeycomb structure absorbing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Daqing; Kang, Feiyu; Zhou, Zhuohui; Cheng, Hongfei; Ding, Heyan

    2015-03-01

    An `H'-shape three-dimensional meta-material structure which loaded on the sidewall of honeycomb structure absorbing material was designed and fabricated in this project. The simulation results demonstrated a super-wide absorption band below -10 dB between 2.3 and 18 GHz, which expanded 7 GHz compared with the absorber without meta-material. The relative impedance curve was analyzed, which showed that the meta-material has little impact on the impedance-matching characteristics of the honeycomb structure absorbing material. We further studied the distribution of both electronic field energy and magnetic field energy. The former one indicated that the low-frequency absorption peaks could easily be moved by adjusting the parameters of the parallel-plate capacitors which generate electric resonance, and the latter one illustrated that the three-dimensional meta-material could generate magnetic resonance between units which would not exist in two-dimensional meta-material. Then we verified the simulation results through experiment which display a similar absorbing curve. The differences between simulation results and experiment results were caused by the addition substrate of the meta-material, which could not be eliminated in this experiment. However, it still implied that we can obtain a meta-material absorber that has a super-wide absorbing band if we can put the meta-material on the sidewall of the honeycomb without attachments.

  18. Detecting water in aviation honeycomb structures by using transient infrared thermographic NDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilov, Vladimir P.; Klimov, Alexey G.; Nesteruk, Dmitry; Shiryaev, Vladimir V.

    2003-04-01

    A lot of structural key elements of many modern civilian and military airplanes, such as flaps, keel, etc., are made of honeycomb structures. Honeycombs involve a combination of some materials including aluminum, Nomex, glass and graphite epoxy composites. During exploitation, atmosphere water could penetrate these structures due to possible imperfections in various junctions, and, thus, deteriorate airplane durability. In Russia, water in honeycombs is typically detected by using the X ray and ultrasonic technique. However, the X ray equipment is hardly accepted by commercial airlines because of the safety reason, and the point-by-point ultrasonic inspection is low-productive. Since 2002, we develop the IR thermographic method of detecting water by thermally stimulating aviation panels under test. Unlike the technique accepted by Airbus Industry, Inc., that uses 'a warm blanket', we use a powerful optical heater assembled with an IR camera into a single set. The first stage of research included modeling the detection process and optimizing the experimental procedure. As a result, we have demonstrated that, due to the high heat capacity of water, a temperature signal over moist areas evolves in time during a relatively long period that relaxes the requirements to the test protocol. Thus, even aluminum panels can be thermally stimulated during few seconds with a delay time being also in a few second range. A similar protocol can be applied to the inspection of composite honeycombs where the image quality resembles that obtained by X rays. The paper will describe all stages of the research starting from modeling and finishing with the preliminary experimental results obtained in situ on civilian airplanes.

  19. Minimum-Weight Sandwich Structure Optimum Design Subjected to Torsional Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Gangyan; Wang, Chun H.; You, Min

    2012-04-01

    As one of the most valued structural engineering innovations developed by the composites industry, sandwich structures are now used extensively in automotive, aerospace and civil infrastructure due to the main advantage of lightweight. This paper develops a minimum weight optimization method for sandwich structure subjected to torsion load. The design process are identified for a sandwich structure required to meet the design constraint of torsion stiffness. The optimum solutions show that at optimum design the core weight accounts for 66.7% of the whole sandwich structure. To illustrate the newly developed optimum design solutions, numerical examples are presented for sandwich structures made of either isotropic face skins or orthotropic composite face skins. Agreement between the theoretical analysis and the examples results is good.

  20. Finite Element Development of Honeycomb Panel Configurations with Improved Transmission Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob; Castle, William D.

    2006-01-01

    The higher stiffness-to-mass ratio of a honeycomb panel compared to a homogeneous panel results in a lower acoustic critical frequency. Above the critical frequency the panel flexural wave speed is acoustically fast and the structure becomes a more efficient radiator with associated lower sound transmission loss. Finite element models of honeycomb sandwich structures are presented featuring areas where the core is removed from the radiating face sheet disrupting the supersonic flexural and shear wave speeds that exist in the baseline honeycomb panel. These modified honeycomb panel structures exhibit improved transmission loss for a pre-defined diffuse field sound excitation. The models were validated by the sound transmission loss of honeycomb panels measured in the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. A honeycomb core panel configuration is presented exhibiting a transmission loss improvement of 3-11 dB compared to a honeycomb baseline panel over a frequency range from 170 Hz to 1000 Hz. The improved transmission loss panel configuration had a 5.1% increase in mass over the baseline honeycomb panel, and approximately twice the deflection when excited by a static force.

  1. Classification of defects in honeycomb composite structure of helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaskó, M.; Sváb, E.; Molnár, Gy.; Veres, I.

    2005-04-01

    The use of non-destructive testing methods to qualify the state of rotor blades with respect to their expected flight hours, with the aim to extend their lifetime without any risk of breakdown, is an important financial demand. In order to detect the possible defects in the composite structure of Mi-8 and Mi-24 type helicopter rotor blades used by the Hungarian Army, we have performed combined neutron- and X-ray radiography measurements at the Budapest Research Reactor. Several types of defects were detected, analysed and typified. Among the most frequent and important defects observed were cavities, holes and/or cracks in the sealing elements on the interface of the honeycomb structure and the section boarders. Inhomogeneities of the resin materials (resin-rich or starved areas) at the core-honeycomb surfaces proved to be an other important point. Defects were detected at the adhesive filling, and water percolation was visualized at the sealing interfaces of the honeycomb sections. Corrosion effects, and metal inclusions have also been detected.

  2. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  3. Optimum Design of Composite Sandwich Structures Subjected to Combined Torsion and Bending Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Gangyan; Wang, Chun H.; You, Min

    2012-06-01

    This research is motivated by the increase use of composite sandwich structures in a wide range of industries such as automotive, aerospace and civil infrastructure. To maximise stiffness at minimum weight, the paper develops a minimum weight optimization method for sandwich structure under combined torsion and bending loads. We first extend the minimum-weight design of sandwich structures under bending load to the case of torsional deformation and then present optimum solutions for the combined requirements of both bending and torsional stiffness. Three design cases are identified for a sandwich structure required to meet multiple design constraints of torsion and bending stiffness. The optimum solutions for all three cases are derived. To illustrate the newly developed optimum design solutions, numerical examples are presented for sandwich structures made of either isotropic face skins or orthotropic composite face skins.

  4. Development and fabrication of an autoclave molded PES/Quartz sandwich radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Leonard E.; Levin, Stephen D.

    1993-04-01

    A cohesively bonded, thermoplastic composite sandwich radome for a leading edge supersonic aircraft has been built using autoclave processing with PES/Quartz prepreg and a PES coated honeycomb core. Processes were developed for solvent removal, thermoplastic laminate consolidation, surface etching to improve adhesion, honeycomb coating and forming, and ultrasound testing of bond integrity. Environmental testing was also conducted to verify the structural integrity of the radome for its intended application.

  5. Buckling Testing and Analysis of Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Arc Segments of a Full-Scale Fairing Barrel Part 1: 8-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets. Part 1; 8-Ply In-Autoclave Facesheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, David E.; Pineda, Evan J.; Zalewski, Bart F.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Kellas, Sotiris

    2013-01-01

    Four honeycomb sandwich panels, representing 1/16th arc segments of a 10-m diameter barrel section of the heavy lift launch vehicle, were manufactured under the NASA Composites for Exploration program and the NASA Space Launch Systems program. Two configurations were chosen for the panels: 6-ply facesheets with 1.125 in. honeycomb core and 8-ply facesheets with 1.000 in. honeycomb core. Additionally, two separate carbon fiber/epoxy material systems were chosen for the facesheets: inautoclave IM7/977-3 and out-of-autoclave T40-800b/5320-1. Smaller 3.00- by 5.00-ft panels were cut from the 1/16th barrel sections. These panels were tested under compressive loading at the NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, linear eigenvalue and geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis was performed to predict the compressive response of the 3.00- by 5.00-ft panels. This manuscript summarizes the experimental and analytical modeling efforts pertaining to the panel composed of 8-ply, IM7/977-3 facesheets (referred to Panel A). To improve the robustness of the geometrically nonlinear finite element model, measured surface imperfections were included in the geometry of the model. Both the linear and nonlinear models yield good qualitative and quantitative predictions. Additionally, it was predicted correctly that the panel would fail in buckling prior to failing in strength. Furthermore, several imperfection studies were performed to investigate the influence of geometric imperfections, fiber misalignments, and three-dimensional (3 D) effects on the compressive response of the panel.

  6. Measuring Moisture Levels in Graphite Epoxy Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Graphite epoxy composite (GEC) materials are used in the construction of rocket fairings, nose cones, interstage adapters, and heat shields due to their high strength and light weight. However, they absorb moisture depending on the environmental conditions they are exposed to prior to launch. Too much moisture absorption can become a problem when temperature and pressure changes experienced during launch cause the water to vaporize. The rapid state change of the water can result in structural failure of the material. In addition, heat and moisture combine to weaken GEC structures. Diffusion models that predict the total accumulated moisture content based on the environmental conditions are one accepted method of determining if the material strength has been reduced to an unacceptable level. However, there currently doesn t exist any field measurement technique to estimate the actual moisture content of a composite structure. A multi-layer diffusion model was constructed with Mathematica to predict moisture absorption and desorption from the GEC sandwich structure. This model is used in conjunction with relative humidity/temperature sensors both on the inside and outside of the material to determine the moisture levels in the structure. Because the core materials have much higher diffusivity than the face sheets, a single relative humidity measurement will accurately reflect the moisture levels in the core. When combined with an external relative humidity measurement, the model can be used to determine the moisture levels in the face sheets. Since diffusion is temperaturedependent, the temperature measurements are used to determine the diffusivity of the face sheets for the model computations.

  7. Ultra-Lightweight Nanocomposite Foams and Sandwich Structures for Space Structure Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Seng

    2012-01-01

    Microcellular nanocomposite foams and sandwich structures have been created to have excellent electrical conductivity and radiation-resistant properties using a new method that does not involve or release any toxicity. The nanocomposite structures have been scaled up in size to 12 X 12 in. (30 X 30 cm) for components fabrication. These sandwich materials were fabricated mainly from PE, CNF, and carbon fibers. Test results indicate that they have very good compression and compression-after-impact properties, excellent electrical conductivity, and superior space environment durability. Compression tests show that 1000 ESH (equivalent Sun hours) of UV exposure has no effect on the structural properties of the sandwich structures. The structures are considerably lighter than aluminum alloy (= 36 percent lighter), which translates to 36 percent weight savings of the electronic enclosure and its housing. The good mechanical properties of the materials may enable the electronic housing to be fabricated with a thinner structure that further reduces the weight. There was no difficulty in machining the sandwich specimens into electronic enclosure housing.

  8. Electrochemical properties of honeycomb-like structured HFBI self-organized membranes on HOPG electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Ryota; Takatsuji, Yoshiyuki; Lienemann, Michael; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi; Linder, Markus; Haruyama, Tetsuya

    2014-11-01

    HFBI (derived from Trichoderma sp.) is a unique structural protein, which forms a self-organized monolayer at both air/water interface and water/solid interfaces in accurate two-dimensional ordered structures. We have taken advantage of the unique functionality of HFBI as a molecular carrier for preparation of ordered molecular phase on solid substrate surfaces. The HFBI molecular carrier can easily form ordered structures; however, the dense molecular layers form an electrochemical barrier between the electrode and solution phase. In this study, the electrochemical properties of HFBI self-organized membrane-covered electrodes were investigated. Wild-type HFBI has balanced positive and negative charges on its surface. Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes coated with HFBI molecules were investigated electrochemically. To improve the electrochemical properties of this HFBI-coated electrode, the two types of HFBI variants, with oppositely charged surfaces, were prepared genetically. All three types of HFBI-coated HOPG electrode perform electron transfer between the electrode and solution phase through the dense HFBI molecular layer. This is because the HFBI self-organized membrane has a honeycomb-like structure, with penetrating holes. In the cases of HFBI variants, the oppositely charged HFBI membrane phases shown opposite electrochemical behaviors in electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. HFBI is a molecule with a unique structure, and can easily form honeycomb-like structures on solid material surfaces such as electrodes. The molecular membrane phase can be used for electrochemical molecular interfaces.

  9. Development of graphite/polyimide honeycomb core materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Honeycomb panel constructions consisting entirely of graphite/polyimide composites were developed and evaluated. Graphite/polyimide composites, were used in the honeycomb core webs and in pre-cured sandwich skins. Polyimide adhesives were also developed and evaluated for use in skin-core bonding. The purpose of this program was to develop light weight sandwich constructions for high temperature applications which could provide comparable shear strength and stiffness to metallic honeycomb constructions.

  10. Optimized Non-Obstructive Particle Damping (NOPD) Treatment for Composite Honeycomb Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, H.

    2008-01-01

    Non-Obstructive Particle Damping (NOPD) technology is a passive vibration damping approach whereby metallic or non-metallic particles in spherical or irregular shapes, of heavy or light consistency, and even liquid particles are placed inside cavities or attached to structures by an appropriate means at strategic locations, to absorb vibration energy. The objective of the work described herein is the development of a design optimization procedure and discussion of test results for such a NOPD treatment on honeycomb (HC) composite structures, based on finite element modeling (FEM) analyses, optimization and tests. Modeling and predictions were performed and tests were carried out to correlate the test data with the FEM. The optimization procedure consisted of defining a global objective function, using finite difference methods, to determine the optimal values of the design variables through quadratic linear programming. The optimization process was carried out by targeting the highest dynamic displacements of several vibration modes of the structure and finding an optimal treatment configuration that will minimize them. An optimal design was thus derived and laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate its performance under different vibration environments. Three honeycomb composite beams, with Nomex core and aluminum face sheets, empty (untreated), uniformly treated with NOPD, and optimally treated with NOPD, according to the analytically predicted optimal design configuration, were tested in the laboratory. It is shown that the beam with optimal treatment has the lowest response amplitude. Described below are results of modal vibration tests and FEM analyses from predictions of the modal characteristics of honeycomb beams under zero, 50% uniform treatment and an optimal NOPD treatment design configuration and verification with test data.

  11. Topological Properties of Atomic Lead Film with Honeycomb Structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y H; Zhou, D; Wang, T; Yang, Shengyuan A; Jiang, J Z

    2016-02-25

    Large bandgap is desired for the fundamental research as well as applications of topological insulators. Based on first-principles calculations, here we predict a new family of two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators in functionalized atomic lead films Pb-X (X = H, F, Cl, Br, I and SiH3). All of them have large bandgaps with the largest one above 1 eV, far beyond the recorded gap values and large enough for practical applications even at room temperature. Besides chemical functionalization, external strain can also effectively tune the bandgap while keeping the topological phase. Thus, the topological properties of these materials are quite robust, and as a result there exist 1D topological edge channels against backscattering. We further show that the 2D Pb structure can be encapsulated by SiO2 with very small lattice mismatch and still maintains its topological character. All these features make the 2D atomic Pb films a promising platform for fabricating novel topological electronic devices.

  12. Topological Properties of Atomic Lead Film with Honeycomb Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y. H.; Zhou, D.; Wang, T.; Yang, Shengyuan A.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Large bandgap is desired for the fundamental research as well as applications of topological insulators. Based on first-principles calculations, here we predict a new family of two-dimensional (2D) topological insulators in functionalized atomic lead films Pb-X (X = H, F, Cl, Br, I and SiH3). All of them have large bandgaps with the largest one above 1 eV, far beyond the recorded gap values and large enough for practical applications even at room temperature. Besides chemical functionalization, external strain can also effectively tune the bandgap while keeping the topological phase. Thus, the topological properties of these materials are quite robust, and as a result there exist 1D topological edge channels against backscattering. We further show that the 2D Pb structure can be encapsulated by SiO2 with very small lattice mismatch and still maintains its topological character. All these features make the 2D atomic Pb films a promising platform for fabricating novel topological electronic devices. PMID:26912024

  13. Full-scale testing and progressive damage modeling of sandwich composite aircraft fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    A comprehensive experimental and computational investigation was conducted to characterize the fracture behavior and structural response of large sandwich composite aircraft fuselage panels containing artificial damage in the form of holes and notches. Full-scale tests were conducted where panels were subjected to quasi-static combined pressure, hoop, and axial loading up to failure. The panels were constructed using plain-weave carbon/epoxy prepreg face sheets and a Nomex honeycomb core. Panel deformation and notch tip damage development were monitored during the tests using several techniques, including optical observations, strain gages, digital image correlation (DIC), acoustic emission (AE), and frequency response (FR). Additional pretest and posttest inspections were performed via thermography, computer-aided tap tests, ultrasound, x-radiography, and scanning electron microscopy. The framework to simulate damage progression and to predict residual strength through use of the finite element (FE) method was developed. The DIC provided local and full-field strain fields corresponding to changes in the state-of-damage and identified the strain components driving damage progression. AE was monitored during loading of all panels and data analysis methodologies were developed to enable real-time determination of damage initiation, progression, and severity in large composite structures. The FR technique has been developed, evaluating its potential as a real-time nondestructive inspection technique applicable to large composite structures. Due to the large disparity in scale between the fuselage panels and the artificial damage, a global/local analysis was performed. The global FE models fully represented the specific geometries, composite lay-ups, and loading mechanisms of the full-scale tests. A progressive damage model was implemented in the local FE models, allowing the gradual failure of elements in the vicinity of the artificial damage. A set of modifications

  14. Design Considerations for Thermally Insulating Structural Sandwich Panels for Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2016-01-01

    Simplified thermal/structural sizing equations were derived for the in-plane loading of a thermally insulating structural sandwich panel. Equations were developed for the strain in the inner and outer face sheets of a sandwich subjected to uniaxial mechanical loads and differences in face sheet temperatures. Simple equations describing situations with no viable solution were developed. Key design parameters, material properties, and design principles are identified. A numerical example illustrates using the equations for a preliminary feasibility assessment of various material combinations and an initial sizing for minimum mass of a sandwich panel.

  15. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    nanometer scale. This special section contains interesting papers on graphene, h-BN and related 'honeycomb' compounds on solid surfaces, which are currently in development. Interfacial interaction strongly modifies the electronic and atomic structures of these overlayer systems and substrate surfaces. In addition, one can recognize a variety of growth phenomena by changing the surface and growth conditions, which are promising as regards fabricating those noble nanosystems. We have great pleasure in acknowledging the enthusiastic response and participation of our invited authors and their diligent preparation of the manuscripts. Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures contents Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structuresThomas Geber and Chuhei Oshima Templating of arrays of Ru nanoclusters by monolayer graphene/Ru Moirés with different periodicitiesEli Sutter, Bin Wang, Peter Albrecht, Jayeeta Lahiri, Marie-Laure Bocquet and Peter Sutter Controllable p-doping of graphene on Ir(111) by chlorination with FeCl3N A Vinogradov, K A Simonov, A V Generalov, A S Vinogradov, D V Vyalikh, C Laubschat, N Mårtensson and A B Preobrajenski Optimizing long-range order, band gap, and group velocities for graphene on close-packed metal surfacesF D Natterer, S Rusponi, M Papagno, C Carbone and H Brune Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces: chemical vapor deposition versus liquid phase depositionSamuel Grandthyll, Stefan Gsell, Michael Weinl, Matthias Schreck, Stefan Hüfner and Frank Müller High-yield boron nitride nanosheets from 'chemical blowing': towards practical applications in polymer compositesXuebin Wang, Amir Pakdel, Chunyi Zhi, Kentaro Watanabe, Takashi Sekiguchi, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando BCx layers with honeycomb lattices on an NbB2(0001) surfaceChuhei Oshima Epitaxial growth of boron-doped graphene by thermal decomposition of B4CWataru Norimatsu, Koichiro Hirata, Yuta Yamamoto, Shigeo Arai and Michiko

  16. Controlled Bulk Properties of Composite Polymeric Solutions for Extensive Structural Order of Honeycomb Polysulfone Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Gugliuzza, Annarosa; Perrotta, Maria Luisa; Drioli, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    This work provides additional insights into the identification of operating conditions necessary to overcome a current limitation to the scale-up of the breath figure method, which is regarded as an outstanding manufacturing approach for structurally ordered porous films. The major restriction concerns, indeed, uncontrolled touching droplets at the boundary. Herein, the bulk of polymeric solutions are properly managed to generate honeycomb membranes with a long-range structurally ordered texture. Water uptake and dynamics are explored as chemical environments are changed with the intent to modify the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance and local water floatation. In this context, a model surfactant such as the polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate is used in combination with alcohols at different chain length extents and a traditional polymer such as the polyethersufone. Changes in the interfacial tension and kinematic viscosity taking place in the bulk of composite solutions are explored and examined in relation to competitive droplet nucleation and growth rate. As a result, extensive structurally ordered honeycomb textures are obtained with the rising content of the surfactant while a broad range of well-sized pores is targeted as a function of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance and viscosity of the composite polymeric mixture. The experimental findings confirm the consistency of the approach and are expected to give propulsion to the commercially production of breath figures films shortly. PMID:27196938

  17. PREFACE: Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geber, Thomas; Oshima, Chuhei

    2012-08-01

    nanometer scale. This special section contains interesting papers on graphene, h-BN and related 'honeycomb' compounds on solid surfaces, which are currently in development. Interfacial interaction strongly modifies the electronic and atomic structures of these overlayer systems and substrate surfaces. In addition, one can recognize a variety of growth phenomena by changing the surface and growth conditions, which are promising as regards fabricating those noble nanosystems. We have great pleasure in acknowledging the enthusiastic response and participation of our invited authors and their diligent preparation of the manuscripts. Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structures contents Ultrathin layers of graphene, h-BN and other honeycomb structuresThomas Geber and Chuhei Oshima Templating of arrays of Ru nanoclusters by monolayer graphene/Ru Moirés with different periodicitiesEli Sutter, Bin Wang, Peter Albrecht, Jayeeta Lahiri, Marie-Laure Bocquet and Peter Sutter Controllable p-doping of graphene on Ir(111) by chlorination with FeCl3N A Vinogradov, K A Simonov, A V Generalov, A S Vinogradov, D V Vyalikh, C Laubschat, N Mårtensson and A B Preobrajenski Optimizing long-range order, band gap, and group velocities for graphene on close-packed metal surfacesF D Natterer, S Rusponi, M Papagno, C Carbone and H Brune Epitaxial growth of graphene on transition metal surfaces: chemical vapor deposition versus liquid phase depositionSamuel Grandthyll, Stefan Gsell, Michael Weinl, Matthias Schreck, Stefan Hüfner and Frank Müller High-yield boron nitride nanosheets from 'chemical blowing': towards practical applications in polymer compositesXuebin Wang, Amir Pakdel, Chunyi Zhi, Kentaro Watanabe, Takashi Sekiguchi, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando BCx layers with honeycomb lattices on an NbB2(0001) surfaceChuhei Oshima Epitaxial growth of boron-doped graphene by thermal decomposition of B4CWataru Norimatsu, Koichiro Hirata, Yuta Yamamoto, Shigeo Arai and Michiko

  18. Experimental investigation on sandwich structure ring-type ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Peng, Taijiang; Shi, Hongyan; Liang, Xiong; Luo, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a manufacture method for a sandwich structure Ultrasonic Motor (USM) and experiment. Two pieces of rotor clamped on a stator, and a stainless steel disk-spring is bonded on the hollow rotor disk to provide the press by a nut assembled on the shaft. The stator is made of a double-side Printed-Circuit Board (PCB) which is sawed out the ring in the center and connected on the board with three legs. On each side of the ring surface, there are electrodes connected at the same position via through hole. The three layer drive circuit for sine, cosine, and ground signal is connected on the board through each leg. There are many piezoelectric components (PZT) bonded between two electrodes and fill soldering tin on each electrode. Then PZT is welded on PCB by reflow soldering. Finally, rub the gibbous soldering tin down to the position of PZT surface makes sure the surface contacts with rotor evenly. The welding process can also be completed by Surface Mounted Technology (SMT). A prototype motor is manufactured by this method. Two B03 model shapes of the stator are obtained by the finite element analysis and the optimal frequency of the motor is 56.375 kHz measured by impedance instrument. The theoretical analysis is conducted for the relationship between the revolving speed of the USM and thickness of stator ring, number of the travelling waves, PZT amplitude, frequency and the other parameters. The experiment result shows that the maximum revolving speed is 116 RPM and the maximum torque is 25 N mm, when the actuate voltage is 200 VAC.

  19. Experimental investigation on sandwich structure ring-type ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Peng, Taijiang; Shi, Hongyan; Liang, Xiong; Luo, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a manufacture method for a sandwich structure Ultrasonic Motor (USM) and experiment. Two pieces of rotor clamped on a stator, and a stainless steel disk-spring is bonded on the hollow rotor disk to provide the press by a nut assembled on the shaft. The stator is made of a double-side Printed-Circuit Board (PCB) which is sawed out the ring in the center and connected on the board with three legs. On each side of the ring surface, there are electrodes connected at the same position via through hole. The three layer drive circuit for sine, cosine, and ground signal is connected on the board through each leg. There are many piezoelectric components (PZT) bonded between two electrodes and fill soldering tin on each electrode. Then PZT is welded on PCB by reflow soldering. Finally, rub the gibbous soldering tin down to the position of PZT surface makes sure the surface contacts with rotor evenly. The welding process can also be completed by Surface Mounted Technology (SMT). A prototype motor is manufactured by this method. Two B03 model shapes of the stator are obtained by the finite element analysis and the optimal frequency of the motor is 56.375 kHz measured by impedance instrument. The theoretical analysis is conducted for the relationship between the revolving speed of the USM and thickness of stator ring, number of the travelling waves, PZT amplitude, frequency and the other parameters. The experiment result shows that the maximum revolving speed is 116 RPM and the maximum torque is 25 N mm, when the actuate voltage is 200 VAC. PMID:25213313

  20. Quantitative surface enhanced Raman scattering detection based on the ``sandwich'' structure substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junmeng; Qu, Shengchun; Zhang, Lisheng; Tang, Aiwei; Wang, Zhanguo

    2011-08-01

    A sandwich structured substrate was designed for quantitative molecular detection using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), in which the probe molecule was sandwiched between silver nanoparticles (SNPs) and silver nanoarrays. The SNPs was prepared using Lee-Meisel method, and the silver nanoarrays was fabricated on porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) using electrodepositing method. The SERS studies show that the sandwich structured substrate exhibits good stability and reproducibility, and the detection sensitivity of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) and Melamine can respectively reach up to 10 -19 M and 10 -9 M, which is improved greatly as compared to other SERS substrates. The improved SERS sensitivity is closely associated with the stronger electromagnetic field enhancement, which stems from localized surface plasmon (LSP) coupling between the two silver nanostructures. Furthermore, the SERS intensity increased almost linearly as the mother concentration increased, which indicates that such a sandwich structure may be used as a good SERS substrate for quantitative analysis.

  1. Coexisting Honeycomb and Kagome Characteristics in the Electronic Band Structure of Molecular Graphene.

    PubMed

    Paavilainen, Sami; Ropo, Matti; Nieminen, Jouko; Akola, Jaakko; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-06-01

    We uncover the electronic structure of molecular graphene produced by adsorbed CO molecules on a copper (111) surface by means of first-principles calculations. Our results show that the band structure is fundamentally different from that of conventional graphene, and the unique features of the electronic states arise from coexisting honeycomb and Kagome symmetries. Furthermore, the Dirac cone does not appear at the K-point but at the Γ-point in the reciprocal space and is accompanied by a third, almost flat band. Calculations of the surface structure with Kekulé distortion show a gap opening at the Dirac point in agreement with experiments. Simple tight-binding models are used to support the first-principles results and to explain the physical characteristics behind the electronic band structures.

  2. Evaluation of the thermal efficiency of a high-temperature heat-insulation structure based on honeycomb plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhenkov, A. V.; Lapin, E. E.; Loginova, N. A.; Sitdikov, D. R.; Grigor'ev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Highly efficient heat-insulation materials are needed in order to reduce the heat losses in operation of heat-power equipment at temperatures up to 700°C. A review of the available solutions showed that the development of a high-temperature heat-insulation structure of a new type is needed. The basic features of application of honeycomb plastics in heat insulation of heat-power equipment are discussed, the known techniques for evaluating the heat conductance of such materials are reviewed, and the results of calculation-parametric studies on determining the optimum honeycomb design for heat-insulation structures are reported.

  3. Development of Quiet Honeycomb Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.; Klos, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Sandwich honeycomb composite panels are lightweight and strong, and, therefore, provide a reasonable alternative to the aluminum ring framelstringer architecture currently used for most aircraft airframes. The drawback to honeycomb panels is that they radiate noise into the aircraft cabin very efficiently provoking the need for additional sound treatment which adds weight and reduces the material's cost advantage. A series of honeycomb panels were made which incorporated different design strategies aimed at reducing the honeycomb panels' radiation efficiency while at the same time maintaining its strength. The majority of the desi gns were centered around the concept of creatin g areas of reduced stiffness in the panel by adding voids and recesses to the core. The effort culminated with a reinforced./recessed panel which had 6 dB higher transmission loss than the baseline solid core panel while maintaining comparable strength.

  4. Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Min; Wang, Zhao-Kui E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Liao, Liang-Sheng E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn

    2015-06-01

    A universal nano-sphere lithography method has been developed to fabricate nano-structured transparent electrode, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), for light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Perforated SiO{sub 2} film made from a monolayer colloidal crystal of polystyrene spheres and tetraethyl orthosilicate sol-gel is used as a template. Ordered nano-honeycomb pits on the ITO electrode surface are obtained by chemical etching. The proposed method can be utilized to form large-area nano-structured ITO electrode. More than two folds' enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency has been achieved in a red phosphorescent OLED which was fabricated on the nano-structured ITO substrate.

  5. Evidence of silicene in honeycomb structures of silicon on Ag(111).

    PubMed

    Feng, Baojie; Ding, Zijing; Meng, Sheng; Yao, Yugui; He, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Peng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui

    2012-07-11

    In the search for evidence of silicene, a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of silicon, it is important to obtain a complete picture for the evolution of Si structures on Ag(111), which is believed to be the most suitable substrate for growth of silicene so far. In this work we report the finding and evolution of several monolayer superstructures of silicon on Ag(111), depending on the coverage and temperature. Combined with first-principles calculations, the detailed structures of these phases have been illuminated. These structures were found to share common building blocks of silicon rings, and they evolve from a fragment of silicene to a complete monolayer silicene and multilayer silicene. Our results elucidate how silicene forms on Ag(111) surface and provides methods to synthesize high-quality and large-scale silicene.

  6. A comparative study of the impact properties of sandwich materials with different cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, K. R.; Shankar, K.; Viot, P.; Guerard, S.

    2012-08-01

    Sandwich panels are made of two high strength skins bonded to either side of a light weight core and are used in applications where high stiffness combined with low structural weight is required. The purpose of this paper is to compare the mechanical response of several sandwich panels whose core materials are different. Sandwich panels with glass fibre-reinforced polymer face sheets were used, combined with five different cores; polystyrene foam, polypropylene honeycomb, two different density Balsa wood and Cork. All specimens were subjected to low velocity impact and their structural response (Force-displacement curves) were compared to quasistatic response of the panel tested using an hemispherical indenter.

  7. New-Type Phase Transition of Li2RuO3 with Honeycomb Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Yoko; Yasui, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi; Igawa, Naoki; Kakurai, Kazuhisa

    2007-03-01

    A new-type structural transition has been found in Li2RuO3 with a honeycomb lattice of edge-sharing RuO6 octahedra. With decreasing temperature T, the electrical resistivity exhibits an anomalous increase at T=Tc ˜ 540 K, suggesting the (metal-to-insulator)-like transition, and the magnetic susceptibility also shows a sharp decrease. Detailed structure analyses have revealed that the high-temperature space group C2/m changes to P21/m at Tc. The most striking fact is that a significant reduction of the bond lengths is found between two of the six Ru-Ru pairs of the hexagon in the low-temperature phase, indicating a new-type phase transition driven by the formation of the molecular orbits of these Ru-Ru pairs.

  8. Nine new phosphorene polymorphs with non-honeycomb structures: a much extended family.

    PubMed

    Wu, Menghao; Fu, Huahua; Zhou, Ling; Yao, Kailun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2015-05-13

    We predict a new class of monolayer phosphorus allotropes, namely, ε-P, ζ-P, η-P, and θ-P. Distinctly different from the monolayer α-P (black) and previously predicted β-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 112, 176802), γ-P, and δ-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 113, 046804) with buckled honeycomb lattice, the new allotropes are composed of P4 square or P5 pentagon units that favor tricoordination for P atoms. The new four polymorphs, together with five additional hybrid polymorphs, greatly enrich the phosphorene structures, and their stabilities are confirmed by first-principles calculations. In particular, the θ-P is shown to be equally stable as the α-P (black) and more stable than all previously reported phosphorene polymorphs. Prediction of nonvolatile ferroelastic switching and structural transformation among different polymorphs under strains points out their potential applications via strain engineering.

  9. Strain induced topological phase transitions in monolayer honeycomb structures of group-V binary compounds

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Yaozhuang; Rahman, Mavlanjan; Wang, Daowei; Wang, Can; Guo, Guanghua

    2015-01-01

    We present first-principles calculations of electronic structures of a class of two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structures of group-V binary compounds. Our results show these new 2D materials are stable semiconductors with direct or indirect band gaps. The band gap can be tuned by applying lattice strain. During their stretchable regime, they all exhibit metal-indirect gap semiconductor-direct gap semiconductor-topological insulator (TI) transitions with increasing strain from negative (compressive) to positive (tensile) values. The topological phase transition results from the band inversion at the Γ point which is due to the evolution of bonding and anti-bonding states under lattice strain. PMID:26656257

  10. Nine new phosphorene polymorphs with non-honeycomb structures: a much extended family.

    PubMed

    Wu, Menghao; Fu, Huahua; Zhou, Ling; Yao, Kailun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2015-05-13

    We predict a new class of monolayer phosphorus allotropes, namely, ε-P, ζ-P, η-P, and θ-P. Distinctly different from the monolayer α-P (black) and previously predicted β-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 112, 176802), γ-P, and δ-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 113, 046804) with buckled honeycomb lattice, the new allotropes are composed of P4 square or P5 pentagon units that favor tricoordination for P atoms. The new four polymorphs, together with five additional hybrid polymorphs, greatly enrich the phosphorene structures, and their stabilities are confirmed by first-principles calculations. In particular, the θ-P is shown to be equally stable as the α-P (black) and more stable than all previously reported phosphorene polymorphs. Prediction of nonvolatile ferroelastic switching and structural transformation among different polymorphs under strains points out their potential applications via strain engineering. PMID:25844524

  11. Elevated Temperature, Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Structure Manufactured Out-of-Autoclave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Burke, Eric R.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2012-01-01

    Several 1/16th-scale curved sandwich composite panel sections of a 10 m diameter barrel were fabricated to demonstrate the manufacturability of large-scale curved sections using minimum gauge, [+60/-60/0]s, toughened epoxy composite facesheets co-cured with low density (50 kilograms per cubic meters) aluminum honeycomb core. One of these panels was fabricated out of autoclave (OoA) by the vacuum bag oven (VBO) process using Cycom(Registered Trademark) T40-800b/5320-1 prepreg system while another panel with the same lay-up and dimensions was fabricated using the autoclave-cure, toughened epoxy prepreg system Cycom(Registered Trademark) IM7/977-3. The resulting 2.44 m x 2 m curved panels were investigated by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) to determine initial fabrication quality and then cut into smaller coupons for elevated temperature wet (ETW) mechanical property characterization. Mechanical property characterization of the sandwich coupons was conducted including edge-wise compression (EWC), and compression-after-impact (CAI) at conditions ranging from 25 C/dry to 150 C/wet. The details and results of this characterization effort are presented in this paper.

  12. Strain-tunable band parameters of ZnO monolayer in graphene-like honeycomb structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Harihar; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2012-10-01

    We present ab initio calculations which show that the direct-band-gap, effective masses and Fermi velocities of charge carriers in ZnO monolayer (ML-ZnO) in graphene-like honeycomb structure are all tunable by application of in-plane homogeneous biaxial strain. Within our simulated strain limit of ±10%, the band gap remains direct and shows a strong non-linear variation with strain. Moreover, the average Fermi velocity of electrons in unstrained ML-ZnO is of the same order of magnitude as that in graphene. The results promise potential applications of ML-ZnO in mechatronics/straintronics and other nano-devices such as the nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) and nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS).

  13. Systems, Apparatuses, and Methods for Using Durable Adhesively Bonded Joints for Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, III, Stanley S. (Inventor); Lundgren, Eric C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems, methods, and apparatus for increasing durability of adhesively bonded joints in a sandwich structure. Such systems, methods, and apparatus includes an first face sheet and an second face sheet as well as an insert structure, the insert structure having a first insert face sheet, a second insert face sheet, and an insert core material. In addition, sandwich core material is arranged between the first face sheet and the second face sheet. A primary bondline may be coupled to the face sheet(s) and the splice. Further, systems, methods, and apparatus of the present disclosure advantageously reduce the load, provide a redundant path, reduce structural fatigue, and/or increase fatigue life.

  14. Insert Design and Manufacturing for Foam-Core Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lares, Alan

    Sandwich structures have been used in the aerospace industry for many years. The high strength to weight ratios that are possible with sandwich constructions makes them desirable for airframe applications. While sandwich structures are effective at handling distributed loads such as aerodynamic forces, they are prone to damage from concentrated loads at joints or due to impact. This is due to the relatively thin face-sheets and soft core materials typically found in sandwich structures. Carleton University's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Project Team has designed and manufactured a UAV (GeoSury II Prototype) which features an all composite sandwich structure fuselage structure. The purpose of the aircraft is to conduct geomagnetic surveys. The GeoSury II Prototype serves as the test bed for many areas of research in advancing UAV technologies. Those areas of research include: low cost composite materials manufacturing, geomagnetic data acquisition, obstacle detection, autonomous operations and magnetic signature control. In this thesis work a methodology for designing and manufacturing inserts for foam-core sandwich structures was developed. The results of this research work enables a designer wishing to design a foam-core sandwich airframe structure, a means of quickly manufacturing optimized inserts for the safe introduction of discrete loads into the airframe. The previous GeoSury II Prototype insert designs (v.1 & v.2) were performance tested to establish a benchmark with which to compare future insert designs. Several designs and materials were considered for the new v.3 inserts. A plug and sleeve design was selected, due to its ability to effectively transfer the required loads to the sandwich structure. The insert material was chosen to be epoxy, reinforced with chopped carbon fibre. This material was chosen for its combination of strength, low mass and also compatibility with the face-sheet material. The v.3 insert assembly is 60% lighter than the

  15. Bifurcations of edge states—topologically protected and non-protected—in continuous 2D honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fefferman, C. L.; Lee-Thorp, J. P.; Weinstein, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Edge states are time-harmonic solutions to energy-conserving wave equations, which are propagating parallel to a line-defect or ‘edge’ and are localized transverse to it. This paper summarizes and extends the authors’ work on the bifurcation of topologically protected edge states in continuous two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structures. We consider a family of Schrödinger Hamiltonians consisting of a bulk honeycomb potential and a perturbing edge potential. The edge potential interpolates between two different periodic structures via a domain wall. We begin by reviewing our recent bifurcation theory of edge states for continuous 2D honeycomb structures (http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06111). The topologically protected edge state bifurcation is seeded by the zero-energy eigenstate of a one-dimensional Dirac operator. We contrast these protected bifurcations with (more common) non-protected bifurcations from spectral band edges, which are induced by bound states of an effective Schrödinger operator. Numerical simulations for honeycomb structures of varying contrasts and ‘rational edges’ (zigzag, armchair and others), support the following scenario: (a) for low contrast, under a sign condition on a distinguished Fourier coefficient of the bulk honeycomb potential, there exist topologically protected edge states localized transverse to zigzag edges. Otherwise, and for general edges, we expect long lived edge quasi-modes which slowly leak energy into the bulk. (b) For an arbitrary rational edge, there is a threshold in the medium-contrast (depending on the choice of edge) above which there exist topologically protected edge states. In the special case of the armchair edge, there are two families of protected edge states; for each parallel quasimomentum (the quantum number associated with translation invariance) there are edge states which propagate in opposite directions along the armchair edge.

  16. Design, fabrication, and test of lightweight shell structure. [for application to the space tug design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A cylindrical shell skirt structure was subjected to a design and analysis study using a wide variety of structural materials and concepts. The design loading, axial compression, and torsion is representative of that expected on a typical space tug skirt section. Structural concepts evaluated included honeycomb sandwich, truss, isogrid, and skin/stringer/frame. The materials considered included a wide variety of structural metals as well as glass, graphite, and boron-reinforced composites. Honeycomb sandwich with aluminum faceskins, honeycomb sandwich with graphite/epoxy faceskins, and aluminum truss with fiberglass meteoroid protection layers were the designs selected for further evaluation. Procurement of materials required for fabrication is reported and the structural test plan and fabrication drawings are included. Construction of the graphite/epoxy faceskins, chem mill of the aluminum faceskins, chem mill of aluminum truss components, and fabrication of the graphite/epoxy honeycomb sandwich development panel is also reported.

  17. Development of lightweight graphite/polyimide sandwich panels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poesch, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    Lightweight graphite/polyimide composite honeycomb core and sandwich panels were fabricated and tested. Honeycomb cores of 1/4-in. and 3/8-in. cell sizes of hexagonal configuration were produced from thin plus or minus 45 deg cross plied sheets of prepreg producing core weights between 1.8 and 3.6 lb/cu ft. Thin gauge prepreg using Hercules graphite tow and Monsanto Skybond 710 polyimide resin were manufactured to produce cured ply thicknesses of 0.001 to 0.002 in. Graphite core properties measured at temperatures from -150 to 600 F are reported. Core properties which are superior to available materials were obtained. Sandwich panels weighing less than 0.5 lb/sq ft were designed and fabricated which meet the support structure loads for the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system.

  18. Optimisation of Composite Sandwich Structures Subjected to Combined Torsion and Bending Stiffness Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Gangyan; Wang, Chun H.

    2012-06-01

    This research is motivated by the rapidly increasing use of composite sandwich structures to reduce weight and improve energy efficiency in a wide range of industries such as automotive, aerospace and civil infrastructure. The paper presents a minimum-weight optimization method for sandwich structures to meet both torsion and bending rigidity requirements. This multiple inequality-constrained optimisation problem is formulated using the Lagrange multiplier method. Solving the resulting equations reveals the optimum solution that can satisfy both flexural and torsion stiffness requirements depend on the stiffness ratio relative to elastic modulus ratio. To illustrate the newly developed optimum design solutions, numerical examples are presented for sandwich structures made of either isotropic face skins or orthotropic composite face skins.

  19. Numerical analysis of impact-damaged sandwich composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Youngkeun

    Sandwich structures are used in a wide variety of structural applications due to their relative advantages over other conventional structural materials in terms of improved stability, weight savings, and ease of manufacture and repair. Foreign object impact damage in sandwich composites can result in localized damage to the facings, core, and core-facing interface. Such damage may result in drastic reductions in composite strength, elastic moduli, and durability and damage tolerance characteristics. In this study, physically-motivated numerical models have been developed for predicting the residual strength of impact-damaged sandwich composites comprised of woven-fabric graphite-epoxy facesheets and Nomex honeycomb cores subjected to compression-after-impact loading. Results from non-destructive inspection and destructive sectioning of damaged sandwich panels were used to establish initial conditions for damage (residual facesheet indentation, core crush dimension, etc.) in the numerical analysis. Honeycomb core crush test results were used to establish the nonlinear constitutive behavior for the Nomex core. The influence of initial facesheet property degradation and progressive loss of facesheet structural integrity on the residual strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels was examined. The influence of damage of various types and sizes, specimen geometry, support boundary conditions, and variable material properties on the estimated residual strength is discussed. Facesheet strains from material and geometric nonlinear finite element analyses correlated relatively well with experimentally determined values. Moreover, numerical predictions of residual strength are consistent with experimental observations. Using a methodology similar to that presented in this work, it may be possible to develop robust residual strength estimates for complex sandwich composite structural components with varying levels of in-service damage. Such studies may facilitate sandwich

  20. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    SciTech Connect

    Camarda, C.J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-08-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

  1. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-01-01

    Integral heat-pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat-load levels. The heat-pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat-pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low-distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

  2. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-01-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors.

  3. Compression After Impact Testing of Sandwich Structures Using the Four Point Bend Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Gregory, Elizabeth; Jackson, Justin; Kenworthy, Devon

    2008-01-01

    For many composite laminated structures, the design is driven by data obtained from Compression after Impact (CAI) testing. There currently is no standard for CAI testing of sandwich structures although there is one for solid laminates of a certain thickness and lay-up configuration. Most sandwich CAI testing has followed the basic technique of this standard where the loaded ends are precision machined and placed between two platens and compressed until failure. If little or no damage is present during the compression tests, the loaded ends may need to be potted to prevent end brooming. By putting a sandwich beam in a four point bend configuration, the region between the inner supports is put under a compressive load and a sandwich laminate with damage can be tested in this manner without the need for precision machining. Also, specimens with no damage can be taken to failure so direct comparisons between damaged and undamaged strength can be made. Data is presented that demonstrates the four point bend CAI test and is compared with end loaded compression tests of the same sandwich structure.

  4. Mechanical-Acoustic Multi-Objective Optimization of Honeycomb Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wang-Ying; Yang, Xiong-Wei; Li, Yue-Ming

    At present, optimal design against noise caused by vibrating structures is often formulated with the objective of minimizing sound power or sound pressure. In this paper, a mechanical and acoustic multi-objective optimization method is proposed aimed at minimizing static, dynamic and acoustic response of a honeycomb sandwich panel under given mass constraint. The multi-objective is defined as a weighted sum of static deflection, vibration response and sound power from the norm method. The static and dynamic responses are calculated using FEM and sound power radiated by structures is calculated using discrete Rayleigh integral. The sensitivities of static, dynamic and acoustic response are formulated to improve efficiency by the adjoint method. Numerical examples on the honeycomb plate are considered, which indicate that the proposed method can improve acoustical property without weakening mechanical property.

  5. A Study on Flexural Properties of Sandwich Structures with Fiber/Metal Laminate Face Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariushi, S.; Sadighi, M.

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a new family of sandwich structures with fiber metal laminate (FML) faces is investigated. FMLs have benefits over both metal and fiber reinforced composites. To investigate the bending properties of sandwich beams with FML faces and compare with similar sandwich beams with fibrous composite faces, 6 groups of specimen with different layer arrangements were made and tested. Results show that FML faces have good resistance against transverse local loads and minimize stress concentration and local deformations of skin and core under the loading tip. In addition, FML faces have a good integrity even after plateau region of foam cores and prevent from catastrophic failures, which cannot be seen in fibrous composite faces. Also, FML faces are lighter than metal faces and have better connection with foam cores. Sandwich beams with FML faces have a larger elastic region because of simultaneous deformation of top and bottom faces and larger failure strain thanks to good durability of FMLs. A geometrical nonlinear classical theory is used to predict force-deflection behavior. In this model an explicit formula between symmetrical sandwich beams deflections and applied force which can be useful for designers, is derived. Good agreement is obtained between the analytical predictions and experimental results. Also, analytical results are compared with small deformation solution in a parametric study, and the effects of geometric parameters on difference between linear and nonlinear results are discussed.

  6. Transient Thermal Testing and Analysis of a Thermally Insulating Structural Sandwich Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Bird, Richard K.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    A core configuration was devised for a thermally insulating structural sandwich panel. Two titanium prototype panels were constructed to illustrate the proposed sandwich panel geometry. The core of one of the titanium panels was filled with Saffil(trademark) alumina fibrous insulation and the panel was tested in a series of transient thermal tests. Finite element analysis was used to predict the thermal response of the panel using one- and two-dimensional models. Excellent agreement was obtained between predicted and measured temperature histories.

  7. Piezoelectric performance of fluor polymer sandwiches with different void structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Kexing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Zhongfu

    2012-06-01

    Film sandwiches, consisting of two outer layers of fluoroethylenepropylene and one middle layer of patterned porous polytetrafluoroethylene, were prepared by patterning and fusion bonding. Contact charging was conducted to render the films piezoelectric. The critical voltage to trigger air breakdown in the inner voids in the fabricated films was investigated. The piezoelectric d 33 coefficients were measured employing the quasistatic method and dielectric resonance spectrum. The results show that the critical voltage for air breakdown in the inner voids is associated with the void microstructure of the films. For the films with patterning factors of 0%, 25% and 44%, the critical values are 300, 230 and 230 kV/cm, respectively. With an increase in the patterning factor, both the piezoelectric d 33 coefficients determined from the dielectric resonance spectra and those determined from quasistatic measurements increase, which might be due to a decrease in Young's modulus for the films. The nonlinearity of d 33 becomes increasingly obvious as the patterning factor increases.

  8. Two-dimensional TiO2 honeycomb structure for enhanced light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Woo Jin; Lee, Hang Ken; Im, Sang Hyuk; Park, O Ok

    2014-11-01

    We have demonstrated the preparation of an ordered hole pattern via a simple colloidal assembly technique and a sol-gel process without the use of any special equipment to enhance light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes (LEDs). From two-dimensional (2D) polystyrene (PS) colloidal crystals, 2D TiO2 honeycomb structures were easily obtained after depositing TiO(x) sol solution onto the colloidal crystals by a doctor blade technique and removing the PS colloidal particles. In order to optimize the thickness of the deposited TiO(x) materials for fabricating 2D TiO2 honeycomb structures, the concentration of the TiO(x) sol solution was controlled. By applying the 2D TiO2 honeycomb structure on the backside of the glass substrate, the efficiency of a polymer LED, compared to the device without the structure, was increased without a significant change in the electroluminescence spectrum. This enhancement is attributed to the improved light extraction, which is due to the suppression of total internal reflection at the interface between the glass substrate and the air.

  9. Highly efficient construction of oriented sandwich structures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongyun; Xu, Weiqing; Zhou, Ji; Xu, Shuping; Lombardi, John R.

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to solve the problem of low achievement in fabricating sandwich surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. We demonstrated a highly efficient sandwich structure by the oriented assembly of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on a periodic hexagonal array of metal nanoprisms with 1,4-benzenedithiol (1,4-BDT) as linkers. The metal nanoprism array was prepared by vacuum deposition of metal on a close-packed polystyrene nanosphere pre-patterned substrate. The metal nanoprism array presents different surface properties from the pits left from the removal of polystyrene nanospheres, which causes linkers to selectively adsorb on the metal nanoprism array and sequentially leads to the oriented immobilization of the second-layer metal NPs, avoiding mismatched orientation. These sandwich SERS substrates were characterized by extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and their enhancement activity was evaluated under different excitation wavelengths. The sandwich structure greatly increases the achievement of ‘hot spots’ to almost 100% of all the metal nanoprisms and enables a large amplification of SERS signals by a factor of ten. This method has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, high throughput, controllability and high reproducibility. It has significance in both the study of SERS substrates and the development of plasmonic devices.

  10. The degree of π electron delocalization and the formation of 3D-extensible sandwich structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Caixia; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Li, Jia-Jia; Li, Debao; Wu, Yan-Bo; Wang, Xiaotai

    2016-04-28

    DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations were performed to examine the feasibility of graphene-like C42H18 and starbenzene C6(BeH)6 (SBz) polymers as ligands of 3D-extensible sandwich compounds (3D-ESCs) with uninterrupted sandwich arrays. The results revealed that sandwich compounds with three or more C42H18 ligands were not feasible. The possible reason may be the localization of π electrons on certain C6 hexagons due to π-metal interactions, which makes the whole ligand lose its electronic structure basis (higher degree of π electron delocalization) to maintain the planar structure. For comparison, with the aid of benzene (Bz) molecules, the SBz polymers can be feasible ligands for designing 3D-ESCs because the C-Be interactions in individual SBz are largely ionic, which will deter the π electrons on one C6 ring from connecting to those on neighbouring C6 rings. This means that high degree of π electron delocalization is not necessary for maintaining the planarity of SBz polymers. Such a locally delocalized π electron structure is desirable for the ligands of 3D-ESCs. Remarkably, the formation of a sandwich compound with SBz is thermodynamically more favourable than that found for bis(Bz)chromium. The assembly of 3D-ESCs is largely exothermic, which will facilitate future experimental synthesis. The different variation trends on the HOMO-LUMO gaps in different directions (relative to the sandwich axes) suggest that they can be developed to form directional conductors or semiconductors, which may be useful in the production of electronic devices. PMID:27004750

  11. Half-sandwich cycloruthenated complexes from aryloxazolines: synthesis, structures, and catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei-Guo; Zhang, Tai; Xie, Dong; Xu, Qiu-Tong; Ling, Shuo; Zhang, Qing

    2016-09-28

    Seven half-sandwich cycloruthenated complexes [Ru(p-cymene)LCl] (2a-2g) (L = 2-phenyl-2-oxazoline (2a), 2-p-tolyl-4,5-dihydrooxazole (2b), 4,4-dimethyl-2-phenyl-2-oxazoline (2c), 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole (2d), 2-(4-bromophenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole (2e), 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole (2f) and 2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole (2g)) were synthesized and characterized. All half-sandwich cycloruthenated complexes were fully characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra, elemental analyses and infrared spectroscopy. The molecular structures of 2a, 2d and 2e were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. These half-sandwich cycloruthenated complexes were employed in nitroarene reduction using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a reducing agent in ethanol at room temperature. The catalytic results indicate that half-sandwich cycloruthenated complexes show promising catalytic activity in nitroarene reduction with a broad substrate and varied functional group compatibility. PMID:27534600

  12. Fabrication of a 2014Al-SiC/2014Al Sandwich Structure Composite with Good Tensile Strength and Ductility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xian; Zhao, Yu-Guang; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Wu, Min; Pei, Chang-hao; Chen, Chao; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2016-09-01

    A sandwich structure laminate composed of a ductile 2014Al inter-layer and two nanoscale SiC reinforced 2014Al (SiC/2014Al) composite outer layers was successfully fabricated through the combination of powder metallurgy and hot rolling. The ductile 2014Al inter-layer effectively improved the processability of the sandwiched laminates. Tensile test revealed that the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the sandwiched laminate were 287 and 470 MPa, respectively, compared with 235 and 425 MPa for monolithic 2014Al. The good performance of the sandwiched laminate results from the strong bonding between the SiC/2014Al composites layer and the ductile 2014Al layer. Thus, the sandwich structure with a composite surface and ductile core is effective for increasing the strength and toughness of composite laminates.

  13. Analysis of a ceramic filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure

    SciTech Connect

    Habib Ullah, M.; Islam, M. T.

    2013-11-25

    Design and analysis of a ceramic-filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure is presented. This proposed high-dielectric structure is used as a substrate for patch antennas. A meandered-strip line-fed fractal-shape patch antenna is designed and fabricated on a copper-laminated sandwich-structured substrate. Measurement results of this antenna show 44% and 20% of bandwidths with maximum gains of 3.45 dBi and 5.87 dBi for the lower and upper bands, respectively. The half-power beam widths of 104° and 78° have been observed from the measured radiation pattern at the two resonance frequencies 0.9 GHz and 2.5 GHz.

  14. Analysis of a ceramic filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib Ullah, M.; Islam, M. T.

    2013-11-01

    Design and analysis of a ceramic-filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure is presented. This proposed high-dielectric structure is used as a substrate for patch antennas. A meandered-strip line-fed fractal-shape patch antenna is designed and fabricated on a copper-laminated sandwich-structured substrate. Measurement results of this antenna show 44% and 20% of bandwidths with maximum gains of 3.45 dBi and 5.87 dBi for the lower and upper bands, respectively. The half-power beam widths of 104° and 78° have been observed from the measured radiation pattern at the two resonance frequencies 0.9 GHz and 2.5 GHz.

  15. Dual-wavelength polymer laser based on an active/inactive/active sandwich-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Tianrui; Wu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Meng; Tong, Fei; Li, Songtao; Ma, Yanbin; Deng, Jinxiang; Zhang, Xinping

    2016-09-01

    Dual-wavelength laser emission is achieved by using an active/inactive/active sandwich-like structure, which can be conveniently fabricated using spin coating technique. Poly [(9, 9-dioctylfluorenyl-2, 7-diyl)-alt-co-(1, 4-benzo-(2, 1', 3) -thiadiazole)] and polyvinyl alcohol are employed as the active and the inactive materials, respectively. Two laser wavelengths are simultaneously observed, which are attributed to the difference of the surrounding refractive index of two active waveguides in the sandwich-like structure. Each wavelength is controlled by the respective waveguide structure, meaning that multi-wavelength laser can be designed by stacking the active/inactive layer pair. These results provide more flexibility to design compact laser sources.

  16. 250 °C-Operated sandwich-structured all-SiC power module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Fumiki; Simanjorang, Rejeki; Lang, Fengqun; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    The operation of a sandwich structured all-SiC power module is demonstrated at 250 °C. The power module was designed by considering two thermal deformation issues. Thermally induced bending of the SiN-AMC substrates is reduced by introducing symmetrical Cu wiring patterns on both sides of the SiN ceramic plate. The concentration of stress located in the gate joint material is drastically reduced by introducing a trench structure in the Cu wiring layer of the gate interconnection. A double pulse test at a high temperature is carried out. At 250 °C, the all-SiC sandwich-structured power module was successfully operate at 600 V and 15 A. The maximum switching transient speed (dV/dt) of turn-on and turn-off are observed 10.7 and 12.1 V/ns, respectively.

  17. A novel sandwich differential capacitive accelerometer with symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, D. B.; Li, Q. S.; Hou, Z. Q.; Wang, X. H.; Chen, Z. H.; Xia, D. W.; Wu, X. Z.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a novel differential capacitive silicon micro-accelerometer with symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass sensing structure and glass-silicon-glass sandwich structure. The symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass sensing structure is fabricated with a novel pre-buried mask fabrication technology, which is convenient for manufacturing multi-layer sensors. The glass-silicon-glass sandwich structure is realized by a double anodic bonding process. To solve the problem of the difficulty of leading out signals from the top and bottom layer simultaneously in the sandwich sensors, a silicon pillar structure is designed that is inherently simple and low-cost. The prototype is fabricated and tested. It has low noise performance (the peak to peak value is 40 μg) and μg-level Allan deviation of bias (2.2 μg in 1 h), experimentally demonstrating the effectiveness of the design and the novel fabrication technology.

  18. Experimental study of the mechanical behaviour of pin reinforced foam core sandwich materials under shear load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimassi, M. A.; Brauner, C.; Herrmann, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Sandwich structures with a lightweight closed cell hard foam core have the potential to be used in primary structures of commercial aircrafts. Compared to honeycomb core sandwich, the closed cell foam core sandwich overcomes the issue of moisture take up and makes the manufacturing of low priced and highly integrated structures possible. However, lightweight foam core sandwich materials are prone to failure by localised external loads like low velocity impacts. Invisible cracks could grow in the foam core and threaten the integrity of the structure. In order to enhance the out-of-plane properties of foam core sandwich structures and to improve the damage tolerance (DT) dry fibre bundles are inserted in the foam core. The pins are infused with resin and co-cured with the dry fabric face sheets in an out-of-autoclave process. This study presents the results obtained from shear tests following DIN 53294-standard, on flat sandwich panels. All panels were manufactured with pin-reinforcement manufactured with the Tied Foam Core Technology (TFC) developed by Airbus. The effects of pin material (CFRP and GFRP) and pin volume fraction on the shear properties of the sandwich structure and the crack propagation were investigated and compared to a not pinned reference. It has been concluded that the pin volume fraction has a remarkable effect on the shear properties and damage tolerance of the observed structure. Increasing the pin volume fraction makes the effect of crack redirection more obvious and conserves the integrity of the structure after crack occurrence.

  19. ALL NATURAL COMPOSITE SANDWICH BEAMS FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS. (R829576)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of developing an all natural composite roof for housing application,
    structural panels and unit beams were manufactured out of soybean oil based resin
    and natural fibers (flax, cellulose, pulp, recycled paper, chicken feathers)
    using vacuum assisted resin tran...

  20. Design of Fiber Reinforced Foam Sandwich Panels for Large Ares V Structural Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    2010-01-01

    The preliminary design of three major structural components within NASA's Ares V heavy lift vehicle using a novel fiber reinforced foam composite sandwich panel concept is presented. The Ares V payload shroud, interstage, and core intertank are designed for minimum mass using this panel concept, which consists of integral composite webs separated by structural foam between two composite facesheets. The HyperSizer structural sizing software, in conjunction with NASTRAN finite element analyses, is used. However, since HyperSizer does not currently include a panel concept for fiber reinforced foam, the sizing was performed using two separate approaches. In the first, the panel core is treated as an effective (homogenized) material, whose properties are provided by the vendor. In the second approach, the panel is treated as a blade stiffened sandwich panel, with the mass of the foam added after completion of the panel sizing. Details of the sizing for each of the three Ares V components are given, and it is demonstrated that the two panel sizing approaches are in reasonable agreement for thinner panel designs, but as the panel thickness increases, the blade stiffened sandwich panel approach yields heavier panel designs. This is due to the effects of local buckling, which are not considered in the effective core property approach.

  1. Facile Fabrication of Sandwich Structured WO3 Nanoplate Arrays for Efficient Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoyang; Chen, Yubin; Qin, Zhixiao; Wang, Menglong; Guo, Liejin

    2016-07-20

    Herein, sandwich structured tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanoplate arrays were first synthesized for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting via a facile hydrothermal method followed by an annealing treatment. It was demonstrated that the annealing temperature played an important role in determining the morphology and crystal phase of the WO3 film. Only when the hydrothermally prepared precursor was annealed at 500 °C could the sandwich structured WO3 nanoplates be achieved, probably due to the crystalline phase transition and increased thermal stress during the annealing process. The sandwich structured WO3 photoanode exhibited a photocurrent density of 1.88 mA cm(-2) and an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) as high as 65% at 400 nm in neutral Na2SO4 solution under AM 1.5G illumination. To our knowledge, this value is one of the best PEC performances for WO3 photoanodes. Meanwhile, simultaneous hydrogen and oxygen evolution was demonstrated for the PEC water splitting. It was concluded that the high PEC performance should be attributed to the large electrochemically active surface area and active monoclinic phase. The present study can provide guidance to develop highly efficient nanostructured photoelectrodes with the favorable morphology.

  2. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  3. A vapor phase hydrothermal modification method converting a honeycomb structured hybrid film into photoactive TiO2 film.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijun; Shen, Yanming; Zhang, Shanqing; Zhang, Haimin

    2009-09-15

    Transforming an organic/inorganic hybrid material into a pure inorganic material without losing its original structure is of interest for a range of applications. In this work, a simple and effective vapor phase hydrothermal method was developed to transform a 3D honeycomb structured PS/TTIP hybrid film into a photoactive TiO2 film without dismantling the originally templated 3D structure. The method utilizes the vapor phase hydrothermal process to create titania network/clusters with sufficient mechanical strength via the formation of Ti-oxo bridges. The organic components of the sample can be removed by means of pyrolysis while perfectly maintaining the original 3D honeycomb structure. The resultant film can be directly used for photocatalysis applications and could be further modified for other applications. In principle, this method can be used to preserve 3D structures of other organic/inorganic hybrid films during their conversion to pure inorganic films via a pyrolysis process, if mechanically strong networks can be formed as a result of hydrolysis reactions. The ability to preserve the preferred 3D structure during the subsequent conversion processes enables realization of the full benefit of unique architectures created by a templating method. PMID:19496571

  4. Structural and Acoustic Numerical Modeling of a Curved Composite Honeycomb Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Robinson, Jay H.

    2001-01-01

    The finite and boundary element modeling of the curved section of a composite honeycomb aircraft fuselage sidewall was validated for both structural response and acoustic radiation. The curved panel was modeled in the pre-processor MSC/PATRAN. Geometry models of the curved panel were constructed based on the physical dimensions of the test article. Material properties were obtained from the panel manufacturer. Finite element models were developed to predict the modal parameters for free and supported panel boundary conditions up to a frequency of 600 Hz. Free boundary conditions were simulated by providing soft foam support under the four comers of the panel or by suspending the panel from elastic bands. Supported boundary conditions were obtained by clamping the panel between plastic tubing seated in grooves along the perimeter of a stiff and heavy frame. The frame was installed in the transmission loss window of the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The structural response of the curved panel due to point force excitation was predicted using MSC/NASTRAN and the radiated sound was computed with COMET/Acoustics. The predictions were compared with the results from experimental modal surveys and forced response tests on the fuselage panel. The finite element models were refined and updated to provide optimum comparison with the measured modal data. Excellent agreement was obtained between the numerical and experimental modal data for the free as well as for the supported boundary conditions. Frequency response functions (FRF) were computed relating the input force excitation at one panel location to the surface acceleration response at five panel locations. Frequency response functions were measured at the same locations on the test specimen and were compared with the calculated FRF values. Good agreement was obtained for the real and imaginary parts of the transfer functions when modal participation was

  5. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs. PMID:27612831

  6. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs.

  7. Clay Nanocomposite/Aerogel Sandwich Structures for Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sandi; Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, J. Chris; Meador, Michael

    2006-01-01

    GRC research has led to the development of epoxy-clay nanocomposites with 60-70% lower gas permeability than the base epoxy resin. Filament wound carbon fiber reinforced tanks made with this nanocomposite had a five-fold lower helium leak rate than the corresponding tanks made without clay. More recent work has produced new composites with more than a 100-fold reduction in helium permeability. Use of these advanced, high barrier composites would eliminate the need for a liner in composite cryotanks, thereby simplifying construction and reducing propellant leakage. Aerogels are attractive materials for use as cryotank insulation because of their low density and low thermal conductivity. However, aerogels are fragile and have poor environmental stability, which have limited their use to certain applications in specialized environments (e.g., in certain types of nuclear reactors as Cerenkov radiation detectors, and as thermal insulators aboard space rovers on Mars). New GRC developed polymer crosslinked aerogels (X-Aerogels) retain the low density of conventional aerogels, but they demonstrate a 300-fold increase in their mechanical strength. Currently, our strongest materials combine a density of approx. 0.45 g/cc, a thermal conductivity of approx. 0.04 W/mK and a compressive strength of 185 MPa. Use of these novel aerogels as insulation materials/structural components in combination with the low permeability of epoxy-clay nanocomposites could significantly reduce cryotank weight and improve durability.

  8. Design, fabrication and test of liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Camarda, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Integral heat-pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich panel construction, were fabricated and tested. The designs utilize two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and potassium or sodium as the working fluid. Panels were tested by radiant heating, and the results indicate successful heat pipe operation at temperatures of approximately 922K (1200F). These panels, in addition to solving potential thermal stress problems in an Airframe-Integrated Scramjet Engine, have potential applications as cold plates for electronic component cooling, as radiators for space platforms, and as low distortion, large area structures.

  9. Design, fabrication and test of liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Camarda, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    Integral heat-pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich panel construction, were fabricated and tested. The designs utilize two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and potassium or sodium as the working fluid. Panels were tested by radiant heating, and the results indicate successful heat pipe operation at temperatures of approximately 922 K (1200 F). These panels, in addition to solving potential thermal stress problems in an Airframe-Integrated Scramjet Engine, have potential applications as cold plates for electronic component cooling, as radiators for space platforms, and as low distortion, large area structures.

  10. Archetypal sandwich-structured CuO for high performance non-enzymatic sensing of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, G. Ranga

    2013-02-01

    In the quest to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of novel structured metal oxides for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of glucose, we report here a green synthesis of unique sandwich-structured CuO on a large scale under microwave mediated homogeneous precipitation conditions. The physicochemical studies carried out by XRD and BET methods show that the monoclinic CuO formed via thermal decomposition of Cu2(OH)2CO3 possesses monomodal channel-type pores with largely improved surface area (~43 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.163 cm3 g-1). The fascinating surface morphology and pore structure of CuO is formulated due to homogeneous crystallization and microwave induced self assembly during synthesis. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies show diffusion controlled glucose oxidation at ~0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with extremely high sensitivity of 5342.8 μA mM-1 cm-2 and respective detection limit and response time of ~1 μM and ~0.7 s, under a wide dynamic concentration range of glucose. The chronoamperometry measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of CuO to glucose is unaffected by the absence of dissolved oxygen and presence of poisoning chloride ions in the reaction medium, which essentially implies high poison resistance activity of the sandwich-structured CuO. The sandwich-structured CuO also shows insignificant interference/significant selectivity to glucose, even in the presence of high concentrations of other sugars as well as reducing species. In addition, the sandwich-structured CuO shows excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation of ~2.4% over ten identically fabricated electrodes) and outstanding long term stability (only ~1.3% loss in sensitivity over a period of one month) during non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The unique microstructure and suitable channel-type pore architecture provide structural stability and maximum accessible electroactive surface for unimpeded mobility of glucose as well as the

  11. The nuclear membrane-associated honeycomb structure of the unicellular organism Amoeba proteus: on the search for homologies with the nuclear lamina of metazoa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Grossmann, U; Krohne, G

    1995-07-01

    In the protozoon Amoeba proteus, a complex and highly organized structure with the morphology of a honeycomb is associated with the nucleoplasmic surface of the nuclear membrane. We have tested whether this structure exhibits similarity to the nuclear lamina of metazoic organisms. First, we have shown that the honeycomb layer is composed of 3 to 5 nm thick protein fibrils resistant to treatment with detergent, high salt, and digestion with nucleases, thus possessing properties typical for karyoskeletal elements. However, in contrast to the meshwork of lamin filaments in somatic cells of metazoic organisms, the honeycomb layer is not tightly anchored to the nucleoplasmic side of pore complexes, or to the inner nuclear membrane. Second, in microinjection experiments we investigated whether fluorescently labeled lamins of Xenopus laevis (lamins A and LI) and Drosophila melanogaster (lamin Dmo) were able to associate in vivo with the Amoeba proteus honeycomb structure. In microinjected amoeba these three lamins were efficiently transported into the nucleus, but did not associate with the nuclear envelope. Our results suggest that the Amoeba proteus nuclear envelope, including the honeycomb layer, does not contain proteins exhibiting high homologies to lamins of metazoan species thus preventing the localized assembly of microinjected lamins along the nuclear periphery.

  12. Sizing Single Cantilever Beam Specimens for Characterizing Facesheet/Core Peel Debonding in Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2010-01-01

    This technical publication details part of an effort focused on the development of a standardized facesheet/core peel debonding test procedure. The purpose of the test is to characterize facesheet/core peel in sandwich structure, accomplished through the measurement of the critical strain energy release rate associated with the debonding process. Following an examination of previously developed tests and a recent evaluation of a selection of these methods, a single cantilever beam (SCB) specimen was identified as being a promising candidate for establishing such a standardized test procedure. The objective of the work described here was to begin development of a protocol for conducting a SCB test that will render the procedure suitable for standardization. To this end, a sizing methodology was developed to ensure appropriate SCB specimen dimensions are selected for a given sandwich system. Application of this method to actual sandwich systems yielded SCB specimen dimensions that would be practical for use. This study resulted in the development of a practical SCB specimen sizing method, which should be well-suited for incorporation into a standardized testing protocol.

  13. BMI Sandwich Wing Box Analysis and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Tod; Mahler, Mary; Shah, Chandu; Rouse, Marshall; Bush, Harold; Wu, Chauncey; Small, William J.

    2000-01-01

    A composite sandwich single bay wing box test article was developed by Northrop Grumman and tested recently at NASA Langley Research Center. The objectives for the wing box development effort were to provide a demonstration article for manufacturing scale up of structural concepts related to a high speed transport wing, and to validate the structural performance of the design. The box concept consisted of highly loaded composite sandwich wing skins, with moderately loaded composite sandwich spars. The dimensions of the box were chosen to represent a single bay of the main wing box, with a spar spacing of 30 inches, height of 20 inches constant depth, and length of 64 inches. The bismaleimide facesheet laminates and titanium honeycomb core chosen for this task are high temperature materials able to sustain a 300F service temperature. The completed test article is shown in Figure 1. The tests at NASA Langley demonstrated the structures ability to sustain axial tension and compression loads in excess of 20,000 lb/in, and to maintain integrity in the thermal environment. Test procedures, analysis failure predictions, and test results are presented.

  14. Thermostructural Behavior of a Hypersonic Aircraft Sandwich Panel Subjected to Heating on One Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Thermostructural analysis was performed on a heated titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel. The sandwich panel was supported at its four edges with spar-like substructures that acted as heat sinks, which are generally not considered in the classical analysis. One side of the panel was heated to high temperature to simulate aerodynamic heating during hypersonic flight. Two types of surface heating were considered: (1) flat-temperature profile, which ignores the effect of edge heat sinks, and (2) dome-shaped-temperature profile, which approximates the actual surface temperature distribution associated with the existence of edge heat sinks. The finite-element method was used to calculate the deformation field and thermal stress distributions in the face sheets and core of the sandwich panel. The detailed thermal stress distributions in the sandwich panel are presented, and critical stress regions are identified. The study shows how the magnitudes of those critical stresses and their locations change with different heating and edge conditions. This technical report presents comprehensive, three-dimensional graphical displays of thermal stress distributions in every part of a titanium honeycomb-core sandwich panel subjected to hypersonic heating on one side. The plots offer quick visualization of the structural response of the panel and are very useful for hot structures designers to identify the critical stress regions.

  15. Shape and Stress Sensing of Multilayered Composite and Sandwich Structures Using an Inverse Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerracchio, Priscilla; Gherlone, Marco; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The marked increase in the use of composite and sandwich material systems in aerospace, civil, and marine structures leads to the need for integrated Structural Health Management systems. A key capability to enable such systems is the real-time reconstruction of structural deformations, stresses, and failure criteria that are inferred from in-situ, discrete-location strain measurements. This technology is commonly referred to as shape- and stress-sensing. Presented herein is a computationally efficient shape- and stress-sensing methodology that is ideally suited for applications to laminated composite and sandwich structures. The new approach employs the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) as a general framework and the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) as the underlying plate theory. A three-node inverse plate finite element is formulated. The element formulation enables robust and efficient modeling of plate structures instrumented with strain sensors that have arbitrary positions. The methodology leads to a set of linear algebraic equations that are solved efficiently for the unknown nodal displacements. These displacements are then used at the finite element level to compute full-field strains, stresses, and failure criteria that are in turn used to assess structural integrity. Numerical results for multilayered, highly heterogeneous laminates demonstrate the unique capability of this new formulation for shape- and stress-sensing.

  16. Archetypal sandwich-structured CuO for high performance non-enzymatic sensing of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, G. Ranga

    2013-02-01

    In the quest to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of novel structured metal oxides for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of glucose, we report here a green synthesis of unique sandwich-structured CuO on a large scale under microwave mediated homogeneous precipitation conditions. The physicochemical studies carried out by XRD and BET methods show that the monoclinic CuO formed via thermal decomposition of Cu2(OH)2CO3 possesses monomodal channel-type pores with largely improved surface area (~43 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.163 cm3 g-1). The fascinating surface morphology and pore structure of CuO is formulated due to homogeneous crystallization and microwave induced self assembly during synthesis. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies show diffusion controlled glucose oxidation at ~0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with extremely high sensitivity of 5342.8 μA mM-1 cm-2 and respective detection limit and response time of ~1 μM and ~0.7 s, under a wide dynamic concentration range of glucose. The chronoamperometry measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of CuO to glucose is unaffected by the absence of dissolved oxygen and presence of poisoning chloride ions in the reaction medium, which essentially implies high poison resistance activity of the sandwich-structured CuO. The sandwich-structured CuO also shows insignificant interference/significant selectivity to glucose, even in the presence of high concentrations of other sugars as well as reducing species. In addition, the sandwich-structured CuO shows excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation of ~2.4% over ten identically fabricated electrodes) and outstanding long term stability (only ~1.3% loss in sensitivity over a period of one month) during non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The unique microstructure and suitable channel-type pore architecture provide structural stability and maximum accessible electroactive surface for unimpeded mobility of glucose as well as the

  17. Design, fabrication and test of a liquid hydrogen titanium honeycomb cryogenic test tank for use as a reusable launch vehicle main propellant tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stickler, Patrick B.; Keller, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's) utilizing LOX\\LH2 as the propellant require lightweight durable structural systems to meet mass fraction goals and to reduce overall systems operating costs. Titanium honeycomb sandwich with flexible blanket TPS on the windward surface is potentially the lightest-weight and most operable option. Light weight is achieved in part because the honeycomb sandwich tank provides insulation to its liquid hydrogen contents, with no need for separate cryogenic insulation, and in part because the high use temperature of titanium honeycomb reduces the required surface area of re-entry thermal protection systems. System operability is increased because TPS needs to be applied only to surfaces where temperatures exceed approximately 650 K. In order to demonstrate the viability of a titanium sandwich constructed propellant tank, a technology demonstration program was conducted including the design, fabrication and testing of a propellant tank-TPS system. The tank was tested in controlled as well as ambient environments representing ground hold conditions for a RLV main propellant tank. Data collected during each test run was used to validate predictions for air liquefaction, outside wall temperature, boil-off rates, frost buildup and its insulation effects, and the effects of placing a thermal protection system blanket on the external surface. Test results indicated that titanium honeycomb, when used as a RLV propellant tank material, has great promise as a light-weight structural system.

  18. Development of lightweight graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, phases 3, 4 and 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlette, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Work performed in the last three phases of the program included: (1) face sheet processing; (2) honeycomb core manufacture; (3) face sheet-to-core bonding development; and (4) sandwich panel fabrication and testing. Resin cure studies were a major portion of this effort since processing problems traced to the polyimide matrix resin had to be resolved before quality core and face sheets could be fabricated. Honeycomb core fabrication and testing were conducted by Hexcel Corporation. A total of four graphite/polyimide resin composite cores were fabricated, tested, and reported. Two sandwich panels weighing .48 and .58 lb/sq ft, respectively were designed and fabricated which meet the support structure loads for the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system.

  19. Processing and characterization of honeycomb composite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafizadeh, Jahan Emir

    Honeycomb composite structures are widely used in the aerospace and sporting goods industries because of the superior performance and weight saving advantages they offer over traditional metal structures. However, in order to maximize the mechanical and chemical properties of honeycomb composites, the structures must be specially designed to take advantage of their inherent anisotropic, viscoelastic and heterogeneous qualities. In the open literature little work has been done to understand these relationships. Most research efforts have been focused towards studying and modeling the effects of environmental exposure, impact damage and energy absorption. The objectives of this work was to use a systemic engineering approach to explore the fundamental material relationships of honeycomb composites with an emphasis towards the industrial manufacturing, design and performance characteristics of these materials. To reach this goal, a methodology was created to develop model honeycomb systems that were characteristically similar to their commercial counterparts. From the model systems, some of the important chemical and mechanical properties that controlled the behavior of honeycomb core were identified. With the knowledge gained from the model system, studies were carried out to correlate the compressive properties of honeycomb rings to honeycomb core. This type of correlation gives paper, resin, and adhesive manufactures the ability to develop new honeycomb materials without requiring specific honeycomb manufacturers to divulge their trade secrets. After characterizing the honeycomb core, efforts were made to understand the manufacturing and in-service responses of honeycomb materials. Using three Design of Experiments, investigations were performed to measure the mechanisms of composite structures to propagate damage and water over a fourteen month service period. Collectively, this research represents a fundamental starting point for understanding the processing-structure

  20. Small metal-organic molecular sandwiches: Versatile units for induced structure manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumkin, Fedor Y.; Fisher, Kayla

    2013-12-01

    Interfaces between metal atoms and organic molecules are key units of many important metal-organic systems. Presented are results of ab initio calculations for a series of complexes of 2nd-row metal atoms sandwiched between small unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules. Evolution of the system structure and stability is studied for different metal atoms, as well as upon excitation, ionization and electron attachment. Predicted interesting features include cooperative stabilization, unusual geometries, reversible charge- or excitation-governed geometry alterations. The observed variety of properties suggests potential applications of such species as intermolecular junctions and units with charge- or spin-controlled shapes in molecular devices and/or machines.

  1. Employment of a metal microgrid as a front electrode in a sandwich-structured photodetector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junying; Cai, Chao; Pan, Feng; Hao, Weichang; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Tianmin

    2009-07-01

    A highly UV-transparent metal microgrid was prepared and employed as the front electrode in a sandwich-structured ultraviolet (UV) photodetector using TiO(2) thin film as the semiconductor layer. The photo-generated charger carriers travel a shorter distance before reaching the electrodes in comparison with a photodetector using large-spaced interdigitated metal electrodes (where distance between fingers is several to tens of micrometers) on the surface of the semiconductor film. This photodetector responds to UV light irradiation, and the photocurrent intensity increases linearly with the irradiation intensity below 0.2 mW/cm(2). PMID:19571918

  2. Dispersion of guided waves in composite laminates and sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Christoph; Mal, Ajit

    2015-03-01

    In composite structures, damages are often invisible from the surface and can grow to reach a critical size, potentially causing catastrophic failure of the entire structure. Thus safe operation of these structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost-effective method for structural health monitoring in advanced structures. Guided waves allow for long monitoring ranges and are very sensitive to defects within their propagation path. In this work, the relevant properties of guided Lamb waves for damage detection in composite structures are investigated. An efficient numerical approach is used to determine their dispersion characteristics, and these results are compared to those from laboratory experiments. The experiments are based on a pitch-catch method, in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on one surface of the structure to induce and detect guided Lamb waves. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel with woven composite face sheets. In addition, a disbond of the interface between one of the face sheets and the honeycomb core of the sandwich panel is also considered, and the dispersion characteristics of the two resultant waveguides are determined. Good agreement between numerical and experimental dispersion results is found, and suggestions on the applicability of the pitch-catch system for structural health monitoring are made.

  3. A Honeycomb-Structured Ti-6Al-4V Oil-Gas Separation Rotor Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting for Aero-engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Wang, Q. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Gu, J.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2016-03-01

    Oil -gas separation is a key process in an aero-engine lubrication system. This study reports an innovative development in oil -gas separation. A honeycomb-structured rotor with hexagonal cone-shaped pore channels has been designed, additively manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V using selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and assessed for oil -gas separation for aero-engine application. The Ti-6Al-4V honeycomb structure showed a high compressive strength of 110 MPa compared to less than 20 MPa for metal foam structures. The oil -gas separation efficiency of the honeycomb-structured separation rotor achieved 99.8% at the rotation speed of 6000 rpm with much lower ventilation resistance (17.3 kPa) than that of the separator rotor constructed using a Ni-Cr alloy foam structure (23.5 kPa). The honeycomb-structured Ti-6Al-4V separator rotor produced by SEBM provides a promising solution to more efficient oil -gas separation in the aero-engine lubrication system.

  4. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  5. Material Based Structure Design: Numerical Analysis Thermodynamic Response of Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite /Al Sandwich Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxia; Yan, Shilin; Yu, Dingshan

    2016-06-01

    Amine-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based thermally conductive adhesive (TCA) was studied in the previous paper and applied here in thermal pyrolytic graphite (TPG)/Al radiator due to its high thermal conductivity, toughness and cohesiveness. In this paper, in an attempt to confirm the application of TCA to TPG/Al sandwich radiator, the thermodynamic response in TPG/Al sandwich composites associated with key material properties and structural design was investigated using finite element simulation with commercial available ANSYS software. The induced thermal stress in TCA layer is substantial due to the thermal expansion mismatch between Al plate and TPG. The maximum thermal stress is located near the edge of TCA layer with the von Mises stress value of 4.02 MPa and the shear stress value of 1.66 MPa. The reasonable adjustment of physical-mechanical properties including thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young,s modulus and the thickness of TCA layer, Al plate and TPG are beneficial for reducing the temperature of the top surface of the upper skin and their effects on the reduction of thermal structural response in some ways. These findings will highlight the structural optimization of TPG/Al radiator for future application.

  6. Manifestation of the shape-memory effect in polyetherurethane cellular plastics, fabric composites, and sandwich structures under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaevskii, P. G.; Kozlov, N. A.; Agapov, I. G.; Reznichenko, G. M.; Churilo, N. V.; Churilo, I. V.

    2016-09-01

    The results of experiments that were performed to test the feasibility of creating sandwich structures (consisting of thin-layer sheaths of polymer composites and a cellular polymer core) with the shapememory effect as models of the transformable components of space structures have been given. The data obtained indicate that samples of sandwich structures under microgravity conditions on board the International Space Station have recovered their shape to almost the same degree as under terrestrial conditions, which makes it possible to recommend them for creating components of transformable space structures on their basis.

  7. Amorphous GeOx-Coated Reduced Graphene Oxide Balls with Sandwich Structure for Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous GeOx-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) balls with sandwich structure are prepared via a spray-pyrolysis process using polystyrene (PS) nanobeads as sacrificial templates. This sandwich structure is formed by uniformly coating the exterior and interior of few-layer rGO with amorphous GeOx layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals a Ge:O stoichiometry ratio of 1:1.7. The amorphous GeOx-coated rGO balls with sandwich structure have low charge-transfer resistance and fast Li(+)-ion diffusion rate. For example, at a current density of 2 A g(-1), the GeOx-coated rGO balls with sandwich and filled structures and the commercial GeO2 powders exhibit initial charge capacities of 795, 651, and 634 mA h g(-1), respectively; the corresponding 700th-cycle charge capacities are 758, 579, and 361 mA h g(-1). In addition, at a current density of 5 A g(-1), the rGO balls with sandwich structure have a 1600th-cycle reversible charge capacity of 629 mA h g(-1) and a corresponding capacity retention of 90.7%, as measured from the maximum reversible capacity at the 100th cycle.

  8. The structure of a conserved piezo channel domain reveals a topologically distinct β sandwich fold.

    PubMed

    Kamajaya, Aron; Kaiser, Jens T; Lee, Jonas; Reid, Michelle; Rees, Douglas C

    2014-10-01

    Piezo has recently been identified as a family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels composed of subunits containing over 2,000 amino acids, without recognizable sequence similarity to other channels. Here, we present the crystal structure of a large, conserved extramembrane domain located just before the last predicted transmembrane helix of C. elegans PIEZO, which adopts a topologically distinct β sandwich fold. The structure was also determined of a point mutation located on a conserved surface at the position equivalent to the human PIEZO1 mutation found in dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis patients (M2225R). While the point mutation does not change the overall domain structure, it does alter the surface electrostatic potential that may perturb interactions with a yet-to-be-identified ligand or protein. The lack of structural similarity between this domain and any previously characterized fold, including those of eukaryotic and bacterial channels, highlights the distinctive nature of the Piezo family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels.

  9. Some electrical and structural properties of Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa; Ateş, Aytunc

    2012-09-01

    In view of CdS growth is very impotent for technological importance especially solar applications; synthesis of this material remains a topic of great interest for researchers by means of an economically and technically viable method. In the present paper, Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure has been grown by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique. For investigating the structural properties, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) measurements have been performed and it has been seen that films exhibit polycrystalline behavior. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance/w-voltage (G/w-V) characteristics of Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb structure have been investigated by considering series resistance and interface states effects. These measurements have been done in the -4 V, 4 V voltage range and in the frequency range of 10 kHz-3 MHz at room temperature. It is seen that, the series resistance (Rs) and interface state density have been strongly depend on frequency. The barrier height, donor concentration, diffusion potential parameters have been determined from the linear C-2-V plot. The barrier height values are obtained between 0.495 and 0.796 eV and doping density values have been ranged from 1.455 × 1014 to 1.999 × 1014 cm-3respectively. The capacitance-frequency (C-f) and conductance/w-frequency (G/w-f) characteristics of Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb structures have been measured at the various biases 0.00-0.14 V at room temperature. The energy distribution of the interface states (Nss) and their relaxation time (τ) have been determined from the forward bias capacitance-frequency characteristics. The Nss and τ values have ranged from 2.01 × 1012 cm-2 eV-1and 9.68 × 10-4 s in (Ec-0.45) eV-2.86 × 1013 cm-2 eV-1 and 3.81 × 10-4 s in (Ec-0.75) eV, respectively.

  10. Interfacial Microstructure Evolution and Shear Strength of Titanium Sandwich Structures Fabricated by Brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wentao; Fan, Minyu; Li, Jinlong; Tao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The corrugated sandwich structure, consisting of a CP Ti (commercially pure titanium) core between two Ti-6Al-4V face sheets, was brazed using pasty Ti-37.5Zr-15Cu-10Ni as filler alloy, at the temperature of 870°C for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min. The effect of brazing time on the microstructure and elemental distribution of the brazed joints was examined by means of SEM, EDS, and XRD analyses. It was found that various intermetallic phases were formed in the brazed joints, following a brazing time of 5 min, and their contents were decreased by the increment of brazing time, while prolonged brazing time resulted in a fine, acicular Widmanstätten microstructure throughout the entire joint. In addition, shear testing was performed in the brazed corrugated specimens in order to indirectly assess the quality of the joints. The debonding between CP Ti and Ti-6Al-4V was observed in the specimen brazed for 5 min and the fracture of the CP Ti corrugated core occurred after 30 min of brazing time. Additionally, when brazed for 10 min or 20 min, brittle intermetallic compounds in the joints and the grain growth of the base metal were controllable. Therefore, the sandwich structures failed without debonding in the joints or fracture within the base metal, demonstrating a good combination of strength and ductility.

  11. Sandwich node architecture for agile wireless sensor networks for real-time structural health monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi; Pakzad, Shamim; Cheng, Liang

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, wireless sensor network (WSN), as a powerful tool, has been widely applied to structural health monitoring (SHM) due to its low cost of deployment. Several commercial hardware platforms of wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been developed and used for structural monitoring applications [1,2]. A typical design of a node includes a sensor board and a mote connected to it. Sensing units, analog filters and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are integrated on the sensor board and the mote consists of a microcontroller and a wireless transceiver. Generally, there are a set of sensor boards compatible with the same model of mote and the selection of the sensor board depends on the specific applications. A WSN system based on this node lacks the capability of interrupting its scheduled task to start a higher priority task. This shortcoming is rooted in the hardware architecture of the node. The proposed sandwich-node architecture is designed to remedy the shortcomings of the existing one for task preemption. A sandwich node is composed of a sensor board and two motes. The first mote is dedicated to managing the sensor board and processing acquired data. The second mote controls the first mote via commands. A prototype has been implemented using Imote2 and verified by an emulation in which one mote is triggered by a remote base station and then preempts the running task at the other mote for handling an emergency event.

  12. Debonding Stress Concentrations in a Pressurized Lobed Sandwich-Walled Generic Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    2004-01-01

    A finite-element stress analysis has been conducted on a lobed composite sandwich tank subjected to internal pressure and cryogenic cooling. The lobed geometry consists of two obtuse circular walls joined together with a common flat wall. Under internal pressure and cryogenic cooling, this type of lobed tank wall will experience open-mode (a process in which the honeycomb is stretched in the depth direction) and shear stress concentrations at the junctures where curved wall changes into flat wall (known as a curve-flat juncture). Open-mode and shear stress concentrations occur in the honeycomb core at the curve-flat junctures and could cause debonding failure. The levels of contributions from internal pressure and temperature loading to the open-mode and shear debonding failure are compared. The lobed fuel tank with honeycomb sandwich walls has been found to be a structurally unsound geometry because of very low debonding failure strengths. The debonding failure problem could be eliminated if the honeycomb core at the curve-flat juncture is replaced with a solid core.

  13. Targeted grafting of thermoresponsive polymers from a penetrative honeycomb structure for cell sheet engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuangshuang; Lu, Xuemin; Zhu, Dandan; Lu, Qinghua

    2015-10-01

    Responsive membranes have been used to construct smart biomaterial interfaces. We report a novel approach to fabricate honeycomb films with a pattern of thermoresponsive polymer, namely poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). The approach was based on a combination of the breath figure method and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer. The hybrid film had morphological and chemical patterns resulting in varied wettability and morphology at various stages, as well as high thermo-responsiveness. Enhanced cell adhesion was observed at an incubation temperature of 37 °C, which is above its lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Furthermore, cells could be harvested at temperatures below the LCST without trypsin treatment. The non-invasive characteristics give this membrane potential as a substrate for cell sheet engineering.

  14. Development of a finite element model for the simulation of parabolic impact of sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Guérard, Sandra; Mahéo, Laurent; Shankar, Krishna; Viot, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Sandwich panels are lightweight structures of two thin high strength facesheets bonded to either side of a thick low density core such as foams and honeycombs. It is necessary to study the impact response of sandwich structures in order to ensure the reliability and safety of these structures. The response of sandwich panels to impact loading is usually studied for impact at normal angle of incidence. In real engineering situations, the structures are more frequently loaded at some oblique angle or with a complex trajectory. It is easy to carry out normal impact tests using devices like the drop tower, but impacts at oblique angles are difficult to characterise experimentally. A tri-dimensional impact device called Hexapod has been developed to experimentally study the impact loading of sandwich plates with a parabolic trajectory. The Hexapod is a modified Gough-Stewart platform that can be moved independently in the six degrees of freedom, corresponding to three translation axes and three rotation axes. In this paper, an approach for modelling the parabolic impact of sandwich structures with thin metallic facesheets and polymer foam core using commercial finite element code LS-DYNA software is presented. The results of the FE model of sandwich panels are compared with experimental data in terms of the time history of vertical and horizontal components of force. A comparison of the strain history obtained from Digital Image Correlation and LS-Dyna model are also presented.

  15. Thermodynamic stability and electron structure of polymeric sandwich complexes of porphyrins with different metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzubov, A. A.; Krasnov, P. O.; Ignatova, N. Yu.; Fedorov, A. S.; Tomilin, F. N.

    2012-10-01

    The thermodynamic stability of different conformers of the polymeric sandwich structures of metalloporphyrins (MeP) is studied by means of quantum chemistry. The possibility of forming stable layered BaP, SrP, ScP, YP, and ZrP structures with shielded and retarded conformation is demonstrated. Shielded conformers are preferable in the case of SrP, BaP, and ScP complexes, while retarded conformers are most advantageous for YP and ZrP complexes. Based on the results from calculating the electron structure of the investigated compounds, we find that SrP and BaP are semiconductors and ScP, YP, and ZrP are electrical conductors

  16. Optimal Design of Litz Wire Coils With Sandwich Structure Wirelessly Powering an Artificial Anal Sphincter System.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Yan, Sheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Xiaoyang

    2015-07-01

    Transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) is widely used to energize implantable biomedical devices. As a key part of the TETS, a pair of applicable coils with low losses, high unloaded Q factor, and strong coupling is required to realize an efficient TETS. This article presents an optimal design methodology of planar litz wire coils sandwiched between two ferrite substrates wirelessly powering a novel mechanical artificial anal sphincter system for treating severe fecal incontinence, with focus on the main parameters of the coils such as the wire diameter, number of turns, geometry, and the properties of the ferrite substrate. The theoretical basis of optimal power transfer efficiency in an inductive link was analyzed. A set of analytical expressions are outlined to calculate the winding resistance of a litz wire coil on ferrite substrate, taking into account eddy-current losses, including conduction losses and induction losses. Expressions that describe the geometrical dimension dependence of self- and mutual inductance are derived. The influence of ferrite substrate relative permeability and dimensions is also considered. We have used this foundation to devise an applicable coil design method that starts with a set of realistic constraints and ends with the optimal coil pair geometries. All theoretical predictions are verified with measurements using different types of fabricated coils. The results indicate that the analysis is useful for optimizing the geometry design of windings and the ferrite substrate in a sandwich structure as part of which, in addition to providing design insight, allows speeding up the system efficiency-optimizing design process.

  17. An Investigation of The Reticulated Foam - Perforated Steel Sheet Sandwich Structure As A Blast Mitigation Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Tien Ngoc; Proud, William; Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London Collaboration; Royal British Legion CentreBlast Injury Studies at Imperial College London Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Explosions have always been the main cause of injuries during battles and conflicts, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) becoming more and more common nowadays. In this paper, the interaction between blast waves and sandwich structures of reticulated foam and perforated sheets, with varying thickness and configuration, is studied using an air-driven shock tube apparatus. The mitigation effects for primary blast injuries of these structures are discussed in terms of pulse shape, pressure magnitude as well as shock impulse. Schlieren photography together with other high-speed imaging was also used to visually investigate the matter. The results show that lower open area of perforated sheet and increased thickness of foam offer best protection. However, below a threshold thickness, no mitigation is seen. The Institute of Shock Physics acknowledges the support of AWE, Aldermaston, UK and Imperial College London. The Centre for Blast Injury Studies acknowledges the support of the Royal British Legion and Imperial College London.

  18. Influence of reinforcement type on the mechanical behavior and fire response of hybrid composites and sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancaspro, James William

    Lightweight composites and structural sandwich panels are commonly used in marine and aerospace applications. Using carbon, glass, and a host of other high strength fiber types, a broad range of laminate composites and sandwich panels can be developed. Hybrid composites can be constructed by laminating multiple layers of varying fiber types while sandwich panels are manufactured by laminating rigid fiber facings onto a lightweight core. However, the lack of fire resistance of the polymers used for the fabrication remains a very important problem. The research presented in this dissertation deals with an inorganic matrix (Geopolymer) that can be used to manufacture laminate composites and sandwich panels that are resistant up to 1000°C. This dissertation deals with the influence of fiber type on the mechanical behavior and the fire response of hybrid composites and sandwich structures manufactured using this resin. The results are categorized into the following distinct studies. (i) High strength carbon fibers were combined with low cost E-glass fibers to obtain hybrid laminate composites that are both economical and strong. The E-glass fabrics were used as a core while the carbon fibers were placed on the tension face and on both tension and compression faces. (ii) Structural sandwich beams were developed by laminating various types of reinforcement onto the tension and compression faces of balsa wood cores. The flexural behavior of the beams was then analyzed and compared to beams reinforced with organic composite. The effect of core density was evaluated using oak beams reinforced with inorganic composite. (iii) To measure the fire response, balsa wood sandwich panels were manufactured using a thin layer of a fire-resistant paste to serve for fire protection. Seventeen sandwich panels were fabricated and tested to measure the heat release rates and smoke-generating characteristics. The results indicate that Geopolymer can be effectively used to fabricate both

  19. Honeycomb vs. Foam: Evaluating a Potential Upgrade to ISS Module Shielding for Micrometeoroids and Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Hedman, Troy; Christiansen, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a honeycomb core in a multi-wall shielding configuration for protection against micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) particle impacts at hypervelocity is generally considered to be detrimental as the cell walls act to restrict fragment cloud expansion, creating a more concentrated load on the shield rear wall. However, mission requirements often prevent the inclusion of a dedicated MMOD shield, and as such, structural honeycomb sandwich panels are amongst the most prevalent shield types. Open cell metallic foams are a relatively new material with novel mechanical and thermal properties that have shown promising results in preliminary hypervelocity impact shielding evaluations. In this study, an ISS-representative MMOD shielding configuration has been modified to evaluate the potential performance enhancement gained through the substitution of honeycomb for open cell foam. The baseline shielding configuration consists of a double mesh outer layer, two honeycomb sandwich panels, and an aluminum rear wall. In the modified configuration the two honeycomb cores are replaced by open-cell foam. To compensate for the heavier core material, facesheets have been removed from the second sandwich panel in the modified configuration. A total of 19 tests on the double layer honeycomb and double layer foam configurations are reported. For comparable mechanical and thermal performance, the foam modifications were shown to provide a 15% improvement in critical projectile diameter at low velocities (i.e. 3 km/s) and a 3% increase at high velocities (i.e. 7 km/s) for normal impact. With increasing obliquity, the performance enhancement was predicted to increase, up to a 29% improvement at 60 (low velocity). Ballistic limit equations have been developed for the new configuration, and consider the mass of each individual shield component in order to maintain validity in the event of minor configuration modifications. Previously identified weaknesses of open cell

  20. Technique for anchoring fasteners to honeycomb panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.; Spagnuolo, A. C.; Stonebraker, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    Two-piece fastener bushing provides mounting surface for components on a three-inch thick honeycomb structure. Specially constructed starter drill and sheet metal drill permit drilling without misalignment. Tapered knife-edge cutting tool removes honeycomb core material without tearing the adjacent material.

  1. Toward automatic evaluation of defect detectability in infrared images of composites and honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florez-Ospina, Juan F.; Benitez-Restrepo, H. D.

    2015-07-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) refers to inspection methods employed to assess a material specimen without impairing its future usefulness. An important type of these methods is infrared (IR) for NDT (IRNDT), which employs the heat emitted by bodies/objects to rapidly and noninvasively inspect wide surfaces and to find specific defects such as delaminations, cracks, voids, and discontinuities in materials. Current advancements in sensor technology for IRNDT generate great amounts of image sequences. These data require further processing to determine the integrity of objects. Processing techniques for IRNDT data implicitly looks for defect visibility enhancement. Commonly, IRNDT community employs signal to noise ratio (SNR) to measure defect visibility. Nonetheless, current applications of SNR are local, thereby overseeing spatial information, and depend on a-priori knowledge of defect's location. In this paper, we present a general framework to assess defect detectability based on SNR maps derived from processed IR images. The joint use of image segmentation procedures along with algorithms for filling regions of interest (ROI) estimates a reference background to compute SNR maps. Our main contributions are: (i) a method to compute SNR maps that takes into account spatial variation and are independent of a-priori knowledge of defect location in the sample, (ii) spatial background analysis in processed images, and (iii) semi-automatic calculation of segmentation algorithm parameters. We test our approach in carbon fiber and honeycomb samples with complex geometries and defects with different sizes and depths.

  2. Fabrication method for cores of structural sandwich materials including star shaped core cells

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Richard M.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabricating structural sandwich materials having a core pattern which utilizes star and non-star shaped cells. The sheets of material are bonded together or a single folded sheet is used, and bonded or welded at specific locations, into a flat configuration, and are then mechanically pulled or expanded normal to the plane of the sheets which expand to form the cells. This method can be utilized to fabricate other geometric cell arrangements than the star/non-star shaped cells. Four sheets of material (either a pair of bonded sheets or a single folded sheet) are bonded so as to define an area therebetween, which forms the star shaped cell when expanded.

  3. Fabrication method for cores of structural sandwich materials including star shaped core cells

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, R.M.

    1997-07-15

    A method for fabricating structural sandwich materials having a core pattern which utilizes star and non-star shaped cells is disclosed. The sheets of material are bonded together or a single folded sheet is used, and bonded or welded at specific locations, into a flat configuration, and are then mechanically pulled or expanded normal to the plane of the sheets which expand to form the cells. This method can be utilized to fabricate other geometric cell arrangements than the star/non-star shaped cells. Four sheets of material (either a pair of bonded sheets or a single folded sheet) are bonded so as to define an area therebetween, which forms the star shaped cell when expanded. 3 figs.

  4. Sizing Single Cantilever Beam Specimens for Characterizing Facesheet/Core Peel Debonding in Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper details part of an effort focused on the development of a standardized facesheet/core peel debonding test procedure. The purpose of the test is to characterize facesheet/core peel in sandwich structure, accomplished through the measurement of the critical strain energy release rate associated with the debonding process. The specific test method selected for the standardized test procedure utilizes a single cantilever beam (SCB) specimen configuration. The objective of the current work is to develop a method for establishing SCB specimen dimensions. This is achieved by imposing specific limitations on specimen dimensions, with the objectives of promoting a linear elastic specimen response, and simplifying the data reduction method required for computing the critical strain energy release rate associated with debonding. The sizing method is also designed to be suitable for incorporation into a standardized test protocol. Preliminary application of the resulting sizing method yields practical specimen dimensions.

  5. Development of an Equivalent Composite Honeycomb Model: A Finite Element Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenackers, G.; Peeters, J.; Ribbens, B.; Vuye, C.

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis of complex geometries such as honeycomb composites, brings forth several difficulties. These problems are expressed primarily as high calculation times but also memory issues when solving these models. In order to bypass these issues, the main goal of this research paper is to define an appropriate equivalent model in order to minimize the complexity of the finite element model and thus minimize computation times. A finite element study is conducted on the design and analysis of equivalent layered models, substituting the honeycomb core in sandwich structures. A comparison is made between available equivalent models. An equivalent model with the right set of material property values is defined and benchmarked, consisting of one continuous layer with orthotropic elastic properties based on different available approximate formulas. This way the complex geometry does not need to be created while the model yields sufficiently accurate results.

  6. Analytical structural efficiency studies of borsic/aluminum compression panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcwithey, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Analytically determined mass-strength curves, strain-strength curves, and dimensions are presented for structurally efficient hat-stiffened panels, corrugation-stiffened panels, hat-stiffened honeycomb-core sandwich panels, open-section corrugation panels, and honeycomb-core sandwich panels. The panels were assumed to be fabricated from either titanium, borsic/aluminum, or a combination of these materials. Borsic/aluminum panels and titanium panels reinforced with borsic/aluminum were lighter and stiffer than comparably designed titanium panels. Reinforced titanium panels had the same extensional stiffness as comparably designed Borsic/aluminum panels. For a given load, the structural efficiency of the hat-stiffened honeycomb-core sandwich panel was higher than the structural efficiency of the other stiffened panels.

  7. Breath Figure Method for Construction of Honeycomb Films

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yingying; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Honeycomb films with various building units, showing potential applications in biological, medical, physicochemical, photoelectric, and many other areas, could be prepared by the breath figure method. The ordered hexagonal structures formed by the breath figure process are related to the building units, solvents, substrates, temperature, humidity, air flow, and other factors. Therefore, by adjusting these factors, the honeycomb structures could be tuned properly. In this review, we summarized the development of the breath figure method of fabricating honeycomb films and the factors of adjusting honeycomb structures. The organic-inorganic hybrid was taken as the example building unit to discuss the preparation, mechanism, properties, and applications of the honeycomb films. PMID:26343734

  8. Damage Evolution in Composite Materials and Sandwich Structures Under Impulse Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Michael Lee

    Damage evolution in composite materials is a rather complex phenomenon. There are numerous failure modes in composite materials stemming from the interaction of the various constituent materials and the particular loading conditions. This thesis is concerned with investigating damage evolution in sandwich structures under repeated transient loading conditions associated with impulse loading due to hull slamming of high-speed marine craft. To fully understand the complex stress interactions, a full field technique to reveal stress or strain is required. Several full field techniques exist but are limited to materials with particular optical properties. A full field technique applicable to most materials is known as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and reveals the variation in sum of principal stresses of a cyclically loaded sample by correlating the stresses to a small temperature change occurring at the loading frequency. Digital image correlation (DIC) is another noncontact full field technique that reveals the deformation field by tracking the motion of subsets of a random speckle pattern during the loading cycles. A novel experimental technique to aid in the study of damage progression that combines TSA and DIC simultaneously utilizing a single infrared camera is presented in this thesis. A technique to reliably perform DIC with an infrared (IR) camera is developed utilizing variable emissivity paint. The thermal data can then be corrected for rigid-body motion and deformation such that each pixel represents the same material point in all frames. TSA is then performed on this corrected data, reducing motion blur and increasing accuracy. This combined method with a single infrared camera has several advantages, including a straightforward experimental setup without the need to correct for geometric effects of two spatially separate cameras. Additionally, there is no need for external lighting in TSA as the measured electromagnetic radiation is emitted by the

  9. Two-Dimensional Pnictogen Honeycomb Lattice: Structure, On-Site Spin-Orbit Coupling and Spin Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason; Tian, Wen-Chuan; Wang, Wei-Liang; Yao, Dao-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Because of its novel physical properties, two-dimensional materials have attracted great attention. From first-principle calculations and vibration frequencies analysis, we predict a new family of two-dimensional materials based on the idea of octet stability: honeycomb lattices of pnictogens (N, P, As, Sb, Bi). The buckled structures of materials come from the sp3 hybridization. These materials have indirect band gap ranging from 0.43 eV to 3.7 eV. From the analysis of projected density of states, we argue that the s and p orbitals together are sufficient to describe the electronic structure under tight-binding model, and the tight-binding parameters are obtained by fitting the band structures to first-principle results. Surprisingly large on-site spin-orbit coupling is found for all the pnictogen lattices except nitrogen. Investigation on the electronic structures of both zigzag and armchair nanoribbons reveals the possible existence of spin-polarized ferromagnetic edge states in some cases, which are rare in one-dimensional systems. These edge states and magnetism may exist under the condition of high vacuum and low temperature. This new family of materials would have promising applications in electronics, optics, sensors, and solar cells. PMID:26122870

  10. Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of rectangular sandwich panels under different edge conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1994-01-01

    The combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations were established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels under four different edge conditions by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three-dimensional buckling interaction surfaces were constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction surfaces provide overall comparison of the panel buckling strengths and the domains of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling associated with the different edge conditions. In addition, thermal buckling curves of these sandwich panels are presented. The thermal buckling conditions for the cases with and without thermal moments were found to be identical for the small deformation theory.

  11. Optimal Design of Litz Wire Coils With Sandwich Structure Wirelessly Powering an Artificial Anal Sphincter System.

    PubMed

    Ke, Lei; Yan, Guozheng; Yan, Sheng; Wang, Zhiwu; Li, Xiaoyang

    2015-07-01

    Transcutaneous energy transfer system (TETS) is widely used to energize implantable biomedical devices. As a key part of the TETS, a pair of applicable coils with low losses, high unloaded Q factor, and strong coupling is required to realize an efficient TETS. This article presents an optimal design methodology of planar litz wire coils sandwiched between two ferrite substrates wirelessly powering a novel mechanical artificial anal sphincter system for treating severe fecal incontinence, with focus on the main parameters of the coils such as the wire diameter, number of turns, geometry, and the properties of the ferrite substrate. The theoretical basis of optimal power transfer efficiency in an inductive link was analyzed. A set of analytical expressions are outlined to calculate the winding resistance of a litz wire coil on ferrite substrate, taking into account eddy-current losses, including conduction losses and induction losses. Expressions that describe the geometrical dimension dependence of self- and mutual inductance are derived. The influence of ferrite substrate relative permeability and dimensions is also considered. We have used this foundation to devise an applicable coil design method that starts with a set of realistic constraints and ends with the optimal coil pair geometries. All theoretical predictions are verified with measurements using different types of fabricated coils. The results indicate that the analysis is useful for optimizing the geometry design of windings and the ferrite substrate in a sandwich structure as part of which, in addition to providing design insight, allows speeding up the system efficiency-optimizing design process. PMID:25808086

  12. Honeycomb mirrors of borosilicate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Hill, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The fabrication of different types of honeycomb mirrors with various kinds of borosilicate glass is discussed. Borosilicate glass is much less expensive to make than zero expansion glass, and can be used for ground-based applications. A mirror 60 cm in diameter made with a slotted strut or egg-crate honeycomb of 6 mm polished Pyrex plate is shown. The faceplates are 12 mm thick, laminated from the same 6 mm sheet. The result of an interferometric test is shown, with residual errors of about wavelength/8 RMS. An alternative fabrication technique for very large mirrors which require high quality bonds between separate sheets of thick Pyrex is described. The result of a recent test casting of a 60 cm honeycomb structure made in a mold with towers 14 cm square and 6 mm gaps between is shown, and methods to cast an entire mirror in one operation are discussed.

  13. Vibroacoustic Model Validation for a Curved Honeycomb Composite Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Robinson, Jay H.; Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    2001-01-01

    Finite element and boundary element models are developed to investigate the vibroacoustic response of a curved honeycomb composite sidewall panel. Results from vibroacoustic tests conducted in the NASA Langley Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission facility are used to validate the numerical predictions. The sidewall panel is constructed from a flexible honeycomb core sandwiched between carbon fiber reinforced composite laminate face sheets. This type of construction is being used in the development of an all-composite aircraft fuselage. In contrast to conventional rib-stiffened aircraft fuselage structures, the composite panel has nominally uniform thickness resulting in a uniform distribution of mass and stiffness. Due to differences in the mass and stiffness distribution, the noise transmission mechanisms for the composite panel are expected to be substantially different from those of a conventional rib-stiffened structure. The development of accurate vibroacoustic models will aide in the understanding of the dominant noise transmission mechanisms and enable optimization studies to be performed that will determine the most beneficial noise control treatments. Finite element and boundary element models of the sidewall panel are described. Vibroacoustic response predictions are presented for forced vibration input and the results are compared with experimental data.

  14. Enhancing the absorption capabilities of thin-film solar cells using sandwiched light trapping structures.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, S; Kirah, K; Ghannam, R; Khalil, A S G; Anis, W

    2015-06-10

    A novel structure for thin-film solar cells is simulated with the purpose of maximizing the absorption of light in the active layer and of reducing the parasitic absorption in other layers. In the proposed structure, the active layer is formed from an amorphous silicon thin film sandwiched between silicon nanowires from above and photonic crystal structures from below. The upper electrical contact consists of an indium tin oxide layer, which serves also as an antireflection coating. A metal backreflector works additionally as the other contact. The simulation was done using a new reliable, efficient and generic optoelectronic approach. The suggested multiscale simulation model integrates the finite-difference time-domain algorithm used in solving Maxwell's equation in three dimensions with a commercial simulation platform based on the finite element method for carrier transport modeling. The absorption profile, the external quantum efficient, and the power conversion efficiency of the suggested solar cell are calculated. A noticeable enhancement is found in all the characteristics of the novel structure with an estimated 32% increase in the total conversion efficiency over a cell without any light trapping mechanisms. PMID:26192857

  15. Bonding, stability, and electronic properties of the BC3 honeycomb monolayer structure on NbB2(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi-Yu; Liu, Shiyang; Li, De-Jun; Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Sha; Xue, Wenhua; Wang, Sanwu

    2013-09-01

    Two-dimensional graphenelike BC3 honeycomb structures, which have been grown on the NbB2(0001) surface, possess intriguing properties that offer new opportunities for applications in nanoelectronics, mechanical materials, and superconductivity. The bonding configuration of BC3 on the substrate has not yet been determined, however. We report ab initio thermodynamics calculations and analysis that lead to a prediction about the most stable bonding configuration of a monolayer BC3 on NbB2, namely the C-top configuration in which carbon is bonded directly on the top of the niobium atoms. We also find that the BC3 monolayer on NbB2 is thermodynamically stable, accounting for the experimental observation that the BC3 sheet can be grown on NbB2 by carbon substitution and surface segregation of carbon impurities. We further provide detailed information about the atomic structures and electronic properties of the BC3-bonded NbB2 surface.

  16. Electromagnetic waves reflection, transmission and absorption by graphene-magnetic semiconductor-graphene sandwich-structure in magnetic field: Faraday geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bychkov, Igor V.; Shavrov, Vladimir G.

    2014-11-01

    Electrodynamic properties of the graphene-magnetic semiconductor-graphene sandwich-structure have been investigated theoretically with taking into account the dissipation processes. Influence of graphene layers on electromagnetic waves propagation in graphene-semi-infinte magnetic semiconductor and graphene-magnetic semiconductor-graphene sandwich-structure has been analyzed. Frequency and field dependences of the reflectance, transmittance and absorbtance of electromagnetic waves by such structure have been calculated. The size effects associated with the thickness of the structure have been analyzed. The possibility of efficient control of electrodynamic properties of graphene-magnetic semiconductor-graphene sandwich-structure by an external magnetic field has been shown.

  17. Growth and properties of High-quality metal/ yttrium iron garnet/metal sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldosary, Mohammed; Li, Junxue; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Shi, Jing

    Sandwiched structures of magnetic insulators (e.g. yttrium iron garnet or YIG) between two normal metals are potentially useful for spintronics. In this work, we report our approach of growing a single crystalline YIG thin film on a Pt or Cu thin layer using the combination of sputtering and PLD. First, either 5 nm of Pt or Cu is deposited on (110)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrate using sputtering and then YIG is grown by PLD at intermediate temperatures followed by rapid thermal annealing at higher temperatures. Surprisingly, YIG films show a well-defined single-crystal reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) pattern, despite that they are grown on polycrystalline Pt or Cu. TEM images show flat, clean and sharp interfaces between YIG/metals and metals/GGG. The magnetic properties show in-plane magnetic anisotropy. However, when thicker metallic layers (20 nm) or amorphous (metals/SiO2) substrate are used, only YIG polycrystalline phase is observed. We will show that by properly controlling the growth conditions the metal/YIG/ metal structures are not only of high structural quality, but also have desired properties for spin current transport. This work was supported as part of the SHINES, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award # SC0012670.

  18. Simulation of Delamination-Migration and Core Crushing in a CFRP Sandwich Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElroy, M.; Leone, F.; Ratcliffe, J.; Czabaj, M.; Yuan, F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Following the onset of damage caused by an impact load on a composite laminate structure, delaminations often form propagating outwards from the point of impact and in some cases can migrate via matrix cracks between plies as they grow. The goal of the present study is to develop an accurate finite element modeling technique for simulation of the delamination-migration phenomena in laminate impact damage processes. An experiment was devised where, under a quasi-static indentation load, an embedded delamination in the facesheet of a laminate sandwich specimen migrates via a transverse matrix crack and then continues to grow on a new ply interface. The quasistatic nature of the indentation results in structural behavior equivalent to that seen in low-velocity impact and also allows for highly detailed real time damage characterization. Several finite element damage simulation methods were investigated. Comparing the experimental results with those of the different models reveals certain modeling features that are important to include in a numerical simulation of delamination-migration and some that may be neglected.

  19. Fabrication and Testing of Durable Redundant and Fluted-Core Joints for Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shih-Yung; Splinter, Scott C.; Tarkenton, Chris; Paddock, David A.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Ghose, Sayata; Guzman, Juan C.; Stukus, Donald J.; McCarville, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of durable bonded joint technology for assembling composite structures is an essential component of future space technologies. While NASA is working toward providing an entirely new capability for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit, the objective of this project is to design, fabricate, analyze, and test a NASA patented durable redundant joint (DRJ) and a NASA/Boeing co-designed fluted-core joint (FCJ). The potential applications include a wide range of sandwich structures for NASA's future launch vehicles. Three types of joints were studied -- splice joint (SJ, as baseline), DRJ, and FCJ. Tests included tension, after-impact tension, and compression. Teflon strips were used at the joint area to increase failure strength by shifting stress concentration to a less sensitive area. Test results were compared to those of pristine coupons fabricated utilizing the same methods. Tensile test results indicated that the DRJ design was stiffer, stronger, and more impact resistant than other designs. The drawbacks of the DRJ design were extra mass and complex fabrication processes. The FCJ was lighter than the DRJ but less impact resistant. With barely visible but detectable impact damages, all three joints showed no sign of tensile strength reduction. No compression test was conducted on any impact-damaged sample due to limited scope and resource. Failure modes and damage propagation were also studied to support progressive damage modeling of the SJ and the DRJ.

  20. Pure, single crystal Ge nanodots formed using a sandwich structure via pulsed UV excimer laser annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ting-Wei; Chen, Hung-Ming; Shen, Kuan-Yuan; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a sandwich structure comprising a SiO2 capping layer, amorphous Germanium (a-Ge) nanodots (NDs), and a pit-patterned Silicon (Si) substrate is developed, which is then annealed by utilizing a pulsed ultraviolet excimer laser in order to fabricate an array of pure, single crystal Ge NDs at room temperature. A wide bandgap SiO2 capping layer is used as a transparent thermally isolated layer to prevent thermal loss and Si-Ge intermixing. The two-dimensional pit-patterned Si substrate is designed to confine the absorbed laser energy, reduce the melting point, and block the surface migration of the Ge. After optimizing the laser radiation parameters such that the laser energy density is 200 mJ cm-2, the laser annealing period is 10 s, and the number of laser shots is 10, pure, single crystal Ge NDs that have both a regular arrangement and a uniform size distribution are obtained in the pits of the Si substrates. The Raman spectrum shows a highly symmetric Ge transversal optical peak with a full width at half maximum of 4.2 cm-1 at 300.7 cm-1, which is close to that of the original Ge wafer. In addition, the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image for the Ge NDs and the corresponding selected area electron diffraction pattern shows a clear single crystalline structure without any impurities.

  1. An Investigation on Low Velocity Impact Response of Multilayer Sandwich Composite Structures

    PubMed Central

    Jedari Salami, S.; Sadighi, M.; Shakeri, M.; Moeinfar, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of adding an extra layer within a sandwich panel and two different core types in top and bottom cores on low velocity impact loadings are studied experimentally in this paper. The panel includes polymer composite laminated sheets for faces and the internal laminated sheet called extra layer sheet, and two types of crushable foams are selected as the core material. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by drop hammer testing machine to the clamped multilayer sandwich panels with expanded polypropylene (EPP) and polyurethane rigid (PUR) in the top and bottom cores. Local displacement of the top core, contact force and deflection of the sandwich panel were obtained for different locations of the internal sheet; meanwhile the EPP and PUR were used in the top and bottom cores alternatively. It was found that the core material type has made significant role in improving the sandwich panel's behavior compared with the effect of extra layer location. PMID:24453804

  2. Crystal structures and magnetic properties of the honeycomb-lattice antiferromagnet M2(pymca)3(ClO4), (M = Fe, Co, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Zentaro; Kodama, Takafumi; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Kida, Takanori; Okutani, Akira; Sakai, Masamichi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Kamata, Norihiko

    2016-09-01

    We report on the syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of a series of transition metal coordination polymers M2(pymca)3(ClO4), (pymca = pyrimidine-2-carboxylic acid, M = Fe (1), Co (2), and Ni (3)). These compounds are found to crystallize in a trigonal crystal system, space group P31m, with the lattice constants a = 9.727 Å and c = 5.996 Å for 1, a = 9.608 Å and c = 5.996 Å for 2, and a = 9.477 Å and c = 5.958 Å for 3 at room temperature. In these compounds, each pymca ligand connects to two M2+ ions, forming a honeycomb network in the ab plane. The temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibilities in these compounds show broad maxima, indicating antiferromagnetic interactions within two-dimensional honeycomb layers. We also observed an antiferromagnetic phase transition at low temperatures by magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. From the crystal structures and magnetic properties, we conclude that the compounds 1, 2, and 3 are good realizations of honeycomb-lattice antiferromagnets.

  3. On the Fabrication, Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Melt-Stretched Stochastic Honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetter, Megan

    This thesis presents a new type of polypropylene (PP) cellular material fabricated through a simple melt-stretching process. Stochastic honeycombs have an open cell, random honeycomb structure, with webs oriented perpendicular to built-in skins. This process has the advantage that, for example, PP pellets can be turned into a sandwich panel in one step. It was demonstrated that despite the randomness in the web structure, the out-of-plane compressive strength of stochastic honeycombs was repeatable, and exceeded that of commercial PP foams and was comparable to commercial PP honeycombs. The key material properties required to produce an this architecture were shown to be a high melt strength and a high viscosity, branched polymer. The viscosity was shown to affect the total length of the webs in cross-section and the relative partitioning of material through the skin, transition region and webs. Web thickness was affected by the areal density of the polymer during fabrication. Mechanical testing methods were adapted from ASTM standards for honeycombs, and the fabrication method was advanced from a manual to a machine controlled process. Stochastic honeycombs were shown to buckle elastically, plastically, and fracture after the peak strength. Elastic and plastic buckling were dominant at lower densities, and plastic buckling and fracture at higher densities. A thin-plate buckling model for the strength of stochastic honeycombs was developed and verified experimentally. The crystallinity of the polymer affected the tensile strength and stiffness, having a linear effect on the buckling strength. The architecture was composed of webs bound on both sides and webs bound on one side and free on the other. A greater fraction of bound webs increased the strength of the structure in the buckling model. A fabrication study showed that melt-stretching the polymer at higher strain rates increased the connectivity and fraction of bound webs. Additionally, higher density led to a

  4. Comparison of Brazed Residual Stress and Thermal Deformation between X-Type and Pyramidal Lattice Truss Sandwich Structure: Neutron Diffraction Measurement and Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenchun; Wei, Zhiquan; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Weiya; Woo, Wanchuck

    2016-06-01

    This paper uses finite element method and neutron diffraction measurement to study the residual stress in lattice truss sandwich structure. A comparison of residual stress and thermal deformation between X-type and pyramidal lattice truss sandwich structure has been carried out. The residual stresses are concentrated in the middle joint and then decreases gradually to both the ends. The residual stresses in the X-type lattice truss sandwich structure are smaller than those in pyramidal structure. The maximum longitudinal and transverse stresses of pyramidal structure are 220 and 202 MPa, respectively, but they decrease to 190 and 145 MPa for X-type lattice truss sandwich structure, respectively. The thermal deformation for lattice truss sandwich panel structure is of wave shape. The X-type has a better resistance to thermal deformation than pyramidal lattice truss sandwich structure. The maximum wave deformation of pyramidal structure (0.02 mm) is about twice as that of X-type (0.01 mm) at the same brazing condition.

  5. Computational analysis of triangular and honeycomb lattice-structured tapered nanoholes for enhanced light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, Jolly; Becker, Christiane

    2014-05-01

    For an optimized light harvesting while using diverse periodic photonic light-trapping architectures in low cost thin film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells, it is also of prime importance to tune the features of their lattice point basis structure. In view of this, tapered nanoholes would be of importance for envisaged better light in-coupling due to graded index effect and also from the point of fabrication feasibility. Using a 3D finite element method based computational simulator, we investigate the basis structural influence of triangular as well as honeycomb lattice-structured experimentally feasible tapered air nanoholes in ~400 nm thick c-Si absorber on a glass substrate. We present a detailed convergence analysis of volume absorption in Si absorber with cylindrical as well as tapered nanoholes. For a wavelength rage of 300 nm to 1100 nm, we present the computed results on light absorption of the engineered Si nanoholes for a lattice periodicity of 600nm. In particular, we study the influence of tapering angle of engineered nano air holes in Si thin film for the absorption enhancement in photonic triangular and honeycomb lattice structured tapered nanoholes. Further we make a comparative analysis of cylindrical and tapered nanoholes for a range of light incident angles from 0° to 60°. For the presented triangular as well as honeycomb lattice structured nanoholes, we observe that in comparison to the cylindrical nanoholes, the tapered nanoholes perform better in terms of light trapping for enhanced light absorption in textured Si thin films even when the effective volume fraction of Si is lower in the absorber layer with tapered nanoholes in comparison to that of cylindrical ones. From the maximum achievable short circuit current density estimation in the present study, the performance of c-Si absorbing layer engineered with triangular lattice structured tapered air holes harvests light efficiently owing to its higher lattice symmetry among periodic

  6. Novel sandwich structure adsorptive membranes for removal of 4-nitrotoluene from water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuexin; Jia, Zhiqian

    2016-11-01

    Novel sandwich PES-SPES/PS-PDVB/PTFE adsorptive membranes were prepared by a filtration/immersion precipitation method and employed for the removal of 4-nitrotoluene from water. The static adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics, dynamic adsorption/desorption and membrane reusability were investigated. The results showed that the Freundlich model describes the adsorption isotherm satisfactorily. With increased PS-PDVB content, the maximum static adsorption capacity, partition coefficient, apparent adsorption rate constant, and dynamic adsorption capacity all significantly increased. The sandwich membranes showed much higher removal efficiency and adsorption capacity than those of mixed matrix membranes. With respect to dynamics adsorption/desorption, the sandwich membranes exhibited excellent reusability, with a removal efficiency greater than 95% even after five recycles. PMID:27322899

  7. Titanium honeycomb acoustic lining structural and thermal test report. [for acoustic tailpipe for JT8D engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joynes, D.; Balut, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of static, fatigue and thermal testing of titanium honeycomb acoustic panels representing the acoustic tailpipe for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D Refan engine which is being studied for use on the Boeing 727-200 airplane. Test specimens represented the engine and tailpipe flange joints, the rail to which the thrust reverser is attached and shear specimens of the tailpipe honeycomb. Specimens were made in four different batches with variations in configuration, materials and processes in each. Static strength of all test specimens exceeded the design ultimate load requirements. Fatigue test results confirmed that aluminum brazed titanium, as used in the Refan tailpipe design, meets the fatigue durability objectives. Quality of welding was found to be critical to life, with substandard welding failing prematurely, whereas welding within the process specification exceeded the panel skin life. Initial fatigue testing used short grip length bolts which failed prematurely. These were replaced with longer bolts and subsequent testing demonstrated the required life. Thermal tests indicate that perforated skin acoustic honeycomb has approximately twice the heat transfer of solid skin honeycomb.

  8. Stable monolayer honeycomb-like structures of RuX2 (X =S,Se)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersan, Fatih; Cahangirov, Seymur; Gökoǧlu, Gökhan; Rubio, Angel; Aktürk, Ethem

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies show that several metal oxides and dichalcogenides (M X2) , which exist in nature, can be stable in two-dimensional (2D) form and each year several new M X2 structures are explored. The unstable structures in H (hexagonal) or T (octahedral) forms can be stabilized through Peierls distortion. In this paper, we propose new 2D forms of RuS2 and RuSe2 materials. We investigate in detail the stability, electronic, magnetic, optical, and thermodynamic properties of 2D Ru X2 (X =S,Se) structures from first principles. While their H and T structures are unstable, the distorted T structures (T'-Ru X2) are stable and have a nonmagnetic semiconducting ground state. The molecular dynamic simulations also confirm that T'-Ru X2 systems are stable even at 500 K without any structural deformation. T'-RuS2 and T'-RuSe2 have indirect band gaps with 0.745 eV (1.694 eV with HSE) and 0.798 eV (1.675 eV with HSE) gap values, respectively. We also examine their bilayer and trilayer forms and find direct and smaller band gaps. We find that AA stacking is more favorable than the AB configuration. The new 2D materials obtained can be good candidates with striking properties for applications in semiconductor electronic, optoelectronic devices, and sensor technology.

  9. Analyses for Debonding of Stitched Composite Sandwich Structures Using Improved Constitutive Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, E. H.; Sleight, D. W.; Krishnamurthy, T.; Raju, I. S.

    2001-01-01

    A fracture mechanics analysis based on strain energy release rates is used to study the effect of stitching in bonded sandwich beam configurations. Finite elements are used to model the configurations. The stitches were modeled as discrete nonlinear spring elements with a compliance determined by experiment. The constitutive models were developed using the results of flatwise tension tests from sandwich material rather than monolithic material. The analyses show that increasing stitch stiffness, stitch density and debond length decrease strain energy release rates for a fixed applied load.

  10. Crystal structure of human prostate-specific antigen in a sandwich antibody complex.

    PubMed

    Stura, Enrico A; Muller, Bruno H; Bossus, Marc; Michel, Sandrine; Jolivet-Reynaud, Colette; Ducancel, Frédéric

    2011-12-01

    Human prostate-specific antigen (PSA or human kallikrein-related peptidase 3) present in small quantities in the sera of healthy men becomes elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) and other prostate disorders. The ability to identify the free PSA fraction associated with PCa could increase the reliability of the PSA diagnostic test. Here we present the crystal structure of human PSA from seminal fluid in a sandwich complex with two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). MAb 5D5A5 captures total PSA with exceptionally high affinity, and mAb 5D3D11 selectively discriminates between free PSA subforms that are more abundant in sera from patients with PCa. Although the antigen is not of seric origin, several insights into cancer diagnosis can be discerned from this complex. MAb 5D3D11 recognizes a PSA conformation different from that previously reported. Interacting with the kallikrein loop, the PSA N-linked glycan attached to asparagine 61 is an uncommonly complex sialated triantennary chain. O-linked glycosylation is observed at threonine 125. The description of how PSA subforms in prostatic fluid can be discriminated using pairs of antibodies is a first step in the design of new strategies that are capable of real discrimination among PSA subforms, which will lead to the formulation of more reliable diagnostic tests. In a companion article [Muller, B. H., Savatier, A., L'Hostis, G., Costa, N., Bossus, M., Michel, S., et al. (2011). In vitro affinity maturation of an anti-PSA antibody for prostate cancer diagnostic assay. J. Mol. Biol.], we describe engineering efforts to improve the affinity of mAb 5D3D11, a first step towards such goal. PMID:22037582

  11. The Effects of Various Design Parameters on the Free Vibration of Doubly Curved Composite Sandwich Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CUNNINGHAM, P. R.; WHITE, R. G.; AGLIETTI, G. S.

    2000-02-01

    Sandwich panels have a very high stiffness to weight ratio, which makes them particularly useful in the aerospace industry where carbon fibre reinforced plastics and lightweight honeycomb cores are being used in the construction of floor panels, fairings and intake barrel panels. In the latter case, the geometry of the panels can be considered doubly curved. This paper presents an introduction to an ongoing study investigating the dynamic response prediction of acoustically excited composite sandwich panels which have double curvature. The final objective is to assess and hopefully produce an up to date set of acoustic fatigue design guidelines for this type of structure. The free vibration of doubly curved composite honeycomb sandwich panels is investigated here, both experimentally and theoretically, the latter using a commerically available finite element package. The design and manufacture of three test panels is covered before presenting experimental results for the natural frequencies of vibration with freely supported boundary conditions. Once validated against the experimental results, the theoretical investigation is extended to study the effects of changing radii of curvature, orthotropic properties of the core, and ply orientation on the natural frequencies of vibration of rectangular panels with various boundary conditions. The results from the parameter studies show curve veering, particularly when studying the effect of changing radii and ply orientation, however, it is not clear whether this phenomenon is due to the approximation method used or occurs in the physical system.

  12. Thermo-structural optimization of all-metallic prismatic sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdevit, Lorenzo

    All-metallic sandwich panels with prismatic cores offer tremendous potential for thermostructural applications, due to their exceptional bending response together with the possibility of driving a fluid through their open cores, thus enabling active cooling. This thesis offers a complete thermo-mechanical characterization of prismatic panels with both corrugated and diamond cores, with main emphasis on geometric optimization. For the mechanical study, the panel geometry is analytically optimized for minimum weight under any combination of bending and transverse shear force. For longitudinal loadings (i.e. bending axis parallel to the core corrugation direction), corrugated panels show excellent performance, equivalent to the best concepts available; for transverse loadings (i.e. bending axis perpendicular to the corrugation direction), this goal is achieved with diamond core designs. Failure maps are constructed based on the analytical model to provide easy visualization of the failure modes and allow immediate identification of optimal designs. Such maps are used to design a selected number of experiments, with the three-fold goal of (i) validating the analytical model, (ii) exploring the behavior subsequent to failure initiation (thus assessing the robustness of the chosen designs), and (iii) check the reliability of numerical simulations in capturing limit loads and deformation modes. Good agreement is achieved among analytical, computational and experimental results. In order to assess the active cooling performance of prismatic panels, a scenario is envisioned where a uniform heat flux is impinging on one face, with the rest of the panel being thermally insulated; under these conditions, all the heat flux is transferred to a cooling fluid flowing through the core channels. At any given level of the pressure drop, the panel geometry is optimized for maximum transferred heat flux subject to a temperature constraint on the structure. Although very large optimal

  13. Phonons transmission by thin films sandwiched between two similar fcc structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkacemi, Ghania; Bourahla, Boualem

    2015-09-01

    An analytical and numerical formalism are developed to study the influence of the sandwiched atomic films on the vibration properties and phonon transmission modes in fcc waveguides. The model system consists of two identical semi-infinite fcc leads joined by ultrathin atomic films in between. The matching technique is applied to calculate the local Green's functions for the irreducible set of sites that constitute the inhomogeneous domain. Numerical results are presented for the reflection/transmission, total phonon transmittance and localized vibration states in considered fcc lattices. The results show that vibrational properties of the sandwich materials are strongly dependent on the scattering frequency, the thickness of the insured films, incidence angles and elastic boundary conditions. We note that some of the fluctuations, observed in the vibration spectra, are related to Fano resonances, they are due to the coherent coupling between travelling phonons and the localized vibration modes in the neighborhood of the nanojunction domains. The number of localized modes which interact with the propagating modes of the continuum is proportional to the number of the sandwiched Slabs in the interfacial zone. The results give also the effect of the sandwiched ultrathin films on elastic waves propagation by atomic interfaces in fcc lattices.

  14. Metal Foam Analysis: Improving Sandwich Structure Technology for Engine Fan and Propeller Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    The Life Prediction Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center is searching for ways to construct aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades that are lighter and less costly. One possible design is to create a sandwich structure composed of two metal faces sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets would carry the bending loads and the foam core would have to resist the transverse shear loads. Metal foam is ideal because of its low density and energy absorption capabilities, making the structure lighter, yet still stiff. The material chosen for the face sheets and core was 17-4PH stainless steel, which is easy to make and has appealing mechanical properties. This material can be made inexpensively compared to titanium and polymer matrix composites, the two current fan blade alternatives. Initial tests were performed on design models, including vibration and stress analysis. These tests revealed that the design is competitive with existing designs; however, some problems were apparent that must be addressed before it can be implemented in new technology. The foam did not hold up as well as expected under stress. This could be due to a number of issues, but was most likely a result of a large number of pores within the steel that weakened the structure. The brazing between the face sheets and the foam was also identified as a concern. The braze did not hold up well under shear stress causing the foam to break away from the face sheets. My role in this project was to analyze different options for improving the design. I primarily spent my time examining various foam samples, created with different sintering conditions, to see which exhibited the most favorable characteristics for our purpose. Methods of analysis that I employed included examining strut integrity under a microscope, counting the number of cells per inch, measuring the density, testing the microhardness, and testing the strength under compression. Shear testing will also be done to examine

  15. Properties of honeycomb polyester knitted fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The properties of honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics were studied to understand their advantages. Seven honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics and one common polyester weft-knitted fabric were selected for testing. Their bursting strengths, fuzzing and pilling, air permeability, abrasion resistance and moisture absorption and perspiration were studied. The results show that the honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics have excellent moisture absorption and liberation. The smaller their thicknesses and area densities are, the better their moisture absorption and liberation will be. Their anti-fuzzing and anti-pilling is good, whereas their bursting strengths and abrasion resistance are poorer compared with common polyester fabric's. In order to improve the hygroscopic properties of the fabrics, the proportion of the honeycomb microporous structure modified polyester in the fabrics should not be less than 40%.

  16. Biomimetic heterogeneous multiple ion channels: a honeycomb structure composite film generated by breath figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Keyu; Heng, Liping; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    We design a novel type of artificial multiple nanochannel system with remarkable ion rectification behavior via a facile breath figure (BF) method. Notably, even though the charge polarity in the channel wall reverses under different pH values, this nanofluidic device displays the same ionic rectification direction. Compared with traditional nanochannels, this composite multiple ion channel device can be more easily obtained and has directional ionic rectification advantages, which can be applied in many fields.We design a novel type of artificial multiple nanochannel system with remarkable ion rectification behavior via a facile breath figure (BF) method. Notably, even though the charge polarity in the channel wall reverses under different pH values, this nanofluidic device displays the same ionic rectification direction. Compared with traditional nanochannels, this composite multiple ion channel device can be more easily obtained and has directional ionic rectification advantages, which can be applied in many fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Pore size distribution histograms of the AAO substrates; SEM images of the side view of pure AAO membranes and top view of the flat PI/AAO composite film; the current-time curves of the flat composite film; the current-voltage characteristics curves of pure AAO nanochannels with different mean pore diameters; CA of the two surfaces of the composite PI/AAO film, the structural formula of the polymer polyimide resin (PI), and solid surface zeta potential. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02506d

  17. Superdiffusion in a honeycomb billiard.

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Michael; Stark, Holger

    2006-03-01

    We investigate particle transport in the honeycomb billiard which consists of connected channels placed on the edges of a honeycomb structure. The spreading of particles is superdiffusive due to the existence of ballistic trajectories which we term perfect paths. Simulations give a time exponent of 1.72 for the mean-square displacement and a starlike, i.e., anisotropic, particle distribution. We present an analytical treatment based on the formalism of continuous-time random walks and explain the anisotropic distribution under the assumption that the perfect paths follow the directions of the six lattice axes. Furthermore, we derive a relation between the time exponent and the exponent of the distribution function for trajectories close to a perfect path. In billiards with randomly distributed channels, conventional diffusion is always observed in the long-time limit, although for small disorder transient superdiffusional behavior exists. Our simulation results are again supported by an analytical analysis. PMID:16605506

  18. Sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites with high energy density and great charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Liu, Feihua; Yang, Tiannan; Gadinski, Matthew R; Zhang, Guangzu; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The demand for a new generation of high-temperature dielectric materials toward capacitive energy storage has been driven by the rise of high-power applications such as electric vehicles, aircraft, and pulsed power systems where the power electronics are exposed to elevated temperatures. Polymer dielectrics are characterized by being lightweight, and their scalability, mechanical flexibility, high dielectric strength, and great reliability, but they are limited to relatively low operating temperatures. The existing polymer nanocomposite-based dielectrics with a limited energy density at high temperatures also present a major barrier to achieving significant reductions in size and weight of energy devices. Here we report the sandwich structures as an efficient route to high-temperature dielectric polymer nanocomposites that simultaneously possess high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. In contrast to the conventional single-layer configuration, the rationally designed sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites are capable of integrating the complementary properties of spatially organized multicomponents in a synergistic fashion to raise dielectric constant, and subsequently greatly improve discharged energy densities while retaining low loss and high charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures. At 150 °C and 200 MV m(-1), an operating condition toward electric vehicle applications, the sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites outperform the state-of-the-art polymer-based dielectrics in terms of energy density, power density, charge-discharge efficiency, and cyclability. The excellent dielectric and capacitive properties of the polymer nanocomposites may pave a way for widespread applications in modern electronics and power modules where harsh operating conditions are present. PMID:27551101

  19. Sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites with high energy density and great charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Liu, Feihua; Yang, Tiannan; Gadinski, Matthew R; Zhang, Guangzu; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    The demand for a new generation of high-temperature dielectric materials toward capacitive energy storage has been driven by the rise of high-power applications such as electric vehicles, aircraft, and pulsed power systems where the power electronics are exposed to elevated temperatures. Polymer dielectrics are characterized by being lightweight, and their scalability, mechanical flexibility, high dielectric strength, and great reliability, but they are limited to relatively low operating temperatures. The existing polymer nanocomposite-based dielectrics with a limited energy density at high temperatures also present a major barrier to achieving significant reductions in size and weight of energy devices. Here we report the sandwich structures as an efficient route to high-temperature dielectric polymer nanocomposites that simultaneously possess high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. In contrast to the conventional single-layer configuration, the rationally designed sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites are capable of integrating the complementary properties of spatially organized multicomponents in a synergistic fashion to raise dielectric constant, and subsequently greatly improve discharged energy densities while retaining low loss and high charge-discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures. At 150 °C and 200 MV m(-1), an operating condition toward electric vehicle applications, the sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites outperform the state-of-the-art polymer-based dielectrics in terms of energy density, power density, charge-discharge efficiency, and cyclability. The excellent dielectric and capacitive properties of the polymer nanocomposites may pave a way for widespread applications in modern electronics and power modules where harsh operating conditions are present.

  20. Fabrication of honeycomb-structured poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) porous films and biomedical applications for cell growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bingjian; Zhu, Qingzeng; Yao, Linli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-03-01

    A series of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) copolymers with a hydrophobic PLA block of different molecular weights and a fixed length hydrophilic PEG were synthesized successfully and characterized. These amphiphilic block copolymers were used to fabricate honeycomb-structured porous films using the breath figure (BF) templating technique. The surface topology and composition of the highly ordered pattern film were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence microscopy. The results indicated that the PEG-to-PLA block molecular weight ratio influenced the BF film surface topology. The film with the best ordered pores was obtained with a PEG-to-PLA ratio of 2.0 × 103:3.0 × 104. The self-organization of the hydrophilic PEG chains within the pores was confirmed by XPS and fluorescence labeled PEG. A model is proposed to elucidate the stabilization process of the amphiphilic PEG-PLA aggregated architecture on the water droplet-based templates. In addition, GFP-U87 cell viability has been investigated by MTS test and the cell morphology on the honeycomb-structured PEG-PLA porous film has been evaluated using phase-contrast microscope. This porous film is shown to be suitable as a matrix for cell growth.

  1. Hyperbranched poly(benzimidazole-co-benzene) with honeycomb structure as a membrane for high-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadra, Sambhu; Kim, Nam Hoon; Choi, Ji Sun; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Lee, Joong Hee

    Hyperbranched poly(benzimidazole-co-benzene) (PBIB) with a honeycomb structure is synthesized by condensation polymerization of trimesic acid (TMA) and 3,3‧-diaminobenzidine (DAB) for use as a membrane high-temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The hyperbranched honeycomb structure of polybenzimidazole (PBI) has been introduced to impart higher mechanical strength to doped PBI membranes. The stress at break of the phosphoric acid doped PBIB (DPBIB) membrane (29 ± 3 MPa) is comparable with that of Nafion (28 ± 2 MPa) and much superior to doped PBI membranes. The DPBIB membrane exhibits lower proton conductivity than Nafion 115. On the other hand, the proton conductivity of Nafion 115 is enhanced with increase in relative humidity, whereas humidity has only a moderate effect on the proton conductivity of the DPBIB membrane. Consequently, the Nafion 115 membrane in a fuel cell cannot operate in the absence of humidity, whereas the DPBIB membrane can perform well. The power output of the DPBIB membrane in a fuel cell is superior under humid conditions than under dry conditions. The maximum power output from the DPBIB and Nafion 115 membranes is comparable under humid conditions. It is concluded that the DPBIB membrane, but not Nafion, is suitable for application in HT-PEMFCs.

  2. Structural Design of Ares V Interstage Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleigh, David W.; Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Martin, Robert A.; Johnson, Theodore F.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary and detailed design studies were performed to mature composite structural design concepts for the Ares V Interstage structure as a part of NASA s Advanced Composite Technologies Project. Aluminum honeycomb sandwich and hat-stiffened composite panel structural concepts were considered. The structural design and analysis studies were performed using HyperSizer design sizing software and MSC Nastran finite element analysis software. System-level design trade studies were carried out to predict weight and margins of safety for composite honeycomb-core sandwich and composite hat-stiffened skin design concepts. Details of both preliminary and detailed design studies are presented in the paper. For the range of loads and geometry considered in this work, the hat-stiffened designs were found to be approximately 11-16 percent lighter than the sandwich designs. A down-select process was used to choose the most favorable structural concept based on a set of figures of merit, and the honeycomb sandwich design was selected as the best concept based on advantages in manufacturing cost.

  3. Characterization of Aluminum Honeycomb and Experimentation for Model Development and Validation, Volume I: Discovery and Characterization Experiments for High-Density Aluminum Honeycomb

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei-Yang; Korellis, John S.; Lee, Kenneth L.; Scheffel, Simon; Hinnerichs, Terry Dean; Neilsen, Michael K.; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2006-08-01

    Honeycomb is a structure that consists of two-dimensional regular arrays of open cells. High-density aluminum honeycomb has been used in weapon assemblies to mitigate shock and protect payload because of its excellent crush properties. In order to use honeycomb efficiently and to certify the payload is protected by the honeycomb under various loading conditions, a validated honeycomb crush model is required and the mechanical properties of the honeycombs need to be fully characterized. Volume I of this report documents an experimental study of the crush behavior of high-density honeycombs. Two sets of honeycombs were included in this investigation: commercial grade for initial exploratory experiments, and weapon grade, which satisfied B61 specifications. This investigation also includes developing proper experimental methods for crush characterization, conducting discovery experiments to explore crush behaviors for model improvement, and identifying experimental and material uncertainties.

  4. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species

    PubMed Central

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young’s moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  5. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R

    2015-05-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young's moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses. PMID:25675956

  6. A novel method of measuring leaf epidermis and mesophyll stiffness shows the ubiquitous nature of the sandwich structure of leaf laminas in broad-leaved angiosperm species.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Schieving, Feike; Anten, Niels P R

    2015-05-01

    Plant leaves commonly exhibit a thin, flat structure that facilitates a high light interception per unit mass, but may increase risks of mechanical failure when subjected to gravity, wind and herbivory as well as other stresses. Leaf laminas are composed of thin epidermis layers and thicker intervening mesophyll layers, which resemble a composite material, i.e. sandwich structure, used in engineering constructions (e.g. airplane wings) where high bending stiffness with minimum weight is important. Yet, to what extent leaf laminas are mechanically designed and behave as a sandwich structure remains unclear. To resolve this issue, we developed and applied a novel method to estimate stiffness of epidermis- and mesophyll layers without separating the layers. Across a phylogenetically diverse range of 36 angiosperm species, the estimated Young's moduli (a measure of stiffness) of mesophyll layers were much lower than those of the epidermis layers, indicating that leaf laminas behaved similarly to efficient sandwich structures. The stiffness of epidermis layers was higher in evergreen species than in deciduous species, and strongly associated with cuticle thickness. The ubiquitous nature of sandwich structures in leaves across studied species suggests that the sandwich structure has evolutionary advantages as it enables leaves to be simultaneously thin and flat, efficiently capturing light and maintaining mechanical stability under various stresses.

  7. Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core

    SciTech Connect

    Bodrov, S. B.; Bakunov, M. I.; Hangyo, M.

    2008-11-01

    A scheme for efficient generation of broadband terahertz radiation by a femtosecond laser pulse propagating in a planar sandwichlike structure is proposed. The structure consists of a thin nonlinear core cladded with prisms made of a material with low terahertz absorption. The focused into a line laser pulse propagates in the core as a leaky or waveguide mode and emits Cherenkov wedge of terahertz waves in the cladding. We developed a theory that describes terahertz generation in such a structure and calculated spatial distribution of the generated terahertz field, its energy spectrum and optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency. The developed theory predicts the conversion efficiency of up to several percent in a 1 cm long and 1 cm wide Si-LiNbO{sub 3}-Si sandwich structure with a 20 {mu}m thick nonlinear layer pumped by 8.5 {mu}J Ti:sapphire laser with pulse duration of 100 fs.

  8. Scalable synthesis of freestanding sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene nanocomposite paper for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-03-23

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a collection of unique properties of highly electrical conductivity (340 S cm(-1)), light weight (1 mg cm(-2)) and excellent mechanical properties. In order to improve its supercapacitive properties, we have prepared a unique sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene paper by in situ electropolymerization of porous polyaniline nanomaterials on graphene paper, followed by wrapping an ultrathin graphene layer on its surface. This unique design strategy not only circumvents the low energy storage capacity resulting from the double-layer capacitor of graphene paper, but also enhances the rate performance and cycling stability of porous polyaniline. The as-obtained all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high energy density, high power density, excellent cycling stability and exceptional mechanical flexibility, demonstrative of its extensive potential applications for flexible energy-related devices and wearable electronics.

  9. Scalable Synthesis of Freestanding Sandwich-structured Graphene/Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Paper for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-01-01

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a collection of unique properties of highly electrical conductivity (340 S cm−1), light weight (1 mg cm−2) and excellent mechanical properties. In order to improve its supercapacitive properties, we have prepared a unique sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene paper by in situ electropolymerization of porous polyaniline nanomaterials on graphene paper, followed by wrapping an ultrathin graphene layer on its surface. This unique design strategy not only circumvents the low energy storage capacity resulting from the double-layer capacitor of graphene paper, but also enhances the rate performance and cycling stability of porous polyaniline. The as-obtained all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high energy density, high power density, excellent cycling stability and exceptional mechanical flexibility, demonstrative of its extensive potential applications for flexible energy-related devices and wearable electronics. PMID:25797022

  10. Fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane and classical Casimir-Polder force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Partha

    2016-05-01

    We start with the well-known expression for the vacuum polarization and suitably modify it for 2+1-dimensional spin-orbit coupled (SOC) fermions on the low-buckled honey-comb structured lattice plane described by the low-energy Liu-Yao-Feng-Ezawa (LYFE) model Hamiltonian involving the Dirac matrices in the chiral representation obeying the Clifford algebra. The silicene and germanene fit this description suitably. They have the Dirac cones similar to those of graphene and SOC is much stronger. The system could be normal or ferromagnetic in nature. The silicene turns into the latter type if there is exchange field arising due to the proximity coupling to a ferromagnet (FM) such as depositing Fe atoms to the silicene surface. For the silicene, we find that the many-body effects considerably change the bare Coulomb potential by way of the dependence of the Coulomb propagator on the real-spin, iso-spin and the potential due to an electric field applied perpendicular to the silicene plane. The computation aspect of the Casimir-Polder force (CPF) needs to be investigated in this paper. An important quantity in this process is the dielectric response function (DRF) of the material. The plasmon branch was obtained by finding the zeros of DRF in the long-wavelength limit. This leads to the plasmon frequencies. We find that the collective charge excitations at zero doping, i.e., intrinsic plasmons, in this system, are absent in the Dirac limit. The valley-spin-split intrinsic plasmons, however, come into being in the case of the massive Dirac particles with characteristic frequency close to 10 THz. Our scheme to calculate the Casimir-Polder interaction (CPI) of a micro-particle with a sheet involves replacing the dielectric constant of the sample in the CPI expression obtained on the basis of the Lifshitz theory by the static DRF obtained using the expressions for the polarization function we started with. Though the approach replaces a macroscopic constant by a microscopic

  11. Honeycomb-Fin Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1989-01-01

    Improved finned heat sink for electronic components more lightweight, inexpensive, and efficient. Designed for use with forced air, easily scaled up to dissipate power up to few hundred watts. Fins are internal walls of aluminum honeycomb structure. Cell structure gives strength to thin aluminum foil. Length of channels chosen for thermodynamic efficency; columns of cells combined in any reasonable number because flowing air distributed to all. Heat sink cools nearly as effectively at ends as near its center, no matter how many columns of cells combined.

  12. Impact resistance of composite laminated sandwich plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chun-Gon; Jun, Eui-Jin

    1992-01-01

    Investigated are the effects of face layup sequence and core density of a sandwich plate on the impact delamination area of the laminated facesheet. The sandwich plate is made of graphite/epoxy faces and Nomex honeycomb core. The size and shape of delamination due to impact at each interply location have been measured by the room temperature deply technique. The shape of the interply delamination under impact is, in general, found to be two-lobed. The shape exhibits very peculiar regularity under various experimental conditions. The quantitative measurement of delamination size has shown that the face layup with small relative orientation between adjacent plies and high density core are desirable in sandwich plates to reduce the impact delamination.

  13. Amino Acid Distribution Rules Predict Protein Fold: Protein Grammar for Beta-Strand Sandwich-Like Structures

    PubMed Central

    Kister, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative approach to protein 3D folding prediction based on determination of rules that specify distribution of “favorable” residues, that are mainly responsible for a given fold formation, and “unfavorable” residues, that are incompatible with that fold, in polypeptide sequences. The process of determining favorable and unfavorable residues is iterative. The starting assumptions are based on the general principles of protein structure formation as well as structural features peculiar to a protein fold under investigation. The initial assumptions are tested one-by-one for a set of all known proteins with a given structure. The assumption is accepted as a “rule of amino acid distribution” for the protein fold if it holds true for all, or near all, structures. If the assumption is not accepted as a rule, it can be modified to better fit the data and then tested again in the next step of the iterative search algorithm, or rejected. We determined the set of amino acid distribution rules for a large group of beta sandwich-like proteins characterized by a specific arrangement of strands in two beta sheets. It was shown that this set of rules is highly sensitive (~90%) and very specific (~99%) for identifying sequences of proteins with specified beta sandwich fold structure. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it does not require that query proteins have a high degree of homology to proteins with known structure. So long as the query protein satisfies residue distribution rules, it can be confidently assigned to its respective protein fold. Another advantage of our approach is that it allows for a better understanding of which residues play an essential role in protein fold formation. It may, therefore, facilitate rational protein engineering design. PMID:25625198

  14. Extruded ceramic honeycomb and method

    DOEpatents

    Day, J. Paul

    1995-04-04

    Extruded low-expansion ceramic honeycombs comprising beta-spodumene solid solution as the principal crystal phase and with less than 7 weight percent of included mullite are produced by compounding an extrusion batch comprising a lithium aluminosilicate glass powder and a clay additive, extruding a green honeycomb body from the batch, and drying and firing the green extruded cellular honeycomb to crystallize the glass and clay into a low-expansion spodumene ceramic honeycomb body.

  15. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

    1995-01-01

    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  16. Morphing nacelle inlet lip with pneumatic actuators and a flexible nano composite sandwich panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulsine Ozdemir, Nazli; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Craciun, Monica; Remillat, Chrystel; Lira, Cristian; Jagessur, Yogesh; Da Rocha-Schmidt, Luiz

    2015-12-01

    We present a hybrid pneumatic/flexible sandwich structure with thermoplastic (TP) nanocomposite skins to enable the morphing of a nacelle inlet lip. The design consists of pneumatic inflatables as actuators and a flexible sandwich panel that morphs under variable pressure combinations to adapt different flight conditions and save fuel. The sandwich panel forms the outer layer of the nacelle inlet lip. It is lightweight, compliant and impact resistant with no discontinuities, and consists of graphene-doped thermoplastic polyurethane (G/TPU) skins that are supported by an aluminium Flex-core honeycomb in the middle, with near zero in-plane Poisson’s ratio behaviour. A test rig for a reduced-scale demonstrator was designed and built to test the prototype of morphing nacelle with custom-made pneumatic actuators. The output force and the deflections of the experimental demonstrator are verified with the internal pressures of the actuators varying from 0 to 0.41 MPa. The results show the feasibility and promise of the hybrid inflatable/nanocomposite sandwich panel for morphing nacelle airframes.

  17. Experimental investigation of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels in edgewise compression. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The local and general buckling of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels simply supported along all four edges and loaded in uniaxial edgewise compression is investigated. Material properties of sandwich panel constituents (adhesive and facings) were determined from flatwise tension and sandwich beam flexure tests. An adhesive bond study resulted in the selection of a suitable cure cycle for FM 34 polyimide film adhesive and, a bonding technique using a liquid cell edge version of that adhesive resulted in considerable mass savings. Tensile and compressive material properties of the facings, quasiisotropic, symmetric, laminates (0, +45,90,-45)s of Celion/PMR-15, were determined at 116, R.T., and 589 K (-250, R.T., and 600 F) usng the sandwich beam flexure test method. Results indicate the Gr/PI is a usable structural material for short term use at temperatures as high as 589 K (600 F). Buckling specimens were 1006.5 sq cm. 156 sq in., had quasiisotropic symmetric facings (0, + or - 45,90)s and a glass/polyimide honeycomb core (HRH-327-3/8-4).

  18. An analytical and experimental investigation of sandwich composites subjected to low-velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Todd Alan

    1999-12-01

    This study involves an experimental and analytical investigation of low-velocity impact phenomenon in sandwich composite structures. The analytical solution of a three-dimensional finite-geometry multi-layer specially orthotropic panel subjected to static and transient transverse loading cases is presented. The governing equations of the static and dynamic formulations are derived from Reissner's functional and solved by enforcing the continuity of traction and displacement components between adjacent layers. For the dynamic loading case, the governing equations are solved by applying Fourier or Laplace transformation in time. Additionally, the static solution is extended to solve the contact problem between the sandwich laminate and a rigid sphere. An iterative method is employed to determine the sphere's unknown contact area and pressure distribution. A failure criterion is then applied to the sandwich laminate's stress and strain field to predict impact damage. The analytical accuracy of the present study is verified through comparisons with finite element models, other analyses, and through experimentation. Low-velocity impact tests were conducted to characterize the type and extent of the damage observed in a variety of sandwich configurations with graphite/epoxy face sheets and foam or honeycomb cores. Correlation of the residual indentation and cross-sectional views of the impacted specimens provides a criterion for the extent of damage. Quasi-static indentation tests are also performed and show excellent agreement when compared with the analytical predictions. Finally, piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVF2) film sensors are found to be effective in detecting low-velocity impact.

  19. Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of sandwich panels under different edge conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.

    1993-01-01

    By using the Rayleigh-Ritz method of minimizing the total potential energy of a structural system, combined load (mechanical or thermal load) buckling equations are established for orthotropic rectangular sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. Two-dimensional buckling interaction curves and three dimensional buckling interaction surfaces are constructed for high-temperature honeycomb-core sandwich panels supported under four different edge conditions. The interaction surfaces provide easy comparison of the panel buckling strengths and the domains of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling associated with the different edge conditions. Thermal buckling curves of the sandwich panels also are presented. The thermal buckling conditions for the cases with and without thermal moments were found to be identical for the small deformation theory. In sandwich panels, the effect of transverse shear is quite large, and by neglecting the transverse shear effect, the buckling loads could be overpredicted considerably. Clamping of the edges could greatly increase buckling strength more in compression than in shear.

  20. Two new molybdenum(V) phosphates containing sandwich-shaped clusters with zero- and three-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bi-Zhou; Liu, Xue-Zhong; Xu, Bai-Huan; Wang, Qin-Qin; Xiao, Zi-Jing

    2008-11-01

    Two reduced molybdenum(V) phosphates, (H 2dien) 4[CaMo 12O 24(OH) 6(HPO 4) 8]· nH 2O ( 1) and (H 2dien) 4[Ba 2(H 2O) 4CaMo 12O 24(OH) 6(HPO 4) 4(PO 4) 4]· nH 2O ( 2) (dien = diethylenetriamine) have been prepared under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis, cyclic voltammetry and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. [Mo 6P 4] units in both structures are linked by octahedrally coordinated Ca(II) cations into sandwich-shaped [Ca(Mo 6P 4) 2] clusters. While the clusters in 1 are discrete, those in 2 are interconnected through BaO 9 polyhedra into a three-dimensional framework structure. It was indicated that the compounds exhibit photocatalytic activity in the bleaching of rhodamine B.

  1. Frequency analysis of curved nano-sandwich structure based on a nonlocal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, O.; Hosseini, S. A. H.; Hayati, H.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the vibration of curved nano-sandwich (CNS) with considering the influence of core shear based on the Eringen nonlocal theory. The equation of motion is derived and exact solution for the natural frequencies of CNS is presented. The proposed nonlocal model includes a material length scale parameter that can capture the size effect in CNS beam. The effects of important parameters, such as the thickness to length ratio, nonlocal parameter and mode number on the frequencies of CNS are investigated. The result of our research shows that as the opening angle increases, the amount of natural frequencies decrease. We have additionally validate, our results against previous research works which showed good agreement.

  2. Characterization of Fatigue Behavior of Composite Sandwich Structures at Sub-Zero Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Samirkumar M.; Gibson, Ronald F.; Ayorinde, Emmanuel O.

    This chapter summarizes recent studies of the flexural fatigue characteristics of foam core carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composite sandwich beams over the temperature range from 22°C to -60°C. Core shear was found to be the dominant fatigue failure mode for the test specimens over this temperature range. Significant increases in the useful fatigue life with brittle type core shear failure were observed at low temperatures by comparison with the corresponding room temperature behavior. Fatigue failure at the subzero temperatures was catastrophic and without any significant early warning, but the corresponding failures at room temperature were preceded by relatively slow but steadily increasing losses of stiffness. Two different approaches were used to investigate stiffness reductions during fatigue tests, and both approaches led to the same conclusions. Static finite element analyses confirmed the experimentally observed locations of fatigue crack initiation.

  3. Phononic band gap design in honeycomb lattice with combinations of auxetic and conventional core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sushovan; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel design of a honeycomb lattice geometry that uses a seamless combination of conventional and auxetic cores, i.e. elements showing positive and negative Poisson’s ratio. The design is aimed at tuning and improving the band structure of periodic cellular structures. The proposed cellular configurations show a significantly wide band gap at much lower frequencies compared to their pure counterparts, while still retaining their major dynamic features. Different topologies involving both auxetic inclusions in a conventional lattice and conversely hexagonal cellular inclusions in auxetic butterfly lattices are presented. For all these cases the impact of the varying degree of auxeticity on the band structure is evaluated. The proposed cellular designs may offer significant advantages in tuning high-frequency bandgap behaviour, which is relevant to phononics applications. The configurations shown in this paper may be made iso-volumetric and iso-weight to a given regular hexagonal topology, making possible to adapt the hybrid lattices to existing sandwich structures with fixed dimensions and weights. This work also features a comparative study of the wave speeds corresponding to different configurations vis-a vis those of a regular honeycomb to highlight the superior behaviour of the combined hybrid lattice.

  4. Compressive Strength of Stainless-Steel Sandwiches at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathauser, Eldon E.; Pride, Richard A.

    1959-01-01

    Experimental results are presented from crippling tests of stainless-steel sandwich specimens in the temperature range from 80 F to 1,200 F. The specimens included resistance-welded 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with single-corrugated cores, type 301 stainless-steel sandwiches with double-corrugated cores, and brazed 17-7 PH stainless-steel sandwiches with honeycomb cores. The experimental strengths are compared with predicted buckling and crippling strengths. The crippling strengths were predicted from the calculated maximum strength of the individual plate elements of the sandwiches and from a correlation procedure which gives the elevated-temperature crippling strength when the experimental room-temperature crippling strengths are known. Photographs of some of the tested specimens are included to show the modes of failure.

  5. Diniobium inverted sandwich complexes with μ-η6:η6-arene ligands: synthesis, kinetics of formation, and electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Gianetti, Thomas L; Nocton, Grégory; Minasian, Stefan G; Tomson, Neil C; Kilcoyne, A L David; Kozimor, Stosh A; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Bergman, Robert G; Arnold, John

    2013-02-27

    Monometallic niobium arene complexes [Nb(BDI)(N(t)Bu)(R-C(6)H(5))] (2a: R = H and 2b: R = Me, BDI = N,N'-diisopropylbenzene-β-diketiminate) were synthesized and found to undergo slow conversion into the diniobium inverted arene sandwich complexes [[(BDI)Nb(N(t)Bu)](2)(μ-RC(6)H(5))] (7a: R = H and 7b: R = Me) in solution. The kinetics of this reaction were followed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and are in agreement with a dissociative mechanism. Compounds 7a-b showed a lack of reactivity toward small molecules, even at elevated temperatures, which is unusual in the chemistry of inverted sandwich complexes. However, protonation of the BDI ligands occurred readily on treatment with [H(OEt(2))][B(C(6)F(5))(4)], resulting in the monoprotonated cationic inverted sandwich complex 8 [[(BDI(#))Nb(N(t)Bu)][(BDI)Nb(N(t)Bu)](μ-C(6)H(5))][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] and the dicationic complex 9 [[(BDI(#))Nb(N(t)Bu)](2)(μ-RC(6)H(5))][B(C(6)F(5))(4)](2) (BDI(#) = (ArNC(Me))(2)CH(2)). NMR, UV-vis, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies were used to characterize this unique series of diamagnetic molecules as a means of determining how best to describe the Nb-arene interactions. The X-ray crystal structures, UV-vis spectra, arene (1)H NMR chemical shifts, and large J(CH) coupling constants provide evidence for donation of electron density from the Nb d-orbitals into the antibonding π system of the arene ligands. However, Nb L(3,2)-edge XANES spectra and the lack of sp(3) hybridization of the arene carbons indicate that the Nb → arene donation is not accompanied by an increase in Nb formal oxidation state and suggests that 4d(2) electronic configurations are appropriate to describe the Nb atoms in all four complexes.

  6. Synthetic magnetic fluxes on the honeycomb lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Gorecka, Agnieszka; Gremaud, Benoit; Miniatura, Christian

    2011-08-15

    We devise experimental schemes that are able to mimic uniform and staggered magnetic fluxes acting on ultracold two-electron atoms, such as ytterbium atoms, propagating in a honeycomb lattice. The atoms are first trapped into two independent state-selective triangular lattices and then further exposed to a suitable configuration of resonant Raman laser beams. These beams induce hops between the two triangular lattices and make atoms move in a honeycomb lattice. Atoms traveling around each unit cell of this honeycomb lattice pick up a nonzero phase. In the uniform case, the artificial magnetic flux sustained by each cell can reach about two flux quanta, thereby realizing a cold-atom analog of the Harper model with its notorious Hofstadter's butterfly structure. Different condensed-matter phenomena such as the relativistic integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, as observed in graphene samples, could be targeted with this scheme.

  7. Flexible transparent PES/silver nanowires/PET sandwich-structured film for high-efficiency electromagnetic interference shielding.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingjun; Gao, Jiefeng; Dong, Yucheng; Li, Kai; Shan, Guangcun; Yang, Shiliu; Li, Robert Kwok-Yiu

    2012-05-01

    We have developed a kind of high-yield synthesis strategy for silver nanowires by a two-step injection polyol method. Silver nanowires and polyethylene oxide (PEO) (M(w) = 900,000) were prepared in a homogeneous-coating ink. Wet composite films with different thicknesses were fabricated on a PET substrate by drawn-down rod-coating technology. Silver nanowires on PET substrates present a homogeneous distribution under the assistance of PEO. Then PEO was thermally removed in situ at a relatively low temperature attributed to its special thermal behavior under atmospheric conditions. As-prepared metallic nanowire films on PET substrates show excellent stability and a good combination of conductivity and light transmission. A layer of transparent poly(ethersulfones) (PESs) was further coated on silver nanowire networks by the same coating method to prevent the shedding and corrosion of silver nanowires. Sandwich-structured flexible transparent films were obtained and displayed excellent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness.

  8. Synthesis of sub-millimeter Bi-/multi-layer graphene by designing a sandwiched structure using copper foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhijuan; Jia, Kunpeng; Shaw, Jonathan C.; Zhu, Zhenwei; Wan, Wen; Zhan, Linjie; Li, Mengping; Wang, Haosen; Chen, Xiangping; Li, Zhancheng; Chen, Shanshan; Zhou, Yinghui; Kaner, Richard B.; Cai, Weiwei

    2016-09-01

    Bernal-stacked (AB-stacked) bilayer graphene has been receiving significant attention because it has a tunable band-gap under an applied vertical electric field. Herein, we designed a sandwiched structure simply by embedding one piece of Cu sheet into a Cu pocket to establish an environment that suppresses Cu evaporation and ensures that both surfaces of Cu sheet are smooth to grow large-size bilayer graphene (BLG) and multilayer graphene (MLG). Single-diffusion and double-diffusion mechanisms help explain graphene growth on both the Cu pocket and the Cu sheet, respectively. On the basis of the double-diffusion mechanism, we prepared AB-stacked sub-millimeter BLG and MLG with diameters up to 603 μm and 793 μm, respectively. Our work regarding the improvement of the quality and single-crystal size of graphene domains helps broaden the potential applications in materials chemistry and microelectronic devices.

  9. An ultra-high sensitivity surface plasmon resonance sensor based on graphene-aluminum-graphene sandwich-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hailin; Wu, Leiming; Dai, Xiaoyu; Gao, Yanxia; Xiang, Yuanjiang

    2016-08-01

    An ultra-high sensitivity graphene optical sensor based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed using the graphene-aluminum (Al)-graphene sandwich-like structure. Here, the graphene sheets are introduced for enhancing the SPR and preventing the oxidation. It is found that our proposed graphene optical sensor is 3.4 times more sensitive than the Al-based sensor without the graphene layers. We demonstrate that a higher sensitivity can be obtained at the short wavelength due to the increases of the sensitivity with the decreases of wavelength. Especially, the sensitivity can be enhanced marked by increasing the number of graphene layers, which is totally different from the previous graphene-based optical sensor where the sensitivity is often decreased with the increases of the number of graphene layers.

  10. Method and apparatus for extruding large honeycombs

    DOEpatents

    Kragle, Harry A.; Lambert, David W.; Lipp, G. Daniel

    1996-09-03

    Extrusion die apparatus and an extrusion method for extruding large-cross-section honeycomb structures from plasticized ceramic batch materials are described, the apparatus comprising a die having a support rod connected to its central portion, the support rod being anchored to support means upstream of the die. The support rod and support means act to limit die distortion during extrusion, reducing die strain and stress to levels permitting large honeycomb extrusion without die failure. Dies of optimal thickness are disclosed which reduce the maximum stresses exerted on the die during extrusion.

  11. Proposal of honeycomb-based deployable breakwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, H.; Okabe, S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes development of a smart breakwater or river bank using honeycomb-like structure to be adaptive to change of water level. A designed cell is deformed using a tensile test machine, and the results show that the honeycomb cell can deploy up to double of is original height without plastic deformation and the deformation is reproducible. It is stacked up to twelve layers and similar performance can be found. In addition, a six-layer and double-row deployable model is prepared and it became clear that the model can change its height in proportion to the water height in the experimental range and successfully block the water.

  12. Impact damage in aircraft composite sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordasky, Matthew D.

    An experimental study was conducted to develop an improved understanding of the damage caused by runway debris and environmental threats on aircraft structures. The velocities of impacts for stationary aircraft and aircraft under landing and takeoff speeds was investigated. The impact damage by concrete, asphalt, aluminum, hail and rubber sphere projectiles was explored in detail. Additionally, a kinetic energy and momentum experimental study was performed to look at the nature of the impacts in more detail. A method for recording the contact force history of the impact by an instrumented projectile was developed and tested. The sandwich composite investigated was an IM7-8552 unidirectional prepreg adhered to a NOMEXRTM core with an FM300K film adhesive. Impact experiments were conducted with a gas gun built in-house specifically for delivering projectiles to a sandwich composite target in this specic velocity regime (10--140 m/s). The effect on the impact damage by the projectile was investigated by ultrasonic C-scan, high speed camera and scanning electron and optical microscopy. Ultrasonic C-scans revealed the full extent of damage caused by each projectile, while the high speed camera enabled precise projectile velocity measurements that were used for striking velocity, kinetic energy and momentum analyses. Scanning electron and optical images revealed specific features of the panel failure and manufacturing artifacts within the lamina and honeycomb core. The damage of the panels by different projectiles was found to have a similar damage area for equivalent energy levels, except for rubber which had a damage area that increased greatly with striking velocity. Further investigation was taken by kinetic energy and momentum based comparisons of 19 mm diameter stainless steel sphere projectiles in order to examine the dominating damage mechanisms. The sandwich targets were struck by acrylic, aluminum, alumina, stainless steel and tungsten carbide spheres of the

  13. A Disulfide Stabilized β-Sandwich Defines the Structure of a New Cysteine Framework M-Superfamily Conotoxin.

    PubMed

    Kancherla, Aswani K; Meesala, Srinu; Jorwal, Pooja; Palanisamy, Ramasamy; Sikdar, Sujit K; Sarma, Siddhartha P

    2015-08-21

    The structure of a new cysteine framework (-C-CC-C-C-C-) "M"-superfamily conotoxin, Mo3964, shows it to have a β-sandwich structure that is stabilized by inter-sheet cross disulfide bonds. Mo3964 decreases outward K(+) currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and increases the reversal potential of the NaV1.2 channels. The structure of Mo3964 (PDB ID: 2MW7 ) is constructed from the disulfide connectivity pattern, i.e., 1-3, 2-5, and 4-6, that is hitherto undescribed for the "M"-superfamily conotoxins. The tertiary structural fold has not been described for any of the known conus peptides. NOE (549), dihedral angle (84), and hydrogen bond (28) restraints, obtained by measurement of (h3)JNC' scalar couplings, were used as input for structure calculation. The ensemble of structures showed a backbone root mean square deviation of 0.68 ± 0.18 Å, with 87% and 13% of the backbone dihedral (ϕ, ψ) angles lying in the most favored and additional allowed regions of the Ramachandran map. The conotoxin Mo3964 represents a new bioactive peptide fold that is stabilized by disulfide bonds and adds to the existing repertoire of scaffolds that can be used to design stable bioactive peptide molecules. PMID:25961405

  14. Self-assembly of 2D sandwich-structured MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene composites for high-performance lithium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Songmei Wang, Bo; Li, Bin; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • MFO/GN composites were synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal approach. • The MFO microspheres are sandwiched between the graphene layers. • Each MFO microsphere is an interstitial cluster of nanoparticles. • The MFO/GN electrode exhibits an enhanced cyclability for Li-ion batteries anodes. - Abstract: In this study, two-dimensional (2D) sandwich-structured MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene (MFO/GN) composites are synthesized by a facile in situ solvothermal approach, using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as cationic surfactant. As a consequence, the nanocomposites of MFO/GN self-assembled into a 2D sandwich structure, in which the interstitial cluster structure of microsphere-type MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is sandwiched between the graphene layers. This special structure of the MFO/GN composites used as anodes for lithium-ion batteries will be favorable for the maximum accessible surface of electroactive materials, fast diffusion of lithium ions and migration of electron, and elastomeric space to accommodate volume changes during the discharge–charge processes. The as-synthesized MFO/GN composites deliver a high specific reversible capacity of 987.95 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 200 mA g{sup −1}, a good capacity retention of 69.27% after 80 cycles and excellent rate performance for lithium storage.

  15. Effect of Porosity Content of Arc-Sprayed Alloy 625 Skins on the Flexural Behavior of Nickel Foam Core Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati, S.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T. W.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2015-01-01

    Metallic foam core sandwich structures have been of particular interest for engineering applications in recent decades because of their unique mechanical and physical properties. Thermal spraying techniques have been recently introduced as a novel low-cost method for production of these structures with complex shapes. One of the potential applications of the metallic foam core sandwich structures prepared by thermal spray techniques is as heat shield devices. Open porosity in the microstructure of the coating may allow the cooling efficiency of the heat shield to be improved through the film cooling phenomenon. A modified twin wire-arc spraying process was employed to deposit high temperature resistant alloy 625 coatings with a high percentage of the open porosity. The effect of skin porosity on the mechanical properties (flexural rigidity) of the sandwich structures was studied using a four-point bending test. It was concluded from the four-point bending test results that increase in the porosity content of the coatings leads to decrease in the flexural rigidity of the sandwich panels. The ductility of the porous and conventional arc-sprayed alloy 625 coatings was improved after heat treatment at 1100 °C for 3 h.

  16. Metastable honeycomb SrTiO3/SrIrO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Ryu, S.; Zhou, H.; Xie, L.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Ma, Y.; Irwin, J.; Pan, X. Q.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Eom, C. B.

    2016-04-01

    Recent theory predictions of exotic band topologies in (111) honeycomb perovskite SrIrO3 layers sandwiched between SrTiO3 have garnered much attention in the condensed matter physics and materials communities. However, perovskite SrIrO3 film growth in the (111) direction remains unreported, as efforts to synthesize pure SrIrO3 on (111) perovskite substrates have yielded films with monoclinic symmetry rather than the perovskite structure required by theory predictions. In this study, we report the synthesis of ultra-thin metastable perovskite SrIrO3 films capped with SrTiO3 grown on (111) SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The atomic structure of the ultra-thin films was examined with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), which suggests a perovskite layering distinct from the bulk SrIrO3 monoclinic phase. In-plane 3-fold symmetry for the entire heterostructure was confirmed using synchrotron surface X-ray diffraction to measure symmetry equivalent crystal truncation rods. Our findings demonstrate the ability to stabilize (111) honeycomb perovskite SrIrO3, which provides an experimental avenue to probe the phenomena predicted for this material system.

  17. Cycloheptatrienyl zirconium sandwich complexes with lewis basic phospholyl ligands (phosphatrozircenes): synthesis, structure, bonding and coordination chemistry.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Bannenberg, Thomas; Büschel, Susanne; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2011-05-23

    The transmetalation reaction between [(η(7) -C(7) H(7) )ZrCl(tmeda)] (1; tmeda=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) and various phospholide anions leads to a new class of mixed sandwich complexes: [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(4)PMe(4))] (2), [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(4)PH(2)Me(2))] (3) and [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(4)PPhHMe(2))] (4). The presence of Lewis basic phosphorus atoms and Lewis acidic zirconium atoms allows ambiphilic behaviour to be observed, and X-ray diffraction analysis reveals dimeric arrangements for 2 and 3 with long intermolecular Zr-P bonds, whereas 4 remains monomeric in the solid state. DFT calculations indicate that the metal-phosphorus interaction is weak, and accordingly, complexes 2-4 act as monodentate ligands upon reaction with [W(CO)(5)(thf)]. The resulting complexes [W(CO)(5)(L)] 5-7 (L=2-4) were studied by IR spectroscopy and compared with the [W(CO)(5) ] complex 9, containing the phosphane-functionalised trozircene [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(5)H(4)PPh(2))] (8). They all show a close resemblance to simple phosphanes, such as PMe(3) , although molecular orbital analysis of 2 reveals that the free electron pair in the phosphatrozircenes is not the HOMO. Four equivalents of 2 can replace 1,4-cyclooctadiene (COD) in [Ni(cod)(2)] to form the homoleptic, distorted tetrahedral complex [Ni{2}(4)] (10).

  18. Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A 60 kg batch of Resin M751 was produced in pilot plant scale. The resin was delivered to the prepreg company as an NMP solution. 100 kg of glass-fabric prepregs were fabricated. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication were provided. A new batch of Resin M756 (Code M756 - 2) was synthesized.

  19. Low Velocity Blunt Impact on Lightweight Composite Sandwich Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Monica Kar

    There is an increased desire to incorporate more composite sandwich structures into modern aircrafts. Because in-service aircrafts routinely experience impact damage during maintenance due to ground vehicle collision, dropped equipment, or foreign object damage (FOD) impact, it is necessary to understand their impact characteristics, particularly when blunt impact sources create internal damage with little or no external visibility. The objective of this investigation is to explore damage formation in lightweight composite sandwich panels due to low-velocity impacts of variable tip radius and energy level. The correlation between barely visible external dent formation and internal core damage was explored as a function of impact tip radius. A pendulum impactor was used to impact composite sandwich panels having honeycomb core while held in a 165 mm square window fixture. The panels were impacted by hardened steel tips with radii of 12.7, 25.4, 50.8, and 76.2 mm at energy levels ranging from 2 to 14 J. Experimental data showed little dependence of external dent depth on tip radius at very low energies of 2 to 6 J, and thus, there was also little variation in visibility due to tip radius. Four modes of internal core damage were identified. Internal damage span and depth were dependent on impact tip radius. Damage depth was also radius-dependent, but stabilized at constant depth independent of kinetic energy. Internal damage span increased with increasing impact energy, but not with increasing tip radius, suggesting a relationship between maximum damage tip radius with core density/size.

  20. Crystal Structure of Full-length Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv Glycogen Branching Enzyme; Insights of N-Terminal [beta]-Sandwich in Sustrate Specifity and Enzymatic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Kuntal; Kumar, Shiva; Sharma, Shikha; Garg, Saurabh Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Suhail; Xu, H. Eric; Agrawal, Pushpa; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2010-07-13

    The open reading frame Rv1326c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv encodes for an {alpha}-1,4-glucan branching enzyme (MtbGlgB, EC 2.4.1.18, Uniprot entry Q10625). This enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 13 and catalyzes the branching of a linear glucose chain during glycogenesis by cleaving a 1 {yields} 4 bond and making a new 1 {yields} 6 bond. Here, we show the crystal structure of full-length MtbGlgB (MtbGlgBWT) at 2.33-{angstrom} resolution. MtbGlgBWT contains four domains: N1 {beta}-sandwich, N2 {beta}-sandwich, a central ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} domain that houses the catalytic site, and a C-terminal {beta}-sandwich. We have assayed the amylase activity with amylose and starch as substrates and the glycogen branching activity using amylose as a substrate for MtbGlgBWT and the N1 domain-deleted (the first 108 residues deleted) Mtb{Delta}108GlgB protein. The N1 {beta}-sandwich, which is formed by the first 105 amino acids and superimposes well with the N2 {beta}-sandwich, is shown to have an influence in substrate binding in the amylase assay. Also, we have checked and shown that several GH13 family inhibitors are ineffective against MtbGlgBWT and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB. We propose a two-step reaction mechanism, for the amylase activity (1 {yields} 4 bond breakage) and isomerization (1 {yields} 6 bond formation), which occurs in the same catalytic pocket. The structural and functional properties of MtbGlgB and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB are compared with those of the N-terminal 112-amino acid-deleted Escherichia coli GlgB (EC{Delta}112GlgB).

  1. Mechanical strain dependent electronic and dielectric properties of two-dimensional honeycomb structures of MoX2 (X=S, Se, Te)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2013-06-01

    Mechanical strain induced tunability in two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structures of MoX2 (X=S, Se, Te) with a focus on dielectric properties have been investigated in the framework of density functional theory. Mechanical strains reduce the band gap of considered semiconductors by causing a direct-to-indirect band gap transitions and finally rendering them into metal at critical value depending on the types of applied strain. The ultimate tensile strength estimated for MoS2, MoSe2 and MoTe2 monolayers is ∼7 GPa, ∼6 GPa and ∼5 GPa respectively. Band-gap deformation potentials have been found to posses strong dependence on the types of applied strain. Small tensile strains increases the exciton binding energies which can have importance in the applications of optoelectronics. Dielectric properties too get influenced by the type of applied strain as well as the type of material. Imaginary part of dielectric function (ɛ2) shows redshift in the structure peak energy on the application of strains with significant dependence on the types of applied strain. Static dielectric constant (ɛs) has been found to increase with the increase of tensile strains (both uniaxial and biaxial) and asymmetric biaxial strain. On the other hand, ɛs decreases for smaller magnitude of compression strains and show increase at higher magnitude. The change in the magnitude of ɛs particularly for compression strains remain material specific.

  2. Develop, demonstrate, and verify large area composite structural bonding with polyimide adhesives. [adhesively bonding graphite-polyimide structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhombal, B. D.; Wykes, D. H.; Hong, K. C.; Stenersen, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    The technology required to produce graphite-polyimide structural components with operational capability at 598 K (600 F) is considered. A series of polyimide adhesives was screened for mechanical and physical properties and processibility in fabricating large midplane bonded panels and honeycomb sandwich panels in an effort to fabricate a structural test component of the space shuttle aft body flap. From 41 formulations, LaRC-13, FM34B-18, and a modified LaRC-13 adhesive were selected for further evaluation. The LaRC-13 adhesive was rated as the best of the three adhesives in terms of availability, cost, processibility, properties, and ability to produce void fee large area (12" x 12") midplane bonds. Surface treatments and primers for the adhesives were evaluated and processes were developed for the fabrication of honeycomb sandwich panels of very good quality which was evidenced by rupture in the honeycomb core rather than in the facesheet bands on flatwise tensile strength testing. The fabrication of the adhesively bonded honeycomb sandwich cover panels, ribs, and leading edge covers of Celion graphite/LARC-160 polyimide laminates is described.

  3. Time-frequency distribution decomposition with applications to recognize the looseness state of the viscoelastic sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wang; Zhang, Zhousou; Qu, Jinxiu; Sun, Chuang

    2016-07-01

    In general, a vibration signal consists of several frequency modulation (FM) components. Every component contains different information, and can be characterized by its instantaneous amplitude (IA) and instantaneous phase (IP). In engineering applications, conventional time-frequency analysis methods and signal decomposition methods have shown their power in investigating features of the vibration signal. However, they are limited in resolution and it is hard to analyze these FM components individually. To overcome these deficiencies, a novel signal decomposition algorithm, named time-frequency distribution decomposition (TFDD), is proposed in this paper, which reconstructs one FM component of the signal at a time by estimating its IP and IA. The IA and IP are approximated by two polynomial functions respectively. One important advantage of TFDD is that it can directly extract the component we are interested in. Therefore, we can analyze the key component of the signal with little influence from other components. This will help us to characterize the vibration signal more deeply. Furthermore, it is very stable to noise. This is conductive to protecting the information of the vibration signal. The effectiveness of the TFDD is validated by a numerical simulation and the study of the vibration response signal collected from a viscoelastic sandwich structure (VSS). From the value of permutation entropy of the component extracted by TFDD, the looseness state of the VSS is recognized.

  4. Experimental investigation of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels in edgewise compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The local and general buckling behavior of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels simply supported along all four edges and loaded in uniaxial edgewise compression was investigated. Material properties of adhesive and facings were determined from flatwise tension and sandwich beam flexure tests. Tensile and compressive material properties of the facings were determined at 116, R.T., and 589 K (-250, R.T., and 600 F) using the sandwich beam flexure test method. Results indicate that Gr/PI is a usable structural material for short term use at temperatures as high as 589 K (600 F). Buckling specimens were 30.5 X 33.0 cm (12 x 13 in.), had quasi-isotropic symmetric facings and a glass/polyimide honeycomb core. Core thicknesses varied and three panels of each thickness were tested in edgewise compression at room temperature to investigate failure modes and corresponding buckling formulas. Specimens 0.635 cm (0.25 in.) thick failed by overall buckling at loads close to the analytically predicted buckling load; all other panels failed by face wrinkling. Results of the winkling tests indicate that several buckling formulas were unconservative and therefore not suitable for design purposes; recommended wrinkling equations are presented.

  5. Flame structure of sandwich systems based on ammonium perchlorate, HMX and polybutadiene rubber studied by probe mass-spectrometry and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chernov, A.A.; Shvartsberg, V.M.; Ermolin, N.E.

    1994-12-31

    The structure of subatmospheric flames of sandwich-type systems consisting of alternating laminae of ammonium perchlorate (AP) or HMX and {open_quotes}base{close_quotes} (polymerized mixture of fine-grained AP and polybutadiene binder) has been studied. The burning surface shape as well as the profiles of concentrations for 17 stable components and of temperature for three crosssections corresponding to the middle of {open_quotes}base{close_quotes} lamina, and to the interface between the laminae have been determined. The hypothesis assuming the existence of three types of flames in sandwiches has been verified experimentally. A concentration gradient of fuel components has been observed at the burning surface of the oxidizer, directed towards the burning surface. Multizone structures and step-by-step mechanisms of reactions in AP and HMX flames have been confirmed. A numerical study for the flame structure of sandwich system based on AP and {open_quotes}base{close_quotes} have been carried out. A simplified set of equations obtained from a complete Navier-Stokes set with the limiting transition M {yields} O have been used in order to construct a solution. Satisfactory agreement between calculated and experimental data on flame structure have been obtained.

  6. Three-dimensional honeycomb-like structured zero-valent iron/chitosan composite foams for effective removal of inorganic arsenic in water.

    PubMed

    Su, Fengchao; Zhou, Hongjian; Zhang, Yunxia; Wang, Guozhong

    2016-09-15

    A facile freeze-drying method was presented to fabricate three dimensional (3D) honeycomb-like structured nanoscale zero-valent iron/chitosan composite foams (ICCFs) for effective removal of inorganic arsenic in water. It was found that freezing temperature has important influence on the formation of 3D network structure of ICCFs. The ICCFs obtained at freeze temperature of -80°C exhibits oriented porous structure with good mechanical property than that at -20°C, thus improved excellent removal capability of As(III) and As(V) up to 114.9mgg(-1) and 86.87mgg(-1), respectively. Further, the adsorption kinetics of ICCFs on As(III) and As(V) can be described by pseudo-second order model and their adsorption isotherms follow Langmuir adsorption model. The superior removal performance of ICCFs on As(III) and As(V) can be ascribed to its oriented porous structure with abundant adsorption active sites resulted from nZVI and O, N-containing functional groups in ICCFs. Importantly, it was found that the O, N-containing functional groups of chitosan in ICCFs can adequately bind with the dissolved Fe(3+) ions from oxidation of nZVI to form Fe(3+)-Chitosan complex during removal of As(III) and As(V), thus effectively avoiding the dissolved Fe(3+) ions into solution to produce secondary pollution. A possible adsorption-coupled reduction mechanism of ICCFs on As(III) and As(V) was also proposed based on the experimental results. We believe that this work would be helpful to develop low-cost and abundant chitosan-based materials as high performance adsorbents for environmental remediation applications. PMID:27362398

  7. Evaluation of Ceramic Honeycomb Core Compression Behavior at Room Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, Richard K.; Lapointe, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature flatwise compression tests were conducted on two varieties of ceramic honeycomb core specimens that have potential for high-temperature structural applications. One set of specimens was fabricated using strips of a commercially-available thin-gage "ceramic paper" sheet molded into a hexagonal core configuration. The other set was fabricated by machining honeycomb core directly from a commercially available rigid insulation tile material. This paper summarizes the results from these tests.

  8. Circuit models for Salisbury screens made from unidirectional carbon fiber composite sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Elliot J.; Lenzing, Erik H.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon fiber composite materials have many useful structural material properties. The electromagnetic perfor- mance of these materials is of great interest for future applications. The work presented in this paper deals with the construction of Salisbury screen microwave absorbers made from unidirectional carbon fiber composite sand- wich structures. Specifically, absorbers centered at 7.25 GHz and 12.56 GHz are investigated. Circuit models are created to match the measured performance of the carbon fiber Salisbury screens using a genetic algorithm to extract lumped element circuit values. The screens presented in this paper utilize unidirectional carbon fiber sheets in place of the resistive sheet utilized in the classic Salisbury screen. The theory, models, prototypes, and measurements of these absorbers are discussed.

  9. X-ray CT image segmentation: automatic sandwich structure layer separation using reduced dimension Hough transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Liu, T.; Kakarala, R.; Yin, X. M.

    2010-03-01

    Many structures in aerospace, semiconductor and precision engineering are multi-layer in nature. Examples include Low Temperature Co-Fire Ceramic (LTCC), PCBA, stacked IC, Through-Silicon-Via and composite materials for aircraft wings. Segmentation of each internal layer in any orientation is essential for layer alignment as well as delamination, disbond and warpage analysis. In this paper we propose a RDHT (Reduced Dimension Hough Transformation) for automatic layer detection. Instead of segmenting internal surfaces at voxel level, correlation based edge operator is applied to extract features in 3D space whereby the likelihood of any planar structure is associated with the number of features on a specific plane. We use Randomized Hough Transform to map 3D features in three one dimensional accumulators plus one verification accumulator to reduce Hough space dimension. The RDHT has been successfully applied to various objects to reveal internal planar structures. For a CT result with a 512×512×512 cube, the feature detection takes 30 seconds and the subsequent layer separation takes 12 seconds (laptop with Intel dual core 1.6G). We demonstrate that the algorithm can segment all 16 layers of a stacked IC with an accuracy of 0.5 voxel.

  10. X-ray CT image segmentation: automatic sandwich structure layer separation using reduced dimension Hough transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Liu, T.; Kakarala, R.; Yin, X. M.

    2009-12-01

    Many structures in aerospace, semiconductor and precision engineering are multi-layer in nature. Examples include Low Temperature Co-Fire Ceramic (LTCC), PCBA, stacked IC, Through-Silicon-Via and composite materials for aircraft wings. Segmentation of each internal layer in any orientation is essential for layer alignment as well as delamination, disbond and warpage analysis. In this paper we propose a RDHT (Reduced Dimension Hough Transformation) for automatic layer detection. Instead of segmenting internal surfaces at voxel level, correlation based edge operator is applied to extract features in 3D space whereby the likelihood of any planar structure is associated with the number of features on a specific plane. We use Randomized Hough Transform to map 3D features in three one dimensional accumulators plus one verification accumulator to reduce Hough space dimension. The RDHT has been successfully applied to various objects to reveal internal planar structures. For a CT result with a 512×512×512 cube, the feature detection takes 30 seconds and the subsequent layer separation takes 12 seconds (laptop with Intel dual core 1.6G). We demonstrate that the algorithm can segment all 16 layers of a stacked IC with an accuracy of 0.5 voxel.

  11. Dirac-like plasmons in Ag nanopillar honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Siying; Brenny, Benjamin; Hellstrom, Sondra; Coenen, Toon; Polman, Albert; Atwater, Harry

    2015-03-01

    Surface plasmons in honeycomb lattices of Ag nanoparticles exhibit Dirac-like band structures, similar to the electronic band structure of graphene. Full wave simulations for an infinite honeycomb lattice of silver nano-pillars reveal hybridization of localized plasmonic modes between two neighboring pillars and the consequent formation of bonding and anti-bonding modes that are energetically degenerate at Dirac points. Electromagnetic simulations reveal the existence of plasmonic edge states in finite width nanoribbons of the honeycomb nanoparticle lattice. Nanoscale architecture of the honeycomb lattice may provide a new way to control plasmon propagation by selective excitation of directional surface plasmon edge states without backscattering. Experimentally, we have utilized cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy to study angular emission patterns and construct band structures of the silver pillars in honeycomb lattices. In our initial CL measurement, silver pillars in honeycomb lattices, we have observed strong radiation patterns near the Brillouin zone edge, integrated over an interval of wavelength centered on the wavelength of the Dirac points.

  12. ITO/Au/ITO sandwich structure for near-infrared plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xu; Mak, Chee Leung; Dai, Jiyan; Li, Kan; Ye, Hui; Leung, Chi Wah

    2014-09-24

    ITO/Au/ITO trilayers with varying gold spacer layer thicknesses were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated the continuous nature of the Au layer down to 2.4 nm. XRD patterns clearly showed an enhanced crystallinity of the ITO films promoted by the insertion of the gold layer. Compared with a single layer of ITO with a carrier concentration of 7.12 × 10(20) cm(-3), the ITO/Au/ITO structure achieved an effective carrier concentration as high as 3.26 × 10(22) cm(-3). Transmittance and ellipsometry measurements showed that the optical properties of ITO/Au/ITO films were greatly influenced by the thickness of the inserted gold layer. The cross-point wavelength of the trilayer samples was reduced with increasing gold layer thickness. Importantly, the trilayer structure exhibited a reduced loss (compared with plain Au) in the near-infrared region, suggesting its potential for plasmonic applications in the near-infrared range.

  13. Study of compression-loaded and impact-damaged structurally efficient graphite-thermoplastic trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semisandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1992-01-01

    The structural efficiency of compression-loaded trapezoidal-corrugation sandwich and semisandwich composite panels is studied to determine their weight savings potential. Sandwich panels with two identical face sheets and a trapezoidal corrugated core between them and semisandwich panels with a corrugation attached to a single skin are considered. An optimization code is used to find the minimum weight designs for critical compressive load levels ranging from 3000 to 24,000 lb/in. Graphite-thermoplastic panels based on the optimal minimum weight designs were fabricated and tested. A finite element analysis of several test specimens was also conducted. The results of the optimization study, the finite element analysis, and the experiments are presented. The results of testing impact damage panels are also discussed.

  14. Holographic nondestructive tests performed on composite samples of ceramic-epoxy-fiberglass sandwich structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.; Liu, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    When a hologram storing more than one wave is illuminated with coherent light, the reconstructed wave fronts interfere with each other or with any other phase-related wave front derived from the illuminating source. This multiple wave front comparison is called holographic interferometry, and its application is called holographic nondestructive testing (HNDT). The theoretical aspects of HNDT techniques and the sensitivity of the holographic system to the geometrical placement of the optical components are briefly discussed. A unique HNDT system which is mobile and possesses variable sensitivity to stress amplitude is discribed, the experimental evidence of the application of this system to the testing of the hidden debonds in a ceramic-epoxy-fiberglass structure used for sample testing of the radome of the Pershing missile system is presented.

  15. Vibrational analysis of rectangular sandwich plates resting on some elastic point supports

    SciTech Connect

    Ichinomiya, Osamu; Maruyama, Koichi; Sekine, Kouji

    1995-11-01

    An approximate solution of forced-vibration for rectangular sandwich plate resting on some elastic point supports is presented. The sandwich plate has thin, anisotropic composite laminated faces and a thick orthotropic core. The simplified sandwich plate model is used in the analysis. The governing equation of elastically point supported rectangular sandwich plate is obtained by using the Lagrange equation. The steady state response solution to a sinusoidally varying point force is also derived. The response curves of rectangular sandwich plates having CFRP laminated faces and aluminum honeycomb core is calculated. Application examples illustrate the effects of laminate lay-up of face sheets, core material properties and core thickness ratio on the vibration characteristics of rectangular sandwich plate.

  16. Development and Evaluation of Stitched Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, Larry E.; Adams, Daniel O.; Reeder, James R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and potential benefits provided by the addition of through-the-thickness reinforcement to sandwich structures. Through-the-thickness stitching is proposed to increase the interlaminar strength and damage tolerance of composite sandwich structures. A low-cost, out-of-autoclave processing method was developed to produce composite sandwich panels with carbon fiber face sheets, a closed-cell foam core, and through-the-thickness Kevlar stitching. The sandwich panels were stitched in a dry preform state, vacuum bagged, and infiltrated using Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) processing. For comparison purposes, unstitched sandwich panels were produced using the same materials and manufacturing methodology. Test panels were produced initially at the University of Utah and later at NASA Langley Research Center. Four types of mechanical tests were performed: flexural testing, flatwise tensile testing, core shear testing, and edgewise compression testing. Drop-weight impact testing followed by specimen sectioning was performed to characterize the damage resistance of stitched sandwich panels. Compression after impact (CAI) testing was performed to evaluate the damage tolerance of the sandwich panels. Results show significant increases in the flexural stiffness and strength, out-of-plane tensile strength, core shear strength, edgewise compression strength, and compression-after-impact strength of stitched sandwich structures.

  17. Hidden symmetry and protection of Dirac points on the honeycomb lattice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing-Min; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The honeycomb lattice possesses a novel energy band structure, which is characterized by two distinct Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, dominating most of the physical properties of the honeycomb structure materials. However, up till now, the origin of the Dirac points is unclear yet. Here, we discover a hidden symmetry on the honeycomb lattice and prove that the existence of Dirac points is exactly protected by such hidden symmetry. Furthermore, the moving and merging of the Dirac points and a quantum phase transition, which have been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed on the honeycomb lattice, can also be perfectly explained by the parameter dependent evolution of the hidden symmetry. PMID:26639178

  18. Finite Element Analysis of Honeycomb Impact Attenuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Nohyu

    To participate in Student Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) competitions, it is necessary to build an impact attenuator that would give an average deceleration not to exceed 20g when it runs into a rigid wall. Students can use numerical simulations or experimental test data to show that their car satisfies this safety requirement. A student group to study formula cars at the Korea University of Technology and Education has designed a vehicle to take part in a SAE competition, and a honeycomb structure was adopted as the impact attenuator. In this paper, finite element calculations were carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of the honeycomb attenuator. Deceleration and deformation behaviors were studied. Effect of the yield strength was checked by comparing the numerical results. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code was used.

  19. Efficient excitation of photoluminescence in a two-dimensional waveguide consisting of a quantum dot-polymer sandwich-type structure.

    PubMed

    Suárez, I; Larrue, A; Rodríguez-Cantó, P J; Almuneau, G; Abargues, R; Chirvony, V S; Martínez-Pastor, J P

    2014-08-15

    In this Letter, we study a new kind of organic polymer waveguide numerically and experimentally by combining an ultrathin (10-50 nm) layer of compactly packed CdSe/ZnS core/shell colloidal quantum dots (QDs) sandwiched between two cladding poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) layers. When a pumping laser beam is coupled into the waveguide edge, light is mostly confined around the QD layer, improving the efficiency of excitation. Moreover, the absence of losses in the claddings allows the propagation of the pumping laser beam along the entire waveguide length; hence, a high-intensity photoluminescence (PL) is produced. Furthermore, a novel fabrication technology is developed to pattern the PMMA into ridge structures by UV lithography in order to provide additional light confinement. The sandwich-type waveguide is analyzed in comparison to a similar one formed by a PMMA film homogeneously doped by the same QDs. A 100-fold enhancement in the waveguided PL is found for the sandwich-type case due to the higher concentration of QDs inside the waveguide.

  20. Hierarchical Sandwich-Like Structure of Ultrafine N-Rich Porous Carbon Nanospheres Grown on Graphene Sheets as Superior Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiqiang; He, Ziyang; Feng, Xuhui; Xu, Wangwang; Cui, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiuhong; Yan, Cheng; Carreon, Moises A; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Ying

    2016-04-27

    A sandwich-like, graphene-based porous nitrogen-doped carbon (PNCs@Gr) has been prepared through facile pyrolysis of zeolitic imidazolate framework nanoparticles in situ grown on graphene oxide (GO) (ZIF-8@GO). Such sandwich-like nanostructure can be used as anode material in lithium ion batteries, exhibiting remarkable capacities, outstanding rate capability, and cycling performances that are some of the best results among carbonaceous electrode materials and exceed most metal oxide-based anode materials derived from metal orgainc frameworks (MOFs). Apart from a high initial capacity of 1378 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1), this PNCs@Gr electrode can be cycled at high specific currents of 500 and 1000 mA g(-1) with very stable reversible capacities of 1070 and 948 mAh g(-1) to 100 and 200 cycles, respectively. At a higher specific current of 5000 mA g(-1), the electrode still delivers a reversible capacity of over 530 mAh g(-1) after 400 cycles, showing a capacity retention of as high as 84.4%. Such an impressive electrochemical performance is ascribed to the ideal combination of hierarchically porous structure, a highly conductive graphene platform, and high-level nitrogen doping in the sandwich-like PNCs@Gr electrode obtained via in situ synthesis.

  1. Compression Response of a Sandwich Fuselage Keel Panel With and Without Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1997-01-01

    Results are presented from an experimental and analytical study of a sandwich fuselage keel panel with and without damage. The fuselage keel panel is constructed of graphite-epoxy skins bonded to a honeycomb core, and is representative of a highly loaded fuselage keel structure. The face sheets of the panel contain several terminated or dropped plies along the length of the panel. The results presented provide a better understanding of the load distribution in damaged and undamaged thick-face-sheet composite sandwich structure with dropped plies and of the failure mechanisms of such structure in the presence of low-speed impact damage and discrete-source damage. The impact-damage condition studied corresponds to barely visible impact damage (BVID), and the discrete-source damage condition studied is a notch machined through both face sheets. Results are presented from an impact-damage screening study conducted on another panel of the same design to determine the impact energy necessary to inflict BVID on the panel. Results are presented from compression tests of the panel in three conditions: undamaged; BVID in two locations; and BVID in two locations and a notch through both face sheets. Surface strains in the face sheets of the undamaged panel and the notched panel obtained experimentally are compared with finite element analysis results. The experimental and analytical results suggest that for the damage conditions studied, discrete-source damage influences the structural performance more than BVID.

  2. Pretransitional Clusters in Multicolor Liquid Crystalline Honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, Goran; Zeng, Xiangbing; Liu, Feng; Kieffer, Robert; Nürnberger, Constance; Tschierske, Carsten; Gehring, Gillian

    2012-02-01

    X-shaped tetraphilic molecules consisting of a rod-like core with two hydrogen-bonding terminal groups and two mutually incompatible side-chains A and B form a range of honeycomb-like structures in which the rods act as bricks in the walls of polygonal cylinder cells containing the fluid side-chains. Some of these systems exhibit a 2nd-order transition from the high-temperature mixed (``1-color'') phase to a low-temperature phase in which the side-chains are separated in A and B cells (``2-color''). This is the situation with triangular, rectangular and square honeycombs. Strong pre-transitional 2-color domains formation is observed above the transition temperature. Particularly interesting is the case of the hexagonal honeycomb, where no fully phase-separated ground state can exist. Here the 2-color ``ordered'' phase consists of [A] cells and [A(1/4)B(3/4)] cells. The situation is similar to frustrated ferro- and antiferromagnets on a kagome lattice. Instead of the spins flipping, it is the molecules that undergo 180 degree rotations about the axis of their rod-like cores [Science 331, 1302 (2011)].

  3. Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles/Halloysite Nanotubes/Graphene Nanocomposites with Sandwich-Like Structure

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liang; Zhang, Yatao; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Jindun

    2014-01-01

    A sandwich-like antibacterial reagent (Ag/HNTs/rGO) was constructed through the direct growth of silver nanoparticles on the surface graphene-based HNTs nanosheets. Herein, various nanomaterials were combined by adhesion effect of DOPA after self-polymerization. Ag/HNTs/rGO posses enhanced antibacterial ability against E. coli and S. aureus compared with individual silver nanoparticles, rGO nanosheets or their nanocomposites. PMID:24722502

  4. A novel method of testing the shear strength of thick honeycomb composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, A. J.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Sandwich composites of aluminum and glass/phenolic honeycomb core were tested for shear strength before and after impact damage. The assessment of shear strength was performed in two ways; by four point bend testing of sandwich beams and by a novel double lap shear (DLS) test. This testing technique was developed so smaller specimens could be used, thus making the use of common lab scale fabrication and testing possible. The two techniques yielded similar data. The DLS test gave slightly lower shear strength values of the two methods but were closer to the supplier's values for shear strength.

  5. Design, fabrication and test of lightweight shell structure. [axial compression loads and torsion stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lager, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    A cylindrical shell structure 3.66 m (144 in.) high by 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter was designed using a wide variety of materials and structural concepts to withstand design ultimate combined loading 1225.8 N/cm (700 lb/in.) axial compression and 245.2 N/cm (140 lb/in.) torsion. The overall cylinder geometry and design loading are representative of that expected on a high performance space tug vehicle. The relatively low design load level results in designs that use thin gage metals and fibrous-composite laminates. Fabrication and structural tests of small panels and components representative of many of the candidate designs served to demonstrate proposed fabrication techniques and to verify design and analysis methods. Three of the designs evaluated, honeycomb sandwich with aluminum faceskins, honeycomb sandwich with graphite/epoxy faceskins, and aluminum truss with fiber-glass meteoroid protection layers, were selected for further evaluation.

  6. Lightweight Space Tug body structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lager, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Lightweight honeycomb sandwich construction using a wide variety of metal and fibrous composite faceskins was used in the design of a typical Space Tug skirt structure. Relatively low magnitude combined loading of axial compression and torsion resulted in designs using ultrathin faceskins, lightweight honeycomb cores, and thin faceskin/core adhesive bond layers. Two of the designs with metal faceskins (aluminum and titanium) and four with fibrous composite faceskins (using combinations of fiberglass, boron, and graphite) were evaluated through the fabrication and structural test of a series of small development panels. The two most promising concepts with aluminum and graphite/epoxy faceskins, were further evaluated through the fabrication and structural test of larger compression and shear panels. All panels tested exceeded design ultimate load levels, thereby, verifying the structural integrity of the selected designs. Projected skirt structural weights for the graphite/epoxy and aluminum concepts fall within original weight guidelines established for the Space Tug vehicle.

  7. An examination of impact damage in glass-phenolic and aluminum honeycomb core composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Lance, D. G.; Hodge, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of low velocity impact damage to glass-phenolic and aluminum core honeycomb sandwich panels with carbon-epoxy facesheets is presented. An instrumented drop weight impact test apparatus was utilized to inflict damage at energy ranges between 0.7 and 4.2 joules. Specimens were checked for extent of damage by cross sectional examination. The effect of core damage was assessed by subjecting impact-damaged beams to four-point bend tests. Skin-only specimens (facings not bonded to honeycomb) were also tested for comparison purposes. Results show that core buckling is the first damage mode, followed by delaminations in the facings, matrix cracking, and finally fiber breakage. The aluminum honeycomb panels exhibited a larger core damage zone and more facing delaminations than the glass-phenolic core, but could withstand more shear stress when damaged than the glass-phenolic core specimens.

  8. Carbon Honeycomb High Capacity Storage for Gaseous and Liquid Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; Zubarev, Evgeniy N.

    2016-02-01

    We report an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. The allotrope structures are derived from our low temperature electron diffraction and electron microscopy data. These structures can be both periodic and random and are built exclusively from s p2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. They demonstrate high levels of physical absorption of various gases unattainable in other carbon forms such as fullerites or nanotubes. These honeycomb structures can be used not only for storage of various gases and liquids but also as a matrix for new composites.

  9. Optimal Design of Honeycomb Material Used to Mitigate Head Impact

    PubMed Central

    Caccese, Vincent; Ferguson, James R.; Edgecomb, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the impact resistance of honeycomb structure with the purpose to mitigate impact forces. The objective is to aid in the choice of optimal parameters to minimize the thickness of the honeycomb structure while providing adequate protection to prevent injury due to head impact. Studies are presented using explicit finite element analysis representing the case of an unprotected drop of a rigid impactor onto a simulated floor consisting of vinyl composition tile and concrete. Analysis of honeycomb material to reduce resulting accelerations is also presented where parameters such as honeycomb material modulus, wall thickness, cell geometry and structure depth are compared to the unprotected case. A simplified analysis technique using a genetic algorithm is presented to demonstrate the use of this method to select a minimum honeycomb depth to achieve a desired acceleration level at a given level of input energy. It is important to select a minimum material depth in that smaller dimensions lead toward more aesthetic design that increase the likelihood of that the device is used. PMID:23976812

  10. Reentry Thermal Analysis of a Generic Crew Exploration Vehicle Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, William L.; Gong, Leslie; Quinn, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on the heat-shielding characteristics of honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated with different materials for possible use as wall panels for the proposed crew exploration vehicle. Graphite/epoxy sandwich panel was found to outperform aluminum sandwich panel under the same geometry due to superior heat-shielding qualities and lower material density. Also, representative reentry heat-transfer analysis was performed on the windward wall structures of a generic crew exploration vehicle. The Apollo low Earth orbit reentry trajectory was used to calculate the reentry heating rates. The generic crew exploration vehicle has a graphite/epoxy composite honeycomb sandwich exterior wall and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich interior wall, and is protected with the Apollo thermal protection system ablative material. In the thermal analysis computer program used, the TPS ablation effect was not yet included; however, the results from the nonablation heat-transfer analyses were used to develop a "virtual ablation" method to estimate the ablation heat loads and the thermal protection system recession thicknesses. Depending on the severity of the heating-rate time history, the virtual ablation period was found to last for 87 to 107 seconds and the ablation heat load was estimated to be in the range of 86 to 88 percent of the total heat load for the ablation time period. The thermal protection system recession thickness was estimated to be in the range of 0.08 to 0.11 inches. For the crew exploration vehicle zero-tilt and 18-degree-tilt stagnation points, thermal protection system thicknesses of h = {0.717, 0.733} inches were found to be adequate to keep the substructural composite sandwich temperature below the limit of 300 F.

  11. Preelectroplating Treatment Of Titanium Honeycomb Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael L.; Harvey, James S.

    1992-01-01

    New technique used to treat titanium honeycomb core electrochemically by applying conversion coat to keep honeycomb active and receptive to electroplating with solution of sodium bichromate and hydrofluoric acid. Maskant permits electroplating of controlled amount of filler metal on edge of honeycomb. Eliminates excess copper filler.

  12. Mechanics and applications of pressure adaptive honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Roelof

    A novel adaptive aerostructure is presented that relies on certified aerospace materials and can therefore be applied in conventional passenger aircraft. This structure consists of a honeycomb material which' cells extend over a significant length perpendicular to the plane of the cells. Each of the cells contains an inelastic pouch (or bladder) that forms a circular tube when the cell forms a perfect hexagon. By changing the cell differential pressure (CDP) the stiffness of the honeycomb can be altered. Using an external force or the elastic force within the honeycomb material, the honeycomb can be deformed such that the cells deviate from their perfect-hexagonal shape. It can be shown that by increasing the CDP, the structure eventually returns to a perfect hexagon. By doing so, a fully embedded pneumatic actuator is created that can perform work and substitute conventional low-bandwidth flight control actuators. It is shown that two approaches can be taken to regulate the stiffness of this embedded actuator: (1) The first approach relies on the pouches having a fixed amount of air in them and stiffness is altered by a change in ambient pressure. Coupled to the ambient pressure-altitude cycle that aircraft encounter during each flight, this approach yields a true adaptive aerostructure that operates independently of pilot input and is controlled solely by the altitude the aircraft is flying at. (2) The second approach relies on a controlled constant CDP. This CDP could be supplied from one of the compressor stages of the engine as a form of bleed air. Because of the air-tight pouches there would essentially be no mass flow, meaning engine efficiency would not be significantly affected due to this application. By means of a valve system the pilot could have direct control over the pressure and, consequently, the stiffness of the structure. This allows for much higher CDPs (on the order of 1MPa) than could physically be achieved by relying on the ambient pressure

  13. Nonlinear wave dynamics in honeycomb lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Bahat-Treidel, Omri; Segev, Mordechai

    2011-08-15

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of wave packets in honeycomb lattices and show that, in quasi-one-dimensional configurations, the waves propagating in the lattice can be separated into left-moving and right-moving waves, and any wave packet composed of only left (or only right) movers does not change its intensity structure in spite of the nonlinear evolution of its phase. We show that the propagation of a general wave packet can be described, within a good approximation, as a superposition of left- and right-moving self-similar (nonlinear) wave packets. Finally, we find that Klein tunneling is not suppressed by nonlinearity.

  14. Porous honeycomb structures formed from interconnected MnO2 sheets on CNT-coated substrates for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Wen-Yin; Chen, You-Feng; Lu, Ke-Ming; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2016-01-01

    The use of lightweight and easily-fabricated MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible networks as binder-free electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol/H2SO4 electrolyte for the formation of stretchable solid-state supercapacitors was examined. The active electrodes were fabricated from 3D honeycomb porous MnO2 assembled from cross-walled and interconnected sheet-architectural MnO2 on CNT-based plastic substrates (denoted as honeycomb MnO2/CNT textiles).These substrates were fabricated through a simple two-step procedure involving the coating of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto commercial textiles by a dipping-drying process and subsequent electrodeposition of the interconnected MnO2 sheets onto the MWCNT-coated textile. With such unique MnO2 architectures integrated onto CNT flexible films, good performance was achieved with a specific capacitance of 324 F/g at 0.5 A/g. A maximum energy density of 7.2 Wh/kg and a power density as high as 3.3 kW/kg were exhibited by the honeycomb MnO2/CNT network device, which is comparable to the performance of other carbon-based and metal oxide/carbon-based solid-state supercapacitor devices. Specifically, the long-term cycling stability of this material is excellent, with almost no loss of its initial capacitance and good Coulombic efficiency of 82% after 5000 cycles. These impressive results identify these materials as a promising candidate for use in environmentally friendly, low-cost, and high-performance flexible energy-storage devices. PMID:26726724

  15. Porous honeycomb structures formed from interconnected MnO2 sheets on CNT-coated substrates for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Wen-Yin; Chen, You-Feng; Lu, Ke-Ming; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2016-01-01

    The use of lightweight and easily-fabricated MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible networks as binder-free electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol/H2SO4 electrolyte for the formation of stretchable solid-state supercapacitors was examined. The active electrodes were fabricated from 3D honeycomb porous MnO2 assembled from cross-walled and interconnected sheet-architectural MnO2 on CNT-based plastic substrates (denoted as honeycomb MnO2/CNT textiles).These substrates were fabricated through a simple two-step procedure involving the coating of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto commercial textiles by a dipping-drying process and subsequent electrodeposition of the interconnected MnO2 sheets onto the MWCNT-coated textile. With such unique MnO2 architectures integrated onto CNT flexible films, good performance was achieved with a specific capacitance of 324 F/g at 0.5 A/g. A maximum energy density of 7.2 Wh/kg and a power density as high as 3.3 kW/kg were exhibited by the honeycomb MnO2/CNT network device, which is comparable to the performance of other carbon-based and metal oxide/carbon-based solid-state supercapacitor devices. Specifically, the long-term cycling stability of this material is excellent, with almost no loss of its initial capacitance and good Coulombic efficiency of 82% after 5000 cycles. These impressive results identify these materials as a promising candidate for use in environmentally friendly, low-cost, and high-performance flexible energy-storage devices.

  16. Size Effects in Impact Damage of Composite Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobyns, Alan; Jackson, Wade

    2003-01-01

    Panel size has a large effect on the impact response and resultant damage level of honeycomb sandwich panels. It has been observed during impact testing that panels of the same design but different panel sizes will show large differences in damage when impacted with the same impact energy. To study this effect, a test program was conducted with instrumented impact testing of three different sizes of sandwich panels to obtain data on panel response and residual damage. In concert with the test program. a closed form analysis method was developed that incorporates the effects of damage on the impact response. This analysis method will predict both the impact response and the residual damage of a simply-supported sandwich panel impacted at any position on the panel. The damage is incorporated by the use of an experimental load-indentation curve obtained for the face-sheet/honeycomb and indentor combination under study. This curve inherently includes the damage response and can be obtained quasi-statically from a rigidly-backed specimen or a specimen with any support conditions. Good correlation has been obtained between the test data and the analysis results for the maximum force and residual indentation. The predictions can be improved by using a dynamic indentation curve. Analyses have also been done using the MSC/DYTRAN finite element code.

  17. Manufacture of large glass honeycomb mirrors. [for astronomical telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Hill, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of making very large glass mirrors for astronomical telescopes is examined, and the advantages of honeycomb mirrors made of borosilicate glass are discussed. Thermal gradients in the glass that degrade the figure of thick borosilicate mirrors during use can be largely eliminated in a honeycomb structure by internal ventilation (in air) or careful control of the radiation environment (in space). It is expected that ground-based telescopes with honeycomb mirrors will give better images than those with solid mirrors. Materials, techniques, and the experience that has been gained making trial mirrors and test castings as part of a program to develop 8-10-m-diameter lightweight mirrors are discussed.

  18. Fabrication of thickness controllable free-standing sandwich-structured hybrid carbon film for high-rate and high-power supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Helin; Wei, Sihang; Tian, Weifeng; Zhu, Daming; Liu, Yuhao; Yuan, Lili; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid carbon films composed of graphene film and porous carbon film may give full play to the advantages of both carbon materials, and have great potential for application in energy storage and conversion devices. Unfortunately, there are very few reports on fabrication of hybrid carbon films. Here we demonstrate a simple approach to fabricate free-standing sandwich-structured hybrid carbon film composed of porous amorphous carbon film and multilayer graphene film by chemical vapor deposition in a controllable and scalable way. Hybrid carbon films reveal good electrical conductivity, excellent flexibility, and good compatibility with substrate. Supercapacitors assembled by hybrid carbon films exhibit ultrahigh rate capability, wide frequency range, good capacitance performance, and high-power density. Moreover, this approach may provide a general path for fabrication of hybrid carbon materials with different structures by using different metals with high carbon solubility, and greatly expands the application scope of carbon materials. PMID:25394410

  19. A folding pathway for betapep-4 peptide 33mer: from unfolded monomers and beta-sheet sandwich dimers to well-structured tetramers.

    PubMed

    Mayo, K H; Ilyina, E

    1998-02-01

    It was recently reported that a de novo designed peptide 33mer, betapep-4, can form well-structured beta-sheet sandwich tetramers (Ilyina E, Roongta V, Mayo KH, 1997b, Biochemistry 36:5245-5250). For insight into the pathway of betapep-4 folding, the present study investigates the concentration dependence of betapep-4 self-association by using 1H-NMR pulsed-field gradient (PFG)-NMR diffusion measurements, and circular dichroism. Downfield chemically shifted alphaH resonances, found to arise only from the well-structured betapep-4 tetramer state, yield the fraction of tetramer within the oligomer equilibrium distribution. PFG-NMR-derived diffusion coefficients, D, provide a means for deriving the contribution of monomer and other oligomer states to this distribution. These data indicate that tetramer is the highest oligomer state formed, and that inclusion of monomer and dimer states in the oligomer distribution is sufficient to explain the concentration dependence of D values for betapep-4. Equilibrium constants calculated from these distributions [2.5 x 10(5) M(-1) for M-D and 1.2 x 10(4) M(-1) for D-T at 313 K] decrease only slightly, if at all, with decreasing temperature indicating a hydrophobically mediated, entropy-driven association/folding process. Conformational analyses using NMR and CD provide a picture where "random coil" monomers associate to form molten globule-like beta-sheet sandwich dimers that further associate and fold as well-structured tetramers. Betapep-4 folding is thermodynamically linked to self-association. As with folding of single-chain polypeptides, the final folding step to well-structured tetramer betapep-4 is rate limiting.

  20. Millimeter Wave Holographical Inspection of Honeycomb Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, J. T.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Stefes, G.; Hepburn, Frank L.; Hepburn, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-layered composite structures manufactured with honeycomb, foam or balsa wood cores are finding increasing utility in a variety of aerospace, transportation, and infrastructure applications. Due to the low conductivity and inhomogeneity associated with these composites standard nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are not always capable of inspecting their interior for various defects caused during the manufacturing process or as a result of in-service loading. On the contrary, microwave and millimeter wave NDT methods are well-suited for inspecting these structures since signals at these frequencies readily penetrate through these structures and reflect from different interior boundaries revealing the presence of a wide range of defects such as disbond, delamination, moisture and oil intrusion, impact damage, etc. Millimeter wave frequency spectrum spans 30 GHz - 300 GHz with corresponding wavelengths of 10 - 1 mm. Due to the inherent short wavelengths at these frequencies, one can produce high spatial resolution images of these composites either using real-antenna focused or synthetic-aperture focused methods. In addition, incorporation of swept-frequency in the latter method (i.e., holography) results in high-resolution three-dimensional images. This paper presents the basic steps behind producing such images at millimeter wave frequencies and the results of two honeycomb composite panels are demonstrated at Q-band (33-50 GHz). In addition, these results are compared to previous results using X-ray computed tomography.

  1. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite fan blade sized for a large aircraft engine. An existing baseline solid metallic fan blade was used as a starting point to develop a hybrid honeycomb sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replacing the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements, a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized whereas the overall blade thickness is held fixed so as to not alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight is taken as the objective function to be minimized by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  2. A honeycomb network based on hybrid lanthanum complexes encircling a [β-Mo8O26]4- isomer: Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of [La (η2-NO3) (dmso)7]2 [β-Mo8O26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khélifa, Arbia Ben; Ezzayani, Khaireddine; Belkhiria, Mouhamed Salah

    2016-10-01

    A novel isopolymolybdates functionalized by rare earth complexes namely, [La (η2-NO3) (dmso)7]2 [β-Mo8O26] (1) has been successfully synthesized and characterized by routine methods: IR, X-ray powder diffraction, UV-Visible absorption and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The title compound is crystallized in monoclinic space group P21/n with a = 11.566 (2) Å, b = 28.522 (6) Å, c = 12.644 (3) Å, β = 91.94 (3)°. The structural feature of 1 is that lanthanum complexes form a honeycomb network, in which resides the [β-Mo8O26]4- isomer. The cohesion structure is ensured by non typical hydrogen bonding interactions causes a 3D supramolecular network. Absorption spectrum, optical band gap energies have been investigated.

  3. Cationic half-sandwich Ru(II) complexes containing (N,N)-bound Schiff-base ligands: Synthesis, crystal structure analysis and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Li; Miao, Qian; Tehrani, Alireza Azhdari; Hajiashrafi, Taraneh; Hu, Mao-Lin; Morsali, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Three Ru(II) half-sandwich complexes containing (N,N)-bound Schiff-base ligands, [(η6-C6H6) RuCl(L1)]PF6 (1) L1 = (E)-1-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N-(p-tolyl)methanimine, [(η6-p-cymene)RuCl(L1)]PF6 (2) and [(η6-p-cymene)RuCl(L2)]PF6(3) L2 = (E)-1-(6-bromopyridin-2-yl)-N-(p-tolyl)methanimine, were synthesized, characterized and their supramolecular structures were analyzed. The crystal packing of these compounds was studied using geometrical analysis and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The fluorescence behavior of these compounds was also studied. TD-DFT calculations were carried out to better understand the fluorescence properties of complexes 1-3. These compounds could be promising for the design of organometallic dye systems.

  4. A sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on the biotin- streptavidin-biotin structure for detection of human immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yueyun; Zhang, Yihe; Jiang, Liping; Chu, Paul K.; Dong, Yunhui; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-01

    A sandwich-type immunosensor is designed and fabricated to detect the human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) using polyaniline and tin dioxide functionalized graphene (GS-SnO2-PAN) as the platform and biotin-functionalized amination magnetic nanoparticles composite (B-Fe3O4@APTES) as the label. GS-SnO2-PAN is used as the sensing agent to capture the primary anti-HIgG (Ab1) and SnO2 reduces the stack of GS. The B-Fe3O4@APTES with a large surface area and excellent biocompatibility captures second antibody (Ab2) efficiently based on the highly selective recognition of streptavidin to biotinylated antibody. The B-Fe3O4@APTES has better electro-catalytic activity in the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the “biotin-streptavidin-biotin” (B-SA-B) strategy leads to signal amplification. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor has a wide sensitivity range from 1 pg/L to 10 ng/L and low detection limit of 0.33 pg/L (S/N = 3) for HIgG. The immunosensor has high sensitivity, fast assay rate, as well as good reproducibility, specificity, and stability especially in the quantitative detection of biomolecules in serum samples. PMID:26948273

  5. Simulation of the honeycomb construction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanzhang, Zhang

    2010-06-01

    The construction process of the honeycomb by bees is an astonishing process. The original structure which the bees built is nothing more than a lot of rough cylinders. But keeping the beeswax semi-flow for a certain time, those rough structures become perfect hexahedral columns. A modified, simplified particle method was used here to simulate the semi-flow state of the material. Although the parameters used here were still rather subjective, the simulation still could demonstrate some behavior of that sort of material like beeswax. And the method that the bees used to build their honey comb, could be an efficient method to imitate when we are trying to manufacture cellular materials.

  6. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2012-09-01

    This paper addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite sandwich ply lay-up of a NASA baseline solid metallic fan blade comparable to a future Boeing 737 MAX aircraft engine. Sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replaces the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of Titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized where as the overall blade thickness is held fixed in order not to alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight reduction is taken as the objective function by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  7. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-12-16

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson's ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson's ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners.

  8. Effective optimization and analysis of white LED properties by using nano-honeycomb patterned phosphor film.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huang-Yu; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tu, Zong-Yi; Lee, Po-Tsung; Chen, Huang-Ming; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2016-08-22

    This study presents an approach for patterning a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phosphor film with a photonic crystal nano-honeycomb structure on a blue chip package. A phosphor film with a nano-honeycomb structure was patterned and transferred using a nanosphere and used for fabricating remote white light-emitting diodes (w-LEDs). The angular correlated color temperature deviation of the remote phosphor LED could be improved by varying nano-honeycomb structure pitches (450, 750, and 1150 nm). In particular, w-LED samples with excellent color uniformity (ΔCCT ranging from 940 to 440 K) were fabricated from 750-nm w-LED samples with nano-honeycomb-patterned tops. PMID:27557183

  9. Vibration Characteristics Determined for Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels With a Metal Foam Core for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Min, James B.; Raj, Sai V.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is to provide fan materials that are safer, weigh less, and cost less than the currently used titanium alloy or polymer matrix composite fans. The proposed material system is a sandwich fan construction made up of thin solid face sheets and a lightweight metal foam core. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by the foam layer. The resulting structure has a high stiffness and lighter weight in comparison to the solid facesheet material alone. The face sheets carry the applied in-plane and bending loads (ref. 1). The metal foam core must resist the transverse shear and transverse normal loads, as well as keep the facings supported and working as a single unit. Metal foams have ranges of mechanical properties, such as light weight, impact resistance, and vibration suppression (ref. 2), which makes them more suitable for use in lightweight fan structures. Metal foams have been available for decades (refs. 3 and 4), but the difficulties in the original processes and high costs have prevented their widespread use. However, advances in production techniques and cost reduction have created a new interest in this class of materials (ref. 5). The material chosen for the face sheet and the metal foam for this study was the aerospace-grade stainless steel 17-4PH. This steel was chosen because of its attractive mechanical properties and the ease with which it can be made through the powder metallurgy process (ref. 6). The advantages of a metal foam core, in comparison to a typical honeycomb core, are material isotropy and the ease of forming complex geometries, such as fan blades. A section of a 17-4PH sandwich structure is shown in the following photograph. Part of process of designing any blade is to determine the natural frequencies of the particular blade shape. A designer needs to predict the resonance frequencies of a new blade design to properly identify a useful

  10. Preparation of sandwich-structured graphene/mesoporous silica composites with C8-modified pore wall for highly efficient selective enrichment of endogenous peptides for mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Peng; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Yan; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yang, Pengyuan

    2012-09-01

    In this study, sandwich-structured graphene/mesoporous silica composites (C8-modified graphene@mSiO(2)) were synthesized by coating mesoporous silica onto hydrophilic graphene nanosheets through a surfactant-mediated cocondensation sol-gel process. The newly prepared C8-modified graphene@mSiO(2) nanocomposites possess unique properties of extended plate-like morphology, good water dispersibility, highly open pore structure, uniform pore size (2.8 nm), high surface area (632 m(2)/g), and C8-modified-interior pore walls. The unique structure of the C8-modified graphene@mSiO(2) composite nanosheets not only provide extended planes with hydrophilic surface that prevents aggregation in solution, but also offer a huge number of C8-modified mesopores with high surface area that can ensure an efficient adsorption of peptides through hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction between C8-moified pore walls and target molecules. The obtained C8-modified graphene@mSiO(2) materials were utilized for size selectively and specifically enriching peptides in standard peptide mixtures and endogenous peptides in real biological samples (mouse brain tissue). PMID:22837154

  11. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-12-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson’s ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners.

  12. Hierarchical honeycomb auxetic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mousanezhad, Davood; Babaee, Sahab; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Ghosh, Ranajay; Hamouda, Abdelmagid Salem; Bertoldi, Katia; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Most conventional materials expand in transverse directions when they are compressed uniaxially resulting in the familiar positive Poisson’s ratio. Here we develop a new class of two dimensional (2D) metamaterials with negative Poisson’s ratio that contract in transverse directions under uniaxial compressive loads leading to auxeticity. This is achieved through mechanical instabilities (i.e., buckling) introduced by structural hierarchy and retained over a wide range of applied compression. This unusual behavior is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed computationally. The work provides new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in designing 2D auxetic metamaterials, and new opportunities for developing energy absorbing materials, tunable membrane filters, and acoustic dampeners. PMID:26670417

  13. Salads, Sandwiches and Desserts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on salads, sandwiches, and desserts is designed to provide Marine food service personnel with a general background in the proper techniques for the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a…

  14. Magnetic structure and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in the S =1/2 helical-honeycomb antiferromagnet α -Cu2V2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitgeatpong, G.; Zhao, Y.; Avdeev, M.; Piltz, R. O.; Sato, T. J.; Matan, K.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic properties of the S =1/2 antiferromagnet α -Cu2V2O7 have been studied using magnetization, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations, and neutron diffraction. Magnetic susceptibility shows a broad peak at ˜50 K followed by an abrupt increase indicative of a phase transition to a magnetically ordered state at TN=33.4 (1 ) K. Above TN, a fit to the Curie-Weiss law gives a Curie-Weiss temperature of Θ =-73 (1 ) K suggesting the dominant antiferromagnetic coupling. The result of the QMC calculations on the helical-honeycomb spin network with two antiferromagnetic exchange interactions J1 and J2 provides a better fit to the susceptibility than the previously proposed spin-chain model. Two sets of the coupling parameters J1:J2=1 :0.45 with J1=5.79 (1 ) meV and 0.65 :1 with J2=6.31 (1 ) meV yield equally good fits down to ˜TN . Below TN, weak ferromagnetism due to spin canting is observed. The canting is caused by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction with an estimated b c -plane component |Dp|≃0.14 J1 . Neutron diffraction reveals that the S =1/2 Cu2 + spins antiferromagnetically align in the F d'd'2 magnetic space group. The ordered moment of 0.93(9) μB is predominantly along the crystallographic a axis.

  15. Dual-color STED microscopy reveals a sandwich structure of Bassoon and Piccolo in active zones of adult and aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishimune, Hiroshi; Badawi, Yomna; Mori, Shuuichi; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Presynaptic active zones play a pivotal role as synaptic vesicle release sites for synaptic transmission, but the molecular architecture of active zones in mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) at sub-diffraction limited resolution remains unknown. Bassoon and Piccolo are active zone specific cytosolic proteins essential for active zone assembly in NMJs, ribbon synapses, and brain synapses. These proteins are thought to colocalize and share some functions at active zones. Here, we report an unexpected finding of non-overlapping localization of these two proteins in mouse NMJs revealed using dual-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) super resolution microscopy. Piccolo puncta sandwiched Bassoon puncta and aligned in a Piccolo-Bassoon-Piccolo structure in adult NMJs. P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) puncta colocalized with Bassoon puncta. The P/Q-type VGCC and Bassoon protein levels decreased significantly in NMJs from aged mouse. In contrast, the Piccolo levels in NMJs from aged mice were comparable to levels in adult mice. This study revealed the molecular architecture of active zones in mouse NMJs at sub-diffraction limited resolution, and described the selective degeneration mechanism of active zone proteins in NMJs from aged mice. Interestingly, the localization pattern of active zone proteins described herein is similar to active zone structures described using electron microscope tomography. PMID:27321892

  16. Formation Mechanism of CuAlO2 Prepared by Rapid Thermal Annealing of Al2O3/Cu2O/Sapphire Sandwich Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, C. H.; Tseng, B. H.

    Single-phase CuAlO2 films were successfully prepared by thin-film reaction of an Al2O3/Cu2O/sapphire sandwich structure. We found that the processing parameters, such as heating rate, holding temperature and annealing ambient, were all crucial to form CuAlO2 without second phases. Thermal annealing in pure oxygen ambient with a lower temperature ramp rate might result in the formation of CuAl2O4 in addition to CuAlO2, since part of Cu2O was oxidized to form CuO and caused the change in reaction path, i.e. CuO + Al2O3 → CuAl2O4. Typical annealing conditions successful to prepare single-phase CuAlO2 would be to heat the sample with a temperature rampt rate higher than 7.3 °C/sec and hold the temperature at 1100 °C in air ambient. The formation mechanism of CuAlO2 has also been studied by interrupting the reaction after a short period of annealing. TEM observations showed that the top Al2O3 layer with amorphous structure reacted immediately with Cu2O to form CuAlO2 in the early stage and then the remaining Cu2O reacted with the sapphire substrate.

  17. Dual-color STED microscopy reveals a sandwich structure of Bassoon and Piccolo in active zones of adult and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Nishimune, Hiroshi; Badawi, Yomna; Mori, Shuuichi; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-20

    Presynaptic active zones play a pivotal role as synaptic vesicle release sites for synaptic transmission, but the molecular architecture of active zones in mammalian neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) at sub-diffraction limited resolution remains unknown. Bassoon and Piccolo are active zone specific cytosolic proteins essential for active zone assembly in NMJs, ribbon synapses, and brain synapses. These proteins are thought to colocalize and share some functions at active zones. Here, we report an unexpected finding of non-overlapping localization of these two proteins in mouse NMJs revealed using dual-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) super resolution microscopy. Piccolo puncta sandwiched Bassoon puncta and aligned in a Piccolo-Bassoon-Piccolo structure in adult NMJs. P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) puncta colocalized with Bassoon puncta. The P/Q-type VGCC and Bassoon protein levels decreased significantly in NMJs from aged mouse. In contrast, the Piccolo levels in NMJs from aged mice were comparable to levels in adult mice. This study revealed the molecular architecture of active zones in mouse NMJs at sub-diffraction limited resolution, and described the selective degeneration mechanism of active zone proteins in NMJs from aged mice. Interestingly, the localization pattern of active zone proteins described herein is similar to active zone structures described using electron microscope tomography.

  18. Self assembly of sandwich-layered 2D silver(I) coordination polymers stabilized by argentophilic interactions: Synthesis, crystal structures and ab initio intramolecular energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorlu, Yunus; Can, Hatice

    2014-11-01

    Two different two-dimensional silver(I) coordination polymers, namely {[Ag2(dcpa)}n (1) and {[Ag2(ma)]}n (2), where dcpa = 4,5-dichlorophthalate; ma = maleate, were synthesized and structurally analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Complexes 1 and 2 represent 2D coordination polymer with metal-organic sandwich type. Two independent Ag(I) ions in both complexes are linked to constructed 2D layer by μ8-η3:η2:η2:η1 (for complex 1) and μ8-η3:η3:η2:η2 (for complex 2) carboxylate bridging fashions. The 2D layers of 1 are further extended into a three-dimensional (3D) supramolecular network by weak Cl⋯Cl interactions while 2D layers of 2 are linked by weak CH⋯O interactions into a 3D supramolecular framework. These two complexes exhibit considerable short Ag-Ag argentophilic interactions. The long-range corrected density functional theory (DFT) method was used to investigate intramolecular energetics, which are responsible for these 2D structures. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis with long-range corrected DFT method assists to understand these intramolecular interactions.

  19. Aluminum Honeycomb Characteristics in Dynamic Crush Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Vesta I.; Swanson, Lloyd H.

    1999-07-01

    Fifteen aluminum honeycomb cubes (3 in.) have been crushed in the Mechanical Shock Laboratory's drop table testing machines. This report summarizes shock experiments with honeycomb densities of 22.1 pcf and 38.0 pcf and with crush weights of 45 lb, 168 lb, and 268 lb. The honeycomb samples were crushed in all three orientations, W, L, and T. Most of the experiments were conducted at an impact velocity of {approx}40 fps, but higher velocities of up to 90 fps were used for selected experiments. Where possible, multiple experiments were conducted for a specific orientation and density of the honeycomb samples. All results are for Hexcel honeycomb except for one experiment with Alcore honeycomb and have been evaluated for validity. This report contains the raw acceleration data measured on the top of the drop table carriage, pictures of the crushed samples, and normalized force-displacement curves for all fifteen experiments. These data are not strictly valid for material characteristics in L and T orientations because the cross-sectional area of the honeycomb changed (split) during the crush. However, these are the best data available at this time. These dynamic crush data do suggest a significant increase in crush strength to 8000 psi ({approximately} 25-30% increase) over quasi-static values of {approximately}6000 psi for the 38.0 pcf Hexcel Honeycomb in the T-orientation. An uncertainty analysis is included and estimates the error in these data.

  20. Seal Leakages for Honeycomb or Smooth Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athavale, Mahesh M.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    Three dimensional-CFD simulations were attempted to analyze the flow field in a honeycomb flat plate tester. This discussion reviews some of the numerical difficulties and relations, including those relating the honeycombs to labyrinth throttles and the consistency of selected seal and tester data sets.

  1. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-28

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (∼1470 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)) and excellent cycling stability with ∼98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg(-1)), a high power density (27.5 kW kg(-1)) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.

  2. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-28

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (∼1470 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)) and excellent cycling stability with ∼98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg(-1)), a high power density (27.5 kW kg(-1)) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs. PMID:26416358

  3. Structural performance of two aerobrake hexagonal heat shield panel concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Dyess, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Structural sizing and performance are presented for two structural concepts for an aerobrake hexagonal heat shield panel. One concept features a sandwich construction with an aluminum honeycomb core and thin quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy face sheets. The other concept features a skin-rib isogrid construction with thin quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy skins and graphite-epoxy ribs oriented at 0, +60, and -60 degs along the panel. Linear static, linear bifurcation buckling, and nonlinear static analyses were performed to compare the structural performance of the two panel concepts and assess their feasibility for a lunar transfer vehicle aerobrake application.

  4. Demonstration of Minimally Machined Honeycomb Silicon Carbide Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, William

    2012-01-01

    Honeycomb silicon carbide composite mirrors are made from a carbon fiber preform that is molded into a honeycomb shape using a rigid mold. The carbon fiber honeycomb is densified by using polymer infiltration pyrolysis, or through a reaction with liquid silicon. A chemical vapor deposit, or chemical vapor composite (CVC), process is used to deposit a polishable silicon or silicon carbide cladding on the honeycomb structure. Alternatively, the cladding may be replaced by a freestanding, replicated CVC SiC facesheet that is bonded to the honeycomb. The resulting carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide honeycomb structure is a ceramic matrix composite material with high stiffness and mechanical strength, high thermal conductivity, and low CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion). This innovation enables rapid, inexpensive manufacturing. The web thickness of the new material is less than 1 millimeter, and core geometries tailored. These parameters are based on precursor carbon-carbon honeycomb material made and patented by Ultracor. It is estimated at the time of this reporting that the HoneySiC(Trademark) will have a net production cost on the order of $38,000 per square meter. This includes an Ultracor raw material cost of about $97,000 per square meter, and a Trex silicon carbide deposition cost of $27,000 per square meter. Even at double this price, HoneySiC would beat NASA's goal of $100,000 per square meter. Cost savings are estimated to be 40 to 100 times that of current mirror technologies. The organic, rich prepreg material has a density of 56 kilograms per cubic meter. A charred carbon-carbon panel (volatile organics burnt off) has a density of 270 kilograms per cubic meter. Therefore, it is estimated that a HoneySiC panel would have a density of no more than 900 kilograms per cubic meter, which is about half that of beryllium and about onethird the density of bulk silicon carbide. It is also estimated that larger mirrors could be produced in a matter of weeks

  5. Evaluation of superplastic forming and co-diffusion bonding of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy expanded sandwich structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvin, G. H.; Israeli, L.; Stolpestad, J. H.; Stacher, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    The application of the superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) process to supersonic cruise research is investigated. The capability of an SPF/DB titanium structure to meet the structural requirements of the inner wing area of the NASA arrow-wing advanced supersonic transport design is evaluated. Selection of structural concepts and their optimization for minimum weight, SPF/DB process optimization, fabrication of representative specimens, and specimen testing and evaluation are described. The structural area used includes both upper and lower wing panels, where the upper wing panel is used for static compression strength evaluation and the lower panel, in tension, is used for fracture mechanics evaluations. The individual test specimens, cut from six large panels, consist of 39 static specimens, 10 fracture mechanics specimens, and one each full size panel for compression stability and fracture mechanics testing. Tests are performed at temperatures of -54 C (-65 F), room temperature, and 260 C (500 F).

  6. The Effects of Foam Thermal Protection System on the Damage Tolerance Characteristics of Composite Sandwich Structures for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.; Jackson, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    For any structure composed of laminated composite materials, impact damage is one of the greatest risks and therefore most widely tested responses. Typically, impact damage testing and analysis assumes that a solid object comes into contact with the bare surface of the laminate (the outer ply). However, most launch vehicle structures will have a thermal protection system (TPS) covering the structure for the majority of its life. Thus, the impact response of the material with the TPS covering is the impact scenario of interest. In this study, laminates representative of the composite interstage structure for the Ares I launch vehicle were impact tested with and without the planned TPS covering, which consists of polyurethane foam. Response variables examined include maximum load of impact, damage size as detected by nondestructive evaluation techniques, and damage morphology and compression after impact strength. Results show that there is little difference between TPS covered and bare specimens, except the residual strength data is higher for TPS covered specimens.

  7. Cross Cell Sandwich Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Donald B. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A sandwich core comprises two faceplates separated by a plurality of cells. The cells are comprised of walls positioned at oblique angles relative to a perpendicular axis extending through the faceplates. The walls preferably form open cells and are constructed from open cells and are constructed from rows of ribbons. The walls may be obliquely angled relative to more than one plane extending through the perpendicular axis.

  8. HYBRID-SANDWICHED REINFORCEMENT WITH GEOSYNTHETICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, Kazuya; Yamazaki, Shinji; Sakakibara, Tsutomu

    Advantageous aspects of sandwich-type reinforced earth structures combined with geosynthetics and sand mat are highlighted in this paper. Those aspects were elucidated by two kinds of laboratory tests : (1) large consolidation tests for improvement of hydraulic conductivity and (2) model footing tests on improvement of bearing capacity and deformation characteristics for reinforced earth structures, including both vertical permeability and horizontal transmissibility characteristics of geosynthetics results from both laboratory tests indicated the following: i) Hydraulic conductivity of geosynthetics used for this type of earth reinforcement can be maintained for a long period. Such conductivity sometimes disappears, particularly because of clogging when geosynthetics are adopted in embankment construction using fine-grained soils. This fact indicates that the sand mats which are laid above and beneath geosynthetics play a salient role in preventing clogging of geosynthetics that occurs by intrusion of fines from cohesive soils. ii) Sandwich-type reinforcement combined with geosynthetics and sand mats increases stability and decreases deformation of earth structures. In particular, the sandwich structure is effective for providing toughness, which has remained an important issue for reducing infrastructural maintenance and costs. In the later part of the paper, conventionally available stability analysis was carried out to propose the design procedure for reinforced earth structures and at the same time numerical analysis was also conducted to ensure the applicability of the hybrid-sandwiched earth reinforcement newly proposed in the current paper. Finally, based on the horizontal placement by means of HBS described in the current paper, the vertical drain procedure using the sandwich structures for accelerating consolidation and increasing stability of soft soils is also suggested for the future research and investigation.

  9. Fabrication of prepackaged superalloy honeycomb Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, W.; Meaney, J. E.; Rosenthal, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    High temperature materials were surveyed, and Inconel 617 and titanium were selected for application to a honeycomb TPS configuration designed to withstand 2000 F. The configuration was analyzed both thermally and structurally. Component and full-sized panels were fabricated and tested to obtain data for comparison with analysis. Results verified the panel design. Twenty five panels were delivered to NASA Langley Research Center for additional evaluation.

  10. Honeycombs in honeycombs: complex liquid crystal alumina composite mesostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruibin; Zeng, Xianbing; Prehm, Marko; Liu, Feng; Grimm, Silko; Geuss, Markus; Steinhart, Martin; Tschierske, Carsten; Ungar, Goran

    2014-05-27

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study orientation patterns of two polyphilic liquid crystals (LC) confined to cylindrical pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO). The hierarchical hybrid systems had the LC honeycomb (lattice parameter 3.5-4 nm) inside the pores of the AAO honeycomb (diameters 60 and 400 nm). By conducting complete reciprocal space mapping using SAXS, we conclude that the columns of both compounds align in planes normal to the AAO pore axis, with a specific crystallographic direction of the LC lattice aligning strictly parallel to the pore axis. AFM of LC-containing AAO fracture surfaces further revealed that the columns of the planar anchoring LC (compound 1) formed concentric circles in the plane normal to the pore axis near the AAO wall. Toward the pore center, the circles become anisometric "racetrack" loops consisting of two straight segments and two semicircles. This mode compensates for slight ellipticity of the pore cross section. Indications are, however, that for perfectly circular pores, circular shape is maintained right to the center of the pore, the radius coming down to the size of a molecule. For the homeotropically anchoring compound 2, the columns are to the most part straight and parallel to each other, arranged in layers normal to the AAO pore axis, like logs in an ordered pile. Only near the pore wall the columns splay somewhat. In both cases, columns are confined to layers strictly perpendicular to the AAO pore axis, and there is no sign of escape to the third dimension or of axial orientation, the latter having been reported previously for some discotic LCs. The main cause of the two new LC configurations, the "racetrack" and the "logpile", and of their difference from those of confined nematic LC, is the very high splay energy and low bend energy of columnar phases.

  11. Evaluation of high temperature structural adhesives for extended service, phase 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Hale, J. N.; Dumars, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of 3 experimental polymers from NASA-Langley and a commercially produced polymer from Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals as high temperature structural adhesives is presented. A polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ), polyimide (STPI/LaRC-2), and a polyarylene ether (PAE-SO2) were evaluated as metal-to-metal adhesives. Lap shear, crack extension, and climbing drum peel specimens were fabricated from all three polymers and tested after thermal, combined thermal/humidity, and stressed hydraulic fluid (Skydrol) exposure. The fourth polymer, LARC-TPI was evaluated as an adhesive for titanium honeycomb sandwich structure. All three experimental polymers performed well as metal-to-metal adhesives from 219 K (-65 F) to 505 K (450 F), including humidity exposure. Structural adhesive strength was also maintained at 505 K for a minimum of 3000 hours. LaRC-TPI was evaluated as a high temperature (505 K) adhesive for titanium honeycomb sandwich structure. The LaRC-TPI bonding process development concentrated on improving the honeycomb core-to-skin bond. The most promising approach of those evaluated combined a LaRC-TPI polymer solution with a semi-crystalline LaRC-TPI powder for adhesive film fabrication and fillet formation.

  12. Optimization of Sandwich Composites Fuselages Under Flight Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chongxin; Bergsma, Otto; Koussios, Sotiris; Zu, Lei; Beukers, Adriaan

    2012-02-01

    The sandwich composites fuselages appear to be a promising choice for the future aircrafts because of their structural efficiency and functional integration advantages. However, the design of sandwich composites is more complex than other structures because of many involved variables. In this paper, the fuselage is designed as a sandwich composites cylinder, and its structural optimization using the finite element method (FEM) is outlined to obtain the minimum weight. The constraints include structural stability and the composites failure criteria. In order to get a verification baseline for the FEM analysis, the stability of sandwich structures is studied and the optimal design is performed based on the analytical formulae. Then, the predicted buckling loads and the optimization results obtained from a FEM model are compared with that from the analytical formulas, and a good agreement is achieved. A detailed parametric optimal design for the sandwich composites cylinder is conducted. The optimization method used here includes two steps: the minimization of the layer thickness followed by tailoring of the fiber orientation. The factors comprise layer number, fiber orientation, core thickness, frame dimension and spacing. Results show that the two-step optimization is an effective method for the sandwich composites and the foam sandwich cylinder with core thickness of 5 mm and frame pitch of 0.5 m exhibits the minimum weight.

  13. Impact Resistance of Lightweight Hybrid Structures for Gas Turbine Engine Fan Containment Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Revilock, Duane M.

    2003-01-01

    The ballistic impact resistance of hybrid composite sandwich structures was evaluated with the ultimate goal of developing new materials or structures for potential gas turbine engine fan containment applications. The sandwich structures investigated consisted of GLARE-5 laminates as face sheets with lightweight cellular metallic materials such as honeycomb, foam, and lattice block as a core material. The impact resistance of these hybrid sandwich structures was compared to GLARE-5 laminates and 2024-T3 Al sheet, which were tested as a function of areal weight (material thickness). The GLARE-5 laminates exhibited comparable impact properties to that of 2024-T3 Al at low areal weights, even though there were significant differences in the static tensile properties of these materials. The GLARE-5, however, did have a greater ballistic limit than straight aluminum sheet at higher areal weights. Furthermore, there is up to a 25% advantage in ballistic limit for the GLARE-5/foam sandwich structures compared to straight 2024-T3 Al. But no advantage in ballistic limit was observed between any of the hybrid sandwich structures and thicker versions of GLARE-5. Recommendations for future work are provided, based on these preliminary data.

  14. Development, testing, and numerical modeling of a foam sandwich biocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Ricky

    This study develops a novel sandwich composite material using plant based materials for potential use in nonstructural building applications. The face sheets comprise woven hemp fabric and a sap based epoxy, while the core comprises castor oil based foam with waste rice hulls as reinforcement. Mechanical properties of the individual materials are tested in uniaxial compression and tension for the foam and hemp, respectively. The sandwich composite is tested in 3 point bending. Flexural results are compared to a finite element model developed in the commercial software Abaqus, and the validated model is then used to investigate alternate sandwich geometries. Sandwich model responses are compared to existing standards for nonstructural building panels, showing that the novel material is roughly half the strength of equally thick drywall. When space limitations are not an issue, a double thickness sandwich biocomposite is found to be a structurally acceptable replacement for standard gypsum drywall.

  15. Tests of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels in uniaxial edgewise compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The local and general buckling behavior of graphite/polyimide sandwich panels simply supported along all four edges and loaded in uniaxial edgewise compression were investigated. Material properties of sandwich panel constituents (adhesive and facings) were determined from flatwise tension and sandwich beam flexure tests. Buckling specimens were 30.5 by 33 cm, had quasi-isotropic, symmetric facings, and a glass/polyimide honeycomb core. Core thicknesses were varied and three panels of each thickness were tested at room temperature to investigate failure modes and corresponding buckling loads. Specimens 0.635 cm thick failed by overall buckling at loads close to the analytically predicted buckling load; all other panels failed by face wrinkling. Results of the wrinkling tests indicated that several buckling formulas were unconservative and therefore not suitable for design purposes; a recommended wrinkling equation is presented.

  16. Manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/PMR 15 polyimide structural elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to obtain commercially available graphite/PMR-15 polyimide prepreg, develop an autoclave manufacturing process, and demonstrate the process by manufacturing structural elements. Controls were established on polymer, prepreg, composite fabrication, and quality assurance, Successful material quality control and processes were demonstrated by fabricating major structural elements including flat laminates, hat sections, I beam sections, honeycomb sandwich structures, and molded graphite reinforced fittings. Successful fabrication of structural elements and simulated section of the space shuttle aft body flap shows that the graphite/PMR-15 polyimide system and the developed processes are ready for further evaluation in flight test hardware.

  17. The Soudan 2 honeycomb calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Garcia, C.

    1990-12-01

    Soudan 2 is an 1100-ton honeycomb tracking calorimeter which is being constructed to search for nucleon decay. The detector consists of finely segmented iron instrumented with long drift tubes, and records three spatial coordinates and dE/dx for every gas crossing. Excellent event reconstruction capability, particle identification and muon sign and direction determination give superior rejection of the neutrino background to nucleon decay in many modes. The first 620 tons of Soudan 2 are now in steady operation, with completion planned for 1992. Detector performance has been studied using cosmic ray tracks and a charged test beam calibration. Results on detector performance and detector response are described in this paper. 2 refs. , 11 figs.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structures, and luminescent properties of phenoxo-bridged heterometallic trinuclear propeller- and sandwich-like Schiff-base complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Daopeng; Ni, Zhong-Hai; Li, Xiyou; Tian, Laijin; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2009-07-01

    A series of phenoxo-bridged heterometallic Schiff-base trinuclear complexes Zn-M-Zn [M = Cd(II), Pb(II), Nd(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), and Dy(III)] have been synthesized by a rational structural design based on two symmetrical Schiff-base ligands N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)propylene-1,3-diamine (H(2)L(a)) and N,N'-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)benzene-1,2-diamine (H(2)L(b)). Single X-ray diffraction analysis reveals a similar molecular structure among the eight propeller-like and seven sandwich-type phenoxo-bridged Zn-M-Zn complexes. In the compounds Cd[Zn(L(a))Cl](2) (1), {Cd[Zn(L(b))Cl](2)}.H(2)O (2), {Pb[Zn(L(b))Cl](2)}.2H(2)O (4), {Nd[Zn(L(a))Cl](2)(H(2)O)}.0.5ZnCl(4) .2H(2)O (5), and{M(III)[Zn(L(a))Cl](2)(H(2)O)}.0.5ZnCl(4).2MeOH [M = Eu(7), Gd (9), Tb (11), and Dy (13)], two [Zn(L)Cl](-) units coordinate to the central metal ion as a tetradentate ligand using its four oxygen atoms, forming a two-blade propeller-like left-handed and right-handed chiral Zn-M-Zn configuration despite the racemic nature of the whole complexes. Compounds {Pb[Zn(L(a))Cl](2)}.MeOH (3), {Nd[Zn(L(b))Cl](2)(DMF)(OAc)}.CH(3)CN (6), {Eu[Zn(L(b))Cl](2)(DMF)(OAc)}.CH(3)CN (8), {Gd[Zn(L(b))Cl](2)(DMF)(2)}.Cl.2H(2)O (10), {Tb[Zn(L(b))Cl](2)(DMF)(2)}.Cl.2H(2)O (12), {Dy[Zn(L(b))Cl](2)(DMF)(2)}.Cl.2H(2)O (14), and {Pb[Zn(L(b))Cl](2)}.2H(2)O (15) exhibit a relatively rare sandwich-type structure with a central metal ion clamped by two [Zn(L)Cl](-) units. Photophysical studies indicate that all of the complexes exhibit luminescence both in solution and in solid sate, and there exists an energy transfer from the [Zn(L)Cl](-) unit to the central rare earth ions of Nd(III) (5 and 6), Tb(III) (11), and Dy(III) (for 13). In particular, systematic and comparative investigation of the photophysical properties of these trinuclear complexes reveals that the luminescence properties could easily be tuned by changing the central metal or the Schiff-base ligand.

  19. Nanoscale Superconducting Honeycomb Charge Order in IrTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo Sung; Kim, Sooran; Kim, Kyoo; Min, Byung Il; Cho, Yong-Heum; Wang, Lihai; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yeom, Han Woong

    2016-07-01

    Entanglement of charge orderings and other electronic orders such as superconductivity is in the core of challenging physics issues of complex materials including high temperature superconductivity. Here, we report on the observation of a unique nanometer scale honeycomb charge ordering of the cleaved IrTe2 surface, which hosts a superconducting state. IrTe2 was recently established to exhibit an intriguing cascade of stripe charge orders. The stripe phases coexist with a hexagonal phase, which is formed locally and falls into a superconducting state below 3 K. The atomic and electronic structures of the honeycomb and hexagon pattern of this phase are consistent with the charge order nature but the superconductivity does not survive on neighboring stripe charge order domains. The present work provides an intriguing physics issue and a new direction of functionalization for two dimensional materials.

  20. Nanoscale Superconducting Honeycomb Charge Order in IrTe2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Sung; Kim, Sooran; Kim, Kyoo; Min, Byung Il; Cho, Yong-Heum; Wang, Lihai; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Yeom, Han Woong

    2016-07-13

    Entanglement of charge orderings and other electronic orders such as superconductivity is in the core of challenging physics issues of complex materials including high temperature superconductivity. Here, we report on the observation of a unique nanometer scale honeycomb charge ordering of the cleaved IrTe2 surface, which hosts a superconducting state. IrTe2 was recently established to exhibit an intriguing cascade of stripe charge orders. The stripe phases coexist with a hexagonal phase, which is formed locally and falls into a superconducting state below 3 K. The atomic and electronic structures of the honeycomb and hexagon pattern of this phase are consistent with the charge order nature, but the superconductivity does not survive on neighboring stripe charge order domains. The present work provides an intriguing physics issue and a new direction of functionalization for two-dimensional materials. PMID:27221583

  1. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    You, Hua-jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:26700239

  2. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    You, Hua-jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-guang

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering.

  3. Synthesis and structural characterization of two half-sandwich nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.-F. E-mail: s-shuwen@163.com; Zhang, X.; Sun, S.-W.; Sun, H.; Ma, H.-X.

    2015-12-15

    The synthesis and characterization of two new halfsandwich mononuclear nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands, [k{sup 3}-N, N',N''-Tp{sup t-Bu}, {sup Me}NiI] (1) and [k{sup 3}-N,N',N''-Tp{sup t-Bu}, {sup Me}NiNO{sub 3}] (2), are reported. These complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analyses and infrared spectra. Their molecular structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The nickel(II) ion of complex 1 is in a four-coordinate environment, in which the donor atoms are provided by three nitrogen atoms of a hydrotris(pyrazolyl) borate ligand and one iodide atom, while that of complex 2 is in a five-coordinate environment with three nitrogen atoms from a hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate ligand and two oxygen atoms from a nitrate ion.

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of two half-sandwich nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.-F.; Zhang, X.; Sun, S.-W.; Sun, H.; Ma, H.-X.

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and characterization of two new halfsandwich mononuclear nickel(II) complexes with the scorpionate ligands, [ k 3- N, N', N''- Tp t-Bu, Me NiI] ( 1) and [ k 3- N, N', N''- Tp t-Bu, Me NiNO3] ( 2), are reported. These complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analyses and infrared spectra. Their molecular structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The nickel(II) ion of complex 1 is in a four-coordinate environment, in which the donor atoms are provided by three nitrogen atoms of a hydrotris(pyrazolyl) borate ligand and one iodide atom, while that of complex 2 is in a five-coordinate environment with three nitrogen atoms from a hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate ligand and two oxygen atoms from a nitrate ion.

  5. One-to-One Embedding between Honeycomb Mesh and Petersen-Torus Networks

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jung-Hyun; Sim, Hyun; Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo; Lee, Yang-Sun

    2011-01-01

    As wireless mobile telecommunication bases organize their structure using a honeycomb-mesh algorithm, there are many studies about parallel processing algorithms like the honeycomb mesh in Wireless Sensor Networks. This paper aims to study the Peterson-Torus graph algorithm in regard to the continuity with honeycomb-mesh algorithm in order to apply the algorithm to sensor networks. Once a new interconnection network is designed, parallel algorithms are developed with huge research costs to use such networks. If the old network is embedded in a newly designed network, a developed algorithm in the old network is reusable in a newly designed network. Petersen-Torus has been designed recently, and the honeycomb mesh has already been designed as a well-known interconnection network. In this paper, we propose a one-to-one embedding algorithm for the honeycomb mesh (HMn) in the Petersen-Torus PT(n,n), and prove that dilation of the algorithm is 5, congestion is 2, and expansion is 5/3. The proposed one-to-one embedding is applied so that processor throughput can be minimized when the honeycomb mesh algorithm runs in the Petersen-Torus. PMID:22319392

  6. Design Criteria for X-CRV Honeycomb Panels: A Preliminary Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caccese, Vincent; Verinder, Irene

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to perform the first step in developing structural design criteria for composite sandwich panels that are to be used in the aeroshell of the crew return vehicle (X-CRV). The preliminary concept includes a simplified method for assessing the allowable strength in the laminate material. Ultimately, it is intended that the design criteria be extended to address the global response of the vehicle. This task will require execution of a test program as outlined in the recommendation section of this report. The aeroshell of the X-CRV is comprised of composite sandwich panels consisting of fiberite face sheets and a phenolic honeycomb core. The function of the crew return vehicle is to enable the safe return of injured or ill crewpersons from space station, the evacuation of crew in case of emergency or the return of crew if an orbiter is not available. A significant objective of the X-CRV project is to demonstrate that this vehicle can be designed, built and operated at lower cost and at a significantly faster development time. Development time can be reduced by driving out issues in both structural design and manufacturing concurrently. This means that structural design and analysis progresses in conjunction with manufacturing and testing. Preliminary tests results on laminate coupons are presented in the report. Based on these results a method for detection material failure in the material is presented. In the long term, extrapolation of coupon data to large scale structures may be inadequate. Test coupons used to develop failure criteria at the material scale are typically small when compared to the overall structure. Their inherent small size indicates that the material failure criteria can be used to predict localized failure of the structure, however, it can not be used to predict failure for all failure modes. Some failure modes occur only when the structure or one of its sub-components are studied as a whole. Conversely, localized

  7. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-01

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg-1), a high power density (27.5 kW kg-1) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and

  8. High-performance planar green light-emitting diodes based on a PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhi-Feng; Sun, Xu-Guang; Wu, Di; Xu, Ting-Ting; Zhuang, Shi-Wei; Tian, Yong-Tao; Li, Xin-Jian; Du, Guo-Tong

    2016-05-01

    Recently, perovskite-based light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide emitters have attracted much attention because of their excellent properties of high color purity, tunable emission wavelength and a low-temperature processing technique. As is well-known, organic light-emitting diodes have shown powerful capabilities in this field; however, the fabrication of these devices typically relies on high-temperature and high-vacuum processes, which increases the final cost of the product and renders them uneconomical for use in large-area displays. Organic/inorganic hybrid halide perovskites match with these material requirements, as it is possible to prepare such materials with high crystallinity through solution processing at low temperature. Herein, we demonstrated a high-brightness green light-emitting diode based on PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbBr3/ZnO sandwich structures by a spin-coating method combined with a sputtering system. Under forward bias, a dominant emission peak at ~530 nm with a low full width of half-maximum (FWHM) of 30 nm can be achieved at room temperature. Owing to the high surface coverage of the CH3NH3PbBr3 layer and a device design based on carrier injection and a confinement configuration, the proposed diode exhibits good electroluminescence performance, with an external quantum efficiency of 0.0645%. More importantly, we investigated the working stability of the studied diode under continuous operation to verify the sensitivity of the electroluminescence performance to ambient atmosphere and to assess the suitability of the diode for practical applications. Moreover, the underlying reasons for the undesirable emission decay are tentatively discussed. This demonstration of an effective green electroluminescence based on CH3NH3PbBr3 provides valuable information for the design and development of perovskites as efficient emitters, thus facilitating their use in existing applications and suggesting new potential applications.

  9. Graphene-antenna sandwich photodetector.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zheyu; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Yumin; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2012-07-11

    Nanoscale antennas sandwiched between two graphene monolayers yield a photodetector that efficiently converts visible and near-infrared photons into electrons with an 800% enhancement of the photocurrent relative to the antennaless graphene device. The antenna contributes to the photocurrent in two ways: by the transfer of hot electrons generated in the antenna structure upon plasmon decay, as well as by direct plasmon-enhanced excitation of intrinsic graphene electrons due to the antenna near field. This results in a graphene-based photodetector achieving up to 20% internal quantum efficiency in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. This device can serve as a model for merging the light-harvesting characteristics of optical frequency antennas with the highly attractive transport properties of graphene in new optoelectronic devices. PMID:22703522

  10. Synthesis, structure, and spectroscopic and magnetic properties of mesomorphic octakis(hexylthio)-substituted phthalocyanine rare-earth metal sandwich complexes.

    PubMed

    Gürek, Ayse Gül; Basova, Tamara; Luneau, Dominique; Lebrun, Colette; Kol'tsov, Evgeny; Hassan, Aseel K; Ahsen, Vefa

    2006-02-20

    The syntheses of new bis[octakis(hexylthio)phthalocyaninato] rare-earth metal(III) double-decker complexes [(C6S)8-Pc]2M (M = Gd(III), Dy(III), and Sm(III)) (2-4, respectively) are described. These compounds are very soluble in most common organic solvents. They have been fully characterized using elemental analysis, infrared, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The crystal structures of compounds 2-4 have been determined by X-ray diffraction on a single crystal. They are isostructural and crystallize in the monoclinic space group (space group C2/c). Their lattice constants have been determined in the following order: (2) a = 31.629(4) Angstroms, b = 32.861(4) Angstroms, c = 20.482(2) Angstroms, beta = 126.922(2) degrees, V = 17019(3) Angstroms(3); (3) a = 31.595(2) Angstroms, b = 32.816(2) Angstroms, c = 20.481(1) Angstroms, beta = 127.005(1) degrees, V = 16958(2) Angstroms(3); (4) a = 31.563(2) Angstroms, b = 32.796(2) Angstroms, c = 20.481(1) Angstroms, beta = 127.032 degrees, V = 16924(2) Angstroms(3). The magnetic properties of compounds 2-4 were studied, and it was revealed that the lanthanide ions and the radical delocalized on the two phthalocyanine rings are weakly interacting. The mesogenic properties of these new materials were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy. These phthalocyanine derivatives form columnar-hexagonal (Col(h)) mesophases. Thin films of bis[octakis(hexylthio)phthalocyaninato] rare-earth metal(III) double-decker complexes (2-4) were prepared by a spin-coating technique. Thermally induced molecular reorganization within films of bis[octakis(hexylthio)phthalocyaninato] rare-earth metal(III) double-decker complexes (2-4) was studied by the methods of ellipsometry, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Heat treatment produces molecular ordering, which is believed to be due to stacking interaction between neighboring phthalocyanine moieties. PMID:16471979

  11. Synthesis, reactivity studies, structural aspects, and solution behavior of half sandwich ruthenium(II) N,N',N''-triarylguanidinate complexes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Taruna; Kishan, Ram; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Thirupathi, Natesan

    2012-01-01

    [(η(6)-C(10)H(14))RuCl(μ-Cl)](2) (η(6)-C(10)H(14) = η(6)-p-cymene) was subjected to a bridge-splitting reaction with N,N',N''-triarylguanidines, (ArNH)(2)C═NAr, in toluene at ambient temperature to afford [(η(6)-C(10)H(14))RuCl{κ(2)(N,N')((ArN)(2)C-N(H)Ar)}] (Ar = C(6)H(4)Me-4 (1), C(6)H(4)(OMe)-2 (2), C(6)H(4)Me-2 (3), and C(6)H(3)Me(2)-2,4 (4)) in high yield with a view aimed at understanding the influence of substituent(s) on the aryl rings of the guanidine upon the solid-state structure, solution behavior, and reactivity pattern of the products. Complexes 1-3 upon reaction with NaN(3) in ethanol at ambient temperature afforded [(η(6)-C(10)H(14))RuN(3){κ(2)(N,N')((ArN)(2)C-N(H)Ar)}] (Ar = C(6)H(4)Me-4 (5), C(6)H(4)(OMe)-2 (6), and C(6)H(4)Me-2 (7)) in high yield. [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of 5-7 with RO(O)C-C≡C-C(O)OR (R = Et (DEAD) and Me (DMAD)) (diethylacetylenedicarboxylate, DEAD; dimethylacetylenedicarboxylate, DMAD) in CH(2)Cl(2) at ambient temperature afforded [(η(6)-C(10)H(14))Ru{N(3)C(2)(C(O)OR)(2)}{κ(2)(N,N')((ArN)(2)C-N(H)Ar)}]·xH(2)O (x = 1, R = Et, Ar = C(6)H(4)Me-4 (8·H(2)O); x = 0, R = Me, Ar = C(6)H(4)(OMe)-2 (9), and C(6)H(4)Me-2 (10)) in moderate yield. The molecular structures of 1-6, 8·H(2)O, and 10 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction data. The ruthenium atom in the aforementioned complexes revealed pseudo octahedral "three legged piano stool" geometry. The guanidinate ligand in 2, 3, and 6 revealed syn-syn conformation and that in 4, and 10 revealed syn-anti conformation, and the conformational difference was rationalized on the basis of subtle differences in the stereochemistry of the coordinated nitrogen atoms caused by the aryl moiety in 3 and 4 or steric overload caused by the substituents around the ruthenium atom in 10. The bonding pattern of the CN(3) unit of the guanidinate ligand in the new complexes was explained by invoking n-π conjugation involving the interaction of the NHAr/N(coord)Ar lone

  12. Pressurized honeycombs as soft-actuators: a theoretical study

    PubMed Central

    Guiducci, Lorenzo; Fratzl, Peter; Bréchet, Yves J. M.; Dunlop, John W. C.

    2014-01-01

    The seed capsule of Delosperma nakurense is a remarkable example of a natural hygromorph, which unfolds its protecting valves upon wetting to expose its seeds. The beautiful mechanism responsible for this motion is generated by a specialized organ based on an anisotropic cellular tissue filled with a highly swelling material. Inspired by this system, we study the mechanics of a diamond honeycomb internally pressurized by a fluid phase. Numerical homogenization by means of iterative finite-element (FE) simulations is adapted to the case of cellular materials filled with a variable pressure fluid phase. Like its biological counterpart, it is shown that the material architecture controls and guides the otherwise unspecific isotropic expansion of the fluid. Deformations up to twice the original dimensions can be achieved by simply setting the value of input pressure. In turn, these deformations cause a marked change of the honeycomb geometry and hence promote a stiffening of the material along the weak direction. To understand the mechanism further, we also developed a micromechanical model based on the Born model for crystal elasticity to find an explicit relation between honeycomb geometry, swelling eigenstrains and elastic properties. The micromechanical model is in good qualitative agreement with the FE simulations. Moreover, we also provide the force-stroke characteristics of a soft actuator based on the pressurized anisotropic honeycomb and show how the internal pressure has a nonlinear effect which can result in negative values of the in-plane Poisson's ratio. As nature shows in the case of the D. nakurense seed capsule, cellular materials can be used not only as low-weight structural materials, but also as simple but convenient actuating materials. PMID:24966238

  13. Order parameters from image analysis: a honeycomb example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, Forrest H.; Bultheel, Adhemar; Egami, Takeshi

    2008-11-01

    Honeybee combs have aroused interest in the ability of honeybees to form regular hexagonal geometric constructs since ancient times. Here we use a real space technique based on the pair distribution function (PDF) and radial distribution function (RDF), and a reciprocal space method utilizing the Debye-Waller Factor (DWF) to quantify the order for a range of honeycombs made by Apis mellifera ligustica. The PDFs and RDFs are fit with a series of Gaussian curves. We characterize the order in the honeycomb using a real space order parameter, OP 3 , to describe the order in the combs and a two-dimensional Fourier transform from which a Debye-Waller order parameter, u, is derived. Both OP 3 and u take values from [0, 1] where the value one represents perfect order. The analyzed combs have values of OP 3 from 0.33 to 0.60 and values of u from 0.59 to 0.69. RDF fits of honeycomb histograms show that naturally made comb can be crystalline in a 2D ordered structural sense, yet is more ‘liquid-like’ than cells made on ‘foundation’ wax. We show that with the assistance of man-made foundation wax, honeybees can manufacture highly ordered arrays of hexagonal cells. This is the first description of honeycomb utilizing the Debye-Waller Factor, and provides a complete analysis of the order in comb from a real-space order parameter and a reciprocal space order parameter. It is noted that the techniques used are general in nature and could be applied to any digital photograph of an ordered array.

  14. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  15. Development and Mechanical Behavior of FML/Aluminium Foam Sandwiches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baştürk, S. B.; Tanoğlu, M.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the Fiber-Metal Laminates (FMLs) containing glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (GFPP) and aluminum (Al) sheet were consolidated with Al foam cores for preparing the sandwich panels. The aim of this article is the comparison of the flexural properties of FML/Al foam sandwich panels bonded with various surface modification approaches (silane treatment and combination of silane treatment with polypropylene (PP) based film addition). The FML/foam sandwich systems were fabricated by laminating the components in a mould at 200 °C under 1.5 MPa pressure. The energy absorbtion capacities and flexural mechanical properties of the prepared sandwich systems were evaluated by mechanical tests. Experiments were performed on samples of varying foam thicknesses (8, 20 and 30 mm). The bonding among the sandwich components were achieved by various surface modification techniques. The Al sheet/Al foam sandwiches were also consolidated by bonding the components with an epoxy adhesive to reveal the effect of GFPP on the flexural performance of the sandwich structures.

  16. Edge states in polariton honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milićević, M.; Ozawa, T.; Andreakou, P.; Carusotto, I.; Jacqmin, T.; Galopin, E.; Lemaître, A.; Le Gratiet, L.; Sagnes, I.; Bloch, J.; Amo, A.

    2015-09-01

    The experimental study of edge states in atomically thin layered materials remains a challenge due to the difficult control of the geometry of the sample terminations, the stability of dangling bonds, and the need to measure local properties. In the case of graphene, localized edge modes have been predicted in zigzag and bearded edges, characterized by flat dispersions connecting the Dirac points. Polaritons in semiconductor microcavities have recently emerged as an extraordinary photonic platform to emulate 1D and 2D Hamiltonians, allowing the direct visualization of the wavefunctions in both real- and momentum-space as well as of the energy dispersion of eigenstates via photoluminescence experiments. Here we report on the observation of edge states in a honeycomb lattice of coupled micropillars. The lowest two bands of this structure arise from the coupling of the lowest energy modes of the micropillars, and emulate the π and π* bands of graphene. We show the momentum-space dispersion of the edge states associated with the zigzag and bearded edges, holding unidimensional quasi-flat bands. Additionally, we evaluate polarization effects characteristic of polaritons on the properties of these states.

  17. Realization of a three-dimensional spin-anisotropic harmonic honeycomb iridate.

    PubMed

    Modic, K A; Smidt, Tess E; Kimchi, Itamar; Breznay, Nicholas P; Biffin, Alun; Choi, Sungkyun; Johnson, Roger D; Coldea, Radu; Watkins-Curry, Pilanda; McCandless, Gregory T; Chan, Julia Y; Gandara, Felipe; Islam, Z; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D; Analytis, James G

    2014-01-01

    Spin and orbital quantum numbers play a key role in the physics of Mott insulators, but in most systems they are connected only indirectly--via the Pauli exclusion principle and the Coulomb interaction. Iridium-based oxides (iridates) introduce strong spin-orbit coupling directly, such that these numbers become entwined together and the Mott physics attains a strong orbital character. In the layered honeycomb iridates this is thought to generate highly spin-anisotropic magnetic interactions, coupling the spin to a given spatial direction of exchange and leading to strongly frustrated magnetism. Here we report a new iridate structure that has the same local connectivity as the layered honeycomb and exhibits striking evidence for highly spin-anisotropic exchange. The basic structural units of this material suggest that a new family of three-dimensional structures could exist, the 'harmonic honeycomb' iridates, of which the present compound is the first example.

  18. Artificial honeycomb lattices for electrons, atoms and photons.

    PubMed

    Polini, Marco; Guinea, Francisco; Lewenstein, Maciej; Manoharan, Hari C; Pellegrini, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    Artificial honeycomb lattices offer a tunable platform for studying massless Dirac quasiparticles and their topological and correlated phases. Here we review recent progress in the design and fabrication of such synthetic structures focusing on nanopatterning of two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductors, molecule-by-molecule assembly by scanning probe methods and optical trapping of ultracold atoms in crystals of light. We also discuss photonic crystals with Dirac cone dispersion and topologically protected edge states. We emphasize how the interplay between single-particle band-structure engineering and cooperative effects leads to spectacular manifestations in tunnelling and optical spectroscopies.

  19. Structure and properties of Na{sub x}M{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}·yH{sub 2}O, M=Co(III), Ni(III) honeycomb oxyhydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Roudebush, J.H. Cava, R.J.

    2013-08-15

    The oxyhydrates Na{sub 0.85}Co{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}·1.7H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}·1.5H{sub 2}O were prepared by Br{sub 2} oxidation of Na{sub 3}Co{sub 2}SbO{sub 6} and Na{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6} and exposure to ambient air. Their composition and structure are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. Both form monolayer hydrates with metal cations (Co or Ni) near the 3+ oxidation state. In the parent materials, MO{sub 6} octahedra surround SbO{sub 6} units, forming a honeycomb geometry; Rietveld refinement of the hydrate phases indicate that this motif is retained. Magnetic susceptibility plots display paramagnetic behavior and Curie–Weiss fits support the 3+ oxidation state (low spin d{sup 6}s=0 for Co and low spin d{sup 7}s=1/2 for Ni). Close inspection of the Ni hydrate’s susceptibility reveals a feature at 6.2 K and a non-linear magnetization at 2 K with no saturation up to 9 T. Heat capacity measurements show a large amount of excess entropy in the Ni hydrate in the 2–20 K temperature range, while the heat capacity of the Co hydrate can be described by a simple lattice contribution. The Ni hydrate sample is easily dehydrated by heating above 100 °C and forms a new Na-deficient phase, Na{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}, which is stable at room temperature. Magnetic susceptibility of this phase is consistent with the Ni atom remaining in the 3+ oxidation state after dehydration. - Graphical abstract: Powder diffraction patterns of Na{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}, Na{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}·1.5H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 2}SbO{sub 6}. Each pattern has been normalized in intensity. Cartoons depict the change in layer separation with hydration and give the approximate distances between layers and Ni atoms. Highlights: • New oxyhydrate phases with honeycomb lattices are formed. • Curie–Weiss fits indicate Ni{sup 3+} (s=1/2). • Heat capacity shows a large release of entropy for

  20. Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Fiber-Reinforced-Foam (FRF) Core Composite Sandwich Panel Concept for Advanced Composites Technologies Project - Preliminary Manufacturing Demonstration Articles for Ares V Payload Shroud Barrel Acreage Structure

  1. The honeycomb terrain on the Hellas basin floor, Mars: A case for salt or ice diapirism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, H.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Ivanov, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    We present quantitative plausibility studies of potential formation mechanisms for the "honeycomb" terrain on the northwestern Hellas basin floor. The honeycomb terrain is a unique landscape of ~10.5 × 5 km wide, mostly cell-shaped depressions that are arranged in a regular, dense pattern covering ~36,000 km2. We argue against the honeycombs being (peri)glacial landforms (till rings, iceberg imprints, and thermokarst) or the result of igneous diapirism, as terrestrial analogs do not reproduce their key characteristics. Fossilized impact melt convection cells also appear to be an unsuitable interpretation, as melt solidification should not permit such structures to be retained. We present arguments in favor of salt or ice diapirism as honeycomb formation models. Honeycomb-sized diapirs could be formed by a ~2 km thick salt layer (~72,000 km3 for the entire honeycomb terrain), which might have been derived from the highlands north of Hellas Planitia—an area of abundant chloride signatures and intense snowfall according to ancient Mars climate models. Nearby volcanic activity ~3.8 Ga ago potentially enabled recurring phases of (probably salty) meltwater runoff (as indicated by meandering channels) and might therefore have enabled evaporite deposition in the Hellas basin. Being twice as buoyant as salt, water ice would require an only ~1 km thick layer (i.e., ~36,000 km3) to form honeycomb-sized diapirs, which would be in agreement with a likely ~2 km thick ice stability zone beneath the Hellas basin floor. However, it would remain an open question as to why we find only one such ice diapir landscape on Mars.

  2. Topological states in multi-orbital HgTe honeycomb lattices

    PubMed Central

    Beugeling, W.; Kalesaki, E.; Delerue, C.; Niquet, Y.-M.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Smith, C. Morais

    2015-01-01

    Research on graphene has revealed remarkable phenomena arising in the honeycomb lattice. However, the quantum spin Hall effect predicted at the K point could not be observed in graphene and other honeycomb structures of light elements due to an insufficiently strong spin–orbit coupling. Here we show theoretically that 2D honeycomb lattices of HgTe can combine the effects of the honeycomb geometry and strong spin–orbit coupling. The conduction bands, experimentally accessible via doping, can be described by a tight-binding lattice model as in graphene, but including multi-orbital degrees of freedom and spin–orbit coupling. This results in very large topological gaps (up to 35 meV) and a flattened band detached from the others. Owing to this flat band and the sizable Coulomb interaction, honeycomb structures of HgTe constitute a promising platform for the observation of a fractional Chern insulator or a fractional quantum spin Hall phase. PMID:25754462

  3. Preliminary weight and costs of sandwich panels to distribute concentrated loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belleman, G.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Minimum mass honeycomb sandwich panels were sized for transmitting a concentrated load to a uniform reaction through various distances. The form skin gages were fully stressed with a finite element computer code. The panel general stability was evaluated with a buckling computer code labeled STAGS-B. Two skin materials were considered; aluminum and graphite-epoxy. The core was constant thickness aluminum honeycomb. Various panel sizes and load levels were considered. The computer generated data were generalized to allow preliminary least mass panel designs for a wide range of panel sizes and load intensities. An assessment of panel fabrication cost was also conducted. Various comparisons between panel mass, panel size, panel loading, and panel cost are presented in both tabular and graphical form.

  4. Prediction of Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator in half-fluorinated GaBi Honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sung-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, we predict half-fluorinated GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain to harbor a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator phase. We show that this QAH phase is driven by a single inversion in the band structure at the Γ point. Moreover, we have computed the electronic spectrum of a half-fluorinated GaBi nanoribbon with zigzag edges, which shows that only one edge band crosses the Fermi level within the band gap. Our results suggest that half-fluorination of the GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain could provide a new platform for developing novel spintronics devices based on the QAH effect.

  5. Buckling optimisation of sandwich cylindrical panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouhamzeh, M.; Sadighi, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the buckling load optimisation is performed on sandwich cylindrical panels. A finite element program is developed in MATLAB to solve the governing differential equations of the global buckling of the structure. In order to find the optimal solution, the genetic algorithm Toolbox in MATLAB is implemented. Verifications are made for both the buckling finite element code and also the results from the genetic algorithm by comparisons to the results available in literature. Sandwich cylindrical panels are optimised for the buckling strength with isotropic or orthotropic cores with different boundary conditions. Results are presented in terms of stacking sequence of fibers in the face sheets and core to face sheet thickness ratio.

  6. Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Hebsur, Mohan G.; Baaklini, George Y.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment material systems for next generation engines. In order to improve the production for these systems, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, are being utilized to evaluate the brazing quality between the 17-4PH stainless steel face plates and the 17-4PH stainless steel foam core. Based on NDE data, shear tests are performed on sections representing various levels of brazing quality from an initial batch of these sandwich structures. Metallographic characterization of brazing is done to corroborate NDE findings and the observed shear failure mechanisms.

  7. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule—CN—noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  8. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-26

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology.

  9. Half-metallicity in 2D organometallic honeycomb frameworks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Li, Bin; Zhao, Jin

    2016-10-26

    Half-metallic materials with a high Curie temperature (T C) have many potential applications in spintronics. Magnetic metal free two-dimensional (2D) half-metallic materials with a honeycomb structure contain graphene-like Dirac bands with π orbitals and show excellent aspects in transport properties. In this article, by investigating a series of 2D organometallic frameworks with a honeycomb structure using first principles calculations, we study the origin of forming half-metallicity in this kind of 2D organometallic framework. Our analysis shows that charge transfer and covalent bonding are two crucial factors in the formation of half-metallicity in organometallic frameworks. (i) Sufficient charge transfer from metal atoms to the molecules is essential to form the magnetic centers. (ii) These magnetic centers need to be connected through covalent bonding, which guarantee the strong ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. As examples, the organometallic frameworks composed by (1,3,5)-benzenetricarbonitrile (TCB) molecules with noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu) show half-metallic properties with T C as high as 325 K. In these organometallic frameworks, the strong electronegative cyano-groups (CN groups) drive the charge transfer from metal atoms to the TCB molecules, forming the local magnetic centers. These magnetic centers experience strong FM coupling through the d-p covalent bonding. We propose that most of the 2D organometallic frameworks composed by molecule-CN-noble metal honeycomb structures contain similar half metallicity. This is verified by replacing TCB molecules with other organic molecules. Although the TCB-noble metal organometallic framework has not yet been synthesized, we believe the development of synthesizing techniques and facility will enable the realization of them. Our study provides new insight into the 2D half-metallic material design for the potential applications in nanotechnology. PMID:27541575

  10. Experimental rotordynamic coefficient results for honeycomb seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.; Childs, Dara W.

    1988-01-01

    Test results (leakage and rotordynamic coefficients) are presented for seven honeycomb-stator smooth-rotor seals. Tests were carried out with air at rotor speeds up to 16,000 cpm and supply pressures up to 8.2 bars. Test results for the seven seals are compared, and the most stable configuration is identified based on the whirl frequency ratio. Results from tests of a smooth-rotor/smooth-stator seal, a teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal, and the most stable honeycomb seal are compared.

  11. Klein tunneling in deformed honeycomb lattices.

    PubMed

    Bahat-Treidel, Omri; Peleg, Or; Grobman, Mark; Shapira, Nadav; Segev, Mordechai; Pereg-Barnea, T

    2010-02-12

    We study the scattering of waves off a potential step in deformed honeycomb lattices. For deformations below a critical value, perfect Klein tunneling is obtained; i.e., a potential step transmits waves at normal incidence with nonresonant unit-transmission probability. Beyond the critical deformation a gap forms in the spectrum, and a potential step perpendicular to the deformation direction reflects all normally incident waves, exhibiting a dramatic transition form unit transmission to total reflection. These phenomena are generic to honeycomb lattices and apply to electromagnetic waves in photonic lattices, quasiparticles in graphene, and cold atoms in optical lattices. PMID:20366822

  12. Sound transmission through lined, composite panel structures: Transversely isotropic poro-elastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Woo

    A joint experimental and analytical investigation of the sound transmission loss (STL) and two-dimensional free wave propagation in composite sandwich panels is presented here. An existing panel, a Nomex honeycomb sandwich panel, was studied in detail. For the purpose of understanding the typical behavior of sandwich panels, a composite structure comprising two aluminum sheets with a relatively soft, poro-elastic foam core was also constructed and studied. The cores of both panels were modeled using an anisotropic (transversely isotropic) poro-elastic material theory. Several estimation methods were used to obtain the material properties of the honeycomb core and the skin plates to be used in the numerical calculations. Appropriate values selected from among the estimates were used in the STL and free wave propagation models. The prediction model was then verified in two ways: first, the calculated wave speeds and STL of a single poro-elastic layer were numerically verified by comparison with the predictions of a previously developed isotropic model. Secondly, to physically validate the transversely isotropic model, the measured STL and the phase speeds of the sandwich panels were compared with their predicted values. To analyze the actual treatment of a fuselage structure, multi-layered configurations, including a honeycomb panel and several layers such as air gaps, acoustic blankets and membrane partitions, were formulated. Then, to find the optimal solution for improving the sound barrier performance of an actual fuselage system, air layer depth and glass fiber lining effects were investigated by using these multi-layer models. By using the free wave propagation model, the first anti-symmetric and symmetric modes of the sandwich panels were characterized to allow the identification of the coincidence frequencies of the sandwich panel. The behavior of the STL could then be clearly explained by comparison with the free wave propagation solutions. By performing a

  13. Microwave absorption of sandwich structure based on nanocrystalline SrFe12O19, Ni0.5ZnO.5Fe2O4 and alpha-Fe hollow microfibers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinchun; Jing, Maoxiang; Shen, Xiangqian; Meng, Xianfeng; Dong, Mingdong; Huang, Daqing; Wang, Yingde

    2014-03-01

    The microwave absorption properties of sandwich structural absorbers based on the nanocrystalline strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19), NiZn ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) and alpha-iron (alpha-Fe) hollow microfibers with diameters of 1-3 microm have been investigated in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The sandwich absorbers composed of nanocrystalline ferrite hollow microfibers as the outer or inner layer, and the nanocrystalline alpha-Fe hollow microfibers as the interlayer, have strong microwave absorption with a broad band and thin thickness. Their microwave absorption properties in 2-18 GHz are mainly influenced by the arrangement, each layer thickness and total thickness. It finds that the sandwich absorber with 1.6 mm thick SrFe12O19 microfibers as the outer layer, 0.2 mm thick alpha-Fe microfibers as the interlayer and 0.2 mm thick Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 microfibers as the inner layer, exhibits an optimal reflection loss (RL) value of -120.1 dB at 13.2 GHz and the bandwidth with RL exceeding -10 dB covers 83% of X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) and the whole K(u)-band (12.4-18 GHz). This enhancement microwave absorption can be attributed to the unique coupling of the nanocrystalline ferrite and alpha-Fe hollow microfibers arising from the shape anisotropy, interface and small size effects.

  14. Microwave absorption of sandwich structure based on nanocrystalline SrFe12O19, Ni0.5ZnO.5Fe2O4 and alpha-Fe hollow microfibers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinchun; Jing, Maoxiang; Shen, Xiangqian; Meng, Xianfeng; Dong, Mingdong; Huang, Daqing; Wang, Yingde

    2014-03-01

    The microwave absorption properties of sandwich structural absorbers based on the nanocrystalline strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19), NiZn ferrite (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4) and alpha-iron (alpha-Fe) hollow microfibers with diameters of 1-3 microm have been investigated in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The sandwich absorbers composed of nanocrystalline ferrite hollow microfibers as the outer or inner layer, and the nanocrystalline alpha-Fe hollow microfibers as the interlayer, have strong microwave absorption with a broad band and thin thickness. Their microwave absorption properties in 2-18 GHz are mainly influenced by the arrangement, each layer thickness and total thickness. It finds that the sandwich absorber with 1.6 mm thick SrFe12O19 microfibers as the outer layer, 0.2 mm thick alpha-Fe microfibers as the interlayer and 0.2 mm thick Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 microfibers as the inner layer, exhibits an optimal reflection loss (RL) value of -120.1 dB at 13.2 GHz and the bandwidth with RL exceeding -10 dB covers 83% of X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) and the whole K(u)-band (12.4-18 GHz). This enhancement microwave absorption can be attributed to the unique coupling of the nanocrystalline ferrite and alpha-Fe hollow microfibers arising from the shape anisotropy, interface and small size effects. PMID:24745241

  15. Evidence for coexisting magnetic order in frustrated three-dimensional honeycomb iridates Li2IrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breznay, Nicholas; Ruiz, Alejandro; Frano, Alex; Analytis, James

    The search for unconventional magnetism has found a fertile hunting ground in 5d iridium oxide (iridate) materials. The competition between coulomb, spin-orbit, and crystal field energy scales in honeycomb iridates leads to a quantum magnetic system with localized spin-1/2 moments communicating through spin-anisotropic Kitaev exchange interactions. Although early and ongoing work has focused on layered two-dimensional honeycomb compounds such as Na2IrO3 and a 4d analog, RuCl3, recently discovered polytypes of Li2IrO3 take on three-dimensional honeycomb structures. Bulk thermodynamic studies, as well as recent resonant x-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy experiments, have uncovered a rich phase diagram for these three-dimensional honeycomb iridates. Low temperature incommensurate and commensurate magnetic orders can be stabilized by tuning the applied magnetic field, displaying a delicate coexistence that signals highly frustrated magnetism.

  16. Honeycomb-like nanofiber based triboelectric nanogenerator using self-assembled electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Shin; Kim, Hyounjin; Kim, Yeongjun; Kang, Byung Ju; Oh, Je Hoon

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a honeycomb-like nanofiber based triboelectric nanogenerator (HN-TENG) is presented. In order to fabricate the honeycomb-like nanofiber, we utilized self-assembly of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) nanofibers. The honeycomb-like P(VDF-TrFE) nanofiber network was directly produced via electrospinning without any additional processing. The HN-TENG showed a maximum voltage, current, and power density of 160 V, 17 μA, and 1.6 W/m2, respectively. The power density was enhanced more than twofold as compared with a typical flat nanofiber network based TENG due to the large surface area and high surface roughness of the honeycomb structure. Finally, we verified that HN-TENG has the potential to be used for practical applications by driving 100 light emitting diodes and charging capacitors.

  17. Breaking inversion symmetry in a state-dependent honeycomb lattice: artificial graphene with tunable band gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, M.; Staarmann, C.; Ölschläger, C.; Simonet, J.; Sengstock, K.

    2016-06-01

    Here, we present the application of a novel method for controlling the geometry of a state-dependent honeycomb lattice: the energy offset between the two sublattices of the honeycomb structure can be adjusted by rotating the atomic quantization axis. This enables us to continuously tune between a homogeneous graphene-like honeycomb lattice and a triangular lattice and to open an energy gap at the characteristic Dirac points. We probe the symmetry of the lattice with microwave spectroscopy techniques and investigate the behavior of atoms excited to the second energy band. We find a striking influence of the energy gap at the Dirac cones onto the lifetimes of bosonic atoms in the excited band.

  18. Complete band gaps and deaf bands of triangular and honeycomb water-steel phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Fu-Li; Khelif, Abdelkrim; Moubchir, Hanane; Choujaa, Abdelkrim; Chen, Chii-Chang; Laude, Vincent

    2007-02-01

    Phononic crystals with triangular and honeycomb lattices are investigated experimentally and theoretically. They are composed of arrays of steel cylinders immersed in water. The measured transmission spectra reveal the existence of complete band gaps but also of deaf bands. Band gaps and deaf bands are identified by comparing band structure computations, obtained by a periodic-boundary finite element method, with transmission simulations, obtained using the finite difference time domain method. The appearance of flat bands and the polarization of the associated eigenmodes is also discussed. Triangular and honeycomb phononic crystals with equal cylinder diameter and smallest spacing are compared. As previously obtained with air-solid phononic crystals, it is found that the first complete band gap opens for the honeycomb lattice but not for the triangular lattice, thanks to symmetry reduction.

  19. Honeycomb Geometry: Applied Mathematics in Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, William J.

    1984-01-01

    Study and exploration of the hexagonal shapes found in honeycombs is suggested as an interesting topic for geometry classes. Students learn that the hexagonal pattern maximizes the enclosed region and minimizes the wax needed for construction, while satisfying the bees' cell-size constraint. (MNS)

  20. Fiberglass honeycomb elements formed quickly and cheaply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Cookie cutter device initiates production of identical, double-contoured fiber glass elements used as shock absorbers. Three-bladed edges convert triangular honeycomb elements into hexagonal shapes which are then stamped to desired length by concave and convex dies. Sandpaper smoothing completes the process.

  1. β-Cu2V2O7 : A spin- (1)/(2) honeycomb lattice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Janson, Oleg; Rosner, Helge

    2010-10-01

    We report on band-structure calculations and a microscopic model of the low-dimensional magnet β-Cu2V2O7 . Magnetic properties of this compound can be described by a spin- (1)/(2) anisotropic honeycomb lattice model with the averaged coupling J¯1=60-66K . The low symmetry of the crystal structure leads to two inequivalent couplings J1 and J1' but this weak spatial anisotropy does not affect the essential physics of the honeycomb spin lattice. The structural realization of the honeycomb lattice is highly nontrivial: the leading interactions J1 and J1' run via double bridges of VO4 tetrahedra between spatially separated Cu atoms while the interactions between structural nearest neighbors are negligible. The non-negligible interplane coupling J⊥≃15K gives rise to the long-range magnetic ordering at TN≃26K . Our model simulations improve the fit of the magnetic susceptibility data, compared to the previously assumed spin-chain models. Additionally, the simulated ordering temperature of 27 K is in remarkable agreement with the experiment. Our study evaluates β-Cu2V2O7 as the best available experimental realization of the spin- (1)/(2) Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice. We also provide an instructive comparison of different band-structure codes and computational approaches to the evaluation of exchange couplings in magnetic insulators.

  2. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compression Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2008-01-01

    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compression strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compression loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  3. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.

    2008-01-01

    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compressive strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compressive loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  4. Advanced fabrication technology for high speed aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Hoffman, E. K.; Bird, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the development of the weld-brazing process for fabricating Ti-6Al-4V skin-stiffened panels, a brazing process for fabricating Bsc/Al titanium honeycomb core panels, and the enhanced diffusion bonding (EDB) process for fabricating Ti-14Al-21Nb titanium aluminide structural elements are presented. Data presented include the shear strengths of full-scale weldbrazed Ti-6Al-4V skin stiffened and Bsc/Al titanium honeycomb core sandwich panels designed to meet the requirements of an upper wing panel on the NASA YF-12. These results verified that the materials, fabrication processes, and structural concepts were qualified for Mach 3 flight. Shear strengths of each of the panel concepts following flight service evaluation are also reported. Comparisons made with the cost and weight of the original wing panel indicated that the weldbrazed titanium panels resulted in a 15-20 percent cost savings and the brazed Bsc/Al panel showed a 30 percent weight savings. It was also shown that the strengths of the EDB joints were sufficient to develop stresses in the Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets of the sandwich structure which were above the yield strength of the material.

  5. Development and utilization of composite honeycomb and solid laminate reference standards for aircraft inspections.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2004-06-01

    The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center, in conjunction with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee, developed a set of composite reference standards to be used in NDT equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of all commercial aircraft composites. In this program, a series of NDI tests on a matrix of composite aircraft structures and prototype reference standards were completed in order to minimize the number of standards needed to carry out composite inspections on aircraft. Two tasks, related to composite laminates and non-metallic composite honeycomb configurations, were addressed. A suite of 64 honeycomb panels, representing the bounding conditions of honeycomb construction on aircraft, was inspected using a wide array of NDI techniques. An analysis of the resulting data determined the variables that play a key role in setting up NDT equipment. This has resulted in a set of minimum honeycomb NDI reference standards that include these key variables. A sequence of subsequent tests determined that this minimum honeycomb reference standard set is able to fully support inspections over the full range of honeycomb construction scenarios found on commercial aircraft. In the solid composite laminate arena, G11 Phenolic was identified as a good generic solid laminate reference standard material. Testing determined matches in key velocity and acoustic impedance properties, as well as, low attenuation relative to carbon laminates. Furthermore, comparisons of resonance testing response curves from the G11 Phenolic NDI reference standard was very similar to the resonance response curves measured on the existing carbon and fiberglass laminates. NDI data shows that this material should work for both pulse-echo (velocity-based) and resonance (acoustic impedance-based) inspections.

  6. Natural cork agglomerate employed as an environmentally friendly solution for quiet sandwich composites.

    PubMed

    Sargianis, James; Kim, Hyung-ick; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fiber-synthetic foam core sandwich composites are widely used for many structural applications due to their superior mechanical performance and low weight. Unfortunately these structures typically have very poor acoustic performance. There is increasingly growing demand in mitigating this noise issue in sandwich composite structures. This study shows that marrying carbon fiber composites with natural cork in a sandwich structure provides a synergistic effect yielding a noise-free sandwich composite structure without the sacrifice of mechanical performance or weight. Moreover the cork-core sandwich composites boast a 250% improvement in damping performance, providing increased durability and lifetime operation. Additionally as the world seeks environmentally friendly materials, the harvesting of cork is a natural, renewable process which reduces subsequent carbon footprints. Such a transition from synthetic foam cores to natural cork cores could provide unprecedented improvements in acoustic and vibrational performance in applications such as aircraft cabins or wind turbine blades.

  7. Natural Cork Agglomerate Employed as an Environmentally Friendly Solution for Quiet Sandwich Composites

    PubMed Central

    Sargianis, James; Kim, Hyung-ick; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fiber-synthetic foam core sandwich composites are widely used for many structural applications due to their superior mechanical performance and low weight. Unfortunately these structures typically have very poor acoustic performance. There is increasingly growing demand in mitigating this noise issue in sandwich composite structures. This study shows that marrying carbon fiber composites with natural cork in a sandwich structure provides a synergistic effect yielding a noise-free sandwich composite structure without the sacrifice of mechanical performance or weight. Moreover the cork-core sandwich composites boast a 250% improvement in damping performance, providing increased durability and lifetime operation. Additionally as the world seeks environmentally friendly materials, the harvesting of cork is a natural, renewable process which reduces subsequent carbon footprints. Such a transition from synthetic foam cores to natural cork cores could provide unprecedented improvements in acoustic and vibrational performance in applications such as aircraft cabins or wind turbine blades. PMID:22574250

  8. Natural cork agglomerate employed as an environmentally friendly solution for quiet sandwich composites.

    PubMed

    Sargianis, James; Kim, Hyung-ick; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fiber-synthetic foam core sandwich composites are widely used for many structural applications due to their superior mechanical performance and low weight. Unfortunately these structures typically have very poor acoustic performance. There is increasingly growing demand in mitigating this noise issue in sandwich composite structures. This study shows that marrying carbon fiber composites with natural cork in a sandwich structure provides a synergistic effect yielding a noise-free sandwich composite structure without the sacrifice of mechanical performance or weight. Moreover the cork-core sandwich composites boast a 250% improvement in damping performance, providing increased durability and lifetime operation. Additionally as the world seeks environmentally friendly materials, the harvesting of cork is a natural, renewable process which reduces subsequent carbon footprints. Such a transition from synthetic foam cores to natural cork cores could provide unprecedented improvements in acoustic and vibrational performance in applications such as aircraft cabins or wind turbine blades. PMID:22574250

  9. Impact damage analysis of balsawood sandwich composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalslam, Suof Omran

    In this study, a new composite sandwich structure with a balsa wood core (end grain and regular balsa) in conjunction with E-glass/epoxy face sheets was proposed, fabricated, impact tested, and modeled. The behavior of the sandwich structure under low velocity impact and compression after impact was investigated. Low velocity impact tests were carried out by drop-weight impact tower at different energy levels (8J-35J) to evaluate the impact response of the sandwich structure. Visual inspection, destructive and non destructive evaluation methods have been conducted. For the sandwich plate with end grain core, the damage was very clear and can be visually detected. However, the damage in regular balsa core was not clearly visible and destructive evaluation method was used. Compression testing was done after subjecting the specimens to impact testing. Impact test results; load-time, load-deflection history and energy absorption for sandwich composites with two different cores, end grain and regular balsa were compared and they were investigated at three different impact energies. The results show that the sandwich structures with end grain core are able to withstand impact loading better than the regular balsa core because the higher stiffness of end grain core informs of sustaining higher load and higher overall energy. The results obtained from compression after impact testing show that the strengths of sandwich composites with end grain and regular balsa cores were reduced about 40% and 52%, respectively, after impact. These results were presented in terms of stress-strain curves for both damaged and undamaged specimens. Finite element analysis was conducted on the sandwich composite structure using LS-DYNA code to simulate impact test. A 3- D finite element model was developed and appropriate material properties were given to each component. The computational model was developed to predict the response of sandwich composite under dynamic loading. The experimental

  10. Facesheet Delamination of Composite Sandwich Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Herring, Helen M.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of space transportation vehicles will require advances in lightweight structural materials and related design concepts to meet the increased demands on performance. One potential source for significant structural weight reduction is the replacement of traditional metallic cryogenic fuel tanks with new designs for polymeric matrix composite tanks. These new tank designs may take the form of thin-walled sandwich constructed with lightweight core and composite facesheets. Life-time durability requirements imply the materials must safely carry pressure loads, external structural loads, resist leakage and operate over an extremely wide temperature range. Aside from catastrophic events like tank wall penetration, one of the most likely scenarios for failure of a tank wall of sandwich construction is the permeation of cryogenic fluid into the sandwich core and the subsequent delamination of the sandwich facesheet due to the build-up of excessive internal pressure. The research presented in this paper was undertaken to help understand this specific problem of core to facesheet delamination in cryogenic environments and relate this data to basic mechanical properties. The experimental results presented herein provide data on the strain energy release rate (toughness) of the interface between the facesheet and the core of a composite sandwich subjected to simulated internal pressure. A unique test apparatus and associated test methods are described and the results are presented to highlight the effects of cryogenic temperature on the measured material properties.

  11. Experimental evaluation of two 36 inch by 47 inch graphite/epoxy sandwich shear webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G.

    1975-01-01

    The design is described and test of two large (36 in. x 47 in.) graphite/epoxy sandwich shear webs. One sandwich web was designed to exhibit strength failure of the facings at a shear load of 7638 lbs/in., which is a characteristic loading for the space shuttle orbiter main engine thrust beam structure. The second sandwich web was designed to exhibit general instability failure at a shear load of 5000 lbs/in., to identify problem areas of stability critical sandwich webs and to assess the adequacy of contemporary analysis techniques.

  12. Modular container assembled from fiber reinforced thermoplastic sandwich panels

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mathew William; Kasoff, William Andrew; Mcculloch, Patrick Carl; Williams, Frederick Truman

    2007-12-25

    An improved, load bearing, modular design container structure assembled from thermoformed FRTP sandwich panels in which is utilized the unique core-skin edge configuration of the present invention in consideration of improved load bearing performance, improved useful load volume, reduced manufacturing costs, structural weight savings, impact and damage tolerance and repair and replace issues.

  13. Featureless quantum insulator on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Panjin; Lee, Hyunyong; Jiang, Shenghan; Ware, Brayden; Jian, Chao-Ming; Zaletel, Michael; Han, Jung Hoon; Ran, Ying

    2016-08-01

    We show how to construct fully symmetric states without topological order on a honeycomb lattice for S =1/2 spins using the language of projected entangled pair states. An explicit example is given for the virtual bond dimension D =4 . Four distinct classes differing by lattice quantum numbers are found by applying the systematic classification scheme introduced by two of the authors [S. Jiang and Y. Ran, Phys. Rev. B 92, 104414 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.104414]. Lack of topological degeneracy or other conventional forms of symmetry breaking in the proposed wave functions are checked by numerical calculations of the entanglement entropy and various correlation functions. Exponential decay of all correlation functions measured are strongly indicative of the energy gap for the putative parent Hamiltonian of the state. Our work provides the first explicit realization of a featureless quantum state for spin-1/2 particles on a honeycomb lattice.

  14. Topological hardcore bosons on the honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a connection between the topological properties of hardcore bosons and that of magnons in quantum spin magnets. We utilize the Haldane-like hardcore bosons on the honeycomb lattice as an example. We show that this system maps to a spin-$1/2$ quantum XY model with a next-nearest-neighbour Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. We obtain the magnon excitations of the quantum spin model and compute the edge states, Berry curvature, thermal and spin Nernst conductivities. Due to the mapping from spin variables to bosons, the hardcore bosons possess the same nontrivial topological properties as those in quantum spin system. These results are important in the study of magnetic excitations in quantum magnets and they are also useful for understanding the control of ultracold bosonic quantum gases in honeycomb optical lattices, which is experimentally accessible.

  15. Cycling of soluble lead flow cells comprising a honeycomb-shaped positive electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oury, A.; Kirchev, A.; Bultel, Y.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, soluble lead/methanesulfonic acid flow cells comprising a 3-D honeycomb-shaped positive electrode sandwiched between two planar negative electrodes are tested under galvanostatic cycling. Two types of materials are used for the honeycomb: homemade vitreous carbon/carbon composite and graphite. The cells comprising the C/C composite substrate shows a poor cyclability with coulombic and energy efficiencies below 80% and 50%, respectively, as well as a very limited lifetime. After a few tens of cycles, the cells cannot be discharged any longer due to the emergence of overvoltages associated with the passivation of the positive electrode in the discharged states. Using the graphite-based electrode, the cyclability is considerably improved: efficiencies of 95% in charge and 75% in energy are obtained, a hundred of cycles can be achieved and no passivation is observed. The cycle life of the cell is, however, limited by lead dendrite-like formation at the negative plates. Finally, this study shows that the incorporation of fluoride ions into the electrolyte improves greatly the adhesion of PbO2 on the positive electrode surface upon cycling.

  16. Development Of Advanced Sandwich Core Topologies Using Fused Deposition Modeling And Electroforming Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storck, Steven M.

    New weight efficient materials are needed to enhance the performance of vehicle systems allowing increased speed, maneuverability and fuel economy. This work leveraged a multi-length-scale composite approach combined with hybrid material methodology to create new state-of-the-art additive manufactured sandwich core material. The goal of the research was to generate a new material to expands material space for strength versus density. Fused-Deposition-Modeling (FDM) was used to remove geometric manufacturing constraints, and electrodepositing was used to generate a high specific-strength, bio-inspired hybrid material. Microtension samples (3mm x 1mm with 250mum x 250mum gage) were used to investigate the electrodeposited coatings in the transverse (TD) and growth (GD) directions. Three bath chemistries were tested: copper, traditional nickel sulfamate (TNS) nickel, and nickel deposited with a platinum anode (NDPA). NDPA shows tensile strength exceeding 1600 MPa, significantly beyond the literature reported values of 60MPa. This strengthening was linked to grain size refinement into the sub-30nm range, in addition to grain texture refinement resulting in only 17% of the slip systems for nickel being active. Anisotropy was observed in nickel deposits, which was linked to texture evolution inside of the coating. Microsample testing guided the selection of 15mum layer of copper deposition followed by a 250 mum NDPA layer. Classical formulas for structural collapse were used to guide an experimental parametric study to establish a weight/volume efficient strut topology. Length, diameter and thickness were all investigated to determine the optimal column topology. The most optimal topology exists when Eulerian buckling, shell micro buckling and yielding failure modes all exist in a single geometric topology. Three macro-scale sandwich topologies (pyramidal, tetrahedral, and strut-reinforced-tetrahedral (SRT) were investigated with respect to strength-per-unit-weight. The

  17. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  18. Which Is The Best Sandwich Compound? Hexaphenylbenzene Substituted By Sandwich Compounds Bearing Sc, Cr, and Fe.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Estrella; Martínez, Ana; Rios, Citlalli; Salcedo, Roberto

    2015-11-25

    The electronic properties of nine different hexaarylbenzene molecules substituted by sandwich compounds have been studied by applying density functional theory. Different structures and the particular electron donor power of these systems have been considered in order to analyze their oxidant capacity, using bis(ciclopentadienyl) scandium, ferrocene, and bis(benzene)chromium as sandwich compounds. Both monometallic and bimetallic combinations are investigated. According to the ionization energies and electron affinities, compounds with Cr are nucleophiles and represent the best electron donors, whereas compounds with Sc are electrophiles and represent the best electron acceptors. The worse electron donor or acceptor is hexakis(4-ferrocenyl phenyl) benzene. This is very significant, as it implies that the very well-known electronic properties of hexakis(4-ferrocenyl phenyl) benzene can be improved by substituting with other metals, such as Sc and Cr. This suggests several possible applications for these compounds. PMID:26528582

  19. Sound Transmission Through a Curved Honeycomb Composite Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klos, Jacob; Robinson, Jay H.; Buehrle, Ralph D.

    2003-01-01

    Composite structures are often used in aircraft because of the advantages offered by a high strength to weight ratio. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can often be less than desirable resulting in high aircraft interior noise levels. In this paper, measurements and predictions of the transmission loss of a curved honeycomb composite panel are presented. The transmission loss predictions are validated by comparisons to measurements. An assessment of the behavior of the panel is made from the dispersion characteristics of transverse waves propagating in the panel. The speed of transverse waves propagating in the panel is found to be sonic or supersonic over the frequency range from 100 to 5000 Hz. The acoustical benefit of reducing the wave speed for transverse vibration is demonstrated.

  20. Highly improved photo-induced bias stability of sandwiched triple layer structure in sol-gel processed fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongha; Park, Hyungjin; Bae, Byeong-Soo

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the reliability of TFT, an Al2O3 insulating layer is inserted between active fluorine doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F) thin films to form a sandwiched triple layer. All the thin films were fabricated via low-cost sol-gel process. Due to its large energy bandgap and high bonding energy with oxygen atoms, the Al2O3 layer acts as a photo-induced positive charge blocking layer that effectively blocks the migration of both holes and V o2+ toward the interface between the gate insulator and the semiconductor. The inserted Al2O3 triple layer exhibits a noticeably low turn on voltage shift of -0.7 V under NBIS as well as the good TFT performance with a mobility of 10.9 cm2/V ṡ s. We anticipate that this approach can be used to solve the stability issues such as NBIS, which is caused by inescapable oxygen vacancies.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and visible-light driven photocatalysis by differently structured CdS/ZnS sandwich and core-shell nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qutub, Nida; Pirzada, Bilal Masood; Umar, Khalid; Mehraj, Owais; Muneer, M.; Sabir, Suhail

    2015-11-01

    CdS/ZnS sandwich and core-shell nanocomposites were synthesized by a simple and modified Chemical Precipitation method under ambient conditions. The synthesized composites were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDAX and FTIR. Optical properties were analyzed by UV-vis. Spectroscopy and the photoluminescence study was done to monitor the recombination of photo-generated charge-carriers. Thermal stability of the synthesized composites was analyzed by Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). XRD revealed the formation of nanocomposites as mixed diffraction peaks were observed in the XRD pattern. SEM and TEM showed the morphology of the nanocomposites particles and their fine particle size. EDAX revealed the appropriate molar ratios exhibited by the constituent elements in the composites and FTIR gave some characteristic peaks which indicated the formation of CdS/ZnS nanocomposites. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was done to study charge transfer properties along the nanocomposites. Photocatalytic properties of the synthesized composites were monitored by the photocatalytic kinetic study of Acid Blue dye and p-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation. Results revealed the formation of stable core-shell nanocomposites and their efficient photocatalytic properties.

  2. Sandwich-like Cu1.94S-ZnS-Cu1.94S nanoheterostructure: structure, formation mechanism and localized surface plasmon resonance behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng

    2012-10-01

    In this communication, a thermolysis route is developed to synthesize novel Cu1.94S-ZnS-Cu1.94S nanoheterostructures with interesting sandwich-like architectures, taking Cu1.94S nanoplates as precursors. Evidently, the trimeric nanostructure is formed by a three-stage process, which includes the Zn-oleate induced assembling of Cu1.94S nanoplate couples, the heteronucleation and growth of a ZnS layer between two Cu1.94S plates dominated by interfacial diffusion, and the catalyst assisted axial growth of ZnS nanorod following the solution-liquid-solid mechanism. With epitaxial growth of ZnS nanocrystal between two Cu1.94S nanoplates, the localized surface plasmon resonance frequency of Cu1.94S shifts from 1875 to 1323 nm, indicating that this new material is potentially applicable as a light absorbing agent in laser photothermal therapy. The reported growth mechanism may provide new strategies for designing and fabricating various technologically important polymeric nanoheterostructures.

  3. Incommensurate counterrotating magnetic order stabilized by Kitaev interactions in the layered honeycomb α -Li2IrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. Â. C.; Johnson, R. Â. D.; Freund, F.; Choi, Sungkyun; Jesche, A.; Kimchi, I.; Manni, S.; Bombardi, A.; Manuel, P.; Gegenwart, P.; Coldea, R.

    2016-05-01

    The layered honeycomb magnet α -Li2IrO3 has been theoretically proposed as a candidate to display unconventional magnetic behaviour associated with Kitaev interactions between spin-orbit entangled jeff=1 /2 magnetic moments on a honeycomb lattice. Here we report single crystal magnetic resonant x-ray diffraction combined with powder magnetic neutron diffraction to reveal an incommensurate magnetic order in the honeycomb layers with Ir magnetic moments counterrotating on nearest-neighbor sites. This unexpected type of magnetic structure for a honeycomb magnet cannot be explained by a spin Hamiltonian with dominant isotropic (Heisenberg) couplings. The magnetic structure shares many key features with the magnetic order in the structural polytypes β - and γ -Li2IrO3 , understood theoretically to be stabilized by dominant Kitaev interactions between Ir moments located on the vertices of three-dimensional hyperhoneycomb and stripyhoneycomb lattices, respectively. Based on this analogy and a theoretical soft-spin analysis of magnetic ground states for candidate spin Hamiltonians, we propose that Kitaev interactions also dominate in α -Li2IrO3 , indicative of universal Kitaev physics across all three members of the harmonic honeycomb family of Li2IrO3 polytypes.

  4. Approaches to Design and Evaluation of Sandwich Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, Kunigal; Raju, I. S. (Technical Monitor); Ambur, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes research during the period June 15, 1997 to October 31, 2000. This grant yielded a low cast manufacturing of composite sandwich structures technology and characterization interfacial and subinterfacial cracks in foam core sandwich panels. The manufacturing technology is called the vacuum assisted resin transfer (VARTM). The VARTM is suitable for processing composite materials both at ambient and elevated temperatures and of unlimited component size. This technology has been successfully transferred to a small business fiber preform manufacturing company 3TEX located in Cary, North Carolina. The grant also supported one Ph.D, one M.S and a number of under graduate students, and nine publications and Presentations.

  5. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/Larc-160 polyimide structural elements, part 4, paragraph C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the development of processes for production of Celion/LARC-160 graphite-polyimide materials, quality control methods, and the fabrication of Space Shuttle composite structure components is reported. The formulation and processing limits for three batches of resin are presented. Process improvements for simplification of the imidizing and autoclave cure cycles are described. Imidized and autoclave cured test panels were prepared. Celion/LARC-160 cure process verification and the fabrication of honeycomb sandwich panel elements and skin/stringer panels are described. C-scans of laminates imidized at 163 C to 218 C for periods from 30 to 180 minutes, and of process verification laminates made from different batches of prepreg are presented. Failure modes and load/strain characteristics of sandwich elements and C-scans of stringer to skin bond joints are also given.

  6. Discrete solitons and vortices in anisotropic hexagonal and honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoq, Q. E.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Bishop, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, we consider the self-focusing discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation on hexagonal and honeycomb lattice geometries. Our emphasis is on the study of the effects of anisotropy, motivated by the tunability afforded in recent optical and atomic physics experiments. We find that multi-soliton and discrete vortex states undergo destabilizing bifurcations as the relevant anisotropy control parameter is varied. We quantify these bifurcations by means of explicit analytical calculations of the solutions, as well as of their spectral linearization eigenvalues. Finally, we corroborate the relevant stability picture through direct numerical computations. In the latter, we observe the prototypical manifestation of these instabilities to be the spontaneous rearrangement of the solution, for larger values of the coupling, into localized waveforms typically centered over fewer sites than the original unstable structure. For weak coupling, the instability appears to result in a robust breathing of the relevant waveforms.

  7. Classical Spin Liquid on the Maximally Frustrated Honeycomb Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehn, J.; Sen, Arnab; Damle, Kedar; Moessner, R.

    2016-10-01

    We show that the honeycomb Heisenberg antiferromagnet with J1/2 =J2=J3, where J1 , J2 , and J3 are first-, second-, and third-neighbor couplings, respectively, forms a classical spin liquid with pinch-point singularities in the structure factor at the Brillouin zone corners. Upon dilution with nonmagnetic ions, fractionalized degrees of freedom carrying 1 /3 of the free moment emerge. Their effective description in the limit of low temperature is that of spins randomly located on a triangular lattice, with a frustrated sublattice-sensitive interaction of long-ranged logarithmic form. The X Y version of this magnet exhibits nematic thermal order by disorder. This comes with a clear experimental diagnostic in neutron scattering, which turns out to apply also to the case of the celebrated planar order by disorder of the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

  8. Friction-factor characteristics for narrow channels with honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Morrison, G. L.; Childs, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental determination of friction-factors for the flow of air in a narrow channel lined with various honeycomb geometries has been carried out. Test results show that, generally, the friction-factor is nearly constant or slightly decreases as the Reynolds number increases, a characteristic common to turbulent flow in pipes. However, in some test geometries this trend is remarkably different. The friction factor dramatically drops and then rises as the Reynolds number increases. This phenomenon can be characterized as a 'friction-factor jump'. Further investigations of the acoustic spectrum and friction-factor measurements for a broad range of Reynolds numbers indicate that the 'friction-factor jump' phenomenon is accompanied by an onset of a normal mode resonance excited coherent flow fluctuation structure, which occurs at Reynolds number of the order of 10,000. The purpose of this paper is to explain the friction-factor-jump phenomenon and friction-factor characteristics.

  9. Discrete solitons and vortices in anisotropic hexagonal and honeycomb lattices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hoq, Q. E.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Bishop, A. R.

    2016-01-14

    We consider the self-focusing discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation on hexagonal and honeycomb lattice geometries. Our emphasis is on the study of the effects of anisotropy, motivated by the tunability afforded in recent optical and atomic physics experiments. We find that multi-soliton and discrete vortex states undergo destabilizing bifurcations as the relevant anisotropy control parameter is varied. Furthermore, we quantify these bifurcations by means of explicit analytical calculations of the solutions, as well as of their spectral linearization eigenvalues. Finally, we corroborate the relevant stability picture through direct numerical computations. In the latter, we observe the prototypical manifestation of these instabilitiesmore » to be the spontaneous rearrangement of the solution, for larger values of the coupling, into localized waveforms typically centered over fewer sites than the original unstable structure. In weak coupling, the instability appears to result in a robust breathing of the relevant waveforms.« less

  10. Clean Electrical-Discharge Machining Of Delicate Honeycomb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Clarence S.

    1993-01-01

    Precise recesses in fragile metal honeycomb blocks formed in special electrical-discharge machining process. Special tooling used, and recesses bored with workpiece in nonstandard alignment. Cutting electrode advances into workpiece along x axis to form pocket of rectangular cross section. Deionized water flows from fitting, along honeycomb tubes of workpiece, to electrode/workpiece interface.

  11. Theoretical study of the structure, bonding and electronic behaviour of sandwich complexes [M3(C7H7)2X3]- (M = Ni, Pd, Pt; X = F, Cl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ke; Min, Suotian; Xue, Ganglin; Huang, Wendeng

    2014-08-01

    The correlations between the structural and electronic properties of the clusters [M3X3]3- and sandwich complexes [M3(C7H7)2X3]- (where M = Ni, Pd, Pt; X = F, Cl) were studied with density functional theory (B3PW91). All of the sandwich complexes are donating and back-donating metal-ligand bonding structures. The influence of the ligand, significant variations in the Msbnd C, Msbnd X, Msbnd M, Csbnd C bond lengths and binding energies were examined to obtain qualitative and quantitative pictures of the intramolecular C7R7+-M3X33- interactions. Our theoretical investigations show that the binding energies of the sandwich complexes gradually reduce from Ni to Pt, as well as from F to Cl. Meanwhile, the geometric and electronic structures and the relative stabilities have a strong relation to each other. structure 7, 7-A-(H-7) is mainly a combination of the s and d orbitals of Pt (13% s orbital of each Pt, 19% dz2 orbital of each Pt), and there is almost no contribution from Cl (Table S1). 7-B-(H-10) is a delocalised σ orbital, which has contributions from Pt (15% s orbital of each Pt, 8% d orbital of each Pt), and there is little contribution from Cl (Table S2). 7-C-(H-11) is a delocalised π orbital, which mainly involves contribution from Pt (25% dxz and dyz of each Pt) and Cl (8.5% pz of each Cl) (Table S3). 7-D-(H-14) is a delocalised σ orbital, which is mostly composed of d orbitals (14% for each Pt) and p orbitals (16% for each Cl) (Table S4). Pt s (10%) and d (10%) orbitals mainly participate in the formations of 7-E-(H-23), and there is a 13% p orbital contribution from each Cl (Table S5). For structure 13, the LUMO is mainly s orbitals of C, and there is some contribution from the s and d orbitals of Pt (Table S6), whereas the HOMO is mainly s orbitals of C

  12. Theoretical Predictions of Freestanding Honeycomb Sheets of Cadmium Chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jia; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kent, Paul R; Xie, Yu; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Smith, Sean C

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanocrystals of CdX (X = S, Se, Te) typically grown by colloidal synthesis are coated with organic ligands. Recent experimental work on ZnSe showed that the organic ligands can be removed at elevated temperature, giving a freestanding 2D sheet of ZnSe. In this theoretical work, freestanding single- to few-layer sheets of CdX, each possessing a pseudo honeycomb lattice, are considered by cutting along all possible lattice planes of the bulk zinc blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Using density functional theory, we have systematically studied their geometric structures, energetics, and electronic properties. A strong surface distortion is found to occur for all of the layered sheets, and yet all of the pseudo honeycomb lattices are preserved, giving unique types of surface corrugations and different electronic properties. The energetics, in combination with phonon mode calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, indicate that the syntheses of these freestanding 2D sheets could be selective, with the single- to few-layer WZ110, WZ100, and ZB110 sheets being favored. Through the GW approximation, it is found that all single-layer sheets have large band gaps falling into the ultraviolet range, while thicker sheets in general have reduced band gaps in the visible and ultraviolet range. On the basis of the present work and the experimental studies on freestanding double-layer sheets of ZnSe, we envision that the freestanding 2D layered sheets of CdX predicted herein are potential synthesis targets, which may offer tunable band gaps depending on their structural features including surface corrugations, stacking motifs, and number of layers.

  13. Load characteristics of high power sandwich piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Shuyu, Lin

    2005-03-01

    Based on the equivalent circuit theory, the load characteristics of high power piezoelectric ultrasonic sandwich transducers are studied. Two types of loads are studied. One is liquid load as in ultrasonic cleaning, and the other is solid load as in ultrasonic drilling and machining. The effect of load and structure of the transducer on the resonance frequency of the transducer is analyzed. It is shown that the effect of load on the resonance frequency of sandwich transducers with different structures is different. For liquid load as in ultrasonic cleaning, the effect of the load on the resonance frequency of the sandwich transducer with symmetrical structure is the largest. It is the smallest for the transducer with its displacement node in the back metal cylinder. For solid load as in ultrasonic drilling and machining, the effect of the load on the resonance frequency of the sandwich transducer with its displacement node in the front metal cylinder is the largest. It is also the smallest for the transducer with its displacement node in the back metal cylinder. On the other hand, for some applications, such as ultrasonic drilling, when the lateral dimension of the tool is much less than that of the transducer, its effect on the resonance frequency of the transducer is small. The conclusions are useful in designing vibrating systems for different ultrasonic applications.

  14. Design, fabrication, and test of lightweight shell structure, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A cylindrical shell skirt structure 4.57 m (180 in.) in diameter and 3.66 m (144 in.) high was subjected to a design and analysis study using a wide variety of structural materials and concepts. The design loading of 1225.8 N/cm (700 lb/in.) axial compression and 245.2 N/cm (140 lb/in.) torsion is representative of that expected on a typical space tug skirt section. Structural concepts evaluated included honeycomb sandwich, truss, isogrid, and skin/stringer/frame. The materials considered included a wide variety of structural metals as well as glass, graphite, and boron-reinforced composites. The most unique characteristic of the candidate designs is that they involve the use of very thin-gage material. Fabrication and structural test of small panels and components representative of many of the candidate designs served to demonstrate proposed fabrication techniques and to verify design and analysis methods.

  15. Nanoparticle organization in sandwiched polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Curk, Tine; Martinez-Veracoechea, Francisco J; Frenkel, Daan; Dobnikar, Jure

    2014-05-14

    The organization of nanoparticles inside grafted polymer layers is governed by the interplay of polymer-induced entropic interactions and the action of externally applied fields. Earlier work had shown that strong external forces can drive the formation of colloidal structures in polymer brushes. Here we show that external fields are not essential to obtain such colloidal patterns: we report Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations that demonstrate that ordered structures can be achieved by compressing a "sandwich" of two grafted polymer layers, or by squeezing a coated nanotube, with nanoparticles in between. We show that the pattern formation can be efficiently controlled by the applied pressure, while the characteristic length-scale, that is, the typical width of the patterns, is sensitive to the length of the polymers. Based on the results of the simulations, we derive an approximate equation of state for nanosandwiches. PMID:24707901

  16. Vibration analysis of sandwich rectangular plates with magnetorheological elastomer damping treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jia-Yi

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the vibration analysis of sandwich rectangular plates with magnetorheological (MR) elastomer damping treatment is presented. The rectangular plate is combined with a magnetorheological elastomer core layer and a constraining layer to improve the vibration behaviors of the sandwich system. The MR material shows variations in the rheological properties when subjected to varying magnetic fields. Additionally, the MR material exhibits a rapid time response and is applicable to structures or devices when a tunable system is required. The magnetorheological elastomer is found to have a significant effect on the vibration characteristics of the sandwich rectangular plate. The modal damper and the natural frequencies for the sandwich plate system are calculated for various magnetic fields and some designed parameters by utilizing the finite element method. The damping effects of the sandwich plate system can be controlled and changed when different magnetic field strengths are applied.

  17. An experimental investigation of sandwich flat panels under low velocity impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Timberlyn M.

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluated the failure modes and mechanisms associated with increasing face sheet thickness of flat sandwich panels under low velocity impact. The sandwich panels were fabricated using 1.27 cm thick, 145 kg/cu m (9 lb/cu ft), 3.175 mm (1/8 in.) cell size Nomex honeycomb core, FM 300-2 film adhesive and AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy face sheets. The thickness of the core remained 1.27 cm, and the thickness of the adhesive remained 0.25 mm. The thickness of the face sheets varied using the following stacking sequences: (O/90)s, (O/90)2s, (O/90)4s, (O/90)8s, and (O/90)12s. The sandwich panels were subjected to various low velocity impacts using the Dynatup Impact Test Machine. Pulse-Echo C-scans and optical microscopy of panel cross-sections were performed to characterize the damage. The cross-sections indicated that delamination and transverse cracking contribute to internal damage of the face sheets, while crushing, buckling, and crippling contribute to damage of the core. Cracks in the adhesive also contribute to damage in some cases.

  18. Investigation of out of plane compressive strength of 3D printed sandwich composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikshit, V.; Yap, Y. L.; Goh, G. D.; Yang, H.; Lim, J. C.; Qi, X.; Yeong, W. Y.; Wei, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the 3D printing technique was utilized to manufacture the sandwich composites. Composite filament fabrication based 3D printer was used to print the face-sheet, and inkjet 3D printer was used to print the sandwich core structure. This work aims to study the compressive failure of the sandwich structure manufactured by using these two manufacturing techniques. Two different types of core structures were investigated with the same type of face-sheet configuration. The core structures were printed using photopolymer, while the face-sheet was made using nylon/glass. The out-of-plane compressive strength of the 3D printed sandwich composite structure has been examined in accordance with ASTM standards C365/C365-M and presented in this paper.

  19. Antiferromagnetism and Kondo screening on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Heng-Fu; Hong-Shuai, Tao; Guo, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic adatoms in the honeycomb lattice have received tremendous attention due to the interplay between Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction and Kondo coupling leading to very rich physics. Here we study the competition between the antiferromagnetism and Kondo screening of local moments by the conduction electrons on the honeycomb lattice using the determinant quantum Monte Carlo method. While changing the interband hybridization V, we systematically investigate the antiferromagnetic-order state and the Kondo singlet state transition, which is characterized by the behavior of the local moment, antiferromagnetic structure factor, and the short range spin-spin correlation. The evolution of the single particle spectrum are also calculated as a function of hybridization V, we find that the system presents a small gap in the antiferromagnetic-order region and a large gap in the Kondo singlet region in the Fermi level. We also find that the localized and itinerant electrons coupling leads to the midgap states in the conduction band in the Fermi level at very small V. Moreover, the formation of antiferromagnetic order and Kondo singlet are studied as on-site interaction U or temperature T increasing, we have derived the phase diagrams at on-site interaction U (or temperature T) and hybridization V plane. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 2011CB921502 and 2012CB821305), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61227902, 61378017, and 11434015), the State Key Laboratory for Quantum Optics and Quantum Optical Devices, China (Grant No. KF201403).

  20. Development of Composite Honeycomb and Solid Laminate Reference Standards to Aid Aircraft Inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrell, L.; Roach, D.

    1999-03-04

    The rapidly increasing use of composites on commercial airplanes coupled with the potential for economic savings associated with their use in aircraft structures means that the demand for composite materials technology will continue to increase. Inspecting these composite structures is a critical element in assuring their continued airworthiness. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center, in conjunction with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC), is developing a set of composite reference standards to be used in NDT equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of all commercial aircraft composites. In this program, a series of NDI tests on a matrix of composite aircraft structures and prototype reference standards were completed in order to minimize the number of standards needed to carry out composite inspections on aircraft. Two tasks, related to composite laminates and non-metallic composite honeycomb configurations, were addressed. A suite of 64 honeycomb panels, representing the bounding conditions of honeycomb construction on aircraft, were inspected using a wide array of NDI techniques. An analysis of the resulting data determined the variables that play a key role in setting up NDT equipment. This has resulted in a prototype set of minimum honeycomb reference standards that include these key variables. A sequence of subsequent tests determined that this minimum honeycomb reference standard set is able to fully support inspections over the fill range of honeycomb construction scenarios. Current tasks are aimed at optimizing the methods used to engineer realistic flaws into the specimens. In the solid composite laminate arena, we have identified what appears to be an excellent candidate, G11 Phenolic, as a generic solid laminate reference standard material. Testing to date has determined matches in key velocity and acoustic impedance properties, as well as, low attenuation relative

  1. An evaluation of the sandwich beam in four-point bending as a compressive test method for composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, M. J.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    The experimental phase of the study included compressive tests on HTS/PMR-15 graphite/polyimide, 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, and 5052 aluminum honeycomb at room temperature, and tensile tests on graphite/polyimide at room temperature, -157 C, and 316 C. Elastic properties and strength data are presented for three laminates. The room temperature elastic properties were generally found to differ in tension and compression with Young's modulus values differing by as much as twenty-six percent. The effect of temperature on modulus and strength was shown to be laminate dependent. A three-dimensional finite element analysis predicted an essentially uniform, uniaxial compressive stress state in the top flange test section of the sandwich beam. In conclusion, the sandwich beam can be used to obtain accurate, reliable Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio data for advanced composites; however, the ultimate compressive stress for some laminates may be influenced by the specimen geometry.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies of the structural and electronic properties of vanadium–benzene sandwich clusters and their anions: V{sub n}Bz{sub n}{sup 0/−} (n = 1–5) and V{sub n}Bz{sub n−1}{sup 0/−} (n = 2–5)

    SciTech Connect

    Masubuchi, Tsugunosuke; Iwasa, Takeshi; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2014-12-07

    One end open V{sub n}Bz{sub n}{sup −} (n = 1–5; Bz = benzene) and both ends open V{sub n}Bz{sub n−1}{sup −} (n = 2–5) vanadium–benzene cluster anions were studied using anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional calculations. The smaller (n ≤ 3) V{sub n}Bz{sub n} and V{sub n}Bz{sub n−1} clusters and corresponding anions were found to have structural isomers, whereas full-sandwiched V{sub n}Bz{sub n+1} clusters preferred to form multiple-decker sandwich structures. Several isomeric V{sub 2}Bz{sub 2} structures were identified theoretically and the anion photoelectron spectra of V{sub 2}Bz{sub 2}{sup 0/−} were explained well by the coexistence of two isomeric structures: (1) a V{sub 2}-core structure sandwiched between benzene molecules and (2) an alternating sandwich structure with the spin state strongly dependent on the structure. The adiabatic electron affinity of both V{sub n}Bz{sub n} and V{sub n}Bz{sub n−1} was found to increase with the cluster size at larger sizes (n = 4 or 5) and approaches to that of V{sub n}Bz{sub n+1}. The evolution of the structural and electronic properties of V{sub n}Bz{sub m} and V{sub n}Bz{sub m}{sup −} (m = n and n − 1) with size is discussed in comparison with V{sub n}Bz{sub n+1} and V{sub n}Bz{sub n+1}{sup −}.

  3. Prediction of Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator in half-fluorinated GaBi Honeycomb.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sung-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, we predict half-fluorinated GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain to harbor a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator phase. We show that this QAH phase is driven by a single inversion in the band structure at the Γ point. Moreover, we have computed the electronic spectrum of a half-fluorinated GaBi nanoribbon with zigzag edges, which shows that only one edge band crosses the Fermi level within the band gap. Our results suggest that half-fluorination of the GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain could provide a new platform for developing novel spintronics devices based on the QAH effect. PMID:27507248

  4. Prediction of Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator in half-fluorinated GaBi Honeycomb

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Sung-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2016-08-10

    Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, we predict half-fluorinated GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain to harbor a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator phase. We show that this QAH phase is driven by a single inversion in the band structure at the Γ point. Moreover, we have computed the electronic spectrum of a half-fluorinated GaBi nanoribbon with zigzag edges, which shows that only one edge band crosses the Fermi level within the band gap. In conclusion, our results suggest that half-fluorination of the GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain could provide a new platform for developing novel spintronics devices based on the QAHmore » effect.« less

  5. JeffDescription of the Honeycomb Mott Insulatorα‑RuCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koitzsch, A.; Habenicht, C.; Müller, E.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Kandpal, H. C.; van den Brink, J.; Nowak, D.; Isaeva, A.; Doert, Th.

    2016-09-01

    Novel ground states might be realized in honeycomb lattices with strong spin-orbit coupling. Here we study the electronic structure of {\\alpha}-RuCl_3, in which the Ru ions are in a d5 configuration and form a honeycomb lattice, by angle-resolved photoemission, x-ray photoemission and electron energy loss spectroscopy supported by density functional theory and multiplet calculations. We find that {\\alpha}-RuCl_3 is a Mott insulator with significant spin-orbit coupling, whose low energy electronic structure is naturally mapped onto Jeff states. This makes {\\alpha}-RuCl_3 a promising candidate for the realization of Kitaev physics. Relevant electronic parameters such as the Hubbard energy U, the crystal field splitting 10Dq and the charge transfer energy are evaluated. Furthermore, we observe significant Cl photodesorption with time, which must be taken into account when interpreting photoemission and other surface sensitive experiments.

  6. Prediction of Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator in half-fluorinated GaBi Honeycomb

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sung-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Using first-principles electronic structure calculations, we predict half-fluorinated GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain to harbor a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator phase. We show that this QAH phase is driven by a single inversion in the band structure at the Γ point. Moreover, we have computed the electronic spectrum of a half-fluorinated GaBi nanoribbon with zigzag edges, which shows that only one edge band crosses the Fermi level within the band gap. Our results suggest that half-fluorination of the GaBi honeycomb under tensile strain could provide a new platform for developing novel spintronics devices based on the QAH effect. PMID:27507248

  7. Comparison of the Folding Behaviour in the Empty and Foam-Filled Honeycombs via Drop Hammer Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknejad, A.; Liaghat, G. H.; Naeini, H. Moslemi; Behravesh, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, effects of polyurethane foam filler on the folding behaviour of the honeycomb panels as a thin walled structure are studied, experimentally. For this purpose, some specimens of the empty and foam-filled honeycombs were prepared. All panels had 63 hexagonal cells and made of an aluminum alloy. The effects of foam filler on the energy absorption capacity, wavelength of the folds and the number of formed folds were investigated. Folding tests were performed by a drop hammer machine. Polyurethane foam was prepared with the density of 65 kg/m3 to fill the honeycomb cells. The hammer was selected with the weight of 5.48 kg and the initial drop height of 70 cm. The results of the drop hammer tests show that the foam filler causes the increasing in the energy absorption and number of the formed folds and decreasing in the wavelength of the folds.

  8. Composite Sandwich Technologies Lighten Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Leveraging its private resources with several Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with both NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense, WebCore Technologies LLC, of Miamisburg, Ohio, developed a fiber-reinforced foam sandwich panel it calls TYCOR that can be used for a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications. Testing at Glenn Research Center?s Ballistic Impact Facility demonstrated that the technology was able to exhibit excellent damage localization and stiffness during impact. The patented and trademarked material has found use in many demanding applications, including marine, ground transportation, mobile shelters, bridges, and most notably, wind turbines.

  9. Buckling of regular, chiral and hierarchical honeycombs under a general macroscopic stress state

    PubMed Central

    Haghpanah, Babak; Papadopoulos, Jim; Mousanezhad, Davood; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-01-01

    An approach to obtain analytical closed-form expressions for the macroscopic ‘buckling strength’ of various two-dimensional cellular structures is presented. The method is based on classical beam-column end-moment behaviour expressed in a matrix form. It is applied to sample honeycombs with square, triangular and hexagonal unit cells to determine their buckling strength under a general macroscopic in-plane stress state. The results were verified using finite-element Eigenvalue analysis. PMID:25002823

  10. Honeycomb architecture of carbon quantum dots: a new efficient substrate to support gold for stronger SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yueqiong; Cheng, Huhu; Zhou, Ce; Xie, Xuejun; Liu, Yong; Dai, Liming; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti

    2012-02-01

    The rational assembly of quantum dots (QDs) in a geometrically well-defined fashion opens up the possibility of accessing the full potential of the material and allows new functions of the assembled QDs to be achieved. In this work, well-confined two-dimensional (2D) and 3D carbon quantum dot (CQD) honeycomb structures have been assembled by electrodeposition of oxygen-rich functional CQDs within the interstitial voids of assemblies of SiO2 nanospheres, followed by extraction of the SiO2 cores with HF treatment. Although made from quantum sized carbon dots, the CQD assemblies present a solid porous framework, which can be further used as a sacrificial template for the fabrication of new nanostructures made from other functional materials. Based on the unique honeycomb architecture of the CQDs, which allows the more efficient adsorption of molecules, the formed Au nanoparticles on the CQD honeycomb exhibit 8-11 times stronger surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect than the widely used Au nanoparticle SERS substrate for the highly sensitive detection of target molecules. This work provides a new approach for the design and fabrication of ultrasensitive SERS platforms for various applications.The rational assembly of quantum dots (QDs) in a geometrically well-defined fashion opens up the possibility of accessing the full potential of the material and allows new functions of the assembled QDs to be achieved. In this work, well-confined two-dimensional (2D) and 3D carbon quantum dot (CQD) honeycomb structures have been assembled by electrodeposition of oxygen-rich functional CQDs within the interstitial voids of assemblies of SiO2 nanospheres, followed by extraction of the SiO2 cores with HF treatment. Although made from quantum sized carbon dots, the CQD assemblies present a solid porous framework, which can be further used as a sacrificial template for the fabrication of new nanostructures made from other functional materials. Based on the unique honeycomb

  11. "Inverse Sandwich" Complexes of Perhalogenated Cyclohexasilane

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xuliang; Shulz, Douglas; Braun, Christopher; Ugrinov, Angel; and Boudjouk, Philip

    2010-04-20

    Perhalogenated cyclohexasilanes, Si6X12 (X = Cl, Br), were prepared by reaction of Si6H12 with molecular chlorine or bromine in cold (-89 °C) dichloromethane. Single-crystal structural determination by X-ray analysis shows that the six silicon atoms comprising Si6Br12 adopt a chair conformation in the solid state. The addition of p-tolunitrile to Si6X12 (X = Cl, Br) leads to the rapid formation of colorless precipitates. Si6Br12 3 2(p-CH3C6H4CN) adopts an 'inverse sandwich' structure where the N atoms of the p-tolunitrile molecules are μ6 bonded and are located above and below the planar hexagonal Si6 ring. In conclusion, Si6X12 (X = Cl, Br) was synthesized by molecular halogenation of Si6H12 in high yield and good purity. Perhalogenated cyclohexasilanes react with p-tolunitrile to give 'inverse sandwich' adducts 3 and 4 with a planar Si6 ring upon coordination. Our future reports will detail dianionic adducts based on tetra-n-butylammonium halides as well as a monoanionic adamantyl azide adduct of Si6Cl12. It is straightforward to conceptualize the utility of Si6X12 ∙ Ln chemistry in molecular assembly of silicon-based clusters/tubes/wires. Thereby, we proffer that this constitutes a new landscape in Si chemistry.

  12. When block copolymer self-assembly in hierarchically ordered honeycomb films depicts the breath figure process.

    PubMed

    Escalé, Pierre; Save, Maud; Billon, Laurent; Ruokolainen, Janne; Rubatat, Laurent

    2016-01-21

    Nowadays, a challenge in the preparation of hierarchically ordered materials is the control of concomitant and interacting self-organization processes occurring in time at different length scales. In the present paper, the breath figure process is combined with block copolymer nano-phase segregation to elaborate hierarchically structured honeycomb porous films. Copolymer ordering, at the nanometer length scale, is observed and described in detail with respect to the array of pores of micrometer dimension, hence pointing out the structural interplays between both length-scales. The study is focused on two diblock copolymers made of polystyrene and poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PS-b-PtBA) with compositions producing lamellae or hexagonal packing of cylinders at thermodynamical equilibrium. Transmission Electron Microscopy completed with Small and Ultra-Small Angle Scattering are performed to evidence the inner morphologies of the honeycomb. The structural data are discussed in the light of the honeycomb film formation process establishing the interest in using kinetically trapped block copolymer self-organization as an imprint to elucidate the complex breath figure process. PMID:26528753

  13. Two-Dimensional Iron Tungstate: A Ternary Oxide Layer With Honeycomb Geometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The exceptional physical properties of graphene have sparked tremendous interests toward two-dimensional (2D) materials with honeycomb structure. We report here the successful fabrication of 2D iron tungstate (FeWOx) layers with honeycomb geometry on a Pt(111) surface, using the solid-state reaction of (WO3)3 clusters with a FeO(111) monolayer on Pt(111). The formation process and the atomic structure of two commensurate FeWOx phases, with (2 × 2) and (6 × 6) periodicities, have been characterized experimentally by combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and understood theoretically by density functional theory (DFT) modeling. The thermodynamically most stable (2 × 2) phase has a formal FeWO3 stoichiometry and corresponds to a buckled Fe2+/W4+ layer arranged in a honeycomb lattice, terminated by oxygen atoms in Fe–W bridging positions. This 2D FeWO3 layer has a novel structure and stoichiometry and has no analogues to known bulk iron tungstate phases. It is theoretically predicted to exhibit a ferromagnetic electronic ground state with a Curie temperature of 95 K, as opposed to the antiferromagnetic behavior of bulk FeWO4 materials. PMID:27110319

  14. Repair techniques for celion/LARC-160 graphite/polyimide composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. S.; Graves, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The large stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios of graphite composite in combination with the 600 F structural capability of the polyimide matrix can reduce the total structure/TPS weight of reusable space vehicles by 20-30 percent. It is inevitable that with planned usage of GR/PI structural components, damage will occur either in the form of intrinsic flaw growth or mechanical damage. Research and development programs were initiated to develop repair processes and techniques specific to Celion/LARC-160 GR/PI structure with emphasis on highly loaded and lightly loaded compression critical structures for factory type repair. Repair processes include cocure and secondary bonding techniques applied under vacuum plus positive autoclave pressure. Viable repair designs and processes are discussed for flat laminates, honeycomb sandwich panels, and hat-stiffened skin-stringer panels. The repair methodology was verified through structural element compression tests at room temperature and 315 C (600 F).

  15. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Novel Route to Fabrication of Metal-Sandwiched Nanoscale Tapered Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Yu, Da-Peng

    2009-08-01

    Tapered dielectric structures in metal have exhibited extraordinary performance in both surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waveguiding and SPP focusing. This is crucial to plasmonic research and industrial plasmonic device integration. We present a method that facilitates easy fabrication of smooth-surfaced sub-micron tapered structures in large scale simply with electron beam lithography (EBL). When a PMMA layer is spin-coated on previously-EBL-defined PMMA structures, steep edges can be transformed into a declining slope to form tapered PMMA structures, scaled from 10 nm to 1000 nm. Despite the simplicity of our method, patterns with PMMA surface smoothness can be well-positioned and replicated in large numbers, which therefore gives scientists easy access to research on the properties of tapered structures.

  16. Dielectrophoretic behaviours of microdroplet sandwiched between LN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lipin; Li, Shaobei; Fan, Bolin; Yan, Wenbo; Wang, Donghui; Shi, Lihong; Chen, Hongjian; Ban, Dechao; Sun, Shihao

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a sandwich configuration for microfluidic manipulation in LiNbO3 platform based on photovoltaic effect, and the behaviours of dielectric microdroplet under this sandwich configuration are investigated. It is found that the microdroplet can generate in the form of liquid bridge inside the LiNbO3-based sandwich structure under the governing dielectrophoretic force, and the dynamic process of microdroplet generation highly depends on the substrate combinations. Dynamic features found for different combinations are explained by the different electrostatic field distribution basing on the finite-element simulation results. Moreover, the electrostatic field required by the microdroplet generation is estimated through meniscus evolution and it is found in good agreement with the simulated electrostatic field inside the sandwich gap. Several kinds of microdroplet manipulations are attempted in this work. We suggest that the local dielectrophoretic force acting on the microdroplet depends on the distribution of the accumulated irradiation dosage. Without using any additional pumping or jetting actuator, the microdroplet can be step-moved, deformed or patterned by the inconsecutive dot-irradiation scheme, as well as elastically stretched out and back or smoothly guided in a designed pass by the consecutive line-irradiation scheme.

  17. Dielectrophoretic behaviours of microdroplet sandwiched between LN substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lipin; Li, Shaobei; Fan, Bolin; Yan, Wenbo; Wang, Donghui; Shi, Lihong; Chen, Hongjian; Ban, Dechao; Sun, Shihao

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a sandwich configuration for microfluidic manipulation in LiNbO3 platform based on photovoltaic effect, and the behaviours of dielectric microdroplet under this sandwich configuration are investigated. It is found that the microdroplet can generate in the form of liquid bridge inside the LiNbO3-based sandwich structure under the governing dielectrophoretic force, and the dynamic process of microdroplet generation highly depends on the substrate combinations. Dynamic features found for different combinations are explained by the different electrostatic field distribution basing on the finite-element simulation results. Moreover, the electrostatic field required by the microdroplet generation is estimated through meniscus evolution and it is found in good agreement with the simulated electrostatic field inside the sandwich gap. Several kinds of microdroplet manipulations are attempted in this work. We suggest that the local dielectrophoretic force acting on the microdroplet depends on the distribution of the accumulated irradiation dosage. Without using any additional pumping or jetting actuator, the microdroplet can be step-moved, deformed or patterned by the inconsecutive dot-irradiation scheme, as well as elastically stretched out and back or smoothly guided in a designed pass by the consecutive line-irradiation scheme. PMID:27383027

  18. Dielectrophoretic behaviours of microdroplet sandwiched between LN substrates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lipin; Li, Shaobei; Fan, Bolin; Yan, Wenbo; Wang, Donghui; Shi, Lihong; Chen, Hongjian; Ban, Dechao; Sun, Shihao

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a sandwich configuration for microfluidic manipulation in LiNbO3 platform based on photovoltaic effect, and the behaviours of dielectric microdroplet under this sandwich configuration are investigated. It is found that the microdroplet can generate in the form of liquid bridge inside the LiNbO3-based sandwich structure under the governing dielectrophoretic force, and the dynamic process of microdroplet generation highly depends on the substrate combinations. Dynamic features found for different combinations are explained by the different electrostatic field distribution basing on the finite-element simulation results. Moreover, the electrostatic field required by the microdroplet generation is estimated through meniscus evolution and it is found in good agreement with the simulated electrostatic field inside the sandwich gap. Several kinds of microdroplet manipulations are attempted in this work. We suggest that the local dielectrophoretic force acting on the microdroplet depends on the distribution of the accumulated irradiation dosage. Without using any additional pumping or jetting actuator, the microdroplet can be step-moved, deformed or patterned by the inconsecutive dot-irradiation scheme, as well as elastically stretched out and back or smoothly guided in a designed pass by the consecutive line-irradiation scheme. PMID:27383027

  19. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Large Storage Window in a-SiNx/nc-Si/a-SiNx Sandwiched Structure for Nanocrystalline Silicon Floating Gate Memory Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Huang, Jian; Ding, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Xian-Gao; Yu, Lin-Wei; Huang, Xin-Fan; Li, Wei; Chen, Kun-Ji

    2008-07-01

    An a-SiNx/nanocrystalline silicon [(nc-Si)/a-SiNx] sandwiched structure is fabricated in a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) system at low temperature (250° C). The nc-Si layer is fabricated from a hydrogen-diluted silane mixture gas by using a layer-by-layer deposition technique. Atom force microscopy measurement shows that the density of nc-Si is about 2 × 1011 cm-2. By the pretreatment of plasma nitridation, low density of interface states and high-quality interface between the Si substrate and a-SiNx insulator layer are obtained. The density of interface state at the midgap is calculated to be 1 × 1010 cm-2eV-1 from the quasistatic and high frequency C - V data. The charging and discharging property of nc-Si quantum dots is studied by capacitance-voltage (C - V) measurement at room temperature. An ultra-large hysteresis is observed in the C - V characteristics, which is attributed to storage of the electrons and holes into the nc-Si dots. The long-term charge-loss process is studied and ascribed to low density of interface states at SiNx/Si substrate.

  20. Interacting growth walk on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, S. L.; Sridhar, V.; Murthy, K. P. N.

    2003-03-01

    The interacting growth walk (IGW) is a kinetic algorithm proposed recently for generating long, lattice polymer configurations. The growth process in IGW is tuned by a parameter called the growth temperature TG=1/( kBβG). In this paper we consider IGW on a honeycomb lattice. We take the non-bonded nearest neighbour contact energy as ε=-1. We show that at βG=0, IGW algorithm generates a canonical ensemble of interacting self-avoiding walks at β= β̂(β G=0)= ln(2) . However for βG>0, IGW generates an ensemble of polymer configurations most of which are in equilibrium at β= β̂(β G) . The remaining ones are frozen in ‘non-equilibrium’ configurations.