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Sample records for hookah smoking harmfulness

  1. Perceptions of hookah smoking harmfulness: predictors and characteristics among current hookah users

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco cigarette smoking a well-known cause of cancer and other diseases. Hookah smoking is another form of tobacco use that has rapidly spread in the United State and Europe. This study assessed beliefs about the harmfulness of smoking hookah. Methods We surveyed hookah users in all cafes that provided hookah to its customers in downtown San Diego, California and nearby areas. A total of 235 hookah users participated in this study. Results Average age of study participants was 22 years, 57% were males, and 72% were not cigarette smokers. Whites were more likely to use hookah than the other ethnic groups (33%), older hookah users (26-35 years) were mostly males, and mint flavor of hookah tobacco was the most popular among a wide variety of flavors (23%). There was no significant difference in gender in relation to the wrong perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes, but those of Asian ethnicity were much less likely than other ethnic groups to believe that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. More frequent users of hookah were more likely to believe that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The majority of hookah users (58.3%) believe hookah is less harmful than cigarette smoking. Discussion Compared to cigarettes, there appears to be a lack of knowledge about the harmfulness of smoking hookah among users regardless of their demographic background. Education about the harmfulness of smoking hookah and policies to limit its use should be implemented to prevent the spread of this new form of tobacco use. PMID:20021672

  2. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  3. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  4. Hookah smoking and harm perception among asthmatic adolescents: findings from the Florida youth tobacco survey.

    PubMed

    Martinasek, Mary P; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by asthma status. The Florida Youth Tobacco Survey was conducted in 2012 among 36,578 high school students. Secondary data analysis was conducted to compare the rates of hookah use among asthmatic youth to their nonasthmatic counterparts. Risk perception of hookah use compared to cigarette smoking was also assessed among asthmatic and nonasthmatic adolescents. One in 5 high school students reported lifetime asthma. These asthmatic students have a significantly higher prevalence of hookah smoking and greater perception of hookah use as being less harmful than cigarette smoking, than their nonasthmatic counterparts. Among asthmatics, 12th graders and Hispanic students had the highest prevalence of hookah smoking. Common misperceptions of hookah smoking as being less harmful than cigarette smoking are prominent among high school students in Florida and are greater among students with asthma than those students who do not have asthma. Efforts to increase education to dispel the myths surrounding hookah smoking as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking needs to exist at the high school level for both students with and without asthma. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  5. Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking…

  6. Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking…

  7. A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Giedgowd, Grace E; Crane, Natania A; Veilleux, Jennifer C; Conrad, Megan; Braun, Ashley R; Olejarska, Natalia A; Kassel, Jon D

    2013-11-01

    The practice of waterpipe smoking (hookah) has rapidly increased in popularity among young adults yet burgeoning research suggests that its use is associated with nicotine dependence and other negative smoking-related health consequences. Moreover, descriptive studies indicate that consumers may hold the belief that hookah smoking is safer than smoking cigarettes. The current study extended previous work by conducting a comprehensive assessment of patterns and contexts of hookah use, psychological correlates of use, co-occurring substance use as well as social norms and health perceptions surrounding the practice. Participants were 143 ethnically diverse undergraduate students at a large urban US university. Approximately half of the sample (48%) reported life-time use of hookah and 22% reported use within the past 30days. Relative to cigarette smoking, hookah smoking was associated with less perceived harm and addiction potential and higher social approval. Participants who reported life-time hookah use, as compared to those who did not, perceived less associated harm, had a greater number of friends who had tried and approved of hookah, were more likely to use cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol and in higher frequencies and quantities and were at higher risk for problem tobacco and alcohol use. Among participants who were not current smokers, those with hookah experience were more likely to endorse intent to try a cigarette soon. Hookah users did not differ from non-users on measures of trait anxiety, depression and impulsivity though they were more likely to drink alcohol for coping, social and enhancement purposes than non-users. Implications are discussed for public health initiatives to educate young adults about the potential consequences of hookah smoking.

  8. Risk factors for hookah smoking among arabs and chaldeans.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hikmet; Geeso, Sanabil G; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E

    2014-06-01

    Hookah smoking is more prevalent among individuals of Middle Eastern descent. This study examined general and ethnic-specific risk factors for hookah smoking among Arabs and Chaldeans. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was conducted among 801 adults residing in Southeast Michigan. Binary logistic regression modeling was used to predict risk factors for hookah smoking. Hookah smoking was significantly more prevalent among Arabs (32%) than Chaldeans (26%, p < 0.01) and being Arab was a risk factor for lifetime hookah use. Younger age (<25 years), being male, higher annual income, and having health insurance were significant risk factors for hookah use. Chaldeans believed to a greater extent than Arabs that smoking hookah is less harmful than cigarette smoking (75 vs. 52%, p < 0.001). Hookah smoking is prevalent in both ethnic groups, but significantly higher among Arabs. Results indicate that prevention efforts should target younger males with higher incomes.

  9. Hookah pipe smoking among health sciences students.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, N; Banoobhai, T; Gqweta, A; Gwala, A; Masiea, T; Misra, M; Zweigenthal, V

    2013-09-30

    Hookah pipe smoking is a social practice and has gained popularity, especially among South African youth. The extent of this practice among health sciences students, and their knowledge regarding the health risks, are unknown. This is important, as these students will become future health professionals possibly influencing the practice of individuals and communities. To explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of hookah pipe smoking among students at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town. METHODS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate and postgraduate students. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed as a hard copy and online survey. Of 228 participants, 66% had smoked a hookah pipe before, with 18% still smoking. Most began smoking in high school, with 25% initiating at university. Of the current smokers, 65% smoked occasionally socially, commonly at friends' houses for 30 - 60 min/session. A further 11% smoked cigarettes concurrently and 30% added other substances, mainly cannabis, to pipes. Most current hookah smokers had no interest in quitting (84%). Only 30% of participants had prior health information about hookah pipe smoking. Most knew that it was harmful (91%), with many not knowing why. A total of 80% of participants perceived that the practice was socially acceptable and 84% would recommend it to others.CONCLUSION; The poor knowledge about the dangers of hookah pipe smoking and the extent of its practice among health sciences students is alarming. These findings highlight the need for school and university health promotion campaigns, and for better regulation of hookah pipe smoking.

  10. Hookah smoking among young adults in southern California.

    PubMed

    Rezk-Hanna, Mary; Macabasco-OʼConnell, Aurelia; Woo, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Hookah (water pipe) smoking is a form of tobacco use, historically from the Middle East and India that is fueling a contemporary epidemic of tobacco abuse and a nationwide public health crisis, particularly among young adults. There is little information on factors influencing hookah smoking and health beliefs of hookah smokers. Guided by the health belief model, the purpose of this study was to assess young adult hookah smokers' perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, and preferences toward hookah smoking and identify factors that may influence heavy (>3 times per week) versus light hookah smoking. A cross-sectional design was used for this study. Participants were recruited at hookah lounges in southern California. A sample of participants who smoke hookah and were between 18 and 30 years of age completed a short survey about their perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, initiation, and frequency of hookah smoking. Characteristics of light and heavy hookah smokers were compared using t tests and chi-square tests. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Participants (N = 91) had a mean age of 24 (SD = 2.7), and 65% were men; 24% reported smoking before the age of 18, and 73.6% of participants smoked more than once a week. Men were heavier smokers in comparison to women (p = .006), 57% believed that hookah was not harmful to their health, and 60% reported socialization as the main reason why they smoked hookah. It is critical to advocate for greater research on the health effects of hookah smoking and dissemination of these findings to the public, particularly to young adults.

  11. Hookah smoking behavior initiation in the context of Millennials.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, G; Barnett, T E; Soule, E K; Young, M E

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine current hookah users' perceptions, attitudes, and normative beliefs regarding hookah smoking to further elucidate the rise in hookah smoking prevalence among young adults (aged 18-24 years) and reveal why hookah smoking is perceived as less harmful than other forms of tobacco consumption. Qualitative. Data from six focus group interviews with hookah smokers aged between 18 and 24 years were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Focus groups were evenly split between frequent and infrequent hookah users, and were predominantly composed of college students, with two groups of hookah users consisting of 18-24 year olds of non-student status. Hookah users shared a much larger set of positive hookah smoking behavioral beliefs as opposed to negative behavioral beliefs. Generational traits served as the overarching commonality among the behavior performance initiation determinants observed. The most notable generational trends observed were within the cultural category, which included the following millennial characteristics: autonomy, personalization, novelty appeal, convenience, globally oriented, entertainment, collaboration, health conscious, and valuing their social network. Millennial hookah users revealed mindfulness regarding both potential negative and positive reasons stemming from continued hookah use; however, behavioral beliefs were primarily fixated on the perception that hookah smoking was a healthier alternative to cigarette smoking. Future implications for this study's findings include generating more positive ways to express these traits for young adults; policy implications include raising hookah bar age limits, implementing indoor smoking restrictions, and limiting the ease of accessibility for purchasing hookah supplies. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hookah Smoking Behavior Initiation in the Context of Millennials

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Gail; Barnett, Tracey E.; Soule, Eric K; Young, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to examine current hookah users’ perceptions, attitudes, and normative beliefs regarding hookah smoking to further elucidate the rise in hookah smoking prevalence among young adults (aged 18–24 years) and reveal why hookah smoking is perceived as less harmful than other forms of tobacco consumption. Study Design Qualitative. Methods Data analysis of six focus group interviews with hookah smokers between 18–24 years was analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Focus groups were evenly split between frequent and infrequent hookah users, and were predominantly composed of college students, with two groups of hookah users consisting of 18–24 year olds of non-student status. Results Hookah users shared a much larger set of positive hookah smoking behavioral beliefs as opposed to negative behavioral beliefs. Generational traits served as the overarching commonality among the behavior performance initiation determinants observed. The most notable generational trends observed were within the cultural category, which included the following millennial characteristics: autonomy, personalization, novelty appeal, convenience, globally oriented, entertainment, collaboration, health conscious, and valuing their social network. Conclusions Millennial hookah users revealed mindfulness regarding both potential negative and positive reasons stemming from continued hookah use; however, behavioral beliefs were primarily fixated on the perception that hookah smoking was a healthier alternative to cigarette smoking. Future implications for this study’s findings include generating more positive ways to express these traits for young adults; policy implications include raising hookah bar age limits, implementing indoor smoking restrictions, and limiting the ease of accessibility for purchasing hookah supplies. PMID:27003670

  13. Small Area Estimate Maps: Is a Hookah Less Harmful? - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    This metric is defined as a person 18 years of age or older who must have reported that he/she thinks that smoking tobacco using a hookah is less harmful or much less harmful compared to smoking cigarettes.

  14. Secondhand hookah smoke: an occupational hazard for hookah bar employees.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sherry; Behrooz, Leili; Weitzman, Michael; Pan, Grace; Vilcassim, Ruzmyn; Mirowsky, Jaime E; Breysee, Patrick; Rule, Ana; Gordon, Terry

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity of hookah bars, there is a lack of research assessing the health effects of hookah smoke among employees. This study investigated indoor air quality in hookah bars and the health effects of secondhand hookah smoke on hookah bar workers. Air samples were collected during the work shift of 10 workers in hookah bars in New York City (NYC). Air measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), fine black carbon (BC2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and nicotine were collected during each work shift. Blood pressure and heart rate, markers of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (exhaled CO and saliva cotinine levels), and selected inflammatory cytokines in blood (ineterleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-8, interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α)) were assessed in workers immediately prior to and immediately after their work shift. The PM2.5 (gravimetric) and BC2.5 concentrations in indoor air varied greatly among the work shifts with mean levels of 363.8 µg/m(3) and 2.2 µg/m(3), respectively. The mean CO level was 12.9 ppm with a peak value of 22.5 ppm CO observed in one hookah bar. While heart rate was elevated by 6 bpm after occupational exposure, this change was not statistically significant. Levels of inflammatory cytokines in blood were all increased at postshift compared to preshift testing with IFN-Υ increasing from 0.85 (0.13) to 1.6 (0.25) (mean (standard error of the mean; SEM)) pg/mL (p<0.01). Exhaled CO levels were significantly elevated after the work shift with 2 of 10 workers having values >90 ppm exhaled CO. These results demonstrate that hookah bars have elevated concentrations of indoor air pollutants that appear to cause adverse health effects in employees. These data indicate the need for further research and a marked need for better air quality monitoring and policies in such establishments to improve the indoor air quality for workers and patrons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  15. Carbon monoxide fractions in cigarette and hookah (hubble bubble) smoke.

    PubMed

    Sajid, K M; Akhter, M; Malik, G Q

    1993-09-01

    We studied the carbon monoxide (CO) fractions in hookah and cigarette smoke, using a carbon monoxide micro smokerlyzer (model EC50, BEDFONT, U.K.). Mean carbon monoxide fractions (% by volume) of hookah smoke, using domestic charcoal were 0.38 +/- 0.07 (large hookah; unfiltered); 1.40 +/- 0.43 (small hookah; unfiltered); 0.34 +/- 0.06 (large hookah; filtered); 1.36 +/- 0.35 (small hookah; filtered) and 0.41 +/- 0.08 (cigarette smoke). The highest fractions were obtained with small size hookah and increase in size of hookah (i.e., volume of air in water base, fire bowl volume, pipe length, etc.) reduced the CO fraction significantly (P < 0.001). The fractions of cigarette lie between large and small hookah. The fractions vary slightly with different varieties of tobacco, e.g., CO fractions with Dera wala tobacco are significantly low (P < 0.05). Use of commercial charcoal gives significant rise in CO fractions (P < 0.001). Comparison of filtered and unfiltered smoke shows no significant difference in values. We conclude that the CO hazard is as high with hookah smoking as with cigarette smoking.

  16. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    low compared to cigarette smokers. However, heavy hookah smoking substantially raises CEA levels. Low-nitrosamines smokeless tobacco of the SNUS Swedish type could be envisaged as an alternative to smoking for this category of users and also, in a broad harm reduction perspective, to the prevalent low-quality moist snuff called naswar. PMID:18501010

  17. Hookah Smoking and Facilitators/Barriers to Lounge Use among Students at a US University

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Nada O. F.; Jackson, Sheila R.; Boman-Davis, Marie; Kassem, Noura O.; Liles, Sandy; Daffa, Reem M.; Yasmin, Roxana; Madanat, Hala; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine hookah tobacco use, hookah lounge attendance, and facilitators and barriers to hookah lounge attendance. Methods A cross-sectional Web-based survey of a random sample of 1332 undergraduate students (Mean Age = 21.2 years) attending a United States university. Results The majority of respondents (72.8%) had ever smoked hookah tobacco, and 28% of those had ever smoked during adolescence. The majority of ever hookah smokers (81.5%) and a portion of never hookah smokers (20%) had ever been to a hookah lounge. The adjusted odds of ever visiting a hookah lounge were 2.1 times higher among participants who reported that the closest hookah lounge to the university was < 5 miles away than those who reported that the closest hookah lounge was ≥ 5 miles away. Facilitators of visiting hookah lounges included friends and close proximity of hookah lounges to campus; barriers included cost of smoking hookah, crowded lounges, and having to be 18 years old. Conclusion Youth are vulnerable to experimenting with hookah tobacco smoking. Hookah lounges provide patrons the opportunity to smoke hookah tobacco with smoker and non-smoker friends in entertaining settings. Our findings suggest that zoning laws and anti-hookah smoking legislation may help curb hookah uptake by prohibiting hookah lounges from opening in close proximity to universities, reducing the density of hookah lounges in cities, and raising the admission age for hookah lounges to 21 years. PMID:26450551

  18. Factors Associated with Hookah Smoking among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Joveini, Hamid; Dehdari, Taherh; Ardebili, Hassan Eftekhar; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Firouzian, Ali Asghar; Rohban, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background These days, hookah smoking has gained popularity among people in many communities, especially among youths and students, and more attention to this issue seems necessary. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting hookah smoking among Sabzevar Azad University students. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on university students in Sabzevar, Iran in 2014. The questionnaire was developed and its validity and reliability were assessed. Three hundred six male students of Sabzevar Azad University were selected by simple random sampling and questionnaires were filled out by them. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software and the Chi-Square and Independent-samples t-test. Results The results showed that 47.7% of the participants had a history of smoking hookah. The main factors affecting hookah smoking from participants’ point of view were: filling leisure time, availability of hookah, positive social appearance, friends’ invitation and relief from anxieties. Chi-Square tests showed that there was no significant relationship between fathers’ level of education (p=0.41), mothers’ level of education (p=0.46), fathers’ job (p=0.18), mothers’ job (p=0.53) and students’ current grade (p=0.41) with hookah smoking. The study showed significant relationship between present hookah smoking and awareness about complications of the hookah (p=0.01). Conclusion Interventions to reduce and quit hookah smoking among students should include several items, such as teaching problem-solving skills to fill leisure time properly and to deal with the temptation of hookah smoking, as well as teaching refusal skills at the invitation of friends for hookah. PMID:28163855

  19. The Role of Family on Hookah Smoking Initiation in Women: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shahbazi Sighaldeh, Shirin; Ebadi, Abbas; Kelishadi, Roya; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2015-02-24

    Hookah smoking has recently emerged as a popular alternative to cigarette smoking particularly among young adults and women. This study focused on the role of family members' smoking behaviours as a possible risk factor for initiation of hookah smoking in women. 36 in-depth interviews were conducted with Iranian women of diverse ages for understanding the factors contributing to the initiation of hookah smoking. Four main themes were identified from the data. This study focused on the role of family as a facilitator for hookah smoking initiation. The results of this study indicate that the entry of hookah into homes can be effective in the spread of hookah smoking among adult and young women, in three ways: Girls' participation in the preparation of hookah and the frequent observation of people who smoke hookah at home can be effective in hookah smoking initiation among young girls; the husband of a young woman has an important role in the initiation of smoking hookah; when parents invite children to smoke hookah at home, in order to protect them against public censure, the mother (a middle aged woman) may intend to start smoking hookah. Therefore, tobacco use prevention interventions should be focused on targeting the family as well.

  20. Factors Associated with Perceptions of Hookah Addictiveness and Harmfulness among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Devon; Patrick, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah smoking is a form of tobacco use that is growing in popularity in the United States. College-aged students, who are known to experiment with multiple forms of tobacco, are particularly vulnerable to this tobacco trend. There is a common misconception that hookah smoking is not as dangerous as other forms of tobacco, which may help explain…

  1. Factors Associated with Perceptions of Hookah Addictiveness and Harmfulness among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Devon; Patrick, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah smoking is a form of tobacco use that is growing in popularity in the United States. College-aged students, who are known to experiment with multiple forms of tobacco, are particularly vulnerable to this tobacco trend. There is a common misconception that hookah smoking is not as dangerous as other forms of tobacco, which may help explain…

  2. Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael D; Rezk-Hanna, Mary; Rader, Florian; Mason, O'Neil R; Tang, Xiu; Shidban, Sarah; Rosenberry, Ryan; Benowitz, Neal L; Tashkin, Donald P; Elashoff, Robert M; Lindner, Jonathan R; Victor, Ronald G

    2016-06-01

    Hookah (water pipe) smoking is a major new understudied epidemic affecting youth. Because burning charcoal is used to heat the tobacco product, hookah smoke delivers not only nicotine but also large amounts of charcoal combustion products, including carbon-rich nanoparticles that constitute putative coronary vasoconstrictor stimuli and carbon monoxide, a known coronary vasodilator. We used myocardial contrast echocardiography perfusion imaging with intravenous lipid shelled microbubbles in young adult hookah smokers to determine the net effect of smoking hookah on myocardial blood flow. In 9 hookah smokers (age 27 ± 5 years, mean ± SD), we measured myocardial blood flow velocity (β), myocardial blood volume (A), myocardial blood flow (A × β) as well as myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) before and immediately after 30 minutes of ad lib hookah smoking. Myocardial blood flow did not decrease with hookah smoking but rather increased acutely (88 ± 10 to 120 ± 19 a.u./s, mean ± SE, p = 0.02), matching a mild increase in MVO2 (6.5 ± 0.3 to 7.6 ± 0.4 ml·minute(-1), p <0.001). This was manifested primarily by increased myocardial blood flow velocity (0.7 ± 0.1 to 0.9 ± 0.1 second(-1), p = 0.01) with unchanged myocardial blood volume (133 ± 7 to 137 ± 7 a.u., p = ns), the same pattern of coronary microvascular response seen with a low-dose β-adrenergic agonist. Indeed, with hookah, the increased MVO2 was accompanied by decreased heart rate variability, an indirect index of adrenergic overactivity, and eliminated by β-adrenergic blockade (i.v. propranolol). In conclusion, nanoparticle-enriched hookah smoke either is not an acute coronary vasoconstrictor stimulus or its vasoconstrictor effect is too weak to overcome the physiologic dilation of coronary microvessels matching mild cardiac β-adrenergic stimulation.

  3. Risk Factors Associated With Hookah Use

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Kim, Yoonsang; Emery, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Potential harms associated with hookah smoking are largely unrecognized and it is emerging as a trendy behavior. To help inform policy and preventive interventions, we used responses from a population survey of US adults to examine risk factors associated with hookah involvement. Method: An online survey of 17 522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group’s KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between tobacco use patterns across multiple products (cigarettes, cigars, and dissolvables), perceived harms towards regular pipe/hookah use, and demographic characteristics with hookah involvement (never used, ever used with/without reusing intent). Result: Nearly one in five (16%) of the respondents had smoked hookah at least once in their life (“ever users”). Ever users of hookah were at higher risk of having used cigarettes, cigars, and dissolvable tobacco products (all P < .01). Odds for hookah use were greater for those who perceived regular pipe/hookah use as less dangerous (P < .05). Odds for hookah involvement were higher among young adults (P < .001), individuals with higher educational attainment (P < .01), and Hispanics/Latinos (P < .05). Conclusions: Information about the public health harms associated with hookah smoking should be delivered to individuals at-risk for hookah smoking. It is likely that misconceptions about the safety of hookah smoking could be driving, at least in-part, its increase in popularity. PMID:25646349

  4. Opportunities for policy interventions to reduce youth hookah smoking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Morris, Daniel S; Fiala, Steven C; Pawlak, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Preventing youth smoking initiation is a priority for tobacco control programs, because most adult tobacco smokers become addicted during adolescence. Interventions that restrict the affordability, accessibility, and marketing of cigarettes have been effective in reducing youth cigarette smoking. However, increasing numbers of youth are smoking tobacco using hookahs. Predictors of smoking tobacco with hookahs are the same as those for smoking cigarettes. Established interventions that curb youth cigarette smoking should therefore be effective in reducing hookah use. Potential policy interventions include equalizing tobacco tax rates for all tobacco types, requiring warning labels on hookah tobacco and accurate labeling of product contents, extending the cigarette flavoring ban to hookah tobacco, enacting smoke-free air laws and removing exemptions for hookah lounges, and expanding shipping restrictions on tobacco products.

  5. Social context of smoking hookah among college students: scale development and validation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Eva; Beck, Kenneth H; Clark, Pamela I

    2013-01-01

    To develop an instrument that measures the social context of hookah use among college students. A pool of 50 potential items, based on 44 in-depth interviews with regular college hookah smokers, was administered to a sample of 274 hookah users between October and December 2011. Participants were approached in hookah bars and asked to complete the survey. A principle components analysis revealed 3 reliable factors: social facilitation, family/cultural influence, and alternative to smoking cigarettes and drinking. These were examined across different categories of hookah use: Weekly hookah users were more likely to smoke in a context of social facilitation than the other 2 groups. Similar effects were observed for family/cultural influence. Asians were more likely to smoke in a context of family and cultural influence than non-Asians. This scale has potential for identifying situation-specific contexts of hookah use that may help in designing effective interventions for college students.

  6. Understanding Attitudes, Beliefs, and Information Seeking Regarding Hookah Smoking in Parents of College Students: An Exploratory Qualitative Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Calvanese, Allison V; Bingham, Megan V; Martinasek, Mary P; Friesen, Bruce K

    2015-07-01

    Hookah smoking has become increasingly common among young adults in the United States. College students engage in hookah smoking due to the increased exposure and popularity of hookah bars surrounding college campuses. There is limited information on parental perceptions of college students' hookah smoking. Forty-four telephone interviews were recorded and transcribed with parents of college students using a structured interview guide to explore perceptions, beliefs, behaviors, and information seeking regarding hookah smoking. The transcripts were coded and categorized using NVivo software, and emerging themes were uncovered. Parents were lacking in awareness and knowledge of hookah smoking and health consequences. They often equated hookah smoking with bong use from their own college experiences. Although negative effects were equated with cigarette smoking, some parents reported beneficial effects of hookah smoking. Some parents disapproved of their college students smoking hookah, whereas others felt it was important that they try new behaviors in moderation. The varying responses indicate that parents were not receiving consistent messages, if any, regarding hookah tobacco smoking. Informing parents of current novel risky behaviors such as hookah smoking is necessary as they are trusted sources of information for young adult children. Delivering information and educational messages to both students and their parents may be a worthy approach when developing campaigns to deter hookah smoking. There is a need to deter hookah smoking, as it remains a public health concern. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Factors Affecting Hookah Smoking Trend in the Society: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Momenabadi, Victoria; Hossein Kaveh PhD, Mohammad; Hashemi, Seyed Yaser; Borhaninejad, Vahid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase in hookah smoking is considered to be a serious health problem in societies withdifferent cigarette smoking patterns. Thus, determinants of increase in this behavior are needed to beidentified. This study aimed to review the articles related to the causes of hookah smoking in the society. Methods This study reviewed the scientific references of authentic databases and journals, including Web ofScience, PubMed, Iranian Databases, Elsevier, Embase, Scopus, MEDLINE, CINAHL, CDC, and WorldHealth Organization (WHO). Overall, 84 scientific studies conducted during 1990-2015 were collected. Findings Several studies on the prevalence of smoking hookah and its associated factors in the societysuggested that numerous factors played a role in interest in smoking hookah. The most common reasons forindividuals’ inclination to smoke hookah were positive viewpoints toward smoking hookah, wrong beliefsabout its low risks, presumed lack of addiction, social acceptance, ease of access, wrong cultural habits, andregulative weakness. Conclusion Evidence indicated that a large spectrum of individual and social factors was effective in variouslevels of hookah consumption. Besides, it seems that single-component interventions and those solely basedon individual factors could not result in effective prevention. On the other hand, interventions based onecological approaches are suggested in this regard. Overall, it is essential to focus on the exclusion of positiveviewpoints toward hookah, develop the ability to say “no,” relaxation, and resistance against temptations tosmoke hookah, culturalization, and regulation of strong laws. PMID:27882210

  8. Hookah-Related Twitter Chatter: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sowles, Shaina J.; Moreno, Megan; Zewdie, Kidist; Grucza, Richard A.; Bierut, Laura J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hookah smoking is becoming increasingly popular among young adults and is often perceived as less harmful than cigarette use. Prior studies show that it is common for youth and young adults to network about substance use behaviors on social media. Social media messages about hookah could influence its use among young people. We explored normalization or discouragement of hookah smoking, and other common messages about hookah on Twitter. Methods From the full stream of tweets posted on Twitter from April 12, 2014, to May 10, 2014 (approximately 14.5 billion tweets), all tweets containing the terms hookah, hooka, shisha, or sheesha were collected (n = 358,523). The hookah tweets from Twitter users (tweeters) with high influence and followers were identified (n = 39,824) and a random sample of 5,000 tweets was taken (13% of tweets with high influence and followers). The sample of tweets was qualitatively coded for normalization (ie, makes hookah smoking seem common and normal or portrays positive experiences with smoking hookah) or discouragement of hookah smoking, and other common themes using crowdsourcing. Results Approximately 87% of the sample of tweets normalized hookah use, and 7% were against hookah or discouraged its use. Nearly half (46%) of tweets that normalized hookah indicated that the tweeter was smoking hookah or wanted to smoke hookah, and 19% were advertisements/promotions for hookah bars or products. Conclusion Educational campaigns about health harms from hookah use and policy changes regarding smoke-free air laws and tobacco advertising on the Internet may be useful to help offset the influence of pro-hookah messages seen on social media. PMID:26226068

  9. Hookah-Related Twitter Chatter: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Moreno, Megan; Zewdie, Kidist; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura J; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A

    2015-07-30

    Hookah smoking is becoming increasingly popular among young adults and is often perceived as less harmful than cigarette use. Prior studies show that it is common for youth and young adults to network about substance use behaviors on social media. Social media messages about hookah could influence its use among young people. We explored normalization or discouragement of hookah smoking, and other common messages about hookah on Twitter. From the full stream of tweets posted on Twitter from April 12, 2014, to May 10, 2014 (approximately 14.5 billion tweets), all tweets containing the terms hookah, hooka, shisha, or sheesha were collected (n = 358,523). The hookah tweets from Twitter users (tweeters) with high influence and followers were identified (n = 39,824) and a random sample of 5,000 tweets was taken (13% of tweets with high influence and followers). The sample of tweets was qualitatively coded for normalization (ie, makes hookah smoking seem common and normal or portrays positive experiences with smoking hookah) or discouragement of hookah smoking, and other common themes using crowdsourcing. Approximately 87% of the sample of tweets normalized hookah use, and 7% were against hookah or discouraged its use. Nearly half (46%) of tweets that normalized hookah indicated that the tweeter was smoking hookah or wanted to smoke hookah, and 19% were advertisements/promotions for hookah bars or products. Educational campaigns about health harms from hookah use and policy changes regarding smoke-free air laws and tobacco advertising on the Internet may be useful to help offset the influence of pro-hookah messages seen on social media.

  10. Factors that Contribute in the First Hookah Smoking Trial by Women: A Qualitative Study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    BAHEIRAEI, Azam; SHAHBAZI SIGHALDEH, Shirin; EBADI, Abbas; KELISHADI, Roya; MAJDZADEH, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Hookah smoking is growing in popularity especially among women but little is known about the determinants influencing on hookah smoking initiation. In order to address this emerging health risk, a qualitative study was conducted to explore the factors that contribute in the first hookah smoking trial by women. Methods This qualitative study was conducted during 2012 to 2013 in Tehran, Iran. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, ethnicity, age groups and residence. Data was collected through in-depth individual interviews and was analyzed through content analysis. Results Four main themes were identified from the qualitative data including: Positive attitude toward hookah smoking; Social and family facilitators; Psychosocial needs and gaps and Sensory characteristic of hookah. Conclusion From this study, a variety of factors which contribute to the initiation of hookah smoking among women have been identified. Since one of the major causes of increased hookah smoking may be its ordinary use, all factors causing the ordinary use should be eliminated, and efforts should be made in opposition to hookah smoking promotions. PMID:26060781

  11. Waterpipe (hookah) tobacco smoking among youth.

    PubMed

    Martinasek, Mary P; McDermott, Robert J; Martini, Leila

    2011-02-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a centuries old practice, influenced by cultural tradition in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, and parts of Asia. It historically has been an activity enjoyed primarily by men. In the past 2 decades, however, this method of tobacco smoking has increased in popularity in other parts of the world, including the USA. Growing interest in this form of smoking can be traced, in part, to the advent of a flavored tobacco, called maassel. The combination of flavoring agents and the paraphernalia itself used in the smoking process, along with its mystic appeal, novelty, affordability, and the social atmosphere in which smoking often occurs, has made waterpipe smoking attractive to women as well as men, cigarette smokers and nonsmokers alike, and particular groups, including persons of college age and younger adolescents. Although waterpipe smoking is perceived by its new generation of users to be less addictive and hazardous to health than cigarette smoking, researchers draw diametrically opposed conclusions. Research demonstrates that numerous toxic agents, including carcinogens, heavy metals, other particulate matter, and high levels of nicotine, are efficiently delivered through waterpipes. Moreover, sidestream smoke exposes others in the vicinity of waterpipe smokers to the risk of respiratory diseases and other conditions. In addition, persons sharing waterpipe mouthpieces may share infectious agents as well. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has been declared a public health problem by the World Health Organization and other authorities. Recognition of the deleterious effects of waterpipe smoking has led to initial attempts to expand regulatory control. Because waterpipe tobacco is not directly burned in the smoking process, many existing control measures do not apply. Public health authorities should monitor waterpipe tobacco use carefully. Finally, pediatricians and other healthcare providers should discourage experimentation and

  12. Perception of young adults toward hookah use in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Dani, K K; Oswal, K; Maudgal, S; Saranath, D

    2015-01-01

    The use of tobacco has been on the rise globally including in India, posing a grave public health problem. Recently, tobacco use through hookah smoking has increased among young adults in India, Middle East, Southwest Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Hookah prevalence of 0.4-15% has been reported in India. The aim of the study was to understand perception of hookah use among young adults in Mumbai. A total of 500 college students, with/without hookah habit, were given a self-administered questionnaire to indicate their perception of hookah use, using yes/no responses. The responses were analyzed in the users/non-users and considered significantly different at P < 0.05. Responses were received from 122 hookah users and 325 non-users. The perception of hookah use between users and non-users and males and females, showed significant differences (P < 0.05), with respect to hookah being injurious to health, causes cancer, is addictive, influence of a close friend, flavors, curiosity toward hookah use and willingness to prepare hookah at home. Whereas, differences in the groups perception of hookah as safer than cigarettes, harmful air quality, ambience, cool look and means of socializing, was not observed. The perception of young adults in Mumbai, toward hookah use, indicates an increased trend to use hookah. We recommend deterrents for hookah use by display of health warnings on hookah assembly and the tobacco products, implementation of government policies on hookah and tobacco use and punitive measures for offenders.

  13. Psycho-social Needs Impact on Hookah Smoking Initiation among Women: A Qualitative Study from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shahbazi Sighaldeh, Shirin; Ebadi, Abbas; Kelishadi, Roya; Majdzadeh, Seyed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Iranian women, the use of hookah is the most common method of tobacco smoking. This study aimed to find the role of psycho-social needs and gaps as a possible risk factor for hookah smoking initiation in women. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted during 2012–2013 in Tehran, Iran. Thirty-six women participated in the study. They were current or former users of hookah. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews and was analyzed through content analysis. Results: Four main categories were identified from the data. This study focused on the category: Psycho-social needs and gaps. This category has five sub-categories which explain why women begin to smoke hookah including curiosity; desire for non-feminine, forbidden, and negative activities; need for amusement and recreation; for others: To show off; attract attention; satisfy and join others and protection. Conclusions: From this study, a variety of factors which contribute to the initiation of hookah smoking among women have been identified. Keeping young girls and women away from seemingly happy gatherings of hookah smokers; Providing appropriate recreational facilities for young women and training families on how to help their children in the event of a crisis-like intention to take up smoking behavior, can be some effective ways for reducing hookah smoking initiation among women. PMID:26425334

  14. Hookahs

    MedlinePlus

    ... raise health risks by producing high levels of carbon monoxide, metals, and cancer-causing chemicals. 1,4 ... shisha show that smoke from both preparations contain carbon monoxide and other toxic agents known to increase ...

  15. Beliefs and Attitudes Associated With Hookah Smoking Among a United States College Population.

    PubMed

    Martinasek, Mary P; Haddad, Linda G; Wheldon, Christopher W; Barnett, Tracey E

    2017-03-01

    This study explores the differences among smokers of waterpipe tobacco in a college population to better inform campaigns to curb waterpipe use. Participants included undergraduate and graduate students attending a liberal arts university in Florida. E-mail-based, cross-sectional surveys were collected in 2 sequential years. The majority of respondents (64%) reported having ever smoked a hookah, even if just 1-2 puffs. Of those who had ever smoked a hookah, 34% reported smoking a hookah within the previous 30 d. Constructs from the theory of reasoned action were all correlated with smoking behavior. The range of beliefs endorsed by smokers were more strongly associated with hookah-related attitudes compared with subjective norms. Concerns about health were stronger among never-smokers. Young adult college students continue to engage in waterpipe tobacco smoking at high rates. Campaigns need to focus on subsets of smokers and nonsmokers, independently. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Risk Factors Associated With Hookah Use.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Kim, Yoonsang; Emery, Sherry L

    2015-12-01

    Potential harms associated with hookah smoking are largely unrecognized and it is emerging as a trendy behavior. To help inform policy and preventive interventions, we used responses from a population survey of US adults to examine risk factors associated with hookah involvement. An online survey of 17 522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between tobacco use patterns across multiple products (cigarettes, cigars, and dissolvables), perceived harms towards regular pipe/hookah use, and demographic characteristics with hookah involvement (never used, ever used with/without reusing intent). Nearly one in five (16%) of the respondents had smoked hookah at least once in their life ("ever users"). Ever users of hookah were at higher risk of having used cigarettes, cigars, and dissolvable tobacco products (all P < .01). Odds for hookah use were greater for those who perceived regular pipe/hookah use as less dangerous (P < .05). Odds for hookah involvement were higher among young adults (P < .001), individuals with higher educational attainment (P < .01), and Hispanics/Latinos (P < .05). Information about the public health harms associated with hookah smoking should be delivered to individuals at-risk for hookah smoking. It is likely that misconceptions about the safety of hookah smoking could be driving, at least in-part, its increase in popularity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. US health policy related to hookah tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Hopkins, Maggie; Hallett, Cynthia; Carroll, Mary V; Zeller, Mitchell; Dachille, Kathleen; Kim, Kevin H; Fine, Michael J; Donohue, Julie M

    2012-09-01

    Although US cigarette smoking is decreasing, hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an emerging trend associated with substantial toxicant exposure. We assessed how a representative sample of US tobacco control policies may apply to HTS. We examined municipal, county, and state legal texts applying to the 100 largest US cities. We developed a summary policy variable that distinguished among cities on the basis of how current tobacco control policies may apply to HTS and used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between community-level sociodemographic variables and the policy outcome variable. Although 73 of the 100 largest US cities have laws that disallow cigarette smoking in bars, 69 of these cities have exemptions that allow HTS; 4 of the 69 have passed legislation specifically exempting HTS, and 65 may permit HTS via generic tobacco retail establishment exemptions. Cities in which HTS may be exempted had denser populations than cities without clean air legislation. Although three fourths of the largest US cities disallow cigarette smoking in bars, nearly 90% of these cities may permit HTS via exemptions. Closing this gap in clean air regulation may significantly reduce exposure to HTS.

  18. US Health Policy Related to Hookah Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Maggie; Hallett, Cynthia; Carroll, Mary V.; Zeller, Mitchell; Dachille, Kathleen; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Donohue, Julie M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Although US cigarette smoking is decreasing, hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an emerging trend associated with substantial toxicant exposure. We assessed how a representative sample of US tobacco control policies may apply to HTS. Methods. We examined municipal, county, and state legal texts applying to the 100 largest US cities. We developed a summary policy variable that distinguished among cities on the basis of how current tobacco control policies may apply to HTS and used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between community-level sociodemographic variables and the policy outcome variable. Results. Although 73 of the 100 largest US cities have laws that disallow cigarette smoking in bars, 69 of these cities have exemptions that allow HTS; 4 of the 69 have passed legislation specifically exempting HTS, and 65 may permit HTS via generic tobacco retail establishment exemptions. Cities in which HTS may be exempted had denser populations than cities without clean air legislation. Conclusions. Although three fourths of the largest US cities disallow cigarette smoking in bars, nearly 90% of these cities may permit HTS via exemptions. Closing this gap in clean air regulation may significantly reduce exposure to HTS. PMID:22827447

  19. You Tube: An International Medium for Sharing Videos about Hookah Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, Christopher M.; Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Wyrick, David L.; Herring, Jeremy; Koech, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The hookah pipe is an ancient tool for smoking tobacco and is a growing public health concern at the global level. YouTube is a website that allows its members to post videos for people to watch and to share comments about the videos in an online forum. The purpose of the study was to investigate the types of videos about hookah on YouTube, their…

  20. Hookah smoking, nass chewing, and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Dar, N A; Bhat, G A; Shah, I A; Iqbal, B; Kakhdoomi, M A; Nisar, I; Rafiq, R; Iqbal, S T; Bhat, A B; Nabi, S; Shah, S A; Shafi, R; Masood, A; Lone, M M; Zargar, S A; Najar, M S; Islami, F; Boffetta, P

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), there is little information about the association between other smoking and smokeless tobacco products, including hookah and nass, and ESCC risk. We conducted a case–control study in Kashmir Valley, India, where hookah smoking, nass chewing, and ESCC are common, to investigate the association of hookah smoking, nass use, and several other habits with ESCC. Methods: We recruited 702 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1663 hospital-based controls, individually matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence from September 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results: Ever-hookah smoking (OR=1.85; 95% CI, 1.41–2.44) and nass chewing (OR=2.88; 95% CI, 2.06–4.04) were associated with ESCC risk. These associations were consistent across different measures of use, including intensity, duration, and cumulative amount of use, and after excluding ever users of the other product and cigarette smokers. Our results also suggest an increased risk of ESCC associated with ever-gutka chewing and -bidi smoking. However, the latter associations were based on small number of participants. Conclusion: This study shows that hookah and nass use are associated with ESCC risk. As prevalence of hookah use seems to be increasing among young people worldwide, these results may have relevance not only for the regions in which hookah use has been a traditional habit, but also for other regions, including western countries. PMID:23033008

  1. Assessment of Prevalence, Beliefs, and Habits of Hookah Smoking Among People with a Medical Background Compared to People with a Non-medical Background: A Cross-sectional Self-administered Questionnaire-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hookah smoking has seen a reemergence in popularity in the last 30 years, particularly in the young urban population. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of and the attitude and beliefs about hookah smoking of people with a medical background and compare it with people from a non-medical background. Materials and methods: An anonymous questionnaire with ten questions about various aspects of hookah smoking was formulated using Google forms®, which was then circulated via Facebook®, Whatsapp® and emails to the intended participants and all responses were recorded and analyzed. Results: The total number of respondents were 470. The number of respondents with a medical background was 45.31%. The percentage of the respondents with a medical background who smoked a hookah was 28.63%, while the same percentage of the respondents with a non-medical background was 63.42. The perception of hookah being less harmful than a cigarette was not found to be statistically different between the two groups. Respondents with a medical background were more ignorant of the presence or absence of tobacco in the hookah they smoked. The average duration of the hookah smoking habit, the frequency of its use per month, and the average lengths of the hookah smoking session were 3.52 years (95% CI of 3.21 to 3.82), 1.946 (95% CI 1.799 to 2.093), and 58.90 minutes (95% CI of 54.42 to 63.37), respectively. Conclusion: The knowledge about the ill effects of smokeless tobacco should be integrated into the structured teaching curriculum of undergraduate medical and dental courses as they prepare future physicians and dental surgeons for an anti-tobacco campaign. PMID:27660734

  2. Assessment of Prevalence, Beliefs, and Habits of Hookah Smoking Among People with a Medical Background Compared to People with a Non-medical Background: A Cross-sectional Self-administered Questionnaire-based Study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pankaj; Jain, Ashna

    2016-08-15

    Hookah smoking has seen a reemergence in popularity in the last 30 years, particularly in the young urban population. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of and the attitude and beliefs about hookah smoking of people with a medical background and compare it with people from a non-medical background. An anonymous questionnaire with ten questions about various aspects of hookah smoking was formulated using Google forms®, which was then circulated via Facebook®, Whatsapp® and emails to the intended participants and all responses were recorded and analyzed. The total number of respondents were 470. The number of respondents with a medical background was 45.31%. The percentage of the respondents with a medical background who smoked a hookah was 28.63%, while the same percentage of the respondents with a non-medical background was 63.42. The perception of hookah being less harmful than a cigarette was not found to be statistically different between the two groups. Respondents with a medical background were more ignorant of the presence or absence of tobacco in the hookah they smoked. The average duration of the hookah smoking habit, the frequency of its use per month, and the average lengths of the hookah smoking session were 3.52 years (95% CI of 3.21 to 3.82), 1.946 (95% CI 1.799 to 2.093), and 58.90 minutes (95% CI of 54.42 to 63.37), respectively. The knowledge about the ill effects of smokeless tobacco should be integrated into the structured teaching curriculum of undergraduate medical and dental courses as they prepare future physicians and dental surgeons for an anti-tobacco campaign.

  3. Waterpipe (Hookah) Smoking Among Youth and Women in Canada is New, not Traditional.

    PubMed

    Hammal, Fadi; Wild, T Cameron; Nykiforuk, Candace; Abdullahi, Khadija; Mussie, Dawit; Finegan, Barry A

    2016-05-01

    When asserting the right of individuals to be free to smoke a hookah (waterpipe [WP]) in public places, the "cultural" importance of the practice is often cited. The purpose of this study was to explore the cultural significance of WP smoking. Qualitative methods were used to elicit the views of groups of WP smokers from different cultural backgrounds. Sixteen group discussion sessions with a total of 75 WP smokers aged between 18 and 30 were conducted. A few participants saw culture as a factor supporting WP smoking initiation and maintenance. The vast majority indicated that WPs being perceived as "healthier" than cigarettes, and the availability of flavored shisha as important factors in their initiation and ongoing use. Most started smoking before the age of 18 calling it a "high school thing" and admitted that they had easy access to WP cafés. Many indicated that they did not know if they were smoking tobacco or a "herbal" substance. Peer influence, availability of flavored products and facile access to WP cafés are major factors in WP initiation. Ethno-cultural traditions play only a minor role. The assertion that cultural traditions and practice are inherent in WP smoking as implied by media and marketing was not supported by our findings. Contemporary use of WP is spreading among new non-traditional users. Lack of knowledge about the harms of WP smoking indicates a need for education and regulation to require packaging and health warning labels and restrictions on access, especially to minors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use: a prospective study of smoking behaviors among first-year college women.

    PubMed

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-11-01

    Better understanding of the temporal sequence of hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use will help to inform smoking prevention efforts. To address this gap in the literature, we assessed all three of these smoking behaviors in a sample of 424 first-year college women. Using a longitudinal design, we investigated whether hookah use predicts initiating/resuming cigarette and/or initiating marijuana use, and whether cigarette and/or marijuana use predicts initiating hookah use. Participants (67% White, M age = 18.1 years) completed nine monthly surveys. The initial (i.e., baseline) survey assessed demographics, sensation-seeking, impulsivity, and pre-college substance use. Follow-up surveys assessed past-month substance use; outcomes were initiating/resuming cigarette use, initiating marijuana use, and initiating hookah use during the first year of college. We controlled for sensation-seeking, impulsivity, binge drinking, and other smoking behaviors in our multivariate logistic regression models. The results showed that (a) pre-college hookah use predicted initiating/resuming cigarette use; (b) pre-college marijuana use predicted initiation of hookah tobacco smoking; and (c) pre-college cigarette use predicted neither hookah nor marijuana initiation. The findings highlight the co-occurrence of smoking behaviors as well as the need for bundling preventive interventions so that they address hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars.

    PubMed

    St Helen, Gideon; Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton

    2014-06-01

    Water pipe tobacco smoking is spreading globally and is increasingly becoming popular in the United States, particularly among young people. Although many perceive water pipe smoking to be relatively safe, clinical experimental studies indicate significant exposures to tobacco smoke carcinogens following water pipe use. We investigated biomarkers of nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure from water pipe smoking in the naturalistic setting of hookah bars. Fifty-five experienced water pipe users were studied before and after smoking water pipe in their customary way in a hookah bar. Urine samples were analyzed for nicotine, cotinine, the tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and mercapturic acid metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOC). We found an average 73-fold increase in nicotine, 4-fold increase in cotinine, 2-fold increase in NNAL, and 14% to 91% increase in VOC mercapturic acid metabolites immediately following water pipe smoking. We saw moderate to high correlations between changes in tobacco-specific biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, and NNAL) and several mercapturic acid metabolites of VOCs. Water pipe smoking in a hookah bar is associated with significant nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure. Given the significant intake of nicotine and carcinogens, chronic water pipe use could place users at increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1055-66. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure after water pipe smoking in hookah bars

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton

    2014-01-01

    Background Water pipe tobacco smoking is spreading globally and is increasingly becoming popular in the United States, particularly among young people. While many perceive water pipe smoking to be relatively safe, clinical experimental studies indicate significant exposures to tobacco smoke carcinogens following water pipe use. We investigated biomarkers of nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure from water pipe smoking in the naturalistic setting of hookah bars. Methods Fifty-five experienced water pipe users were studied before and after smoking water pipe in their customary way in a hookah bar. Urine samples were analyzed for nicotine, cotinine, the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL), and mercapturic acid metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results We found an average 73-fold increase in nicotine, 4-fold increase in cotinine, 2-fold increase in NNAL, and 14-91% increase in VOC mercapturic acid metabolites immediately following water pipe smoking. We saw moderate to high correlations between changes in tobacco-specific biomarkers (nicotine, cotinine, and NNAL) and several mercapturic acid metabolites of VOC. Conclusion Water pipe smoking in a hookah bar is associated with significant nicotine intake and carcinogen exposure. Impact Given the significant intake of nicotine and carcinogens, chronic water pipe use could place users at increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. PMID:24836469

  7. Determination of Genotoxic Effects of Hookah Smoking by Micronucleus and Chromosome Aberration Methods

    PubMed Central

    Eker, Ebru Derici; Koyuncu, Hayri; Şahin, Nefise Özlen; Yüksel, Altan; Berköz, Mehmet; Diler, Songul Budak; Akgül, Sema Altan

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of a hookah (a type of water pipe) is a traditional way of smoking tobacco, particularly in the Middle East. In Turkey, its popularity has been growing in recent years, especially among young people. It is known that cigarette smoking has genotoxic effects and causes mutations, but no comprehensive study has been done on the genotoxic effects of hookah usage, particularly in Turkey. Material/Methods We collected peripheral blood/buccal smear samples from 30 subjects who did not smoke cigarettes but who regularly smoke a hookah an average of 2 times per week, and from 30 control subjects who had never smoked cigarettes or a hookah. Chromosome analyses were performed on the samples obtained from peripheral blood of each individual, 25 metaphase plaques were counted for each, and chromosome/chromatid breakage/gap parameters were evaluated. Micronucleus analysis was done on buccal smear samples and micronucleus/binucleus parameters were investigated by counting 2000 cells of each individual. Results Chromosome breakage ratios were found to be 0.64±0.86 and 0.46±0.71 in the study and control groups, respectively, while chromatid breakage ratios were 0.53±0.83 and 0.53±0.71; fragment ratios were 0.82±1.24 and 0.21±0.49 (p<0.05); and gap ratios were 0.57±0.83 and 0.18±0.53 (p<0.05), respectively. Micronucleus ratio was 6.03±2.06 and 4.43±2.27 (p<0.05) in the study and control groups, respectively, and binucleus ratios were 8.53±3.23 and 12.15±5.18, respectively (p<0.05). Conclusions Results of our study reveal significant statistical differences between the individuals who smoked hookah and those who did not in terms of fragment, gap, micronucleus, and binucleus parameters, suggesting that smoking a hookah may cause genotoxic effects. PMID:27869111

  8. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    PubMed

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning.

  9. Influence of Training about Carcinogenic Effects of Hookah Smoking on the Awareness, Attitude, and Performance of Women

    PubMed

    Mahoozi, Saideh; Heidari, Mohammad; Shahbazi, Sara; Naseh, Ladan

    2017-07-27

    Background: Wrong attitudes and beliefs about the less carcinogenic effects of hookah smoking comparing to cigarette, easy availability, low cost, and other factors have caused that the usage of hookah smoking increase a lot in our country. Objective: This study has been done with the purpose of examining the influence of education about carcinogenic effects of hookah smoking on the awareness, attitude, and performance of women who refer to the healthcare and medical treatment centers. Materials and Methods: At this semi experimental study, 60 women who refer to the medical and hygienic centers of Bushehr were placed in 3 educational groups based on simple accidental sampling. The tool for data collection was a questionnaire including demographic features, awareness, attitude, and performance measurement. Results: according to the results, the amount of awareness in the majority (48%) of participants about carcinogenic effects of hookah smoking was in an average level. 100% of the participants had the awareness of over 33.1% and their attitude toward hookah smoking was 100% positive that after the intervention it was reported 5%. The participants’ performance in hookah smoking before the intervention was only 25% desirable that after the intervention it was reported 73.3%. The results of Kolmogorov–Smirnov test also showed that the distribution of awareness, attitude, and performance was quite normal. Conclusion: according to the results, it’s the society’s basic need to warn people about carcinogenic effects of hookah smoking by increasing people’s awareness through media, holding training courses, showing movies, and training booklets. Creative Commons Attribution License

  10. Prevalence of Hookah Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2012 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi-Ghahramanloo, Abbas; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Zeraati, Hojjat; Safiri, Saeid; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background Hookah smoking has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of hookah use and related factors in a sample of Iranian students of medical sciences. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1992 randomly selected sample of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2012 - 2013. A multistage sampling method was used and anonymous structured questionnaires were distributed to the students of each selected class. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were performed and P < 0.05 was considered as a significance level. Results Lifetime, last year and last month prevalence rates of hookah smoking were 26.6% (95% CI: 24.7 - 28.6), 17.8% (95% CI: 16.1 - 19.5) and 8.9% (95% CI: 7.7 - 10.2), respectively. The results of logistic regression model showed that male gender [odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.86 - 4.21], cigarette smoking in the past year (OR = 5.6, 95% CI: 3.21 - 9.83), alcohol use in the past year (OR = 7.4, 95% CI: 4.01 - 13.06), cigarette or hookah smoking in the family members (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.13 - 2.51), cigarette or hookah smoking among friends (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 2.69 - 7.33), alcohol use by friends in the past year (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.20 - 3.14), and illicit substance use among friends (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.22 - 4.05) were associated with hookah smoking. Conclusions The results of our study indicate a relatively high prevalence of hookah smoking among Iranian students. The findings emphasize the importance of planning preventive interventions by considering different high-risk behaviors simultaneously. PMID:27803724

  11. Children’s Exposure to Secondhand and Thirdhand Smoke Carcinogens and Toxicants in Homes of Hookah Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Daffa, Reem M.; Liles, Sandy; Jackson, Sheila R.; Kassem, Noura O.; Younis, Maram A.; Mehta, Setoo; Chen, Menglan; Jacob, Peyton; Carmella, Steve G.; Chatfield, Dale A.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Matt, Georg E.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We examined homes of hookah-only smokers and nonsmokers for levels of indoor air nicotine (a marker of secondhand smoke) and indoor surface nicotine (a marker of thirdhand smoke), child uptake of nicotine, the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and the toxicant acrolein by analyzing their corresponding metabolites cotinine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and NNAL-glucuronides (total NNAL) and 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid. Methods: Data were collected at 3 home visits during a 7-day study period from a convenience sample of 24 households with a child 5 years or younger. Three child urine samples and 2 air and surface samples from the living room and the child bedroom were taken in homes of nonsmokers (n = 5) and hookah-only smokers (n = 19) comprised of daily hookah smokers (n = 8) and weekly/monthly hookah smokers (n = 11). Results: Nicotine levels in indoor air and on surfaces in the child bedrooms in homes of daily hookah smokers were significantly higher than in homes of nonsmokers. Uptake of nicotine, NNK, and acrolein in children living in daily hookah smoker homes was significantly higher than in children living in nonsmoker homes. Uptake of nicotine and NNK in children living in weekly/monthly hookah smoker homes was significantly higher than in children living in nonsmoker homes. Conclusions: Our data provide the first evidence for uptake of nicotine, the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen NNK, and the ciliatoxic and cardiotoxic agent acrolein in children living in homes of hookah smokers. Our findings suggest that daily and occasional hookah use in homes present a serious, emerging threat to children’s long-term health. PMID:24590387

  12. Are The Predictors of Hookah Smoking Differ From Those of Cigarette Smoking? Report of a population-based study in Shiraz, Iran, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahifard, Gholamreza; Vakili, Veda; Danaei, Mina; Askarian, Mehrdad; Romito, Laura; Palenik, Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and effect of lifestyle factors on cigarette and hookah use among adult residents of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In 2010, 1,000 participants were recruited in a multistage, random sampling cross-sectional population-based survey. Results: Response rate was 98%. Prevalence of cigarette smoking was 9.7%. Among cigarette users, 12.6% reported smoking <1 year; 13.4% smoked 1-2 years and 73.9% smoked>2 years. Almost half of those surveyed (48.9%) smoked <10 cigarettes per day (cpd); 28.4% smoked 10-15 cpd; 14.8% smoked 16-19 cpd, and 8%>20 cpd. Almost a quarter (20.4%) of the cigarette smokers tried to quit in the past year. Being male, married, aged 37-54, having higher perceived levels of stress, a non-manual occupation, and sedentary lifestyle were positively associated with cigarette smoking. Manual labor occupations, housewife/jobless status, and going frequently to restaurants were positive predictors of hookah smoking. Conclusions: Compared to cigarettes, hookah smoking was more prevalent among Iranian adults. Approximately, the prevalence of hookah smoking in women is the same as men, whereas cigarette use was 31 times more common in men. Cigarette and hookah smoking were associated with less healthy lifestyle habits in both men and women. PMID:23671779

  13. Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A Critical Review of the Relevant Literature and the Public Health Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    Hookah (narghile, shisha, “water-pipe”) smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker’s respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way. PMID:19440416

  14. Hookah (Shisha, Narghile) Smoking and Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS). A critical review of the relevant literature and the public health consequences.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2009-02-01

    Hookah (narghile, shisha, "water-pipe") smoking is now seen by public health officials as a global tobacco epidemic. Cigarette Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is classically understood as a combination of Side-Stream Smoke (SSS) and Exhaled Main-Stream Smoke (EMSS), both diluted and aged. Some of the corresponding cigarette studies have served as the scientific basis for stringent legislation on indoor smoking across the world. Interestingly, one of the distinctive traits of the hookah device is that it generates almost no SSS. Indeed, its ETS is made up almost exclusively by the smoke exhaled by the smoker (EMSS), i.e. which has been filtered by the hookah at the level of the bowl, inside the water, along the hose and then by the smoker's respiratory tract itself. The present paper reviews the sparse and scattered scientific evidence available about hookah EMSS and the corresponding inferences that can be drawn from the composition of cigarette EMSS. The reviewed literature shows that most of hookah ETS is made up of EMSS and that the latter qualitatively differs from MSS. Keeping in mind that the first victim of passive smoking is the active smoker her/himself, the toxicity of hookah ETS for non-smokers should not be overestimated and hyped in an unscientific way.

  15. Prevalence, frequency, and initiation of hookah tobacco smoking among first-year female college students: a one-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2012-02-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking has become increasingly prevalent among college students, but little is known about frequency of use or patterns of use over time, including during the transition to college. The goals of this longitudinal cohort study were to assess the: (a) lifetime prevalence, (b) current prevalence, (c) frequency of use, and (d) pattern of initiation of hookah tobacco smoking among female students during the first year of college. First-year female college students (N=483) at a large private university in upstate New York completed 13 monthly online surveys about their hookah tobacco use from August 2009 to August 2010. Lifetime prevalence of hookah use increased from 29% at college entry to 45% at one-year follow-up. The highest rates of hookah initiation occurred in the first two months of students' first semester of college. Current (past 30 days) hookah use ranged from 5% to 13% during the year after college entry. On average, hookah users reported smoking hookah two days per month. Hookah tobacco use is common among female college students. The transition to college is a vulnerable time for hookah initiation. Preventive efforts should begin in high school and continue through college, with a focus on students' first few months on campus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tobacco Smoking Using a Waterpipe (Hookah): What You Need to Know

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Smoking tobacco using a waterpipe (hookah) is increasing worldwide and is remarkably common among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Contrary to misperceptions that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents fewer health risks than cigarette smoking, recent data demonstrate clearly that the smoke from a waterpipe contains many of the same toxicants that are in cigarettes, including the dependence-producing drug nicotine, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pulmonary disease–causing volatile aldehydes, and cardiovascular disease–causing carbon monoxide that can also lead to acute intoxication in waterpipe users. Because many anesthesia providers are likely treating waterpipe tobacco smokers, the goal of this AANA Journal Course is to describe a waterpipe, who uses a waterpipe to smoke tobacco, and the toxicants found in waterpipe smoke and waterpipe smokers. Based on available evidence, there is no indication that waterpipe tobacco smoking is any less risky to patient health than cigarette smoking. Anesthesia providers should begin to assess patients for this form of tobacco use explicitly and should consider addressing it as they do cigarette smoking, with the additional precaution of presurgery carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:24133855

  17. Perceived Harm, Addictiveness, and Social Acceptability of Tobacco Products and Marijuana Among Young Adults: Marijuana, Hookah, and Electronic Cigarettes Win

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Stratton, Erin; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Windle, Michael; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. Objectives This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. Methods In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Results Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth. PMID:25268294

  18. Perceived harm, addictiveness, and social acceptability of tobacco products and marijuana among young adults: marijuana, hookah, and electronic cigarettes win.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Stratton, Erin; Schauer, Gillian L; Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Windle, Michael; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance: Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth.

  19. Hookah and Cigarette Smoking among African American College Students: Implications for Campus Risk Reduction and Health Promotion Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brittni D.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify individual and institutional risks and protections for hookah and cigarette smoking among African American (AA) college students. Participants: AA college students (N = 1,402; mean age = 20, range = 18-24 years; 75% female) who completed the Fall 2012 American College Health Association--National College Health Assessment…

  20. Hookah and Cigarette Smoking among African American College Students: Implications for Campus Risk Reduction and Health Promotion Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brittni D.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify individual and institutional risks and protections for hookah and cigarette smoking among African American (AA) college students. Participants: AA college students (N = 1,402; mean age = 20, range = 18-24 years; 75% female) who completed the Fall 2012 American College Health Association--National College Health Assessment…

  1. Social Context of Smoking Hookah among College Students: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Eva; Beck, Kenneth H.; Clark, Pamela I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop an instrument that measures the social context of hookah use among college students. Participants: A pool of 50 potential items, based on 44 in-depth interviews with regular college hookah smokers, was administered to a sample of 274 hookah users between October and December 2011. Methods: Participants were approached in…

  2. Social Context of Smoking Hookah among College Students: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Eva; Beck, Kenneth H.; Clark, Pamela I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop an instrument that measures the social context of hookah use among college students. Participants: A pool of 50 potential items, based on 44 in-depth interviews with regular college hookah smokers, was administered to a sample of 274 hookah users between October and December 2011. Methods: Participants were approached in…

  3. Determinants of Tobacco and Hookah Smoking in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Djalalinia, Shirin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Keikha, Mojtaba; Ardalan, Gelayol; Najafi, Fereshteh; Khoramdad, Maliheh; Asayesh, Hamid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of tobacco through a hookah is growing in popularity, especially among children and adolescents, but little is known about the determinants of hookah smoking. Objectives The current study aimed to assess the determinants of tobacco smoking and hookah smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Patients and Methods This study was conducted as part of the fourth cross-sectional survey of a national school-based program. Using a cluster random sampling method, a validated questionnaire was completed anonymously by 14,880 students who were aged 6 - 18 years and living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Results The final study group consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents (participation rate of 90.6%), of whom 49.2% were girls and 75.6% were urban residents. The mean age was 12.47 ± 3.36 years. According to the self-reports of the students, 2.6% (3.5% of boys and 1.7% of girls) were current tobacco smokers, 5.9% (7.5% of boys and 4.2% of girls) were ever tobacco smokers, and 1.8% (2.49% of boys and 1.14% of girls) were current hookah smokers. Based on a multiple logistic regression (MLR) model, the following factors increased the risk of current smoking: age, number of days spent with friends per week, hookah smoking or cigarette smoking by the father, hookah smoking by siblings, hookah smoking by other members of the family, and screen time. The age, number of days spent with friends, hookah or cigarette smoking by the father, hookah smoking by siblings, and screen time increased the risk of hookah smoking. Female gender and living in rural areas decreased the risk of current tobacco and hookah smoking. Conclusions Preventive measures against tobacco use should be underscored for Iranian families. The preparation of strategies on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle should be considered a health priority. PMID:27781117

  4. Hookah and Alcohol Use among Young Adult Hookah Smokers: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Curbow, Barbara A.; Moorhouse, Michael D.; Weiler, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hookah tobacco smoking has grown steadily in popularity among young adults in the United States. Little attention has been given to the relationship between hookah smoking and another behavior that is common among young adults – alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to examine hookah and alcohol use among young adults. Methods Forty young adult hookah smokers (55% female) participated in focus group sessions on hookah use beliefs and a brief survey examining hookah and alcohol use including drinking alcohol before, during, or after smoking hookah. Results Quotes from the focus groups indicated that alcohol use may promote hookah use among individuals who have little or no hookah smoking experience. Alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol use before, during, and after hookah use were common among the participants regardless of legal drinking age status. Nearly half of the participants preferred to drink alcohol while smoking hookah due to the improved physical and social effects they associated with combining the 2 behaviors. Conclusions For some young adult hookah smokers, alcohol appears to enhance the hookah smoking experience and may play a role in hookah smoking initiation. Future research and interventions should address the association between hookah and alcohol use. PMID:26248176

  5. What Is a Hookah?

    MedlinePlus

    ... probably not true, though. Hookah smoke still contains nicotine, an addictive drug that's toxic in high amounts. ... a liquid that the makers claim has no nicotine, tobacco, or tar. This is hard to prove ...

  6. Sex Differences in Hookah-Related Images Posted on Tumblr: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Carroll, Mary V; Shensa, Ariel; Davis, Wesley; Levine, Michele D

    2016-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is prevalent, widespread, and associated with large amounts of toxicants. Hookah tobacco smoking may be viewed differently by males and females. For example, females have been drawn to types of tobacco that are flavored, milder, and marketed as more social and exotic. Individuals often use the growing segment of anonymous social networking sites, such as Tumblr, to learn about potentially dangerous or harmful behaviors. We used a systematic process involving stratification by time of day, day of week, and search term to gather a sample of 140 Tumblr posts related to hookah tobacco smoking. After a structured codebook development process, 2 coders independently assessed all posts in their entirety, and all disagreements were easily adjudicated. When data on poster sex and age were available, we found that 77% of posts were posted by females and 35% were posted by individuals younger than 18. The most prominent features displayed in all posts were references to or images of hookahs themselves, sexuality, socializing, alcohol, hookah smoke, and tricks performed with hookah smoke. Compared with females, males more frequently posted images of hookahs and alcohol-related images or references. This information may help guide future research in this area and the development of targeted interventions to curb this behavior.

  7. Health Harms from Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concludes smoke-free laws reduce the number of heart attacks and save ... reductions in heart attack rates after smoke-free laws are implemented. After a thorough review of the ...

  8. Arab-American Hookah Smokers: Initiation, and Pros and Cons of Hookah Use.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nada O F; Kassem, Noura O; Jackson, Sheila R; Daffa, Reem M; Liles, Sandy; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-09-01

    To examine initiation, pros and cons of hookah tobacco smoking among Arab Americans. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we recruited a community-based convenience sample of 458 adult Arab-American hookah smokers, mean age 28.4 years, who completed self-administered questionnaires. Irrespective of sex, most participants initiated hookah tobacco use by young adulthood in private homes or hookah lounges influenced by friends and family. Women initiated hookah use later than men. Ever dual smokers (hookah smokers who ever smoked a cigarette) initiated hookah use later than cigarettes; however, early hookah initiators < 18 years initiated hookah and cigarettes concurrently. Participants enjoyed the flavors of hookah tobacco, and complained about coughing, dizziness, and headaches. Early and late initiation of hookah tobacco use warrant prevention programs targeting the youth and older adults in communities, colleges, and middle and high schools that include health education campaigns, and encouragement of voluntary smokefree home rules. Tobacco control policies aimed to prevent initiation of hookah use should include regulation of hookah tobacco flavors, and should target the physical environments in neighborhoods, especially around schools and colleges, to reduce the proliferation of hookah lounges. Dual hookah tobacco and cigarette use warrant continuous monitoring.

  9. Measuring indoor air quality of hookah lounges.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Steven C; Morris, Daniel S; Pawlak, Rebecca L

    2012-11-01

    Many states have implemented smoke-free workplace laws to protect employees and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke. However, exemptions in these laws have allowed indoor tobacco smoking in hookah lounges to proliferate in recent years. To describe the amount of secondhand smoke in hookah lounges, we measured the indoor air quality of 10 hookah lounges in Oregon. Air quality measurements ranged from "unhealthy" to "hazardous" according to Environmental Protection Agency standards, indicating a potential health risk for patrons and employees.

  10. Adolescent and Young Adult Perceptions of Hookah and Little Cigars/Cigarillos: Implications for Risk Messages

    PubMed Central

    Cornacchione, Jennifer; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Wiseman, Kimberly D.; Kelley, Dannielle; Noar, Seth M.; Smith, Margaret H.; Sutfin, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Use of hookah and little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) is high among adolescents and young adults. Although these products have health effects similar to cigarettes, adolescents and young adults believe them to be safer. This study examined adolescent and young adult perceptions of hookah and LCCs to develop risk messages aimed at discouraging use among users and at-risk nonusers. Ten focus groups with 77 adolescents and young adults were conducted to explore their perceptions about the perceived risks and benefits of hookah and LCC use. Participants were users of other (non-cigarette) tobacco products (n=47) and susceptible nonusers (n=30). Transcripts were coded for emergent themes on participants’ perceptions of hookah and LCCs. Participants did not perceive health effects associated with hookah and LCC use to be serious or likely to happen given their infrequency of use and perceptions that they are less harmful than cigarettes. Participants generally had positive associations with smoking hookah and LCCs for several reasons, including that they are used in social gatherings, come in various flavors, and can be used to perform smoke tricks. Because adolescents and young adults underestimate and discount the long-term risks associated with hookah and LCC use, effective messages may be those that focus on the acute/immediate health and cosmetic effects. PMID:27337629

  11. Hookah's new popularity among US college students: a pilot study of the characteristics of hookah smokers and their Facebook displays

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N; Pumper, Megan A; Christakis, Dimitri A; Moreno, Megan A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives (1) To confirm the prevalence of hookah use among US college students. (2) To identify substances commonly smoked in hookahs and other substance use characteristics of hookah smokers. (3) Given the powerful influence of Facebook and its potential role in promoting behaviours, to assess the prevalence of hookah references on Facebook profiles. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Two large US universities; www.Facebook.com. Participants 307 Facebook profiles were coded and 216 of these profile owners completed an online survey. On average, participants were 18.8 years old (SD=0.7), women (54%), Caucasian (70.4%) and approximately half were from each university. Outcome measures Lifetime and frequency of hookah use, substance smoked in hookah, cigarette and marijuana use, hookah references displayed on Facebook. Results 27.8% of participants endorsed hookah use; there were no significant differences between age, gender, race or university for hookah use. Hookah users reported smoking tobacco (78%), hash (12%) and both tobacco and marijuana/hash (10%) in their hookah. Compared with non-hookah smokers, hookah smokers were more likely to report using cigarettes (OR=3.41, 95%CI=1.2 to 9.64) and marijuana (OR=15.01, 95%CI=6.5 to 34.65). Hookah references were present on 5% of Facebook profiles. Conclusions More than one quarter of college students smoke hookah. Most smoke tobacco in their hookah, and hookah smoking is associated with polysubstance use. Hookah may present new risks for nicotine addiction in this population. PMID:23242241

  12. 77 FR 20034 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco smoke (the established HPHC list) as... appropriate, ``a list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents, including smoke constituents, to health...

  13. Hookah tobacco smoking in a large urban sample of adult cigarette smokers: Links with alcohol and poly-tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Ehlke, Sarah J; Cobb, Caroline O; Soule, Eric K

    2017-05-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) has been increasing, particularly among young adults and has similar health effects compared to cigarette smoking. The link between HTS and poly-tobacco use is well documented, but fewer show an association between HTS and alcohol use. It is essential to identify factors that increase the risk for or addictiveness and consequences of HTS, given its growing prevalence. This study examined whether the association between HTS and poly-tobacco use differed as a function of age and alcohol consumption within in a sample of 1223 adult cigarette smokers. Approximately 20% of participants reported HTS. Compared to non-users, hookah users were more likely to be male, highly educated, and to report drug and alcohol use, binge drinking, and poly-tobacco use but were less likely to be heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Regression analyses predicting number of tobacco products used (excluding cigarettes and HTS) indicated a three-way interaction of HTS, frequency of alcohol use, and age such that the association between HTS and number of tobacco products used was strongest for younger respondents who consumed alcohol more frequently. As observed in previous studies, alcohol is an important risk factor in the relationship between HTS and poly-tobacco use, particularly among younger cigarette smokers. The links between alcohol, HTS, and poly-tobacco use should be considered when developing HTS education and prevention materials directed toward younger cigarette smokers. Findings provide information relevant to FDA's interest in the addiction potential of HTS and its link to poly-tobacco use.

  14. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified.

  15. Measuring Indoor Air Quality of Hookah Lounges

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Steven C.; Pawlak, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Many states have implemented smoke-free workplace laws to protect employees and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke. However, exemptions in these laws have allowed indoor tobacco smoking in hookah lounges to proliferate in recent years. To describe the amount of secondhand smoke in hookah lounges, we measured the indoor air quality of 10 hookah lounges in Oregon. Air quality measurements ranged from “unhealthy” to “hazardous” according to Environmental Protection Agency standards, indicating a potential health risk for patrons and employees. PMID:22994168

  16. IMPACT OF SMOKING HABITS ON THE STATE OF CHROMATIN AND MORPHOLOGY OF BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Volkova, O; Ryabokon, E; Magda, I; Shckorbatov, Y

    2017-01-01

    The cells of buccal epithelium were investigated in groups of smoking and non-smoking students. Cell samples were collected by scraping with blunt sterile spatula, stained with orcein and photographed. The smoking of cigarettes and hookah induces significant decrease in nuclear and cell perimeter and cell area in cells of buccal epithelium. Smoking of hookah induces, besides, the heterochromatization in cell nuclei and the decrease of nuclear area. The data obtained indicate stress reaction in cells (heterochromatinization) and apoptosis-related changes in cells (decrease of nuclear and cell perimeter and cell area). These data show unfavorable effects of smoking cigarettes and even more harmful effect of hookah smoking.

  17. Sex Differences in Hookah-Related Images Posted on Tumblr: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Carroll, Mary V.; Shensa, Ariel; Davis, Wesley; Levine, Michele D.

    2016-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is prevalent, widespread, and associated with large amounts of toxicants. HTS may be viewed differently by males and females. For example, females have been drawn to types of tobacco which were flavored, milder, and marketed as more social and exotic. Individuals often use the growing segment of “anonymous” social networking sites, such as Tumblr, to learn about potentially dangerous or harmful behaviors. We used a systematic process involving stratification by time of day, day of week, and search term to gather a sample of 140 Tumblr posts related to HTS. After a structured codebook development process, two coders independently assessed all posts in their entirety, and all disagreements were easily adjudicated. When data on poster sex and age were available, 77% were posted by females and 35% were posted by individuals less than 18. The most prominent features displayed in all posts were references to or images of hookahs themselves, sexuality, socializing, alcohol, hookah smoke, and “tricks” performed with hookah smoke. Compared with females, males more frequently posted images of hookahs and alcohol-related images or references. This information may help guide future research in this area and development of targeted interventions to curb this behavior. PMID:26890733

  18. Exposure to Hookah and Cigarette Smoke in Children and Adolescents According to Their Socio-Economic Status: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ardalan, Gelayol; Poursafa, Parinaz; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking or passive smoking is one of serious health problems especially in the pediatric age group. Objectives To compare the prevalence and determinants of passive smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents according to their socioeconomic status (SES). Materials and Methods This nationwide study was conducted in 2011 - 2012 among 14880 students aged 6 - 18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Exposure to the smoke of hookah or cigarette was documented by using validated questionnaires. Possible influencing factors were determined and the frequency of passive smoking was compared according to the regional and familial SES. Results Participants consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents including 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban inhabitants (90.6% participation rate). The mean age of participants was 12.47 ± 3.36 years. Overall, 43.87% of them (44.07% of boys and 43.66% of girls) were exposed to second hand smoke at home. Exposures to hookah or cigarette smoke at home were respectively reported in 21.46% and 34.49% of participants. The prevalence of passive smoking was lower in children of families with higher SES level, but higher in high SES regions of the country than in low SES ones, and ranged from 39.2% in the region with lowest SES to 49.05% in the highest SES region. Higher education levels of fathers and mothers were significantly associated with lower frequency of passive smoking. Conclusions Exposure to second hand smoke is a major problem among Iranian children and adolescents. Low family SES and low parental education increased the frequency of passive smoking. Appropriate public health education and legislation for smoke free home as well as family-centered counseling should be strengthened. PMID:27781078

  19. A Comparison of Cigarette- and Hookah-Related Videos on YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Mary V.; Shensa, Ariel; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective YouTube is now the second most visited site on the Internet. We aimed to compare characteristics of and messages conveyed by cigarette- and hookah-related videos on YouTube. Methods Systematic search procedures yielded 66 cigarette-related and 61 hookah-related videos. After 3 trained qualitative researchers used an iterative approach to develop and refine definitions for the coding of variables, 2 of them independently coded each video for content including positive and negative associations with smoking and major content type. Results Median view counts were 606,884 for cigarettes and 102,307 for hookahs (P<.001). However, the number of comments per 1,000 views was significantly lower for cigarette-related videos than for hookah-related videos (1.6 vs 2.5, P=.003). There was no significant difference in the number of “like” designations per 100 reactions (91 vs. 87, P=.39). Cigarette-related videos were less likely than hookah-related videos to portray tobacco use in a positive light (24% vs. 92%, P<.001). In addition, cigarette-related videos were more likely to be of high production quality (42% vs. 5%, P<.001), to mention short-term consequences (50% vs. 18%, P<.001) and long-term consequences (44% vs. 2%, P<.001) of tobacco use, to contain explicit antismoking messages (39% vs. 0%, P<.001), and to provide specific information on how to quit tobacco use (21% vs. 0%, P<.001). Conclusions Although Internet user–generated videos related to cigarette smoking often acknowledge harmful consequences and provide explicit antismoking messages, hookah-related videos do not. It may be valuable for public health programs to correct common misconceptions regarding hookah use. PMID:22363069

  20. A comparison of cigarette- and hookah-related videos on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mary V; Shensa, Ariel; Primack, Brian A

    2013-09-01

    YouTube is now the second most visited site on the internet. The authors aimed to compare characteristics of and messages conveyed by cigarette- and hookah-related videos on YouTube. Systematic search procedures yielded 66 cigarette-related and 61 hookah-related videos. After three trained qualitative researchers used an iterative approach to develop and refine definitions for the coding of variables, two of them independently coded each video for content including positive and negative associations with smoking and major content type. Median view counts were 606,884 for cigarettes-related videos and 102,307 for hookah-related videos (p<0.001). However, the number of comments per 1000 views was significantly lower for cigarette-related videos than for hookah-related videos (1.6 vs 2.5, p=0.003). There was no significant difference in the number of 'like' designations per 100 reactions (91 vs 87, p=0.39). Cigarette-related videos were less likely than hookah-related videos to portray tobacco use in a positive light (24% vs 92%, p<0.001). In addition, cigarette-related videos were more likely to be of high production quality (42% vs 5%, p<0.001), to mention short-term consequences (50% vs 18%, p<0.001) and long-term consequences (44% vs 2%, p<0.001) of tobacco use, to contain explicit antismoking messages (39% vs 0%, p<0.001) and to provide specific information on how to quit tobacco use (21% vs 0%, p<0.001). Although internet user-generated videos related to cigarette smoking often acknowledge harmful consequences and provide explicit antismoking messages, hookah-related videos do not. It may be valuable for public health programmes to correct common misconceptions regarding hookah use.

  1. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    MedlinePlus

    Electronic cigarettes; Electronic hookahs; Vaping; Electronic nicotine delivery systems; Smoking - electronic cigarettes ... cartridge into a vapor. The cartridge may contain nicotine or other flavors or chemicals. It also contains ...

  2. Determinants of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Including Hookah Smoking and Opium Use– A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 50,000 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Results Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02–1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55–1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). Conclusion GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere. PMID:24586635

  3. Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M; Pharoah, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼ 50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere.

  4. Hookah use among college students from a Midwest University.

    PubMed

    Braun, Robert E; Glassman, Tavis; Wohlwend, Jennifer; Whewell, Aubrey; Reindl, Diana M

    2012-04-01

    National data indicate nearly a quarter of college students smoked from a hookah at some point in their lifetime regardless of gender. To address this issue, researchers assessed the perceptions, knowledge, beliefs of hookah users at a large Midwestern University and also determined what other drug related high-risk behaviors were associated with this behavior. An anonymous, online survey was sent to 2,000 randomly selected undergraduate students from a large Midwestern University. Researchers used a cross sectional research design to determine the prevalence and motivating factors associated with hookah use. Respondents included 438 individuals (60% female) with an average age of 23.1 (SD = 12.32), yielding a response rate of 22%. Approximately 15.4% of the sample had previously smoked hookah, while 6% used hookah within the past 30 days. Common motivating factors associated with smoking hookah included socializing/partying (29%), peer influence (27%), and for relaxation (25%). Correlations were calculated comparing hookah use to other high risk behaviors with the two highest correlations consisted of 30-day tobacco use (r = 0.67) and marijuana (r = 0.39). The results from this study suggest hookah use is limited to a small percentage of students. Students appear to smoke hookah for social reasons and underestimate the addictive properties associated with the product. Researchers and practitioners need to develop and evaluate specific interventions to educate college students about the health hazards associated with hookah use.

  5. AANA journal course: update for nurse anesthetists--Part3--Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (hookah): what you need to know.

    PubMed

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Smoking tobacco using a waterpipe (hookah) is increasing worldwide and is remarkably common among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Contrary to misperceptions that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents fewer health risks than cigarette smoking, recent data demonstrate clearly that the smoke from a waterpipe contains many of the same toxicants that are in cigarettes, including the dependence-producing drug nicotine, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pulmonary disease-causing volatile aldehydes, and cardiovascular disease-causing carbon monoxide that can also lead to acute intoxication in waterpipe users. Because many anesthesia providers are likely treating waterpipe tobacco smokers, the goal of this AANA Journal Course is to describe a waterpipe, who uses a waterpipe to smoke tobacco, and the toxicants found in waterpipe smoke and waterpipe smokers. Based on available evidence, there is no indication that waterpipe tobacco smoking is any less risky to patient health than cigarette smoking. Anesthesia providers should begin to assess patients for this form of tobacco use explicitly and should consider addressing it as they do cigarette smoking, with the additional precaution of presurgery carboxyhemoglobin measurement.

  6. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

  7. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

  8. Hookah, is it really harmless?

    PubMed

    Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Del Mazo-Rodríguez, Raquel Lira; López-Sámano, Gustavo; Buendía-Roldán, Ivette

    2014-05-01

    The hookah is a snuff smoking device whose origin dates back to the fifteenth century, has been used extensively in the Middle East in recent decades has become popular in Western culture countries, particularly in Americas and Europe. It has been reported that like other forms smoking tobacco, their use can lead to addiction also is used for inhaling and other addictive substances. Has also been considered a risk factor for various isolated diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), different types of cancer, hemodynamic alterations, vascular disease, infectious diseases, among others. In pregnant women has been reported that there use condition a diminution on fetal growth and different diseases in the newborn. It was also mentioned that hookah smoke contains several toxic substances that can affect both, the primary and the passive smoker, so we did this review to determine the complications associated with its use.

  9. Hookah Use among New Jersey Youth: Associations and Changes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Hrywna, Mary; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess hookah use among youth for prevalence, associations, and changes over time. Methods: Data from the 2008 and 2010 New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed to examine hookah smoking by gender, race/ethnicity, and grade level. Results: Prevalence of hookah use increased significantly among black and Hispanic students.…

  10. Hookah Use among New Jersey Youth: Associations and Changes over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Hrywna, Mary; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess hookah use among youth for prevalence, associations, and changes over time. Methods: Data from the 2008 and 2010 New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed to examine hookah smoking by gender, race/ethnicity, and grade level. Results: Prevalence of hookah use increased significantly among black and Hispanic students.…

  11. Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer. It causes cancers of the lung, esophagus, larynx, mouth, throat, kidney, bladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, cervix, ... the risk of cancers of the mouth, throat, larynx, and esophagus ( 9 , 15 , 16 ). Hookahs or waterpipes ( ...

  12. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoking ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. Our search included a broad range of research designs including: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. One author extracted characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies and a second author checked the details. We extracted health and smoking behaviour outcomes. We did not attempt a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity in design and content of the studies included. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. There are 77 studies included in this updated review. We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. Evidence from 21 countries is

  13. Air quality in New York City hookah bars.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sherry; Weitzman, Michael; Vilcassim, Ruzmyn; Wilson, Jennifer; Legrand, Nina; Saunders, Eric; Travers, Mark; Chen, Lung-Chi; Peltier, Richard; Gordon, Terry

    2015-10-01

    Hookahs are increasingly being used in the USA and elsewhere. Despite the popularity of hookah bars, there is a paucity of research assessing the health effects of hookah smoke, and although New York City (NYC) bans indoor tobacco smoking, hookah lounges claim that they only use herbal products without tobacco. This study investigated levels of multiple indices of indoor air pollution in hookah bars in NYC. Air samples were collected in 8 hookah bars in NYC. Along with venue characteristics, real-time measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO), and total gravimetric PM, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and nicotine were collected in 1-2 hour sessions. Overall, levels of indoor air pollution increased with increasing numbers of active hookahs smoked. The mean (SD) real time PM2.5 level was 1179.9 (939.4) µg/m(3), whereas the filter-based total PM mean was 691.3 (592.6) µg/m(3). The mean real time BC level was 4.1 (2.3) µg/m(3), OC was 237.9 (112.3) µg/m(3), and CO was 32 (16) ppm. Airborne nicotine was present in all studied hookah bars (4.2 (1.5) µg/m(3)). These results demonstrate that despite the ban on smoking tobacco products, at the very least, some NYC hookah bars are serving tobacco-based hookahs, and have elevated concentrations of indoor air pollutants that may present a health threat to visitors and employees. Therefore, there is an urgent need for better air quality monitoring in such establishments and policies to combat this emerging public health threat. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Air Quality in New York City Hookah Bars

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sherry; Weitzman, Michael; Vilcassim, Ruzmyn; Wilson, Jennifer; Legrand, Nina; Saunders, Eric; Travers, Mark; Chen, Lung-Chi; Peltier, Richard; Gordon, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Background Hookahs (e.g., water pipes) are increasingly being used in the U.S. and elsewhere. Despite the popularity of hookah bars, there is a paucity of research assessing the health effects of hookah smoke, and although New York City (NYC) bans indoor tobacco smoking, hookah lounges claim that they only use herbal products without tobacco and are exempt. This study investigated levels of multiple indices of air pollution in the indoor air of hookah bars in NYC. Methods Air samples were collected in 8 hookah bars in NYC during the summer and fall of 2013. Along with venue characteristics, real-time measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO), and integrated samples of total gravimetric PM, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and nicotine were collected in 1–2 hour sessions. Results Overall, levels of indoor air pollution increased with increasing numbers of active hookahs smoked. The mean (SD) real time PM2.5 level was 1179.9 (939.4) µg/m3, whereas the filter-based total PM mean was 691.3 (592.6) µg/m3. The mean real time BC level was 4.1 (2.3) µg/m3, OC was 237.9 (112.3) µg/m3, and CO was 32 (16) ppm. Airborne nicotine was present in all studied hookah bars (4.2 (1.5) µg/m3). Conclusions These results demonstrate that despite the ban on smoking tobacco products, at the very least, some NYC hookah bars are serving tobacco-based hookahs, and have elevated concentrations of indoor air pollutants and toxicants that may present significant health threat to visitors and employees. Therefore, there is an urgent need for better air quality monitoring in such establishments and policies to combat this emerging public health threat. PMID:25232045

  15. Persistent smoking among Northern Plains Indians: lenient attitudes, low harm value, and partiality toward cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Struthers, Roxanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking rates among American Indian youth and adults are the highest in the nation. Funded by the University of Minnesota Cancer Center, the Tobacco Policies Among Plains Indians Project held focus groups on seven reservations during 2001-2002. Members of three Ojibwe reservations in Minnesota, three Sioux reservations in South Dakota, and one Winnebago reservation in Nebraska participated. Areas investigated included smoking knowledge, initiation, attitudes and behaviors, and perceptions of harm. Findings indicate that lenient attitudes toward smoking behaviors, low harm value, and partiality toward the smoking habit and the ritualistic behavior it invokes are long-standing and powerful to overcome. To initiate interventions for persistent smoking, tribes will need to target efforts toward the creation of healthy communities.

  16. [Prevalence of tobacco smoking and knowledge of harmful effects of smoking among school children in Warsaw].

    PubMed

    Polus-Szeniawska, E; Supranowicz, P

    1993-01-01

    The study was carried out on 1493 school children (740 girls and 753 boys) from randomly selected Warsaw schools. Among them 1006 attended classes 6 and 8 of elementary schools, and 487 attended 2nd classes of secondary schools; vocational schools, technical schools and general education secondary schools. The inquiry for data collecting was based on the variable serving for description of the prevalence of smoking and determination of the extent of knowledge possessed by the children on harmful effects of smoking. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. It was found that 51% of these children, more boys than girls, had already tried smoking. Most boys smoked their first cigarette at the age or 10 and 12 years, and girls at 14 years. The first contact with cigarettes had already been made by 31% children in class 6, 55% of those in class 8 of elementary schools, 53% of students in class 2 of general education secondary schools, 71% of those in class 2 of technical schools and 79% of those in vocational schools. The first contact with smoking was not meaning that these children continued smoking; from 46% to 77% of them in various classes or schools do not smoke at all. In the studied population 84% (more often girls than boys) do not smoke, but 7% smoke daily (twice as many boys as girls) and the mean number of daily smoked cigarettes is 11. At least one weekly smoke 4% of children. The mean number of weekly cigarettes is 40, but girls smoke 29 and boys 47, on average. Less than once weekly smoke 5% of children, both girls and boys. Most children smoking daily attend 2nd classes of vocational schools.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding waterpipe tobacco smoking as “keywords” in the title. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies: (a) total and trends of contributions in waterpipe tobacco smoking research between 2003 and 2012; (b) authorship patterns and research productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; (d) the citations received by the publications; and (e) areas of interest of the published papers. Results Worldwide there were 334 publications that met the criteria during the study period. The largest number of publications in waterpipe tobacco smoking were from the United States of America (USA) (33.5%), followed by Lebanon (15.3%), and France (10.5%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (October 18, 2013) was 4,352, with an average of 13 citations per document and a median (interquartile range) of 4.0 (1.0–16.0). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. The highest h-index by country was 27 for the USA, followed by 20 for Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon. Conclusions The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research activity in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking. More effort is needed to bridge the gap in waterpipe smoking-based research and to promote better evaluation of waterpipe smoking, risks, health effects, or control services worldwide. PMID:24725483

  18. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2014-04-13

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade. Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding waterpipe tobacco smoking as "keywords" in the title. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies: (a) total and trends of contributions in waterpipe tobacco smoking research between 2003 and 2012; (b) authorship patterns and research productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; (d) the citations received by the publications; and (e) areas of interest of the published papers. Worldwide there were 334 publications that met the criteria during the study period. The largest number of publications in waterpipe tobacco smoking were from the United States of America (USA) (33.5%), followed by Lebanon (15.3%), and France (10.5%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (October 18, 2013) was 4,352, with an average of 13 citations per document and a median (interquartile range) of 4.0 (1.0-16.0). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. The highest h-index by country was 27 for the USA, followed by 20 for Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon. The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research activity in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking. More effort is needed to bridge the gap in waterpipe smoking-based research and to promote better evaluation of waterpipe smoking, risks, health effects, or control services worldwide.

  19. Waterpipe Promotion and Use on Instagram: #Hookah.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Chu, Kar-Hai; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-10-01

    Waterpipe (hookah) use is becoming more prevalent in the United States and abroad with potential implications for public health. As waterpipe use rapidly grows in popularity, novel data streams are needed that can help capture and document the social and environmental context in which individuals use, and are marketed, this emerging tobacco product. This study characterized waterpipe-related posts on Instagram in order to inform regulatory and policy activities in the United States. Data were collected from Instagram, an image-based social media site. Inclusion criteria for this study comprised an Instagram post with the hashtag "#hookah" that was accompanied by geo-location metadata demonstrating that the post was inside the contiguous United States. Rules were established for coding themes of images (n = 1705). Seven percent of images depicted a single person using a waterpipe and/or blowing smoke, 25% depicted two or more persons lounging and/or using a waterpipe, 6% depicted waterpipes, coals or flavored tobacco without people, 18% of images were promotional material for hookah lounges and restaurant/bars/nightclubs referencing hookah in the text or depicting a waterpipe, 25% were non-waterpipe-related promotional material, 1% were sexually explicit material, and 18% other. 31% of all images depicted or referenced alcohol. 30% of posts provided geo-location from a hookah lounge, 56% from a restaurant/bar/nightclub, and 14% from other types of locations. The cross promotion of waterpipe and alcohol use by hookah lounges, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs suggests that poly-substance use is regularly depicted, and promoted, in nightlife entertainment as well as normalized on Instagram in the United States. In the US Instagram posts with the hashtag #hookah regularly depicted waterpipe use in conjunction with alcohol use. Instagram's focus on images facilitates picture-based advertising where hookah lounges promote drink specials at the same time nightclubs promote

  20. An Exploration of Online Behaviors and Social Media Use Among Hookah and Electronic-Cigarette Users

    PubMed Central

    Link, Alissa R.; Cawkwell, Philip B.; Shelley, Donna R.; Sherman, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between social norms and attitudes towards ENDS and hookah and use of these products. Methods We conducted surveys with hookah and ENDS users who regularly used the Internet and social media and analyzed the primary social media account (e.g. Facebook) of each participant, coding all references to nicotine or tobacco products. The survey included domains on perceived favorability, perceived vulnerability and subjective norms. Results We surveyed 21 ENDS users and 20 hookah users. Both groups used the Internet to look up information about their respective tobacco product (95% for hookah vs. 90% for ENDS). Seventy percent of hookah users had references to hookah on their social media profiles while 43% of ENDS users had references to ENDS on their page. The majority of both groups were exposed to content posted by friends in their social media network about their respective products online. Those who posted on social media about hookah and those who read about ENDS online had lower perceived vulnerability to the health risks associated with tobacco products. Conclusions Hookah and ENDS users actively use the Internet and social media to obtain and share information about nicotine/tobacco products. Study participants who use hookah were more likely to share photos and discuss hookah related activities via social media than those who use ENDS. Social networks also represent valuable and untapped potential resources for communicating with this group about risks and harm reduction related to emerging nicotine/tobacco products. PMID:26167519

  1. An Exploration of Online Behaviors and Social Media Use Among Hookah and Electronic-Cigarette Users.

    PubMed

    Link, Alissa R; Cawkwell, Philip B; Shelley, Donna R; Sherman, Scott E

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between social norms and attitudes towards ENDS and hookah and use of these products. We conducted surveys with hookah and ENDS users who regularly used the Internet and social media and analyzed the primary social media account (e.g. Facebook) of each participant, coding all references to nicotine or tobacco products. The survey included domains on perceived favorability, perceived vulnerability and subjective norms. We surveyed 21 ENDS users and 20 hookah users. Both groups used the Internet to look up information about their respective tobacco product (95% for hookah vs. 90% for ENDS). Seventy percent of hookah users had references to hookah on their social media profiles while 43% of ENDS users had references to ENDS on their page. The majority of both groups were exposed to content posted by friends in their social media network about their respective products online. Those who posted on social media about hookah and those who read about ENDS online had lower perceived vulnerability to the health risks associated with tobacco products. Hookah and ENDS users actively use the Internet and social media to obtain and share information about nicotine/tobacco products. Study participants who use hookah were more likely to share photos and discuss hookah related activities via social media than those who use ENDS. Social networks also represent valuable and untapped potential resources for communicating with this group about risks and harm reduction related to emerging nicotine/tobacco products.

  2. Pulmonary Abnormalities in Young, Light-Use Waterpipe (Hookah) Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Shaykhiev, Renat; Salit, Jacqueline; Deeb, Ruba S.; Krause, Anja; Kaner, Robert J.; Vincent, Thomas L.; Agosto-Perez, Francisco; Wang, Guoqing; Hollmann, Charleen; Shanmugam, Vignesh; Almulla, Ahmad M.; Sattar, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mai; Mezey, Jason G.; Gross, Steven S.; Staudt, Michelle R.; Walters, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Waterpipes, also called hookahs, are currently used by millions of people worldwide. Despite the increasing use of waterpipe smoking, there is limited data on the health effects of waterpipe smoking and there are no federal regulations regarding its use. Objectives: To assess the effects of waterpipe smoking on the human lung using clinical and biological parameters in young, light-use waterpipe smokers. Methods: We assessed young, light-use, waterpipe-only smokers in comparison with lifelong nonsmokers using clinical parameters of cough and sputum scores, lung function, and chest high-resolution computed tomography as well as biological parameters of lung epithelial lining fluid metabolome, small airway epithelial (SAE) cell differential and transcriptome, alveolar macrophage transcriptome, and plasma apoptotic endothelial cell microparticles. Measurements and Main Results: Compared with nonsmokers, waterpipe smokers had more cough and sputum as well as a lower lung diffusing capacity, abnormal epithelial lining fluid metabolome profile, increased proportions of SAE secretory and intermediate cells, reduced proportions of SAE ciliated and basal cells, markedly abnormal SAE and alveolar macrophage transcriptomes, and elevated levels of apoptotic endothelial cell microparticles. Conclusions: Young, light-use, waterpipe-only smokers have a variety of abnormalities in multiple lung-related biological and clinical parameters, suggesting that even limited waterpipe use has broad consequences on human lung biology and health. We suggest that large epidemiological studies should be initiated to investigate the harmful effects of waterpipe smoking. PMID:27007171

  3. The rise in narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco smoking: A qualitative study of perceptions of smokers and non smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) in the Middle East region and worldwide is increasing. There is evidence to indicate both short term and long term health effects of WTS, resulting in the issuance of an advisory note by the World Health Organization. Methods This research aimed at gaining an in-depth understanding of the factors contributing to the rise in WTS in Lebanon. Qualitative focus groups (25) and in-depth interviews (9) were conducted with adults in Lebanon in 2007. Participants were recruited to represent diversity in smoking status, gender, age groups and urban/rural residence. The interviews and focus groups were thematically analyzed, and recurrent themes noted and summarized. Results The main themes identified were availability, affordability, innovation, influence of media, lack of a policy framework, and the sensory characteristics evoked from WTS. Men and women, smokers and non-smokers, and younger and older participants differed in their emphases on the above themes. These themes, though specific to waterpipe, are similar to themes manipulated by the cigarette industry, and eventually controlled through tobacco control policies. Conclusions Understanding reasons behind the rise in waterpipe tobacco use is important if appropriate prevention, cessation, and policy interventions are to be formulated. Strict adherence to the FCTC is warranted, with careful and vigilant attention that all tobacco products are covered by laws in both high as well as middle to lower income countries. PMID:21569577

  4. Water pipe (Shisha, Hookah, Arghile) Smoking and Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Effects on CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 Phenotypes as Measured by Caffeine Urine Test.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Şenay Görücü; Llerena, Adrián; De Andrés, Fernando; Karakaş, Ümit; Gündoğar, Hasan; Erciyas, Kamile; Kimyon, Sabit; Mete, Alper; Güngör, Kıvanç; Özdemir, Vural

    2017-03-01

    Public policies to stop or reduce cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke and associated diseases have yielded successful results over the past decade. Yet, the growing worldwide popularity of another form of tobacco consumption, water pipe smoking, has received relatively less attention. To the best of our knowledge, no study to date has evaluated the effects of water pipe smoking on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activities and drug interaction potential in humans, whereas only limited information is available on the impact of secondhand smoke on drug metabolism. In a sample of 99 healthy volunteers (28 water pipe smokers, 30 secondhand tobacco smoke exposed persons, and 41 controls), we systematically compared CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 enzyme activities in vivo using caffeine urine test. The median self-reported duration of water pipe smoking was 7.5 h/week and 3 years of exposure in total. The secondhand smoke group had a median of 14 h of self-reported weekly exposure to tobacco smoke indoor where a minimum of five cigarettes were smoked/hour for a total of 3.5 years (median). Analysis of variance did not find a significant difference in CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activities among the three study groups (p > 0.05). Nor was there a significant association between the extent of water pipe or secondhand smoke exposure and the CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activities (p > 0.05). Further analysis in a subsample with smoke exposure more than the median values also did not reveal a significant difference from the controls. Although we do not rule out an appreciable possible impact of water pipe smoke and secondhand smoke on in vivo activities of these two drug metabolism pathways, variability in smoke constituents from different tobacco consumption methods (e.g., water pipe) might affect drug metabolism in ways that might differ from that of cigarette smoke. Further studies in larger prospective samples are recommended to evaluate water pipe and secondhand tobacco smoke effects

  5. Prevalence and Predictors of Hookah Use in US Air Force Military Recruits

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Brittany D.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Pasker, Christin K.; Talcott, G. Wayne; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Klesges, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hookah use has gained recent popularity among U.S. youth. The current study describes the characteristics and correlates associated with hookah use in late adolescent and young adult US Air Force (USAF) recruits. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional questionnaire of USAF personnel in Technical Training School at Joint Base San Antonio (N=10,997). Response rate was 78%. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between hookah use, demographic variables, other tobacco and nicotine containing product (TNCP) use, and the social environment. Results The prevalence of ever hookah use was 28%; at least monthly hookah use was 10%. Increased hookah use was positively associated with Hispanic ethnicity (OR [odds ratio] 1.52; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.85), cigarette smoking (OR 4.05; CI: 3.41, 4.82) and smokeless tobacco use (OR 1.35; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.71). Hookah use was negatively associated with age (OR 0.84; 95% 0.71 to 1.00), living as married (OR 0.54; 95% CI: 0.40-0.72), African American (OR 0.53; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.69) and ≥ 4-year degree (OR 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82). Hookah use was highest among recruits who “many or almost all” of their friends smoked cigarettes (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.80, 3.30) and for those who reported willingness to try a tobacco product that claims to be safer than cigarettes (OR 3.16; 95% CI: 2.64, 3.77). Conclusions Hookah use among military recruits is similar to the civilian population. A willingness to try TNCPs claiming to be safer than cigarettes may influence hookah use. Public health campaigns disseminating accurate information about hookah health risks may be needed to reduce hookah use among youth. PMID:25841088

  6. Prevalence and predictors of hookah use in US Air Force military recruits.

    PubMed

    Linde, Brittany D; Ebbert, Jon O; Pasker, Christin K; Wayne Talcott, G; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hanson, Andrew C; Klesges, Robert C

    2015-08-01

    Hookah use has gained recent popularity among U.S. youth. The current study describes the characteristics and correlates associated with hookah use in late adolescent and young adult US Air Force (USAF) recruits. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional questionnaire of USAF personnel in Technical Training School at Joint Base San Antonio (N=10,997). Response rate was 78%. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between hookah use, demographic variables, other tobacco and nicotine containing product (TNCP) use, and the social environment. The prevalence of ever hookah use was 28%; at least monthly hookah use was 10%. Increased hookah use was positively associated with Hispanic ethnicity (OR [odds ratio] 1.52; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.85), cigarette smoking (OR 4.05; CI: 3.41, 4.82) and smokeless tobacco use (OR 1.35; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.71). Hookah use was negatively associated with age (OR 0.84; 95% 0.71 to 1.00), living as married (OR 0.54; 95% CI: 0.40-0.72), African American (OR 0.53; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.69) and ≥4-year degree (OR 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82). Hookah use was highest among recruits who "many or almost all" of their friends smoked cigarettes (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.80, 3.30) and for those who reported willingness to try a tobacco product that claims to be safer than cigarettes (OR 3.16; 95% CI: 2.64, 3.77). Hookah use among military recruits is similar to the civilian population. A willingness to try TNCPs claiming to be safer than cigarettes may influence hookah use. Public health campaigns disseminating accurate information about hookah health risks may be needed to reduce hookah use among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced Exposure to Harmful and Potentially Harmful Smoke Constituents With the Tobacco Heating System 2.1

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Gizelle; Magnette, John; Picavet, Patrick; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Heating rather than burning tobacco reduces levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents, and consumer products using this approach aim to reduce exposure to tobacco toxicants. The Tobacco Heating System (THS) version 2.1 has been enhanced from earlier prototypes with an improved heat control and sensorial experience and thereby user acceptance. Exposure measurements are required to determine whether it may be possible to reduce the individual health risk compared to smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). Methods: This controlled clinical study randomly assigned 40 smokers to either a group continuing to use of their own CC brand (n = 20) or a group switching to THS 2.1 (n = 20) for 5 days. Biomarkers of exposure were measured at baseline and on day 1 through day 5. Product consumption, Human Puffing Topography, the occurrence of adverse events, and an assessment of subjective effects, such as smoking satisfaction and enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, were also determined. Results: The group of smokers who switched to THS 2.1 adapted their puffing behavior initially through longer puff duration and more puffs. During the duration of the study, total puff volume returned to baseline levels and the mean daily product consumption increased but with similar nicotine exposure compared to baseline CC use. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke toxicants which inform product risk assessment were significantly reduced with THS use compared to the CC group. THS 2.1 users experienced less reinforcing effects with THS 2.1 than with their own cigarette brand. Conclusions: THS 2.1 is a promising alternative to smoking CCs. Notwithstanding possible use adaption through consumption or puffing behavior, the exposure to harmful smoke constituents was markedly reduced with the new heated tobacco platform. Implications: Exposure markers to harmful and potentially harmful smoke constituents were lowered with the THS 2.1. Heating tobacco instead of

  8. The incentives created by a harm reduction approach to smoking cessation: Snus and smoking in Sweden and Finland.

    PubMed

    Maki, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    Tobacco harm reduction involves advocating the use of a less harmful alternative to smoking for those users who are unwilling or unable to quit. The net effect of such an approach is unclear as it may create opposing incentives. Although some smokers may substitute toward this less harmful alternative, it may reduce the incentive to quit by undermining public health efforts and may act as a gateway to smoking. This research paper aims to answer the question: Does the availability of a less harmful alternative to smoking lead to cessation? To explore the opposing incentives created by a harm reduction approach to smoking cessation, I focus on the role of snus, a popular smokeless tobacco product in Scandinavia that is widely used in Sweden. This paper exploits a quasi-natural experiment to examine the net effect resulting from these opposing incentives. While two Scandinavian countries, Sweden and Finland, joined the European Union (EU) in 1995, Finland was subject to a pre-existing EU ban on oral tobacco products while Sweden received an exemption. A difference in differences framework is used to estimate the change in the smoking rate in Finland due to the implementation of the ban. A secondary analysis uses Finnish smoking data to test for a structural break in trend. In the post-ban period, smoking was 3.47 percentage points higher in Finland relative to what it would have been in the absence of the ban. The availability of snus, a less harmful alternative to smoking, appears to have had a positive impact (reduction) on the smoking rate. Offering acceptable alternatives to cigarettes is critical in reducing smoking prevalence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... tobacco products and tobacco smoke. This information will assist the Agency in establishing a list of HPHCs in tobacco products and tobacco smoke (the HPHC list). DATES: Submit either electronic or written...

  10. Factors associated with hookah use initiation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reveles, Caroline C; Segri, Neuber J; Botelho, Clovis

    2013-01-01

    to determine the prevalence and to analyze factors associated with hookah use initiation among adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study, in which questionnaires were collected from 495 students attending public and private schools of the urban area of the city of Várzea Grande, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were analyzed through descriptive, bivariate, and multiple Poisson regression analyses. A total of 19.7% students had tried a hookah. The use of hookah was associated with the final period of adolescence [PR=6.54 (2.79, 15.32)]; enrollment in private schools [PR=2.23 (1.73, 2.88)]; and presence of work activities [PR=1.80 (1.17, 2.78)]. The proportion of adolescents that had tried a hookah was high. The influence of age, work activities, and class period on smoking initiation using the hookah was observed. Preventive measures encompassing all forms of tobacco smoking should be targeted at adolescents in the school environment, aiming at tobacco use control. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between knowledge about the harms of smoking and smoking status in the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco China Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui G; McBride, Orla; Phillips, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Background This analysis estimates the association between smoking-related knowledge and smoking behaviour in a Chinese context. To identify the specific knowledge most directly related to smoking status, we used a novel latent variable analysis approach to adjust for the high correlations between different measures of knowledge about tobacco smoking. Method Data are from the Global Adult Tobacco China Survey, a nationally representative sample of 13 354 household-dwelling individuals 15 years of age or older. Multinomial logistic regressions estimated the association between smoking status (ie, never smoked, current smoker or past smoker) and four smoking-related beliefs: whether or not smoking causes lung cancer, heart attack and stroke, and whether or not low-tar cigarettes are less harmful. A latent variable approach reassessed these associations while taking into account the general level of knowledge about smoking. Results After demographic variables and general knowledge about smoking had been controlled for, the belief that low-tar cigarettes are not less harmful was more prevalent in persons who had never smoked than in current smokers (OR=1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.7) in men and OR=2.8 (95% CI 1.3 to 5.9) in women); this association was even stronger when past smokers and current smokers were compared (OR=2.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.0) in men and OR=5.0 (95% CI 1.3 to 20.1) in women). Conclusions Compared with those who have never smoked and those who have ceased smoking, current smokers in China are more likely to believe that low-tar cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes. PMID:23988861

  12. Exemptions for hookah bars in clean indoor air legislation: a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Devon

    2010-01-01

    Popularity of waterpipe smoking or hookah smoking in the United States has been growing for some time now among youth and young adults. Currently, many cities and states have exemptions that allow hookah bars to remain in operation despite the passage of clean indoor air legislation. From a public health perspective this is concerning for many reasons. One public health concern with the increase in popularity of this type of tobacco use is the associated health effects. Another concern is that hookah smoke produces a sweet smelling aroma making it less obvious that patrons and employees of hookah bars are inhaling noxious fumes from mainstream smoke, as well as the toxins from the charcoal that is used to heat the tobacco. The purpose of this paper is to discuss smoke-free air legislation in relation to hookah use, the public health implications of exempting hookah bars from current smoke-free legislation, and implications for the public health nurse in protecting the public from the dangers of second-hand smoke, and limiting this new form of tobacco use.

  13. Reduced Exposure to Harmful and Potentially Harmful Smoke Constituents With the Tobacco Heating System 2.1.

    PubMed

    Lüdicke, Frank; Baker, Gizelle; Magnette, John; Picavet, Patrick; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2017-02-01

    Heating rather than burning tobacco reduces levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents, and consumer products using this approach aim to reduce exposure to tobacco toxicants. The Tobacco Heating System (THS) version 2.1 has been enhanced from earlier prototypes with an improved heat control and sensorial experience and thereby user acceptance. Exposure measurements are required to determine whether it may be possible to reduce the individual health risk compared to smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). This controlled clinical study randomly assigned 40 smokers to either a group continuing to use of their own CC brand (n = 20) or a group switching to THS 2.1 (n = 20) for 5 days. Biomarkers of exposure were measured at baseline and on day 1 through day 5. Product consumption, Human Puffing Topography, the occurrence of adverse events, and an assessment of subjective effects, such as smoking satisfaction and enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, were also determined. The group of smokers who switched to THS 2.1 adapted their puffing behavior initially through longer puff duration and more puffs. During the duration of the study, total puff volume returned to baseline levels and the mean daily product consumption increased but with similar nicotine exposure compared to baseline CC use. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke toxicants which inform product risk assessment were significantly reduced with THS use compared to the CC group. THS 2.1 users experienced less reinforcing effects with THS 2.1 than with their own cigarette brand. THS 2.1 is a promising alternative to smoking CCs. Notwithstanding possible use adaption through consumption or puffing behavior, the exposure to harmful smoke constituents was markedly reduced with the new heated tobacco platform. Exposure markers to harmful and potentially harmful smoke constituents were lowered with the THS 2.1. Heating tobacco instead of burning can offer a potentially lower risk of delivering

  14. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. Methods The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. Results In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. Conclusion National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops. PMID:25180146

  15. Home visiting and perinatal smoking: a mixed-methods exploration of cessation and harm reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Griffis, Heather; Matone, Meredith; Kellom, Katherine; Concors, Erica; Quarshie, William; French, Benjamin; Rubin, David; Cronholm, Peter F

    2016-08-11

    Home visiting programs represent an important primary prevention strategy for adverse prenatal health behaviors; the various ways in which home visiting programs impact prenatal smoking cessation and reduction behaviors remain understudied. Mixed methods approach using a retrospective cohort of propensity score matched home visiting clients and local-area comparison women with first births between 2008-2014 in a large Northeast state. Multivariable logistic and linear regression estimated third trimester prenatal tobacco smoking cessation and reduction. Additionally, qualitative interviews were conducted with 76 home visiting clients. A program effect was seen for smoking cessation such that clients who smoked less than ten cigarettes per day and those who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day during the first trimester were more likely to achieve third trimester cessation than comparison women (p <0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). Only for heavy smokers (20 or more cigarettes during the first trimester) was there a significant reduction in number of cigarettes smoked by the third trimester versus comparison women (p = 0.01). Clients expressed the difficulty of cessation, but addressed several harm-reduction strategies including reducing smoking in the house and wearing a smoking jacket. Clients also described smoking education that empowered them to ask others to not smoke or adopt other harm reducing behaviors when around their children. While a significant impact on smoking cessation was seen, this study finds a less-clear impact on smoking reduction among women in home visiting programs. As home visiting programs continue to expand, it will be important to best identify effective ways to support tobacco-related harm reduction within vulnerable families.

  16. Exploring Demographic and Substance Use Correlates of Hookah Use in a Sample of Southern California Community College Students

    PubMed Central

    De Borba-Silva, Maria; Singh, Pramil; dos Santos, Hildemar; Job, Jayakaran S.; Brink, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hookah smoking is a growing young adult phenomenon, particularly among college students. Many users feel that it is safer than other tobacco products, although its health threats are well documented. Little is known about hookah use rates in community colleges that are attended by nearly half of all US college students. This study examined hookah use in a diverse convenience sample of students attending two southern California community colleges. Methods In fall 2011, a cross-sectional, in-classroom survey was administered to 1,207 students. A series of fully adjusted multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to explore demographic, other substance use, and attitudinal correlates of lifetime and current hookah use. Results Lifetime hookah use (56%) was higher than lifetime cigarette use (49%). Gender and personal socioeconomic status were not related to hookah use. Current use (10.8%) was associated with current use of alcohol, cigars, and cigarettes. Compared to African-Americans, Whites were 2.9 times more likely to be current users, and students who perceive hookah to be more socially acceptable were 21 times more likely to currently use. Conclusion Since hookah use rates are high, colleges should offer health education programs to inform incoming students about the health risks of hookah and cessation programs. PMID:26688673

  17. Is Smokeless Tobacco Use an Appropriate Public Health Strategy for Reducing Societal Harm from Cigarette Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Scott L.; Fox, Brion J.; Severson, Herbert H.

    2009-01-01

    Four arguments have been used to support smokeless tobacco (ST) for harm reduction: (1) Switching from cigarettes to ST would reduce health risks; (2) ST is effective for smoking cessation; (3) ST is an effective nicotine maintenance product; and (4) ST is not a “gateway” for cigarette smoking. There is little evidence to support the first three arguments and most evidence suggests that ST is a gateway for cigarette smoking. There are ethical challenges to promoting ST use. Based on the precautionary principle, the burden of proof is on proponents to provide evidence to support their position; such evidence is lacking. PMID:19440266

  18. Homosexual sex as harmful as drug abuse, prostitution, or smoking.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul; Landess, Thomas; Cameron, Kirk

    2005-06-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court said same-sex sexual activity could not be prohibited by law. Analyzing data from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (N= 12,381) and comparing those who engaged in four recreational activities-homosexual sex, illegal drug use, participation in prostitution, and smoking --against those who abstained, participants (1) were more frequently disruptive (e.g., more frequently criminal, drove under the influence of drugs or alcohol, used illegal drugs, took sexual risks), (2) were less frequently productive (e.g., less frequently had children in marriage, more frequently missed work), and (3) generated excessive costs (e.g., more promiscuous, higher consumers of medical services). Major sexuality surveys have reported similar findings for homosexuals. Societal discrimination inadequately accounts for these differences since parallel comparisons of black and white subsamples produced a pattern unlike the differences found between homosexuals and nonhomosexuals.

  19. Crystal methamphetamine smoking among regular ecstasy users in Australia: increases in use and associations with harm.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Stuart A; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2008-05-01

    This study examined (a) changes in crystal methamphetamine use among regular ecstasy users (REU) in Australia and (b) associations of crystal use and smoking with demographics, drug use and harm. Cross-sectional surveys (2000-06) of REU in three Australian capital cities, and in 2006, 750 REU in all Australian capital cities. The interview included: demographics, drug use, risk behaviour, recent criminal activity and methamphetamine dependence using Severity of Dependence Scale. There was little change in overall methamphetamine use, but a marked increase in crystal methamphetamine smoking. Among recent methamphetamine users in 2006 (n = 606), crystal methamphetamine users (n = 364) reported more frequent methamphetamine use and higher levels of dependence. Compared with those who had used only other forms of methamphetamine, recent crystal methamphetamine users were more likely to 'binge' on drugs for > or = 48 hours, engage in crime and experience financial and legal problems related to drug use. Non-smoking crystal methamphetamine users (n = 78) more often reported recent injecting and heroin use. Recent smokers were more likely to have: greater polydrug use, recently overdosed on a 'party drug', and accessed medical services for their drug use. Many of these associations were accounted for by their injecting and heavier methamphetamine use, rather than smoking per se. Crystal methamphetamine smoking among REU has increased markedly and is associated with significant harm. This appears related to smokers' heavier levels of methamphetamine use. Effective harm reduction strategies should be tailored to these specific risks.

  20. Comparison of the toxicity of smoke from conventional and harm reduction cigarettes using human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Weng, Jo-Hao; Talbot, Prue

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that smoke from harm reduction cigarettes impedes attachment and proliferation of H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Smoke from three harm reduction brands was compared with smoke from a conventional brand. Doses of smoke were measured in puff equivalents (PE) (1 PE = the amount of smoke in one puff that dissolves in 1 ml of medium). Cytotoxic doses were determined using morphological criteria and trypan blue staining, and apoptosis was confirmed using Magic Red staining. Attachment and proliferation of hESC were followed at a noncytotoxic dose in time-lapse videos collected using BioStation technology. Data were mined from videos either manually or using video bioinformatics subroutines developed with CL-Quant software. Mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke from conventional and harm reduction cigarettes induced apoptosis in hESC colonies at 1 PE. At 0.1 PE (noncytotoxic), SS smoke from all brands inhibited attachment of hESC colonies to Matrigel with the strongest inhibition occurring in harm reduction brands. At 0.1 PE, SS smoke, but not MS smoke, from all brands inhibited hESC growth, and two harm reduction brands were more potent than the conventional brand. In general, hESC appeared more sensitive to smoke than their mouse ESC counterparts. Although harm reduction cigarettes are often marketed as safer than conventional brands, our assays show that SS smoke from harm reduction cigarettes was at least as potent or in some cases more potent than smoke from a conventional brand and that SS smoke was more inhibitory than MS smoke in all assays.

  1. Comparison of the Toxicity of Smoke from Conventional and Harm Reduction Cigarettes Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fonteno, Shawn; Weng, Jo-Hao; Talbot, Prue

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that smoke from harm reduction cigarettes impedes attachment and proliferation of H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Smoke from three harm reduction brands was compared with smoke from a conventional brand. Doses of smoke were measured in puff equivalents (PE) (1 PE = the amount of smoke in one puff that dissolves in 1 ml of medium). Cytotoxic doses were determined using morphological criteria and trypan blue staining, and apoptosis was confirmed using Magic Red staining. Attachment and proliferation of hESC were followed at a noncytotoxic dose in time-lapse videos collected using BioStation technology. Data were mined from videos either manually or using video bioinformatics subroutines developed with CL-Quant software. Mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke from conventional and harm reduction cigarettes induced apoptosis in hESC colonies at 1 PE. At 0.1 PE (noncytotoxic), SS smoke from all brands inhibited attachment of hESC colonies to Matrigel with the strongest inhibition occurring in harm reduction brands. At 0.1 PE, SS smoke, but not MS smoke, from all brands inhibited hESC growth, and two harm reduction brands were more potent than the conventional brand. In general, hESC appeared more sensitive to smoke than their mouse ESC counterparts. Although harm reduction cigarettes are often marketed as safer than conventional brands, our assays show that SS smoke from harm reduction cigarettes was at least as potent or in some cases more potent than smoke from a conventional brand and that SS smoke was more inhibitory than MS smoke in all assays. PMID:20702591

  2. Smoking and vascular risk: are all forms of smoking harmful to all types of vascular disease?

    PubMed

    Katsiki, N; Papadopoulou, S K; Fachantidou, A I; Mikhailidis, D P

    2013-05-01

    Smoking, both active and passive, is an established vascular risk factor. The present narrative review considers the effects of different forms of smoking (i.e. cannabis, cigar, pipe, smokeless tobacco and cigarette) on cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, the impact of smoking on several vascular risk factors [e.g. hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), dyslipidaemia and haemostasis] and on vascular diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) and carotid arterial disease, is discussed. The adverse effects of all forms of smoking and the interactions between smoking and established vascular risk factors highlight the importance of smoking cessation in high-risk patients in terms of both primary and secondary vascular disease prevention. Healthcare providers should discourage people (especially the young) from becoming smokers, strongly encourage all vascular patients to stop smoking and support those who decide to quit by pharmaceutical and psychological interventions. In high-risk populations such as patients with CHD, DM and/or PAD, smoking cessation should always be a part of a multifactorial treatment to reduce vascular risk. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do Young Adults Perceive That Cigarette Graphic Warnings Provide New Knowledge About the Harms of Smoking?

    PubMed

    Magnan, Renee E; Cameron, Linda D

    2015-08-01

    Although much research on graphic cigarette warnings has focused on motivational responses, little focus has been given to how much individuals learn from these labels. This study aims to investigate whether graphic warnings provide greater perceived new knowledge of smoking consequences compared to text-only warnings, and to test a mediational model whereby perceived new knowledge promotes discouragement from smoking through its impact on worry. In two studies, young adult smokers and nonsmokers (ages 18-25) evaluated graphic + text and corresponding text-only labels on perceived knowledge, worry about the harms addressed by the warning, and discouragement from smoking. Compared to text-only labels, graphic + text labels were rated as providing better understanding, more new knowledge, and being more worrisome and discouraging. Perceived new knowledge predicted greater discouragement from smoking directly and through worry. Graphic warnings may be more efficacious than text-based warnings in increasing knowledge and worry about harms, and discouragement from smoking.

  4. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  5. Impact of institutional smoking bans on reducing harms and secondhand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Kate; McHugh, Jack; Callinan, Joanne E; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-05-27

    Smoking bans or restrictions can assist in eliminating nonsmokers' exposure to the dangers of secondhand smoke and can reduce tobacco consumption amongst smokers themselves. Evidence exists identifying the impact of tobacco control regulations and interventions implemented in general workplaces and at an individual level. However, it is important that we also review the evidence for smoking bans at a meso- or organisational level, to identify their impact on reducing the burden of exposure to tobacco smoke. Our review assesses evidence for meso- or organisational-level tobacco control bans or policies in a number of specialist settings, including public healthcare facilities, higher education and correctional facilities. To assess the extent to which institutional smoking bans may reduce passive smoke exposure and active smoking, and affect other health-related outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. We contacted authors to identify completed or ongoing studies eligible for inclusion in this review. We also checked websites of state agencies and organisations, such as trial registries. Date of latest searches was 22nd June 2015. We considered studies that reported the effects of tobacco bans or policies, whether complete or partial, on reducing secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco consumption, smoking prevalence and other health outcomes, in public healthcare, higher educational and correctional facilities, from 2005 onwards.The minimum standard for inclusion was having a settings-level policy or ban implemented in the study, and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included quasi-experimental studies (i.e. controlled before-and-after studies), interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. Two or more review authors independently

  6. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9%) were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative) was -21. Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  7. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Results: Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9%) were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative) was −21. Conclusion: Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed. PMID:28144056

  8. US Adults' Perceptions of the Harmful Effects During Pregnancy of Using Electronic Vapor Products Versus Smoking Cigarettes, Styles Survey, 2015.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kimberly H; Tong, Van T; Marynak, Kristy L; King, Brian A

    2016-12-22

    Research suggests aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs) has fewer harmful constituents than conventional cigarette smoke. Even so, EVPs and other nicotine-containing products are not safe to use during pregnancy. We examined perceptions among US adults regarding harm in using EVPs rather than smoking cigarettes during pregnancy. Data came from the 2015 Styles Survey, an Internet panel survey of a sample of US adults aged 18 years or older (N = 4,127). Perceived harm was assessed by asking respondents whether using EVPs was less, equally, or more harmful for pregnant women than smoking cigarettes. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate perceived harm overall and by sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco-use status. Perceived harm was assessed among all adults, women of reproductive age (18-44 years, n = 820), and women of nonreproductive age (≥45 years, n = 1,398). Among all adults, 11.1% believed using EVPs during pregnancy was less harmful than smoking conventional cigarettes, 51.0% believed it was equally harmful, 11.6% believed it was more harmful, and 26.2% did not know. Prevalence of perception of less harm, by demographic category, was greatest among adults aged 18 to 24 years, men, non-Hispanic whites, adults with less than a high school diploma, current EVP users, and current cigarette smokers (P < .05). Prevalence of perception of less harm was greater among women of reproductive age (9.6%) than among those of nonreproductive age (7.9%) (P < .05). US adults have varying levels of perceptions about the harms of EVP use versus cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Efforts are warranted to prevent nicotine exposure during pregnancy and to educate adults on the dangers of using any form of tobacco during pregnancy, including EVPs.

  9. US Adults’ Perceptions of the Harmful Effects During Pregnancy of Using Electronic Vapor Products Versus Smoking Cigarettes, Styles Survey, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Van T.; Marynak, Kristy L.; King, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research suggests aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs) has fewer harmful constituents than conventional cigarette smoke. Even so, EVPs and other nicotine-containing products are not safe to use during pregnancy. We examined perceptions among US adults regarding harm in using EVPs rather than smoking cigarettes during pregnancy. Methods Data came from the 2015 Styles Survey, an Internet panel survey of a sample of US adults aged 18 years or older (N = 4,127). Perceived harm was assessed by asking respondents whether using EVPs was less, equally, or more harmful for pregnant women than smoking cigarettes. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate perceived harm overall and by sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco-use status. Perceived harm was assessed among all adults, women of reproductive age (18–44 years, n = 820), and women of nonreproductive age (≥45 years, n = 1,398). Results Among all adults, 11.1% believed using EVPs during pregnancy was less harmful than smoking conventional cigarettes, 51.0% believed it was equally harmful, 11.6% believed it was more harmful, and 26.2% did not know. Prevalence of perception of less harm, by demographic category, was greatest among adults aged 18 to 24 years, men, non-Hispanic whites, adults with less than a high school diploma, current EVP users, and current cigarette smokers (P < .05). Prevalence of perception of less harm was greater among women of reproductive age (9.6%) than among those of nonreproductive age (7.9%) (P < .05). Conclusion US adults have varying levels of perceptions about the harms of EVP use versus cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Efforts are warranted to prevent nicotine exposure during pregnancy and to educate adults on the dangers of using any form of tobacco during pregnancy, including EVPs. PMID:28005528

  10. Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs), also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs), or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions. PMID:24065038

  11. You might as well smoke; the misleading and harmful public message about smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Carl V; Wang, Constance; Guenzel, Brian

    2005-04-05

    Compared to smoking cigarettes, use of Western smokeless tobacco (ST) products is associated with a very small risk of life-threatening disease (with estimates in the range of a few percent of the risk from smoking, or even less). This means that smokers can realize substantial health benefits by switching to ST, an obvious substitute. But consumers and policy makers have little chance of learning that ST is much less dangerous than smoking because popular information provided by experts and advocates overstates the health risks from ST relative to cigarettes. To examine the extent of this overstatement in one medium, we conducted a systematic review of websites containing information about ST and health risks. We examined the content of 316 relevant websites identified by a Google search. We found that when any substantive information about the risk from ST is given, the risk is almost universally conflated with the risk from cigarettes. Accurate comparative risk information was quite rare, provided by only a handful of websites, all appearing low in our search results (i.e., of low popularity and thus unlikely to be found by someone searching for information). About 1/3 of the websites, including various authoritative entities, explicitly claimed that ST is as bad as or worse than cigarettes. Most of the other sites made statements that imply the risks are comparable. Through these websites, and presumably other information provided by the same government, advocacy, and educational organizations, ST users are told, in effect, that they might as well switch to smoking if they like it a bit more. Smokers and policy makers are told there is no potential for harm reduction. These messages are clearly false and likely harmful, representing violations of ethical standards.

  12. Does smoking reduction result in reduction of biomarkers associated with harm? A pilot study using a nicotine inhaler.

    PubMed

    Hurt, R D; Croghan, G A; Wolter, T D; Croghan, I T; Offord, K P; Williams, G M; Djordjevic, M V; Richie, J P; Jeffrey, A M

    2000-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if smoking reduction using a nicotine inhaler in heavy cigarette smokers who wanted to reduce but not stop smoking results in decreased levels of known biomarkers of harm. The study design was a one-sample within-subject comparative open-label study of 23 (10 male and 13 female) subjects using a nicotine inhaler to reduce smoking, with follow-up at 24 weeks. A structured protocol was used with a smoking-reduction schedule from 40 or more cigarettes per day to 10 cigarettes per day by week 9. Behavioral counseling was provided by a research assistant and ad lib use of the nicotine inhaler for 12 weeks was permitted. Blood thiocyanate, cotinine, 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adducts; urine NNAL and NNAL-glucuronide; and expired air carbon monoxide were measured. On average, the subjects were able to reduce their smoking by over 50% at week 12, but only two were able to reduce to 10 cigarettes per day. The reported reduction in smoking was not associated with a consistent reduction in the biomarkers. There was no reduction in the NNAL, 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adducts nor carbon monoxide levels of expired air. There was a significant reduction of NNAL-glucuronide and the sum of NNAL and NNAL-glucuronide but only at week 24. Thiocyanate levels increased. Before widely promoting harm reduction as a treatment strategy for heavy smokers, more research needs to be performed to prove conclusively that such smokers who want to reduce but not stop can actually reduce and maintain their smoking rate at a level which is likely to reduce harm. It also needs to be determined whether a reduction in the smoking rate translates into reduction of harm. At the present, for heavy smokers, an abstinence approach seems to be more scientifically sound.

  13. Waterpipe smoking among college students in the United States: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R; Ayna, Dinah

    2012-01-01

    To review the literature on college student waterpipe use with a focus on undergraduates in the United States. Undergraduate students. Studies were accessed using the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Academic Search Premier. Searches included combinations of the following keywords: "waterpipe," "hookah," "shisha," "nargila," "argileh," "hubble bubble," "college," "university," and "student." Results demonstrate that approximately 1 in 5 American college students report past-year waterpipe use. Results also suggest that there are a number of established correlates of waterpipe smoking, including male gender, Arab ethnicity, cigarette smoking, and the belief that waterpipe smoking is less harmful than cigarette smoking. Despite its harmful health effects, waterpipe smoking is quite common among college students. Future research with better methodologies and theoretical frameworks are needed to advance the field.

  14. Substance and hookah use and living arrangement among fraternity and sorority members at US colleges and universities

    PubMed Central

    Sidani, Jaime E.; Shensa, Ariel; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is associated with substantial toxicant exposures and is increasing among college students in the US. Greek (fraternity/sorority) students, especially those living in Greek housing, have high rates of risky alcohol use. The extent to which this is true for other substances, including hookah tobacco smoking, is not well known. The objective of this study is to examine associations between Greek involvement and living arrangement (non-member, non-resident member, resident member) and rates of hookah tobacco smoking, in relation to other substances, among US college students. We used national data from 82,251 student responses from the 2008–2009 administrations of the National College Health Assessment. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to determine adjusted odds ratios for substance use outcomes based on involvement and living arrangements, while adjusting for covariates and clustering of students within institutions. Among resident members, ever use was highest for marijuana (52.4%), hookah (48.5%) and cigarettes (46.6%). In multivariable models, adjusted odds were lowest for non-Greeks and highest for Greek resident members. Compared to non-Greeks, Greek resident members had nearly double the odds for current use of hookah, cigars, and marijuana, as well as two and a half times the odds for current use of smokeless tobacco and three times the odds for alcohol bingeing. Similar to other substances, hookah tobacco smoking is highest among Greek resident members, compared with both Greeks living outside Greek housing and non-Greeks. It is valuable for substance use surveillance and intervention to focus on Greek resident members. PMID:22903805

  15. Substance and hookah use and living arrangement among fraternity and sorority members at US colleges and universities.

    PubMed

    Sidani, Jaime E; Shensa, Ariel; Primack, Brian A

    2013-04-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is associated with substantial toxicant exposures and is increasing among college students in the United States. Greek (fraternity/sorority) students, especially those living in Greek housing, have high rates of risky alcohol use. The extent to which this is true for other substances, including hookah tobacco smoking, is not well known. The objective of this study is to examine associations between Greek involvement and living arrangement (non-member, non-resident member, resident member) and rates of hookah tobacco smoking, in relation to other substances, among US college students. We used national data from 82,251 student responses from the 2008 to 2009 administration of the National College Health Assessment. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to determine adjusted odds ratios for substance use outcomes based on involvement and living arrangements, while adjusting for covariates and clustering of students within institutions. Among resident members, ever use was highest for marijuana (52.4 %), hookah (48.5 %) and cigarettes (46.6 %). In multivariable models, adjusted odds were lowest for non-Greeks and highest for Greek resident members. Compared to non-Greeks, Greek resident members had nearly double the odds for current use of hookah, cigars, and marijuana, as well as two and a half times the odds for current use of smokeless tobacco and three times the odds for alcohol bingeing. Similar to other substances, hookah tobacco smoking is highest among Greek resident members, compared with both Greeks living outside Greek housing and non-Greeks. It is valuable for substance use surveillance and intervention to focus on Greek resident members.

  16. Harm perception, attitudes and predictors of waterpipe (shisha) smoking among secondary school adolescents in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Amr, Mostafa Abdel Monem; Zaza, Burhan Omar; Suleman, Wassem

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and social determinants of waterpipe (WP) smoking among secondary school students in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to assess their health related knowledge and attitudes toward WP. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,652 Saudi secondary school students of both genders aged between 15-19 years selected by multistage sampling method. A self-administered anonymous Arabic version of Global Youth Tobacco Survey modified with items dedicated to WP smoking and to assess perception of health related hazards and attitudes towards WP was employed for data collection. Prevalence of current smokers 'all forms' was 30.3% among males (C.I= 27.5- 33.2%) and 8.5% in females (C.I= 6.6-10.9%). WP was used by 53.9% of the current tobacco users, significantly higher among older age students. Of the regular WP smokers, 20.7% smoked WP on daily basis, 23.8% weekly, 64.2% stated using flavored " Muassel " tobacco. Primary motives for WP smoking were outings with friends, company, boredom and wasting time. Of the total, 49.7% of students stated that WP smoking is less harmful than cigarettes, 60.5% believed that harmful substances were purified through water filtration, with non-addictive properties in 67.8%. Knowledge about health hazards of WP smoking was low, irrespective of student's smoking status. WP smoking is more socially acceptable than cigarettes (52.1%), represents a good opportunity for gathering of friends and family (33.8%), and smoking of WP can relieve stress and tensions (37.8%). Hierarchical regression analysis showed that socializing motives, cigarette smoking, smoking among close family and friends, male gender and increasing age were positive predictors for WP smoking. Social acceptability, poor knowledge of WP health related hazards and certain socio demographics are favoring the increasing current trend of WP use among adolescents in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia.

  17. Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis: a cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Boreiri, Majid; Parsaeian, Mahbubeh; Babaei, Masoud; Alimohammadian, Masoomeh; Samadi, Fatemeh; Etemadi, Arash; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Ahmadi, Emad; Delavari, Alireza; Islami, Farhad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Nikmanesh, Arash; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; de Bock, Geertruida H; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based cohort study, 928 randomly selected, healthy, Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects in Ardabil Province, Iran, were followed for 10 years. The association between baseline precancerous lesions and lifestyle risk factors (including hookah/opium) was analyzed using logistic regression and presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations of lifestyle risk factors and endoscopic and histological parameters with incident gastric cancers using Cox regression models. Additionally, the proportion of cancers attributable to modifiable risk factors was calculated. During 9,096 person-years of follow-up, 36 new cases of gastric cancer were observed (incidence rate: 3.96/1,000 persons-years). Opium consumption was strongly associated with baseline antral (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-9.1) and body intestinal metaplasia (OR: 7.3; 95% CI: 2.5-21.5). Opium (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.7), hookah (HR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-7.1) and cigarette use (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.5), as well as high salt intake, family history of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and histological atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia of body were associated with higher risk of gastric cancer. The fraction of cancers attributable jointly to high salt, low fruit intake, smoking (including hookah) and opium was 93% (95% CI: 83-98). Hookah and opium use are risk factors for gastric cancer as well as for precancerous lesions. Hookah, opium, cigarette and high salt intake are important modifiable risk factors in this high-incidence gastric cancer area.

  18. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: A new smoking epidemic among the young?

    PubMed

    Soule, Eric K; Lipato, Thokozeni; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile) tobacco smoking (WTS) is becoming prevalent worldwide and is one of the most popular forms of tobacco use among youth. WTS prevalence has increased dramatically among youth in the United States within the past decade. Misperceived as less harmful than cigarette smoking, WTS is associated with many of the same chronic health effects such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and asthma. Much of this risk is due to the fact that a single WTS session exposes users to large volumes of smoke that contain toxic chemicals such as carbon monoxide, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile aldehydes. Unlike cigarette smoking, WTS poses unique risks of acute negative health outcomes including carbon monoxide poisoning and the spread of communicable diseases such as herpes and tuberculosis. Because waterpipe tobacco smoke contains the addictive chemical nicotine, youth who smoke tobacco from a waterpipe may be at risk for dependence. As a result, many youth may initiate WTS and continue to use despite negative health effects. Considering many of the potential negative health effects associated with WTS affect the pulmonary system, pulmonologists and primary care providers may treat patients who are waterpipe tobacco smokers and should be aware of the risk associated with WTS. The purpose of this review is to describe a waterpipe, the prevalence and correlates of WTS, the toxicants found in waterpipe tobacco smoke, the health effects of WTS, and implications for pulmonologists and other clinicians.

  19. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: A new smoking epidemic among the young?

    PubMed Central

    Soule, Eric K.; Lipato, Thokozeni

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile) tobacco smoking (WTS) is becoming prevalent worldwide and is one of the most popular forms of tobacco use among youth. WTS prevalence has increased dramatically among youth in the United States within the past decade. Misperceived as less harmful than cigarette smoking, WTS is associated with many of the same chronic health effects such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and asthma. Much of this risk is due to the fact that a single WTS session exposes users to large volumes of smoke that contain toxic chemicals such as carbon monoxide, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile aldehydes. Unlike cigarette smoking, WTS poses unique risks of acute negative health outcomes including carbon monoxide poisoning and the spread of communicable diseases such as herpes and tuberculosis. Because waterpipe tobacco smoke contains the addictive chemical nicotine, youth who smoke tobacco from a waterpipe may be at risk for dependence. As a result, many youth may initiate WTS and continue to use despite negative health effects. Considering many of the potential negative health effects associated with WTS affect the pulmonary system, pulmonologists and primary care providers may treat patients who are waterpipe tobacco smokers and should be aware of the risk associated with WTS. The purpose of this review is to describe a waterpipe, the prevalence and correlates of WTS, the toxicants found in waterpipe tobacco smoke, the health effects of WTS, and implications for pulmonologists and other clinicians. PMID:26756025

  20. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  1. Effect of smoking abstinence and reduction in asthmatic smokers switching to electronic cigarettes: evidence for harm reversal.

    PubMed

    Polosa, Riccardo; Morjaria, Jaymin; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Caruso, Massimo; Strano, Simona; Battaglia, Eliana; Russo, Cristina

    2014-05-08

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are marketed as safer alternatives to tobacco cigarettes and have shown to reduce their consumption. Here we report for the first time the effects of e-cigs on subjective and objective asthma parameters as well as tolerability in asthmatic smokers who quit or reduced their tobacco consumption by switching to these products. We retrospectively reviewed changes in spirometry data, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), asthma exacerbations and subjective asthma control in smoking asthmatics who switched to regular e-cig use. Measurements were taken prior to switching (baseline) and at two consecutive visits (Follow-up/1 at 6 (±1) and Follow-up/2 at 12 (±2) months). Eighteen smoking asthmatics (10 single users, eight dual users) were identified. Overall there were significant improvements in spirometry data, asthma control and AHR. These positive outcomes were noted in single and dual users. Reduction in exacerbation rates was reported, but was not significant. No severe adverse events were noted. This small retrospective study indicates that regular use of e-cigs to substitute smoking is associated with objective and subjective improvements in asthma outcomes. Considering that e-cig use is reportedly less harmful than conventional smoking and can lead to reduced cigarette consumption with subsequent improvements in asthma outcomes, this study shows that e-cigs can be a valid option for asthmatic patients who cannot quit smoking by other methods.

  2. Interventions to Reduce Harm from Smoking with Families in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicola; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M.; Di Giacomo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year) tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1–5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective. PMID:25785496

  3. Interventions to reduce harm from smoking with families in infancy and early childhood: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicola; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M; Di Giacomo, Michelle

    2015-03-16

    Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year) tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1-5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective.

  4. Significant reduction of harmful compounds in tobacco smoke by the use of titanate nanosheets and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qixin; Huang, Chaozhang; Xie, Wei; Zhang, Jianping; Zhao, Yiqiang; Hong, Zhensheng; Pang, Aiying; Wei, Mingdeng

    2011-06-07

    Titanate nanosheets and nanotubes have first been introduced into cigarette filter, a great range of harmful compounds including tar, nicotine, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, selected carbonyls and phenolic compounds can be reduced efficiently.

  5. Australian mental health care practitioners' practices and attitudes for encouraging smoking cessation and tobacco harm reduction in smokers with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ratika; Meurk, Carla; Bell, Stephanie; Ford, Pauline; Gartner, Coral

    2017-02-03

    Reducing the burden of physical illness among people living with severe mental illnesses (SMI) is a key priority. Smoking is strongly associated with SMIs resulting in excessive smoking related morbidity and mortality in smokers with SMI. Smoking cessation advice and assistance from mental health practitioners would assist with reducing smoking and smoking-related harms in this group. This study examined the attitudes and practices of Australian mental health practitioners towards smoking cessation and tobacco harm reduction for smokers with SMI, including adherence to the 5As (ask, assess, advise, assist and arrange follow up) of smoking cessation. We surveyed 267 Australian mental health practitioners using a cross-sectional, online survey. Most practitioners (77.5%) asked their clients about smoking and provided health education (66.7%) but fewer provided direct assistance (31.1-39.7%). Most believed that tobacco harm reduction strategies are effective for reducing smoking related risks (88.4%) and that abstinence from all nicotine should not be the only goal discussed with smokers with SMI (77.9%). Many respondents were unsure about the safety (56.9%) and efficacy (39.3%) of e-cigarettes. Practitioners trained in smoking cessation were more likely (OR: 2.9, CI: 1.5-5.9) to help their clients to stop smoking. Community mental health practitioners (OR: 0.3, CI: 0.1-0.9) and practitioners who were current smokers (OR: 0.3, CI: 0.1-0.9) were less likely to adhere to the 5As of smoking cessation intervention. The results of this study emphasize the importance and need for providing smoking cessation training to mental health practitioners especially community mental health practitioners. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. Smokers' sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a light/low tar cigarette and perceptions of harm.

    PubMed

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Quah, Anne C K; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    The sensory belief that 'light/low tar' cigarettes are smoother can also influence the belief that 'light/low tar' cigarettes are less harmful. However, the 'light' concept is one of several factors influencing beliefs. No studies have examined the impact of the sensory belief about one's own brand of cigarettes on perceptions of harm. The current study examines whether a smoker's sensory belief that their brand is smoother is associated with the belief that their brand is less harmful and whether sensory beliefs mediate the relation between smoking a 'light/low tar' cigarette and relative perceptions of harm among smokers in China. Data are from 5209 smokers who were recruited using a stratified multistage sampling design and participated in Wave 3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a face-to-face survey of adult smokers and non-smokers in seven cities. Smokers who agreed that their brand of cigarettes was smoother were significantly more likely to say that their brand of cigarettes was less harmful (p<0.001, OR=6.86, 95% CI 5.64 to 8.33). Mediational analyses using the bootstrapping procedure indicated that both the direct effect of 'light/low tar' cigarette smokers on the belief that their cigarettes are less harmful (b=0.24, bootstrapped bias corrected 95% CI 0.13 to 0.34, p<0.001) and the indirect effect via their belief that their cigarettes are smoother were significant (b=0.32, bootstrapped bias-corrected 95% CI 0.28 to 0.37, p<0.001), suggesting that the mediation was partial. These results demonstrate the importance of implementing tobacco control policies that address the impact that cigarette design and marketing can have in capitalising on the smoker's natural associations between smoother sensations and lowered perceptions of harm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Perceptions of the relative harmfulness of snus among Norwegian general practitioners and their effect on the tendency to recommend snus in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Lund, Ingeborg; Scheffels, Janne

    2012-02-01

    Research suggests that health risks associated with the use of Swedish moist snuff (snus) are considerably smaller than health risks associated with cigarette smoking. However, erroneous ideas of approximately equal harm from snus and cigarettes are common in the general population. General practitioners (GPs) have a crucial role in giving information about health and risk to patients, and the objective of this study was to measure their perceptions of the relative harmfulness of cigarettes and snus and how these perceptions related to their tendency to recommend snus as a smoking cessation aid. Approximately 900 GPs completed a questionnaire in 2008 (response rate about 45%). Perceived relative risk was measured by the question: "In terms of health risks, how do you think daily use of snus compares to daily use of cigarettes?" Answer categories ranged from "snus is much more harmful" to "snus is much less harmful." Only 36% of the GPs believed that snus was much less harmful than cigarettes. More than 15% believed that snus was equally or more harmful than cigarettes. GPs who rated snus as much less harmful more often recommended snus as an aid in smoking cessation. Almost two thirds of the GPs had beliefs about the relative risk of snus and cigarettes that were at odds with scientific consensus. The associated limitations in disseminated information about snus as a possible quitting aid can be understood as an unexploited intervention potential.

  8. Tobacco Use and Smoke Exposure in Children: New Trends, Harm, and Strategies to Improve Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Makadia, Luv D; Roper, P Jervey; Andrews, Jeannette O; Tingen, Martha S

    2017-08-01

    Every day in the USA, approximately 4000 adolescents begin smoking and the adolescent brain is particularly susceptible to nicotine addiction. We present current pediatric trends on tobacco use and exposures, various new products used by adolescents, the adverse biological and behavioral effects of tobacco use and exposures, and tobacco control strategies to eliminate tobacco-related illnesses and deaths in the pediatric population. Twelve-20% of women continue to smoke during pregnancy. New research reveals cognitive differences and behavior-control disorders are seen in elementary school children from prenatal and postnatal exposures. Traditional cigarette smoking has decreased in adolescents; novel and appealing tobacco products have captured their attention, particularly electronic cigarettes, and rates double and often triple from middle to high school. Children with asthma and those living in multi-housing units have higher rates of secondhand smoke exposure than non-asthmatics and children living in single-home dwellings. There is no "safe or risk-free" level of tobacco use or exposure. Tobacco use and exposure in childhood and adolescence must be decreased using evidenced-based strategies to improve child health.

  9. The influence of newspaper coverage and a media campaign on smokers' support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and on secondhand smoke harm awareness: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    PubMed

    Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; de Vries, Hein; Crone, Matty; Fong, Geoffrey T; Willemsen, Marc C

    2012-01-01

    To assess the influence of newspaper coverage and a media campaign about Dutch smoke-free legislation on smokers' support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and on secondhand smoke (SHS) harm awareness. A content analysis was conducted of 1041 newspaper articles on the smoke-free legislation published in six Dutch newspapers from March 2008 to April 2009. Smokers who were regular readers of at least one of these newspapers (n = 677) were selected from the pre-ban and post-ban waves of the International Tobacco Control Netherlands Survey. Exposure to newspaper coverage and the implementation campaign was correlated with changes in smokers' support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and SHS harm awareness. Most newspaper coverage was found to be negative towards the smoking ban (57%) and focused on economic aspects (59%) rather than health aspects (22%). Exposure to this coverage had a small but significantly negative effect on support for smoke-free bars and restaurants (β = -0.09, p = 0.013). Among higher educated smokers, exposure to positive newspaper coverage had a more positive effect on support for smoke-free bars and restaurants. In addition, exposure to the implementation campaign had a small but significantly positive effect on SHS harm awareness (β = 0.11, p = 0.001). Media attention on smoke-free legislation can influence smokers' support for the legislation and SHS harm awareness. Tobacco control advocates should aim to establish positive media attention that puts forward the health arguments for the legislation.

  10. The influence of newspaper coverage and a media campaign on smokers’ support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and on second-hand smoke harm awareness. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; van den Putte, Bas; de Vries, Hein; Crone, Matty; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of newspaper coverage and a media campaign about Dutch smoke-free legislation on smokers’ support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and on second-hand smoke (SHS) harm awareness. Design and main outcome measures A content analysis was conducted of 1,041 newspaper articles on the smoke-free legislation published in six Dutch newspapers from March 2008 until April 2009. Smokers who were regular readers of at least one of these newspapers (n = 677) were selected from the pre- and post-ban waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Exposure to newspaper coverage and to the implementation campaign were correlated with changes in smokers’ support for smoke-free bars and restaurants and SHS harm awareness. Results Most newspaper coverage was found to be negative towards the smoking ban (57%) and focused on economic aspects (59%) rather than health aspects (22%). Exposure to this coverage had a small but significantly negative effect on support for smoke-free bars and restaurants (Beta = −0.09, p = 0.013). Among higher educated smokers, exposure to positive newspaper coverage had a more positive effect on support for smoke-free bars and restaurants. In addition, exposure to the implementation campaign had a small but significantly positive effect on SHS harm awareness (Beta = 0.11, p = 0.001). Conclusions Media attention about smoke-free legislation can influence smokers’ support for the legislation and SHS harm awareness. Tobacco control advocates should aim to establish positive media attention that puts forward the health arguments for the legislation. PMID:21586760

  11. Assessment of the reduction in levels of exposure to harmful and potentially harmful constituents in Japanese subjects using a novel tobacco heating system compared with conventional cigarettes and smoking abstinence: A randomized controlled study in confinement.

    PubMed

    Haziza, Christelle; de La Bourdonnaye, Guillaume; Merlet, Sarah; Benzimra, Muriel; Ancerewicz, Jacek; Donelli, Andrea; Baker, Gizelle; Picavet, Patrick; Lüdicke, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Smoking conventional cigarettes (CCs) exposes smokers to harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). The Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2), a candidate modified risk tobacco product, was developed to reduce or eliminate the formation of HPHCs, while preserving as much as possible the taste, sensory experience, nicotine delivery profile and ritual characteristics of CC. This randomized, controlled, open-label study in confinement for 5 day exposure aimed to demonstrate the reduction in exposure to selected HPHCs, to assess nicotine uptake and subjective effects, in participants switching to THS 2.2 (n = 80) compared to participants continuing smoking CCs (n = 40) and abstaining from smoking (n = 40). The subjects were randomized according to sex and daily CC consumption. The levels of biomarkers of exposure to HPHCs were significantly reduced in participants switching to THS 2.2, compared to CC use. More importantly, the magnitude of exposure reduction observed was close to that which was seen in participants who abstained from smoking for 5 days, while nicotine uptake was maintained. Reduction in urge-to-smoke was comparable between THS and CC groups, however THS 2.2 was slightly less satisfactory than CCs. The new, alternative tobacco product THS 2.2 was well tolerated. Copyright © 2016 Philip Morris Products S.A. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in hookah water.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Maryam; Bazregar, Mohammad; Daneshfar, Ali; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    In this work, two disperser-free microextraction methods, namely, air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction are compared for the determination of a number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples, followed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The effects of various experimental parameters upon the extraction efficiencies of both methods are investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors and limits of detection were found to be in the ranges of 327-773 and 0.015-0.05 ng/mL for air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and 406-670 and 0.015-0.05 ng/mL for ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction, respectively. The linear dynamic ranges and extraction recoveries were obtained to be in the range of 0.05-120 ng/mL (R(2) ≥ 0.995) and 33-77% for air-agitated liquid-liquid microextraction and 0.05-110 ng/mL (R(2) ≥ 0.994) and 41-67% for ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction, respectively. To investigate this common view among some people that smoking hookah is healthy due to the passage of smoke through the hookah water, samples of both the hookah water and hookah smoke were analyzed.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking by college students in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Sutfin, Erin L; McCoy, Thomas P; Reboussin, Beth A; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Known most commonly in the U.S. as "hookah," waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. A cross-sectional sample of 3770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking by College Students in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Known most commonly in the U.S. as “hookah,” waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3,770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Results Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. Conclusions The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. PMID:21353750

  15. Impact and duration of brief surgeon-delivered smoking cessation advice on attitudes regarding nicotine dependence and tobacco harms for patients with peripheral arterial disease

    PubMed Central

    Newhall, Karina; Suckow, Bjoern; Spangler, Emily; Brooke, Benjamin S.; Schanzer, Andres; Tan, TzeWoei; Burnette, Mary; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Farber, Alik; Goodney, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the recognized benefits of smoking cessation, many clinicians question if a brief smoking cessation intervention can help dedicated smokers with peripheral arterial disease understand nicotine dependence and harms related to smoking. We investigated the impact and durability of a multi-modal smoking cessation intervention on patient attitudes regarding nicotine dependence and the health effects of smoking. Methods We conducted a pilot cluster randomized trial of a brief smoking cessation intervention at eight vascular surgery practices between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Compared with control sites, patients at intervention sites received protocolized brief cessation counseling, medications and referrals to a quitline. After their clinic visit and again at 3 months, participants completed a brief survey about patient attitudes regarding nicotine dependence and the health effects of smoking. Responses to questions were analyzed using Chi2 and student’s t-tests. Results All trial participants (n=156) complete the initial survey, and 75 (45%) participants completed the follow-up survey. Intervention and control patients both reported a greater than 30-pack-year history (80% vs 90%, p=0.07) and previous failed quit attempts (77% vs 78%, p=0.8). Compared to usual care, patients in the intervention group were more likely to describe hearing advice to quit from their surgeon (98% vs. 77%, p<0.001), and expressed “a lot” or “some” interest in quitting (95.4% vs 85.7%, p=0.05). Patients in the intervention group were also more likely to acknowledge their addictive behaviors, consistently scoring higher on question bank items regarding nicotine addiction (52.9 vs 48.0, p=0.006) and the negative health effects of smoking (scaled score 56.6 vs 50.6, p=0.001). When re-surveyed three months after intervention, patients in the intervention group had larger declines in nicotine dependence and health effects domains, suggesting durable impact

  16. "I have never experienced any problem with my health. So far, it hasn't been harmful": older Greek-Australian smokers' views on smoking: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-29

    Smoking tobacco products is one of the largest preventable health risk factors for older people. Greek-Australians have the highest prevalence of cigarette use in Australia for older people, but there is a lack of knowledge about Greek-Australian's perspectives on smoking cessation. The purpose of this exploratory, qualitative study was to progress the knowledge base in this area. A qualitative study was designed to gather information on participants' perspectives about, and understanding of, their reasons for smoking and their attitudes to quitting. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian current smokers, aged ≥50 years. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the assistance of a Greek translator. The audio-taped interviews were transcribed and then qualitative content analysis was used to categorise responses to the questions. Participants' perspectives on three broad topics were identified in the interviews: perceived benefits of smoking, perceptions of smoking and its effect on health, and barriers to cessation. Smoking behaviour was described as contributing to tiredness, and stress, and yet also was also a source of enjoyment. Level of knowledge about smoking-related diseases and the risks of smoking was very low. The number of cigarettes smoked each day, type of smoking (i.e. pipe rather than cigarettes), and previous family history of smoking were identified as indicators that limited harm flows from smoking. Most participants had a positive attitude towards smoking and described their own life experience and cultural norms as supporting smoking acceptability. Low confidence in quitting was linked to advanced age. Smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers has been associated with a number of influences and these need to be addressed in smoking cessation efforts targeted at this group. Promoting knowledge about the health impacts of smoking, changing attitudes towards smoking, and ultimately

  17. Perceptions about the harm of secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. middle and high school students: findings from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Babb, Stephen D

    2013-07-17

    Increased knowledge of the harmful effects of SHS is an evidence-based key indicator for eliminating nonsmokers' exposure to SHS. This study assessed the prevalence and predictors of perceptions about the harm of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among U.S. middle and high school students. Data were obtained from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative school-based survey of U.S. students in grades 6-12. Respondents who reported that they thought breathing smoke from other people's cigarettes or other tobacco products causes "some" or "a lot" of harm were considered to have the perception that SHS is harmful. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of the perception that SHS is harmful. Predictors included sex, race/ethnicity, school grade level, current tobacco use, and whether the respondent currently lived with a tobacco user. Overall, 75.4% of students perceived SHS exposure as harmful. The adjusted odds of perceiving SHS exposure as harmful were higher among non-Hispanic Asians than among non-Hispanic whites, and among students in 10th-12th grades than among students in 8th grade. Adjusted odds were lower among boys than among girls, among non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites, among students living with a tobacco user than among those not, and among those who use combustible tobacco only or both combustible and non-combustible tobacco than among those who use no tobacco. Most middle and high school students perceive SHS exposure as harmful, but efforts are needed to increase the prevalence of this perception in certain subpopulations, particularly tobacco users.

  18. Comparison of nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-05-01

    Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared with cigarette smoking. We conducted a crossover study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. When smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared with smoking 11 cigarettes per day (cpd), water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared with cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene, and high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk.

  19. Comparison of Nicotine and Carcinogen Exposure with Water pipe and Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Peyton; Abu Raddaha, Ahmad H.; Dempsey, Delia; Havel, Christopher; Peng, Margaret; Yu, Lisa; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco preparations in a water pipe (hookah) is widespread in many places of the world and is perceived by many as relatively safe. We investigated biomarkers of toxicant exposure with water pipe compared to cigarette smoking. Methods We conducted a cross-over study to assess daily nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking in 13 people who were experienced in using both products. Results While smoking an average of 3 water pipe sessions compared to smoking 11 cigarettes per day, water pipe use was associated with a significantly lower intake of nicotine, greater exposure to carbon monoxide and a different pattern of carcinogen exposure compared to cigarette smoking, with greater exposure to benzene and high molecular weight PAHs, but less exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines, 1,3-butadiene and acrolein, acrylonitrile, propylene oxide, ethylene oxide, and low molecular weight PAHs. Conclusions A different pattern of carcinogen exposure might result in a different cancer risk profile between cigarette and water pipe smoking. Of particular concern is the risk of leukemia related to high levels of benzene exposure with water pipe use. Impact Smoking tobacco in water pipes has gained popularity in the United States and around the world. Many believe that water pipe smoking is not addictive and less harmful than cigarette smoking. We provide data on toxicant exposure that will help guide regulation and public education regarding water pipe health risk. PMID:23462922

  20. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation among homeless youth in los angeles county.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 70% of homeless youth smoke cigarettes, but their use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) is unknown. This paper reports on ATP use among past-month smokers in Los Angeles County, including whether it differs by demographic characteristics, homelessness severity, past-year quit attempts, and readiness to quit smoking. Given the growing popularity of e-cigarettes, we also report on perceptions of harm and reasons for using this product. We surveyed 292 unaccompanied homeless youth who were randomly sampled from street sites. Participants had smoked at least 100 cigarettes during their lifetime and 1 cigarette during the past month. Seventy-two percent of youth reported past-month ATP use (e-cigarettes = 51%; little cigars/cigarillos = 46%; hookah = 31%; other smokeless tobacco product = 24%; chewing tobacco/moist snuff = 19%). Current ATP use was unrelated to most demographic characteristics or having a past-year quit attempt. However, youth who planned to quit smoking in the next 30 days were significantly less likely to report current use of hookahs, other smokeless tobacco products, or e-cigarettes. Among lifetime e-cigarette users, the most common reasons for use included not having to go outside to smoke (38%) and being able to deal with situations or places where they cannot smoke (36%); it was less common to report using e-cigarettes to quit smoking (17%-18%). Dual use of ATPs among homeless youth smokers is common and is more likely among those who have no immediate plans to quit smoking. Effective and easily disseminable strategies for reducing all forms of tobacco use among homeless youth are urgently needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. The role of fear and disgust in predicting the effectiveness of television advertisements that graphically depict the health harms of smoking.

    PubMed

    Jónsdóttir, Harpa Lind; Holm, Jeffrey E; Poltavski, Dmitri; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy

    2014-12-11

    Antismoking television advertisements that depict the graphic health harms of smoking are increasingly considered best practices, as exemplified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's current national campaign. Evaluation of responses to these widely used advertisements is important to determine advertisements that are most effective and their mechanisms of action. Our study tested the hypothesis that advertisements rated highest in fear- and disgust-eliciting imagery would be rated as the most effective. Our laboratory study included 144 women and men aged 18 to 33; 84% were current nonsmokers. All participants viewed 6 antismoking television advertisements that depicted the health harms of smoking; they rated their responses of fear and disgust and the effectiveness of the advertisements. We used multilevel modeling to test the effects of the following in predicting effectiveness: fear, disgust, the fear-disgust interaction, the advertisement, and the participant's sex and smoking status. Follow-up analyses examined differences in ratings of fear, disgust, and effectiveness. Advertisement, fear, disgust, and the fear-disgust interaction were each significant predictors of effectiveness. Smoking status and sex were not significant predictors. The 3 advertisements that elicited the highest ratings of fear and disgust were rated the most effective. Our findings support the hypothesis that antismoking advertisements of health harms that elicit the greatest responses of fear or disgust are the most effective. When advertisements elicit high ratings of both fear and disgust, advertisements with graphic imagery are effective, whereas advertisements without graphic imagery are not.

  2. Vaporised nicotine and tobacco harm reduction for addressing smoking among people living with HIV: A cross-sectional survey of Australian HIV health practitioners' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Bell, Stephanie K; Mena, Gabriela; Dean, Judith; Boyd, Mark; Gilks, Charles; Gartner, Coral

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Due to the limited success of standard abstinence-focused smoking cessation strategies in this population, there is growing interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR) approaches as an additional strategy to address these high smoking rates. This study explored the attitudes of health practitioners who provide healthcare to PLHIV towards THR. 179 Australian health practitioners who provide healthcare to PLHIV completed an online survey that measured their attitudes towards THR approaches, including switching from cigarettes to e-cigarettes or vaporised nicotine products (VNPs). Respondents supported the concept of THR but were undecided on the role of VNPs. Respondents most commonly reported 'don't know' or 'undecided' responses to statements regarding VNPs. More respondents, however, agreed than disagreed that switching from smoking to long-term vaping could reduce risk (36% and 22% respectively) and be an effective strategy to help PLHIV to quit smoking (37% agree and 17% disagree). Only a minority of respondents (20%) agreed that VNPs are too harmful to recommend to patients, however around half (53%) were undecided. Despite supporting the principle of THR, health practitioners may require more evidence and knowledge about VNPs before being willing to consider them as a suitable intervention strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-10

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally.

  4. Factors Associated with Hookah Use among Male High School Students: The Role of Demographic Characteristics and Hookah User and Non-User Prototypes.

    PubMed

    Bashirian, Saeed; Barati, Majid; Mohammadi, Younes; Mostafaei, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    As students' hookah use has become a widespread problem in the developing countries, it is time to understand the cognitive determinants of students' decisions to do so. This study aimed to investigate the roles of psychological and demographic factors associated with hookah use among male high school students. This descriptive-analytical study was performed among 601 high school male students, recruited through multistage sampling method in the Kermanshah City, west of Iran in 2016. The data-gathering tool consisted of a self-administered questionnaire with questions about hookah use behavior and demographic, behavioral and psychological variables. Data were analyzed using SPSS-18 software using chi-square and logistic regression. 36.1% of the participants reported ever hookah use and 17.1% mentioned using hookah in the past month. Pleasure (28.1%) and sensation seeking (22.5%) were common reasons of hookah use. In comparison to non-users, hookah users evaluated a typical hookah user as more clever, less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish (P<0.001). The results revealed the importance of psychological factors when examining students' hookah use status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions might be effective in prevention of hookah use among students.

  5. Lessons from the history of tobacco harm reduction: The National Cancer Institute's Smoking and Health Program and the "less hazardous cigarette".

    PubMed

    Parascandola, Mark

    2005-10-01

    Scientists and public health practitioners are sharply divided today over the risks and benefits of tobacco harm-reduction strategies. At the same time, a range of novel tobacco products is being marketed with claims of reduced exposure or risk. Current scientific efforts to study tobacco products and harm reduction should be informed by past experience. During the 1960s and 1970s, there was substantial support within government and academia, as well as among voluntary health organizations, for efforts to modify tobacco products to reduce harm. This paper analyzes the former National Cancer Institute (NCI) Smoking and Health Program, which, between 1968 and 1980, pursued the development of "less hazardous" cigarettes as its primary goal. During this period, the program spent over dollar 50 million on contract research, of which 74% went toward biological and chemical analysis of modified cigarettes, 9.6% to epidemiological studies of risk factors, and only 1.4% to studies evaluating smoking cessation or prevention programs. NCI officials predicted during the mid-1970s that new "low-tar" cigarette brands would substantially reduce smoking-related mortality, but by 1978 the research agenda began to change in response to a reorganization of NCI research activities, modification of government antismoking efforts, and an emerging understanding of nicotine addiction that challenged key scientific assumptions. In retrospect, the program suffered from significant weaknesses that severely limited the likelihood that it would generate knowledge beneficial to public health, including a research agenda that failed to include surveillance and behavioral research, tobacco industry influence of the research agenda, and a lack of access to information about the characteristics of products on the market. There exists today a need for a public health-oriented research agenda on tobacco products and harm reduction, but current efforts should include input from a diverse range of

  6. The Role of Fear and Disgust in Predicting the Effectiveness of Television Advertisements That Graphically Depict the Health Harms of Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Jónsdóttir, Harpa Lind; Holm, Jeffrey E.; Poltavski, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Antismoking television advertisements that depict the graphic health harms of smoking are increasingly considered best practices, as exemplified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s current national campaign. Evaluation of responses to these widely used advertisements is important to determine advertisements that are most effective and their mechanisms of action. Our study tested the hypothesis that advertisements rated highest in fear- and disgust-eliciting imagery would be rated as the most effective. Methods Our laboratory study included 144 women and men aged 18 to 33; 84% were current nonsmokers. All participants viewed 6 antismoking television advertisements that depicted the health harms of smoking; they rated their responses of fear and disgust and the effectiveness of the advertisements. We used multilevel modeling to test the effects of the following in predicting effectiveness: fear, disgust, the fear–disgust interaction, the advertisement, and the participant’s sex and smoking status. Follow-up analyses examined differences in ratings of fear, disgust, and effectiveness. Results Advertisement, fear, disgust, and the fear–disgust interaction were each significant predictors of effectiveness. Smoking status and sex were not significant predictors. The 3 advertisements that elicited the highest ratings of fear and disgust were rated the most effective. Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis that antismoking advertisements of health harms that elicit the greatest responses of fear or disgust are the most effective. When advertisements elicit high ratings of both fear and disgust, advertisements with graphic imagery are effective, whereas advertisements without graphic imagery are not. PMID:25496558

  7. Unpacking commercial sector opposition to European smoke-free policy: lack of unity, ‘fear of association’ and harm reduction debates

    PubMed Central

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Objective Tobacco companies have made extensive efforts to build alliances against comprehensive smoke-free legislation. This article analyses the interaction between actors who opposed the development of the European Council Recommendation on smoke-free environments. Methods Drawing on data from 200 policy documents and 32 semistructured interviews and using qualitative textual analysis and organisational network analysis, opponents’ positions on, and responses to, the policy initiative, strategies to oppose the policy, and efforts to build alliances were investigated. Results The non-binding nature of the policy, scientific evidence and clear political will to adopt EU-wide measures combined to limit the intensity of commercial sector opposition to the comprehensive EU smoke-free policy. Most tobacco companies, led by the Confederation of European Community Cigarette Manufacturers (CECCM), voiced reservations against the proposal, criticised the policy process and fought flanking measures on product regulation. However, some companies focused on instigating harm reduction debates. These divergent approaches and the reluctance of other commercial actors to demonstrate solidarity with the tobacco sector prevented the establishment of a cohesive commercial sector alliance. Conclusions The comparatively limited opposition to EU smoke-free policy contrasts with previous accounts of tobacco industry resistance to tobacco control. While context-specific factors can partially explain these differences, the paper indicates that the sector's diminished credibility and lack of unity hampered political engagement and alliance building. Industry efforts to emphasise the benefits of smokeless tobacco during smoke-free policy debates highlight the potential of harm reduction as a gateway for tobacco companies to re-enter the political arena. PMID:26055268

  8. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    PubMed

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P < 0.001). Graphic, health harm messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Cigarette design and marketing features are associated with increased smoking susceptibility and perception of reduced harm among smokers in 27 EU countries.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel T; Omaduvie, Uyoyo T; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the role of cigarette design and marketing characteristics in initial smoking, cigarette brand choice and the perception of reduced harm of cigarette brands among adults in the European Union in 2012. Data were from the Eurobarometer 385 (V.77.1) survey conducted in 2012 (n=26 566). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between cigarette design/marketing features with aspects of initial smoking (among current and former smokers), cigarette brand choice and perception of reduced harm of cigarette brands (among current smokers; p<0.05). Respondents aged ≥55 years had lower OR than 15-24-year-olds of reporting initial smoking because of the presence of menthol flavour (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.42; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.72) or a specific sweet, fruity or spicy flavour (AOR=0.38; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.73). Females had higher OR than males of reporting initial smoking because of the presence of menthol flavour (AOR=2.89; 95% CI 2.07 to 4.02). Furthermore, female smokers were more likely to choose a cigarette brand based on specific tastes such as menthol or spicy, fruity or sweet flavours (AOR=1.33; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.56), or on the levels of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (AOR=1.30; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.52). Characteristics such as light-coloured packaging, the shape and size of cigarettes and the pack, the use of terms in the brand name such as 'silver' or 'blue' or descriptors such as 'natural' or 'organic' were all associated with perceptions of reduced harm among specific demographic groups. These findings call for a stronger regulation of tobacco ingredients, packaging features and other marketing strategies that may increase the attractiveness of tobacco products or promote perceptions of harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Social Influences on Use of Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Hookah by College Students

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Melody; Ickes, Melinda. J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) Compare social norms and perceived peer use between college student cigarette, e-cigarette and/or hookah users and nonusers; and (2) Determine variables associated with social influences. Participants Undergraduate students attending a large university in the Southeast U.S. (N=511). Methods An April 2013 online survey assessed use of three types of tobacco, social norms, perception of peer use, number of smokers in life, exposure to secondhand smoke, and demographic characteristics. Results Participants indicated greater acceptance of emerging tobacco products than for cigarettes and consistently overestimated the percent of peers who use various tobacco products. Males and current users had higher social norm scores for all three forms of tobacco. Conclusion To counter marketing of alternative tobacco products, education about the dangers of their use needs to be implemented across college campuses as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy that also includes tobacco-free campus policies. PMID:26822236

  11. Social influences on use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and hookah by college students.

    PubMed

    Noland, Melody; Ickes, Melinda J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen; Wiggins, Amanda T; Hahn, Ellen J

    2016-01-01

    (1) Compare social norms and perceived peer use between college student cigarette, e-cigarette, and/or hookah users and nonusers; and (2) determine variables associated with social influences. Undergraduate students attending a large university in the Southeast United States (N = 511). An April 2013 online survey assessed use of 3 types of tobacco, social norms, perception of peer use, number of smokers in life, exposure to secondhand smoke, and demographic characteristics. Participants indicated greater acceptance of emerging tobacco products than for cigarettes and consistently overestimated the percent of peers who use various tobacco products. Males and current users had higher social norm scores for all 3 forms of tobacco. To counter marketing of alternative tobacco products, education about the dangers of their use needs to be implemented across college campuses as part of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy that also includes tobacco-free campus policies.

  12. What Online Communities Can Tell Us About Electronic Cigarettes and Hookah Use: A Study Using Text Mining and Visualization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Annie T; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Conway, Mike

    2015-09-29

    -cigarettes, and the Stopsmoking subreddit focused on psychological aspects of quitting. Last, we examined the discussion content on Vapor Talk and Hookah Forum. Prominent topics included equipment, technique, experiential elements of use, and the buying and selling of equipment. This study has three main contributions. Discussion forums differ in the extent to which their content may help us understand behaviors with potential health implications. Identifying dimensions of interest and using a heat map visualization to compare across forums can be helpful for identifying forums with the greatest density of health information. Additionally, our work has shown that the quitting experience can potentially be very different depending on whether or not e-cigarettes are used. Finally, e-cigarette and hookah forums are similar in that members represent a "hobbyist culture" that actively engages in information exchange. These differences have important implications for both tobacco regulation and smoking cessation intervention design.

  13. Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies.

  14. New Pharmacological Agents to Aid Smoking Cessation and Tobacco Harm Reduction: What Has Been Investigated, and What Is in the Pipeline?

    PubMed

    Beard, Emma; Shahab, Lion; Cummings, Damian M; Michie, Susan; West, Robert

    2016-10-01

    A wide range of support is available to help smokers to quit and to aid attempts at harm reduction, including three first-line smoking cessation medications: nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion. Despite the efficacy of these, there is a continual need to diversify the range of medications so that the needs of tobacco users are met. This paper compares the first-line smoking cessation medications with (1) two variants of these existing products: new galenic formulations of varenicline and novel nicotine delivery devices; and (2) 24 alternative products: cytisine (novel outside Central and Eastern Europe), nortriptyline, other tricyclic antidepressants, electronic cigarettes, clonidine (an anxiolytic), other anxiolytics (e.g. buspirone), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, supplements (e.g. St John's wort), silver acetate, Nicobrevin, modafinil, venlafaxine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), opioid antagonists, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonists, glucose tablets, selective cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists, nicotine vaccines, drugs that affect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission, drugs that affect N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, dopamine agonists (e.g. levodopa), pioglitazone (Actos; OMS405), noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors and the weight management drug lorcaserin. Six 'ESCUSE' criteria-relative efficacy, relative safety, relative cost, relative use (overall impact of effective medication use), relative scope (ability to serve new groups of patients) and relative ease of use-are used. Many of these products are in the early stages of clinical trials; however, cytisine looks most promising in having established efficacy and safety with low cost. Electronic cigarettes have become very popular, appear to be efficacious and are safer than smoking, but issues of continued dependence and possible harms need to be considered.

  15. Scientific-Chemical Viewpoints regarding Smoking: A Science Laboratory for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonder, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This article describes laboratory activity that examines the chemical process of smoking and the components of smoke, of both cigarettes and water pipes (narghiles also known as "hookah"). The aim of this activity is to expose adolescents to the scientific aspects of smoking; and to present the relevance of chemistry in everyday life. (Contains 3…

  16. Scientific-Chemical Viewpoints regarding Smoking: A Science Laboratory for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blonder, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This article describes laboratory activity that examines the chemical process of smoking and the components of smoke, of both cigarettes and water pipes (narghiles also known as "hookah"). The aim of this activity is to expose adolescents to the scientific aspects of smoking; and to present the relevance of chemistry in everyday life. (Contains 3…

  17. 77 FR 20030 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Reporting Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Under the Federal Food, Drug, and... ``Reporting Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Under Section... tobacco products and tobacco smoke under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act). The...

  18. Tracking Hookah Bars in New York: Utilizing Yelp as a Powerful Public Health Tool

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lily; Weitzman, Michael; Sherman, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Background While cigarette use has seen a steady decline in recent years, hookah (water pipe) use has rapidly increased in popularity. While anecdotal reports have noted a rise in hookah bars, methodological difficulties have prevented researchers from drawing definitive conclusions about the number of hookah bars in any given location. There is no publicly available database that has been shown to reliably provide this information. It is now possible to analyze Internet trends as a measure of population behavior and health-related phenomena. Objective The objective of the study was to investigate whether Yelp can be used to accurately identify the number of hookah bars in New York State, assess the distribution and characteristics of hookah bars, and monitor temporal trends in their presence. Methods Data were obtained from Yelp that captures a variety of parameters for every business listed in their database as of October 28, 2014, that was tagged as a “hookah bar” and operating in New York State. Two algebraic models were created: one estimated the date of opening of a hookah bar based on the first Yelp review received and the other estimated whether the bar was open or closed based on the date of the most recent Yelp review. These findings were then compared with empirical data obtained by Internet searches. Results From 2014 onward, the date of the first Yelp review predicts the opening date of new hookah bars to within 1 month. Yelp data allow the estimate of such venues and demonstrate that new bars are not randomly distributed, but instead are clustered near colleges and in specific racial/ethnic neighborhoods. New York has seen substantially more new hookah bars in 2012-2014 compared with the number that existed prior to 2009. Conclusions Yelp is a powerful public health tool that allows for the investigation of various trends and characteristics of hookah bars. New York is experiencing tremendous growth in hookah bars, a worrying phenomenon that

  19. Waterpipe smoking and cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Zahra; Nyiraneza, Christine; El-Katerji, Hoda; Little, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Although accumulating evidence suggests harmful effects of waterpipe smoking, there is limited information about its direct association with chronic diseases, notably cancer. We provide an up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between waterpipe smoking and cancer. Systematic search of articles indexed in main biomedical databases: Pubmed, EmBase, Google Scholar and Web of Science, published between 1962 and September 2014. Search keywords included a combination of waterpipe or hookah, sheesha, nargile, hubble-bubble, goza or gaylan, and cancer. Focus on observational studies (cohort, case-control, cross-sectional) that evaluated the association between waterpipe smoking and cancer. Studies with mixed exposures excluded. Two investigators independently extracted data and reached consensus on all items. 13 case-control studies met the inclusion criteria and were considered for meta-analysis. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Meta-analysis revealed a positive association between waterpipe smoking and lung cancer (OR=4.58 (2.61 to 8.03); I(2)=44.67%), and oesophageal cancer (OR=3.63 (1.39 to 9.44); I(2) =94.49%). The majority of studies had a NOS score of 5-6 or 7, indicating 'fair' or 'good' quality, respectively. Our findings support a positive association between waterpipe smoking and cancer risk. However, high-quality studies with standardised exposure measurements are needed to clarify the contribution of waterpipe smoking to chronic diseases. More investments in initiatives for surveillance, intervention and regulatory policy for waterpipe smoking are urgently warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Tetrahymena pyriformis in the ciliate mobility test. Validation and description of a testing procedure for the registration of harmful substances in the air as well as the effects of cigarette smoke on the human respiratory ciliated epithelium.

    PubMed

    Gräf, W; Gräf, H; Wenz, M

    1999-02-01

    The damage of the human respiratory ciliated epithelium or its ciliar activity caused by mixtures of harmful substances in the air and cigarette smoke is a considerable parameter for the judgment of acute harmful influences on the human respiratory tract. As an immediate measuring or a quantitative statement about the influence on cilia in vivo at human beings is extremely difficult and problematic, a convenient model experimental system in form of the so called ciliate mobility test (CMT) has been used. In this connection the influence on cilia of the protozan single-celled organism Tetrahymena pyriformis, regarding its average speed of locomotion has been taken as standard. The proof, that the cilia are identical in morphological and functional respect at the human ciliated epithelium and at T. pyriformis has been reached by electron optical comparative representation and bibliographical known substances, influencing cilia (theophylline, bromhexine, ambroxol, terpin hydrate, mercaptoethanesulfonat-sodium, amrinon, salbutamol, tetracosactid-hexaacetate, histamine, and phenol). With regard to the comparability and applicability to the human respiratory ciliated epithelium we have been able to gain statements by means of the CMT. By constructing a special reaction vessel the influence of harmful gases at a thin layer of ciliate culture suspension (1 cm) for a standardised exposure time (1 hour) has been made possible and with that a model for the comparability with the conditions of the human respiratory ciliated epithelium has been created. A number of harmful gases, that are relevant in the air hygiene (CO, CO2, N2, N2O, NO2, O3, SO2) as well as cigarette smoke at active smokers (primary stream smoke) and the inhalation of the smoke of other people's cigarettes has been tested. It turned out, that especially NO2 (nitric oxide) shows a high ciliar toxicity, while the controversially discussed ozone (O3) has not resulted in detraction of cilia. CO, N2O and SO2 have

  1. Elements including metals in the atomizer and aerosol of disposable electronic cigarettes and electronic hookahs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Monique; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Ghai, Sanjay; Talbot, Prue

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our purpose was to quantify 36 inorganic chemical elements in aerosols from disposable electronic cigarettes (ECs) and electronic hookahs (EHs), examine the effect of puffing topography on elements in aerosols, and identify the source of the elements. Methods Thirty-six inorganic chemical elements and their concentrations in EC/EH aerosols were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, and their source was identified by analyzing disassembled atomizers using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results Of 36 elements screened, 35 were detected in EC/EH aerosols, while only 15 were detected in conventional tobacco smoke. Some elements/metals were present in significantly higher concentrations in EC/EH aerosol than in cigarette smoke. Concentrations of particular elements/metals within EC/EH brands were sometimes variable. Aerosols generated at low and high air-flow rates produced the same pattern of elements, although the total element concentration decreased at the higher air flow rate. The relative amount of elements in the first and last 60 puffs was generally different. Silicon was the dominant element in aerosols from all EC/EH brands and in cigarette smoke. The elements appeared to come from the filament (nickel, chromium), thick wire (copper coated with silver), brass clamp (copper, zinc), solder joints (tin, lead), and wick and sheath (silicon, oxygen, calcium, magnesium, aluminum). Lead was identified in the solder and aerosol of two brands of EHs (up to 0.165 μg/10 puffs). Conclusion These data show that EC/EH aerosols contain a mixture of elements, including heavy metals, with concentrations often significantly higher than in conventional cigarette smoke. While the health effects of inhaling mixtures of heated metals is currently not known, these data will be valuable in future risk assessments involving EC/EH elements/metals. PMID:28414730

  2. Elements including metals in the atomizer and aerosol of disposable electronic cigarettes and electronic hookahs.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monique; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Ghai, Sanjay; Talbot, Prue

    2017-01-01

    Our purpose was to quantify 36 inorganic chemical elements in aerosols from disposable electronic cigarettes (ECs) and electronic hookahs (EHs), examine the effect of puffing topography on elements in aerosols, and identify the source of the elements. Thirty-six inorganic chemical elements and their concentrations in EC/EH aerosols were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, and their source was identified by analyzing disassembled atomizers using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Of 36 elements screened, 35 were detected in EC/EH aerosols, while only 15 were detected in conventional tobacco smoke. Some elements/metals were present in significantly higher concentrations in EC/EH aerosol than in cigarette smoke. Concentrations of particular elements/metals within EC/EH brands were sometimes variable. Aerosols generated at low and high air-flow rates produced the same pattern of elements, although the total element concentration decreased at the higher air flow rate. The relative amount of elements in the first and last 60 puffs was generally different. Silicon was the dominant element in aerosols from all EC/EH brands and in cigarette smoke. The elements appeared to come from the filament (nickel, chromium), thick wire (copper coated with silver), brass clamp (copper, zinc), solder joints (tin, lead), and wick and sheath (silicon, oxygen, calcium, magnesium, aluminum). Lead was identified in the solder and aerosol of two brands of EHs (up to 0.165 μg/10 puffs). These data show that EC/EH aerosols contain a mixture of elements, including heavy metals, with concentrations often significantly higher than in conventional cigarette smoke. While the health effects of inhaling mixtures of heated metals is currently not known, these data will be valuable in future risk assessments involving EC/EH elements/metals.

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning following use of a water pipe/hookah.

    PubMed

    von Rappard, Joscha; Schönenberger, Melanie; Bärlocher, Lorenz

    2014-10-03

    Water pipe (hookah) smoking has become a common activity in Germany, particularly among adolescents and young adults; in 2011, its lifetime prevalence was as high as 68.8%. Similar trends can be seen in other European countries. Water-pipe smokers are exposed to the same health-endangering substances as cigarette smokers, and the inhaled amount of carbon monoxide (CO) can be as much as ten times as high. In CO intoxication, carboxyhemoglobin is formed and causes direct injury at the cellular level, leading to hypoxia and nonspecific neuro logical manifestations. There have only been ten reported cases around the world of CO intoxication due to the use of a water pipe, and none of these were fatal. It should be recalled, however, that accidental CO intoxication is common and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We present a series of four young adults, aged 16 to 21, three of whom were hospitalized because of transient unconsciousness. The carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) content of the blood in the symptomatic patients ranged from 20.1% to 29.6%, while the asymptomatic patient had a CO-Hb content of 16.7%. Water-pipe smoking was the cause of CO intoxication in all four cases. The CO-Hb values were successfully brought down by the administration of highly concentrated oxygen and all patients were discharged in asymptomatic condition. This case series reveals that CO intoxication due to water-pipe smoking is probably more common than is generally realized. Emergency room staff should be aware of this problem and inquire specifically about water-pipe smoking in patients with nonspecific neurological manifestations.

  4. Tobacco Harm Reduction with Vaporised Nicotine (THRiVe): The Study Protocol of an Uncontrolled Feasibility Study of Novel Nicotine Replacement Products among People Living with HIV Who Smoke.

    PubMed

    Bell, Stephanie; Dean, Judith; Gilks, Charles; Boyd, Mark A; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Mutch, Allyson; Baker, Peter; Neilsen, Graham; Gartner, Coral E

    2017-07-18

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), who have high rates of tobacco smoking. Vaporised nicotine products (VNPs) are growing in popularity as a quit aid and harm reduction tool. However, little is known about their acceptability and use among PLHIV. Using a pragmatic, uncontrolled, mixed methods design this exploratory clinical trial aims to examine the feasibility of conducting a powered randomised clinical trial of VNPs as a smoking cessation and harm reduction intervention among vulnerable populations, such as PLHIV who smoke tobacco. Convenience sampling and snowball methods will be used to recruit participants (N = 30) who will receive two VNPs and up to 12 weeks' supply of nicotine e-liquid to use in a quit attempt. Surveys will be completed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, 12 (end of treatment) and 24 (end of the study) and qualitative interviews at weeks 0 and 12. As far as we are aware, this feasibility study is the first to trial VNPs among PLHIV for smoking cessation. If feasible and effective, this intervention could offer a new approach to reducing the high burden of tobacco-related disease among PLHIV and other vulnerable populations.

  5. Tobacco Harm Reduction with Vaporised Nicotine (THRiVe): The Study Protocol of an Uncontrolled Feasibility Study of Novel Nicotine Replacement Products among People Living with HIV Who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Stephanie; Dean, Judith; Gilks, Charles; Boyd, Mark A.; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Mutch, Allyson; Baker, Peter; Neilsen, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), who have high rates of tobacco smoking. Vaporised nicotine products (VNPs) are growing in popularity as a quit aid and harm reduction tool. However, little is known about their acceptability and use among PLHIV. Using a pragmatic, uncontrolled, mixed methods design this exploratory clinical trial aims to examine the feasibility of conducting a powered randomised clinical trial of VNPs as a smoking cessation and harm reduction intervention among vulnerable populations, such as PLHIV who smoke tobacco. Convenience sampling and snowball methods will be used to recruit participants (N = 30) who will receive two VNPs and up to 12 weeks’ supply of nicotine e-liquid to use in a quit attempt. Surveys will be completed at weeks 0 (baseline), 4, 8, 12 (end of treatment) and 24 (end of the study) and qualitative interviews at weeks 0 and 12. As far as we are aware, this feasibility study is the first to trial VNPs among PLHIV for smoking cessation. If feasible and effective, this intervention could offer a new approach to reducing the high burden of tobacco-related disease among PLHIV and other vulnerable populations. PMID:28718828

  6. What Online Communities Can Tell Us About Electronic Cigarettes and Hookah Use: A Study Using Text Mining and Visualization Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Conway, Mike

    2015-01-01

    of combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and the Stopsmoking subreddit focused on psychological aspects of quitting. Last, we examined the discussion content on Vapor Talk and Hookah Forum. Prominent topics included equipment, technique, experiential elements of use, and the buying and selling of equipment. Conclusions This study has three main contributions. Discussion forums differ in the extent to which their content may help us understand behaviors with potential health implications. Identifying dimensions of interest and using a heat map visualization to compare across forums can be helpful for identifying forums with the greatest density of health information. Additionally, our work has shown that the quitting experience can potentially be very different depending on whether or not e-cigarettes are used. Finally, e-cigarette and hookah forums are similar in that members represent a “hobbyist culture” that actively engages in information exchange. These differences have important implications for both tobacco regulation and smoking cessation intervention design. PMID:26420469

  7. Electronic Cigarette and Electronic Hookah: A Pilot Study Comparing Two Vaping Products☆

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Shanta R.; Pathak, Sarita; Nyman, Amy L.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of e-cigarettes into the U.S. market, the number and variety of vaping products have proliferated. E-hookahs are long, pen-like vaping devices that debuted in U.S. markets in 2014. By applying the Host, Agent, Vector, Environment (HAVE) model, the objective of this exploratory study was to assess differences between e-cigarettes and e-hookahs to help inform tobacco regulatory science and practice. In June–August 2014, a total of 54 unique manufactured e-cigarette and e-hookah products were identified at point of sales (POS) around three college campuses in Southeast U.S. Documented characteristics included brand name, disposable, rechargeable, nicotine containing, packaging, and flavor type. Descriptive analyses were conducted October to November 2014 to assess frequency and percent of product type across POS and specific characteristics. Among 54 products, 70.4% was e-cigarettes and 29.6% was e-hookahs. Across POS, drug stores and grocery stores carried e-cigarettes exclusively, while gas stations carried the greatest proportion of e-hookahs. Compared to e-hookahs, a greater proportion of e-cigarettes were non-disposable and contained nicotine; a greater proportion of e-hookahs came in fruit and other types of flavors compared to e-cigarettes. The present study suggests that e-cigarettes and e-hookahs differ by specific product characteristics and by places where they are sold. Despite these differences, the products are used for similar purposes warranting careful monitoring of industry manufacturing and marketing, because the safety of both products is still undetermined. Additional research is needed to understand the uptake and continued use of these products. PMID:26740911

  8. Health Harms from Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant women is a major cause of spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) after ... and Tobacco Use and the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion,” New England Journal of Medicine 340(5):333- ...

  9. A multiyear assessment of hookah use prevalence among Florida high school students.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Tracey E; Forrest, Jamie R; Porter, Lauren; Curbow, Barbara A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of hookah use among Florida high school students over time. Alternative tobacco products, including hookah, pose a public health threat to tobacco prevention efforts, especially among adolescents. Florida Youth Tobacco Survey data, representing all public high school students in the state, were analyzed to assess the prevalence of lifetime and current hookah use and were compared by demographic groups. Multiple years of data (2007-2012) were examined to assess changes over time. During the past 6 years, there was an increase in lifetime hookah use among Florida high school students. While males remained at a higher rate overall, female adolescents increased at a faster rate. Hispanic and non-Hispanic White respondents reported increased trends as well. Current use trends did not change over 4 years, remaining at about 8%. Hookah is a new tobacco product in the United States that appears attractive to youth, with dramatic increases among the state population. While cigarette use among youth is declining in Florida, the increasing uptake of alternative tobacco products may lessen the overall public health gains for tobacco use. There is a need for continued monitoring of hookah use among the adolescent population, for both prevention and cessation efforts as well as policy interventions to address this emerging trend.

  10. Harmful effects of shisha: literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. A recently infamous way of smoking tobacco is shisha. Shisha smoking is also known as water pipe, hookah and Narghile smoking. The percentage of shisha smokers is on the rise rapidly spanning the globe. A literature review was conducted to identify all evidence on the epidemiological variations and health effects of shisha smoking. “Pub med” is used as a searching tool to identify all relevant empirical studies conducted worldwide. A qualitative overview of evidence is presented. Exposure to Shisha smoking is significantly associated with low infant weight, heart rate variations, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Increased risk of carcinoma is also leagued with it including carcinomas of the pancreas and lung being at the forefront. In conclusion, this review identifies grounds of several adverse conditions being associated with the habit of shisha smoking. It also evaluates the relevant epidemiological variations around the globe. The review culminates in the importance of enlightening shisha smokers regarding its deleterious effects. PMID:24708750

  11. Smoked Tobacco Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... of flavors. Hookahs originated in ancient Persia and India and have been used for centuries. A typical modern hookah has a head (with holes in the bottom), a metal body, a water bowl, and a flexible hose with a mouthpiece. ...

  12. Physical, behavioral, and cognitive effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sherry; Rosenthal, David G; Sherman, Scott; Zelikoff, Judith; Gordon, Terry; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the rapidly expanding literature regarding the effects of prenatal tobacco and postnatal secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on child health and development. Mechanisms of SHS exposure are reviewed, including critical periods during which exposure to tobacco products appears to be particularly harmful to the developing fetus and child. The biological, biochemical, and neurologic effects of the small fraction of identified components of SHS are described. Research describing these adverse effects of both in utero and childhood exposure is reviewed, including findings from both animal models and humans. The following adverse physical outcomes are discussed: sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, decreased head circumference, respiratory infections, otitis media, asthma, childhood cancer, hearing loss, dental caries, and the metabolic syndrome. In addition, the association between the following adverse cognitive and behavioral outcomes and such exposures is described: conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, poor academic achievement, and cognitive impairment. The evidence supporting the adverse effects of SHS exposure is extensive yet rapidly expanding due to improving technology and increased awareness of this profound public health problem. The growing use of alternative tobacco products, such as hookahs (a.k.a. waterpipes), and the scant literature on possible effects from prenatal and secondhand smoke exposure from these products are also discussed. A review of the current knowledge of this important subject has implications for future research as well as public policy and clinical practice. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  13. Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: a re-emerging strain in a global epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, W; Ward, K; Afifi, S; Eissenberg, T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a comprehensive review regarding global waterpipe use, in order to identify current knowledge, guide scientific research, and promote public policy. Data sources: A Medline search using as keywords "waterpipe", "narghile", "arghile", "shisha", "hookah", "goza", "hubble bubble" and variant spellings (for example, "hooka"; "hukka") was conducted. Resources compiled recently by members of GLOBALink were used. Study selection: Every identified published study related to waterpipe use was included. Data synthesis: Research regarding waterpipe epidemiology and health effects is limited; no published studies address treatment efforts. Waterpipe use is increasing globally, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, where perceptions regarding health effects and traditional values may facilitate use among women and children. Waterpipe smoke contains harmful constituents and there is preliminary evidence linking waterpipe smoking to a variety of life threatening conditions, including pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, and pregnancy related complications. Conclusions: More scientific documentation and careful analysis is required before the spread of waterpipe use and its health effects can be understood, and empirically guided treatment and public policy strategies can be implemented. PMID:15564614

  14. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in two U.S. samples.

    PubMed

    Smith-Simone, Stephanie; Maziak, Wasim; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Despite evidence of increasing waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among U.S. young adults, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and smoking patterns of waterpipe users in this population. To address this lack of knowledge, two convenience samples of U.S. waterpipe users were surveyed--one from a Richmond, Virginia, waterpipe café (n=101), the other from an Internet forum called HookahForum.com (n=100). Sixty percent reported first-time waterpipe use at or before age 18. Daily waterpipe use was reported by 19%, weekly use by 41%, and monthly use by 29%. Waterpipe use was more common during the weekend (75%) than during weekdays (43%). Forty-four percent reported spending >or=60 min smoking tobacco during a waterpipe session. The majority of waterpipe users owned a waterpipe (57%) and purchased it on the Internet (71%). Many waterpipe users smoked the sweetened and flavored tobacco (i.e., maassel), and fruit flavors were the most popular (54%). Past month use of cigarettes, tobacco products other than cigarettes or waterpipe, and alcohol was 54%, 33%, and 80% respectively, and 36% reported past-month marijuana use. Most waterpipe users were confident about their ability to quit (96%), but only a minority (32%) intended to quit. Most waterpipe users believed waterpipe tobacco smoking was less harmful and addictive than cigarettes. These results are from small convenience samples; more detailed study of a larger group of randomly sampled U.S. waterpipe tobacco smokers will be valuable in understanding this behavior and developing effective strategies to prevent it.

  15. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior in two U.S. samples

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Simone, Stephanie; Maziak, Wasim; Ward, Kenneth D.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Despite evidence of increasing waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among U.S. young adults, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and smoking patterns of waterpipe users in this population. To address this lack of knowledge, two convenience samples of U.S. waterpipe users were surveyed—one from a Richmond, Virginia, waterpipe café (n=101), the other from an Internet forum called HookahForum.com (n=100). Sixty percent reported first-time waterpipe use at or before age 18. Daily waterpipe use was reported by 19%, weekly use by 41%, and monthly use by 29%. Waterpipe use was more common during the weekend (75%) than during weekdays (43%). Forty-four percent reported spending ≥60 min smoking tobacco during a waterpipe session. The majority of waterpipe users owned a waterpipe (57%) and purchased it on the Internet (71%). Many waterpipe users smoked the sweetened and flavored tobacco (i.e., maassel), and fruit flavors were the most popular (54%). Past month use of cigarettes, tobacco products other than cigarettes or waterpipe, and alcohol was 54%, 33%, and 80% respectively, and 36% reported past-month marijuana use. Most waterpipe users were confident about their ability to quit (96%), but only a minority (32%) intended to quit. Most waterpipe users believed waterpipe tobacco smoking was less harmful and addictive than cigarettes. These results are from small convenience samples; more detailed study of a larger group of randomly sampled U.S. waterpipe tobacco smokers will be valuable in understanding this behavior and developing effective strategies to prevent it. PMID:18236304

  16. Harm reduction

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Jacques; Li, Jih-Heng; Thomson, Nicholas; Jarlais, Don Des

    2014-01-01

    The “Harm Reduction” session was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The three presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Don Des Jarlais (High Coverage Needle/Syringe Programs for People Who Inject Drugs in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review), Dr. Nicholas Thomson (Harm Reduction History, Response, and Current Trends in Asia), and Dr. Jih-Heng Li (Harm Reduction Strategies in Taiwan). PMID:25278732

  17. Health effects associated with waterpipe smoking

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, Ziad M; Chami, Hassan A; Zaatari, Ghazi S

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is widely held that waterpipe smoking (WPS) is not associated with health hazards. However, several studies have documented the uptake of several toxicants and carcinogens during WPS that is strongly associated with harmful health effects. This paper reviews the literature on the health effects of WPS. Data sources Three databases-PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE-were searched until August 2014 for the acute and long-term health effects of WPS using the terms ‘waterpipe’ and its synonyms (hookah, shisha, goza, narghileh, arghileh and hubble-bubble) in various spellings. Study selection We included original clinical studies, case reports and systematic reviews and focused on clinical human studies. ∼10% of the identified studies met the selection criteria. Data extraction Data were abstracted by all three authors and summarised into tables. Abstracted data included study type, results and methodological limitations and were analysed jointly by all three authors. Data synthesis WPS acutely leads to increased heart rate, blood pressure, impaired pulmonary function and carbon monoxide intoxication. Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and coronary artery disease are serious complications of long-term use. Lung, gastric and oesophageal cancer are associated with WPS as well as periodontal disease, obstetrical complications, osteoporosis and mental health problems. Conclusions Contrary to the widely held misconception, WPS is associated with a variety of adverse short-term and long-term health effects that should reinforce the need for stronger regulation. In addition, this review highlights the limitations of the published work, which is mostly cross-sectional or retrospective. Prospective studies should be undertaken to assess the full spectrum of health effects of WPS, particularly in view of its growing popularity and attractiveness to youth. PMID:25661414

  18. Do larger graphic health warnings on standardised cigarette packs increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of consumer health information and beliefs about smoking-related harms?

    PubMed Central

    White, Victoria; Williams, Tahlia; Faulkner, Agatha; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of plain packaging of cigarettes with enhanced graphic health warnings on Australian adolescents’ cognitive processing of warnings and awareness of different health consequences of smoking. Methods Cross-sectional school-based surveys conducted in 2011 (prior to introduction of standardised packaging, n=6338) and 2013 (7–12 months afterwards, n=5915). Students indicated frequency of attending to, reading, thinking or talking about warnings. Students viewed a list of diseases or health effects and were asked to indicate whether each was caused by smoking. Two—‘kidney and bladder cancer’ and ‘damages gums and teeth’—were new while the remainder had been promoted through previous health warnings and/or television campaigns. The 60% of students seeing a cigarette pack in previous 6 months in 2011 and 65% in 2013 form the sample for analysis. Changes in responses over time are examined. Results Awareness that smoking causes bladder cancer increased between 2011 and 2013 (p=0.002). There was high agreement with statements reflecting health effects featured in previous warnings or advertisements with little change over time. Exceptions to this were increases in the proportion agreeing that smoking was a leading cause of death (p<0.001) and causes blindness (p<0.001). The frequency of students reading, attending to, thinking or talking about the health warnings on cigarette packs did not change. Conclusions Acknowledgement of negative health effects of smoking among Australian adolescents remains high. Apart from increased awareness of bladder cancer, new requirements for packaging and health warnings did not increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of warning information. PMID:28407612

  19. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  20. Social Influences on Use of Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Hookah by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Melody; Ickes, Melinda J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Compare social norms and perceived peer use between college student cigarette, e-cigarette, and/or hookah users and nonusers; and (2) determine variables associated with social influences. Participants: Undergraduate students attending a large university in the Southeast United States (N = 511). Methods: An April 2013 online survey…

  1. Social Influences on Use of Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Hookah by College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Melody; Ickes, Melinda J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Compare social norms and perceived peer use between college student cigarette, e-cigarette, and/or hookah users and nonusers; and (2) determine variables associated with social influences. Participants: Undergraduate students attending a large university in the Southeast United States (N = 511). Methods: An April 2013 online survey…

  2. Understanding Tobacco-Related Attitudes among College and Noncollege Young Adult Hookah and Cigarette Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youn Ok; Bahreinifar, Sareh; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in tobacco-related attitudes and hookah and cigarette use among college and noncollege young adults. Participants: Time-location samples of young adult bar patrons in San Diego, California ("N" = 2,243), Tulsa ("N" = 2,095) and Oklahoma City ("N" = 2,200), Oklahoma, Albuquerque…

  3. Assessing the knowledge of the potential harm to others caused by second-hand smoke and its impact on protective behaviours at home.

    PubMed

    Evans, Karen A; Sims, Michelle; Judge, Ken; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-06-01

    Smokers' knowledge of the risks of second-hand smoke (SHS) and the role this plays in implementing behaviours to reduce the SHS exposure of others have not been thoroughly explored. Mass media health promotion is used to promote behaviour change partly by providing information on the consequences of behaviour. In England, between 2003 and 2006, frequent mass media campaigns highlighted the toxicity of SHS. To examine peoples' knowledge of SHS-related illnesses in England over time, identify the determinants of good knowledge and to assess its importance in predicting SHS-protective behaviours. Statistical analysis of repeat cross-sectional data (1996-2008) from the Omnibus Survey to explore the trends and determinants of knowledge of SHS-related illnesses and the determinants of SHS-protective behaviours. Only 40% of smokers had 'good' knowledge of SHS-related illnesses compared with 65% of never smokers. Knowledge increased markedly when frequent SHS-related mass media campaigns (2003-06) ran, compared with earlier years (1996-2002). Smokers with better knowledge were more likely to have smoke-free homes [odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 1.04-1.16] and abstain from smoking in a room with children (OR: 1.11, 1.09-1.14). The low levels of knowledge of some SHS-related conditions, especially among smokers, and the relationship between knowledge and SHS-protective behaviours, suggest that greater efforts to educate smokers about the risks associated with SHS are worthwhile.

  4. The harms of smoking and benefits of smoking cessation in women compared with men with type 2 diabetes: an observational analysis of the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial

    PubMed Central

    Blomster, Juuso I; Woodward, Mark; Zoungas, Sophia; Hillis, Graham S; Harrap, Stephen; Neal, Bruce; Poulter, Neil; Mancia, Giuseppe; Chalmers, John; Huxley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In general populations, the adverse effects of smoking on coronary risk have been demonstrated to be greater in women than in men; whether this is true for individuals with diabetes is unclear. Design Cohort study. Setting 20 countries worldwide participating in the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial. Participants 11 140 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥55 years and in cardiovascular risk at the time of randomisation. Primary and secondary outcome measures Major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular disease, non-fatal stroke or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)), all cardiovascular events (major cardiovascular event or peripheral arterial disease or transient ischaemic attack), and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome measures were major coronary events (fatal and non-fatal MI), major cerebrovascular events (fatal and non-fatal stroke), nephropathy (new or worsening renal disease), and all cancer. Results At baseline, 6466 (56% women) participants were never-smokers, 1550 (28% women) were daily smokers and 3124 (21% women) were former smokers. Median follow-up time was 5 years. In Cox regression models after multiple adjustments, compared with never smoking, daily smoking was associated with increased risk of all primary and secondary outcomes with the exception of major cerebrovascular disease. Only for major coronary events was there any evidence of a stronger effect in women than in men (ratio of the adjusted HRs women:men; 1.64 (0.83 to 3.26) p=0.08). For all other outcomes considered, the hazards of smoking were similar in men and women. Quitting smoking was associated with a 30% reduction in all-cause mortality (p=0.001) in both sexes. Conclusions In individuals with diabetes, the effects of smoking on all major forms of cardiovascular disease are equally as hazardous in women and men with the possible exception of major coronary events

  5. The harms of smoking and benefits of smoking cessation in women compared with men with type 2 diabetes: an observational analysis of the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial.

    PubMed

    Blomster, Juuso I; Woodward, Mark; Zoungas, Sophia; Hillis, Graham S; Harrap, Stephen; Neal, Bruce; Poulter, Neil; Mancia, Giuseppe; Chalmers, John; Huxley, Rachel

    2016-01-08

    In general populations, the adverse effects of smoking on coronary risk have been demonstrated to be greater in women than in men; whether this is true for individuals with diabetes is unclear. Cohort study. 20 countries worldwide participating in the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial. 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 55 years and in cardiovascular risk at the time of randomisation. Major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular disease, non-fatal stroke or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)), all cardiovascular events (major cardiovascular event or peripheral arterial disease or transient ischaemic attack), and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome measures were major coronary events (fatal and non-fatal MI), major cerebrovascular events (fatal and non-fatal stroke), nephropathy (new or worsening renal disease), and all cancer. At baseline, 6466 (56% women) participants were never-smokers, 1550 (28% women) were daily smokers and 3124 (21% women) were former smokers. Median follow-up time was 5 years. In Cox regression models after multiple adjustments, compared with never smoking, daily smoking was associated with increased risk of all primary and secondary outcomes with the exception of major cerebrovascular disease. Only for major coronary events was there any evidence of a stronger effect in women than in men (ratio of the adjusted HRs women:men; 1.64 (0.83 to 3.26) p=0.08). For all other outcomes considered, the hazards of smoking were similar in men and women. Quitting smoking was associated with a 30% reduction in all-cause mortality (p=0.001) in both sexes. In individuals with diabetes, the effects of smoking on all major forms of cardiovascular disease are equally as hazardous in women and men with the possible exception of major coronary events where there was some evidence of a greater hazard in women. NCT00145925. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  6. Tobacco, nicotine and harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Le Houezec, Jacques; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2011-03-01

    Tobacco smoking, sustained by nicotine dependence, is a chronic relapsing disorder, which in many cases results in lifelong cigarette use and consequent death of one out of two lifelong smokers from a disease caused by their smoking. Most toxicity due to cigarette smoking is related to the burning process. Models of harm reduction applied to tobacco suggest that use of non-combustible, less toxic, nicotine-containing products as a substitute for cigarette smoking would reduce the death toll arising from tobacco use. Available options include medicinal nicotine and smokeless tobacco products. The potential role of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in a harm reduction strategy is currently severely restricted by strict regulations on dose, safety and potential addictiveness. As a result, NRT products are designed to provide much less nicotine, and deliver it to the brain more slowly, than cigarettes, which are widely accessible and poorly regulated. Smokeless tobacco (snus) has proved to be an acceptable reduced hazard alternative to smoking in Sweden, but supply of snus is illegal elsewhere in the European Union. To increase accessibility and reach more smokers, barriers to the use of NRT use need to be removed and more effective NRTs need urgently to be developed. Smokeless tobacco could also play an important role in harm reduction, but current European Union regulations and concerns over exploitation by tobacco companies currently preclude wider use. To improve public health there is an urgent need for an appropriate regulatory framework and regulatory authority at the European level, controlling both tobacco and nicotine products to ensure that the least harmful products are the most accessible. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  8. Smoking and attitudes toward smoking policy at a University in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forden, Carie L; Carrillo, Amy M

    2016-01-01

    To assess smoking behavior, knowledge of smoking harm, and attitudes toward campus smoking policy at an Egyptian university, an online survey of students, staff, and faculty was conducted (N = 992). The smoking prevalence of 38% among men was in line with Egypt's national average, but the smoking prevalence among women of 20% was much higher than the national average. Smoking status influenced beliefs about smoking harm and attitudes toward smoking policy, with nonsmokers having stronger beliefs about the harm of smoking and showing stronger support for smoking regulations than smokers. Smokers were more knowledgeable about smoking policy than were nonsmokers and differed slightly in their preferences for smoking policy enforcement strategies. These findings contribute to our understanding of how to tailor college smoking policy and programs to an Egyptian context.

  9. The global epidemiology of waterpipe smoking.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Taleb, Ziyad Ben; Bahelah, Raed; Islam, Farahnaz; Jaber, Rana; Auf, Rehab; Salloum, Ramzi G

    2015-03-01

    In the past decade, waterpipe smoking (a.k.a. hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon. In this review, we provide an updated picture of the main epidemiological trends in waterpipe smoking globally. Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major biomedical databases between 2004 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, hookah, shisha along with epidemiology, patterns, prevalence and predictors. We also used different spellings of waterpipe terms commonly used. The focus was on studies with large representative samples, national data or high-quality reports that illuminated aspects of the epidemiology and trends in waterpipe smoking. Multiple researchers extracted the data independently and collectively decided on the most important and pertinent studies to include in the review. Waterpipe smoking has become a global phenomenon among youth. The global waterpipe epidemic is likely driven by (1) the introduction of manufactured flavoured tobacco (Maassel); (2) the intersection between waterpipe's social dimension and thriving café culture; (3) the evolution of mass communication media; (4) the lack of regulatory/policy framework specific to the waterpipe. Waterpipe smoking is becoming the most popular tobacco use method among youth in the Middle East, and is quickly gaining popularity elsewhere. Important patterns of waterpipe smoking include the predominance among younger, male, high socioeconomic, and urban groups. Intermittent and social use are also noted patterns. Waterpipe smoking has become a global public health problem. Developing surveillance, intervention and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to the waterpipe has become a public health priority. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The global epidemiology of waterpipe smoking

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim; Taleb, Ziyad Ben; Bahelah, Raed; Islam, Farahnaz; Jaber, Rana; Auf, Rehab; Salloum, Ramzi G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the past decade, waterpipe smoking (a.k.a. hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon. In this review, we provide an updated picture of the main epidemiological trends in waterpipe smoking globally. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major biomedical databases between 2004 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, hookah, shisha along with epidemiology, patterns, prevalence and predictors. We also used different spellings of waterpipe terms commonly used. Study selection The focus was on studies with large representative samples, national data or high-quality reports that illuminated aspects of the epidemiology and trends in waterpipe smoking. Data extraction Multiple researchers extracted the data independently and collectively decided on the most important and pertinent studies to include in the review. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoking has become a global phenomenon among youth. The global waterpipe epidemic is likely driven by (1) the introduction of manufactured flavoured tobacco (Maassel); (2) the intersection between waterpipe's social dimension and thriving café culture; (3) the evolution of mass communication media; (4) the lack of regulatory/policy framework specific to the waterpipe. Waterpipe smoking is becoming the most popular tobacco use method among youth in the Middle East, and is quickly gaining popularity elsewhere. Important patterns of waterpipe smoking include the predominance among younger, male, high socioeconomic, and urban groups. Intermittent and social use are also noted patterns. Conclusions Waterpipe smoking has become a global public health problem. Developing surveillance, intervention and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to the waterpipe has become a public health priority. PMID:25298368

  11. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada’s health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed. PMID:27429574

  12. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Maziak, Wasim; Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Asfar, Taghrid

    2015-07-31

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less harmful than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that some waterpipe smokers become addicted, have difficulty quitting, and experience similar health risks as cigarette smokers. To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register in June 2015. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL , using variant terms and spellings ('waterpipe' or 'narghile' or 'arghile' or 'shisha' or 'goza' or 'narkeela' or 'hookah' or 'hubble bubble'). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, measured at six months post-cessation or longer, regardless of whether abstinence was biochemically verified. We included interventions that were pharmacological (for example, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion) or behavioural, or both, and could be directed at individual waterpipe users or

  13. Self-harm

    MedlinePlus

    Self-harm refers to a person's harming their own body on purpose. About 1 in 100 people hurts himself ... hurt themselves than males. A person who self-harms usually does not mean to kill himself or ...

  14. Could Regular Pot Smoking Harm Vision?

    MedlinePlus

    ... research as "timely," given the increasing trend towards legalization of marijuana in the United States, for both ... needed to test whether long-term use of cannabis has any effect on retinal or optic nerve ...

  15. First tobacco product tried: associations with smoking status and demographics among college students.

    PubMed

    Sutfin, Erin L; Sparks, Alicia; Pockey, Jessica R; Suerken, Cynthia K; Reboussin, Beth A; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-12-01

    As the tobacco market expands, so too have the opportunities for youth to be introduced to nicotine. The goal of this study was to identify product choice for initial tobacco trial, correlates associated with product choice, and the relationship between first product and current cigarette smoking among college students. A cross-sectional web survey of 3146 first-year students at 11 universities in North Carolina and Virginia was conducted in fall 2010. Weighted prevalence of ever use of tobacco was 48.6%. Cigarettes were the most common first product (37.9%), followed by cigars (29.3%), hookahs (24.6%), smokeless tobacco (6.1%), and bidis/kreteks (2.2%). Two thirds (65%) of current smokers initiated with cigarettes, but 16.4% started with cigars, 11.1% with hookahs, 5.7% with smokeless, and 1.7% with bidis/kreteks. Females were more likely to report their first product was cigarettes and hookahs, while males were more likely to start with cigars and smokeless tobacco. Compared to those whose first product trial occurred after the age of 18, younger age of initiation (17years or younger) was associated with cigarettes and smokeless as first products, while older age of initiation (18 or older) was associated with starting with hookahs and cigars. Dual or poly tobacco use was more common among those who initiated with hookahs and smokeless tobacco. While over a third of students used cigarettes first, two thirds started with a non-cigarette product. Just about a third of current cigarette smokers initiated with a non-cigarette product, suggesting that those non-cigarette products may have facilitated escalation to cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    MedlinePlus

    ... long-term health problems. For every smoking-related death, at least 30 Americans live with a smoking-related illness. The only proven strategy to protect yourself from harm is to never smoke, and if you do smoke or use tobacco products, to quit. The Tips From Former Smokers ...

  17. Study of Secondhand Smoke Levels Pre and Post Implementation of the Comprehensive Smoking Ban in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Aditi; Kudtarkar, Priyanka; Dhaware, Dhanashri; Chowgule, Rohini

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves – baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe) cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 μg/m3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 μg/m3. The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law. PMID:21031108

  18. Study of secondhand smoke levels pre and post implementation of the comprehensive smoking ban in mumbai.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Aditi; Kudtarkar, Priyanka; Dhaware, Dhanashri; Chowgule, Rohini

    2010-07-01

    This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves - baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2(nd) October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe) cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM(2.5)) measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. The average PM(2.5) level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 μg/m(3) in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM(2.5) level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 μg/m(3). The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM(2.5) levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM(2.5) particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law.

  19. [A cross sectional study of passive smoking of non-smoking women and analysis of influence factors on women passive smoking].

    PubMed

    Han, Jing-Xiu; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xi; Zheng, Su-hua; Gan, De-kun; Fang, Jun

    2006-09-01

    To fund out the state of passive smoking of non-smoking women and search for measures of controlling women passive smoking. 3500 non-smoking women in Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu city were interviewed. Analyses were performed by chi2 test Fisher test and ANOVA test. 92.7% passive smoking women exposure to ETS at home, 40.8% at workplace. 38.9% exposed to ETS from birthday, and 42.3% from 18 - 30 age. The average exposure time of passive smoking is (1.17 +/- 1.10) hours per day. The proportion of passive-smoking time over 2 hours at home is higher than work place. In passive-smoking group, the proportion of 30 - 50 age group, secondary education, married, merchant/service, principal of units, and manufacture/transport workers were higher than non-smoking group. 97.5% think that passive smoking is harmful to health, and the proportion of thinking passive smoking has severe harm to health in non-passive-smoking group is higher than passive-smoking group. 70.0% open windows when someone smokes around her, but only 16.9% ask the smokers do not smoke around her forwardly. Suppose that someone were smoking around yourself, the consciousness of avoiding passive smoking forwardly in non-passive-smoking group is stronger than passive-smoking group. 95.1% believe the content of smoking-harm propagandized by medium. The main places of controlling passive smoking are the home and the department, commerce, service, and manufacture/ transport workplace. The rate of passive smoking was influenced by the consciousness of the serious level of harms by passive smoking. Propagandizing the serious harm of passive smoking by medium and strengthening the consciousness of avoiding passive smoking were one of feasible measures to lower the rate of smoking and passive smoking.

  20. [Old age and smoking].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Moscato, Alba; Fernandez, Lydia

    Elderly people today have seen a radical change in the image of smokers over the last half century. While once it was approved, it is now demonised. Although smoking declines with age, there are still many elderly smokers. The risks and harm of smoking remain, even in old age. An individual choice to start with, smoking becomes a collective issue in a nursing home. Stopping smoking always brings benefits, even after the age of 80. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. No Smoking on School Property

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Robert W.

    1972-01-01

    American teacher in Holland cites American Medical Association article that smokers can cause physical damage to nonsmokers. Suggests banning smoking within school buildings as well as increased education on tobacco's potentially harmful effects. (PD)

  2. Beliefs About the Health Effects of “Thirdhand” Smoke and Home Smoking Bans

    PubMed Central

    Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Friebely, Joan; Tanski, Susanne E.; Sherrod, Cheryl; Matt, Georg E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; McMillen, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE There is no safe level of exposure to tobacco smoke. Thirdhand smoke is residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Children are uniquely susceptible to thirdhand smoke exposure. The objective of this study was to assess health beliefs of adults regarding thirdhand smoke exposure of children and whether smokers and nonsmokers differ in those beliefs. We hypothesized that beliefs about thirdhand smoke would be associated with household smoking bans. METHODS Data were collected by a national random-digit-dial telephone survey from September to November 2005. The sample was weighted by race and gender within Census region on the basis of US Census data. The study questions assessed the level of agreement with statements that breathing air in a room today where people smoked yesterday can harm the health of children. RESULTS Of 2000 eligible respondents contacted, 1510 (87%) completed surveys, 1478 (97.9%) answered all questions pertinent to this analysis, and 273 (18.9%) were smokers. Overall, 95.4% of nonsmokers versus 84.1% of smokers agreed that secondhand smoke harms the health of children, and 65.2% of nonsmokers versus 43.3% of smokers agreed that thirdhand smoke harms children. Strict rules prohibiting smoking in the home were more prevalent among nonsmokers: 88.4% vs 26.7%. In multivariate logistic regression, after controlling for certain variables, belief that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children remained independently associated with rules prohibiting smoking in the home. Belief that secondhand smoke harms the health of children was not independently associated with rules prohibiting smoking in the home and car. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that beliefs about the health effects of thirdhand smoke are independently associated with home smoking bans. Emphasizing that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children may be an important element in encouraging home smoking bans. PMID:19117850

  3. Self-Harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... People Self-harm Self-harm is not a mental illness, but a behavior that indicates a lack of ... use blood tests or physical exams to diagnose mental illness, so they rely on detailed information from the ...

  4. The Morality of Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…

  5. The Morality of Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Paulo; Holbrook, Colin; Piazza, Jared

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the range of concerns people weigh when evaluating the acceptability of harmful actions and propose a new perspective on the relationship between harm and morality. With this aim, we examine Kelly, Stich, Haley, Eng and Fessler's [Kelly, D., Stich, S., Haley, K., Eng, S., & Fessler, D. (2007). Harm, affect, and the…

  6. [Damage from passive tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Z

    1995-01-01

    The author presents data on the biological casualties and consequences of tobacco-smoking. Smoking is the most dangerous addiction in the scale of the world and in Poland. It causes numerous premature decrease and tobacco-dependent sickness. The author characterises the spread of this addiction in Poland concentrating on the problem of the passive smoking harmfulness. Non-smokers, children and youth, embryo and foetus during the pregnancy are exposed to the passive smoking. The experimental examinations of animals and the analysis of the lateral stream of the tobacco smoke confirm not the least, but rather the greater damage of the passive smoking than the active one. The mechanisms of acting of the tobacco smoke on the passive smokers' body and the health consequences are discussed. The manners, means and activities that are useful for the health protection of non-smokers against the tobacco smoke and the ways of the smoking prevention are described.

  7. Guidelines for Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling ETS in schools. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are first described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration of…

  8. Harm, change, and time.

    PubMed

    Belshaw, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    What is harm? I offer an account that involves the victim's either suffering some adverse intrinsic change or being prevented from enjoying some beneficial intrinsic change. No one is harmed, I claim, in virtue of relational changes alone. Thus (excepting for contrived cases), there are neither posthumous harms nor, in life, harms of the undiscovered betrayal, slander, reputation-damaging variety. Further, two widespread moves in the philosophy of death are rejected. First, death and posthumous are not to be assimilated--death does bring about adverse internal change and harms us straightforwardly. Second, Pitcher-type accounts of posthumous harm are criticized--posthumous events can thwart the satisfaction of my interests, but I am not harmed either just when this occurs or, earlier, when I first acquire or invest in those interests. We have other ways of describing what is going on.

  9. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Haider, M. Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E.; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R.; Thrasher, James F.; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Methods Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Results Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.4). Conclusion Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking. PMID:26890407

  10. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Haider, M Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R; Thrasher, James F; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-02-18

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4). Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking.

  11. Patterns of Alternative Tobacco Product Use: Emergence of Hookah and E-cigarettes as Preferred Products Amongst Youth.

    PubMed

    Gilreath, Tamika D; Leventhal, Adam; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Unger, Jennifer B; Cruz, Tess Boley; Berhane, Kiros; Huh, Jimi; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Pentz, Mary Ann; Chou, Chih Ping; McConnell, Rob

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing public health concern related to the rapid increase in the use of multiple tobacco products among adolescents. This study examined patterns of adolescent use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillo, hookah/waterpipe, and smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco in a population of southern California adolescents. Data from 2,097 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children's Health Study were collected via self-report in 2014. Study participants were asked about lifetime and current (past 30 days) use of cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe, and smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns of tobacco use. Hookah/waterpipe tobacco use had the highest current prevalence (10.7%) followed by e-cigarettes (9.6%). The prevalence of use of smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco was lowest, with 2.2% of adolescents reporting current use. The LCA suggested four distinct classes, comprising nonusers (72.3% of the sample), polytobacco experimenters (13.9%), e-cigarette/hookah users (8.2%), and polytobacco users (5.6%). Multinomial logistic regression based on these four classes found that males had double the odds to be polytobacco users relative to nonusers compared to females (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-4.25). By identifying naturally occurring configurations of tobacco product use in teens, these findings may be useful to practitioners and policymakers to identify the need for tobacco control interventions that address specific tobacco products and particular combinations of polytobacco use. LCA can be used to identify segments of the population overrepresented among certain tobacco use classes (e.g., boys) that may benefit most from targeted polyproduct intervention approaches. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of Alternative Tobacco Product Use: Emergence of Hookah and E-cigarettes as Preferred Products Amongst Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gilreath, Tamika D.; Leventhal, Adam; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cruz, Tess Boley; Berhane, Kiros; Huh, Jimi; Urman, Robert; Wang, Kejia; Howland, Steve; Pentz, Mary Ann; Chou, Chih Ping; McConnell, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is a growing public health concern related to the rapid increase in the use of multiple tobacco products among adolescents. This study examined patterns of adolescent use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars/cigarillo, hookah/waterpipe, and smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco in a population of southern California adolescents. Methods Data from 2,097 11th- and 12th-grade participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study were collected via self-report in 2014. Study participants were asked about lifetime and current (past 30 days) use of cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe, and smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns of tobacco use. Results Hookah/waterpipe tobacco use had the highest current prevalence (10.7%) followed by e-cigarettes (9.6%). The prevalence of use of smokeless/dip/chewing tobacco was lowest, with 2.2% of adolescents reporting current use. The LCA suggested four distinct classes, comprising nonusers (72.3% of the sample), polytobacco experimenters (13.9%), e-cigarette/hookah users (8.2%), and polytobacco users (5.6%). Multinomial logistic regression based on these four classes found that males had double the odds to be polytobacco users relative to nonusers compared to females (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.26–4.25). Conclusions By identifying naturally occurring configurations of tobacco product use in teens, these findings may be useful to practitioners and policymakers to identify the need for tobacco control interventions that address specific tobacco products and particular combinations of polytobacco use. LCA can be used to identify segments of the population overrepresented among certain tobacco use classes (e.g., boys) that may benefit most from targeted polyproduct intervention approaches. PMID:26598059

  13. Tobacco Use Harm Reduction, Elimination, and Escalation in a Large Military Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah; Ebbert, Jon O.; Talcott, G. Wayne; DeBon, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated changing patterns of tobacco use following a period of forced tobacco abstinence in a US military cohort to determine rates of harm elimination (e.g., tobacco cessation), harm reduction (e.g., from smoking to smokeless tobacco use), and harm escalation (e.g., from smoking to dual use or from smokeless tobacco use to smoking or dual use). Methods. Participants were 5225 Air Force airmen assigned to the health education control condition in a smoking cessation and prevention trial. Tobacco use was assessed by self-report at baseline and 12 months. Results. Among 114 baseline smokers initiating smokeless tobacco use after basic military training, most demonstrated harm escalation (87%), which was 5.4 times more likely to occur than was harm reduction (e.g., smoking to smokeless tobacco use). Harm reduction was predicted, in part, by higher family income and belief that switching from cigarettes to smokeless tobacco is beneficial to health. Harm escalation predictors included younger age, alcohol use, longer smoking history, and risk-taking. Conclusions. When considering a harm reduction strategy with smokeless tobacco, the tobacco control community should balance anticipated benefits of harm reduction with the risk of harm escalation and the potential for adversely affecting public health. PMID:21068420

  14. Quit Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...

  15. E-Cigarette Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Andy S.L.; Bigman, Cabral A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are increasingly advertised as replacements for regular cigarettes or cessation aids for smokers. Purpose To describe the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness among U.S. adults and analyze whether these variables are associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts and intention to quit. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4 Cycle 2), conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Data analyses were performed from June to August 2013. Results Overall, 77% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes. Of these, 51% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes. Younger, white (compared with Hispanic), more educated respondents, and current or former smokers (compared with non-smokers) were more likely to be aware of e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, younger, more educated respondents and current smokers (compared with former and non-smokers) were more likely to believe that e-cigarettes were less harmful. Awareness and perceived harm were not associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts or intention to quit. Conclusions Overall e-cigarette awareness increased while smokers’ perceived harm of e-cigarettes declined compared with earlier surveys. However, awareness and perceived harm of e-cigarettes did not show evidence of promoting smoking cessation at the population level. PMID:24794422

  16. Self-harm.

    PubMed

    Skegg, Keren

    The term self-harm is commonly used to describe a wide range of behaviours and intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and superficial cutting in response to intolerable tension. As with suicide, rates of self-harm vary greatly between countries. 5-9% of adolescents in western countries report having self-harmed within the previous year. Risk factors include socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychiatric illness--particularly depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Cultural aspects of some societies may protect against suicide and self-harm and explain some of the international variation in rates of these events. Risk of repetition of self-harm and of later suicide is high. More than 5% of people who have been seen at a hospital after self-harm will have committed suicide within 9 years. Assessment after self-harm includes careful consideration of the patient's intent and beliefs about the lethality of the method used. Strong suicidal intent, high lethality, precautions against being discovered, and psychiatric illness are indicators of high suicide risk. Management after self-harm includes forming a trusting relationship with the patient, jointly identifying problems, ensuring support is available in a crisis, and treating psychiatric illness vigorously. Family and friends may also provide support. Large-scale studies of treatments for specific subgroups of people who self-harm might help to identify more effective treatments than are currently available. Although risk factors for self-harm are well established, aspects that protect people from engaging in self-harm need to be further explored.

  17. Knowledge About the Waterpipe (Hookah), a Qualitative Assessment Among Community Workers in a Major Urban Center in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hammal, Fadi; Wild, T Cameron; Finegan, Barry A

    2016-08-01

    Waterpipe (WP) use has surged in popularity since the introduction of flavoured shisha. It is now an increasingly popular form of smoking among youth in North America. Health professionals/educators knowledge about the WP may well be inadequate. This study, using qualitative methods, sought to explore the knowledge and attitude of leaders in the community toward the WP. Family physicians, pharmacists, tobacco counsellors, social workers and educators were invited to participate in a one-one interview using open-ended questions. A total of 27 interviews were conducted. Individuals from Eastern Mediterranean backgrounds raised doubt about the overemphasised cultural significance of the WP and perceived this as a marketing strategy by industry. Most felt that WP smokers believed the WP to be less harmful than cigarettes and that the use of flavoured tobacco was motivating people to smoke. Participants believed that education should be directed at the general public and healthcare professionals, suggesting school programs and the use of social media to inform young smokers. Most thought that the current practices regarding packaging and second hand smoke exposure are confusing. They identified the lack of knowledge, poor enforcement procedures, "so called cultural aspects" and the economic impact of banning the WP on small businesses as barriers to change. Despite the awareness of an increase in WP use, our participants recognized that little has been done to curb this problem. Our findings emphasize the need for further education and better legislation to regulate WP use and availability.

  18. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage).

  19. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  20. Up in Smoke: The Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Joe

    1993-01-01

    Environmental or second-hand smoke can have serious effects on children. Many smokers are more likely to consider quitting if they know they are causing harm to their children and families. Physicians must take the time to point out the dangers of passive smoking to parents who smoke. (SM)

  1. Up in Smoke: The Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Joe

    1993-01-01

    Environmental or second-hand smoke can have serious effects on children. Many smokers are more likely to consider quitting if they know they are causing harm to their children and families. Physicians must take the time to point out the dangers of passive smoking to parents who smoke. (SM)

  2. Harmful alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Gmel, Gerhard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol misuse can harm people other than the drinker, and can have negative consequences for society as a whole. It is commonly believed to play a role in decreased worker productivity, increased unintentional injuries, aggression and violence against others, and child and spouse abuse. Research findings support the idea that drinking is involved in or associated with many of these social harms, but do not offer evidence that it causes these effects. Methodological flaws characterize much of the research in this area. Use of better design and statistical methodology is necessary in order to clarify the relationship between drinking and the harmful consequences it is believed to cause.

  3. Why "do no harm"?

    PubMed

    Sharpe, V A

    1997-01-01

    Edmund Pellegrino has argued that the dramatic changes in American health care call for critical reflection on the traditional norms governing the therapeutic relationship. This paper offers such reflection on the obligation to "do no harm." Drawing on work by Beauchamp and Childress and Pellegrino and Thomasma, I argue that the libertarian model of medical ethics offered by Engelhardt cannot adequately sustain an obligation to "do no harm." Because the obligation to "do no harm" is not based simply on a negative duty of nonmaleficence but also on a positive duty of beneficence, I argue that it is best understood to derive from the fiduciary nature of the healing relationship.

  4. Waterpipe tobacco smoking and its human health impacts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-11-05

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS, also known as hookah, shisha, narghile, and many other names) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation by the consumer. As the number of waterpipe smokers is rising rapidly, there is growing concern over the use of WTS, particularly as there has been a widely held misconception that WTS is free from health hazards. In reality, it is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes on both a short- and long-term basis. Hence, it is desirable to develop advanced techniques for surveillance, intervention, and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to the production and use of waterpipe tobacco. This review is written to survey the types and extent of pollutants released from its use and their potential health risks. A review of the present regulation guidelines is also included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tobacco Harm to Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... of U.S. high school kids smoke. 3 University of Michigan, Monitoring the Future Study, 2016, http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/data/16data/ ... 1296- 303, October 1997; Sibony, PA, et al., “The Effects of Tobacco Smoking on Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements,” Annals of Neurology 23(3):238- 41, March ...

  6. [Smoking and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Wenderlein, J M

    1995-10-01

    The medical consultation during pregnancy should include information about smoking and side-stream smoking. More than half of the fetuses are more or less exposed to harmful substances passing the placenta due to smoking of the mother or smoking persons in the direct environment. The danger due to side-stream smoking have to be considered more during the consultation. It is known that toxic substances are concentrated higher in the side-stream smoke than in the main-stream smoke. Due to enzyme induction, smokers can metabolize toxic substances faster than non-smokers or side-stream smokers. Already before a planned pregnancy, it should be pointed out that tobacco smoke contains numerous teratogenic substances which double the risk of fetal malformations. A high consumption of cigarettes induces an increased risk of abortion. An insufficient perfusion of the uterus and the placenta causes an O2-debt with an increased risk for malformations such as schistasis or an increased rate of premature birth. The increased CO content of the maternal blood reduces the O2 transport capacity since CO has an about 200 times greater affinity to hemoglobin than O2. These and other topics of the consultation for pregnant women are important in the interest of the fetus.

  7. Smoking reduction practices among African American smokers.

    PubMed

    Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Richter, Kimber P; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Mosier, Michael C; Nazir, Niaman; Resnicow, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day than Caucasians, African Americans bear a disproportionate share of health consequences of smoking. Because the risk of many tobacco-related diseases is dose-dependent, smoking reduction has been suggested as a method to reduce harm for smokers. Little information exists about behavioral smoking-reduction strategies and whether such strategies result in smoking fewer cigarettes. We conducted a survey of 484 African American smokers classified as occasional, light, moderate, and heavy smokers. The survey examined sociodemography, smoking characteristics, and eight smoking reduction strategies, including intentional limiting of smoking, smoking less than half of a cigarette, setting a daily limit for smoking, changing cigarette brand, reducing number of cigarettes, smoking only on some days, switching to a lighter tar cigarette, and not inhaling deeply. Compared to moderate and heavy smokers, occasional and light smokers were more likely to have engaged in most of these strategies. Smokers who used >or= 4 strategies on average smoked 11 cigarettes per day (cpd), compared to 14 cpd and 18 cpd for those who used 1 to 3 strategies and no strategies respectively (p <.0001). After analyses controlled for age, gender, and education, the number of smoking reduction strategies utilized was a significant predictor of smoking 10 or fewer cigarettes per day. This study provides evidence that African American smokers who engaged in multiple smoking reduction strategies smoked fewer cigarettes per day. Smokers not interested in quitting but willing to reduce their smoking should be encouraged to utilize a variety of smoking reduction strategies.

  8. Perceptions of the relative harm of cigarettes and e-cigarettes among U.S. youth.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Bridget K; Rostron, Brian L; Johnson, Sarah E; Portnoy, David B; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Kaufman, Annette R; Choiniere, Conrad J

    2014-08-01

    Despite progress in reducing youth smoking, adolescents remain highly susceptible to tobacco use. Of concern is whether youth perceive electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a preferable alternative to conventional cigarettes. To describe cigarette harm perception patterns among youth based on the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and examine the relative harm perceptions of conventional versus e-cigarettes, using data from a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. youth. Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (N=24,658) were analyzed in 2013 to identify patterns of cigarette harm perceptions. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify associations between demographic and tobacco use characteristics and cigarette harm perception patterns. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationship between cigarette harm perceptions and the perception of e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes for current, ever, and never cigarette smokers. The majority of youth (64.2%) perceived the harmfulness of cigarettes as dose-dependent. Approximately one in three students perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Regardless of cigarette smoking status, ever users of e-cigarettes and those with "dose-dependent" cigarette harm perceptions consistently were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Many youth perceive tobacco use on a continuum of harm. Youth who perceive gradations in harm-both by frequency and intensity of cigarette use and by type of product-may be particularly susceptible to e-cigarette use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Harmful Algal Bloom Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The problem is complex. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorous levels can cause harmful algal blooms. Different algal/cyanobacteria strains bloom under different conditions. Different strains produce different toxins at varying amounts.

  10. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  11. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors.

    PubMed

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, <100 nm), carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile aldehydes, and carbon monoxide (CO) for cigarettes and narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke.Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m(3) Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde.We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  12. A review of air quality, biological indicators and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit R; Davies, Shelby; Weitzman, Michael; Sherman, Scott

    2015-03-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the use of waterpipe tobacco and non-tobacco based shisha in many countries. Understanding the impact and effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) from cigarette was a crucial factor in reducing cigarette use, leading to clean indoor air laws and smoking bans. This article reviews what is known about the effects of SHS exposure from waterpipes. We used PubMed and EMBASE to review the literature. Articles were grouped into quantitative measures of air quality and biological markers, health effects, exposure across different settings, different types of shisha and use in different countries. Criteria for study selection were based on the key words related to SHS: waterpipe, hookah, shisha and third-hand smoke. Independent extraction with two reviewers was performed with inclusion criteria applied to articles on SHS and waterpipe/hookah/shisha. We excluded articles related to pregnancy or prenatal exposure to SHS, animal studies, and non-specific source of exposure as well as articles not written in English. A primary literature search yielded 54 articles, of which only 11 were included based on relevance to SHS from a waterpipe/hookah/shisha. The negative health consequences of second-hand waterpipe exposure have major implications for clean indoor air laws and for occupational safety. There exists an urgent need for public health campaigns about the effects on children and household members from smoking waterpipe at home, and for further development and implementation of regulations to protect the health of the public from this rapidly emerging threat. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. A review of air quality, biological indicators and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sumit R; Davies, Shelby; Weitzman, Michael; Sherman, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objective There has been a rapid increase in the use of waterpipe tobacco and non-tobacco based shisha in many countries. Understanding the impact and effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) from cigarette was a crucial factor in reducing cigarette use, leading to clean indoor air laws and smoking bans. This article reviews what is known about the effects of SHS exposure from waterpipes. Data sources We used PubMed and EMBASE to review the literature. Articles were grouped into quantitative measures of air quality and biological markers, health effects, exposure across different settings, different types of shisha and use in different countries. Study selection Criteria for study selection were based on the key words related to SHS: waterpipe, hookah, shisha and third-hand smoke. Data extraction Independent extraction with two reviewers was performed with inclusion criteria applied to articles on SHS and waterpipe/hookah/shisha. We excluded articles related to pregnancy or prenatal exposure to SHS, animal studies, and non-specific source of exposure as well as articles not written in English. Data synthesis A primary literature search yielded 54 articles, of which only 11 were included based on relevance to SHS from a waterpipe/hookah/shisha. Conclusions The negative health consequences of second-hand waterpipe exposure have major implications for clean indoor air laws and for occupational safety. There exists an urgent need for public health campaigns about the effects on children and household members from smoking waterpipe at home, and for further development and implementation of regulations to protect the health of the public from this rapidly emerging threat. PMID:25480544

  14. Behavior and Knowledge of Iranian Professional Athletes towards Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Hessami, Zahra; Aryanpur, Mahshid; Emami, Habib; Masjedi, Mohammadreza

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the rate of tobacco consumption among professional athletes in Iran and assessing their knowledge and attitude in this regard. Methods A total of 738 athletes from 10 different types of sports were evaluated. Athletes were all members of the priority leagues. After obtaining consent from the Physical Education Organization and coordination with the related federations, athletes were asked to fill out the standard questionnaire. Results All understudy subjects were males. The mean age was 28.4±2.7 yrs. The mean age of initiation of sport in these subjects was reported to be 12.3±4.01 yrs. A total of 178 (24.6%) subjects had experienced cigarette smoking and 308 (42.3%) had experienced hookah smoking. Sixty four subjects (9%) were current smokers. The mean score of knowledge about hazards of smoking was 5.6±0.9 among those who had experienced smoking. This score was 7.9±0.5 among those with no smoking experience (P=0.04). Conclusions Rate of smoking among professional athletes is lower than general population average. So participation in organized sports may be a protective factor against tobacco use in people. PMID:23342230

  15. Self-harm in nurses: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the weighed prevalence of self-harm and its correlates among Hong Kong nurses. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the weighted prevalence of past-year suicidality among Hong Kong nurses was found to be 14·9%. Deliberate self-harm was a significant correlate of suicidality. Nonetheless, there are few population-based studies exploring the prevalence of self-harm and its correlates among medical occupational groups in Asia. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected in Hong Kong over a four-week period from October-November 2013. Statistical methods, including binary and multivariate logistic regression models, were used to examine the weighted prevalence of self-harm and its associated factors in nurses. A total of 850 nurses participated in the study. Seventy-nine participants (9·3%) reported self-harm in the past year. Nurses aged between 25-44 were at especially high risk of self-harm. Female nurses reported self-harm more than male nurses. The most common forms of self-harm were self-cutting, striking oneself and poisoning oneself. Clinical experience, chronic illness, relationship crises with family members, a family history of self-harm, smoking, symptoms of stress and psychiatric disorder were significantly associated with nurses' self-harm. The positive correlation between psychiatric disorder and self-harm was confirmed. There is a need for a raft of self-harm prevention strategies, including a continuous monitoring system in the healthcare setting detecting and managing the risks of self-harm in nurses as part of the ordinary provision for their well-being. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Multiple tobacco product use among adults in the United States: cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn O; Hebert, Christine J; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E

    2014-05-01

    Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular. Researchers need to understand multiple tobacco product use to assess the effects of these products on population health. We estimate national prevalence and examine risk factors for multiple product use. We calculated prevalence estimates of current use patterns involving cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus using data from the 2012 RTI National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=3627), a random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 and over. Associations between use patterns (exclusive single product and multiple products) and demographic characteristics were examined using Pearson chi-square tests and logistic regression. 32.1% of adults currently use 1 or more tobacco products; 14.9% use cigarettes exclusively, and 6.6% use one noncigarette product exclusively, 6.9% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), 1.3% use two noncigarette products, and 2.4% use three or more products (polytobacco use). Smokers who are young adult, male, never married, reside in the West, and made prior quit attempts were at risk for multiple product use. Over 10% of U.S. adults use multiple tobacco products. A better understanding of multiple product use involving combustible products, like cigars and hookah, is needed. Multiple product use may be associated with past quit attempts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cutting and Self-Harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self-injury, is when a person ... about how one girl helps herself not self-harm. What are signs of self-injury in others? ...

  18. How beneficial is vaping cannabis to respiratory health compared to smoking?

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2015-11-01

    While vaping cannabis reduces respiratory exposure to toxic particulates in cannabis smoke, the resultant reduction in clinically evident harms to lung health is probably smaller than that likely to result from substituting e-cigarettes for smoked tobacco due to the comparatively greater harms of tobacco than cannabis smoking to lung health.

  19. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Oliano, Vinicius J; Aranda, Carolina S; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    Despite anti-smoking prevention programs, many adolescents start smoking at school age. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with smoking in adolescents living in Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. A prospective study was conducted in adolescents (12-19 years), enrolled in municipal schools, who answered a self-administered questionnaire on smoking. 798 adolescents were enrolled in the study, with equal distribution between genders. The tobacco experimentation frequency (ever tried a cigarette, even one or two puffs) was 29.3%; 14.5% started smoking before 12 years of age and 13.0% reported smoking at least one cigarette/day last month. Having a smoking friend (OR: 5.67, 95% CI: 2.06-7.09), having cigarettes offered by friends (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.46-5.76) and having easy access to cigarettes (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 1.22-5.41) was identified as factors associated with smoking. Having parental guidance on smoking (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45-0.77), having no contact with cigarettes at home in the last week (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79) and knowing about the dangers of electronic cigarettes (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.21-0.92) were identified as protection factors. The prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Uruguaiana is high. The implementation of measures to reduce/stop tobacco use and its new forms of consumption, such as electronic cigarettes and hookah, are urgent and imperative in schools. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, ... about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children More frequent and ...

  1. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  2. Harmful Algal Blooms Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project represents the Agency’s first effort to unify harmful algal blooms (HABs) research that had been previously carried out in isolation within various laboratories. A unified program is the most efficient way generate useful results for the Agency’s decision...

  3. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  4. Harmful Algal Blooms Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project represents the Agency’s first effort to unify harmful algal blooms (HABs) research that had been previously carried out in isolation within various laboratories. A unified program is the most efficient way generate useful results for the Agency’s decision...

  5. PREP advertisement features affect smokers' beliefs regarding potential harm.

    PubMed

    Strasser, A A; Tang, K Z; Tuller, M D; Cappella, J N

    2008-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers' beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a "red" condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a "no text" condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using "incorrect," "unsure" and "correct" as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Participants randomised to the "no text" advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, are healthier and make smoking safer. Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising.

  6. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Indoor Smoking Bans and Smoking-Related Knowledge in China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yue; Wang, Ling; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies have provided strong evidence that Chinese individuals are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) and lack knowledge of its harmful effects, there has not been an in-depth exploration of the variability in exposure and knowledge by geographic region, occupation, and socioeconomic status. The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) the demographic factors associated with the level of knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking; (2) the factors related to implementation of in-home and workplace smoking bans; and (3) geographic differences in being exposed to SHS in government buildings, healthcare facilities, restaurants, public transportations, and schools. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China. Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. The results suggested that among Chinese citizens age 15 years and older, there is poor knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco, and knowledge varies with region and socioeconomic status. Over three-quarters of the households had no smoking restrictions, and a large percentage of workers reported working in places with no smoking ban. In public places, exposure to SHS was high, particularly in rural areas and in the Southwest. These results suggest Chinese individuals are not well informed of smoking and SHS associated risks and are regularly exposed to SHS at home, work and public places. PMID:25514143

  7. Significance of smoking machine toxicant yields to blood-level exposure in water pipe tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas E

    2011-11-01

    The global increase in tobacco smoking with a water pipe (hookah, narghile, or shisha) has made understanding its health consequences imperative. One key to developing this understanding is identifying and quantifying carcinogens and other toxicants present in water pipe smoke. To do so, the toxicant yield of machine-generated water pipe smoke has been measured. However, the relevance of toxicant yields of machine-generated smoke to actual human exposure has not been established. In this study, we examined whether carbon monoxide (CO) and nicotine yields measured with a smoking machine programmed to replicate the puffing behavior of 31 human participants who smoked a water pipe could reliably predict these participants' blood-level exposure. In addition to CO and nicotine, yields of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, volatile aldehydes, nitric oxide (NO), and "tar" were measured. We found that when used in this puff-replicating manner, smoking machine yields are highly correlated with blood-level exposure (nicotine: r > 0.76, P < 0.001; CO: r > 0.78, P < 0.001). Total drawn smoke volume was the best predictor of toxicant yield and exposure, accounting for approximately 75% to 100% of the variability across participants in yields of NO, CO, volatile aldehydes, and tar, as well as blood-level CO and normalized nicotine. Machine-based methods can be devised in which smoke toxicant yields reliably track human exposure. This finding indicates the basic feasibility of valid analytic laboratory evaluation of tobacco products for regulatory purposes. © 2011 AACR.

  8. Significance of smoking machine toxicant yields to blood-level exposure in waterpipe tobacco smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan L.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The global rise in tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) has made understanding its health consequences imperative. One key to developing this understanding is identifying and quantifying carcinogens and other toxicants present in waterpipe smoke. To do so, the toxicant yield of machine-generated waterpipe smoke has been measured. However, the relevance of toxicant yields of machine-generated smoke to actual human exposure has not been established. Methods In this study, we examined whether CO and nicotine yields measured using a smoking machine programmed to replicate the puffing behavior of 31 human participants who smoked a waterpipe could reliably predict these participant’s blood-level exposure. In addition to CO and nicotine, yields of PAH, volatile aldehydes, NO, and “tar” were measured. Results We found that when used in this puff-replicating manner, smoking machine yields are highly correlated with blood-level exposure (Nicotine: r>0.76, p<0.001; CO: r>0.78, p<0.001). Total drawn smoke volume was the best predictor of toxicant yield and exposure, accounting for approximately 75–100% of the variability across participants in yields of NO, CO, volatile aldehydes and “tar”, and blood-level CO and normalized nicotine. Conclusions Machine-based methods can be devised in which smoke toxicant yields reliably track human exposure. Impact This finding indicates the basic feasibility of valid analytical laboratory evaluation of tobacco products for regulatory purposes. PMID:21914836

  9. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Baskoro, Hario; Hidayat, Moulid; Yunus, Faisal; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation.

  10. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  11. Interventions to reduce harm from continued tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Lindson-Hawley, Nicola; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Fanshawe, Thomas R; Begh, Rachna; Farley, Amanda; Lancaster, Tim

    2016-10-13

    Although smoking cessation is currently the only guaranteed way to reduce the harm caused by tobacco smoking, a reasonable secondary tobacco control approach may be to try and reduce the harm from continued tobacco use amongst smokers unable or unwilling to quit. Possible approaches to reduce the exposure to toxins from smoking include reducing the amount of tobacco used, and using less toxic products, such as pharmaceutical, nicotine and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs), as an alternative to cigarettes. To assess the effects of interventions intended to reduce the harm to health of continued tobacco use, we considered the following specific questions: do interventions intended to reduce harm have an effect on long-term health status?; do they lead to a reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked?; do they have an effect on smoking abstinence?; do they have an effect on biomarkers of tobacco exposure?; and do they have an effect on biomarkers of damage caused by tobacco? We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Trials Register (CRS) on the 21st October 2015, using free-text and MeSH terms for harm reduction, smoking reduction and cigarette reduction. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of interventions to reduce the amount smoked, or to reduce harm from smoking by means other than cessation. We include studies carried out in smokers with no immediate desire to quit all tobacco use. Primary outcomes were change in cigarette consumption, smoking cessation and any markers of damage or benefit to health, measured at least six months from the start of the intervention. We assessed study eligibility for inclusion using standard Cochrane methods. We pooled trials with similar interventions and outcomes (> 50% reduction in cigarettes a day (CPD) and long-term smoking abstinence), using fixed-effect models. Where it was not possible to meta-analyse data, we summarized findings narratively. Twenty-four trials evaluated interventions

  12. Physician smoking status, attitudes toward smoking, and cessation advice to patients: an international survey.

    PubMed

    Pipe, Andrew; Sorensen, Michelle; Reid, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The smoking status of physicians can impact interactions with patients about smoking. The 'Smoking: The Opinions of Physicians' (STOP) survey examined whether an association existed between physician smoking status and beliefs about smoking and cessation and a physician's clinical interactions with patients relevant to smoking cessation, and perceptions of barriers to assisting with quitting. General and family practitioners across 16 countries were surveyed via telephone or face-to-face interviews using a convenience-sample methodology. Physician smoking status was self-reported. Of 4473 physicians invited, 2836 (63%) participated in the survey, 1200 (42%) of whom were smokers. Significantly fewer smoking than non-smoking physicians volunteered that smoking was a harmful activity (64% vs 77%; P<0.001). More non-smokers agreed that smoking cessation was the single biggest step to improving health (88% vs 82%; P<0.001) and discussed smoking at every visit (45% vs 34%; P<0.001). Although more non-smoking physicians identified willpower (37% vs 32%; P<0.001) and lack of interest (28% vs 22%; P<0.001) as barriers to quitting, more smoking physicians saw stress as a barrier (16% vs 10%; P<0.001). Smoking physicians are less likely to initiate cessation interventions. There is a need for specific strategies to encourage smoking physicians to quit, and to motivate all practitioners to adopt systematic approaches to assisting with smoking cessation.

  13. Assessment of narghile (shisha, hookah) smokers' actual exposure to toxic chemicals requires further sound studies

    PubMed Central

    Chaouachi, Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is hazardous for health. However, not all forms of tobacco use entail the same risks and the latter should be studied and compared in a sound realistic way. Smoking machines for cigarettes (which are consumed in a few minutes) were early designed as a tool to evaluate the actual intake of toxic substances (‘toxicants’) by smokers. However, the yields (tar, nicotine, CO, etc.) provided by such machines poorly reflect the actual human smoking behaviour known to depend on numerous factors (anxiety, emotions, anthropological situation, etc.). In the case of narghile smoking, the problems are even more complex, particularly because of the much longer duration of a session. A recent study from the US-American University of Beirut was based on a field smoking topography and claimed consistency with a laboratory smoking machine. We offer a point by point critical analysis of such methods on which most of the ‘waterpipe’ antismoking literature since 2002 is based. PMID:21584212

  14. Waterpipe smoking induces epigenetic changes in the small airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Walters, Matthew S; Salit, Jacqueline; Ju, Jin Hyun; Staudt, Michelle R; Kaner, Robert J; Rogalski, Allison M; Sodeinde, Teniola B; Rahim, Riyaad; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Mezey, Jason G; Almulla, Ahmad M; Sattar, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mai; Crystal, Ronald G

    2017-01-01

    Waterpipe (also called hookah, shisha, or narghile) smoking is a common form of tobacco use in the Middle East. Its use is becoming more prevalent in Western societies, especially among young adults as an alternative form of tobacco use to traditional cigarettes. While the risk to cigarette smoking is well documented, the risk to waterpipe smoking is not well defined with limited information on its health impact at the epidemiologic, clinical and biologic levels with respect to lung disease. Based on the knowledge that airway epithelial cell DNA methylation is modified in response to cigarette smoke and in cigarette smoking-related lung diseases, we assessed the impact of light-use waterpipe smoking on DNA methylation of the small airway epithelium (SAE) and whether changes in methylation were linked to the transcriptional output of the cells. Small airway epithelium was obtained from 7 nonsmokers and 7 light-use (2.6 ± 1.7 sessions/wk) waterpipe-only smokers. Genome-wide comparison of SAE DNA methylation of waterpipe smokers to nonsmokers identified 727 probesets differentially methylated (fold-change >1.5, p<0.05) representing 673 unique genes. Dominant pathways associated with these epigenetic changes include those linked to G-protein coupled receptor signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and xenobiotic metabolism signaling, all of which have been associated with cigarette smoking and lung disease. Of the genes differentially methylated, 11.3% exhibited a corresponding significant (p<0.05) change in gene expression with enrichment in pathways related to regulation of mRNA translation and protein synthesis (eIF2 signaling and regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling). Overall, these data demonstrate that light-use waterpipe smoking is associated with epigenetic changes and related transcriptional modifications in the SAE, the cell population demonstrating the earliest pathologic abnormalities associated with chronic cigarette smoking.

  15. Waterpipe smoking induces epigenetic changes in the small airway epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jin Hyun; Staudt, Michelle R.; Kaner, Robert J.; Rogalski, Allison M.; Sodeinde, Teniola B.; Rahim, Riyaad; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Mezey, Jason G.; Almulla, Ahmad M.; Sattar, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mai; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2017-01-01

    Waterpipe (also called hookah, shisha, or narghile) smoking is a common form of tobacco use in the Middle East. Its use is becoming more prevalent in Western societies, especially among young adults as an alternative form of tobacco use to traditional cigarettes. While the risk to cigarette smoking is well documented, the risk to waterpipe smoking is not well defined with limited information on its health impact at the epidemiologic, clinical and biologic levels with respect to lung disease. Based on the knowledge that airway epithelial cell DNA methylation is modified in response to cigarette smoke and in cigarette smoking-related lung diseases, we assessed the impact of light-use waterpipe smoking on DNA methylation of the small airway epithelium (SAE) and whether changes in methylation were linked to the transcriptional output of the cells. Small airway epithelium was obtained from 7 nonsmokers and 7 light-use (2.6 ± 1.7 sessions/wk) waterpipe-only smokers. Genome-wide comparison of SAE DNA methylation of waterpipe smokers to nonsmokers identified 727 probesets differentially methylated (fold-change >1.5, p<0.05) representing 673 unique genes. Dominant pathways associated with these epigenetic changes include those linked to G-protein coupled receptor signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and xenobiotic metabolism signaling, all of which have been associated with cigarette smoking and lung disease. Of the genes differentially methylated, 11.3% exhibited a corresponding significant (p<0.05) change in gene expression with enrichment in pathways related to regulation of mRNA translation and protein synthesis (eIF2 signaling and regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling). Overall, these data demonstrate that light-use waterpipe smoking is associated with epigenetic changes and related transcriptional modifications in the SAE, the cell population demonstrating the earliest pathologic abnormalities associated with chronic cigarette smoking. PMID:28273093

  16. Harmful Algal Blooms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    What are Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)? Freshwater and marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) can occur anytime water use is impaired due to excessive accumulations of algae. HAB occurrence is affected by a complex set of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological conditions making it difficult to isolate specific causative environmental factors. Potential impairments include reduction in water quality, accumulation of malodorous scums in beach areas, algal production of toxins potent enough to poison both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, and algal production of taste-and-odor compounds that cause unpalatable drinking water and fish. HABs are a global problem, and toxic freshwater and (or) marine algae have been implicated in human and animal illness and death in over 45 countries worldwide and in at least 27 U.S. States (Yoo and others, 1995; Chorus and Bartram, 1999; Huisman and others, 2005).

  17. Pregnancy as a harm?

    PubMed

    Kraft, Rory E

    2012-01-01

    Michigan's Appellate Court ruled in 2004 that a pregnancy that resulted from a rape should be considered a bodily injury for sentencing purposes. Interestingly, all three possible outcomes of a pregnancy-abortion, miscarriage, or childbirth-are considered to bring with them significant and substantial physical, psychological, and emotional changes. While the immediate impact of the ruling in People v. Cathey affected only the guilty individual, there are larger implications for this ruling beyond just sentencing guidelines. The ruling can be considered a step forward in prosecuting rapists, but possibly at the expense of reimagining the female body. This article considers the Cathey ruling itself, the potential benefits and consequences of this understanding on feminist discourse, and, crucially, the impact of this decision on abortion discussions. The central question that emerges is, can we both consider pregnancy a harm and believe that this harm is not always wrong-making?

  18. [Control of harmful mammals].

    PubMed

    van Eerdenburg, F J; Bouw, J; Zwart, P

    1987-07-15

    In the Netherlands, several millions of injurious small mammals are killed yearly. This concerns not only mice and rats but also moles, musk-rats and several other species of rodent. At the request of the Netherlands Society for the Protection of Animals, studies were done on the methods in killing these animals, the effectiveness of these methods and the possibilities of reducing the harm done to the animals. The most important results of these investigations are reported in the present paper.

  19. Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, Rebecca E; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Coleman, Blair N; Dube, Shanta R; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  1. Harm Reduction From Below

    PubMed Central

    Van Schipstal, Inge; Berning, Moritz; Murray, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on how recreational drug users in the Netherlands and in online communities navigate the risks and reduce the harms they associate with psychoactive drug use. To do so, we examined the protective practices they invent, use, and share with their immediate peers and with larger drug experimenting communities online. The labor involved in protective practices and that which ultimately informs harm reduction from below follows three interrelated trajectories: (1) the handling and sharing of drugs to facilitate hassle-free drug use, (2) creating pleasant and friendly spaces that we highlight under the practices of drug use attunements, and (3) the seeking and sharing of information in practices to spread the good high. We focus not only on users’ concerns but also on how these concerns shape their approach to drugs, what young people do to navigate uncertainties, and how they reach out to and create different sources of knowledge to minimize adversities and to improve highs. Harm reduction from below, we argue, can best be seen in the practices of sharing around drug use and in the caring for the larger community of drug-using peers. PMID:27721525

  2. Islam and harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Malaysian and Thai smokers’ beliefs about the harmfulness of ‘light’ and menthol cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    King, B; Yong, H-H; Borland, R; Omar, M; Ahmad, A A; Sirirassamee, B; Hamann, S; O’Connor, R J; Bansal-Travers, M; Elton-Marshall, T; Lee, W B; Hammond, D; Thrasher, J

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study explored the extent to which Malaysian and Thai smokers believe “light” and menthol cigarettes are less harmful than “regular” cigarettes and the correlates of these beliefs. Methods The study used data from wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey. 2006 adult smokers (95.3% male) from Malaysia and 2000 adult smokers (94.5% male) from Thailand were interviewed face to face in 2005. Results 29% of Malaysian respondents reported currently smoking light cigarettes and 14% menthols, with 19% agreeing that lights are less harmful and 16% agreeing that menthols are less harmful. 38% of Thai respondents reported currently smoking light cigarettes and 19% menthols, with 46% agreeing that lights are less harmful and 35% agreeing that menthols are less harmful. Malaysian smokers reporting current use of light or menthol cigarettes were more likely to believe that they are less harmful. Reported use of lights did not relate to beliefs for Thai respondents. The belief that light and/or menthol cigarettes are less harmful was strongly related to the belief that they have smoother smoke. Conclusions The experience of smoother smoke is likely to produce some level of belief in reduced harm, regardless of how brands are labelled and whether or not Federal Trade Commission FTC/International Organisation for Standardisation tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide yield figures are used. PMID:20852322

  4. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  5. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Secondhand Smoke KidsHealth > For Teens > Secondhand Smoke Print A A ... español El humo secundario del cigarrillo What Is Secondhand Smoke? Everyone knows that smoking is a bad idea. ...

  6. Does dual use jeopardize the potential role of smokeless tobacco in harm reduction?

    PubMed

    Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Appleton, Scott; Fisher, Michael; Fox, Kathleen; Gaworski, Charles L

    2010-11-01

    The use of smokeless tobacco as part of a strategy to reduce the harm from cigarette smoking is a topic of debate within the tobacco control and public health communities. One concern voiced regarding endorsement of such a tactic is the possibility of actually increasing harm should current smokers adopt dual cigarette/smokeless tobacco use (dual use), which could lead to unintended consequences by perpetuating cigarette smoking, diminishing tobacco cessation, or increasing tobacco-related harm. Here, we review the available literature on health effects and trajectories of use among dual users from a variety of U.S. and European epidemiological studies. These data suggest that there are not any unique health risks associated with dual use of smokeless tobacco products and cigarettes, which are not anticipated or observed from cigarette smoking alone. Furthermore, studies show that dual users smoke fewer cigarettes than exclusive smokers, and studies of tobacco use patterns over time (tobacco use trajectory data) indicate that dual users are more likely than exclusive cigarette smokers to cease smoking. Overall, the concern about dual use appears to be contradicted by the evidence in the literature that dual use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes may result in reduction in smoking-related harm as smoking intensity is decreased and smoking cessation increases.

  7. Electronic Cigarettes. Potential Harms and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Dona

    2014-01-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine-containing vapor, has increased rapidly across the country and globally. Perceived and marketed as a “healthier alternative” to conventional cigarettes, few data exist regarding the safety of these devices and their efficacy in harm reduction and treatment of tobacco dependence; even less is known about their overall impact on population health. This review highlights the recent data regarding electronic cigarette toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation. Studies show that the vapor generated from electronic cigarettes has variable amounts of nicotine and potential harmful toxins, albeit at levels lower than in conventional cigarettes. The long-term carcinogenic and lung function effects of electronic cigarettes are not known. Although some data demonstrate that electronic cigarettes may be effective in reducing conventional cigarette consumption, there are no data demonstrating the efficacy of electronic cigarettes as a tool to achieve cessation. Until robust longitudinal evaluations demonstrate the safety of electronic cigarettes and efficacy in treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as a harm reduction tool is unclear. PMID:24575993

  8. Waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking: direct comparison of toxicant exposure.

    PubMed

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-12-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe use and cigarette smoking must be compared directly. The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking. Participants (N=31; M=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (M=5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (M=9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes, or a single cigarette. Outcome measures included expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session's end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2009. On average, CO increased by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe use (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette smoking (SD=1.8), while peak waterpipe COHb levels (M=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for cigarette smoking (M=1.3%, SD=0.5; p's<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (waterpipe M=10.2 ng/mL, SD=7.0; cigarette M=10.6 ng/mL, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at 5-minute intervals during the waterpipe session (p's<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 L for waterpipe use as compared to 1.0 L for cigarette smoking (p<0.001). Relative to cigarette smoking, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco-smoking methods likely share

  9. Inhibitory control and the onset of combustible cigarette, e-cigarette, and hookah use in early adolescence: The moderating role of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the moderating influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the associations between inhibitory control and the onset of combustible cigarette, electronic (e-) cigarette, and hookah use in early adolescence. A total of 407 adolescents self-reported nicotine use, inhibitory control, and SES. The hypothesis that inhibitory control would be significantly associated with nicotine use onset (i.e., combustible cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and hookah) only under the condition of low SES was tested. Direct associations were found for inhibitory control on "ever use" of all three nicotine use variables. A moderating effect was also found whereby low inhibitory control was significantly associated with nicotine use onset when participants were from low, but not high, SES families. Findings illustrate one contextual condition under which inhibitory control is associated with early onset of nicotine use.

  10. Harm reduction and the medicalisation of tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Rooke, Catriona

    2013-03-01

    In tobacco control the focus has, for some time, been on abstinence from all types of tobacco use as the only solution to the problem of smoking, and harm reduction approaches are controversial. The most recent English tobacco strategy has incorporated harm reduction approaches in the form of new 'routes' to quitting smoking that encourage those who cannot quit to use safer sources of nicotine. This move away from a focus on abstinence can be seen as the result of gradual shifts over the past 50 years in the way that that the problem of smoking is understood and the solutions that are offered. These shifts have involved increasingly seeing tobacco use as a medical problem. This article uses conceptual tools from science and technology studies to examine developments over the last decade in England, primarily the increasing importance of harm reduction approaches. Drawing on 20 semi-structured qualitative interviews with key stakeholders and documentary analysis, I suggest that the shape harm reduction has taken in English tobacco control policy has been another shift towards the medicalisation of tobacco use, but that this process has occurred in ways that provide a contrast to commonly outlined 'drivers' of medicalisation. © 2012 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Epidemiologic perspectives on smokeless tobacco marketing and population harm.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Scott L

    2007-12-01

    Moist snuff is the most popular form of orally-used smokeless tobacco in North America and parts of Europe. Because moist snuff use conveys lower risks for morbidity or mortality than does cigarette smoking, its use has been proposed as a tobacco harm-reduction strategy. This article critically reviews new and published epidemiologic evidence on health effects of moist snuff and its patterns of use relative to smoking in the United States, Sweden, and Norway. The available evidence suggests that: (1) moist snuff is a human carcinogen and toxin, (2) increased promotion of moist snuff has led to increased sales in those countries, (3) the uptake of moist snuff in these three countries during the past several decades has occurred primarily among adolescent and young adult men, (4) increased prevalence of snuff use has not been associated consistently with a reduction in smoking initiation or prevalence, (5) moist snuff use apparently plays a very minor role in smoking cessation in the U.S. and an inconsistent role in Sweden, (6) U.S. states with the lowest smoking prevalence also tend to have the lowest prevalence of snuff use, (7) there are no data on the efficacy of snuff as a smoking-cessation method, (8) the prevalence of cigarette smoking is relatively high among people who use snuff, and (9) snuff use is more consistently associated with partial substitution for smoking than with complete substitution. The evidence base for promotion of snuff use as a public health strategy is weak and inconsistent.

  12. Affecting perceptions of harm and addiction among college waterpipe tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Eissenberg, Thomas; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Levy, Janet

    2011-07-01

    The spread of waterpipe tobacco use among youth may be due in part to perceptions that waterpipe tobacco use is safer than other tobacco products, such as cigarettes. In two pilot studies, we sought to modify college waterpipe smokers' perceived risks and worry about waterpipe tobacco smoking. We conducted two web-based studies that varied whether college waterpipe users received information on (a) spread of and use of flavored tobacco in waterpipe and (b) harms of waterpipe smoking. Study 1 (N = 91) tested the "incremental" effects on perceptions of risk and worry of adding information about harms of waterpipe smoking to information on the spread of waterpipe and use of flavorings in the tobacco. Study 2 (N = 112) tested the effects on perceptions of risk and worry of reviewing information about harms of waterpipe smoking compared to a no information control group. In Study 1 only, we assessed as part of a 6-month follow-up (n = 70) the percentage of participants who reported no longer using waterpipe. Pooling data from both studies, participants who received information about the harms of waterpipe smoking reported greater perceived risk and worry about harm and addiction and expressed a stronger desire to quit. In Study 1, 62% of participants in the experimental group versus 33% in the control group reported having stopped waterpipe use. These are the first studies to show that perceptions of addiction and harm from waterpipe use can be modified using minimally intensive interventions; such interventions show promise at decreasing waterpipe use.

  13. Little cigars, big cigars: omissions and commissions of harm and harm reduction information on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Dollar, Katherine M; Mix, Jacqueline M; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2008-05-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of "harm," "harm reduction," and "little cigar" information about cigars on 10 major English-language health Web sites. The sites were from governmental and nongovernmental organizations based in seven different countries and included "harm" and "harm reduction" information, discussions of little cigars, quantitative estimates of health risks, and qualifying behavioral characteristics (inhalation, number per day). Of the 10 Web sites, 7 offered statements explicitly indicating that cigars may be safer than cigarettes. None of the Web sites reviewed described that little cigars are likely as dangerous as cigarettes. Some Web sites provided quantitative estimates of health risks and extensive discussions of qualifying factors. Reading grade levels were higher than desirable. Extensive and complex information on the reduced risks of cigars compared with cigarettes is available on Web sites affiliated with prominent health organizations. Yet these sites fail to warn consumers that popular cigarette-like little cigars and cigarillos are likely to be just as dangerous as cigarettes, even for those who have never smoked cigarettes. Improvement of these Web sites is urgently needed to provide the public with high-quality health information.

  14. Secondhand smoke exposure among never-smoking youth in 168 countries.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Mamudu, Hadii M; Zheng, Shimin; John, Rijo M; Cao, Yan; Kioko, David; Anderson, James; Ouma, Ahmed E O

    2015-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among never-smoking adolescents and identify key factors associated with such exposure. Data were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted in 168 countries during 1999-2008. SHS exposure was ascertained in relation to the location-exposure inside home, outside home, and both inside and outside home, respectively. Independent variables included parental and/or peer smoking, knowledge about smoke harm, attitudes toward smoking ban, age, sex, and World Health Organization region. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Of 356,414 never-smoking adolescents included in the study, 30.4%, 44.2%, and 23.2% were exposed to SHS inside home, outside home, and both, respectively. Parental smoking, peer smoking, knowledge about smoke harm, and positive attitudes toward smoke ban were significantly associated with increased odds of SHS exposure. Approximately 14% of adolescents had both smoking parents and peers. Compared with never-smoking adolescents who did not have both smoking parents and peers, those who had both smoking parents and peers had 19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 19.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.86-21.41), eight (aOR, 7.71; 95% CI, 7.05-8.43), and 23 times (aOR, 23.16; 95% CI, 20.74-25.87) higher odds of exposure to SHS inside, outside, and both inside and outcome home, respectively. Approximately one third and two fifths of never-smoking adolescents were exposed to SHS inside or outside home, and smoking parents and/or peers are the key factors. Study findings highlight the need to develop and implement comprehensive smoke-free policies consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Scott P; Stoller, James K

    2003-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking cessation is the most effective means of stopping the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Worldwide, approximately a billion people smoke cigarettes and 80% reside in low-income and middle-income countries. Though in the United States there has been a substantial decline in cigarette smoking since 1964, when the Surgeon General's report first reviewed smoking, smoking remains widespread in the United States today (about 23% of the population in 2001). Nicotine is addictive, but there are now effective drugs and behavioral interventions to assist people to overcome the addiction. Available evidence shows that smoking cessation can be helped with counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Less-studied interventions, including hypnosis, acupuncture, aversive therapy, exercise, lobeline, anxiolytics, mecamylamine, opioid agonists, and silver acetate, have assisted some people in smoking cessation, but none of those interventions has strong research evidence of efficacy. To promote smoking cessation, physicians should discuss with their smoking patients "relevance, risk, rewards, roadblocks, and repetition," and with patients who are willing to attempt to quit, physicians should use the 5-step system of "ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange." An ideal smoking cessation program is individualized, accounting for the reasons the person smokes, the environment in which smoking occurs, available resources to quit, and individual preferences about how to quit. The clinician should bear in mind that quitting smoking can be very difficult, so it is important to be patient and persistent in developing, implementing, and adjusting each patient's smoking-cessation program. One of the most effective behavioral interventions is advice from a health care professional; it seems not to matter whether the advice is from a doctor, respiratory therapist, nurse, or other

  16. Effects of cigarette smoking on erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kovac, J R; Labbate, C; Ramasamy, R; Tang, D; Lipshultz, L I

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although public policies have resulted in a decreased number of new smokers, smoking rates remain stubbornly high in certain demographics with 20% of all American middle-aged men smoking. In addition to the well-established harmful effects of smoking (i.e. coronary artery disease and lung cancer), the past three decades have led to a compendium of evidence being compiled into the development of a relationship between cigarette smoking and erectile dysfunction. The main physiologic mechanism that appears to be affected includes the nitric oxide signal transduction pathway. This review details the recent literature linking cigarette smoking to erectile dysfunction, epidemiological associations, dose dependency and the effects of smoking cessation on improving erectile quality. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Wood Smoke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  18. Asia Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     View Larger Image ... moved eastwards over the northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian ...

  19. Smoking Cessation

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  20. Ecology of Harmful Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Daniel L.

    2007-07-01

    Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are HABs that pose a threat to human health. For example, some phycotoxins bioaccumulate in the guts and tissues of commercially and recreationally important species that when consumed by humans, may result in nausea, paralysis, memory loss, and even death. In addition to the deleterious impacts of phycotoxins, HABs can be problematic in other ways. For example, the decay of blooms often leads to low dissolved oxygen in subsurface waters. Blooms also reduce light penetration into the water column. Both processes disrupt ecosystems and in some cases have completely destroyed benthic communities.

  1. [A study on male high school students' smoking patterns].

    PubMed

    Lee, K Y

    1997-01-01

    This study aims to investigate smoking patterns in high school student and to give student smoker effective information. The sample of 250 male high school students out of two different schools in Tae-Jŏn was questioned from July 10th to 15th, 1995. In analyzing these date, the statistics shows the realities by means of number of students. The results are summarized into 17 items as follows. Regarding the level of smoking, 140 students out of 250 admit that they have ever smoked, 52.1% of smoking students say that the motivation of beginning smoking is mainly curiosity. The survey shows that 22.9% of smoking students feel very good when smoking. It also shows that 30.0% of smoking students began smoking in the first grade of high school. With regard to the volume of smoking per day, 41.4% of smoking students smoke variably, 42.1% drink when smoking, 15.0% spend more than W 70,000 a month. About the question who knows the fact of their smoking, 51.5% answer that their friends know the fact of their smoking. In regard to the reslationship between smoking and school performance, 18.2% of non smoking students make poor grades as compared with 40% of smoking students, 9.3% of smoking students say that they are satisfied with the school life, but 35.7% of them are not satisfied. Regarding the attitude to smoking teachers, 35% of smoking students state that they are affected by them. 69.3% of smoking students say that they will stop smoking, while the remaining 30.7% say that they will keep smoking. The reason of 63.9% to stop smoking is that smoking is bad for the health. The reason of 46.5% to keep smoking is the acquired habit of smoking. 97.2% know the fact that the major element of cigarettes is nicotine and it is very harmful to the health. 40.8% recognize the harmful effect of smoking by TV and radio programs. 97.2% know that smoking could cause lung cancer. From the above results. I propose as follows We should make specific plan to keep smoking by simple

  2. Smoking in pregnancy, where are we now?

    PubMed

    Ashwin, Cathy; Marshall, Jayne; Standen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    The harmful effects of smoking during pregnancy have been well documented within the literature (Eastham and Gosakan 2010; British Medical Association (BMA) 2004). However, although the number of women smoking during pregnancy has fallen over the last few years, this still remains a major health concern for both women and their families. This paper aims to explore recent media campaigns and social policies focusing on smoking in pregnancy and the general population. Midwives need to be aware of current policies with regard to smoking cessation to enable high quality evidence based information and support to be provided at an optimum time in women's lives.

  3. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention.

  4. Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories.

    PubMed

    Nakkash, Rima; Khalil, Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds. To evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. All waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Bahrain, Canada, Germany and South Africa. Of the total number of waterpipe tobacco products collected from Lebanon, the majority had textual health warning labels covering on average only 3.5% of total surface area of the package. Misleading descriptors were commonplace on waterpipe tobacco packages and related accessories. There are no WHO FCTC compliant waterpipe-specific health warning labels on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Introducing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco products and accessories will probably have worldwide public health benefits.

  5. Health warning labelling practices on narghile (shisha, hookah) waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence is increasing around the globe despite current evidence that smoke emissions are toxic and contain carcinogenic compounds. Objective To evaluate current health warning labelling practices on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Methods All waterpipe tobacco products, as well as waterpipe accessories, were purchased from Lebanon and a convenience sample was obtained from Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Bahrain, Canada, Germany and South Africa. Findings Of the total number of waterpipe tobacco products collected from Lebanon, the majority had textual health warning labels covering on average only 3.5% of total surface area of the package. Misleading descriptors were commonplace on waterpipe tobacco packages and related accessories. Conclusions There are no WHO FCTC compliant waterpipe-specific health warning labels on waterpipe tobacco products and related accessories. Introducing health warnings on waterpipe tobacco products and accessories will probably have worldwide public health benefits. PMID:20501497

  6. Tobacco harm reduction and the evolution of nicotine dependence.

    PubMed

    Parascandola, Mark

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, a renewed debate has developed around the potential for modified tobacco products to play a role in reducing tobacco-related harm. During the 1960s and 1970s medical experts recommended to smokers who could not quit that they switch to cigarettes with lower tar and nicotine content. At the time, survey data suggested that smokers who switched did not compensate for the reduction in nicotine by increasing their intake. However, public health scientists were hindered in their ability to evaluate the population impact of the reduced tar strategy by a limited understanding of nicotine addiction. Smoking dependence was seen as primarily psychological and social, rather than pharmacological or biological, until the late 1970s, when addiction researchers began to apply experimental techniques from other forms of drug abuse to study smoking behavior. This history has important lessons for current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulation of nicotine delivery.

  7. Smoking and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking & Tobacco Use Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Smoking & Tobacco Use HIV and Smoking Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable ... Provider Smoking Cessation Resources . /* ** // ** */ The Benefits of Quitting Smoking Quitting smoking has major and immediate health benefits ...

  8. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  9. PREP advertisement features affect smokers’ beliefs regarding potential harm

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andrew A; Tang, Kathy Z; Tuller, Michael D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. Objective To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers’ beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. Methods A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a “red” condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a “no text” condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using “incorrect,” “unsure” and “correct” as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Results Participants randomised to the “no text” advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, healthier and make smoking safer. Conclusions Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising. PMID:18768457

  10. Perceptions of the Relative Harm of Cigarettes and E-cigarettes Among U.S. Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Bridget K.; Rostron, Brian L.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Portnoy, David B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Kaufman, Annette R.; Choiniere, Conrad J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite progress in reducing youth smoking, adolescents remain highly susceptible to tobacco use. Of concern is whether youth perceive electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a preferable alternative to conventional cigarettes. Purpose To describe cigarette harm perception patterns among youth based on the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and examine the relative harm perceptions of conventional versus e-cigarettes, using data from a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. youth. Methods Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (N=24,658) were analyzed in 2013 to identify patterns of cigarette harm perceptions. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify associations between demographic and tobacco use characteristics and cigarette harm perception patterns. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationship between cigarette harm perceptions and the perception of e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes for current, ever, and never cigarette smokers. Results The majority of youth (64.2%) perceived the harmfulness of cigarettes as dose-dependent. Approximately one in three students perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Regardless of cigarette smoking status, ever users of e-cigarettes and those with “dose-dependent” cigarette harm perceptions consistently were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Conclusions Many youth perceive tobacco use on a continuum of harm. Youth who perceive gradations in harm—both by frequency and intensity of cigarette use and by type of product—may be particularly susceptible to e-cigarette use. PMID:25044196

  11. Ranking the harm of non-medically used prescription opioids in the UK.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Phillips, Lawrence; Henderson, Graeme; Bell, James; Bowden-Jones, Owen; Hammersley, Richard; Ramsey, John; Taylor, Polly; Dale-Perera, Annette; Melichar, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Nutt, David

    2015-12-01

    A panel of nine experts applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to determine the relative overall harm to users and harms to others of street heroin (injected and smoked) and eleven non-medically used prescription opioids. The experts assessed harm scores for each of the 13 opioids on each of 20 harm criteria, weighted the criteria and explored the resulting weighted harm scores for each opioid. Both forms of heroin scored very high: overall harm score of 99 for injected heroin and 72 for smoked heroin on a scale of 0-100. The main feature that distinguishes both forms of street heroin use is that their harm to others is more than five times that of the other eleven opioids. The overall harm score of fentanyl (including injection of fentanyl extracted from patches) and diamorphine (medically prescribed form of heroin) was 54 and 51, respectively, whereas that of orally used opioids ranged from 32 (pethidine) to 11 (codeine-containing pharmaceuticals). Injected street heroin, fentanyl and diamorphine emerged as most harmful to users, with the latter two very low in harm to others. Pethidine, methadone, morphine and oxycodone are also low in harm to others, while moderate in harm to users. We conclude that the overall harms of non-medically used prescription opioids are less than half that of injected street heroin. These data may give a basis for precautionary regulatory measures that should be considered if the rising trend in non-medical use of prescription opioids were to become evident in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Enactment of Legislative (Public) Smoking Bans on Voluntary Home Smoking Restrictions: A Review.

    PubMed

    Monson, Eva; Arsenault, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    The positive effects of worldwide increases in enactment of legislative bans on smoking in public areas have been well documented. Relatively little is known about the effects of such bans on voluntary home smoking behavior. Meanwhile, private spaces, such as homes, have replaced public spaces as the primary milieu of secondhand smoke exposure. A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles was conducted using multiple databases including Cochrane Library, Cinahl, Embase, Global Health, Health Star, Joanna Briggs, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PAIS International, PubMed, and Web of Science. We examined peer-reviewed studies that considered the impact of legislation-based public smoking bans on enactment of private home smoking restrictions. Sixteen articles published between 2002 and 2014 were identified and included. Our results suggest overall positive effects post-legislative ban with the majority of studies demonstrating significant increases in home smoking restrictions. Studies focusing on smoking and nonsmoking samples as well as child populations are discussed in depth. Existing evidence indicates an overall significant positive effect post-legislative ban on voluntary home smoking restrictions. While disentangling these effects over space and time remains a challenge, scientific research has converged in dispelling any notion of significant displacement of smoking into the home. Policy makers, especially those in countries without existing public smoking legislation, can rest assured that these types of bans contribute to the minimization of tobacco-related harm. Findings converge in dispelling notions of displacement of smoking into the home as a consequence of legislative bans that prohibit smoking in public spaces. Evidence from the studies reviewed suggests that through their influence on social norms, legislative bans on smoking in public places may encourage citizens to establish voluntary home smoking restrictions, thus decreasing harm related to secondhand

  13. Tobacco harm reduction: an alternative cessation strategy for inveterate smokers

    PubMed Central

    Rodu, Brad; Godshall, William T

    2006-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 45 million Americans continue to smoke, even after one of the most intense public health campaigns in history, now over 40 years old. Each year some 438,000 smokers die from smoking-related diseases, including lung and other cancers, cardiovascular disorders and pulmonary diseases. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve cessation through complete nicotine and tobacco abstinence; they continue smoking despite the very real and obvious adverse health consequences. Conventional smoking cessation policies and programs generally present smokers with two unpleasant alternatives: quit, or die. A third approach to smoking cessation, tobacco harm reduction, involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products. A substantial body of research, much of it produced over the past decade, establishes the scientific and medical foundation for tobacco harm reduction using smokeless tobacco products. This report provides a description of traditional and modern smokeless tobacco products, and of the prevalence of their use in the United States and Sweden. It reviews the epidemiologic evidence for low health risks associated with smokeless use, both in absolute terms and in comparison to the much higher risks of smoking. The report also describes evidence that smokeless tobacco has served as an effective substitute for cigarettes among Swedish men, who consequently have among the lowest smoking-related mortality rates in the developed world. The report documents the fact that extensive misinformation about ST products is widely available from ostensibly reputable sources, including governmental health agencies and major health organizations. The American Council on Science and Health believes that strong support of tobacco harm reduction is fully consistent with its mission to promote sound science in regulation and in public policy, and to assist

  14. Helping Self-Harming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selekman, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 14 to 17 percent of adolescents today self-harm, deliberately cutting, burning, or bruising themselves. Most self-harming adolescents use the behavior as a coping strategy to get immediate relief from emotional distress or other stressors in their lives. Stressors include fitting in with peers, activity and homework overload, fears…

  15. Estimating the health impacts of tobacco harm reduction policies: a simulation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John

    2005-08-01

    With adult smoking prevalence rates declining too slowly to reach national objectives, opinion leaders are considering policies to improve tobacco-related outcomes by regulating the composition of cigarettes to be (1) less harmful and/or (2) less addictive. Because harm reduction efforts may actually encourage higher cigarette consumption by promoting a safer image, and addictiveness reduction may increase the harmfulness of cigarettes by encouraging compensatory smoking behaviors, policymakers must consider the tradeoffs between these two approaches when proposing legislation to control cigarette content. To estimate health impacts, we developed a dynamic computer model simulating changes in the age- and gender-specific smoking behaviors of the U.S. population over time. Secondary data for model parameters were obtained from publicly available sources. Population health impacts were measured as change in smoking prevalence and the change in cumulative quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) in the U.S. population over 75 years. According to the risk-use threshold matrix generated by the simulation, modifying cigarettes to reduce their harmfulness and/or addictiveness could result in important gains to the nation's health. Addictiveness reduction efforts producing a 60% improvement in smoking behavior change probabilities would produce a net gain in population health at every plausible level of increase of smoking-related harm that was modeled. A 40% reduction in smoking-related harm would produce a net QALY gain at every level of behavior change considered. This research should prove useful to policymakers as they contemplate giving the FDA the authority to regulate the composition of cigarettes.

  16. Increasing popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking and electronic cigarette use: Implications for oral healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ramôa, C P; Eissenberg, T; Sahingur, S E

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing several systemic conditions including cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Cigarette smoking is also detrimental to oral health as it increases the incidence and severity of oral cancer, periodontal diseases and peri-implantitis, as well as impacting negatively on the dental patients' response to therapy. Therefore, consideration of smoking behavior and recommendation of smoking cessation are important parts of dental treatment planning. However, cigarettes are no longer the most popular form of tobacco use among adolescents in the United States and globally. In recent years, tobacco smoking using a waterpipe ("hookah," "shisha") and use of electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) has increased significantly. Thus, dental clinicians likely will treat more patients who are waterpipe and/or ECIG users. Yet, the literature on the health effects of waterpipe and ECIGs use is sparse. Both waterpipe and ECIGs deliver the dependence-producing drug nicotine. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has been associated with periodontitis, dry socket, premalignant lesions, and oral and esophageal cancer. The health effects of long-term ECIG use are unknown. The purpose of this review is to inform healthcare professionals about waterpipes and ECIGs, highlight emerging evidence on the biological effects of these increasingly popular tobacco products, and introduce perspectives for dental patient management and future research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Acute toxicant exposure and cardiac autonomic dysfunction from smoking a single narghile waterpipe with tobacco and with a “healthy” tobacco-free alternative

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Caroline O.; Sahmarani, Kamar; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (narghile, hookah, shisha) has become a global epidemic. Unlike cigarette smoking, little is known about the health effects of waterpipe use. One acute effect of cigarette smoke inhalation is dysfunction in autonomic regulation of the cardiac cycle, as indicated by reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is implicated in adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, and is associated with inhalation exposure-induced oxidative stress. Using a 32 participant cross-over study design, we investigated toxicant exposure and effects of waterpipe smoking on heart rate variability when, under controlled conditions, participants smoked a tobacco-based and a tobacco-free waterpipe product promoted as an alternative for “health-conscious” users. Outcome measures included HRV, exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO), plasma nicotine, and puff topography, which were measured at times prior to, during, and after smoking. We found that waterpipe use acutely decreased HRV (p<0.01 for all measures), independent of product smoked. Plasma nicotine, blood pressure, and heart rate increased only with the tobacco-based product (p<0.01), while CO increased with both products (p<0.01). More smoke was inhaled during tobacco-free product use, potentially reflecting attempted regulation of nicotine intake. The data thus indicate that waterpipe smoking acutely compromises cardiac autonomic function, and does so through exposure to smoke constituents other than nicotine. PMID:23059956

  18. Acute toxicant exposure and cardiac autonomic dysfunction from smoking a single narghile waterpipe with tobacco and with a "healthy" tobacco-free alternative.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Caroline O; Sahmarani, Kamar; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2012-11-23

    Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (narghile, hookah, shisha) has become a global epidemic. Unlike cigarette smoking, little is known about the health effects of waterpipe use. One acute effect of cigarette smoke inhalation is dysfunction in autonomic regulation of the cardiac cycle, as indicated by reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is implicated in adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, and is associated with inhalation exposure-induced oxidative stress. Using a 32 participant cross-over study design, we investigated toxicant exposure and effects of waterpipe smoking on heart rate variability when, under controlled conditions, participants smoked a tobacco-based and a tobacco-free waterpipe product promoted as an alternative for "health-conscious" users. Outcome measures included HRV, exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO), plasma nicotine, and puff topography, which were measured at times prior to, during, and after smoking. We found that waterpipe use acutely decreased HRV (p<0.01 for all measures), independent of product smoked. Plasma nicotine, blood pressure, and heart rate increased only with the tobacco-based product (p<0.01), while CO increased with both products (p<0.01). More smoke was inhaled during tobacco-free product use, potentially reflecting attempted regulation of nicotine intake. The data thus indicate that waterpipe smoking acutely compromises cardiac autonomic function, and does so through exposure to smoke constituents other than nicotine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Beliefs about the harms of long-term use of nicotine replacement therapy: perceptions of smokers in England.

    PubMed

    Black, Andrew; Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; Fidler, Jenny; West, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has shown that a substantial proportion of smokers believe that nicotine causes serious diseases such as cancer, possibly deterring the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation or smoking reduction. This study examined beliefs about the harms specifically from long-term use of NRT and associations between these and its use for smoking cessation and smoking reduction. Data were collected from 1657 smokers and recent ex-smokers involved in the Smoking Toolkit Study, a series of monthly household surveys of English adults aged 16 and over. Participants were asked if they thought the use of NRT for a year or more was harmful, and if so, to volunteer what they believed the harms to be. They were also asked if they were using NRT for smoking reduction and/or if they had used NRT in the past year during a quit attempt. Six percent and 25% of smokers respectively, believed that the long term use of NRT was very or quit harmful to health; and a further 29% reported that they 'didn't know'. The most commonly reported harms were addiction and lung cancer. There was no association between these beliefs and use of NRT for smoking reduction or smoking cessation. A significant minority of smokers in England believe that the use of nicotine replacement therapy for a year or more is harmful. However, belief that long-term nicotine replacement therapy use can cause health harm does not appear to act as a deterrent to using it in a quit attempt or for smoking reduction. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. [Smoking and occupational stressors in firefighters, 2011].

    PubMed

    Lima, Eduardo de Paula; Assuncao, Ada Avila; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2013-10-01

    To analyze the prevalence of smoking in firefighters and associated factors. Cross sectional study of 711 firefighters in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The data were obtained using a self-applied structured questionnaire, which included sociodemographic characteristics, occupational stressors, health status and adverse life events. Smoking was analyzed as a dichotomous variable (multiple logistic regression). The prevalence of smoking among firefighters was 7.6%. Currently smoking status was associated with low levels of schooling, a monthly income in the middle band, the existence of psychiatric problems in the past, high exposure to traumatic events in life, social discrimination, occupational stressors and low demand at work. The low prevalence of smoking indicates the relevance of employment conditions in explaining harmful habits and health. Organizational and operational stressors contribute independently to explaining current smoking status in the population studied.

  1. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements.

  2. Smoking-related warning messages formulated as questions positively influence short-term smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Müller, Barbara Cn; Ritter, Simone M; Glock, Sabine; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Engels, Rutger Cme; van Baaren, Rick B

    2016-01-01

    Research demonstrated that by reformulating smoking warnings into questions, defensive responses in smokers are reduced and smoking-related risk perception increases. We explored whether these positive outcomes can be generalised to actual behaviour. Participants saw either a movie presenting subheadings with smoking-related questions or statements. Afterwards, the time was measured until participants lit their first cigarette. Smokers who were presented with questions about the harms of smoking waited longer before lighting up a cigarette than smokers who were presented with statements. Presenting questions instead of the statements seems to be an effective means to prolonging smokers' abstinence.

  3. Fathers: locating smoking and masculinity in the postpartum.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Kelly, Mary T; Lebeau, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Many fathers mitigate the harm of their smoking by physically separating their smoking from their children and child care activities.The aim of this study was to empirically locate smoking and masculinities by detailing the highly gendered nature of the everyday places where fathers smoke. A masculinities framework was used to interpret interview and photovoice data drawn from an ethnographic study of fathers who smoke. Twenty participants completed individual interviews and contributed a total of 308 photographs to illustrate smoking through the eyes of fathers. The data were analyzed to describe the locations and contexts that facilitate and restrict participants' smoking. Three thematic findings-smoking on the job, the bifurcated domestic sphere, and solitary confinement-were drawn from the analyses to provide insights about when and where smoking does and does not occur, and offer direction for father-centered tobacco reduction interventions.

  4. The influence of menthol, e-cigarettes and other tobacco products on young adults' self-reported changes in past year smoking.

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Villanti, Andrea C; Wackowski, Olivia A; Gundersen, Daniel A; Giovenco, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Progression to regular smoking often occurs during young adulthood. This study examines self-reported changes in past year smoking among young adults and the potential influence of tobacco products on these trajectories. Respondents to the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey who smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetime (n=909) described smoking behaviour at the time of the survey and 1 year prior. Cigarette smoking trajectories were categorised as: no change, quit, decreased smoking or increased smoking. Participants were also asked about current use of menthol cigarettes and other tobacco products (ie, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah) and ever use of e-cigarettes. Most young adults (73.1%) reported stable cigarette smoking behaviours, while 8.2% reported having quit, 5.8% reported that they smoke on fewer days, 5% progressed from someday to daily smoking and 8% increased from not at all to current smoking. The youngest smokers (18-20) had significantly higher odds (adjusted OR (AOR) =2.6) of increasing cigarette use over the past year compared to those aged 30-34, as did blacks versus whites (AOR=2.35). Menthol cigarette use nearly doubled (AOR=1.87) the odds of increased smoking behaviour. E-cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP) use were not associated with increasing smoking but OTP use was negatively associated with remaining quit from cigarettes. Young adulthood is a critical period for smoking interventions, particularly among those most vulnerable to increasing smoking behaviours (ie, black and younger young adults). Policy efforts to restrict menthol cigarettes may reduce young adult smoking progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Identifying "social smoking" U.S. young adults using an empirically-driven approach.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea C; Johnson, Amanda L; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2017-07-01

    The phenomenon of "social smoking" emerged in the past decade as an important area of research, largely due to its high prevalence in young adults. The purpose of this study was to identify classes of young adult ever smokers based on measures of social and contextual influences on tobacco use. Latent class models were developed using social smoking measures, and not the frequency or quantity of tobacco use. Data come from a national sample of young adult ever smokers aged 18-24 (Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, N=1564). The optimal models identified three latent classes: Class 1 - nonsmokers (52%); Class 2 - social smokers (18%); and Class 3 - smokers (30%). Nearly 60% of the "social smoker" class self-identified as a social smoker, 30% as an ex-smoker/tried smoking, and 12% as a non-smoker. The "social smoker" class was most likely to report using tobacco mainly or only with others. Past 30-day cigarette use was highest in the "smoker" class. Hookah use was highest in the "social smoker" class. Other tobacco and e-cigarette use was similar in the "social smoker" and "smoker" classes. Past 30-day tobacco and e-cigarette use was present for all products in the "non-smoker" class. Young adult social smokers emerge empirically as a sizable, distinct class from other smokers, even without accounting for tobacco use frequency or intensity. The prevalence of hookah use in "social smokers" indicates a group for which the social aspect of tobacco use could drive experimentation and progression to regular use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Secondhand smoke exposure, awareness, and prevention among African-born women.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Kristin A; Chase, Richard A

    2010-12-01

    Little research exists on exposure to the health risks of secondhand smoke among women and children in African immigrant communities. This exploratory study aims to understand the prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure; assess levels of awareness of the dangers of secondhand smoke; and identify strategies for building increased awareness of these issues in African immigrant communities in Minnesota. Key informant interviews with ten African women community leaders, focus groups with 29 female African youth, and surveys of 223 African women were conducted between August 2008 and March 2009. The focus groups and key informant interviews were in English, and the surveys were in English, French, Oromo, and Somali. Over one quarter of African women reported daily exposure to cigarette smoke, and one in ten women reported daily exposure to smoke from shisha (fruit-flavored tobacco smoked in a hookah or waterpipe). Many respondents had general awareness of the health impacts of tobacco smoke, but some were unsure. The majority felt that increased awareness was badly needed in their communities. Awareness of the health impacts of shisha smoking was particularly low. Strategies for increasing awareness include: using media and visual images, attending large gatherings, and appealing to community members' priorities, including protecting their children. Exposure to secondhand smoke among women and children in African immigrant communities in Minnesota is substantial. Awareness about the health impacts of secondhand smoke exposure in these communities needs to be increased. Disseminating visual information at existing community gatherings or appealing to individual priorities may be the best approaches to increase awareness and motivate change. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Drugs, prisons, and harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Rhidian

    2003-01-01

    The use of drugs in society raises important considerations for health and social policy. Critical health and social care issues arise when drugs are used inside prisons. This paper argues that there is an urgent need for prison drug policies to adopt the principles of harm reduction. However, current policy orthodoxy emphasises the control of drugs and punishment for drug taking. Key components of harm reduction are operationalised in this article by exploring the potential for harm reduction in prison within the context of English drug policy. Whilst the focus is on English policy debates, the discussion will have wider international resonance. Copyright 2003 The Haworth Press, Inc.

  8. Electronic cigarette use and harm reversal: emerging evidence in the lung.

    PubMed

    Polosa, Riccardo

    2015-03-18

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been rapidly gaining ground on conventional cigarettes due to their efficiency in ceasing or reducing tobacco consumption, competitive prices, and the perception of them being a much less harmful smoking alternative. Direct confirmation that long-term EC use leads to reductions in smoking-related diseases is not available and it will take a few decades before the tobacco harm reduction potential of this products is firmly established. Nonetheless, it is feasible to detect early changes in airway function and respiratory symptoms in smokers switching to e-vapor. Acute investigations do not appear to support negative respiratory health outcomes in EC users and initial findings from long-term studies are supportive of a beneficial effect of EC use in relation to respiratory outcomes. The emerging evidence that EC use can reverse harm from tobacco smoking should be taken into consideration by regulatory authorities seeking to adopt proportional measures for the e-vapor category.

  9. Talking to your child about smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some kids have turned to smokeless tobacco or electronic cigarettes . They may think these are ways to dodge ... who chew tobacco are at risk of cancer. Electronic cigarettes, also known as vaping and electronic hookahs, are ...

  10. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking. PMID:27898019

  11. Smoking in Africa: the coming epidemic.

    PubMed

    Taha, A; Ball, K

    1982-01-01

    This discussion describes the development of tobacco smoking in Africa, the increase in consumption, and how tobacco use is promoted. It also presents evidence to show that smoking-related diseases similar to those seen in Western nations may be emerging. Tobacco was first introduced into Africa in the 16th century by the Turks who brought it into Egypt. The smoking habits of today's Africans are governed by local custom and economic status. Cigarette smoking is replacing the traditional pipe (hookah), although the latter is still used, particularly in rural areas. The prevalence of smoking is higher in urban than rural areas. Traditionally, only men smoked, but the proportion of women smokers is now rising. Smoking is also increasing among African children and adolescents. Cigarette consumption was examined in the 6 African countries from which statistics were available. In all of them, it rose steeply between 1967-76 and actually doubled in Libya and Ethiopia. In Egypt domestic cigarette sales increased by 23% between 1976-78, but sales of imported cigarettes rose by 25% in 1 year alone. Consumption of imported cigarettes is rising in many African countries. Between 1965-76 the volume of tobacco imports almost doubled. Cigarette smuggling is common in some African countries and may account for about 1/3 of total cigarette consumption in the Sudan. Some African countries are expanding tobacco agriculture so that they can supply their own needs. Nigeria has increased tobacco cultivation by about 10% a year to meet local dmeands. Zaire's imports of tobacco increased by about 30% between 1969-73 but now expects to become self sufficient in tobacco production. Tanzania's tobacco output incrased 7-fold between 1962-74 and will continue to grow through the help of the International Development Association. Cigarettes are heavily promoted in Africa. The advertisements present smoking as socially desirable by showing young, happy people and by relating it to manliness and

  12. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Smoking and Asthma How Can I Quit Smoking? Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend Permissions Guidelines Note: Clicking these links will take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. About TeensHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us ...

  13. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention…

  14. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Income 8 Secondhand smoke exposure is higher among people with low incomes. During 2011–2012, more than 2 out of every 5 (43.2%) nonsmokers who lived below the poverty level were exposed to secondhand smoke. Occupation 10 ...

  15. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention…

  16. National Survey of Smoking and Smoking Cessation Education Within UK Midwifery School Curricula.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jane; Harris, James M; Lorencatto, Fabiana; McEwen, Andy; Duaso, Maria J

    2017-05-01

    Smoking in pregnancy in the United Kingdom remains prevalent (11%). To encourage and support pregnant smokers to quit, midwives must be adequately trained to do so. Substantial curricular gaps have been identified in the smoking cessation training of medical, nursing, and optometry schools. This study aimed to identify the extent of smoking cessation training and assessment in UK midwifery schools. All UK undergraduate midwifery schools (n = 53) were invited to complete a web-based survey of their curricular coverage and assessment related to smoking cessation, and perceived barriers to delivering smoking cessation training. Twenty-nine (55%) midwifery schools responded. Most teaching was completed in the initial year of study. All reported teaching the harmful effects of tobacco use. The majority of respondents (83%) reported training students in brief intervention delivery and ways to assist quit attempts. Only 24% of schools in this study included relapse prevention in their curriculum. The most frequently reported barriers to teaching smoking cessation were "lack of knowledge amongst staff" (17%), "no space in a crowded curriculum" (17%), and "administrative problems" (13%). Midwifery schools are teaching the harmful effects of smoking and providing training on brief interventions. However, in some schools student midwives are not being sufficiently trained on relapse prevention or assessed in the practical skills necessary for delivering evidence-based interventions. Midwifery schools should revise the content and delivery of smoking cessation training to ensure midwives are equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to contribute to the challenge of smoking cessation in pregnancy.

  17. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  18. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  19. Effect of smoking prevention education using improved tobacco smoke collection method.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, Masao; Hirata, Kimiko; Kobayashi, Maiko; Hirata, Yukiyo; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    To verify the effect of smoking prevention education for nursing students using the improved tobacco smoke collection method. The improved tobacco smoke collection method allows mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke from a cigarette to be separately extracted using a closed system. After collection, we performed gas measurement using a gas detection tube and the Schiff reagent method. We provided a lecture incorporating the experimental method for an experimental group (42 students), but only the lecture without the method for a control group (43 students). We surveyed the changes in The Kano Test for Social Dependence (KTSND) scores before and after the lecture and one month later. In the experimental group, the total scores of the KTSND were 10.2 ± 5.0 (mean ± standard deviation) before the lecture, 5.8 ± 4.1 after the lecture, and 6.9 ± 4.8 one month later. On the other hand, the scores were 10.7 ± 5.7, 7.5 ± 5.8, and 9.7 ± 5.5 in the control group before, after, and one month after the lecture, respectively. It is considered that the students understood "smoking is harmful to health" since this gas analysis method can be used to check for harmful gases visually.  Result of this study suggest that this experimental method is useful for educating nursing students on the harmful effects of smoking.

  20. Cold Condition Influence on the Pulmonary Function in Smoking Military Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    difficult smoking cessation . In cigarettes there are about 2000-4000 different harmful products; among which the most harmful are: Nicotine, Irritants...group cessated smoking . By last investigation it was shown that their respiratory indices are not decreased. 2. In 25% of both subgroups the LVC and...time is very difficult. Therefore it is very important to early smoking cessation , to devise especial individual exercise and diet regimen for the

  1. Harmful Materials and Residential Demolition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certain harmful or problematic materials present in residential buildings may need to be handled differently from general demolition debris. Here is a list of several specific types of materials that may be present in residential buildings.

  2. Relative harm of snus and cigarettes: what do Norwegian adolescents say?

    PubMed

    Øverland, S; Hetland, J; Aarø, L E

    2008-12-01

    The public receives mixed messages about the harmfulness of alternative tobacco products to cigarettes, and little is known about what present and potential users of these products actually think about their relative harmfulness. In a nationally representative survey of 2415 Norwegian adolescents aged 16-20 years, participants were asked to rate the harmfulness of various available tobacco products and their own use of snus and cigarettes. A study was undertaken to examine how adolescents rate the relative harm of tobacco products in general, and snus and cigarettes in particular, and how this varies with age, gender and their own use of snus and smoking. Cigarettes were generally rated as more harmful than snus, but 41% still rated snus as equally or more harmful than cigarettes. Male participants reported lower harm from all products than females. Being a snus user was associated with lower ratings of harm for snus, but being a smoker was not associated with reporting of harm for cigarettes. Compared with the current scientific consensus, the participants overrated the harmfulness of snus and, as such, our results suggest a potential for changing peoples' perceptions of the relative health risks of various tobacco products. To the extent that health information affects consumption, accurate information on relative risks may lead more people to choose snus over cigarettes.

  3. Ethical considerations of e-cigarette use for tobacco harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Franck, Caroline; Filion, Kristian B; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2016-05-17

    Due to their similarity to tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) could play an important role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear. We identified the major ethical considerations surrounding the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco harm reduction, including product safety, efficacy for smoking cessation and reduction, use among non-smokers, use among youth, marketing and advertisement, use in public places, renormalization of a smoking culture, and market ownership. Overall, the safety profile of e-cigarettes is unlikely to warrant serious public health concerns, particularly given the known adverse health effects associated with tobacco cigarettes. As a result, it is unlikely that the population-level harms resulting from e-cigarette uptake among non-smokers would overshadow the public health gains obtained from tobacco harm reduction among current smokers. While the existence of a gateway effect for youth remains uncertain, e-cigarette use in this population should be discouraged. Similarly, marketing and advertisement should remain aligned with the degree of known product risk and should be targeted to current smokers. Overall, the available evidence supports the cautionary implementation of harm reduction interventions aimed at promoting e-cigarettes as attractive and competitive alternatives to cigarette smoking, while taking measures to protect vulnerable groups and individuals.

  4. Waterpipe Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking Direct Comparison of Toxicant Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Waterpipe (hookah, shisha) tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. Many waterpipe smokers believe that, relative to cigarettes, waterpipes are associated with lower smoke toxicant levels and fewer health risks. For physicians to address these beliefs credibly, waterpipe and cigarette must be compared directly. Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide the first controlled, direct laboratory comparison of the toxicant exposure associated with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking Methods Participants (N=31; mean=21.4 years, SD=2.3) reporting monthly waterpipe use (mean 5.2 uses/month, SD=4.0) and weekly cigarette smoking (mean= 9.9 cigarettes/day, SD=6.4) completed a crossover study in which they each smoked a waterpipe for a maximum of 45 minutes or a single cigarette. Outcomes included expired air carbon monoxide (CO) 5 minutes after session’s end, and blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), plasma nicotine, heart rate, and puff topography. Data were collected in 2008–2009 and analyzed in 2009. Results CO increased, on average, by 23.9 ppm for waterpipe (SD=19.8) and 2.7 ppm for cigarette (SD=1.8) while peak waterpipe COHb levels (mean=3.9%, SD=2.5) were three times those observed for the cigarette (mean=1.3%, SD=0.5; Ps<0.001). Peak nicotine levels did not differ (mean ng/ml waterpipe=10.2, SD=7.0; cigarette=10.6, SD=7.7). Significant heart rate increases relative to pre-smoking were observed 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 35 minutes during the cigarette session and at every 5-minute interval during the waterpipe session (Ps<0.001). Mean total puff volume was 48.6 liters for waterpipe as compared to 1.0 liters for cigarette (P<0.001). Conclusions Relative to a cigarette, waterpipe use is associated with greater CO, similar nicotine, and dramatically more smoke exposure. Physicians should consider advising their patients that waterpipe tobacco smoking exposes them to some of the same toxicants as cigarette smoking and therefore the two tobacco smoking methods

  5. Relationships among factual and perceived knowledge of harms of waterpipe tobacco, perceived risk, and desire to quit among college users.

    PubMed

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Eissenberg, Thomas; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Levy, Janet

    2014-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in the United States among college students. Through a web-based survey, we explored associations among factual and perceived knowledge, perceived risks and worry about harm and addiction, and desire to quit among 316 college waterpipe tobacco smoking users. Overall, factual knowledge of the harm of waterpipe tobacco smoking was poor, factual and perceived knowledge was weakly correlated, both forms of knowledge were related inconsistently to perceived risks and worry, and neither form of knowledge was associated with the desire to quit. Findings provide preliminary insights as to why knowledge gaps may not predict cessation among waterpipe users. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Second-hand smoke in mental healthcare settings: time to implement total smoke-free bans?

    PubMed

    Ballbè, Montse; Sureda, Xisca; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Saltó, Esteve; Gual, Antoni; Fernández, Esteve

    2013-06-01

    Second-hand smoke is associated with adverse health effects. Many countries have extended smoke-free policies to public buildings and workplaces such as hospitals, but mental health units have usually been exempted from complete smoke-free bans. The objective of this study was to evaluate second-hand smoke levels in mental health units with different types of smoking bans. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate second-hand smoke in 64 mental health inpatient units (95.5% of the all such units) in Catalonia, Spain. We measured air concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) as a marker of second-hand smoke in different locations at each unit. The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) of the PM2.5 concentration was 8.81 μg/m(3) (8.06-9.56) in units with indoor and outdoor smoking bans, 13.80 μg/m(3) (13.23-14.36) in units with indoor smoking bans that allowed smoking in outdoor areas, 24.29 μg/m(3) (23.50-25.03) in units with indoor smoking rooms and 51.00 μg/m(3) (49.83-52.04) in units that allowed smoking in common indoor areas (P < 0.05). The regression model adjusted for confounding variables showed a linear increase of PM2.5. The PM2.5 concentration in smoking rooms was 286.50 μg/m(3) (283.95-288.89). Only units with indoor and outdoor smoking bans had PM2.5 levels below the standard recommended WHO levels of 10 μg/m(3). Units with more permissive smoking policies had PM2.5 levels from second-hand smoke that have harmful health effects.

  7. [History of cigarette smoking. The effect of tobacco smoking on women's health].

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Marta; Jagielska, Iwona; Kazdepka-Ziemińska, Anita; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Szymański, Wiesław

    2009-01-01

    History of cigarette smoking started on XV century, when Columb imported tobacco to Europe. Popular using of tobacco we are indebted Jaen Nicot Villeman, the name of nicotine originate from his surname. Tobacco first was exploited like a drug, however now it is a very harmful stimulant. Cigarette smoking is still an actual problem and increased risk of many diseases. Very toxic components of smoke get inside all the organs and upsetting their activities and proper running of the life processes. It is common knowledge that smoking badly influences women's health. Nicotine makes the negative influence on function of ovaries metabolism of hormones and state of osseous tissue. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with obstetrical and pediatrician complication with fetus, newborn and child. The aim of the article is to summarize the role of tobacco smoking on women's health.

  8. Toxic and trace elements in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, M.; Masironi, R.

    1992-01-01

    While the harmful health effects of carbon monoxide, nicotine, tar, irritants and other noxious gases that are present in tobacco smoke are well known, those due to heavy metals and other toxic mineral elements in tobacco smoke are not sufficiently emphasized. Tobacco smoking influences the concentrations of several elements in some organs. This review summarizes the known effects of some trace elements and other biochemically important elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Po-210, Se, and Zn) which are linked with smoking. Cigarette smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements not only to the smoker but also, through passive smoking, to nonsmokers. The adverse health effects of these toxic elements on the fetus through maternal smoking, and on infants through parental smoking, are of special concern. PMID:1600587

  9. Smoking in pregnancy--the size of our challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Gawley, S.; Cupples, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the prevalence of smoking in pregnancy is a priority target for health care. We administered a semi-structured questionnaire to mothers in an inner city general practice who were given brief anti-smoking advice during routine antenatal care. Of a cohort of 113 mothers, 52(46%) reported smoking at the start of pregnancy. Six(12%) of these 52 smokers reported no change in smoking habit during pregnancy; 24(46%) cut down; 12(23%) stopped; 10(19%) increased their cigarette consumption. Of the 52 smokers, 41(79%) believed smoking was harmful to an unborn baby, yet 30(73%) of these women continued smoking. Almost all recalled having been given anti-smoking advice by the GP and/or hospital. There is an urgent need to identify more effective methods of reducing smoking in pregnancy. PMID:12137158

  10. Evaluation of strategies to communicate harmful and potentially harmful constituent (HPHC) information through cigarette package inserts: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Louviere, Jordan J; Getz, Kayla R; Islam, Farahnaz; Anshari, Dien; Cho, Yoojin; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Thrasher, James F

    2017-07-13

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory authority to use inserts to communicate with consumers about harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products; however, little is known about the most effective manner for presenting HPHC information. In a discrete choice experiment, participants evaluated eight choice sets, each of which showed two cigarette packages from four different brands and tar levels (high vs low), accompanied by an insert that included between-subject manipulations (ie, listing of HPHCs vs grouping by disease outcome and numeric values ascribed to HPHCs vs no numbers) and within-subject manipulations (ie, 1 of 4 warning topics; statement linking an HPHC with disease vs statement with no HPHC link). For each choice set, participants were asked: (1) which package is more harmful and (2) which motivates them to not smoke; each with a 'no difference' option. Alternative-specific logit models regressed choice on attribute levels. 1212 participants were recruited from an online consumer panel (725 18-29-year-old smokers and susceptible non-smokers and 487 30-64-year-old smokers). Participants were more likely to endorse high-tar products as more harmful than low-tar products, with a greater effect when numeric HPHC information was present. Compared with a simple warning statement, the statement linking HPHCs with disease encouraged quit motivation. Numeric HPHC information on inserts appears to produce misunderstandings that some cigarettes are less harmful than others. Furthermore, brief narratives that link HPHCs to smoking-related disease may promote cessation versus communications that do not explicitly link HPHCs to disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Ewerling, Fernanda; Santos, Anderson Moreira Aristides dos; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Menezes, Ana Maria

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  12. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  13. [Effects of alcohol and smoking in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Thäle, V; Schlitt, A

    2011-10-01

    Nicotine and alcohol are legal drugs, which damage not only the health of the consumer, but also the society due to health-economic costs. In pregnancy, the consequences of alcohol consumption and smoking for the unborn life in pregnancy are dramatic. The irreversibly damaging effect of alcohol is proven in each stage of the pregnancy, whereby the phase of the organogenesis is the most sensitive period. Beside a higher incidence for deformations of all organs, the damage of the central nervous system is leading, since mental-intellectual retardation of children after alcohol consumption in pregnancy is proven. Smoking in pregnancy leads likewise to harmful effects, with the intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus being the leading smoking-induced pathology. Smoking- and alcohol-induced damages for the unborn life are irreversible with no therapeutic options. The only therapy is prevention, which means complete cessation of alcohol and smoking in pregnancy.

  14. Changes in Antioxidant Defense Capability and Lipid Profile after 12-Week Low- Intensity Continuous Training in Both Cigarette and Hookah Smokers: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Koubaa, Abdessalem; Triki, Moez; Trabelsi, Hajer; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouhair; Hakim, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of low-intensity continuous training program on antioxidant defense capability and lipid profile in male cigarette or hookah smokers. Forty-three male adults participated in a 12-week continuous training program at an intensity of 40% of VO2max. All subjects were subjected to anthropometric, physical and biochemical tests before and after the training program. The increase of Glutathione reductase (GR) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is significant only for cigarette smokers (CS) and hookah smokers (HS) groups. The Malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease and α-tocopherol increase are significant only for HS group. GPx was increased in NS, CS and HS by 2.6% (p< 0.01), 2% (p< 0.05) and 1.7% (p< 0.05) respectively. Likewise, significant improvements of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC / HDL-C ratio were observed in three groups. En contrast no significant changes were recorded in triglycerides (TG). Also, significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC) for CS group (p< 0.01) and HS groups (p< 0.05). This continuous training program appears to have an important role in lipid levels improving and oxidative stress attenuation. PMID:26121249

  15. Sex-work harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Rekart, Michael L

    2005-12-17

    Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.

  16. Harm Avoidance and Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert S.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Levine, Steven R.; Yu, Lei; Hoganson, George M.; Buchman, Aron S.; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Harm avoidance, a trait indicative of behavioral inhibition, is associated with disability and dementia in old age, but the basis of these associations is uncertain. We test the hypothesis that higher level of harm avoidance is associated with increased likelihood of cerebral infarction. Methods Older persons without dementia completed a standard measure of harm avoidance. During a mean of 3.5 years of follow-up, 257 (of 1,082) individuals died of whom 206 (80%) underwent brain autopsy. Number of chronic cerebral infarcts (microscopic plus gross; expressed as 0,1, or >1) was assessed on neuropathologic examination, completed in 192 individuals at the time of analyses. Results On postmortem examination, chronic cerebral infarcts were found in 89 (42 with 1, 47 with >1). Higher harm avoidance was associated with higher likelihood of infarcts (odds ratio = 1.083, 95% confidence interval 1.040–1.128). A moderately high level of the trait (score=17, 75th percentile) was associated with a 2.4-fold increase in the likelihood of infarction compared to a moderately low level of the trait (score = 6, 25th percentile). These associations persisted in models that controlled for other cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Higher level of the harm avoidance trait may be a risk factor for cerebral infarction. PMID:24364391

  17. Medicalisation, smoking and e-cigarettes: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Morphett, Kylie; Carter, Adrian; Hall, Wayne; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-30

    There is debate in the tobacco control literature about the value of a medical model in reducing smoking-related harm. The variety of medical treatments for smoking cessation has increased, health professionals are encouraged to use them to assist smoking cessation and tobacco dependence is being described as a 'chronic disease'. Some critics suggest that the medicalisation of smoking undermines the tobacco industry's responsibility for the harms of smoking. Others worry that it will lead smokers to deny personal responsibility for cessation, create beliefs in 'magic bullets' for smoking cessation, or erode smokers' confidence in their ability to quit. We argue that the medicalisation of smoking will have limited impact due to the emphasis on population-based interventions in tobacco control, the ambiguous place of nicotine among other drugs and the modest efficacy of current pharmacotherapies. These factors, as well as lay understandings of smoking that emphasise willpower, personal choice and responsibility, have contributed to the limited success of medical approaches to smoking cessation. While the rapid uptake of e-cigarettes in some countries has provided an option for those who reject medical treatments for smoking cessation, current regulatory developments could limit the potential of e-cigarettes to provide non-therapeutic nicotine for those who currently smoke tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Social Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

  19. High Content Screening Analysis to Evaluate the Toxicological Effects of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHC)

    PubMed Central

    Marescotti, Diego; Gonzalez Suarez, Ignacio; Acali, Stefano; Johne, Stephanie; Laurent, Alexandra; Frentzel, Stefan; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and lung diseases. Because CS is a complex aerosol containing more than 7,000 chemicals1 it is challenging to assess the contributions of individual constituents to its overall toxicity. Toxicological profiles of individual constituents as well as mixtures can be however established in vitro, by applying high through-put screening tools, which enable the profiling of Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHCs) of tobacco smoke, as defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).2 For an initial assessment, an impedance-based instrument was used for a real-time, label-free assessment of the compound's toxicity. The instrument readout relies on cell adhesion, viability and morphology that all together provide an overview of the cell status. A dimensionless parameter, named cell index, is used for quantification. A set of different staining protocols was developed for a fluorescence imaging-based investigation and a HCS platform was used to gain more in-depth information on the kind of cytotoxicity elicited by each HPHC. Of the 15 constituents tested, only five were selected for HCS-based analysis as they registered a computable LD50 (< 20 mM). These included 1-aminonaphtalene, Arsenic (V), Chromium (VI), Crotonaldehyde and Phenol. Based on their effect in the HCS, 1-aminonaphtalene and Phenol could be identified to induce mitochondrial dysfunction, and, together with Chromium (VI) as genotoxic based on the increased histone H2AX phosphorylation. Crotonaldehyde was identified as an oxidative stress inducer and Arsenic as a stress kinase pathway activator. This study demonstrates that a combination of impedance-based and HCS technologies provides a robust tool for in vitro assessment of CS constituents. PMID:27228213

  20. Affecting Perceptions of Harm and Addiction among College Waterpipe Tobacco Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Eissenberg, Thomas; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Levy, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The spread of waterpipe tobacco use among youth may be due in part to perceptions that waterpipe tobacco use is safer than other tobacco products, such as cigarettes. In two pilot studies, we sought to modify college waterpipe smokers’ perceived risks and worry about waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods: We conducted two web-based studies that varied whether college waterpipe users received information on (a) spread of and use of flavored tobacco in waterpipe and (b) harms of waterpipe smoking. Study 1 (N = 91) tested the “incremental” effects on perceptions of risk and worry of adding information about harms of waterpipe smoking to information on the spread of waterpipe and use of flavorings in the tobacco. Study 2 (N = 112) tested the effects on perceptions of risk and worry of reviewing information about harms of waterpipe smoking compared to a no information control group. In Study 1 only, we assessed as part of a 6-month follow-up (n = 70) the percentage of participants who reported no longer using waterpipe. Results: Pooling data from both studies, participants who received information about the harms of waterpipe smoking reported greater perceived risk and worry about harm and addiction and expressed a stronger desire to quit. In Study 1, 62% of participants in the experimental group versus 33% in the control group reported having stopped waterpipe use. Conclusions: These are the first studies to show that perceptions of addiction and harm from waterpipe use can be modified using minimally intensive interventions; such interventions show promise at decreasing waterpipe use. PMID:21471304

  1. Toxicant content, physical properties and biological activity of waterpipe tobacco smoke and its tobacco-free alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan; Schubert, Jens; Klaiany, Joanne; El Sabban, Marwan; Luch, Andreas; Saliba, Najat A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking using sweetened, flavoured tobacco products has become a widespread global phenomenon. In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, narghile, hookah, shisha along with names of chemical compounds and classes of compounds, in addition to terms commonly used in cellular biology and aerosol sizing. Study selection The search was limited to articles published in English which reported novel data on waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) toxicant content, biological activity or particle size and which met various criteria for analytical rigour including: method specificity and selectivity, precision, accuracy and recovery, linearity, range, and stability. Data extraction Multiple researchers reviewed the reports and collectively agreed on which data were pertinent for inclusion. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoke contains significant concentrations of toxicants thought to cause dependence, heart disease, lung disease and cancer in cigarette smokers, and includes 27 known or suspected carcinogens. Waterpipe smoke is a respirable aerosol that induces cellular responses associated with pulmonary and arterial diseases. Except nicotine, smoke generated using tobacco-free preparations marketed for ‘health conscious’ users contains the same or greater doses of toxicants, with the same cellular effects as conventional products. Toxicant yield data from the analytical laboratory are consistent with studies of exposure biomarkers in waterpipe users. Conclusions A sufficient evidence base exists to support public health interventions that highlight the fact that WTS presents a serious inhalation hazard. PMID:25666550

  2. Secondhand smoke exposure and other correlates of susceptibility to smoking: a propensity score matching approach.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Russell K; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2015-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is responsible for numerous diseases of the lungs and other bodily systems among children. In addition to the adverse health effects of SHS exposure, studies show that children exposed to SHS are more likely to smoke in adolescence. Susceptibility to smoking is a measure used to identify adolescent never-smokers who are at risk for smoking. Limited research has been conducted on the influence of SHS on susceptibility to smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine a robust measure of the strength of correlation between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking U.S. adolescents. This study used data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey to identify predictors of susceptibility to smoking in the full (pre-match) sample of adolescents and a smaller (post-match) sample created by propensity score matching. Results showed a significant association between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking adolescents in the pre-match (OR=1.47) and post-match (OR=1.52) samples. The odds ratio increase after matching suggests that the strength of the relationship was underestimated in the pre-match sample. Other significant correlates of susceptibility to smoking identified include: gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, smoke-free home rules, number of smoking friends, perception of SHS harm, perceived benefits of smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages. The use of propensity score matching procedures reduced bias in the post-match sample, and provided a more robust estimate of the influence of SHS exposure on susceptibility to smoking, compared to the pre-match sample estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Second-hand tobacco smoke and children.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayed, Eman M; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoke contains harmful chemicals with hazardous adverse effects on almost every organ in the body of smokers as well as of nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). There has been increasing interest in the effects of passive smoking on the health of children. In order to detect the magnitude of passive smoking in children, parental questionnaires, measuring nicotine and cotinine body levels, and evaluating expired carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, have been used. Passive smoking causes respiratory illness, asthma, poor growth, neurological disorders, and coronary heart diseases. Herein, we focused on the deleterious influences of passive smoking on immunity and liver. Besides, its effects on the concentrations of various biomarker levels related to the oxidant/antioxidant status were considered. Understanding these effects may help clinicians to counsel parents on smoking cessation and smoke exposure elimination. It may also help to develop interventions to improve the health of children. This review potentially demonstrated some nutraceuticals with a promising role in the prevention of smoking-related diseases. © The Author(s) 2012.

  4. Smoked cocaine in socially-depressed areas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The main objectives of this study are to describe the smoked cocaine user's profile in socially-depressed areas and their needs from a harm-reduction perspective, to investigate their use of smoking crack and compare the acute effects between injecting and smoking consumption. Methods The study took place in SAPS, Barcelona, Spain. Two focus group sessions were undertaken with a total of 8 drug users. Secondly, the 8 participants answered a structured questionnaire and in the course of the sessions, as a snowball activity, were trained to survey 6 other crack smokers. Results We obtained 56 questionnaires. The majority of participants were from non-European Community countries (62.69%), 70.2% of participants referred to sharing the smoking equipment. The most frequent symptoms reported during smoked cocaine were mydriasis (83.33%)), perspiration (72.92%) and compulsive object search (70.83%) During the group sessions, participants said that smoked cocaine is much more addictive than injected cocaine and causes more anxiety. Participants also reported the difficulty of changing from injected use to smoked use, due to the larger amount of cocaine needed to reach the same effects as when having injected. Conclusions We can conclude that the research, focused on achieving greater knowledge of the smoked cocaine user's profile, their usage of smoking crack, consumption patterns and acute effects, should be incorporated into substance misuse interventions. PMID:21059272

  5. Improving smoking cessation outcomes in secondary care: Predictors of hospital staff willingness to provide smoking cessation referral.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yin-Yu; Yu, Shu-Man; Lai, Yun-Ju; Wu, Ping-Lun; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Hsien-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Since implementation of the New Smoking Cessation Policy in Taiwan, more patients are attending smoking cessation clinics. Many of these patients were referred by hospital staff. Thus, factors which influence the hospital staff's willingness to refer are important. In this study, we aim to understand the relation between smoking cessation knowledge and willingness for referral. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire was conducted with staff of a community hospital during the year 2012-2013. Willingness to provide smoking cessation referral and relevant correlated variables including demographic data, knowledge of basic cigarette harm, and knowledge of resources and methods regarding smoking cessation were measured. A total of 848 of 1500 hospital staff returned the questionnaire: 249 physicians (29.4%), 402 nursing staff (47.4%), and 197 administration staff (23.2%). 790 (93.2%) staff members have never smoked, 19 (2.2%) had quit smoking, and 39 (4.6%) still smoke. 792 (93.4%) members had interest in receiving smoking cessation education. The mean total score (highest potential score of 6) of basic cigarette harm knowledge was 4.56 (± 1.25). The mean total score (highest potential score of 7) of resources and methods about smoking cessation was 4.79 (± 1.35). The significant variable correlated with willingness to refer was total score of resources and methods about smoking cessation. Hospital staff who knew more about resources and methods about smoking cessation were more willing to refer smoking patients to the smoking cessation service. Thus, continuing medical education for hospital staff should include resources and methods about smoking cessation to promote smoking cessation.

  6. A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette.

    PubMed

    Polosa, Riccardo; Rodu, Brad; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Maglia, Marilena; Raciti, Cirino

    2013-10-04

    Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document that most smokers would like to quit, and many have made repeated efforts to do so. However, conventional smoking cessation approaches require nicotine addicted smokers to abstain from tobacco and nicotine entirely. Many smokers are unable--or at least unwilling--to achieve this goal, and so they continue smoking in the face of impending adverse health consequences. In effect, the status quo in smoking cessation presents smokers with just two unpleasant alternatives: quit or suffer the harmful effects of continuing smoking. But, there is a third choice for smokers: tobacco harm reduction. It involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products like snus and the electronic cigarette (E-cig), or even pharmaceutical nicotine products, as a replacement for smoking. E-cigs might be the most promising product for tobacco harm reduction to date, because, besides delivering nicotine vapour without the combustion products that are responsible for nearly all of smoking's damaging effect, they also replace some of the rituals associated with smoking behaviour. Thus it is likely that smokers who switch to E-cigs will achieve large health gains. The focus of this article is on the health effects of using an E-cig, with consideration given to the acceptability, safety and effectiveness of this product as a long-term substitute for smoking.

  7. Insights from analysis for harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Michael J; DeSoi, Darren J; Rimmer, Lonnie T; Wagner, Karl A; Morton, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    A total of 20 commercial cigarette and 16 commercial smokeless tobacco products were assayed for 96 compounds listed as harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) by the US Food and Drug Administration. For each product, a single lot was used for all testing. Both International Organization for Standardization and Health Canada smoking regimens were used for cigarette testing. For those HPHCs detected, measured levels were consistent with levels reported in the literature, however substantial assay variability (measured as average relative standard deviation) was found for most results. Using an abbreviated list of HPHCs, statistically significant differences for most of these HPHCs occurred when results were obtained 4-6months apart (i.e., temporal variability). The assay variability and temporal variability demonstrate the need for standardized analytical methods with defined repeatability and reproducibility for each HPHC using certified reference standards. Temporal variability also means that simple conventional comparisons, such as two-sample t-tests, are inappropriate for comparing products tested at different points in time from the same laboratory or from different laboratories. Until capable laboratories use standardized assays with established repeatability, reproducibility, and certified reference standards, the resulting HPHC data will be unreliable for product comparisons or other decision making in regulatory science. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influences on parents' decisions for home and automobile smoking bans in households with smokers.

    PubMed

    Binns, Helen J; O'Neil, Joseph; Benuck, Irwin; Ariza, Adolfo J

    2009-02-01

    To understand clinician influence on use of home and automobile smoking bans in homes of children living with a smoker. Parents were surveyed on tobacco use, smoking bans, demographics and opinions about tobacco, including harm from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Responses from 463 diverse households with smokers were analyzed. 42% of respondents smoked; 50% had a home smoking ban and 58% an automobile smoking ban. Nonsmokers living with a smoker, those who strongly agreed in ETS harm, and those having a child < or = 5 years more often had a home smoking ban. Those recalling their child's doctor ever asking the respondent about their smoking status and African American respondents less frequently had a home ban. Automobile smoking bans were more often held by those with strong agreement in ETS harm and less often found in families having a child receiving Medicaid/uninsured. Having a strong perception of harm from ETS exposure was associated with having smoking bans. Aspects of health encounters not measured by this study may be negatively influencing adoption of home smoking bans or lead to recall bias. Clinicians should examine the strength, focus, and response to their messages to parents about tobacco.

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of the Relation Between Internalizing Problem Behaviors and Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    PubMed

    Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Zaleski, Adam C; Swaim, Randall C

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the longitudinal relation between internalizing problem behaviors (measured with the anxious/depressed and somatic complaints subscales of the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form) and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intentions during early adolescence. In addition, a possible mediating role of perceived harm was investigated. Sixth graders and their teachers were surveyed in the sixth grade and students were surveyed again in the seventh grade. Smoking behavior and intentions were assessed with five items including lifetime use, 30-day use, tobacco user status (nonsmoker to heavy smoker), and two intentions/behavioral expectations items. In addition to perceived harm from smoking, reasons for smoking and reasons for not smoking were included on the survey. As hypothesized, teacher reports of sixth-grade internalizing problem behaviors were negatively related to seventh-grade smoking behavior and intentions. Moreover, perceived harm from smoking was negatively related to smoking and intentions. The hypothesized mediating role of perceived harm in the internalizing to smoking relationship was not supported. Potential differences in the relation between internalizing and smoking across adolescence are discussed. Specifically, the results of the present study and an examination of prior literature suggest that in early adolescence internalizing problems are negatively related to cigarette smoking, whereas in middle and late adolescence the opposite is true.

  10. Non-Smoking Male Adolescents' Reactions to Cigarette Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K.; Cameron, Linda D.; Reiter, Paul L.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. Methods A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11–17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2×2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer) using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. Results The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were “very much” discouraged, p<.001). Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. Conclusions Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels. PMID:23950861

  11. Menthol cigarettes: moving toward a broader definition of harm.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Phillip; Clark, Pamela I

    2010-12-01

    The current practice of the tobacco industry of primarily focusing on the extent that menthol cigarettes contribute or do not contribute to excess morbidity and mortality in various diseases does not, in and of itself, fully illuminate the harm caused by these products. In fact, this practice actually masks and obscures the public health harm associated with menthol cigarettes. Given this, this commentary develops and presents a broader definition of harm in which to view menthol cigarettes and as the necessary and underlying rationale of why this candy-flavored ingredient should be removed from all tobacco products. This paper relies on the scientific presentations of the 2nd Conference on Menthol Cigarettes, and the peer-reviewed literature on menthol cigarettes. A broader definition of harm from menthol cigarettes must be analyzed from a broad public health perspective and take into account youth uptake and initiation, menthol's ability to augment addiction through unique sensory properties, spurious health messages associated with these products, menthol's role in cessation inhibition and relapse promotion, and the blatant predatory marketing of these products to the most vulnerable sectors of society. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should apply the same logic that outlawed other candy flavorings and apply it to menthol cigarettes; in the end, all candy flavorings, including menthol, only serve to make the poisons inherent in tobacco smoke go down easier. Additionally, the mobilization of communities most affected by the menthol cigarettes, the FDA, and candy flavorings and the tobacco industry's machinations will be discussed.

  12. Hurt, Harm, and School Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozycki, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Nietzsche overlooks some possibilities. Something may not kill us, yet leave us sickly or crippled. But he is right, too. It may make us stronger. It is ancient wisdom that we grow through facing adversity: ad astra per aspera?to the stars through adversity. We know, too, that too much of something good may do us harm. One can overstudy, or…

  13. Deliberate self harm in children.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, P; Geeta, M G; Riyaz, A

    2011-05-01

    To study the nature of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in children and to identify the associated factors. Child Guidance Clinic attached to the Department of Pediatrics of a teaching hospital in South India. Children with history of deliberate self harm who were referred to the CGC for psychological evaluation during a 10 year period. Children and parents were interviewed together and separately and details regarding age, sex, family and school environment, stresses and nature of self harm were documented. Psychiatric diagnosis was made based on DSM IV diagnostic criteria. Among the 30 children included in the study, 21 were boys and 9 were girls. Majority of children were between the ages of 11 and 13 years, the youngest being 6 years old. 76%of children had history of acute stressful life events and 62%of them had chronic ongoing stress. 62%of children had stress in the family and 41%had stress at school. Stress in the family included death of a parent, conflicts with parents or siblings, mental illness in the family, parental alcoholism and parental disharmony. Stress at school included conflicts with classmates, punishment or negative comments by teachers and learning problems. Psychiatric disorders were present in 52%of children, the commonest being depressive disorder. The commonest mode of DSH was self poisoning, and rat poison (zinc phosphide) was the commonest substance used. Deliberate self harm occurs in young children and the risk factors are comparable to those in adolescents.

  14. The effect of smoking on lung cancer: ethnic differences and the smoking paradox.

    PubMed

    Jung, Keum Ji; Jeon, Christina; Jee, Sun Ha

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this review were to determine whether the smoking paradox still exists and to summarize possible explanations for the smoking paradox. Based on published data, we compared the risk of cigarette smoking for lung cancer in Western and Asian countries. We extracted data from the relevant studies about annual tobacco consumption, lung cancer mortality rates according to smoking status from each country, and possible explanations for the smoking paradox. A significantly greater risk of lung cancer death was found among current smokers in Asian countries than among nonsmokers, with relative risks (RRs) of 4.0 to 4.6 for Koreans, 3.7 to 5.1 for Japanese, and 2.4 to 6.5 for Chinese. Although a significantly greater risk of lung cancer was present among current smokers in Asian countries, the RRs in Asian countries were much lower than those reported in Western countries (range, 9.4 to 23.2). Possible explanations for the smoking paradox included epidemiologic characteristics, such as the smoking amount, age at smoking initiation, and the use of filtered or mild tobacco. The smoking paradox definitely exists, but may be explained by major epidemiologic characteristics. Therefore, the smoking paradox should not be interpreted as indicating that tobacco is safer or less harmful for Asians.

  15. The effect of smoking on lung cancer: ethnic differences and the smoking paradox

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this review were to determine whether the smoking paradox still exists and to summarize possible explanations for the smoking paradox. Based on published data, we compared the risk of cigarette smoking for lung cancer in Western and Asian countries. We extracted data from the relevant studies about annual tobacco consumption, lung cancer mortality rates according to smoking status from each country, and possible explanations for the smoking paradox. A significantly greater risk of lung cancer death was found among current smokers in Asian countries than among nonsmokers, with relative risks (RRs) of 4.0 to 4.6 for Koreans, 3.7 to 5.1 for Japanese, and 2.4 to 6.5 for Chinese. Although a significantly greater risk of lung cancer was present among current smokers in Asian countries, the RRs in Asian countries were much lower than those reported in Western countries (range, 9.4 to 23.2). Possible explanations for the smoking paradox included epidemiologic characteristics, such as the smoking amount, age at smoking initiation, and the use of filtered or mild tobacco. The smoking paradox definitely exists, but may be explained by major epidemiologic characteristics. Therefore, the smoking paradox should not be interpreted as indicating that tobacco is safer or less harmful for Asians. PMID:28092929

  16. [Vaping: a new strategy to prevent smoking-related diseases?].

    PubMed

    Polosa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    By quitting, smokers of all ages can gain substantial health benefits. No other single effort of public health is able to achieve an advantage comparable to smoking cessation on a large scale. However, conventional approaches to smoking cessation require tobacco users to completely abstain, and many smokers are unable - or have not the willingness - to achieve this goal, and then continue to smoke despite the looming negative consequences for health. But it is possible to consider another option: the reduction of harm caused by tobacco smoking (tobacco harm reduction) through the intake of nicotine from alternative sources safer than tobacco smoke, such as the electronic cigarette (e-cig). It is a promising product for the reduction of harm caused by tobacco smoking. In addition to providing nicotine through the vapour without the typical toxic and carcinogenic substances derived from combustion, the e-cig is also a good substitute for the rituals associated with the behaviour of the smoker. In this article, the author suggests that the wide dissemination of vaping behaviour can become a successful strategy to reduce smoking and preventing smoking-related diseases, advancing on how to succeed with this matter.

  17. Air nicotine levels in public places in ahmedabad, India: before and after implementation of the smoking ban.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingyan; Modi, Bhavesh V; Tamplin, Stephen A; Aghi, Mira B; Dave, Paresh V; Cohen, Joanna E

    2015-01-01

    To compare air nicotine levels in public places in Ahmedabad, India, before (June 2008) and after (January, 2010) the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban which was introduced in October 2008. Air nicotine concentrations were measured by sampling of vapor-phase nicotine using passive monitors. In 2008 (baseline), monitors were placed for 5-7 working days in 5 hospitals, 10 restaurants, 5 schools, 5 government buildings, and 10 entertainment venues, of which 6 were hookah bars. In 2010 (follow-up), monitors were placed in 35 similar venues for the same duration. Comparison of the overall median nicotine concentration at baseline (2008) (0.06 μg/m(3) Interquartile range (IQR): 0.02-0.22) to that of follow-up (2010) (0.03 μg/m(3) IQR: 0.00-0.13), reflects a significant decline (% decline = 39.7, P = 0.012) in exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The percent change in exposure varied by venue-type. The most significant decrease occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m(3) at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up (%decline = 100, P < 0.001). In entertainment venues, government offices, and restaurants, decreases in SHS exposure also appeared evident. However, in hookah bars, air nicotine levels appeared to increase (P = 0.160). Overall, SHS exposure was significantly reduced in public places after the smoke-free legislation came into force. However, nicotine concentrations were still detected in most of the venues indicating imperfect compliance with the comprehensive ban.

  18. Air Nicotine Levels in Public Places in Ahmedabad, India: Before and After Implementation of the Smoking Ban

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingyan; Modi, Bhavesh V.; Tamplin, Stephen A.; Aghi, Mira B.; Dave, Paresh V.; Cohen, Joanna E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare air nicotine levels in public places in Ahmedabad, India, before (June 2008) and after (January, 2010) the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban which was introduced in October 2008. Materials and Methods: Air nicotine concentrations were measured by sampling of vapor-phase nicotine using passive monitors. In 2008 (baseline), monitors were placed for 5-7 working days in 5 hospitals, 10 restaurants, 5 schools, 5 government buildings, and 10 entertainment venues, of which 6 were hookah bars. In 2010 (follow-up), monitors were placed in 35 similar venues for the same duration. Results: Comparison of the overall median nicotine concentration at baseline (2008) (0.06 μg/m3 Interquartile range (IQR): 0.02-0.22) to that of follow-up (2010) (0.03 μg/m3 IQR: 0.00-0.13), reflects a significant decline (% decline = 39.7, P = 0.012) in exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The percent change in exposure varied by venue-type. The most significant decrease occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m3 at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up (%decline = 100, P < 0.001). In entertainment venues, government offices, and restaurants, decreases in SHS exposure also appeared evident. However, in hookah bars, air nicotine levels appeared to increase (P = 0.160). Conclusion: Overall, SHS exposure was significantly reduced in public places after the smoke-free legislation came into force. However, nicotine concentrations were still detected in most of the venues indicating imperfect compliance with the comprehensive ban. PMID:25657509

  19. Varenicline and Risk of Self-Harm: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Diana; Yao, Zhan; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Gomes, Tara; Antoniou, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking remains a serious public health concern. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, including bupropion and varenicline, are proven means to increase quit rates. Post-marketing reports describing suicidal behaviours have raised concerns about the safety of varenicline. However, whether varenicline imparts a higher risk of suicide relative to bupropion remains uncertain. Methods A population-based nested case-control study in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2015 was conducted. Subjects were residents of Ontario aged 18 years and older with publicly funded drug coverage receiving either bupropion or varenicline for smoking cessation. We defined cases were those with a hospitalization or emergency department visit for suicide or non-fatal self-harm within 90 days of treatment. For each case, we identified up to fifty controls from the same cohort matched on age, sex, history of self-harm, use of selected psychotropic medications, alcohol abuse and prior admission to a mental health unit. Adjusted odds ratio were used to compare the risk of suicide/self-harm of varenicline to bupropion. Results We identified 331 cases and 5,346 matched-controls. Following adjustment for potential confounders, we found that varenicline was not associated with an increased risk of suicide/self-harm relative to bupropion (adjusted odds ratio 1.15; 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 1.87). Interpretation Treatment with varenicline does not appear to significantly increase the risk of suicide or self-harm relative to bupropion. PMID:27662654

  20. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  1. Smoke detection

    SciTech Connect

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  2. Perceived relative harm of electronic cigarettes over time and impact on subsequent use. A survey with 1-year and 2-year follow-ups.

    PubMed

    Brose, Leonie S; Brown, Jamie; Hitchman, Sara C; McNeill, Ann

    2015-12-01

    Media presentations of e-cigarettes may affect perception of the devices which may influence use. To assess in a cohort of past-year smokers (1) if perceived harm of e-cigarettes relative to cigarettes changed over time, (2) predictors of perceived relative harm, (3) if perceived relative harm predicted subsequent e-cigarette use among never-users. Longitudinal web-based survey of a general population sample of British smokers and ex-smokers, waves in 2012 (n=4553), 2013 and 2014 (44%, 31% response rate, respectively). Changes over time were assessed using Friedman and McNemar tests, n=1204. Perceived relative harm at wave 3 was regressed onto perceived relative harm at waves 1 and 2, while adjusting for socio-demographics and change in smoking and e-cigarette status, n=1204. Wave 2 e-cigarette use among 1588 wave 1 never-users was regressed onto wave 1 socio-demographics, smoking status and perceived relative harm. Perceived relative harm changed (χ(2)=20.67, p<0.001); the proportion perceiving e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes decreased from 2013 to 2014 (χ(2)=16.55, p<0.001). Previous perception of e-cigarettes as less harmful, having tried e-cigarettes and having stopped smoking between waves predicted perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes. Perceiving e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes predicted subsequent use, adjusting for other characteristics (OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.08-1.80, p=0.011). Among a cohort of smokers and ex-smokers, accurately perceiving e-cigarettes as less harmful than smoking predicted subsequent e-cigarette use in never-users; this perception declined over time. Clear information on the relative harm of cigarettes and e-cigarettes is needed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced exposure evaluation of an Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System. Part 2: Smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicological evaluation using smoking regimens reflecting human puffing behavior.

    PubMed

    Zenzen, Volker; Diekmann, Joerg; Gerstenberg, Birgit; Weber, Susanne; Wittke, Sandra; Schorp, Matthias K

    2012-11-01

    Chemical analysis of up to 49 harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHC) in mainstream smoke, in vitro cytotoxicity of the particulate and gas/vapor phase of mainstream smoke determined in the Neutral Red Uptake assay, and in vitro bacterial mutagenicity of the particulate phase determined in the Salmonella typhimurium Reverse Mutation (Ames) assay are reported for three Electrically Heated Cigarette Smoking System (EHCSS) series-K cigarettes, the University of Kentucky Reference Cigarette 2R4F, and a number of comparator commercial conventional lit-end cigarettes (CC) under ISO machine-smoking conditions and a total of 25 additional smoking regimens reflecting 'human puffing behavior' (HPB). The smoking machines were set to deliver nicotine yields for the EHCSS and comparator CC derived from the 10th percentile to the 90th percentile of nicotine uptake distributions in smokers determined in two clinical studies. Duplication of the smoking intensity 'per cigarette' on a smoking machine may provide an insight into product performance that is directly relevant to obtaining scientific evidence for reduced exposure substantiation based on mainstream cigarette smoke HPHC-to-nicotine regressions. The reported data support an overall evaluation of reduced exposure to HPHC and biological activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A century of smoke.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Wipfli, H

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco kills 5 million people annually. By the mid 2020s, that figure will increase to about 10 million a year, with most of the deaths occurring in developing countries. This review explains how early technological and regulatory developments contributed to the epidemic, reveals the efforts of the tobacco industry to conceal its products' harmfulness, and stresses the role of the globalization of trade and marketing as a means of increasing consumption world-wide. The results of tens of thousands of studies published globally over the past 50 years point to an association between smoking and lung cancer and other adverse health effects, and the non-smoker's rights movement has exposed the wide-spread perils of 'secondhand' smoke. Yet, the tobacco industry continues its global expansion, and consumers in low- and middle-income countries are especially susceptible to its marketing tactics. This review ends by emphasising the need for a global public-health response, and identifies the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as a significant effort. It stresses the need for accelerated action and innovative tobacco-control efforts, if the projected death toll is to be reduced in this century.

  5. Smoke Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  6. Smoke generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A smoke generator is disclosed which is particularly suitable for mounting on the wing tips of an aircraft and for conducting airflow studies. The device includes a network of thermally insulated tubes for carrying a fluid which is used to produce smoke. The fluid, which need not be combustible, is heated above its vaporization temperature by electric current which is passed through the fluid conduit tubes, so that the tubes serve both as fluid conduits and resistance heating elements. Fluid supply and monitoring systems and electrical control systems are also disclosed.

  7. Using E-Cigarettes in the Home to Reduce Smoking and Secondhand Smoke: Disadvantaged Parents' Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are subject to considerable public health debate. Most public health experts agree that for smokers who find it particularly challenging to quit, e-cigarettes may reduce harm. E-cigarette use in the home may also reduce children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, although e-cigarette vapour may pose risks. This…

  8. A fresh look at tobacco harm reduction: the case for the electronic cigarette

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Smokers of any age can reap substantial health benefits by quitting. In fact, no other single public health effort is likely to achieve a benefit comparable to large-scale smoking cessation. Surveys document that most smokers would like to quit, and many have made repeated efforts to do so. However, conventional smoking cessation approaches require nicotine addicted smokers to abstain from tobacco and nicotine entirely. Many smokers are unable – or at least unwilling – to achieve this goal, and so they continue smoking in the face of impending adverse health consequences. In effect, the status quo in smoking cessation presents smokers with just two unpleasant alternatives: quit or suffer the harmful effects of continuing smoking. But, there is a third choice for smokers: tobacco harm reduction. It involves the use of alternative sources of nicotine, including modern smokeless tobacco products like snus and the electronic cigarette (E-cig), or even pharmaceutical nicotine products, as a replacement for smoking. E-cigs might be the most promising product for tobacco harm reduction to date, because, besides delivering nicotine vapour without the combustion products that are responsible for nearly all of smoking’s damaging effect, they also replace some of the rituals associated with smoking behaviour. Thus it is likely that smokers who switch to E-cigs will achieve large health gains. The focus of this article is on the health effects of using an E-cig, with consideration given to the acceptability, safety and effectiveness of this product as a long-term substitute for smoking. PMID:24090432

  9. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  10. Awareness of blindness and other smoking-related diseases and its impact on motivation for smoking cessation in eye patients.

    PubMed

    Handa, S; Woo, J H; Wagle, A M; Htoon, H M; Au Eong, K G

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The association between smoking and eye diseases is less widely recognised relative to other better-known smoking-related conditions. This study aims to assess the awareness and fear of known smoking-related diseases among current smokers attending an ophthalmology outpatient clinic and to evaluate their relative impact on the likelihood of smoking cessation. A cross-sectional survey using a structured interview of randomly selected current smokers attending an eye clinic was conducted. The knowledge of six smoking-related diseases (lung cancer, heart attack, stroke, blindness, other cancers, and other lung diseases) was assessed. The fear of smoking-related conditions and the relative impact of each smoking-related condition on the smoker's motivation to quit smoking were evaluated. Out of 200 current smokers aged from 14 to 83 years, only 42.5% (85 patients) were aware that smoking causes blindness. Smokers' perception of harm caused by smoking was 6.53±3.21 (mean±SD) on a visual analogue scale of 0 to 10. Patients placed blindness as the second most important motivating factor to quit smoking immediately, within 1 year and 5 years, after lung cancer. The awareness of the risk of blindness from smoking was lowest compared with five other smoking-related diseases among eye patients who smoke. However, blindness remains a key motivational factor in smoking cessation and hence should be emphasised as an important negative health consequence of smoking in public health education and anti-smoking campaigns.

  11. Awareness of blindness and other smoking-related diseases and its impact on motivation for smoking cessation in eye patients

    PubMed Central

    Handa, S; Woo, J H; Wagle, A M; Htoon, H M; Au Eong, K G

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Cigarette smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The association between smoking and eye diseases is less widely recognised relative to other better-known smoking-related conditions. This study aims to assess the awareness and fear of known smoking-related diseases among current smokers attending an ophthalmology outpatient clinic and to evaluate their relative impact on the likelihood of smoking cessation. Patients and methods A cross-sectional survey using a structured interview of randomly selected current smokers attending an eye clinic was conducted. The knowledge of six smoking-related diseases (lung cancer, heart attack, stroke, blindness, other cancers, and other lung diseases) was assessed. The fear of smoking-related conditions and the relative impact of each smoking-related condition on the smoker's motivation to quit smoking were evaluated. Results Out of 200 current smokers aged from 14 to 83 years, only 42.5% (85 patients) were aware that smoking causes blindness. Smokers' perception of harm caused by smoking was 6.53±3.21 (mean±SD) on a visual analogue scale of 0 to 10. Patients placed blindness as the second most important motivating factor to quit smoking immediately, within 1 year and 5 years, after lung cancer. Conclusion The awareness of the risk of blindness from smoking was lowest compared with five other smoking-related diseases among eye patients who smoke. However, blindness remains a key motivational factor in smoking cessation and hence should be emphasised as an important negative health consequence of smoking in public health education and anti-smoking campaigns. PMID:21701524

  12. Perceptions of Turkish University Students about the Effects of Water Pipe Smoking on Health.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Sevil; Cinar, Nursan

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of the water pipe, also referred to as hookah, narghile, shisha or hubble-bubble, has increased tremendously during the past few decades. This study was conducted to determine student water pipe smoking status and perceptions about the effects of water pipe smoking on health in a state university in Ankara. This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2014 and January 2015. The data were collected with a questionnaire and "The Scale of Perception about the Effects of Water Pipe Smoking on Health". The data obtained were evaluated in IBM SPSS (version 20.0) statistical package program in computer. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the analyses by checking homogeneity of variances and Student's t-test. Values of p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The total mean score obtained by young people who took part in the study was determined as (X_=65.20±1.25, min=33, max=75). Upon comparison of the total mean scores obtained by young people from the Scale of Perception about the effects of water pipe smoking on health and gender variable, the scores obtained by the females students were higher than those of the male students with a statistically significant difference (t=7.525, p<0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed between the total mean scores obtained by young people with cigarette and water pipe smoking status (for each, t=-3.731, p<0.05; t=-13.987, p<0.05). In conclusion, university students have wrong knowledge on the dangers of water pipe smoking. There was a high prevalence of using water pipes among university students. Gender significantly affected the perceptions about the effect of water pipe smoking on health in our sample.

  13. Waterpipe smoking and nicotine exposure: A review of the current evidence

    PubMed Central

    James Neergaard, M.; Singh, Pramil; Job, Jayakaran; Montgomery, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The waterpipe, also known as shisha, hookah, narghile, goza, and hubble bubble, has long been used for tobacco consumption in the Middle East, India, and parts of Asia, and more recently has been introduced into the smokeless tobacco market in western nations. We reviewed the published literature on waterpipe use to estimate daily nicotine exposure among adult waterpipe smokers. We identified six recent studies that measured the nicotine or cotinine levels associated with waterpipe smoking in four countries (Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, and India). Four of these studies directly measured nicotine or cotinine levels in human subjects. The remaining two studies used smoking machines to measure the nicotine yield in smoking condensate produced by the waterpipe. Meta-analysis of the human data indicated that daily use of the waterpipe produced a 24-hr urinary cotinine level of 0.785 μg/ml (95% CI = 0.578–0.991 μg/ml), a nicotine absorption rate equivalent to smoking 10 cigarettes/day (95% CI = 7–13 cigarettes/day). Even among subjects who were not daily waterpipe smokers, a single session of waterpipe use produced a urinary cotinine level that was equivalent to smoking two cigarettes in one day. Estimates of the nicotine produced by waterpipe use can vary because of burn temperature, type of tobacco, waterpipe design, individual smoking pattern, and duration of the waterpipe smoking habit. Our quantitative synthesis of the limited human data from four nations indicates that daily use of waterpipes produces nicotine absorption of a magnitude similar to that produced by daily cigarette use. PMID:17943617

  14. Biomarkers of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Waterpipe Tobacco Venue Employees in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katherine A; Rule, Ana M; Magid, Hoda S; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Susan, Jolie; Sun, Zhuolu; Torrey, Christine; Abubaker, Salahaddin; Levshin, Vladimir; Çarkoglu, Asli; Radwan, Ghada Nasr; El-Rabbat, Maha; Cohen, Joanna E; Strickland, Paul; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-06-03

    Most smoke-free legislation to reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure exempts waterpipe (hookah) smoking venues. Few studies have examined SHS exposure in waterpipe venues and their employees. We surveyed 276 employees of 46 waterpipe tobacco venues in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo. We interviewed venue managers and employees and collected biological samples from employees to measure exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), hair nicotine, saliva cotinine, urine cotinine, urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), and urine 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG). We estimated adjusted geometric mean ratios (GMR) of each SHS biomarker by employee characteristics and indoor air SHS measures. There were 73 non-smoking employees and 203 current smokers of cigarettes or waterpipe. In non-smokers, the median (interquartile) range concentrations of SHS biomarkers were 1.1 (0.2, 40.9) µg/g creatinine urine cotinine, 5.5 (2, 15) ng/mL saliva cotinine, 0.95 (0.36, 5.02) ng/mg hair nicotine, 1.48 (0.98, 3.97) pg/mg creatinine urine NNAL, 0.54 (0.25, 0.97) pmol/mg creatinine urine 1-OHPG, and 1.67 (1.33, 2.33) ppm exhaled CO. An 8-hour increase in work hours was associated with higher urine cotinine (GMR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.37) and hair nicotine (GMR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.43). Lighting waterpipes was associated with higher saliva cotinine (GMR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.05, 7.62). Non-smoking employees of waterpipe tobacco venues were exposed to high levels of SHS, including measurable levels of carcinogenic biomarkers (tobacco-specific nitrosamines and PAHs). Smoke-free regulation should be extended to waterpipe venues to protect non-smoking employees and patrons from the adverse health effects of SHS.

  15. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... about exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these places: At work The workplace is a major source of SHS ... the only way to prevent SHS exposure at work. Separating smokers from non-smokers, cleaning ... public places Everyone can be exposed to SHS in public ...

  16. The Olympics and harm reduction?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping. PMID:22788912

  17. Harm reduction in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wong, C

    1998-06-29

    Manipur, a state in northeast India and one of its poorest areas, has widespread iv drug use and accompanying risky behavior. By the early 1990s, 50% of iv drug users (IDUs) there were infected with HIV. Initial efforts to implement harm reduction measures by the state government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were unsuccessful because of concerns regarding community resistance. According to Khomdon Singh Lisam, Project Director of the Manipur State AIDS Control Society, it was necessary to lay the groundwork for harm reduction by involving community and professional groups; this led to the adoption of the Manipur State AIDS Policy (MSAP) by the State Cabinet. This policy permits the implementation of a number of services, including needle exchange and education about sterilizing drug equipment. According to Lisam, there is strong community support for the harm reduction program. In the city of Madras, in southern India, needle exchange is illegal (the MSAP is one of a kind in India), but needles can be bought for a few centimes at pharmacies. However, according to M. Suresh Kumar, of the Society for Aid and Help for Addictive Illnesses (SAHAI) in Madras, IDUs cannot afford money for the needles. SAHAI has been working together with influential people to develop outreach programs. Education of IDUs must be face-to-face, because illiteracy is so high; the social networks and families of IDUs are also educated about risk reduction.

  18. [The dawn of a smoke-free leisure industry in The Nederlands].

    PubMed

    Verheugt, F W A; Zaat, J O M; de Leeuw, P W

    2008-06-28

    From the 1st of July 2008 the Dutch smoking ban for public spaces will be extended to hotels, restaurants and bars. The ban is a result of a 2003 Health Council report in which it was concluded that the annual incidence of deaths due to passive smoking is considerable. Based on these numbers, smoking in public spaces is prohibited since 2004. In a society where smoking in public spaces is prohibited, the harm of passive smoking will decrease. In this issue of The Nederlands Tijdschrit voor Geneeskunde (Dutch Journal of Medicine) a number of articles are dedicated to the subject of smoking.

  19. Seeing the "Harm" in "Harmed" and "Harmful": Morphological Processing by Children in Grades 4, 6, and 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Campbell, Emily; Tamminga, Meredith; Kirby, John

    2010-01-01

    This study examined morphological processing of inflected and derived words by children in Grades 4, 6, and 8. Participants were shown root forms and inflected, derived, and orthographic control items (e.g., "harm", "harmed", "harmful", or "harmony"), followed by a fragment completion task (e.g., completing "h a_ _"). Participants were equally…

  20. Seeing the "Harm" in "Harmed" and "Harmful": Morphological Processing by Children in Grades 4, 6, and 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, S. Helene; Campbell, Emily; Tamminga, Meredith; Kirby, John

    2010-01-01

    This study examined morphological processing of inflected and derived words by children in Grades 4, 6, and 8. Participants were shown root forms and inflected, derived, and orthographic control items (e.g., "harm", "harmed", "harmful", or "harmony"), followed by a fragment completion task (e.g., completing "h a_ _"). Participants were equally…

  1. Clinical and social outcomes of adolescent self harm: population based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Jon; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Tilling, Kate; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the mental health, substance use, educational, and occupational outcomes of adolescents who self harm in a general population sample, and to examine whether these outcomes differ according to self reported suicidal intent. Design Population based birth cohort study. Setting Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK birth cohort of children born in 1991-92. Participants Data on lifetime history of self harm with and without suicidal intent were available for 4799 respondents who completed a detailed self harm questionnaire at age 16 years. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. Main outcome measures Mental health problems (depression and anxiety disorder), assessed using the clinical interview schedule-revised at age 18 years, self reported substance use (alcohol, cannabis, cigarette smoking, and illicit drugs) at age 18 years, educational attainment at age 16 and 19 years, occupational outcomes at age 19 years, and self harm at age 21 years. Results Participants who self harmed with and without suicidal intent at age 16 years were at increased risk of developing mental health problems, future self harm, and problem substance misuse, with stronger associations for suicidal self harm than for non-suicidal self harm. For example, in models adjusted for confounders the odds ratio for depression at age 18 years was 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.55 to 3.15) in participants who had self harmed without suicidal intent at age 16 years and 3.94 (2.67 to 5.83) in those who had self harmed with suicidal intent. Suicidal self harm, but not self harm without suicidal intent, was also associated with poorer educational and employment outcomes. Conclusions Adolescents who self harm seem to be vulnerable to a range of adverse outcomes in early adulthood. Risks were generally stronger in those who had self harmed with suicidal intent, but outcomes were also poor among those who had self harmed without suicidal

  2. Behaviours and opinions of adolescent students on smoking.

    PubMed

    İçmeli, Özlem Saniye; Türker, Hatice; Gündoğuş, Baran; Çiftci, Merve; Aka Aktürk, Ülkü

    2016-09-01

    Smoking is one of the major causes of preventable diseases, disability and death in the globe and Turkey. In our study, the knowledge of students about smoking addiction and which organ in the body is damaged due to smoking are aimed to be determined. Surveys were applied to students of private university preparatory training center on the Anatolian side of Istanbul. In the conducted survey, the questions related with students' demographic characteristics, themselves, their families and friends smoking addiction, the reasons to start smoking, whether they want to quit smoking, whether they try to quit smoking and which of the organs that they know smoking is harmful were asked. The data obtained were transferred to the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows. Out of 358 students who answered the survey completely, 152 students (42.4%) were male, 206 (57.6%) were female. Students were between the ages of 16-20 and the mean age was 18 ± 1.15. When asked about their smoking addiction, 84 (23.5%) of total actively continued to smoke. Total of 14 students (3.9%) smoked and then stopped smoking, 260 students (72.6%) have never smoked. Curiosity was the most commonly reported reason to start smoking (39%) and for the second row, they indicated to start smoking due to tobacco user friends (30.6%). More and more young people begin smoking at an earlier age and they transfer the problems of this bad addiction to the later years of their lives. There should be fight resolutely against actions and conditions encouraging smoking both as a state and society and in order to rescue young people from this bad addiction, it should continue to take steps which facilitate accessibility to supportive institutions.

  3. Tobacco smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions

    PubMed Central

    West, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Results and conclusions: Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease. PMID:28553727

  4. Tobacco smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    PubMed

    West, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease.

  5. Harm Reduction at the Crossroads The Case of E-Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    The recent popularity of electronic (e)-cigarettes and their rapid uptake by youth has ignited the debate about their role as a harm-reduction strategy. Harm reduction in the context of tobacco control contends that in societies that have achieved considerable success in curbing smoking, leaving the remaining hard-to-quit smokers with an abstinence-only option is unfair, especially when less-harmful choices are available. On one side of the debate are those who call for caution in endorsing such products until critical pieces of evidence about their safety and potential become available, whereas the other side argues that waiting until all questions about e-cigarettes are answered is dogma driven. In this piece, I try to discuss the unresolvable contention between harm-reduction goals of offering safer options to smokers, and those of e-cigarette makers of being commercially viable and profitable. PMID:25092121

  6. Tobacco harm reduction: the need for new products that can compete with cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fagerström, Karl Olov; Bridgman, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the concept of tobacco harm reduction has been well established. It is now understood that nicotine itself is not very harmful and nicotine replacement therapy products have been widely used as an aid to quit, reduce to quit or temporarily abstain from smoking for many years. The popularity of the unlicensed electronic cigarette has increased despite an unknown risk profile and sinus use in Sweden provides strong evidence in support of a harm reduction strategy. The regulatory environment around harm reduction has changed in the UK and is continuing to evolve across the globe. The need for more appealing, licensed nicotine products capable of competing with cigarettes sensorially, pharmacologically and behaviourally is considered by many to be the way forward. The significant positive impact on public health that could be gained from encouraging people to switch from cigarettes to licensed medicinal nicotine products cannot be ignored.

  7. Effect of televised, tobacco company-funded smoking prevention advertising on youth smoking-related beliefs, intentions, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Saffer, Henry; Chaloupka, Frank J; Szczypka, Glen; Flay, Brian; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2006-12-01

    To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertising to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n = 103,172) gathered from 1999 to 2002. Multivariate regression models controlled for individual, geographic, and tobacco policy factors, and other televised antitobacco advertising. There was little relation between exposure to tobacco company-sponsored, youth-targeted advertising and youth smoking outcomes. Among youths in grades 10 and 12, during the 4 months leading up to survey administration, each additional viewing of a tobacco company parent-targeted advertisement was, on average, associated with lower perceived harm of smoking (odds ratio [OR]=0.93; confidence interval [CI]=0.88, 0.98), stronger approval of smoking (OR=1.11; CI=1.03,1.20), stronger intentions to smoke in the future (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.21), and greater likelihood of having smoked in the past 30 days (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.19). Exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted smoking prevention advertising generally had no beneficial outcomes for youths. Exposure to tobacco company parent-targeted advertising may have harmful effects on youth, especially among youths in grades 10 and 12.

  8. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  9. Do no harm: no psychological harm from colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kirkøen, Benedicte; Berstad, Paula; Botteri, Edoardo; Åvitsland, Tone Lise; Ossum, Alvilde Maria; de Lange, Thomas; Hoff, Geir; Bernklev, Tomm

    2016-03-01

    Participation in cancer screening programmes might cause worries in the population outweighting the benefits of reduced mortality. The present study aimed to investigate possible psychological harm of participation in a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening pilot in Norway. In a prospective, randomised trial participants (aged 50-74 years) were invited to either flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening, faecal immunochemical test (FIT), or no screening (the control group; 1 : 1: 1). Three thousand two hundred and thirteen screening participants (42% of screened individuals) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire as well as the SF-12-a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire when invited to screening and when receiving the screening result. A control group was invited to complete the questionnaires only. Two thousand six hundred and eighteen control participants (35% of invited individuals) completed the questionnaire. A positive screening result did not increase participants' level of anxiety or depression, or decrease participants' level of HRQOL. Participants who received a negative result reported decreased anxiety and improvement on some HRQOL dimensions. However, no change was considered to be of clinical relevance. The current study showed no clinically relevant psychological harm of receiving a positive CRC screening result or of participating in FS or FIT screening, in a Norwegian population.

  10. [Dutch parliament legitimizes harmful quackery].

    PubMed

    van Dam, Frits S A M; Renckens, Cees N M

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch parliament has recently accepted a tax law in which certain groups of alternative therapists can be exempt from VAT. To be eligible for this VAT exemption, the disciplines to which the therapists belong have to meet certain training requirements. In this article it is contended, in agreement with the Royal College of Physicians in the UK, that statutory regulation is inappropriate for disciplines whose therapies are neither of proved benefit nor appropriately tested. It legitimizes harmful therapies. This is illustrated by two serious accidents, previously described in this journal, caused by a chiropractor and a craniosacral therapist.

  11. Smoking, smoking cessation and tobacco control in rural China: a qualitative study in Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Chenghui; Jia, Chongqi; Liu, Yanxun; Liu, Junjie; Yan, Xiaona; Fang, Yufeng

    2014-09-04

    Smoking prevalence is high in China and even higher among rural residents. The aims of this study were: 1) to gain insights into the motivations of tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among rural village residents; 2) to understand the current tobacco control measures in the rural villages and barriers encountered or perceived for implementation. Qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions were conducted of 59 rural villagers including 37 village residents, 10 village leaders and 12 village doctors in three counties in Shandong Province, China. Smoking initiation was most often out of curiosity when seeing others smoke, but pressure from cigarette sharing and gifting custom was the major barrier to smoking cessation. The most important reason for quitting successfully was a detrimental health problem. Although many attempted to quit at the advice of other family members, relapses were common and few were able to quit completely and for long-term unless accompanied by significant health issues. Although doctor's advice to quit is effective, many doctors do not offer advice to all patients. There is a lack of true understanding of the harm of smoking and second-hand smoking among the villagers and a lack of access to and knowledge of effective smoking cessation tools among both smokers and village doctors. Tobacco control activities at villages were rare and infrequent. This study highlighted the need to develop tobacco control measures that reflect the unique culture in rural China. Smoking cessation measures are not likely to achieve large scale effect unless the prevailing cigarette sharing and gifting custom is drastically changed. More educations of the hazards of smoking and second-hand smoking to village residents and educations of effective smoking cessation treatment to both village residents and healthcare providers are needed.

  12. What's the Harm? Harms in Research with Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with…

  13. What's the Harm? Harms in Research with Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Katherine E.; Conroy, Nicole E.; Olick, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific advances can improve the lives of adults with intellectual disability, yet concerns that research participation may impose harm impede scientific progress. What counts as harmful can be subjective and perceptions of harm may vary among stakeholders. We studied perspectives on the harmfulness of research events among adults with…

  14. Nonsuicidal Self-Harm among Community Adolescents: Understanding the "Whats" and "Whys" of Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laye-Gindhu, Aviva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines self-harm in a community sample of adolescents. More specifically, the study identifies the prevalence and types of self-harm, elucidates the nature and underlying function of self-harm, and evaluates the relation of psychological adjustment, sociodemographic, and health-risk variables to self-harm. Self-report questionnaires…

  15. Harm reduction in U.S. tobacco control: Constructions in textual news media.

    PubMed

    Eversman, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    U.S. tobacco control has long emphasized abstinence, yet quitting smoking is hard and cessation rates low. Tobacco harm reduction alternatives espouse substituting cigarettes with safer nicotine and tobacco products. Policy shifts embracing tobacco harm reduction have increased media attention, yet it remains controversial. Discourse theory posits language as fluid, and socially constructed meaning as neither absolute nor neutral, elevating certain views over others while depicting "discursive struggle" between them. While an abstinence-based framework dominates tobacco policy, discourse theory suggests constructions of nicotine and tobacco use can change, for example by positioning tobacco harm reduction more favorably. Textual discourse analysis was used to explore constructions of tobacco harm reduction in 478 (308 original) U.S. textual news media articles spanning 1996-2014. Using keyword database sampling, retrieved articles were analyzed first as discrete recording units and then to identify emergent thematic content. Constructions of tobacco harm reduction shifted over this time, revealing tension among industry and policy interests through competing definitions of tobacco harm reduction, depictions of its underlying science, and accounts of regulatory matters including tobacco industry support for harm reduction and desired marketing and taxation legislation. Heightened salience surrounding tobacco harm reduction and electronic cigarettes suggests their greater acceptance in U.S. tobacco control. Various media depictions construct harm reduction as a temporary means to cessation, and conflict with other constructions of it that place no subjective value on continued "safer" tobacco/nicotine use. Constructions of science largely obscure claims of the veracity of tobacco harm reduction, with conflict surrounding appropriate public health benchmarks for tobacco policy and health risks of nicotine use. Taxation policies and e-cigarette pricing relative to

  16. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  17. Delivering on the Promise of Smoke-Free Public Housing.

    PubMed

    Levy, Douglas E; Adams, Inez F; Adamkiewicz, Gary

    2017-03-01

    On November 30, 2016, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) published a final rule mandating that public housing authorities it supports prohibit all smoking on their residential premises, including within residents' apartments. The primary rationale for this action was to protect nonsmoking residents from the harms of tobacco smoke exposure. Although the harms of secondhand smoke are clear and the potential for reducing nonsmoking residents' exposure is real, it will be no simple matter to successfully implement the policy requirements set down by HUD. Some challenges to policy implementation will apply to all public housing authorities, and others will be unique to specific settings. By being aware of the benefits of smoke-free public housing as well as the challenges inherent in complying with HUD's rule, public housing authorities stand the best chance of fulfilling the potential of this major policy initiative to significantly improve public health in a vulnerable population.

  18. Those harmed by others’ drinking in the US population are more depressed and distressed

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Kerr, William C.; Ye, Yu; Kaplan, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Harms from second-hand smoke were instrumental in enacting tobacco controls. Documenting negative impacts of harms from others’ drinking (also called second-hand effects of drinking) is vital to increase political will for optimal alcohol policies. We assessed associations between harms from others’ drinking and depression in a national sample of US adults. Design and Methods Using the landline sample from the 2010 National Alcohol Survey (n = 5,388), weighted logistic regression models adjusting for alcohol problems in family of origin, respondent drinking pattern (volume and heaviest drinking), poverty, and other demographics were used to analyze associations between experiencing harms from others’ drinking in the last 12 months with mild to moderate depression (CES-D8; alpha = .92; using cut point ≥8) and current distress. Results Past 12-month family/marital harms, financial troubles, and vandalized property attributed to others’ drinking each was associated with higher depression scores (all p < .001). In a combined model, all harms other than assaults remained highly significant. Similar patterns were found for current distress, but with some specific differences due to measurement and analytic approaches chosen also evident. Discussion Findings suggest recently experiencing particular harms from others’ drinking significantly affects mental health (both depression and distress). This confirms in a US population results recently reported in Australasian samples. Conclusions Studies that quantify the extent to which heavy drinkers victimize others are important for alcohol policy. PMID:26382188

  19. Clearing the Air About Surgical Smoke: An Education Program.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Sherry; Wagner, Vicki; Becker, Melanie; Bowerman, Mercelita I; Jamias, Mary Shirley

    2016-03-01

    Evidence of the harmful effects of surgical smoke has been recognized in the literature and by professional organizations for many years, yet surgical smoke continues to pose a safety hazard for patients and perioperative personnel. A team of perioperative nurses and educators sought to improve compliance with policies and procedures for surgical smoke management in the OR. The team quantified smoke-evacuator use, assessed staff members' knowledge using a pre-education survey, and presented a three-part multimodal education program. The team conducted a posteducation survey that showed significant improvement in staff members' knowledge. Ninety-day postimplementation quantitative data showed a 14.6% increase in surgical smoke-evacuation use. This educational initiative increased staff members' awareness about reducing the presence of surgical smoke in the OR and helped ensure a safer environment for patients, staff members, and the surgical team.

  20. Cannabis smoking and respiratory health: consideration of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter; Jaffe, Adam; Copeland, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The respiratory health effects from tobacco smoking are well described. Cannabis smoke contains a similar profile of carcinogenic chemicals as tobacco smoke but is inhaled more deeply. Although cannabis smoke is known to contain similar harmful and carcinogenic substances to tobacco smoke, relatively little is understood regarding the respiratory health effects from cannabis smoking. There is a need to integrate research on cannabis and respiratory health effects so that gaps in the literature can be identified and the more consistent findings can be consolidated with the purpose of educating smokers and health service providers. This review focuses on several aspects of respiratory health and cannabis use (as well as concurrent cannabis and tobacco use) and provides an update to (i) the pathophysiology; (ii) general respiratory health including symptoms of chronic bronchitis; and (iii) lung cancer. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Cigarette smoking in China: public health, science, and policy.

    PubMed

    Au, William W; Su, Daisy; Yuan, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, cigarette smoking is a habit that causes serious health, economic, and social problems. Therefore, many countries have taken an active role to control and to ban smoking. The chronic smoking problem in China is particularly acute because China has the largest population of smokers in the world, over 300 million currently. If 30% of these smokers were to die of smoke-related diseases in the next 20 years, the impact from the more than 90 million premature deaths could be damaging to China. In addition, numerous non-smokers also experience health problems from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. China's efforts to reduce or to ban smoking in certain public places have not been well-coordinated or enforced compared with those in other countries. Therefore, success has been minimal. Consequently, leaders in China should not be complacent about combating the serious national health problem. A multiprong approach in combination with the MPOWER policy from the World Health Organization that targets different levels of acquisition of the smoking habit must be used. Examples may include the government's reduced reliance on profits from the sale of cigarettes, the elimination of advertisements that encourage smoking among young individuals, the presentation of more graphic illustration of harmful effects from smoking on every pack of cigarettes, higher taxes/prices on cigarettes, and the implementation of enforceable bans on smoking in public places. As shown in other countries, such coordinated effort can be highly effective in the reduction of smoking and can have healthy consequences.

  2. Waterpipe smoking among secondary school students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Leung, Lok Tung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2016-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking and its associated factors among adolescents in Hong Kong. We analyzed data of the School-based Survey on Smoking among Students 2012/2013 from a representative sample of 45,857 secondary school students in Hong Kong (mean age 14.8, SD 1.9). We conducted Chi-square tests and t test to compare current (past 30 days) waterpipe users and nonusers by sociodemographic variables and other covariates. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the factors associated with current waterpipe smoking. Overall, 1.2 % of students reported current waterpipe smoking, of whom 43 % reported concurrent use of cigarettes. Waterpipe was the most popular alternative tobacco product (non-cigarette) used by students. Current waterpipe smoking was associated with older age, male sex, higher self-perceived family financial status, poor knowledge about the harm of cigarette smoking, positive attitudes toward smoking, current cigarette smoking, other tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. Waterpipe smoking was the most popular alternative tobacco product among Hong Kong adolescents. Despite the low prevalence, it should be routinely monitored. Education programs and cessation interventions need to address waterpipe smoking in addition to cigarette smoking.

  3. Smoking Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bernard H., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    The youth smoking problem is discussed and assistance is provided for teachers in developing smoking prevention and cessation programs. Four chapters serve as guides to understanding and working with the youth smoking problem. "Teenage Smoking in America" reviews trends in teenage smoking behavior and the factors that influence the initiation of…

  4. Comparison of True and Smoothed Puff Profile Replication on Smoking Behavior and Mainstream Smoke Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To estimate exposures to smokers from cigarettes, smoking topography is typically measured and programmed into a smoking machine to mimic human smoking, and the resulting smoke emissions are tested for relative levels of harmful constituents. However, using only the summary puff data—with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration—may underestimate or overestimate actual exposure to smoke toxins. In this laboratory study, we used a topography-driven smoking machine that faithfully reproduces a human smoking session and individual human topography data (n = 24) collected during previous clinical research to investigate if replicating the true puff profile (TP) versus the mathematically derived smoothed puff profile (SM) resulted in differences in particle size distributions and selected toxic/carcinogenic organic compounds from mainstream smoke emissions. Particle size distributions were measured using an electrical low pressure impactor, the masses of the size-fractionated fine and ultrafine particles were determined gravimetrically, and the collected particulate was analyzed for selected particle-bound, semivolatile compounds. Volatile compounds were measured in real time using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. By and large, TP levels for the fine and ultrafine particulate masses as well as particle-bound organic compounds were slightly lower than the SM concentrations. The volatile compounds, by contrast, showed no clear trend. Differences in emissions due to the use of the TP and SM profiles are generally not large enough to warrant abandoning the procedures used to generate the simpler smoothed profile in favor of the true profile. PMID:25536227

  5. Workplace exposure to secondhand smoke among non-smoking hospitality employees.

    PubMed

    Lawhorn, Nikki A; Lirette, David K; Klink, Jenna L; Hu, Chih-Yang; Contreras, Cassandra; Ajori Bryant, Ty-Runet Pinkney; Brown, Lisanne F; Diaz, James H

    2013-02-01

    This article examines salivary cotinine concentrations to characterize secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smoking hospitality employees (bar and casino employees and musicians who perform in bars) who are exposed to SHS in the workplace. A pre-post test study design was implemented to assess SHS exposure in the workplace. The convenience sample of 41 non-smoking hospitality employees included 10 controls (non-smoking hospitality employees not exposed to SHS in the workplace). The findings demonstrate that post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed to SHS in the workplace are significantly higher than controls who work in smoke-free venues. Findings also suggested a statistically significant increase between pre- and post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed in the workplace. No statistically significant difference was noted across labor categories, suggesting that all exposed employees are at increased risk. The study results indicate that non-smoking hospitality employees exposed to SHS in the workplace have significantly higher cotinine concentration levels compared with their counterparts who work in smoke-free venues. Findings from other studies suggest that these increased cotinine levels are harmful to health. Given the potential impact on the health of exposed employees, this study further supports the efforts of tobacco prevention and control programs in advocating for comprehensive smoke-free air policies to protect bar and casino employees.

  6. Hierarchical Composites to Reduce N-Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Yan; Cao, Yi; Yue, Ming Bo; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Jian Hua

    2015-03-20

    In order to reduce the harmful constituents in cigarette smoke, two hierarchical composites were synthesized. Based on, zeolites HZSM-5 or NaY fragments were introduced into the synthetic system of mesoporous silica SBA-15 or MCM-41 and assembled with the mesoporous materials. These porous composites combine the advantages of micro- and mesoporous materials, and exhibit higher effects than activated carbon on reducing tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and some vapor phase compounds in smoke.

  7. The support for smoke free policy and how it is influenced by tolerance to smoking - experience of a developing country.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Abdul; Manan, Azizah Ab; Yahya, Noorlia; Ibrahim, Lailanor

    2014-01-01

    This cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the support in making Penang UNESCO World Heritage Site (GTWHS) smoke free and to determine the influence of tolerance towards smoking on this support. This is the first phase in making Penang, Malaysia a smoke free state. A multistage sampling process was done to select a sample of respondents to represent the population of GTWHS. Attitude towards smoking was assessed using tolerance as a proxy. A total of 3,268 members of the community participated in the survey. A big majority (n = 2969; 90.9%) of the respondents supported the initiative. Support was lowest among the owners and residents/tenants, higher age groups, the Chinese, men, respondents who had poor knowledge of the places gazetted as smoke free, and respondents with poor knowledge of the health effects on smokers and on passive smokers. The odds (both adjusted and unadjusted) of not supporting the initiative was high among those tolerant to smoking in public areas. Tolerance towards smoking was associated with 80.3% risk of non-support in the respondents who were tolerant to smoking and a 57.2% risk in the population. Health promotion and education concerning the harm of tobacco smoke in Malaysia, which has mainly targeted smokers, must change. Health education concerning the risks of second hand smoke must also be given to non-smokers and efforts should be made to denormalize smoking.

  8. Smoking and surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  9. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth > For Kids > Smoking Stinks! Print A ... more about cigarettes and tobacco. continue What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  10. Smoking and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (85 ... late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  11. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth > For Kids > Smoking Stinks! A A ... more about cigarettes and tobacco. continue What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  12. All about Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ ... bad for your health. But do you know all the benefits of quitting? When you quit smoking, ...

  13. Preterm labor and prenatal harm.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    A young pregnant woman, diagnosed as extremely immature with a personality disorder, refuses treatment to stop preterm labor despite advice that a premature birth may result in fetal death or a handicapped baby. Her physician considers acquiescing and risking a premature delivery, transferring the patient to a compliant physician, or obtaining a court order to force treatment. Steinbock, a professor of philosophy and public policy, takes a psychological approach of exploring the reasons for the refusal and of gentle persuasion. Marquis, a philosopher, employs a comparison of harms analysis and concludes that the rights of the postnatal child not to risk permanent, substantial, preventable injury overrides the pregnant woman's right not to be confined involuntarily. Kayata, a pediatrician, raises the issue of the obstetrician's conflicting legal obligations and recommends seeking a court order.

  14. Are cultic environments psychologically harmful?

    PubMed

    Aronoff, J; Lynn, S J; Malinoski, P

    2000-01-01

    This article is the first critical review of research that addresses the question of whether cult membership is psychologically harmful. The available evidence warrants three conclusions: (a) persons entering cults do not necessarily exhibit psychopathology; (b) current cult members appear psychologically well-adjusted generally, and demonstrate few conspicuous symptoms of psychopathology. However, pathology may be masked by conformity pressures and demand characteristics associated with the cultic environment; (c) a small but growing body of research indicates that at least a substantial minority of former cult members experience significant adjustment difficulties. There also are indications that these difficulties cannot be ascribed to demand characteristics. Although the review highlights definitional and methodological issues and problems that temper conclusions that can be drawn from the literature, no evidence indicates that cults improve adjustment after members leave the cultic environment.

  15. Parental Smoking Exposure and Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Stephen E.; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001–2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. RESULTS: Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents’ current non-nicotine–dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children’s lifetime to reduce these risks. PMID:24819567

  16. Parental smoking exposure and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2014-06-01

    In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001-2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents' current non-nicotine-dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children's lifetime to reduce these risks. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Electronic cigarettes: Review of use, content, safety, effects on smokers, and potential for harm and benefit

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, Peter; Etter, Jean-François; Benowitz, Neal; Eissenberg, Thomas; McRobbie, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Aims We reviewed available research on the use, content and safety of electronic cigarettes (EC) and on their effects on users, to assess their potential for harm or benefit and to extract evidence that can guide future policy. Methods Studies were identified by systematic database searches and screening references to February 2014. Results EC aerosol can contain some of the toxicants present in tobacco smoke, but at levels which are much lower. Long-term health effects of EC use are unknown but compared with cigarettes, EC are likely to be much less, if at all, harmful to users or bystanders. EC are increasingly popular among smokers, but to date there is no evidence of regular use by never-smokers or by non-smoking children. EC enable some users to reduce or quit smoking. Conclusions Allowing EC to compete with cigarettes in the marketplace might decrease smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Regulating EC as strictly as cigarettes, or even more strictly as some regulators propose, is not warranted on current evidence. Health professionals may consider advising smokers unable or unwilling to quit through other routes to switch to EC as a safer alternative to smoking and a possible pathway to complete cessation of nicotine use. PMID:25078252

  18. [Midwives and smoking--attitudes, smoking status and counselling competence in the course of training].

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, K; Laux, M; Koch, F; Groneberg, D A; Kusma, B; Schwarz, C; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major public health threat. Midwives can contribute to the reduction of tobacco use among pregnant women and young families. It can be assumed that personal smoking behaviour and knowledge of harmful effects influences counselling activities. The aim of this study was to assess smoking status, nicotine dependency and the will to change of midwifery students in german-speaking countries. Broad data on this population is not available so far. In 2010, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among Austrian, German and Swiss midwifery schools. Sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits, personal attitudes towards smoking, knowledge of cessation strategies, perceived self-efficacy and competence to counsel pregnant women regarding their smoking habits of midwifery trainees were examined. 1 126 students and 38 teaching midwives answered this questionnaire (RR=61.8%). 22.7% are daily or occasional smokers. 6.8% have to be considered as medium and heavy smokers. 98.1% consider cessation counselling for pregnant and breast-feeding women as a midwife's task, while 76.5% feel competent enough to do so. 75.5% rate cessation counselling through midwives as effective stop-smoking procedures compared to blurry knowledge on related health risks and effective stop-smoking strategies. The self-reported smoking prevalence is considerably lower than in previous studies and other populations. Knowledge of harmful effects and of effective treatment options needs improvement. Counselling competence needs to be included in a broader way in midwifery curricula. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Self-harm, substance use and psychological distress in the Australian general population.

    PubMed

    Moller, Carl I; Tait, Robert J; Byrne, Don G

    2013-01-01

    To examine predictors of self-harm, especially substance use and psychological distress, in an Australian adult general population sample. Sequential-cohort design with follow-up every four years. Australian general population. A random sample of adults aged 20-24 and 40-44 years (at baseline) living in and around the Australian Capital Territory. Self-report survey including items on four common forms of self-harm. Psychological distress was indexed by the combined Goldberg Anxiety and Depression scale scores and alcohol problems by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Four thousand one hundred and sixty people (84% of baseline) were re-interviewed at 8 years: 4126 reported their self-harm status. Past year self-harm was reported by 8.2% (95% CI 7.4-9.0%) of participants [males: 9.3% (8.0-10.6%), females: 7.3% (6.2-8.4%)]. Several forms of substance use-smoking (OR = 1.52), marijuana use (OR = 1.77) and drinking alcohol at a level likely to cause dependence (AUDIT score ≥ 20) (OR = 2.08)-were independently predictive of past year self-harm. Additional key risk factors for self-harm in the past year were childhood sexual abuse by a parent (OR = 3.07), bisexual orientation (OR = 2.65), younger age (OR = 2.23) and male gender (OR = 1.86). Other independent predictors were years of education, adverse life events, psychological distress and financial strain. Self-harm in young and middle-aged adults appears to be associated with current smoking, marijuana and 'dependent' alcohol use. Other independent predictors include younger age, male gender, bisexual orientation, financial strain, education level, psychological distress, adverse life events and sexual abuse by a parent. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, and Health: A Test of Competing Theories of Cumulative Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampel, Fred C.; Rogers, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    Although both low socioeconomic status and cigarette smoking increase health problems and mortality, their possible combined or interactive influence is less clear. On one hand, the health of low status groups may be harmed least by unhealthy behavior such as smoking because, given the substantial health risks produced by limited resources, they…

  1. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  2. 8 Things You Can Do to Protect Your Family from Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2012 Maybe you’ve heard that smoking causes cancer Read full story: 11 Harmful Effects of Smoking on Women’s Health >> Quit ... a Baby? SmokefreeMOM is a text messaging program that provides quitting tips and encouragement. Sign ...

  3. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  4. Comparison of Cigarette and Water-Pipe Smoking By Arab and Non–Arab-American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas N.; Rice, Virginia Hill; Jamil, Hikmet; Hammad, Adnan

    2008-01-01

    Background Water-pipe smoking is a rapidly growing form of tobacco use worldwide. Building on an earlier report of experimentation with cigarette and water-pipe smoking in a U.S. community sample of Arab-American youth aged 14–18 years, this article examines water-pipe smoking in more detail (e.g., smoking history, belief in harmfulness compared to cigarettes, family members in home who smoke water pipes) and compares the water-pipe–smoking behaviors of Arab-American youth with non–Arab-American youth in the same community. Methods A convenience sample of 1872 Arab-American and non–Arab-American high school students from the Midwest completed a 24-item tobacco survey. Data were collected in 2004–2005 and analyzed in 2007–2008. Results Arab-American youth reported lower percentages of ever cigarette smoking (20% vs 39%); current cigarette smoking (7% vs 22%); and regular cigarette smoking (3% vs 15%) than non–Arab-American youth. In contrast, Arab-American youth reported significantly higher percentages of ever water-pipe smoking (38% vs 21%) and current water-pipe smoking (17% vs 11%) than non–Arab-American youth. Seventy-seven percent perceived water-pipe smoking to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarette smoking. Logistic regression showed that youth were 11.0 times more likely to be currently smoking cigarettes if they currently smoked water pipes. Youth were also 11.0 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers if they currently smoked cigarettes. If one or more family members smoked water pipes in the home, youth were 6.3 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers. The effects of ethnicity were reduced as a result of the explanatory value of family smoking. Conclusions Further research is needed to determine the percentages, patterns, and health risks of water-pipe smoking and its relationship to cigarette smoking among all youth. Additionally, youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs need to focus attention on water

  5. Smoking cessation medications

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  6. Depression and Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who Quit Community Helping Someone Quit Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Smoking & Mood Stress Depression Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in ...

  7. Smoking in movies: impact on adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D

    2005-06-01

    This article examines the evidence that supports an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often is modeled by stars, who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies that assess audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The two published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Pediatricians should support public health campaigns to pressure the movie industry to voluntarily reduce smoking in movies and encourage parents to adhere to the Motion Picture Ratings System to reduce adolescent exposure to this powerful social influence to smoke.

  8. Toward a psychology of harm reduction.

    PubMed

    MacCoun, R J

    1998-11-01

    This article discusses 3 different strategies for dealing with the harmful consequences of drug use and other risky behaviors: We can discourage people from engaging in the behavior (prevalence reduction), we can encourage people to reduce the frequency or extent of the behavior (quantity reduction), or we can try to reduce the harmful consequences of the behavior when it occurs (harm reduction). These strategies are not mutually exclusive; this article offers a framework for integrating them. The framework is useful for examining frequent claims that harm reduction "sends the wrong message." Opposition to harm reduction is based in part on a recognition of potential trade-offs among the strategies, but it is also fueled by several more symbolic psychological factors. Strategies for successfully integrating prevalence reduction, quantity reduction, and harm reduction are explored.

  9. Minimising the harm from nicotine use: finding the right regulatory framework

    PubMed Central

    Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco problem can be usefully conceptualised as two problems: eliminating the most harmful forms of nicotine use (certainly cigarettes, and probably all smoked tobacco), and minimising the use and/or harms from use of lower-harm, but addictive forms of nicotine. A possible target would be to effectively eliminate use of the most harmful forms of nicotine within the next decade and then turn our focus to a long-term strategy for the low-harm forms. This paper focuses on the administrative framework(s) needed to accomplish these twin tasks. For a phase-out taking a long time and/or for dealing with residually net harmful and addictive products, there are severe limitations to allowing for-profit marketing of tobacco because such an arrangement (the current one in most countries) can markedly slow down progress and because of the difficulty of constraining marketing in ways that minimise undesirable use. A harm reduction model where the marketing is under the control of a non-profit entity (a regulated market) is required to curtail the incredible power of for-profit marketing and to allow tobacco marketing to be done in ways that further the goal of minimising tobacco-related harm. Countries with a nationalised industry can move their industry onto a harm minimisation framework if they have the political will. Countries with a for-profit industry should consider whether the time and effort required to reconstruct the market may, in the longer term, facilitate achieving their policy goals. PMID:23591515

  10. Household Factors Associated with Self-Harm in Johannesburg, South African Urban-Poor Households

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD) study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006–2011) was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt) within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm. Results A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 5.72; 95% CI 1.64–19.97); that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39–33.56) and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14–16.47). Conclusion This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors. PMID:26731114

  11. Minimising the harm from nicotine use: finding the right regulatory framework.

    PubMed

    Borland, Ron

    2013-05-01

    The tobacco problem can be usefully conceptualised as two problems: eliminating the most harmful forms of nicotine use (certainly cigarettes, and probably all smoked tobacco), and minimising the use and/or harms from use of lower-harm, but addictive forms of nicotine. A possible target would be to effectively eliminate use of the most harmful forms of nicotine within the next decade and then turn our focus to a long-term strategy for the low-harm forms. This paper focuses on the administrative framework(s) needed to accomplish these twin tasks. For a phase-out taking a long time and/or for dealing with residually net harmful and addictive products, there are severe limitations to allowing for-profit marketing of tobacco because such an arrangement (the current one in most countries) can markedly slow down progress and because of the difficulty of constraining marketing in ways that minimise undesirable use. A harm reduction model where the marketing is under the control of a non-profit entity (a regulated market) is required to curtail the incredible power of for-profit marketing and to allow tobacco marketing to be done in ways that further the goal of minimising tobacco-related harm. Countries with a nationalised industry can move their industry onto a harm minimisation framework if they have the political will. Countries with a for-profit industry should consider whether the time and effort required to reconstruct the market may, in the longer term, facilitate achieving their policy goals.

  12. Workplace smoking ban policy and smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beomsoo

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of the workplace smoking ban in South Korea, where the male smoking rate is high (57%), on smoking behavior and secondhand smoke exposure. A workplace smoking ban legislation implemented in April 2003 requires offices, meeting rooms, and lobbies located in larger than 3,000 square meter buildings (or 2,000 square meter multipurpose buildings) should be smoke free. A representative cross-sectional survey, the third wave (2005) of health supplements in the National Health Nutrition Survey of South Korea, was used to measure the impact of the 2003 workplace smoking ban implementation on smoking behavior. It contained 3,122 observations of adults 20 to 65 years old (excluding self-employed and non-working populations). A multivariate statistical model was used. The self-reported workplace smoking ban policy (full workplace ban, partial workplace ban, and no workplace ban) was used as the key measure. A full workplace smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 6.4 percentage points among all workers and also decreased the average daily consumption among smokers by 3.7 cigarettes relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 86 percent (= -1.74/2.03)from the sample mean for full workplace ban. However, public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior. The full workplace ban policy is effective in South Korea. Male group showed bigger impact of smoking ban policy than female group. The public antismoking campaign did not show any effectiveness.

  13. Practitioner review: Self-harm in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ougrin, Dennis; Tranah, Troy; Leigh, Eleanor; Taylor, Lucy; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum

    2012-04-01

      Repeated self-harm in adolescents is common and associated with elevated psychopathology, risk of suicide, and demand for clinical services. Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of self-harm there have been few systematic reviews of the topic.   The main aim of this article is to review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting efficacy of specific pharmacological, social or psychological therapeutic interventions (TIs) in reducing self-harm repetition in adolescents presenting with self-harm.   Data sources were identified by searching Medline, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and PubMed from the first available year to December 2010. RCTs comparing specific TIs versus treatment as usual or placebo in adolescents presenting with self-harm were included.   Fourteen RCTs reported efficacy of psychological and social TIs in adolescents presenting with self-harm. No independently replicated RCTs have been identified reporting efficacy of TIs in self-harm reduction. Developmental Group Psychotherapy versus treatment as usual was associated with a reduction in repeated self-harm, however, this was not replicated in subsequent studies. Multisystemic Therapy (MST) versus psychiatric hospitalisation was associated with a reduction of suicidal attempts in a sample of adolescents with a range of psychiatric emergencies. However, analyses focusing only on the smaller subgroup of adolescents presenting with deliberate self-harm at the initial psychiatric emergency, did not indicate significant benefits of MST versus hospitalisation.   Further research is urgently needed to develop TIs for treating self-harm in adolescents. MST has shown promise but needs to be evaluated in a sample of adolescents with self-harm; dialectic behavioural therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy for self-harm require RCTs to evaluate efficacy and effectiveness. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent

  14. Cigar, Cigarillo, and Little Cigar Use Among Current Cigarette-Smoking Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cigar, cigarillo, and little cigar (CCLC) use is prevalent among adolescents, particularly among those who smoke cigarettes. Methods: Using data from a longitudinal study of smoking patterns among adolescents, we examined differences between CCLC users (ever and past 30 days) and nonusers (never and not in the past 30 days) among adolescents who smoked a cigarette in the last month (n = 486). Results: In our sample, 76.7% reported ever trying CCLC and 40.7% reported past month CCLC use. Bivariate analyses showed that CCLC users differed from nonusers in terms of demographics, other forms of tobacco use, other substance use, and mental health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that both ever and past 30-day CCLC use were strongly associated with being male and concurrent use of hookah. Ever CCLC use was also strongly associated with recent use of alcohol, and past 30-day CCLC use was strongly associated with antisocial behavior. After controlling for the number of days on which cigarettes were smoked in the past 30 days, past 30-day CCLC use was associated with most other forms of tobacco use, other substance use, and mental health, but not with number of cigarettes smoked in the past month and nicotine dependence. Conclusions: Results suggest that CCLC use is high among adolescent cigarette users and is associated with a variety of negative correlates. Importantly, many of these relationships are not accounted for by the adolescent’s level of cigarette use. Further characterizing CCLC use will be important for developing more targeted and tailored interventions. PMID:23072873

  15. Perspectives on Smoking Cessation in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elisa M; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Widman, Christy; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Fox, Chester H; Underwood, Willie; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-04-01

    This study applies qualitative research methods to explore perspectives on cessation among smokers/former smokers recruited from an area of Northern Appalachia. Six focus groups, stratified by age group (18-39 years old and 40 years and older), were conducted among participants (n = 54) recruited from community settings. Participants described varied interest in and challenges with quitting smoking. Smokers 40 years and older more readily endorsed the health risks of smoking and had greater interest in quitting assistance. Participants expressed frustration with the US government for allowing a harmful product (e.g., cigarettes) to be promoted with minimal regulation. Use of social media was robust among both age groups; participants expressed limited interest in various social media/technology platforms for promoting smoking cessation. Findings from this understudied area of northern Appalachia reflect the heterogeneity of this region and contribute novel information about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of current and formers smokers with regard to cessation.

  16. Treating Nicotine Dependence and Preventing Smoking Relapse in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eun Hae Estelle; Braith, Andrew; Hitsman, Brian; Schnoll, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    Despite the well-documented harmful effects of smoking, many cancer patients continue to smoke. Smoking cessation is critical to address in this population given the associated increase in treatment toxicity, risk of second primary tumors, decrease in treatment response and higher disease-specific and all-cause mortality with continued smoking following a cancer diagnosis. This review seeks to summarize the latest recommendations and guidelines on smoking cessation treatment for patients diagnosed with cancer, and the evidence behind those recommendations. We reviewed the latest evidence for smoking cessation treatments for cancer patients and the clinical guidelines and recommendation available for oncologists and health care providers. The unique aspects of nicotine dependence among patients diagnosed with cancer, and key challenges and barriers that cancer survivors and health care providers experience when considering smoking cessation treatments, and available clinical resources, are also discussed. Lastly, the authors summarize future directions in the field of smoking cessation treatment for cancer patients. While there are areas of improvement in research of smoking cessation treatment for cancer patients, critical under-explored areas remain. Nonetheless, providers should adhere to the NCCN guidelines and offer a brief counseling intervention to motivate patients to quit smoking when appropriate resources are not available.

  17. A survey of smoking and quitting patterns among black Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Orleans, C T; Schoenbach, V J; Salmon, M A; Strecher, V J; Kalsbeek, W; Quade, D; Brooks, E F; Konrad, T R; Blackmon, C; Watts, C D

    1989-01-01

    A sample of adult Black policyholders of the nation's largest Black-owned life insurance company was surveyed in 1986 to add to limited data on smoking and quitting patterns among Black Americans, and to provide direction for cessation initiatives targeted to Black smokers. Forty per cent of 2,958 age-eligible policyholders for whom current addresses were available returned a completed questionnaire. Population estimates for smoking status agree closely with national estimates for Blacks age 21-60 years: 50 per cent never-smokers; 36 per cent current smokers; 14 per cent ex-smokers. Current and ex-smokers reported a modal low-rate/high nicotine menthol smoking pattern. Current smokers reported a mean of 3.8 serious quit attempts, a strong desire and intention to quit smoking, and limited past use of effective quit smoking treatments and self-help resources. Correlates of motivation to quit smoking were similar to those found among smokers in the general population, including smoking-related illnesses and medical advice to quit smoking, previous quit attempts, beliefs in smoking-related health harms/quitting benefits, and expected social support for quitting. Methodological limitations and implications for the design of needed Black-focused quit smoking initiatives are discussed. PMID:2913836

  18. Harm reduction through a social justice lens.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Bernadette

    2008-02-01

    People who are street involved such as those experiencing homelessness and drug use face multiple inequities in health and access to health care. Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased among those who are street involved. Incorporation of a harm reduction philosophy in health care has the potential to shift the moral context of health care delivery and enhance access to health care services. However, harm reduction with a primary focus on reducing the harms of drug use fails focus on the harms associated with the context of drug use such as homelessness, violence and poverty. Ethical analysis of the underlying values of harm reduction and examination of different conceptions of justice are discussed as a basis for action that addresses a broad range of harms associated with drug use. Theories of distributive justice that focus primarily on the distribution of material goods are limited as theoretical frameworks for addressing the root causes of harm associated with drug use. Social justice, reconceptualised and interpreted through a critical lens as described by Iris Marion Young, is presented as a promising alternative ethical framework. A critical reinterpretation of social justice leads to insights that can illuminate structural inequities that contribute to the harms associated with the context of drug use. Such an approach provides promise as means of informing policy that aims to reduce a broad range of harms associated with drug use such as homelessness and poverty.

  19. Monitoring indicators of harmful cyanobacteria in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiesling, Richard L.; Gary, Robin H.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2008-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms can occur when certain types of microscopic algae grow quickly in water, forming visible patches that might harm the health of the environment, plants, or animals. In freshwater, species of Cyanobacteria (also known as bluegreen algae) are the dominant group of harmful, bloom-forming algae. When Cyanobacteria form a harmful algal bloom, potential impairments include restricted recreational activities because of algal scums or algal mats, potential loss of public water supply because of taste and odor compounds (for example, geosmin), and the production of toxins (for example, microcystin) in amounts capable of threatening human health and wildlife.

  20. The scientific foundation for tobacco harm reduction, 2006-2011

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Over the past five years there has been exponential expansion of interest in tobacco harm reduction (THR), with a concomitant increase in the number of published studies. The purpose of this manuscript is to review and analyze influential contributions to the scientific and medical literature relating to THR, and to discuss issues that continue to stimulate debate. Numerous epidemiologic studies and subsequent meta-analyses confirm that smokeless tobacco (ST) use is associated with minimal risks for cancer and for myocardial infarction; a small increased risk for stroke cannot be excluded. Studies from Sweden document that ST use is not associated with benign gastrointestinal disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. Although any form of nicotine should be avoided during pregnancy, the highest risks for the developing baby are associated with smoking. It is documented that ST use has been a key factor in the declining rates of smoking and of smoking-related diseases in Sweden and Norway. For other countries, the potential population health benefits of ST are far greater than the potential risks. In follow-up studies, dual users of cigarettes and ST are less likely than exclusive smokers to achieve complete tobacco abstinence, but they are also less likely to be smoking. The health risks from dual use are probably lower than those from exclusive smoking. E-cigarette users are not exposed to the many toxicants, carcinogens and abundant free radicals formed when tobacco is burned. Although laboratory studies have detected trace concentrations of some contaminants, it is a small problem amenable to improvements in quality control and manufacturing that are likely with FDA regulation as tobacco products. There is limited evidence from clinical trials that e-cigarettes deliver only small doses of nicotine compared with conventional cigarettes. However, e-cigarette use emulates successfully the cigarette handling rituals and cues of cigarette smoking, which produces

  1. Distinguishing adolescents who think about self-harm from those who engage in self-harm.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rory C; Rasmussen, Susan; Hawton, Keith

    2012-04-01

    Adolescent self-harm is a major public health concern, yet little is known about the factors that distinguish adolescents who think about self-harm but do not act on these thoughts from those who act on such thoughts. Within a new theoretical model, the integrated motivational-volitional model, we investigated factors associated with adolescents having thoughts of self-harm (ideators) v. those associated with self-harm enaction (enactors). Observational study of school pupils employing an anonymous self-report survey to compare three groups of adolescents: self-harm enactors (n = 628) v. self-harm ideators (n = 675) v. those without any self-harm history (n = 4219). Enactors differed from ideators on all of the volitional factors. Relative to ideators, enactors were more likely to have a family member/close friend who had self-harmed, more likely to think that their peers engaged in self-harm and they were more impulsive than the ideators. Enactors also reported more life stress than ideators. Conversely, the two self-harm groups did not differ on any of the variables associated with the development of self-harm thoughts. As more adolescents think about self-harm than enga