Shentu, Nanying; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Hongliang; Tong, Renyuan; Li, Xiong
2012-01-01
Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type) to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA) to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA) has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors' mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors' monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency.
Shentu, Nanying; Zhang, Hongjian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Hongliang; Tong, Renyuan; Li, Xiong
2012-01-01
Deep displacement observation is one basic means of landslide dynamic study and early warning monitoring and a key part of engineering geological investigation. In our previous work, we proposed a novel electromagnetic induction-based deep displacement sensor (I-type) to predict deep horizontal displacement and a theoretical model called equation-based equivalent loop approach (EELA) to describe its sensing characters. However in many landslide and related geological engineering cases, both horizontal displacement and vertical displacement vary apparently and dynamically so both may require monitoring. In this study, a II-type deep displacement sensor is designed by revising our I-type sensor to simultaneously monitor the deep horizontal displacement and vertical displacement variations at different depths within a sliding mass. Meanwhile, a new theoretical modeling called the numerical integration-based equivalent loop approach (NIELA) has been proposed to quantitatively depict II-type sensors’ mutual inductance properties with respect to predicted horizontal displacements and vertical displacements. After detailed examinations and comparative studies between measured mutual inductance voltage, NIELA-based mutual inductance and EELA-based mutual inductance, NIELA has verified to be an effective and quite accurate analytic model for characterization of II-type sensors. The NIELA model is widely applicable for II-type sensors’ monitoring on all kinds of landslides and other related geohazards with satisfactory estimation accuracy and calculation efficiency. PMID:22368467
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolsky, D. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Hansen, R. A.
2012-12-01
On March 27, 1964, the Prince William Sound area of Alaska was struck by the largest earthquake ever recorded in North America. This magnitude Mw9.2 megathrust earthquake generated the most destructive tsunami in Alaska history and, farther south, impacted the west coast of the United States and Canada. A numerical model of the wave dynamics in Chenega Cove, Alaska during the historic Mw9.2 megathrust earthquake is presented. During the earthquake, locally generated waves of unknown origin were identified at the village of Chenega, located in the western part of Prince William Sound. The waves appeared shortly after the shaking began and swept away most of the buildings while the shaking continued. We model the tectonic tsunami in Chenega Cove assuming different tsunami generation processes. We show that the village of Chenega was inundated by local waves triggered by the vertical and horizontal displacements shortly after the beginning of the ground shaking. Modeled results are compared with eyewitness reports and an observed runup. We also present an explanation for the fact that arrivals of later waves in Chenega were unnoticed. Results of the numerical experiments let us claim the importance of including both vertical and horizontal displacement into the 1964 tsunami generation process. The presented results will help to mitigate tsunami hazards and prepare this and other communities in similar geological settings for a potential tsunami.
Faris, Allison T.; Seed, Raymond B.; Kayen, Robert E.; Wu, Jiaer
2006-01-01
During the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and resultant ground displacements damaged bridges, buried utilities, and lifelines, conventional structures, and other developed works. This paper presents an improved engineering tool for the prediction of maximum displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading. A semi-empirical approach is employed, combining mechanistic understanding and data from laboratory testing with data and lessons from full-scale earthquake field case histories. The principle of strain potential index, based primary on correlation of cyclic simple shear laboratory testing results with in-situ Standard Penetration Test (SPT) results, is used as an index to characterized the deformation potential of soils after they liquefy. A Bayesian probabilistic approach is adopted for development of the final predictive model, in order to take fullest advantage of the data available and to deal with the inherent uncertainties intrinstiic to the back-analyses of field case histories. A case history from the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake is utilized to demonstrate the ability of the resultant semi-empirical model to estimate maximum horizontal displacement due to liquefaction-induced lateral spreading.
Determining horizontal displacement and strains due to subsidence. Rept. of Investigations/1991
Tandanand, S.; Powell, L.R.
1991-01-01
Horizontal displacements and ground strains induced by mine subsidence are significant information needed for calculating damage and developing precautions against subsidence effects on surface structures. To devise a simple method for determining the surface horizontal displacements and strains simultaneously with the subsidence prediction, the U.S. Bureau of Mines examined the significance of the tilt number, which is the proportionality constant in the relationship between the horizontal displacement and the slope of the subsidence profile. The ratio of the tilt number to the critical radius of the subsidence trough is identical to the ratio of the maximum possible horizontal displacement to the full subsidence, which is found to be constant in most European coalfields. If this ratio is known for a particular minesite in the United States, then horizontal displacement and ground strains can be readily obtained from the primary subsidence data.
Simulation of Rock Mass Horizontal Displacements with Usage of Cellular Automata Theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikora, Paweł
2016-12-01
In the article there was presented two dimensional rock mass model as a deterministic finite cellular automata. Used to describe the distribution of subsidence of rock mass inside and on its surface the theory of automata makes it relatively simple way to get a subsidence trough profile consistent with the profile observed by geodetic measurements on the land surface. As a development of an existing concept of the rock mass model, as a finite cellular automaton, there was described distribution function that allows, simultaneously with the simulation of subsidence, to simulate horizontal displacements inside the rock mass model and on its surface in accordance with real observations. On the basis of the results of numerous computer simulations there was presented fundamental mathematical relationship that determines the ratio of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum subsidence, in case of full subsidence trough, in relation to the basic parameters of the rock mass model. The possibilities of presented model were shown on the example of simulation results of deformation distribution caused by extraction of abstract coal panel. Obtained results were consistent with results obtained by geometric-integral theory.
A design chart for estimation of horizontal displacement in municipal landfills
Singh, M.K. Sharma, J.S.; Fleming, I.R.
2009-05-15
This paper describes the development of a design chart for the estimation of maximum horizontal displacement within a municipal landfill using the height and the side slope of the landfill. The design chart is based on the results of a finite element parametric study in which the behaviour of the municipal solid waste (MSW) was modeled using a non-linear elastic hyperbolic model. The model input parameters, i.e. non-linear stiffness, shear strength and unit weight of MSW, were obtained from laboratory testing data and an extensive stochastic numerical modelling exercise. Non-linear variations of unit weight as well as Young's modulus of MSW with depth were incorporated in the finite element analyses. The validity of the design chart was assessed using field monitoring results from a large landfill located in Ontario, Canada.
Horizontal model fusion paradigm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julier, Simon J.; Durrant-Whyte, Hugh F.
1996-05-01
In navigation and tracking problems, the identification of an appropriate model of vehicular or target motion is vital to most practical data fusion algorithms. The true system dynamics are rarely known, and approximations are usually employed. Since systems can exhibit strikingly different behaviors, multiple models may be needed to describe each of these behaviors. Current methods either use model switching (a single process model is chosen from the set using a decision rule) or consider the models as a set of competing hypothesis, only one of which is 'correct'. However, these methods fail to exploit the fact that all models are of the same system and that all of them are, to some degree, 'correct'. In this paper we present a new paradigm for fusing information from a set of multiple process models. The predictions from each process model are regarded as observations which are corrupted by correlated noise. By employing the standard Kalman filter equations we combine data from multiple sensors and multiple process models optimally. There are a number of significant practical advantages to this technique. First, the performance of the system always equals or betters that of the best estimator in the set of models being used. Second, the same decision theoretic machinery can be used to select the process models as well as the sensor suites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Haas, Rüdiger
We show the influence of horizontal displacements due to ocean tide loading on the determination of polar motion and UT1 (PMU) on the daily and subdaily timescale. So called ‘virtual PMU variations’ due to modelling errors of ocean tide loading are predicted for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) networks. This leads to errors of subdaily determination of PMU. The predicted effects are confirmed by the analysis of geodetic VLBI observations.
Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin
2015-07-10
We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.
Long-delayed bright dancing sprite with large horizontal displacement from its parent flash
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, J.; Lu, G.; Lee, L. J.; Feng, G.
2015-12-01
A long-delayed very bright dancing sprite with large horizontal displacement from its parent flash was observed. The dancing sprite lasted only 60 ms, and the morphology consisted of three fields with two slim dim sprite elements in the first two fields and a very bright large sprite element in the third field, different from other observations. The bright sprite displaced at least 38 km from its parent flash and occurred over comparatively higher cloud top region. The parent flash was positive, with only one return stroke (~24 kA) and obvious continuing current process, and the charge moment change of the stroke was small (roughly the threshold for sprite production). All of the sprite elements occurred during the continuing current period, and the bright sprite induced considerable current. The sprite dancing features may be linked to parent storm electrical structure, dynamics and microphysics, and the parent CG discharge process which was consistent with VHF observations.
Ninković, Dragan B; Andrić, Jelena M; Zarić, Snežana D
2013-01-14
A study of crystal structures from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and DFT calculations reveals that parallel pyridine-pyridine and benzene-pyridine interactions at large horizontal displacements (offsets) can be important, similar to parallel benzene-benzene interactions. In the crystal structures from the CSD preferred parallel pyridine-pyridine interactions were observed at a large horizontal displacement (4.0-6.0 Å) and not at an offset of 1.5 Å with the lowest calculated energy. The calculated interaction energies for pyridine-pyridine and benzene-pyridine dimers at a large offset (4.5 Å) are about 2.2 and 2.1 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Substantial attraction at large offset values is a consequence of the balance between repulsion and dispersion. That is, dispersion at large offsets is reduced, however, repulsion is also reduced at large offsets, resulting in attractive interactions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement
Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.
2015-01-01
We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5′ end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. PMID:25762335
Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.
Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A
2015-03-10
We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds.
Long-delayed bright dancing sprite with large Horizontal displacement from its parent flash
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jing; Lu, Gaopeng; Lee, Li-Jou; Feng, Guili
2015-07-01
We reported in this paper the observation of a very bright long-delayed dancing sprite with distinct horizontal displacement from its parent stroke. The dancing sprite lasted only 60 ms, and the morphology consisted of three fields with two slim dim sprite elements in the first two fields and a very bright large element in the third field, different from other observations where the dancing sprites usually contained multiple elements over a longer time interval, and the sprite shape and brightness in the video field are often similar to the previous fields. The bright sprite was displaced at least 38 km from its parent cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke and occurred over comparatively higher cloud top region. The parent flash of this compact dancing sprite was of positive polarity, with only one return stroke (approximately +24 kA) and obvious continuing current process, and the charge moment change of stroke was small (barely above the threshold for sprite production). All the sprite elements occurred during the continuing current stage, and the bright long-delayed sprite element induced a considerable current pulse. The dancing feature of this sprite may be linked to the electrical charge structure, dynamics and microphysics of parent storm, and the inferred development of parent CG flash was consistent with previous very high-frequency (VHF) observations of lightning in the same region.
Modeling Horizontal GPS Seasonal Signals Caused by Ocean Loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlow, N. M.; Fialko, Y. A.
2014-12-01
GPS monuments around the world exhibit seasonal signals in both the horizontal and vertical components with amplitudes on the order of centimeters. For analysis of tectonic signals, researchers typically fit and remove a sine wave with an annual period, and sometimes an additional sine wave with a semiannual period. As interest grows in analyzing smaller, slower signals it becomes more important to correct for these seasonal signals accurately. It is well established that the vertical component of seasonal GPS signals is largely due to continental water storage cycles (e.g. van Dam et al., GRL, 2001). Horizontal seasonal signals however are not well explained by continental water storage. We examine horizontal seasonal signals across western North America and find that the horizontal component is coherent at very large spatial scales and is in general oriented perpendicular to the nearest coastline, indicating an oceanic origin. Additionally, horizontal and vertical annual signals are out of phase by approximately 2 months indicating different physical origins. Studies of GRACE and ocean bottom pressure data indicate an annual variation of non-steric, non-tidal ocean height with an average amplitude of 1 cm globally (e.g. Ponte et al., GRL, 2007). We use Some Programs for Ocean Tide Loading (SPOTL; Agnew, SIO Technical Report, 2012) to model predicted displacements due to these (non-tidal) ocean loads and find general agreement with observed horizontal GPS seasonal signals. In the future, this may lead to a more accurate way to predict and remove the seasonal component of GPS displacement time-series, leading to better discrimination of the true tectonic signal. Modeling this long wavelength signal also provides a potential opportunity to probe the structure of the Earth.
An ion displacement membrame model.
Hladky, S B; Harris, J D
1967-09-01
The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.
Horizontal atmospheric turbulence, beam propagation, and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilcox, Christopher C.; Santiago, Freddie; Martinez, Ty; Judd, K. Peter; Restaino, Sergio R.
2017-05-01
The turbulent effect from the Earth's atmosphere degrades the performance of an optical imaging system. Many studies have been conducted in the study of beam propagation in a turbulent medium. Horizontal beam propagation and correction presents many challenges when compared to vertical due to the far harsher turbulent conditions and increased complexity it induces. We investigate the collection of beam propagation data, analysis, and use for building a mathematical model of the horizontal turbulent path and the plans for an adaptive optical system to use this information to correct for horizontal path atmospheric turbulence.
The Nature of Mining-Induced Horizontal Displacement of Surface on the Example of Several Coal Mines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajduś, Krzysztof
2014-12-01
The paper presents the analysis of the phenomenon of horizontal displacement of surface induced by underground mining exploitation. In the initial part, the basic theories describing horizontal displacement are discussed, followed by three illustrative examples of underground exploitation in varied mining conditions. It is argued that center of gravity (COG) method presented in the paper, hypothesis of Awierszyn and model studies carried out in Strata Mechanics Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences indicate the proportionality between vectors of horizontal displacement and the vector of surface slope. The differences practically relate to the value of proportionality coefficient B, whose estimated values in currently realized design projects for mining industry range between 0.23r to 0.42r for deep exploitations, whereas in the present article the values of 0.33r and 0.47r were obtained for two instances of shallow exploitation. Furthermore, observations on changes of horizontal displacement vectors with face advancement indicated the possibility of existence of COG zones above the mined-out field, which proved the conclusions of hitherto carried out research studies (Tajduś 2013). Artykuł prezentuje analizę zjawiska przemieszczeń poziomych powierzchni terenu wywołanych podziemną eksploatacją górniczą. W pierwszej części przedstawia podstawowe teorie opisujące zjawisko przemieszczeń powierzchni, a następnie w dalszej kolejności prezentuje trzy przykłady eksploatacji podziemnych w różnych warunkach górniczych. W kontekście przedstawionej w artykule metody punktu środka ciężkości, hipotezy Awierszyna i wyników badań modelowych IMG PAN w Krakowie stwierdzono, że wskazują one na proporcjonalność pomiędzy wektorami przemieszczenia poziomego a wektorem nachylenia powierzchni terenu. Różnice dotyczą w zasadzie wartości współczynnika proporcjonalności B, którego wartości w ramach prowadzonych aktualnie prac
Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghamsari, A. K.; Jin, Y.; Zegeye, E.; Woldesenbet, E.
2013-02-01
Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated.
Horizontal displacement of carbon associated with agriculture and its impacts on atmospheric CO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciais, P.; Bousquet, P.; Freibauer, A.; Naegler, T.
2007-06-01
The growth of crops represents a sink of atmospheric CO2, whereas biomass is consumed by humans and housed animals, yielding respiratory sources of CO2. This process induces a lateral displacement of carbon and creates geographic patterns of CO2 sources and sinks at the surface of the globe. We estimated the global carbon flux harvested in croplands to be 1290 TgC/yr. Most of this carbon is transported into domestic trade, whereas a small fraction (13%) enters into international trade circuits. We then calculated the global patterns of CO2 fluxes associated with food and feedstuff trade, using country-based agricultural statistics and activity maps of human and housed animal population densities. The CO2 flux maps show regional dipoles of sources and sinks in Asia and North America. The effect of these fluxes on atmospheric CO2 was simulated using a global atmospheric transport model. The mean latitudinal CO2 gradients induced by the displacement of crop products are fairly small (≈0.2 ppm) compared with observations (4-5 ppm), indicating that this process has a only a small influence in explaining the latitudinal distribution of CO2 fluxes. On the other hand, the simulated longitudinal mean atmospheric CO2 gradients at northern midlatitudes (≈ up to 0.5 ppm) are comparable to the ones measured between atmospheric stations, suggesting that CO2 fluxes from crop products trade are an important component of continental- and regional-scale CO2 budgets. Thus they should be accounted for as prior information in regional inversions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haines, Richard F.; Kiefel, Steven M.
1988-01-01
Four independent variables of visual perception during binocular viewing were studied. In 24 observers, the vertical displacement threshold (DT) sensitivity along the horizontal meridian was determined as a function of the rate, duration, and length of the stimulus. It was found that the DT increases with an increased angular separation of the stimulus image from the fovea (i.e., the stimulus must move farther in order to be correctly discriminated as having moved). In addition, it was found that the sensitivity to the stimulus displacement increases with increasing of the stimulus length, duration, and/or angular rate. These findings are related to the design optimization of dynamic attitude displays and symbology for aircraft.
Haines, R F; Kiefel, S M
1988-04-01
Vertical displacement thresholds (DT) were quantified in 24 observers at the fovea and each of 8 retinal positions out to 80 degrees along the horizontal meridian during binocular viewing. Stimulus length was increased with eccentricity angle in accordance with the cortical magnification factor (21); a 1 degree arc long stimulus served as a control at each position. Three movement durations (from 0.25 to 4 s) and three angular rates (from 0.04 to 0.42 degrees arc.s-1) were also quantified at each position to determine whether peripheral DT is mediated predominantly by an image displacement- or rate-sensitive mechanism. It was found that 1) DT is mediated predominantly by a constant rate-sensitive mechanism at each position when stimulus length is increased in proportion to the cortical magnification factor; 2) mean percent correct displacement judgments decrease significantly into the periphery for both stimulus lengths, however, increasing stimulus length yields significantly higher accuracy; and 3) at 10 and 30 degrees eccentricity, increasing rate and duration significantly improve displacement judgment accuracy, but beyond 40 degrees only lengthening the stimulus improves accuracy. The findings are related to the design optimization of dynamic attitude displays and symbology for aircraft.
Dynamic model of the threshold displacement energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupchishin, A. I.; Kupchishin, A. A.
2017-01-01
A dynamic (cascade-probability) model for calculating the threshold displacement energy of knocked-out atoms (Ed) was proposed taking into account the influence of the instability zone (spontaneous recombination). General expression was recorded for Ed depending on the formation energy of interstitial atoms Ef and vacancies Ei, on the energy transfer coefficient α and the number of interactions i needed to move the atom out of the instability zone. The parameters of primary particles were calculated. Comparison of calculations with experimental data gives a satisfactory agreement.
Regression models for estimating coseismic landslide displacement
Jibson, R.W.
2007-01-01
Newmark's sliding-block model is widely used to estimate coseismic slope performance. Early efforts to develop simple regression models to estimate Newmark displacement were based on analysis of the small number of strong-motion records then available. The current availability of a much larger set of strong-motion records dictates that these regression equations be updated. Regression equations were generated using data derived from a collection of 2270 strong-motion records from 30 worldwide earthquakes. The regression equations predict Newmark displacement in terms of (1) critical acceleration ratio, (2) critical acceleration ratio and earthquake magnitude, (3) Arias intensity and critical acceleration, and (4) Arias intensity and critical acceleration ratio. These equations are well constrained and fit the data well (71% < R2 < 88%), but they have standard deviations of about 0.5 log units, such that the range defined by the mean ?? one standard deviation spans about an order of magnitude. These regression models, therefore, are not recommended for use in site-specific design, but rather for regional-scale seismic landslide hazard mapping or for rapid preliminary screening of sites. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Buoyancy-driven instability of a miscible horizontal displacement in a Hele-Shaw cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haudin, F.; Riolfo, L. A.; Knaepen, B.; de Wit, A.
2012-11-01
In Hele-Shaw cells, viscous fingers are forming when a fluid is injected into a more viscous one. If the two fluids are reversed, with the less mobile fluid injected into the low viscosity one, the situation is expected to be stable from a viscous point of view. Nevertheless, a destabilization of the interface can be observed due to a buoyancy-driven effect if a density difference exists between the two miscible fluids. As a result, the Poiseuille profile established in the gap of the cell locally destabilizes and convection rolls are forming. In a view from above, a striped pattern is observed at the miscible interface between the two fluids. To characterize the development of this instability, we have performed an experimental study of viscously stable miscible displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell with radial injection. The displacing fluids are aqueous solutions of glycerol and the displaced ones are either dyed water or dyed glycerol solutions. The way the relative properties of the two fluids is influencing the onset time of the instability and the characteristic size of the pattern is studied. The influence of the gap width and of the flow rate on the buoyantly unstable dynamics is also characterized.
Model for Providing Displaced Workers' Services. Research Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, B. Harold; Naylor, Mary Lou
This handbook presents a model that helps vocational educators and other individuals, institutions, and agencies plan programs to maintain displaced workers' dignity and economic security. Section 1 discusses identification of displaced workers. Section 2 offers guidelines for developing a profile for a specific group of displaced workers. A list…
Shallow water model for horizontal centrifugal casting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boháček, J.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wu, M.
2012-07-01
A numerical model was proposed to simulate the solidification process of an outer shell of work roll made by the horizontal centrifugal casting technique. Shallow water model was adopted to solve the 2D average flow dynamics of melt spreading and the average temperature distribution inside the centrifugal casting mould by considering the centrifugal force, Coriolis force, viscous force due to zero velocity on the mould wall, gravity, and energy transport by the flow. Additionally, a 1D sub-model was implemented to consider the heat transfer in the radial direction from the solidifying shell to the mould. The solidification front was tracked by fulfilling the Stefan condition. Radiative and convective heat losses were included from both, the free liquid surface and the outer wall of the mould. Several cases were simulated with the following assumed initial conditions: constant height of the liquid metal (10, 20, and 30 mm), uniform temperature of the free liquid surface (1755 K). The simulation results have shown that while the solidification front remained rather flat, the free surface was disturbed by waves. The amplitude of waves increased with the liquid height. Free surface waves diminished as the solidification proceeded.
Rupture models with dynamically determined breakdown displacement
Andrews, D.J.
2004-01-01
The critical breakdown displacement, Dc, in which friction drops to its sliding value, can be made dependent on event size by specifying friction to be a function of variables other than slip. Two such friction laws are examined here. The first is designed to achieve accuracy and smoothness in discrete numerical calculations. Consistent resolution throughout an evolving rupture is achieved by specifying friction as a function of elapsed time after peak stress is reached. Such a time-weakening model produces Dc and fracture energy proportional to the square root of distance rupture has propagated in the case of uniform stress drop. The second friction law is more physically motivated. Energy loss in a damage zone outside the slip zone has the effect of increasing Dc and limiting peak slip velocity (Andrews, 1976). This article demonstrates a converse effect, that artificially limiting slip velocity on a fault in an elastic medium has a toughening effect, increasing fracture energy and Dc proportionally to rupture propagation distance in the case of uniform stress drop. Both the time-weakening and the velocity-toughening models can be used in calculations with heterogeneous stress drop.
Theoretical Analysis of a Model for a Field Displacement Isolator
1976-06-01
model for a field displacement isolator. Sharon, Ram Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17975 Downloaded from...NPS Archive: Calhoun THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF A MODEL FOR A FIELD DISPLACEMENT ISOLATOR Ram Sharon NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California...THESIS Theoretical Analysis of a Model for a Field Displacement Isolator by Ram Sharon June 1976 Thesis Advisor: J. B. Knorr Approved for public release
Rochcongar, Goulven; Emily, Sébastien; Lebel, Benoit; Pineau, Vincent; Burdin, Gilles; Hulet, Christophe
2012-09-01
Surgical versus orthopedic treatments of acromioclavicular disjunction are still debated. The aim of this study was to measure horizontal and vertical acromion's displacement after cutting the ligament using standard X-ray and an opto-electronic system on cadaver. Ten cadaveric shoulders were studied. A sequential ligament's section was operated by arthroscopy. The sequence of cutting was chosen to fit with Rockwood's grade. The displacement of the acromion was measured on standard X-ray and with an opto-electronic system allowing measuring of the horizontal displacement. Statistical comparisons were performed using a paired Student's t test with significance set at p < 0.05. Cutting the coracoclavicular ligament and delto-trapezius muscles cause a statistical downer displacement of the acromion, but not after sectioning the acromioclavicular ligament. The contact surface between the acromion and the clavicle decreases statistically after sectioning the acromioclavicular ligament and the coracoclavicular ligament with no effect of sectioning the delto-trapezius muscles. Those results are superposing with those dealing with the anterior translation. The measure concerning the acromioclavicular distance and the coracoclavicular distance are superposing with those of Rockwood. However, there is a significant horizontal translation after cutting the acromioclavicular ligament. Taking into account this displacement, it may be interesting to choose either surgical or orthopedic treatment. There is a correlation between anatomical damage and importance of instability. Horizontal instability is misevaluated in clinical practice.
Sklavos, Sokratis; Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Bronstein, Adolfo
2010-05-01
Shifting the direction of the line of sight in everyday life often involves rotations not only of the eyes and head but also of the trunk. Here, we investigated covariation patterns of eye-in-orbit, head-on-trunk and trunk-in-space angular horizontal displacements during whole-body rotations to targets of up to 180 degrees eccentricity performed by standing healthy human subjects. The spatial covariation was quantified statistically across various behavioral task conditions (unpredictable, memory driven predictable, visual feedback) and constraints (accuracy) by principal components (PC) analysis. Overall, the combined movement was stereotyped such that the first two PCs accounted for essentially the whole data variance of combined gaze transfers up to about 400 ms, suggesting that the three mechanical degrees of freedom under consideration are reduced to two kinematic degrees of freedom. Moreover, quantification of segment velocity variability across repetitions showed that velocities of eye-in-space and head-in-space (i.e. 'end-point' velocity) were less variable than those of the elemental variables composing them. In contrast, three statistically significant PCs accounted for the covariation of the three segments during presumably vestibularly mediated nystagmic transfers, suggesting control by a separate driving circuit. We conclude that progression of the line of sight is initially stereotypic and fulfills criteria defining a motor synergy.
Displacement parameter inversion for a novel electromagnetic underground displacement sensor.
Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua
2014-05-22
Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named "EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method". Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0-100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.
Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor
Shentu, Nanying; Li, Qing; Li, Xiong; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Jiang, Guoqing; Qiu, Guohua
2014-01-01
Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor) by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA). Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications. PMID:24858960
A novel approach to modeling unstable EOR displacements. Final report
Peters, E.J.
1994-04-01
Most enhanced oil recovery schemes involve the displacement of a more dense and more viscous oil by a less dense and less viscous fluid in a heterogeneous porous medium. The interaction of heterogeneity with the several competing forces, namely, viscous, capillary, gravitational, and dispersive forces, can conspire to make the displacements unstable and difficult to model and to predict. The objective of this research was to develop a systematic methodology for modeling unstable fluid displacements in heterogeneous media. Flow visualization experiments were conducted using X-ray computed tomography imaging and a video imaging workstation to gain insights into the dynamics of unstable displacements, acquire detailed quantitative experimental image data for calibrating numerical models of unstable displacements, and image and characterize heterogeneities in laboratory cores geostatistically. High-resolution numerical models modified for use on vector-architecture supercomputers were used to replicate the image data. Geostatistical models of reservoir heterogeneity were incorporated in order to study the interaction of hydrodynamic instability and heterogeneity in reservoir displacements. Finally, a systematic methodology for matching the experimental data with the numerical models and scaling the laboratory results to other systems were developed. The result is a new method for predicting the performance of unstable EOR displacements in the field based on small-scale displacements in the laboratory. The methodology is general and can be applied to forecast the performance of most processes that involve fluid flow and transport in porous media. Therefore, this research should be of interest to those involved in forecasting the performance of enhanced oil recovery processes and the spreading of contaminants in heterogeneous aquifers.
Model based estimation of image depth and displacement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Damour, Kevin T.
1992-01-01
Passive depth and displacement map determinations have become an important part of computer vision processing. Applications that make use of this type of information include autonomous navigation, robotic assembly, image sequence compression, structure identification, and 3-D motion estimation. With the reliance of such systems on visual image characteristics, a need to overcome image degradations, such as random image-capture noise, motion, and quantization effects, is clearly necessary. Many depth and displacement estimation algorithms also introduce additional distortions due to the gradient operations performed on the noisy intensity images. These degradations can limit the accuracy and reliability of the displacement or depth information extracted from such sequences. Recognizing the previously stated conditions, a new method to model and estimate a restored depth or displacement field is presented. Once a model has been established, the field can be filtered using currently established multidimensional algorithms. In particular, the reduced order model Kalman filter (ROMKF), which has been shown to be an effective tool in the reduction of image intensity distortions, was applied to the computed displacement fields. Results of the application of this model show significant improvements on the restored field. Previous attempts at restoring the depth or displacement fields assumed homogeneous characteristics which resulted in the smoothing of discontinuities. In these situations, edges were lost. An adaptive model parameter selection method is provided that maintains sharp edge boundaries in the restored field. This has been successfully applied to images representative of robotic scenarios. In order to accommodate image sequences, the standard 2-D ROMKF model is extended into 3-D by the incorporation of a deterministic component based on previously restored fields. The inclusion of past depth and displacement fields allows a means of incorporating the temporal
A heat transfer model of a horizontal ground heat exchanger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, R. E.; Shtern, Yu. I.; Shtern, M. Yu.; Rogachev, M. S.
2016-04-01
Ground-source heat pumps are gaining popularity in Eastern Europe, especially those which are using the horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX). Due to the difficulty of accessing GHX after the installation, materials and the quality of the installation must satisfy the very high requirements. An inaccurate calculation of GHX can be the reason of a scarcity of heat power in a crucial moment. So far, there isn't any appropriate mathematical description of the horizontal GHX which takes into account the mutual influence of GHX pipes on each other. To solve this problem we used the temperature wave approach. As a result, a mathematical model which describes the dependence of the heat transfer rate per unit length of the horizontal GHX pipe on the thermal properties of soil, operating time of GHX and the distance between pipes was obtained. Using this model, heat transfer rates per unit length of a horizontal GHX were plotted as functions of the distance between pipes and operating time. The modeling shows that heat transfer rates decreases rapidly with the distance between pipes lower then 2 meters. After the launch of heat pump, heat power of GHX is reduced during the first 20 - 30 days and get steady after that. The obtained results correlate with experimental data. Therefore the proposed mathematical model can be used to design a horizontal GHX with the optimal characteristics, and predict its capability during operation.
Fiber optic displacement measurement model based on finite reflective surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuhe; Guan, Kaisen; Hu, Zhaohui
2016-10-01
We present a fiber optic displacement measurement model based on finite reflective plate. The theoretical model was derived, and simulation analysis of light intensity distribution, reflective plate width, and the distance between fiber probe and reflective plate were conducted in details. The three dimensional received light intensity distribution and the characteristic curve of light intensity were studied as functions of displacement of finite reflective plate. Experiments were carried out to verify the established model. The physical fundamentals and the effect of operating parameters on measuring system performance were revealed in the end.
A model of strategic marketing alliances for hospices: horizontal alliances.
Self, D R; Starnes, B J
1999-01-01
This article develops two previous research efforts. William J. Winston (1994, 1995) has proposed a set of strategies by which health care organizations can benefit from forging strategic alliances. Raadt and Self (1997) have proposed a classification model of alliances including horizontal, vertical, internal and osmotic. In the first of two articles, this paper presents a model of horizontal alliances. The subsets include transregional, service mergers, networks, venture capital investments, trade and professional organizations, and promotional alliances. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed.
Effects of vertical shear in modelling horizontal oceanic dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanotte, A. S.; Corrado, R.; Palatella, L.; Pizzigalli, C.; Schipa, I.; Santoleri, R.
2016-02-01
The effect of vertical shear on the horizontal dispersion properties of passive tracer particles on the continental shelf of the South Mediterranean is investigated by means of observation and model data. In situ current measurements reveal that vertical gradients of horizontal velocities in the upper mixing layer decorrelate quite fast ( ˜ 1 day), whereas an eddy-permitting ocean model, such as the Mediterranean Forecasting System, tends to overestimate such decorrelation time because of finite resolution effects. Horizontal dispersion, simulated by the Mediterranean sea Forecasting System, is mostly affected by: (1) unresolved scale motions, and mesoscale motions that are largely smoothed out at scales close to the grid spacing; (2) poorly resolved time variability in the profiles of the horizontal velocities in the upper layer. For the case study we have analysed, we show that a suitable use of deterministic kinematic parametrizations is helpful to implement realistic statistical features of tracer dispersion in two and three dimensions. The approach here suggested provides a functional tool to control the horizontal spreading of small organisms or substance concentrations, and is thus relevant for marine biology, pollutant dispersion as well as oil spill applications.
Predicting target displacements using ultrasound elastography and finite element modeling.
op den Buijs, Jorn; Hansen, Hendrik H G; Lopata, Richard G P; de Korte, Chris L; Misra, Sarthak
2011-11-01
Soft tissue displacements during minimally invasive surgical procedures may cause target motion and subsequent misplacement of the surgical tool. A technique is presented to predict target displacements using a combination of ultrasound elastography and finite element (FE) modeling. A cubic gelatin/agar phantom with stiff targets was manufactured to obtain pre- and post-loading ultrasound radio frequency (RF) data from a linear array transducer. The RF data were used to compute displacement and strain images, from which the distribution of elasticity was reconstructed using an inverse FE-based approach. The FE model was subsequently used to predict target displacements upon application of different boundary and loading conditions to the phantom. The influence of geometry was investigated by application of the technique to a breast-shaped phantom. The distribution of elasticity in the phantoms as determined from the strain distribution agreed well with results from mechanical testing. Upon application of different boundary and loading conditions to the cubic phantom, the FE model-predicted target motion were consistent with ultrasound measurements. The FE-based approach could also accurately predict the displacement of the target upon compression and indentation of the breast-shaped phantom. This study provides experimental evidence that organ geometry and boundary conditions surrounding the organ are important factors influencing target motion. In future work, the technique presented in this paper could be used for preoperative planning of minimally invasive surgical interventions.
A novel approach to modeling unstable EOR displacements
Peters, E.J.
1991-01-01
This research is aimed at developing a methodology for predicting the performance of unstable displacements in heterogeneous porous media. A performance prediction approach that integrates numerical modeling with laboratory experiments will be developed. Flow visualization experiments will be performed on laboratory corefloods using X-ray computed tomography (CT) and other imaging technologies to map the in situ fluid saturations in time and space. A systematic procedure will be developed to replicate the experimental image data with high-resolution numerical models of the displacements. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
EXAMINATION OF MODEL PREDICTIONS AT DIFFERENT HORIZONTAL GRID RESOLUTIONS
While fluctuations in meteorological and air quality variables occur on a continuum of spatial scales, the horizontal grid spacing of coupled meteorological and photochemical models sets a lower limit on the spatial scales that they can resolve. However, both computational costs ...
EXAMINATION OF MODEL PREDICTIONS AT DIFFERENT HORIZONTAL GRID RESOLUTIONS
While fluctuations in meteorological and air quality variables occur on a continuum of spatial scales, the horizontal grid spacing of coupled meteorological and photochemical models sets a lower limit on the spatial scales that they can resolve. However, both computational costs ...
Solar UV geometric conversion factors: horizontal plane to cylinder model.
Pope, Stanley J; Godar, Dianne E
2010-01-01
Most solar UV measurements are relative to the horizontal plane. However, problems arise when one uses those UV measurements to perform risk or benefit assessments because they do not yield the actual doses people get while they are outdoors. To better estimate the UV doses people actually get while outdoors, scientists need geometric conversion factors (GCF) that change horizontal plane irradiances to average irradiances on the human body. Here we describe a simple geometric method that changes unweighted, erythemally weighted and previtamin D(3)-weighted UV irradiances on the horizontal plane to full cylinder and semicylinder irradiances. Scientists can use the full cylinder model to represent the complete human body, while they can use the semicylinder model to represent the face, shoulders, tops of hands and feet. We present daily, monthly and seasonally calculated averages of the GCF for these cylinder models every 5 degrees from 20 to 70 degrees N so that scientists can now get realistic UV doses for people who are outdoors doing a variety of different activities. The GCF show that people actually get less than half their annual erythemally weighted, and consequently half their previtamin D(3)-weighted, UV doses relative to the horizontal plane. Thus, scientists can now perform realistic UV risk and benefit assessments.
The structure of horizontal-branch models. I - The zero-age horizontal branch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorman, Ben
1992-01-01
A detailed study of the structure of zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) models is studied in order to show how the hydrostatic structure of these models changes with the input parameters and determines the H-R diagram location of a given model. The properties of composite polytropes on the homology-invariant (U,V)-plane are demonstrated. A variety of test models and sequences were constructed to elucidate the underlying factors that give rise to the wide variation in HB model properties with composition. The roles of the CNO elements as nuclear catalysts and of the envelope sources, as well as the envelope helium abundance are reexamined. It is found that, for stars of a fixed range of mass arriving on the HB, the stellar distribution is determined mainly by CNO for low metallicities (Fe/H of less than about -1), but mainly by opacity sources for high metallicities. The value of Fe/H where CNO ceases to dominate depends significantly on the adopted opacity and will decrease if and when opacity estimates are revised upward.
The structure of horizontal-branch models. I - The zero-age horizontal branch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorman, Ben
1992-01-01
A detailed study of the structure of zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) models is studied in order to show how the hydrostatic structure of these models changes with the input parameters and determines the H-R diagram location of a given model. The properties of composite polytropes on the homology-invariant (U,V)-plane are demonstrated. A variety of test models and sequences were constructed to elucidate the underlying factors that give rise to the wide variation in HB model properties with composition. The roles of the CNO elements as nuclear catalysts and of the envelope sources, as well as the envelope helium abundance are reexamined. It is found that, for stars of a fixed range of mass arriving on the HB, the stellar distribution is determined mainly by CNO for low metallicities (Fe/H of less than about -1), but mainly by opacity sources for high metallicities. The value of Fe/H where CNO ceases to dominate depends significantly on the adopted opacity and will decrease if and when opacity estimates are revised upward.
A Simple Model of Cirrus Horizontal Inhomogeneity and Cloud Fraction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Samantha A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.
1998-01-01
A simple model of horizontal inhomogeneity and cloud fraction in cirrus clouds has been formulated on the basis that all internal horizontal inhomogeneity in the ice mixing ratio is due to variations in the cloud depth, which are assumed to be Gaussian. The use of such a model was justified by the observed relationship between the normalized variability of the ice water mixing ratio (and extinction) and the normalized variability of cloud depth. Using radar cloud depth data as input, the model reproduced well the in-cloud ice water mixing ratio histograms obtained from horizontal runs during the FIRE2 cirrus campaign. For totally overcast cases the histograms were almost Gaussian, but changed as cloud fraction decreased to exponential distributions which peaked at the lowest nonzero ice value for cloud fractions below 90%. Cloud fractions predicted by the model were always within 28% of the observed value. The predicted average ice water mixing ratios were within 34% of the observed values. This model could be used in a GCM to produce the ice mixing ratio probability distribution function and to estimate cloud fraction. It only requires basic meteorological parameters, the depth of the saturated layer and the standard deviation of cloud depth as input.
A thermal modelling of displacement cascades in uranium dioxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, G.; Garcia, P.; Sabathier, C.; Devynck, F.; Krack, M.; Maillard, S.
2014-05-01
The space and time dependent temperature distribution was studied in uranium dioxide during displacement cascades simulated by classical molecular dynamics (MD). The energy for each simulated radiation event ranged between 0.2 keV and 20 keV in cells at initial temperatures of 700 K or 1400 K. Spheres into which atomic velocities were rescaled (thermal spikes) have also been simulated by MD to simulate the thermal excitation induced by displacement cascades. Equipartition of energy was shown to occur in displacement cascades, half of the kinetic energy of the primary knock-on atom being converted after a few tenths of picoseconds into potential energy. The kinetic and potential parts of the system energy are however subjected to little variations during dedicated thermal spike simulations. This is probably due to the velocity rescaling process, which impacts a large number of atoms in this case and would drive the system away from a dynamical equilibrium. This result makes questionable MD simulations of thermal spikes carried out up to now (early 2014). The thermal history of cascades was compared to the heat equation solution of a punctual thermal excitation in UO2. The maximum volume brought to a temperature above the melting temperature during the simulated cascade events is well reproduced by this simple model. This volume eventually constitutes a relevant estimate of the volume affected by a displacement cascade in UO2. This definition of the cascade volume could also make sense in other materials, like iron.
Oil ganglion dynamics during immiscible displacement: model formulation
Payatakes, A.C.; Ng, K.M.; Flumerfelt, R.W.
1980-05-01
A model is formulated in order to study the transient behavior of oil ganglion populations during immiscible displacement in oil recovery processes. The model is composed of 3 components: a suitable model for granular porous media; a stochastic simulation method capable of predicting the expected fate (mobilization, breakup, stranding) of solitary oil ganglia moving through granular porous media; and 2 coupled ganglion population balance equations, one applying to moving ganglia and the other to stranded ones. The porous medium model consists of a regular network of randomly sized unit cells of the constricted tube type. 32 references.
Modeling of two-hot-arm horizontal thermal actuator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Dong; Khajepour, Amir; Mansour, Raafat
2003-03-01
Electrothermal actuators have a very promising future in MEMS applications since they can generate large deflection and force with low actuating voltages and small device areas. In this study, a lumped model of a two-hot-arm horizontal thermal actuator is presented. In order to prove the accuracy of the lumped model, finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental results are provided. The two-hot-arm thermal actuator has been fabricated using the MUMPs process. Both the experimental and FEA results are in good agreement with the results of lumped modeling.
The Development of a Displacement Interferometer for Model Deflection Measurements
1977-01-01
AEDC-TR-76-116 THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DISPLACEMENT INTERFEROMETER FOR MODEL DEFLECTION MEASUREMENTS OFFICE OF THE TECHNICAL DIRECTOR ARNOLD...ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND ARNOLD AIR FORCE STATION, TENNESSEE 37389 January 1977 Final Report for Period July 1974 - June... AIR FORCE STATION, TENNESSEE 37389 NOTICES When U. S. Government drawings specifications, or other data are used for any purpose other than a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang; Vu-Quoc, Loc
2007-07-01
We present in this paper the displacement-driven version of a tangential force-displacement (TFD) model that accounts for both elastic and plastic deformations together with interfacial friction occurring in collisions of spherical particles. This elasto-plastic frictional TFD model, with its force-driven version presented in [L. Vu-Quoc, L. Lesburg, X. Zhang. An accurate tangential force-displacement model for granular-flow simulations: contacting spheres with plastic deformation, force-driven formulation, Journal of Computational Physics 196(1) (2004) 298-326], is consistent with the elasto-plastic frictional normal force-displacement (NFD) model presented in [L. Vu-Quoc, X. Zhang. An elasto-plastic contact force-displacement model in the normal direction: displacement-driven version, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 455 (1991) 4013-4044]. Both the NFD model and the present TFD model are based on the concept of additive decomposition of the radius of contact area into an elastic part and a plastic part. The effect of permanent indentation after impact is represented by a correction to the radius of curvature. The effect of material softening due to plastic flow is represented by a correction to the elastic moduli. The proposed TFD model is accurate, and is validated against nonlinear finite element analyses involving plastic flows in both the loading and unloading conditions. The proposed consistent displacement-driven, elasto-plastic NFD and TFD models are designed for implementation in computer codes using the discrete-element method (DEM) for granular-flow simulations. The model is shown to be accurate and is validated against nonlinear elasto-plastic finite-element analysis.
Electric sail elliptic displaced orbits with advanced thrust model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niccolai, Lorenzo; Quarta, Alessandro A.; Mengali, Giovanni
2017-09-01
This paper analyzes the performance of an Electric Solar Wind Sail for generating and maintaining an elliptic, heliocentric, displaced non-Keplerian orbit. In this sense, this paper extends and completes recent studies regarding the performances of an Electric Solar Wind Sail that covers a circular, heliocentric, displaced orbit of given characteristics. The paper presents the general equations that describe the elliptic orbit maintenance in terms of both spacecraft attitude and performance requirements, when a refined thrust model (recently proposed for the preliminary mission design) is taken into account. In particular, the paper also discusses some practical applications on particular mission scenarios in which an analytic solution of the governing equations has been found.
Modeling the impact of spatial relationships on horizontal curve safety.
Findley, Daniel J; Hummer, Joseph E; Rasdorf, William; Zegeer, Charles V; Fowler, Tyler J
2012-03-01
The curved segments of roadways are more hazardous because of the additional centripetalforces exerted on a vehicle, driver expectations, and other factors. The safety of a curve is dependent on various factors, most notably by geometric factors, but the location of a curve in relation to other curves is also thought to influence the safety of those curves because of a driver's expectation to encounter additional curves. The link between an individual curve's geometric characteristics and its safety performance has been established, but spatial considerations are typically not included in a safety analysis. The spatial considerations included in this research consisted of four components: distance to adjacent curves, direction of turn of the adjacent curves, and radius and length of the adjacent curves. The primary objective of this paper is to quantify the spatial relationship between adjacent horizontal curves and horizontal curve safety using a crash modification factor. Doing so enables a safety professional to more accurately estimate safety to allocate funding to reduce or prevent future collisions and more efficiently design new roadway sections to minimize crash risk where there will be a series of curves along a route. The most important finding from this research is the statistical significance of spatial considerations for the prediction of horizontal curve safety. The distances to adjacent curves were found to be a reliable predictor of observed collisions. This research recommends a model which utilizes spatial considerations for horizontal curve safety prediction in addition to current Highway Safety Manual prediction capabilities using individual curve geometric features. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Comparing models of seasonal deformation to horizontal and vertical PBO GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartlow, N. M.; Fialko, Y. A.; van Dam, T. M.
2015-12-01
GPS monuments around the world exhibit seasonal displacements in both the horizontal and vertical direction with amplitudes on the order of centimeters. For analysis of tectonic signals, researchers typically fit and remove a sine function with an annual period, and sometimes an additional sine function with a semiannual period. As interest grows in analyzing small-amplitude, long-period deformation signals it becomes more important to accurately correct for seasonal variations. It is well established that the vertical component of seasonal GPS signals is largely due to continental water storage cycles (e.g. van Dam et al., GRL, 2001). Other recognized sources of seasonal loading include atmospheric pressure loading and oceanic loading due to non-steric changes in ocean height (e.g. van Dam et al., J. Geodesy, 2012). Here we attempt to build a complete physical model of seasonal loading by considering all of these sources (continental water storage, atmospheric pressure, and oceanic loading) and comparing our model to horizontal and vertical GPS data in the Western US. Atmospheric loading effects are computed from the National Center for Environmental Prediction 6-hourly global reanalysis surface pressure fields; the terrestrial water loading and ocean loading models are generated using SPOTL (Some Programs for Ocean Tide Loading; Agnew, SIO Technical Report, 2012) and parameters from NASA's Land Data Assimilation Systems and the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean model, version 4. We find that with a few exceptions, our seasonal loading model predicts the correct phases but underestimates the amplitudes of vertical seasonal loads, and is a generally poor fit to the observed horizontal seasonal signals. This implies that our understanding of the driving mechanisms behind seasonal variations in the GPS data is still incomplete and needs to be improved before physics-based models can be used as an effective correction tool for the GPS timeseries.
Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/5-Scale Semispan Model of the Republic XF-12 Horizontal Tail Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denaci, H. G.
1945-01-01
Wind-tunnel tests of a 1/5-scale semispan model of the Republic XF-12 horizontal tail surface equipped with an internally balanced elevator were conducted in the 6- by 6-foot test section of the Langley stability tunnel. The tests included measurements of the aerodynamic characteristics of the horizontal tail with and without a beveled trailing edge and also included measurements of the tab characteristics. The variation of the aerodynamic characteristics with boundary-layer conditions and leakage in the internal-balance chambers, measurements of the boundary-layer displacement thickness near the elevator hinge axis, and pressure distributions at the mean geometric chord were also obtained. The results showed that the hinge-moment characteristics of the elevator were critical to boundary-layer conditions and internal-balance leakage. Increasing the boundary-layer displacement thickness by use of roughness strips reduced the rate of change of elevator hinge moments with tab deflection by about 20 percent. The present horizontal tail appears to be unsatisfactory for longitudinal stability with power on, however, an increase in horizontal-tail lift effectiveness should correct this difficulty. The maneuvering stick force per unit acceleration will be extremely critical to minor variations of the elevator hinge moments if the elevator is linked directly to the stick.
A physical model for measuring thermally-induced block displacements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakun-Mazor, Dagan; Feldhiem, Aviran; Keissar, Yuval; Hatzor, Yossef H.
2016-04-01
A new model for thermally-induced block displacement in discontinuous rock slopes has been recently suggested. The model consists of a discrete block that is separated from the rock mass by a tension crack and rests on an inclined plane. The tension crack is filled with a wedge block or rock fragments. Irreversible block sliding is assumed to develop in response to climatic thermal fluctuations and consequent contraction and expansion of the sliding block material. While a tentative analytical solution for this model is already available, we are exploring here the possibility of obtaining such a permanent, thermally-induced, rock block displacement, under fully controlled conditions at the laboratory, and the sensitivity of the mechanism to geometry, mechanical properties, and temperature fluctuations. A large scale concrete physical model (50x150x60 cm^3) is being examined in a Climate-Controlled Room (CCR). The CCR permits accurate control of ambient temperature from 5 to 45 Celsius degrees. The permanent plastic displacement is being measured using four displacement transducers and a high resolution (29M pixel) visual range camera. A series of thermocouples measure the heating front inside the sliding block, hence thermal diffusivity is evaluated from the measured thermal gradient and heat flow. In order to select the appropriate concrete mixture, the mechanical and thermo-physical properties of concrete samples are determined in the lab. Friction angle and shear stiffness of the sliding interface are determined utilizing a hydraulic, servo-controlled direct shear apparatus. Uniaxial compression tests are performed to determine the uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poison's ratio of the intact block material using a stiff triaxial load frame. Thermal conductivity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined experimentally using a self-constructed measuring system. Due to the fact that this experiment is still in progress, preliminary
Simplified aeroelastic modeling of horizontal axis wind turbines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendell, J. H.
1982-01-01
Certain aspects of the aeroelastic modeling and behavior of the horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) are examined. Two simple three degree of freedom models are described in this report, and tools are developed which allow other simple models to be derived. The first simple model developed is an equivalent hinge model to study the flap-lag-torsion aeroelastic stability of an isolated rotor blade. The model includes nonlinear effects, preconing, and noncoincident elastic axis, center of gravity, and aerodynamic center. A stability study is presented which examines the influence of key parameters on aeroelastic stability. Next, two general tools are developed to study the aeroelastic stability and response of a teetering rotor coupled to a flexible tower. The first of these tools is an aeroelastic model of a two-bladed rotor on a general flexible support. The second general tool is a harmonic balance solution method for the resulting second order system with periodic coefficients. The second simple model developed is a rotor-tower model which serves to demonstrate the general tools. This model includes nacelle yawing, nacelle pitching, and rotor teetering. Transient response time histories are calculated and compared to a similar model in the literature. Agreement between the two is very good, especially considering how few harmonics are used. Finally, a stability study is presented which examines the effects of support stiffness and damping, inflow angle, and preconing.
Modelling of horizontal centrifugal casting of work roll
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhian; Song, Nannan; Tol, Rob Val; Luan, Yikun; Li, Dianzhong
2012-07-01
A numerical model to simulate horizontal centrifugal roll castings is presented in this paper. In order to simulate the flow fluid and solidification of horizontal centrifugal roll casting correctly, the model uses a body fitted mesh technique to represent the geometry. This new method maps a plate layer mesh to a circular mesh. The smooth body fitted mesh method gives more accurate calculation results for cylindrical geometries. A velocity depending on the angular velocity and inner radius of the mould is set up as a velocity boundary condition. The fluid flow coupled with heat transfer and solidification in a rapidly rotating roll is simulated. A gravity free falling method is applied as a pouring condition. A moveable pouring system is also used in the simulations. High speed steel is used to produce the work roll. Two different gating positions and a moveable gating system are simulated in this paper. Results show that the position of pouring system has a significant influence on the temperature distribution. The temperature distribution at a fixed central pouring system is more favourable than the distribution from a side pouring system. A moving gating system method is a better way to obtain a uniform temperature field in centrifugal casting and offers an alternative for existing techniques.
Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.
Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.
2012-03-01
Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.
Physical modelling of Czochralski crystal growth in horizontal magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grants, Ilmārs; Pal, Josef; Gerbeth, Gunter
2017-07-01
This study addresses experimentally the heat transfer, the temperature azimuthal non-uniformity and the onset of oscillations in a low temperature physical model of a medium-sized Czochralski crystal growth process with a strong horizontal magnetic field (HMF). It is observed that under certain conditions the integral heat flux may decrease with increasing magnetic field strength at the same time as the flow velocity increases. The azimuthal non-uniformity of the temperature field in the melt near the crystal model rim is only little influenced by its rotation rate outside of a narrow range where the centrifugal force balances the buoyant one. The flow oscillation onset has been observed for two values of the HMF strength. Conditions of this onset are little influenced by the crystal rotation. The critical temperature difference of the oscillation onset considerably exceeds that of the Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) cell in a strong HMF.
Impulsive optimal control model for the trajectory of horizontal wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, An; Feng, Enmin; Wang, Lei
2009-01-01
This paper presents an impulsive optimal control model for solving the optimal designing problem of the trajectory of horizontal wells. We take fully into account the effect of unknown disturbances in drilling. The optimal control problem can be converted into a nonlinear parametric optimization by integrating the state equation. We discuss here that the locally optimal solution depends in a continuous way on the parameters (disturbances) and utilize this property to propose a revised Hooke-Jeeves algorithm. The uniform design technique is incorporated into the revised Hooke-Jeeves algorithm to handle the multimodal objective function. The numerical simulation is in accordance with theoretical results. The numerical results illustrate the validity of the model and efficiency of the algorithm.
Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie
2015-04-13
Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0~30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor.
Research on Joint Parameter Inversion for an Integrated Underground Displacement 3D Measuring Sensor
Shentu, Nanying; Qiu, Guohua; Li, Qing; Tong, Renyuan; Shentu, Nankai; Wang, Yanjie
2015-01-01
Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0 ~ 30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor. PMID:25871714
2009-09-01
Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE September 2009 3. REPORT TYPE AND...CVN 68 class aircraft carriers are actually exceeding displacement limits based on NAVSEA projections . The NAVSEA projections are based on...values collected from all commissioned CVN 68 class aircraft carriers. Analysis reveals that the NAVSEA projections are predicting the carrier’s
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tao; Hampel, Andrea
2013-04-01
Tide-gauge and geodetic measurements of coseismic and interseismic displacements in the forearc of subduction zones showed that the coastal region undergoes uplift during the interseismic phase and subsidence during the coseismic phase, while opposite vertical movements are observed in the neighbouring regions (e.g., Savage & Thatcher 1992; Hyndman & Wang 1995). Horizontal displacements during the interseismic phase are typically directed landward, whereas the forearc moves seaward during the earthquake (e.g., Klotz et al. 1999). Here we use two-dimensional finite-element modelling to evaluate how the friction coefficient along the plate interface, the length and the position of the downdip end of the locked zone affect the coseismic and interseismic displacements. Our model consists of a deformable, rheologically stratified upper plate and an undeformable oceanic plate, which rotates at a prescribed angular velocity (cf. Cailleau & Oncken, 2008). The frictional plate interface is divided - from the trench to the base of the continental lithosphere - into a seismogenic zone, a transition zone and a landward free slip zone. During an initial phase, the seismogenic zone is locked, which leads to the accumulation of elastic strain in the forearc. During the subsequent coseismic phase, the strain is released and causes sudden slip of several meters on the plate interface. During the next interseismic phase, the seismogenic zone is locked again. Our model results show patterns of vertical and horizontal displacements that are in general agreement with geodetically observed patterns. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the magnitude of the vertical displacements is strongly influenced by the friction coefficients of the seismogenic zone and the transition zone. The location of the zones of maximum interseismic uplift and coseismic subsidence in the coastal regions depends on the length and position of the locked zone. Preliminary results from three-dimensional models
Stochastic spatial structured model for vertically and horizontally transmitted infection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Ana T. C.; Assis, Vladimir R. V.; Pinho, Suani T. R.; Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J.
2017-02-01
We study a space structured stochastic model for vertical and horizontal transmitted infection. By means of simple and pair mean-field approximation as well as Monte Carlo simulations, we construct the phase diagram, which displays four states: healthy (H), infected (I), extinct (E), and coexistent (C). In state H only healthy hosts are present, whereas in state I only infected hosts are present. The state E is characterized by the extinction of the hosts whereas in state C there is a coexistence of infected and healthy hosts. In addition to the usual scenario with continuous transition between the I, C and H phases, we found a different scenario with the suppression of the C phase and a discontinuous phase transition between I and H phases.
Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotes: The weak-link model
Huang, Jinling
2013-01-01
The significance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic evolution remains controversial. Although many eukaryotic genes are of bacterial origin, they are often interpreted as being derived from mitochondria or plastids. Because of their fixed gene pool and gene loss, however, mitochondria and plastids alone cannot adequately explain the presence of all, or even the majority, of bacterial genes in eukaryotes. Available data indicate that no insurmountable barrier to HGT exists, even in complex multicellular eukaryotes. In addition, the discovery of both recent and ancient HGT events in all major eukaryotic groups suggests that HGT has been a regular occurrence throughout the history of eukaryotic evolution. A model of HGT is proposed that suggests both unicellular and early developmental stages as likely entry points for foreign genes into multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:24037739
Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotes: the weak-link model.
Huang, Jinling
2013-10-01
The significance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic evolution remains controversial. Although many eukaryotic genes are of bacterial origin, they are often interpreted as being derived from mitochondria or plastids. Because of their fixed gene pool and gene loss, however, mitochondria and plastids alone cannot adequately explain the presence of all, or even the majority, of bacterial genes in eukaryotes. Available data indicate that no insurmountable barrier to HGT exists, even in complex multicellular eukaryotes. In addition, the discovery of both recent and ancient HGT events in all major eukaryotic groups suggests that HGT has been a regular occurrence throughout the history of eukaryotic evolution. A model of HGT is proposed that suggests both unicellular and early developmental stages as likely entry points for foreign genes into multicellular eukaryotes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luongo, Annamaria; Amoruso, Antonella; Crescentini, Luca
2015-04-01
Volcanic unrests can be studied through the induced surface deformation; one limiting factor however is the small number of available deformation source models. Till 2011, the only available (approximate or exact) expressions for finite expansion sources referred to spheres, prolate spheroids, and horizontal circular cracks embedded in a homogeneous half-space. Cervelli (2013) derived more general approximate expressions for displacement from a finite spheroid of arbitrary orientation and aspect ratio, embedded in a homogeneous half-space. The only approximate expressions for displacements and stresses from the inflation of a finite pressurized tri-axial ellipsoid in a (possibly heterogeneous) half-space were published by Amoruso and Crescentini (2011). Starting from the equivalence (exact for an infinite elastic medium) between the external displacement field due to a pressurized ellipsoidal cavity and the displacement field given by a uniform distribution of seismic moments, Amoruso and Crescentini (2011) accounted for source finiteness by using an approach similar to the multipole expansion of the gravitational potential outside a mass distribution. The dipole term is null because of symmetry; terms to quadrupole order are kept. The resulting expressions can be evaluated by combining the effects of seven moment tensors (SMT model) and are approximately valid also for a heterogeneous half-space. In case of a layered half-space, the appropriate displacement Green functions can be evaluated analitically and the SMT model has already been used to invert ground deformation data of the Campi Flegrei Caldera, Italy. In case of a heterogeneous medium, the appropriate displacement Green functions can be computed, once and for all, using FEM, so that the SMT model still allows fast forward computations and can be included into inversion codes. Amoruso and Crescentini (2011) could test the goodness of their approach only in case of spherical and prolate spheroidal cavities
ON VERTICALLY GLOBAL, HORIZONTALLY LOCAL MODELS FOR ASTROPHYSICAL DISKS
McNally, Colin P.; Pessah, Martin E. E-mail: mpessah@nbi.dk
2015-10-01
Disks with a barotropic equilibrium structure, for which the pressure is only a function of the density, rotate on cylinders in the presence of a gravitational potential, so that the angular frequency of such a disk is independent of height. Such disks with barotropic equilibria can be approximately modeled using the shearing box framework, representing a small disk volume with height-independent angular frequency. If the disk is in baroclinic equilibrium, the angular frequency does generally depend on height, and it is thus necessary to go beyond the standard shearing box approach. In this paper, we show that given a global disk model, it is possible to develop approximate models that are local in horizontal planes without an expansion in height with shearing-periodic boundary conditions. We refer to the resulting framework as the vertically global shearing box (VGSB). These models can be non-axisymmetric for globally barotropic equilibria but should be axisymmetric for globally baroclinic equilibria. We provide explicit equations for this VGSB which can be implemented in standard magnetohydrodynamic codes by generalizing the shearing-periodic boundary conditions to allow for a height-dependent angular frequency and shear rate. We also discuss the limitations that result from the radial approximations that are needed in order to impose height-dependent shearing periodic boundary conditions. We illustrate the potential of this framework by studying a vertical shear instability and examining the modes associated with the magnetorotational instability.
A GLE multi-block model for the evaluation of seismic displacements of slopes
Bandini, V.; Cascone, E.; Biondi, G.
2008-07-08
The paper describes a multi-block displacement model for the evaluation of seismic permanent displacements of natural slopes with slip surface of general shape. A rigorous limit equilibrium method of stability analysis is considered and an application to an ideal clay slope is presented including the effect of excess pore pressure build-up on the displacement response.
Atmospheric Climate Model Experiments Performed at Multiple Horizontal Resolutions
Phillips, T; Bala, G; Gleckler, P; Lobell, D; Mirin, A; Maxwell, R; Rotman, D
2007-12-21
This report documents salient features of version 3.3 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.3) and of three climate simulations in which the resolution of its latitude-longitude grid was systematically increased. For all these simulations of global atmospheric climate during the period 1980-1999, observed monthly ocean surface temperatures and sea ice extents were prescribed according to standard Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) values. These CAM3.3 resolution experiments served as control runs for subsequent simulations of the climatic effects of agricultural irrigation, the focus of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The CAM3.3 model was able to replicate basic features of the historical climate, although biases in a number of atmospheric variables were evident. Increasing horizontal resolution also generally failed to ameliorate the large-scale errors in most of the climate variables that could be compared with observations. A notable exception was the simulation of precipitation, which incrementally improved with increasing resolution, especially in regions where orography plays a central role in determining the local hydroclimate.
Modelling coseismic displacements during the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake (central Italy)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunstad, Ingrid; Anzidei, Marco; Cocco, Massimo; Baldi, Paolo; Galvani, Alessandro; Pesci, Arianna
1999-11-01
We propose a dislocation model for the two normal faulting earthquakes that struck the central Apennines (Umbria-Marche, Italy) on 1997 September 26 at 00:33 (Mw 5.7) and 09:40 GMT (Mw 6.0). We fit coseismic horizontal and vertical displacements resulting from GPS measurements at several monuments of the IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano) by means of a dislocation model in an elastic, homogeneous, isotropic half-space. Our best-fitting model consists of two normal faults whose mechanisms and seismic moments have been taken from CMT solutions; it is consistent with other seismological and geophysical observations. The first fault, which is 6 km long and 7 km wide, ruptured during the 00:33 event with a unilateral rupture towards the SE and an average slip of 27 cm. The second fault is 12 km long and 10 km wide, and ruptured during the 09:40 event with a nearly unilateral rupture towards the NW. Slip distribution on this second fault is non-uniform and is concentrated in its SE portion (maximum slip is 65 cm), where rupture initiated. The 00:33 fault is deeper than the 09:40 one: the top of the first rupture is deeper than 1.7 km the top of the second is 0.6 km deep. In order to interpret the observed epicentral subsidence we have also considered the contributions of two further moderate-magnitude earthquakes that occurred on 1997 October 3 (Mw 5.2) and 6 (Mw 5.4), immediately before the GPS survey, and were located very close to the 09:40 event of September 26. We compare the pattern of vertical displacements resulting from our forward modelling of GPS data with that derived from SAR interferograms: the fit to SAR data is very good, confirming the reliability of the proposed dislocation model.
A displaced-solvent functional analysis of model hydrophobic enclosures
Abel, Robert; Wang, Lingle; Friesner, Richard A.; Berne, B. J.
2010-01-01
Calculation of protein-ligand binding affinities continues to be a hotbed of research. Although many techniques for computing protein-ligand binding affinities have been introduced--ranging from computationally very expensive approaches, such as free energy perturbation (FEP) theory; to more approximate techniques, such as empirically derived scoring functions, which, although computationally efficient, lack a clear theoretical basis--there remains pressing need for more robust approaches. A recently introduced technique, the displaced-solvent functional (DSF) method, was developed to bridge the gap between the high accuracy of FEP and the computational efficiency of empirically derived scoring functions. In order to develop a set of reference data to test the DSF theory for calculating absolute protein-ligand binding affinities, we have pursued FEP theory calculations of the binding free energies of a methane ligand with 13 different model hydrophobic enclosures of varying hydrophobicity. The binding free energies of the methane ligand with the various hydrophobic enclosures were then recomputed by DSF theory and compared with the FEP reference data. We find that the DSF theory, which relies on no empirically tuned parameters, shows excellent quantitative agreement with the FEP. We also explored the ability of buried solvent accessible surface area and buried molecular surface area models to describe the relevant physics, and find the buried molecular surface area model to offer superior performance over this dataset. PMID:21135914
Preview Scheduled Model Predictive Control For Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laks, Jason H.
This research investigates the use of model predictive control (MPC) in application to wind turbine operation from start-up to cut-out. The studies conducted are focused on the design of an MPC controller for a 650˜KW, three-bladed horizontal axis turbine that is in operation at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center outside of Golden, Colorado. This turbine is at the small end of utility scale turbines, but it provides advanced instrumentation and control capabilities, and there is a good probability that the approach developed in simulation for this thesis, will be field tested on the actual turbine. A contribution of this thesis is a method to combine the use of preview measurements with MPC while also providing regulation of turbine speed and cyclic blade loading. A common MPC technique provides integral-like control to achieve offset-free operation. At the same time in wind turbine applications, multiple studies have developed "feed-forward" controls based on applying a gain to an estimate of the wind speed changes obtained from an observer incorporating a disturbance model. These approaches are based on a technique that can be referred to as disturbance accommodating control (DAC). In this thesis, it is shown that offset-free tracking MPC is equivalent to a DAC approach when the disturbance gain is computed to satisfy a regulator equation. Although the MPC literature has recognized that this approach provides "structurally stable" disturbance rejection and tracking, this step is not typically divorced from the MPC computations repeated each sample hit. The DAC formulation is conceptually simpler, and essentially uncouples regulation considerations from MPC related issues. This thesis provides a self contained proof that the DAC formulation (an observer-controller and appropriate disturbance gain) provides structurally stable regulation.
The mental health of civilians displaced by armed conflict: an ecological model of refugee distress.
Miller, K E; Rasmussen, A
2016-04-04
Early research on the mental health of civilians displaced by armed conflict focused primarily on the direct effects of exposure to war-related violence and loss. Largely overlooked in this war exposure model were the powerful effects of ongoing stressors related to the experience of displacement itself. An ecological model of refugee distress is proposed, drawing on research demonstrating that mental health among refugees and asylum seekers stems not only from prior war exposure, but also from a host of ongoing stressors in their social ecology, or displacement-related stressors. Implications of this model for addressing the mental health and psychosocial needs of refugees and other displaced populations are considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ranatunga, Vipul; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.
2010-01-01
A method for performing progressive damage modeling in composite materials and structures based on continuum level interfacial displacement discontinuities is presented. The proposed method enables the exponential evolution of the interfacial compliance, resulting in unloading of the tractions at the interface after delamination or failure occurs. In this paper, the proposed continuum displacement discontinuity model has been used to simulate failure within both isotropic and orthotropic materials efficiently and to explore the possibility of predicting the crack path, therein. Simulation results obtained from Mode-I and Mode-II fracture compare the proposed approach with the cohesive element approach and Virtual Crack Closure Techniques (VCCT) available within the ABAQUS (ABAQUS, Inc.) finite element software. Furthermore, an eccentrically loaded 3-point bend test has been simulated with the displacement discontinuity model, and the resulting crack path prediction has been compared with a prediction based on the extended finite element model (XFEM) approach.
ALCAR - A Model for Horizontal R&D Consortia
Barthold, G.B.; Das, S.K.; Hayden, H.W.
1999-03-01
The ALCAR^{TM} Consortium was created to develop a low cost, non-heat treatable automotive body sheet alloy. This paper will discuss the management aspects of organizing and running a horizontal consortium for competing companies to cooperate in conducting pre-competitive research and development involving the US Department of Energy, National Laboratories, Universities and industrial consultants.
Disaster Hits Home: A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget; Marlatt, Holly
2011-01-01
The authors explored individual and family adjustment processes among parents (n = 30) and children (n = 55) who were displaced to Colorado after Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 23 families, this article offers an inductive model of displaced family adjustment. Four stages of family adjustment are presented in the model: (a)…
Disaster Hits Home: A Model of Displaced Family Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peek, Lori; Morrissey, Bridget; Marlatt, Holly
2011-01-01
The authors explored individual and family adjustment processes among parents (n = 30) and children (n = 55) who were displaced to Colorado after Hurricane Katrina. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 23 families, this article offers an inductive model of displaced family adjustment. Four stages of family adjustment are presented in the model: (a)…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Peters, J. M.
1981-01-01
Simple mixed models are developed for use in the geometrically nonlinear analysis of deep arches. A total Lagrangian description of the arch deformation is used, the analytical formulation being based on a form of the nonlinear deep arch theory with the effects of transverse shear deformation included. The fundamental unknowns comprise the six internal forces and generalized displacements of the arch, and the element characteristic arrays are obtained by using Hellinger-Reissner mixed variational principle. The polynomial interpolation functions employed in approximating the forces are one degree lower than those used in approximating the displacements, and the forces are discontinuous at the interelement boundaries. Attention is given to the equivalence between the mixed models developed herein and displacement models based on reduced integration of both the transverse shear and extensional energy terms. The advantages of mixed models over equivalent displacement models are summarized. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy and effectiveness of the mixed models developed and to permit a comparison of their performance with that of other mixed models reported in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michoud, C.; Abellan, A.; Baillifard, F.-J.; Demierre, J.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Jakubowski, J.; May-Delasoie, F.
2012-04-01
other side, landslide velocity is progressively reduced during dry periods, tending to a horizontal asymptote of null displacement. In order to model landslide kinematics, we obtained a response function that reproduces the landslide displacements based on a convolution of daily precipitation during a certain time window (50 days in this case study). Two different response functions following exponential and power laws were tested. The variables of these functions were optimized in Matlab in order to minimize the error between the real and the modeled displacements. The hydrological model shows close resemblance to reality during the calibration period (2007-2008) and is able to forecast landslide displacements during subsequent years. Using both kinematic settings and hydrological approach enables to forecast future displacements according to weather conditions and to establish threshold values a possible early warning system of the Barmasse rockslide.
Practice-based preclinical instruction for gingival displacement with animal models.
Cai, He; Yang, Shuying; Pei, Xibo; Qing, Hai; Wang, Jian
2017-03-01
Gingival displacement is recognized as a substantive and difficult procedure in fixed prosthodontics. However, a realistic simulation of gingival displacement is unavailable for preclinical dental students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether practice-based preclinical instruction of gingival displacement with animal models could improve students' skill in patient care. Isolated bovine mandibles (calves were younger than 6 months of age) and isolated porcine hemimandibles were prepared for this study. Twenty-two general dental practitioners with at least 5 years of experience were randomly selected and assigned to perform gingival displacement on both bovine and porcine jaws. Those practitioners were then asked to assess the clinical similarity of gingival displacement between human teeth and animal teeth. The data were analyzed with the paired t test (α=.05). Upon confirmation that the animal jaw provided a similar gingival displacement environment to that of human teeth, 80 predoctoral dental students were enrolled and randomized into 2 groups. Half of them underwent the new practice-based instruction, while the others underwent traditional preclinical teaching only (lectures, online video, or live demonstration). After preclinical learning, clinical performance in gingival displacement was evaluated for all students in terms of the effect of gingival displacement and quality of impression. The data were analyzed with the chi-square test (α=.05). The dentogingival environments of porcine and bovine jaws were similar to those of human jaws, and no significant difference was detected between these 2 animal models (P=.178). A significant increase occurred in the acceptable rate of the effect of gingival displacement (P<.001) and the quality of impression (P<.001) among students who received the practice-based instruction compared with those who received traditional teaching. These findings suggest that this practice-based instruction of gingival
Mixed models and reduced/selective integration displacement models for nonlinear shell analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Andersen, C. M.
1981-01-01
One of the objectives of the present investigation is to identify classes of equivalent mixed models and reduced/selective integration displacement models for curved shell structures. A second objective is concerned with the identification of the spurious modes exhibited by various mixed models and their equivalent reduced integration displacement models. The merits of using mixed models are also evaluated. The mixed elements developed in the current investigation differ from those presented by Noor and Hartley (1977) by the fact that the stress resultants are discontinuous at interelement boundaries and, therefore, are eliminated on the element level. The high accuracy and effectiveness of the elements developed is demonstrated by means of numerical examples, taking into account three geometrically nonlinear problems of shallow shells.
Representation of horizontal strain due to tidal bending by observation and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rack, Wolfgang; King, Matt; Marsh, Oliver; Wild, Christian; Floricioiu, Dana
2017-04-01
An important control of ice sheet mass balance is the ice dynamics in the grounding zones around Antarctica. On many outflow glaciers a large temporal variability in ice flow has been observed, which is at least partly related to tides. Here we investigate the tide induced short term ice deformation in an ice shelf grounding zone and the related bending stresses and strain. We make use of the arguably most precise measurement method, differential SAR interferometry, in combination with ground based measurements and model assumptions for tidal bending. Ground validation and satellite data have been acquired within a dedicated field campaign. The Southern McMurdo Ice Shelf in the Western Ross Ice Shelf region was chosen as the experiment site. This area is optimal for the data interpretation because of a simple grounding line configuration, small ice flux, and favourable satellite imaging geometry. It is also a safe area which allowed the installation of tiltmeters and GPS stations, and glaciological measurements such as ice thickness and snow accumulation. From November 2014 to January 2015 the tidal movement was recorded over a period of 2.5 months. TerrSAR-X radar images have been acquired over the same period as a basis to derive ice shelf flexure maps. Despite the viscoelastic effects in ice shelf bending a simple elastic bending model for a beam of finite ice thickness can largely explain the GPS-observed surface strain. Using the same model and taking into account the viewing geometry of the satellite radar, it is now possible to separate horizontal and vertical displacement components in the satellite data. As a result we can obtain more realistic ice shelf flexure profiles from the interferometric SAR measurement. The newly derived flexure profiles are therefore more suitable to recover viscoelastic effects of tidal bending in grounding zones of ice shelves and outlet glaciers. These effects would have otherwise remained unnoticed.
Optimal displacement in apparent motion and quadrature models of motion sensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Andrew B.
1990-01-01
A grating appears to move if it is displaced by some amount between two brief presentations, or between multiple successive presentations. A number of recent experiments have examined the influence of displacement size upon either the sensitivity to motion, or upon the induced motion aftereffect. Several recent motion models are based upon quadrature filters that respond in opposite quadrants in the spatiotemporal frequency plane. Predictions of the quadrature model are derived for both two-frame and multiframe displays. Quadrature models generally predict an optimal displacement of 1/4 cycle for two-frame displays, but in the multiframe case the prediction depends entirely on the frame rate.
Horizontal violence and the quality and safety of patient care: a conceptual model.
Purpora, Christina; Blegen, Mary A
2012-01-01
For many years, nurses in international clinical and academic settings have voiced concern about horizontal violence among nurses and its consequences. However, no known framework exists to guide research on the topic to explain these consequences. This paper presents a conceptual model that was developed from four theories to illustrate how the quality and safety of patient care could be affected by horizontal violence. Research is needed to validate the new model and to gather empirical evidence of the consequences of horizontal violence on which to base recommendations for future research, education, and practice.
Horizontal Violence and the Quality and Safety of Patient Care: A Conceptual Model
Purpora, Christina; Blegen, Mary A.
2012-01-01
For many years, nurses in international clinical and academic settings have voiced concern about horizontal violence among nurses and its consequences. However, no known framework exists to guide research on the topic to explain these consequences. This paper presents a conceptual model that was developed from four theories to illustrate how the quality and safety of patient care could be affected by horizontal violence. Research is needed to validate the new model and to gather empirical evidence of the consequences of horizontal violence on which to base recommendations for future research, education, and practice. PMID:22655187
Modeling flow into horizontal wells in a Dupuit-Forchheimer model.
Haitjema, Henk; Kuzin, Sergey; Kelson, Vic; Abrams, Daniel
2010-01-01
Horizontal wells or radial collector wells are used in shallow aquifers to enhance water withdrawal rates. Groundwater flow patterns near these wells are three-dimensional (3D), but difficult to represent in a 3D numerical model because of the high degree of grid refinement needed. However, for the purpose of designing water withdrawal systems, it is sufficient to obtain the correct production rate of these wells for a given drawdown. We developed a Cauchy boundary condition along a horizontal well in a Dupuit-Forchheimer model. Such a steady-state 2D model is not only useful for predicting groundwater withdrawal rates but also for capture zone delineation in the context of source water protection. A comparison of our Dupuit-Forchheimer model for a radial collector well with a 3D model yields a nearly exact production rate. Particular attention is given to horizontal wells that extend underneath a river. A comparison of our approach with a 3D solution for this case yields satisfactory results, at least for moderate-to-large river bottom resistances.
Study on the evaluation method for fault displacement based on characterized source model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tonagi, M.; Takahama, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Inoue, N.; Irikura, K.; Dalguer, L. A.
2016-12-01
In IAEA Specific Safety Guide (SSG) 9 describes that probabilistic methods for evaluating fault displacement should be used if no sufficient basis is provided to decide conclusively that the fault is not capable by using the deterministic methodology. In addition, International Seismic Safety Centre compiles as ANNEX to realize seismic hazard for nuclear facilities described in SSG-9 and shows the utility of the deterministic and probabilistic evaluation methods for fault displacement. In Japan, it is required that important nuclear facilities should be established on ground where fault displacement will not arise when earthquakes occur in the future. Under these situations, based on requirements, we need develop evaluation methods for fault displacement to enhance safety in nuclear facilities. We are studying deterministic and probabilistic methods with tentative analyses using observed records such as surface fault displacement and near-fault strong ground motions of inland crustal earthquake which fault displacements arose. In this study, we introduce the concept of evaluation methods for fault displacement. After that, we show parts of tentative analysis results for deterministic method as follows: (1) For the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, referring slip distribution estimated by waveform inversion, we construct a characterized source model (Miyake et al., 2003, BSSA) which can explain observed near-fault broad band strong ground motions. (2) Referring a characterized source model constructed in (1), we study an evaluation method for surface fault displacement using hybrid method, which combines particle method and distinct element method. At last, we suggest one of the deterministic method to evaluate fault displacement based on characterized source model. This research was part of the 2015 research project `Development of evaluating method for fault displacement` by the Secretariat of Nuclear Regulation Authority (S/NRA), Japan.
Hann-Ming Henry Juang; Ching-Teng Lee; Yongxin Zhang; Yucheng Song; Ming-Chin Wu; Yi-Leng Chen; Kevin Kodama; Shyh-Chin Chen
2005-01-01
The National Centers for Environmental Prediction regional spectral model and mesoscale spectral model (NCEP RSM/MSM) use a spectral computation on perturbation. The perturbation is defined as a deviation between RSM/MSM forecast value and their outer model or analysis value on model sigma-coordinate surfaces. The horizontal diffusion used in the models applies...
Moro, Erik A; Todd, Michael D; Puckett, Anthony D
2011-12-10
A variety of intensity-modulated optical displacement sensor architectures have been proposed for use in noncontacting sensing applications, with one of the most widely implemented architectures being the bundled displacement sensor. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the arrangement of measurement fibers in previously reported bundled displacement sensors has not been configured with the use of a validated optical transmission model. Such a model has utility in accurately describing the sensor's performance a priori and thereby guides the arrangement of the fibers within the bundle to meet application-specific performance needs. In this paper, a recently validated transmission model is used for these purposes, and an optimization approach that employs a genetic algorithm efficiently explores the design space of the proposed bundle sensor architecture. From the converged output of the optimization routine, a bundled displacement sensor configuration is designed and experimentally tested, offering linear performance with a sensitivity of -0.066 μm(-1) and displacement measurement error of 223 μm over the axial displacement range of 6-8 mm. It is shown that this optimization approach may be generalized to determine optimized bundle configurations that offer high-sensitivity performance, with an acceptable error level, over a variety of axial displacement ranges. This document has been approved by Los Alamos National Laboratory for unlimited public release (LA-UR 11-03413). © 2011 Optical Society of America
Variational data assimilation problem for the thermodynamics model with displaced pole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parmuzin, Eugene; Agosgkov, Valery; Zakharova, Natalia
2017-04-01
The most versatile and promising technology for solving problems of monitoring and analysis of the natural environment is a four-dimensional variational data assimilation of observation data. The development of computational algorithms for the solution of data assimilation problems in geophysical hydrodynamics is important in the contemporary computation and informational science to improve the quality of long-term prediction by using the hydrodynamics sea model. These problems are applied to close and solve in practice the appropriate inverse problems of the geophysical hydrodynamics. In this work the variational data assimilation problems in the Baltic Sea water area with displaced pole were formulated and studied [1]. We assume, that the unique function which is obtained by observation data processing is the function and we permit that the function is known only on a part of considering area (for example, on a part of the Baltic Sea). Numerical experiments on restoring the ocean heat flux and obtaining solution of the system (temperature, salinity, velocity, and sea surface height) in the Baltic Sea primitive equation hydrodynamics model [2] with assimilation procedure were carried out. In the calculations we used daily sea surface temperature observation from Danish meteorological Institute, prepared on the basis of measurements of the radiometer (AVHRR, AATSR and AMSRE) and spectroradiometer (SEVIRI and MODIS). The spatial resolution of the model grid with respect to the horizontal variables is uniform on latitude (0.2 degree) and varies on longitude from 0.04 to 0.0004 degree . The results of the numerical experiments are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project №16-01-00548) and project №14-11-00609 by the Russian Science Foundation. References: [1] Agoshkov V.I., Parmuzin E.I., Zakharova N.B., Zalesny V.B., Shutyaev V.P., Gusev A.V. Variational assimilation of observation data in the mathematical model of
Modeling of a horizontal steam generator for the submerged nuclear power station concept
Palmrose, D.E.; Herring, J.S.
1993-01-01
A submerged nuclear power station has been proposed as an alternative power station with a relatively low environmental impact for use by both industrialized and developing countries. The station would be placed 10 m above the seabed at a depth of 30--100 m and a distance of 10--30 km from shore. The submerged nuclear power station would be manufactured and refueled in a central facility, thus gaining the economies of factoryfabrication and the flexibility of short-lead-time deployment. To minimize the size of the submerged hull, horizontal steam generators are proposed for the primary-to-secondary heat transfer, instead of the more traditional vertical steam generators. The horizontal steam generators for SNPS would be similar in design to the horizontal steam generators used in the N-Reactors except the tube orientation is horizontal (the tube's inlet and outlet connection points on the tubesheet are at the same elevation). Previous RELAP5 input decks for horizontal steam generators have been either very simplistic (Loviisa PWR) or used a vertical tube orientation (N-Reactor). This paper will present the development and testing of a RELAP5 horizontal steam generator model, complete with a simple secondary water level control system, that accounts for the dynamic flow conditions which exist inside horizontal steam generators.
Modeling of a horizontal steam generator for the submerged nuclear power station concept
Palmrose, D.E.; Herring, J.S.
1993-05-01
A submerged nuclear power station has been proposed as an alternative power station with a relatively low environmental impact for use by both industrialized and developing countries. The station would be placed 10 m above the seabed at a depth of 30--100 m and a distance of 10--30 km from shore. The submerged nuclear power station would be manufactured and refueled in a central facility, thus gaining the economies of factoryfabrication and the flexibility of short-lead-time deployment. To minimize the size of the submerged hull, horizontal steam generators are proposed for the primary-to-secondary heat transfer, instead of the more traditional vertical steam generators. The horizontal steam generators for SNPS would be similar in design to the horizontal steam generators used in the N-Reactors except the tube orientation is horizontal (the tube`s inlet and outlet connection points on the tubesheet are at the same elevation). Previous RELAP5 input decks for horizontal steam generators have been either very simplistic (Loviisa PWR) or used a vertical tube orientation (N-Reactor). This paper will present the development and testing of a RELAP5 horizontal steam generator model, complete with a simple secondary water level control system, that accounts for the dynamic flow conditions which exist inside horizontal steam generators.
Displacement rate dependence of irradiation creep as predicted by the production bias model
Woo, C.H.
1996-04-01
Recently, it has been shown that the non-swelling component of irradiation creep of austenitic stainless steels is relatively independent of temperature but is sensitive to the displacement rate. An earlier model of Lewthwaite and Mosedale anticipated the sensitivity of displacement rate and attributed it to the flux sensitivity of point defect recombination. The point-defect recombination process does not yield the observed temperature dependence, however, although it does predict an inverse dependence of the creep rate on the square root of the displacement rate that was experimentally observed at relatively low temperatures.
Effects of draining cochlear fluids on stapes displacement in human middle-ear models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lord, Richard M.; Abel, Eric W.; Wang, Zhigang; Mills, Robert P.
2001-12-01
Displacement-frequency characteristics of the stapes footplate were measured in five human temporal bones before and after draining the vestibule. Measurements were made in the 0.125-8 kHz range at 80 dB input sound pressure level, using a laser Doppler vibrometer. A circuit model was also used to predict stapes displacement. The temporal bone studies show a slight decrease in stapes footplate displacement at low frequency, and little change above 1 kHz. The displacement change is not as great as that found by other investigators or predicted by the model. There is little difference in stapes motion in temporal bones when the inner ear is intact or drained.
A model for diffuse and global irradiation on horizontal surfaces
Jain, P.C. )
1990-01-01
The intensity of the direct radiation and the diffuse radiation at any time on a horizontal surface are each expressed as fractions of the intensity of the extraterrestrial radiation. Using these and assuming a random distribution of the bright sunshine hours and not too wide variations in the values of the transmission coefficients, a number of relations for estimating the global and the diffuse irradiation are derived. Two of the relations derived, including the Angstroem correlation for estimating the global irradiation, are already known empirically while several new correlations have been derived. The relations derived in this paper are: (i) H{sub d}/H{sub o} = a{sub 1} + b{sub 1} (S/S{sub o}); (ii) H/H{sub o} = A{sub 2} + b{sub 2} (S/S{sub o}); (iii) H{sub D}/H{sub o} = a{sub 3} + b{sub 3} (H/H{sub o}); (iv) H{sub D}/H = a{sub 4} + b{sub 4} (h{sub o}/) (v) H/(H{minus}H{sub D}) = a{sub 5} + b{sub 5} (S{sub o}/S); (vi) H{sub D}/(H{minus}H{sub D}) = A{sub 6} + b{sub 6} (S{sub o}/S); (vii) H/H{sub D} = a{sub 7} + b{sub 7} (S/S{sub o}); (viii) H/H{sub D} = A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} (S/S{sub o}) + A{sub 3} (S/S{sub o}){sup 2}. The study identifies three independent basic parameters and the constants appearing in the various equations as simple functions of these three basic parameters. This provides unification and inter-relationships between the various constants. Experimental data for the diffuse irradiation, the global irradiation and the bright sunshine duration for Macerata (Italy), Salisbury and Bulawayo (Zimbabwe) is found to show good correlation for the linear eqns (i) to (vii), and the nature and the interrelationships of the constants is found to be as predicted by theory.
Modeling and parameterization of horizontally inhomogeneous cloud radiative properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, R. M.
1995-01-01
One of the fundamental difficulties in modeling cloud fields is the large variability of cloud optical properties (liquid water content, reflectance, emissivity). The stratocumulus and cirrus clouds, under special consideration for FIRE, exhibit spatial variability on scales of 1 km or less. While it is impractical to model individual cloud elements, the research direction is to model a statistical ensembles of cloud elements with mean-cloud properties specified. The major areas of this investigation are: (1) analysis of cloud field properties; (2) intercomparison of cloud radiative model results with satellite observations; (3) radiative parameterization of cloud fields; and (4) development of improved cloud classification algorithms.
Attenuation of Scalar Fluxes Measured with Spatially-displaced Sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horst, T. W.; Lenschow, D. H.
2009-02-01
Observations from the Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (HATS) field program are used to examine the attenuation of measured scalar fluxes caused by spatial separation between the vertical velocity and scalar sensors. The HATS data show that flux attenuation for streamwise, crosswind, and vertical sensor displacements are each a function of a dimensionless, stability-dependent parameter n m multiplied by the ratio of sensor displacement to measurement height. The scalar flux decays more rapidly with crosswind displacements than for streamwise displacements and decays more rapidly for stable stratification than for unstable stratification. The cospectral flux attenuation model of Kristensen et al. agrees well with the HATS data for streamwise sensor displacements, although it is necessary to include a neglected quadrature spectrum term to explain the observation that flux attenuation is often less with the scalar sensor downwind of the anemometer than for the opposite configuration. A simpler exponential decay model provides good estimates for crosswind sensor displacements, as well as for streamwise sensor displacements with stable stratification. A model similar to that of Lee and Black correctly predicts flux attenuation for a combination of streamwise and crosswind displacements, i.e. as a function of wind direction relative to the sensor displacement. The HATS data for vertical sensor displacements extend the near-neutral results of Kristensen et al. to diabatic stratification and confirm their finding that flux attenuation is less with the scalar sensor located below the anemometer than if the scalar sensor is displaced an equal distance either horizontally or above the anemometer.
Borup, Morten; Grum, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen
2013-01-01
When an online runoff model is updated from system measurements, the requirements of the precipitation input change. Using rain gauge data as precipitation input there will be a displacement between the time when the rain hits the gauge and the time where the rain hits the actual catchment, due to the time it takes for the rain cell to travel from the rain gauge to the catchment. Since this time displacement is not present for system measurements the data assimilation scheme might already have updated the model to include the impact from the particular rain cell when the rain data is forced upon the model, which therefore will end up including the same rain twice in the model run. This paper compares forecast accuracy of updated models when using time displaced rain input to that of rain input with constant biases. This is done using a simple time-area model and historic rain series that are either displaced in time or affected with a bias. The results show that for a 10 minute forecast, time displacements of 5 and 10 minutes compare to biases of 60 and 100%, respectively, independent of the catchments time of concentration.
Micro Finite Element models of the vertebral body: Validation of local displacement predictions.
Costa, Maria Cristiana; Tozzi, Gianluca; Cristofolini, Luca; Danesi, Valentina; Viceconti, Marco; Dall'Ara, Enrico
2017-01-01
The estimation of local and structural mechanical properties of bones with micro Finite Element (microFE) models based on Micro Computed Tomography images depends on the quality bone geometry is captured, reconstructed and modelled. The aim of this study was to validate microFE models predictions of local displacements for vertebral bodies and to evaluate the effect of the elastic tissue modulus on model's predictions of axial forces. Four porcine thoracic vertebrae were axially compressed in situ, in a step-wise fashion and scanned at approximately 39μm resolution in preloaded and loaded conditions. A global digital volume correlation (DVC) approach was used to compute the full-field displacements. Homogeneous, isotropic and linear elastic microFE models were generated with boundary conditions assigned from the interpolated displacement field measured from the DVC. Measured and predicted local displacements were compared for the cortical and trabecular compartments in the middle of the specimens. Models were run with two different tissue moduli defined from microindentation data (12.0GPa) and a back-calculation procedure (4.6GPa). The predicted sum of axial reaction forces was compared to the experimental values for each specimen. MicroFE models predicted more than 87% of the variation in the displacement measurements (R2 = 0.87-0.99). However, model predictions of axial forces were largely overestimated (80-369%) for a tissue modulus of 12.0GPa, whereas differences in the range 10-80% were found for a back-calculated tissue modulus. The specimen with the lowest density showed a large number of elements strained beyond yield and the highest predictive errors. This study shows that the simplest microFE models can accurately predict quantitatively the local displacements and qualitatively the strain distribution within the vertebral body, independently from the considered bone types.
Validation of High Displacement Piezoelectric Actuator Finite Element Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taleghani, B. K.
2000-01-01
The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Regitered Trademark) finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness are important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN(Registered Trademark) and ANSYS(Registered Trademark) used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN(Registered Trademark), a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS(Registered Trademark) processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.
Validation of high displacement piezoelectric actuator finite element models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taleghani, Barmac K.
2000-08-01
The paper presents the results obtained by using NASTRAN and ANSYS finite element codes to predict doming of the THUNDER piezoelectric actuators during the manufacturing process and subsequent straining due to an applied input voltage. To effectively use such devices in engineering applications, modeling and characterization are essential. Length, width, dome height, and thickness and important parameters for users of such devices. Therefore, finite element models were used to assess the effects of these parameters. NASTRAN and ANSYS used different methods for modeling piezoelectric effects. In NASTRAN, a thermal analogy was used to represent voltage at nodes as equivalent temperatures, while ANSYS processed the voltage directly using piezoelectric finite elements. The results of finite element models were validated by using the experimental results.
Modelling Of Displacement Washing Of Pulp Bed Using Orthogonal Collocation On Finite Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arora, Shelly; PotÅ¯ček, František; Dhaliwal, S. S.; Kukreja, V. K.
2009-07-01
Mechanism of displacement washing of packed bed of porous, compressible and cylindrical particles, e.g., fibers is presented with the help of an axial dispersion model involving Peclet number (Pe) and Biot number (Bi). Bulk fluid concentration and intra-pore solute concentration are related by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Model equations have been solved using orthogonal collocation on finite elements using Lagrangian interpolating polynomials as base functions. Displacement washing has been simulated using a laboratory washing cell and experiments have been performed on pulp beds formed from unbeaten, unbleached kraft fibers. Model predicted values have been compared with experimental values to check the applicability of the method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gerland, Mildred; Sullivan, Mary
Two surveys were developed in an effort to evolve a model process for setting up a displaced homemaker center, for determining how displaced homemakers are presently being served within a VTAE (Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education) district, and for identifying and then assessing the needs of a sample of displaced homemakers. The surveys…
Modeling and simulation of steady state model approach for horizontal three phase separator (HTPS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Triwibowo, Bayu; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hisyam, Anwaruddin; Fauzan, Mohammad Fariz; Rizky, Muhammad Habib Fahd
2017-03-01
Main function of oil production facility is to separate oil well stream into three phases i.e. oil, gas and water. A vessel called three phase separator is used for this purpose, commonly in horizontal arrangement. In order to optimize the process, an accurate model for horizontal three phase separator (HTPS) is needed. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical tool capable of simulating a wide range of fluid flows. HTPS dimensions used in this simulation were taken from one of oil and gas company in Indonesia. The CFD simulation used in this study is based on volume of fluid and k-ɛ turbulence models. Gas outlet was assumed using porous media zone model with fluid porosity 0.99. Simulation result displayed concentration and velocity distribution for each component inside HTPS. The result of concentration distribution shows that the region of fluid divided into upper region and lower region. The lower region major component were water and upper region mainly consist of gas and oil. The contour of concentration distribution indicated a good separation process with distribution of water flow rate at the outlet of water, oil, and gas respectively are 405,67; 115,65; and 172.01 lb/min
Stratospheric polar vortex splits and displacements in the high-top CMIP5 climate models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seviour, William J. M.; Gray, Lesley J.; Mitchell, Daniel M.
2016-02-01
Sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events can occur as either a split or a displacement of the stratospheric polar vortex. Recent observational studies have come to different conclusions about the relative impacts of these two types of SSW upon surface climate. A clearer understanding of their tropospheric impact would be beneficial for medium-range weather forecasts and could improve understanding of the physical mechanism for stratosphere-troposphere coupling. Here we perform the first multimodel comparison of stratospheric polar vortex splits and displacements, analyzing 13 stratosphere-resolving models from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ensemble. We find a wide range of biases among models in both the mean state of the vortex and the frequency of vortex splits and displacements, although these biases are closely related. Consistent with observational results, almost all models show vortex splits to occur barotropically throughout the depth of the stratosphere, while vortex displacements are more baroclinic. Vortex splits show a slightly stronger North Atlantic surface signal in the month following onset. However, the most significant difference in the surface response is that vortex displacements show stronger negative pressure anomalies over Siberia. This region is shown to be colocated with differences in tropopause height, suggestive of a localized response to lower stratospheric potential vorticity anomalies.
Study of Surface Displacements on Tunnelling under Buildings Using 3DEC Numerical Modelling
Rebello, Nalini; Sastry, V. R.
2014-01-01
Underground structures at shallow depths are often constructed for metro lines, either in loose or dense layered soils. Tunnelling in urban areas is predominantly under surface structures and on tunnelling, innumerable changes in the form of distortion take place in strata surrounding the tunnel. Extent of displacement/damage to buildings or the tunnel-soil structure interaction depends on the type of building and nature of strata. Effect on displacements has been less studied in granular soils compared to other types of soils like clays. In this paper, parametric studies are conducted to find the displacements at surface, in granular soil conditions, due to varying building storeys and building eccentricities from the tunnel centre line. Effect of presence of geosynthetic layer under footings is further studied. Prior to the parametric studies, validity of the model used is checked with field data available for a stretch of tunnel in South India. Results of simulation studies reveal that inclusion of building reduces displacements at the surface in the dense strata. In very dense strata, the displacements increase as compared to the case without a building. As the centre of the building moves away from the tunnel centre line, settlement above the tunnel matches displacements in the case without building. Applicability of 3DEC software is checked with respect to the present study. PMID:27437472
Study of Surface Displacements on Tunnelling under Buildings Using 3DEC Numerical Modelling.
Rebello, Nalini; Sastry, V R; Shivashankar, R
2014-01-01
Underground structures at shallow depths are often constructed for metro lines, either in loose or dense layered soils. Tunnelling in urban areas is predominantly under surface structures and on tunnelling, innumerable changes in the form of distortion take place in strata surrounding the tunnel. Extent of displacement/damage to buildings or the tunnel-soil structure interaction depends on the type of building and nature of strata. Effect on displacements has been less studied in granular soils compared to other types of soils like clays. In this paper, parametric studies are conducted to find the displacements at surface, in granular soil conditions, due to varying building storeys and building eccentricities from the tunnel centre line. Effect of presence of geosynthetic layer under footings is further studied. Prior to the parametric studies, validity of the model used is checked with field data available for a stretch of tunnel in South India. Results of simulation studies reveal that inclusion of building reduces displacements at the surface in the dense strata. In very dense strata, the displacements increase as compared to the case without a building. As the centre of the building moves away from the tunnel centre line, settlement above the tunnel matches displacements in the case without building. Applicability of 3DEC software is checked with respect to the present study.
Computational dispersion properties of horizontal staggered grids for atmospheric and ocean models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael S.
1991-01-01
The computational dispersion properties of horizontally and time-horizontally staggered grids utilizing corresponding centered-difference techniques for approximation of the adjustment, or gravity wave equations, are examined in terms of their group velocity characteristics. Results are acquired for oceanic and atmospheric models, the former being characterized by a much smaller Rossby radius of deformation. For all grids considered additional filtering is required to control and even eliminate waves with poor computational dispersion characteristics. Computational dispersion properties along with other computational characteristics and requirements give some guidance for an optimal selection of an appropriate grid for an ocean or atmospheric model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, P. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Plumb, R. A.
1986-01-01
Calculations of the two-dimensional, species-independent mixing coefficients for two-dimensional chemical models for the troposphere and stratosphere are performed using quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity fluxes and gradients from 4 years of National Meteorological Center data for the four seasons in both hemispheres. Results show that the horizontal mixing coefficient values for the winter lower stratosphere are broadly consistent with those currently employed in two-dimensional models, but the horizontal mixing coefficient values in the northern winter upper stratosphere are much larger than those usually used.
A systematic hub loads model of a horizontal wind turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazacoks, Romans; Jamieson, Peter
2014-06-01
The wind turbine industry has focused offshore on increasing the capacity of a single unit through up-scaling their machines. There is however a lack of systematic studies on how loads vary due to properties of a wind turbine and scaling of wind turbines. The purpose of this paper is to study how applied blade modifications, with similarities such as mass, stiffness and dimensions, influence blade root moments and lifetime damage equivalent loads (DELs) of the rotor blades. In order to produce fatigue load blade root moment trends based on the applied modifications. It was found that a linear trend of lifetime DELs based on the applied modifications of blades, which have effect on the natural frequency of blade of the original or reference model. As the control system was tuned for the specific frequency of the reference model. The linear trend of lifetime DELs was generated as long as the natural frequency of the reference model was preserved. For larger modifications of the wind turbine the controller would need retuning.
Displaced Homemakers: A CETA Program Model, Fitchburg, Massachusetts.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Billman, Lynne
Divorced, widowed, or separated women need help in three basic areas in the transition from sheltered home life to the world of work: (1) in recognizing their own interests and abilities; (2) in obtaining up-to-date, salable skills; and (3) in finding support services, such as counseling, job placement, peer group support, and role models. A…
Li, Fuyu; Collins, William D.; Wehner, Michael F.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.
2013-06-02
High-resolution climate models have been shown to improve the statistics of tropical storms and hurricanes compared to low-resolution models. The impact of increasing horizontal resolution in the tropical storm simulation is investigated exclusively using a series of Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) runs with idealized aquaplanet steady-state boundary conditions and a fixed operational storm-tracking algorithm. The results show that increasing horizontal resolution helps to detect more hurricanes, simulate stronger extreme rainfall, and emulate better storm structures in the models. However, increasing model resolution does not necessarily produce stronger hurricanes in terms of maximum wind speed, minimum sea level pressure, and mean precipitation, as the increased number of storms simulated by high-resolution models is mainly associated with weaker storms. The spatial scale at which the analyses are conducted appears to have more important control on these meteorological statistics compared to horizontal resolution of the model grid. When the simulations are analyzed on common low-resolution grids, the statistics of the hurricanes, particularly the hurricane counts, show reduced sensitivity to the horizontal grid resolution and signs of scale invariant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chi; Xu, Long-long; Zhu, Jun; Yuan, Zhi-wen; Yu, Ying-jie; Asundi, Anand K.
2016-11-01
We conducted an investigation in a novel integrated fiber-optic interferometer model based on ultra-small self-focusing optical fiber probe and the method of its application in micro-displacement measurement. Firstly, we proposed the structure model of integrated fiber-optic interferometer and established its input-output mathematical model applied in micro-displacement measurement. Secondly, we established the hardware system of the integrated fiber-optic interferometer. Finally, we analyzed the fitting result of experimental data of micro-displacement measurement and some error factors and defined the linear working range. The experimental results indicate that, under the given experimental conditions, the linear measurement range, linearity and sensitivity of the integrated fiber-optic interferometer were 10 μm, 1.36% and 8.8 mv/μm respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Jian-Chun; Nie, Ren-Shi; Jia, Yong-Lu
2012-09-01
SummaryFractured-vuggy carbonate reservoirs are composed of by matrix, fracture, and vug systems. This paper is the first investigation into the dual permeability flow issue for horizontal well production in a fractured-vuggy carbonate reservoir. Considering dispersed vugs in carbonate reservoirs and treating media directly connected with horizontal wellbore as the matrix and fracture systems, a test analysis model of a horizontal well was created, and triple porosity and dual permeability flow behavior were modeled. Standard log-log type curves were drawn up by numerical simulation and flow behavior characteristics were thoroughly analyzed. Numerical simulations showed that type curves are dominated by external boundary conditions as well as the permeability ratio of the fracture system to the sum of fracture and matrix systems. The parameter κ is only relevant to the dual permeability model, and if κ is one, then the dual permeability model is equivalent to the single permeability model. There are seven main flow regimes with constant rate of horizontal well production and five flow regimes with constant wellbore pressure of horizontal well production; different flow regimes have different flow behavior characteristics. Early radial flow and linear flow regimes are typical characteristics of horizontal well production; duration of early radial flow regime is usually short because formation thickness is generally less than 100 m. Derivative curves are W-shaped, which is a reflection of inter-porosity flows between matrix, fracture, and vug systems. A distorted W-shape, which could be produced in certain situations, such as one involving an erroneously low time of inter-porosity flows, would handicap the recognition of a linear flow regime. A real case application was successfully implemented, and some useful reservoir parameters (e.g., permeability and inter-porosity flow factor) were obtained from well testing interpretation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puskas, C. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.
2015-12-01
UNAVCO is currently developing forward displacement models from surface water stored in soil moisture, snowpack, and vegetation based on the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). UNAVCO already produces hydrological models from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), estimating the elastic loading from surface water at GPS coordinates for stations and processed by the GAGE Analysis Center. GLDAS incorporates satellite and ground observations into forcing parameters to be used for climate and weather models. The GLDAS forcing parameters include temperature, humidity, precipitation, radiation, wind, and pressure data at global 1º grid squares, excluding the oceanic surface. NLDAS uses the same set of forcing parameters but in an area restricted to the continental United States plus parts of Canada and Mexico and with a 0.125º grid. Research groups contribute Land Surface Models (LSMs) based on NLDAS or GLDAS to produce time series of modeled environmental parameters. Individual LSMs differ based on model equations and soil and vegetation properties. In this study we extract the parameters from the NLDAS LSMs to produce hydrologic displacement models at GPS station coordinates within the conterminous US. We check whether NLDAS displacement models can resolve regional variations due to topography that are smoothed in the GLDAS models. We compare the soil moisture, snowpack, and vegetation mass per area directly between the GLDAS and NLDAS LSMs, to see whether the mass variations between GLDAS and NLDAS are large enough to cause significant deformation changes. By comparing the hydrologic displacement models with GPS time series, we estimate how well the surface water loading predicts observed seasonal and secular GPS signals as opposed to tectonic signals. These comparisons will help us evaluate the NLDAS-derived displacement models as part of the process of developing a new model product for use in time series analysis, tectonic or hydrologic
Model of spontaneous evaporating droplet on solid horizontal substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunin, S. Z.; Nagornov, O. V.; Trifonenkov, V. P.
2017-01-01
Free evaporation of sessile liquid non-isothermal drop on solid substrate is analyzed. Exact formulae for temperature and concentration fields are found out as functions of dimensionless parameters. The non-uniform temperature distribution at the drop surface creates the thermocapillar Marangonni forces that change their direction in the vicinity of stagnation points. Direction of the forces and disposition of the stagnation points are derived as function of contact angle and thermodynamic parameters of model. Conditions for the stagnation points to appear are found out. Moreover, maximal value of contact angle corresponding to presence of stagnation points in droplet is calculated as a function of the thermal conductivity ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalscheuer, Thomas; Pedersen, Laust B.; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai
2008-11-01
Electromagnetic surface measurements with the radiomagnetotelluric (RMT) method in the frequency range between 10 and 300kHz are typically interpreted in the quasi-static approximation, that is, assuming displacement currents are negligible. In this paper, the dielectric effect of displacement currents on RMT responses over resistive subsurface models is studied with a 2-D forward and inverse scheme that can operate both in the quasi-static approximation and including displacement currents. Forward computations of simple models exemplify how responses that allow for displacement currents deviate from responses computed in the quasi-static approximation. The differences become most obvious for highly resistive subsurface models of about 3000Ωm and more and at high frequencies. For such cases, the apparent resistivities and phases of the transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) modes are significantly smaller than in the quasi-static approximation. Along profiles traversing 2-D subsurface models, sign reversals in the real part of the vertical magnetic transfer function (VMT) are often more pronounced than in the quasi-static approximation. On both sides of such sign reversals, the responses computed including displacement currents are larger than typical measurement errors. The 2-D inversion of synthetic data computed including displacement currents demonstrates that serious misinterpretations in the form of artefacts in inverse models can be made if displacement currents are neglected during the inversion. Hence, the inclusion of the dielectric effect is a crucial improvement over existing quasi-static 2-D inverse schemes. Synthetic data from a 2-D model with constant dielectric permittivity and a conductive block buried in a highly resistive layer, which in turn is underlain by a conductive layer, are inverted. In the quasi-static inverse model, the depth to the conductive structures is overestimated, artefactual resistors appear on both sides of the
Newmark displacement model for landslides induced by the 2013 Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Renmao; Deng, Qinghai; Cunningham, Dickson; Han, Zhujun; Zhang, Dongli; Zhang, Bingliang
2016-12-01
Predicting approximate earthquake-induced landslide displacements is helpful for assessing earthquake hazards and designing slopes to withstand future earthquake shaking. In this work, the basic methodology outlined by Jibson (1993) is applied to derive the Newmark displacement of landslides based on strong ground-motion recordings during the 2013 Lushan Ms 7.0 earthquake. By analyzing the relationships between Arias intensity, Newmark displacement, and critical acceleration of the Lushan earthquake, formulas of the Jibson93 and its modified models are shown to be applicable to the Lushan earthquake dataset. Different empirical equations with new fitting coefficients for estimating Newmark displacement are then developed for comparative analysis. The results indicate that a modified model has a better goodness of fit and a smaller estimation error for the Jibson93 formula. It indicates that the modified model may be more reasonable for the dataset of the Lushan earthquake. The analysis of results also suggests that a global equation is not ideally suited to directly estimate the Newmark displacements of landslides induced by one specific earthquake. Rather it is empirically better to perform a new multivariate regression analysis to derive new coefficients for the global equation using the dataset of the specific earthquake. The results presented in this paper can be applied to a future co-seismic landslide hazard assessment to inform reconstruction efforts in the area affected by the 2013 Lushan Ms 7.0 earthquake, and for future disaster prevention and mitigation.
Hinged blade model dynamics for a horizontal axis wind turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kendall, David Arthur
This dissertation describes fundamental extensions to the hinge-spring model used to simulate the first mode of blade vibration in wind turbine dynamics. Complete equations of motion are developed while allowing for both bending of the blade perpendicular to its chord and overall motion of the rotor in azimuth and yaw. The model examines the relationship between the natural rotation frequency of the rotor o and the fundamental natural bending frequency of the blades without including the bending frequency of the tower. In the case of no yaw motion, perturbation analysis and iteration lead to analytical solutions for the bending and azimuth equations of motion that involve as little simplification of these equations as possible. The natural bending frequency is "stiffened" by the rotor rotation and is expressed as a multiple of the rotor rotation, o* o. While the bending frequency is used in models using the hinged blade, the solutions found in this work contain more detail than can be found in prior investigations. These analytical solutions reveal that the harmonics with frequencies No*o (o * + 1)o and (o* - 1)o are involved with the coupling between bending motion and azimuth motion with N = 1, 2, 3,.... Subsequent derivation of the power output for the condition of a relatively large amplitude of blade vibration predicts a noticeable contribution to power generation for the o* o response, which is verified in the data. Glauret's momentum transfer theory as extended by Wilson and Lissaman [1974] and de Vries [1979] is modified to allow for blade bending, variations of wind speed with time and position, and variations in wind direction with time. No vertical wind is considered. It is concluded that: (1) the bending frequency and linear combinations with the rotor rotation frequency provide an important contribution under at least some of the expected operating conditions of the turbine, (2) the dynamic mass imbalance produced by the effects of blade bending is not
Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.
2012-01-01
We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.
Seol, Hyon-Woo; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Kim, Shin-Koo
2015-01-01
To analyze the axial displacement of external and internal implant-abutment connection after cyclic loading. Three groups of external abutments (Ext group), an internal tapered one-piece-type abutment (Int-1 group), and an internal tapered two-piece-type abutment (Int-2 group) were prepared. Cyclic loading was applied to implant-abutment assemblies at 150 N with a frequency of 3 Hz. The amount of axial displacement, the Periotest values (PTVs), and the removal torque values(RTVs) were measured. Both a repeated measures analysis of variance and pattern analysis based on the linear mixed model were used for statistical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the surface of the implant-abutment connection. The mean axial displacements after 1,000,000 cycles were 0.6 μm in the Ext group, 3.7 μm in the Int-1 group, and 9.0 μm in the Int-2 group. Pattern analysis revealed a breakpoint at 171 cycles. The Ext group showed no declining pattern, and the Int-1 group showed no declining pattern after the breakpoint (171 cycles). However, the Int-2 group experienced continuous axial displacement. After cyclic loading, the PTV decreased in the Int-2 group, and the RTV decreased in all groups. SEM imaging revealed surface wear in all groups. Axial displacement and surface wear occurred in all groups. The PTVs remained stable, but the RTVs decreased after cyclic loading. Based on linear mixed model analysis, the Ext and Int-1 groups' axial displacements plateaued after little cyclic loading. The Int-2 group's rate of axial displacement slowed after 100,000 cycles.
Axisymmetric model of drop spreading on a horizontal surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mistry, Aashutosh; Muralidhar, K.
2015-09-01
Spreading of an initially spherical liquid drop over a textured surface is analyzed by solving an integral form of the governing equations. The mathematical model extends Navier-Stokes equations by including surface tension at the gas-liquid boundary and a force distribution at the three phase contact line. While interfacial tension scales with drop curvature, the motion of the contact line depends on the departure of instantaneous contact angle from its equilibrium value. The numerical solution is obtained by discretizing the spreading drop into disk elements. The Bond number range considered is 0.01-1. Results obtained for sessile drops are in conformity with limiting cases reported in the literature [J. C. Bird et al., "Short-time dynamics of partial wetting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 234501 (2008)]. They further reveal multiple time scales that are reported in experiments [K. G. Winkels et al., "Initial spreading of low-viscosity drops on partially wetting surfaces," Phys. Rev. E 85, 055301 (2012) and A. Eddi et al., "Short time dynamics of viscous drop spreading," Phys. Fluids 25, 013102 (2013)]. Spreading of water and glycerin drops over fully and partially wetting surfaces is studied in terms of excess pressure, wall shear stress, and the dimensions of the footprint. Contact line motion is seen to be correctly captured in the simulations. Water drops show oscillations during spreading while glycerin spreads uniformly over the surface.
Kimura, Fujio; Kuwagata, Tuneo
1995-02-01
The thermally induced local circulation over a periodic valley is simulated by a two-dimensional numerical model that does-not include condensational processes. During the daytime of a clear, calm day, heat is transported from the mountainous region to the valley area by anabatic wind and its return flow. The specific humidity is, however, transported in an inverse manner. The horizontal exchange rate of sensible heat has a horizontal scale similarity, as long as the horizontal scale is less than a critical width of about 100 km. The sensible heat accumulated in an atmospheric column over an arbitrary point can be estimated by a simple model termed the uniform mixed-layer model (UML). The model assumes that the potential temperature is both vertically and horizontally uniform in the mixed layer, even over the complex terrain. The UML model is valid only when the horizontal scale of the topography is less than the critical width and the maximum difference in the elevation of the topography is less than about 1500 m. Latent heat is accumulated over the mountainous region while the atmosphere becomes dry over the valley area. When the horizontal scale is close to the critical width, the largest amount of humidity is accumulated during the late afternoon over the mountainous region. 18 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrington, Jonathan; Wang, Teng; Feng, Guangcai; Akoglu, Ahmet; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Motagh, Mahdi
2014-05-01
The M 7.7 earthquake in the Balochistan province of Pakistan on September 24th, 2013 took place along a subsidiary fault in the transition area between the Makran accretionary prism and the Chaman transform fault. This tectonics of the Indian and Arabian plate collisions with Eurasia produce primarily oblique left-lateral strike slip in this region. In this work, measurements of displacement and mapping of the rupture trace are achieved through image correlation of Landsat 8 images and SAR offset tracking of TerraSAR-X data. Horizontal displacements from both methods and derived vertical displacements are used to constrain a fault rupture model for the earthquake. Preliminary results show a surprisingly uniform slip distribution with maximum displacement near the surface. The total fault rupture length is ~210 km, with up to 9 m of left-lateral strike-slip and 3 m of reverse faulting. Additionally, mapping of the rupture trace is made use of for geomorphological observations relating to slip rates and identification of transpressional and transtensional features. Our results indicate a mostly smooth rupture trace, with the presence of two restraining steps, a releasing bend and a 3 km long sliver where the surface rupture jumped from the foot of the range-front into the alluvial fans at their base. A small block at one of the restraining steps shows intermediate displacement in both data sets. At the southern end of the rupture we observe that displacement from the earthquake cuts across a fold-and-thrust belt of the Makran accretionary prism. Preliminary results show a minimum of 12 km of repeated section of the accretionary wedge, and within the southern repeated section we find an offset of 600 m between two parallel ridges across the rupture trace. We relate these observations to conceptual models of fault segmentation and growth.
A diagnostic model evaluation effort has been performed to focus on photochemical ozone formation and the horizontal transport process since they strongly impact the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ozone (O_{3}) within the lower troposphere. Results from th...
A diagnostic model evaluation effort has been performed to focus on photochemical ozone formation and the horizontal transport process since they strongly impact the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of ozone (O_{3}) within the lower troposphere. Results from th...
Horizontal-axis washing machines offer large savings: New models entering North American market
Shepard, M.
1992-12-31
Long popular in Europe, new horizontal-axis clothes washers are entering the North American market, creating opportunities for government and utility conservation efforts. Unlike vertical-axis machines, which immerse the clothes in water, horizontal-axis designs use a tumbling action and require far less water, water-heating energy, and detergent. One development in this area is the recent reintroduction by the Frigidaire Company of a full-size, front-load, horizontal-axis washing machine. The new model is an improved version of an earlier design that was discontinued in mid-1991 during changes in manufacturing facilities. It is available under the Sears Kenmore, White-Westinghouse, and Gibson labels. While several European and commercial-grade front-load washers are sold in the US, they are all considerably more expensive than the Frigidaire machine, making it the most efficient clothes washer currently available in a mainstream North American consumer product line.
Handsfield, Geoffrey G; Inouye, Joshua M; Slane, Laura C; Thelen, Darryl G; Miller, G Wilson; Blemker, Silvia S
2017-01-25
The Achilles is the thickest tendon in the body and is the primary elastic energy-storing component during running. The form and function of the human Achilles is complex: twisted structure, intratendinous interactions, and differential motor control from the triceps surae muscles make Achilles behavior difficult to intuit. Recent in vivo imaging of the Achilles has revealed nonuniform displacement patterns that are not fully understood and may result from complex architecture and musculotendon interactions. In order to understand which features of the Achilles tendon give rise to the nonuniform deformations observed in vivo, we used computational modeling to predict the mechanical contributions from different features of the tendon. The aims of this study are to: (i) build a novel computational model of the Achilles tendon based on ultrashort echo time MRI, (ii) compare simulated displacements with published in vivo ultrasound measures of displacement, and (iii) use the model to elucidate the effects of tendon twisting, intratendon sliding, retrocalcaneal insertion, and differential muscle forces on tendon deformation. Intratendon sliding and differential muscle forces were found to be the largest factors contributing to displacement nonuniformity between tendon regions. Elimination of intratendon sliding or muscle forces reduced displacement nonuniformity by 96% and 85%, respectively, while elimination of tendon twist and the retrocalcaneal insertion reduced displacement nonuniformity by only 35% and 3%. These results suggest that changes in the complex internal structure of the tendon alter the interaction between muscle forces and tendon behavior and therefore may have important implications on muscle function during movement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A novel approach to modeling unstable EOR displacements. Quarterly report, January 1993--March 1993
Peters, E.J.
1993-07-01
This research is aimed at developing a methodology for predicting the performance of unstable displacements in heterogeneous reservoirs. A performance prediction approach that combines numerical modeling with laboratory imaging experiments is being developed. Flow visualization experiments are being performed on laboratory corefloods using X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and other imaging technologies to map the ensitu fluid saturations in time and space. A systematic procedure is being developed to replicate the experimental image data with high-resolution numerical models of the displacements. The well-tuned models will then be used to scale the results of the laboratory coreflood experiments to heterogeneous reservoirs in order to predict the performance of unstable displacements in such reservoirs. There are four major issues in miscible displacements. The first issue is the quantitative description of the mixing or dispersion that occurs in miscible displacements and the attendant problem of measuring the dispersion coefficient for the porous medium. The second issue is the problem of hydrodynamic instability. The third issue is the impact of heterogeneity on the performance of miscible displacements. The fourth and final issue is process optimization and economics. In this report, we address the first issue -- the description of dispersion in porous media. We present an improved method to measure the, longitudinal dispersion coefficient of a porous medium from CT imaging of a tracer test in the medium. The method is demonstrated by measuring the dispersion coefficients for a sandpack and a Berea sandstone. Imaging the tracer test allows the effects of dispersion and heterogeneity to be distinguished.
Framework for non-coherent interface models at finite displacement jumps and finite strains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ottosen, Niels Saabye; Ristinmaa, Matti; Mosler, Jörn
2016-05-01
This paper deals with a novel constitutive framework suitable for non-coherent interfaces, such as cracks, undergoing large deformations in a geometrically exact setting. For this type of interface, the displacement field shows a jump across the interface. Within the engineering community, so-called cohesive zone models are frequently applied in order to describe non-coherent interfaces. However, for existing models to comply with the restrictions imposed by (a) thermodynamical consistency (e.g., the second law of thermodynamics), (b) balance equations (in particular, balance of angular momentum) and (c) material frame indifference, these models are essentially fiber models, i.e. models where the traction vector is collinear with the displacement jump. This constraints the ability to model shear and, in addition, anisotropic effects are excluded. A novel, extended constitutive framework which is consistent with the above mentioned fundamental physical principles is elaborated in this paper. In addition to the classical tractions associated with a cohesive zone model, the main idea is to consider additional tractions related to membrane-like forces and out-of-plane shear forces acting within the interface. For zero displacement jump, i.e. coherent interfaces, this framework degenerates to existing formulations presented in the literature. For hyperelasticity, the Helmholtz energy of the proposed novel framework depends on the displacement jump as well as on the tangent vectors of the interface with respect to the current configuration - or equivalently - the Helmholtz energy depends on the displacement jump and the surface deformation gradient. It turns out that by defining the Helmholtz energy in terms of the invariants of these variables, all above-mentioned fundamental physical principles are automatically fulfilled. Extensions of the novel framework necessary for material degradation (damage) and plasticity are also covered.
Neoliberalism in Historical Light: How Business Models Displaced Science Education Goals in Two Eras
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayes, Kathryn N.
2016-01-01
Although a growing body of work addresses the current role of neoliberalism in displacing democratic equality as a goal of public education, attempts to parse such impacts rarely draw from historical accounts. At least one tenet of neoliberalism--the application of business models to public institutions--was also pervasive at the turn of the 20th…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cottone, R. Rocco
2004-01-01
A social constructivism model of ethical decision-making is summarized and related to the Canadian Counseling Association Code of Ethics. Social constructivism is described as an intellectual movement that allows for a biological and social conception of human understanding, thereby superceding or displacing psychological theory. The theoretical…
Displacements Of Brownian Particles In Terms Of Marian Von Smoluchowski's Heuristic Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Hermann; Woermann, Dietrich
2005-01-01
Albert Einstein's theory of the Brownian motion, Marian von Smoluchowski's heuristic model, and Perrin's experimental results helped to bring the concept of molecules from a state of being a useful hypothesis in chemistry to objects existing in reality. Central to the theory of Brownian motion is the relation between mean particle displacement and…
Displacements Of Brownian Particles In Terms Of Marian Von Smoluchowski's Heuristic Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Hermann; Woermann, Dietrich
2005-01-01
Albert Einstein's theory of the Brownian motion, Marian von Smoluchowski's heuristic model, and Perrin's experimental results helped to bring the concept of molecules from a state of being a useful hypothesis in chemistry to objects existing in reality. Central to the theory of Brownian motion is the relation between mean particle displacement and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martino, S.; Lenti, L.; Delgado, J.; Garrido, J.; Lopez-Casado, C.
2016-07-01
The interaction between seismic waves and slopes is an important topic to provide reliable scenarios for earthquake-(re)triggered landslides. The physical properties of seismic waves as well as slope topography and geology can significantly modify the local seismic response, influencing landslide triggering. A novel approach is here applied to two case studies in Andalusia (southern Spain) for computing the expected earthquake-induced displacements of existing landslide masses. Towards this aim, dynamic stress-strain numerical modelling was carried out using a selection of seismic signals characterized by different spectral content and energy. In situ geophysical measurements, consisting of noise records and temporary seismometric arrays, were carried out to control the numerical outputs in terms of local seismic response. The results consist of relationships between the characteristic period, Tm, of the seismic signals and the characteristic periods of the landslide masses, related to the thickness (Ts) and length (Tl), respectively. These relationships show that the larger the horizontal dimension (i.e. length of landslide) of a landslide is, the more effective the contribution (to the resulting coseismic displacement) of the long-period seismic waves is, as the maximum displacements are expected for a low Tm at each energy level of the input. On the other hand, when the local seismic response mainly depends on stratigraphy (i.e. landslide thickness), the maximum expected displacements occur close to the resonance period of the landslide, except for high-energy seismic inputs.
Displacement Models for THUNDER Actuators having General Loads and Boundary Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wieman, Robert; Smith, Ralph C.; Kackley, Tyson; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Bernd, Jeff; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper summarizes techniques for quantifying the displacements generated in THUNDER actuators in response to applied voltages for a variety of boundary conditions and exogenous loads. The PDE (partial differential equations) models for the actuators are constructed in two steps. In the first, previously developed theory quantifying thermal and electrostatic strains is employed to model the actuator shapes which result from the manufacturing process and subsequent repoling. Newtonian principles are then employed to develop PDE models which quantify displacements in the actuator due to voltage inputs to the piezoceramic patch. For this analysis, drive levels are assumed to be moderate so that linear piezoelectric relations can be employed. Finite element methods for discretizing the models are developed and the performance of the discretized models are illustrated through comparison with experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cattin, Rodolphe; Doubre, Cécile; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; King, Geoffrey; Vigny, Christophe; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Ruegg, Jean-Claude
2005-11-01
Over the last three decades a host of information on rifting process relating to the geological and thermal structure, long-time scale deformation (Quaternary and Holocene) and rifting cycle displacement across the Asal-Ghoubbet rift has been made available. These data are interpreted with a two-dimensional thermo-mechanical model that incorporates rheological layering of the lithosphere, dyke inflation and faulting. Active fault locations and geometry are mainly controlled by both thermal structure and magma intrusion into the crust. The distributed slip throughout the inner rift is related to the closeness of magma chamber, leading to additional stress into the upper thinned crust. Assuming a constant Arabia-Somalia motion of 11 mm/year, the variation of subsidence rate between the last 100 and 9 ka is associated with a decrease of the average injection rate from 10 to 5 mm/year. These values, about equal to the regional opening rate, suggest that both volcanism and tectonic play an equivalent role in the rifting process. Our modelled sequence of events gives one possible explanation for both vertical and horizontal displacements observed since the 1978 seismovolcanic crisis. Although part of the post-rifting deformation could be due to viscous relaxation, the high opening rate in the first years after the event and the abrupt velocity change in 1984-1986 argue for a large dyke inflation of 12 cm/year ending in 1985. The asymmetric and constant pattern of the GPS velocity since 1991 suggests that present post-rifting deformation is mainly controlled by fault creep and regional stretching. This study demonstrates the internal consistency of the data set, highlights the role of magmatism in the mechanics of crustal stretching and reveals a complex post-rifting process including magma injection, fault creep and regional stretching.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ucker Timm, Andréa; Degrazia, Gervásio Annes; Roberti, Débora Regina; Anfossi, Domenico
2009-08-01
A Lagrangian stochastic particle dispersion model composed of two coupled Langevin equations, employing a new transport parameterization is used to study the meandering enhanced dispersion in a low wind speed stable atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The meandering parameterization introduced into the Lagrangian stochastic dispersion model is expressed in terms of a characteristic phenomenological meandering period and of the horizontal local turbulent time scales associated with a fully developed turbulence. The results of this new method are shown to agree with the field observations of Idaho experiments and also with other different meandering dispersion models. The major advance shown throughout this paper is as it follows: For air quality modeling it is highly necessary to include a parameterization that allows a correct description of the dispersion caused by the low-frequency horizontal wind oscillations.
Inertial forces affect fluid front displacement dynamics in a pore-throat network model.
Moebius, Franziska; Or, Dani
2014-08-01
The seemingly regular and continuous motion of fluid displacement fronts in porous media at the macroscopic scale is propelled by numerous (largely invisible) pore-scale abrupt interfacial jumps and pressure bursts. Fluid fronts in porous media are characterized by sharp phase discontinuities and by rapid pore-scale dynamics that underlie their motion; both attributes challenge standard continuum theories of these flow processes. Moreover, details of pore-scale dynamics affect front morphology and subsequent phase entrapment behind a front and thereby shape key macroscopic transport properties of the unsaturated zone. The study presents a pore-throat network model that focuses on quantifying interfacial dynamics and interactions along fluid displacement fronts. The porous medium is represented by a lattice of connected pore throats capable of detaining menisci and giving rise to fluid-fluid interfacial jumps (the study focuses on flow rate controlled drainage). For each meniscus along the displacement front we formulate a local inertial, capillary, viscous, and hydrostatic force balance that is then solved simultaneously for the entire front. The model enables systematic evaluation of the role of inertia and boundary conditions. Results show that while displacement patterns are affected by inertial forces mainly by invasion of throats with higher capillary resistance, phase entrapment (residual saturation) is largely unaffected by inertia, limiting inertial effects on hydrological properties behind a front. Interfacial jump velocities are often an order of magnitude larger than mean front velocity, are strongly dependent on geometrical throat dimensions, and become less predictable (more scattered) when inertia is considered. Model simulations of the distributions of capillary pressure fluctuations and waiting times between invasion events follow an exponential distribution and are in good agreement with experimental results. The modeling approach provides insights
Muggah, H C
2000-09-01
This paper tests Cernea's (1997) impoverishment risks and livelihood reconstruction (IRLR) model in cases of conflict-induced displacement (CID). In applying the model to a situation involving internal conflict, the article illustrates the particular problems encountered by internally displaced people (IDPs) and policymakers charged to respond to them. The article searches for local interpretations of CID and resettlement through a comparative profile of two IDP settlements in Colombia: one urban, the other rural. It concludes that the IRLR model, when contextualised, provides a useful tool to identify and categorise risks of impoverishment and resettlement priorities. At the same time, however, the article demonstrates that the model insufficiently captures the root causes or causality of CID.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Mingxiang; Cao, Junyi; Zeng, Minghua; Lin, Jing; Inman, Daniel J.
2016-07-01
Piezo-actuated, flexure hinge-based compliant mechanisms have been frequently used in precision engineering in the last few decades. There have been a considerable number of publications on modeling the displacement amplification behavior of rhombus-type and bridge-type compliant mechanisms. However, due to an unclear geometric approximation and mechanical assumption between these two flexures, it is very difficult to obtain an exact description of the kinematic performance using previous analytical models, especially when the designed angle of the compliant mechanisms is small. Therefore, enhanced theoretical models of the displacement amplification ratio for rhombus-type and bridge-type compliant mechanisms are proposed to improve the prediction accuracy based on the distinct force analysis between these two flexures. The energy conservation law and the elastic beam theory are employed for modeling with consideration of the translational and rotational stiffness. Theoretical and finite elemental results show that the prediction errors of the displacement amplification ratio will be enlarged if the bridge-type flexure is simplified as a rhombic structure to perform mechanical modeling. More importantly, the proposed models exhibit better performance than the previous models, which is further verified by experiments.
Measurement and modeling of solar irradiance components on horizontal and tilted planes
Padovan, Andrea; Col, Davide del
2010-12-15
In this work new measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance on the horizontal plane and global irradiance on planes tilted at 20 and 30 oriented due South and at 45 and 65 oriented due East are used to discuss the modeling of solar radiation. Irradiance data are collected in Padova (45.4 N, 11.9 E, 12 m above sea level), Italy. Some diffuse fraction correlations have been selected to model the hourly diffuse radiation on the horizontal plane. The comparison with the present experimental data shows that their prediction accuracy strongly depends on the sky characteristics. The hourly irradiance measurements taken on the tilted planes are compared with the estimations given by one isotropic and three anisotropic transposition models. The use of an anisotropic model, based on a physical description of the diffuse radiation, provides a much better accuracy, especially when measurements of the diffuse irradiance on the horizontal plane are not available and thus transposition models have to be applied in combination with a diffuse fraction correlation. This is particularly significant for the planes oriented away from South. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnston, Paul; Wu, Patrick; Lambeck, Kurt
1998-01-01
It has been proposed that the deglaciation of the Northern Hemisphere triggered large earthquakes within intraplate environments and in this paper we examine this hypothesis by evaluating quantitatively the stress state in the lithosphere produced by time-dependent surface loads. A series of models demonstrate the dependence of horizontal incremental stress in an elastic plate overlying an inviscid or viscoelastic mantle on the lateral extent of a load applied at the surface. The horizontal stress is largest when the dominant wavelength (that is twice the diameter) of the load is close to eight times the elastic thickness of the plate when the mantle is inviscid and, for the particular viscosity model employed in this paper, close to 12 times the elastic thickness for a viscoelastic mantle. At wavelengths close to the critical wavelength, the horizontal incremental stress may be up to six times as large as the vertical incremental stress. For appropriate earth-model parameters amplification of horizontal stress is close to maximum for ice loads with a radius of 280 km, comparable to the dimensions of the former ice sheet over Great Britain. This amplification may be sufficiently large that loading by small ice sheets can lead to failure on marginally stable faults, in contrast to the behaviour for large ice sheets. The models also predict greater fault instability for Fennoscandia than for the larger Laurentide ice sheet, consistent with the observation of large postglacial faults in northern Sweden. The model is used to predict the stability of faults and style of faulting due to rebound stresses in the absence of a background tectonic stress field since the last glacial maximum (~ 18 000 years ago) in Northern Europe. Within the formerly glaciated region thrust faulting is predicted to occur at the end of deglaciation and normal faulting is predicted to occur in peripheral regions for the entire period since the last glacial maximum.
Wampler, William R. Myers, Samuel M.
2015-01-28
A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at evolving displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with the details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers, and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster of defects. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were determined through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to displacement damage from energetic particle irradiation.
Oxygen-enhanced models for globular cluster stars. III - Horizontal-branch sequences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorman, Ben
1992-01-01
A large grid of horizontal-branch (HB) evolutionary sequences which have been calculated with core expansion and semiconvection and with enhanced oxygen composition are presented and described. Tracks for 10 different metallicities are computed; they range from (Fe/H) = -0.47 to -2.26 and comprise a total of 115 sequences. The evolution is traced from the zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) to the lower AGB at a point where log L/solar luminosity = 2.25. All of the sequences are illustrated on both the theoretical H-R diagram and on the B, V color-magnitude diagram. A complete set of tables for the ZAHB models and a representative sample of tabulations of the track parameters are provided. The phenomena which control HB evolution morphology, and existing certainties in theoretical HB models are discussed.
Design and analysis of DNA strand displacement devices using probabilistic model checking.
Lakin, Matthew R; Parker, David; Cardelli, Luca; Kwiatkowska, Marta; Phillips, Andrew
2012-07-07
Designing correct, robust DNA devices is difficult because of the many possibilities for unwanted interference between molecules in the system. DNA strand displacement has been proposed as a design paradigm for DNA devices, and the DNA strand displacement (DSD) programming language has been developed as a means of formally programming and analysing these devices to check for unwanted interference. We demonstrate, for the first time, the use of probabilistic verification techniques to analyse the correctness, reliability and performance of DNA devices during the design phase. We use the probabilistic model checker prism, in combination with the DSD language, to design and debug DNA strand displacement components and to investigate their kinetics. We show how our techniques can be used to identify design flaws and to evaluate the merits of contrasting design decisions, even on devices comprising relatively few inputs. We then demonstrate the use of these components to construct a DNA strand displacement device for approximate majority voting. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges and possible directions for applying these methods to more complex designs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Masao; Tanaka, Eiji; Todoh, Masahiro; Asai, Daisuke; Kuroda, Yukiko
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder relates to the biomechanical irregularity of the structual joint components, and the behavior of soft tissue components is considered as a key to understand the biomechanical condition in the TMJ. The configuration of joint components, however, closely depends on individual patients. In this study, attention has been focused on the stress and displacement of irregular TMJs with anterior disc displacement. Using biplane magnetic resonance (MR) images, typical anterior-disc-displaced (ADD) TMJ of a patient with temporomandibular disorder has been modeled individually. The stress distribution in ADD TMJs has been compared with that in normal TMJs. Parameter studies with the elastic modulus have been carried out and it revealed that the stress distribution in the TMJ is highly dependent on the connective tissue modulus as well as disc modulus in the case of ADD TMJ, and that the disc displacement due to mouth opening movement depends on disc modulus in normal TMJ but depends on retrodiscal connective tissue in ADD TMJ.
One-dimensional model of two-phase fluid displacement in a slot with permeable walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golovin, S. V.; Kazakova, M. Yu.
2017-01-01
A one-dimensional model is proposed for transportation of a two-phase fluid (sandcontaining fluid and pure fluid) in the Hele-Shaw cell with permeable walls through which the pure fluid can leak off, causing the growth of the sand concentration. The model describes the process of pure fluid displacement with the emergence of the Saffman-Taylor instability and extends Koval's model to the case of sand concentration variation owing to pure fluid outflow through the cell walls. The Riemann problem is analyzed. New flow configurations, which are not predicted by Koval's model, are discovered.
Lower Bound on the Mean Square Displacement of Particles in the Hard Disk Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richthammer, Thomas
2016-08-01
The hard disk model is a 2D Gibbsian process of particles interacting via pure hard core repulsion. At high particle density the model is believed to show orientational order, however, it is known not to exhibit positional order. Here we investigate to what extent particle positions may fluctuate. We consider a finite volume version of the model in a box of dimensions 2 n × 2 n with arbitrary boundary configuration, and we show that the mean square displacement of particles near the center of the box is bounded from below by c log n. The result generalizes to a large class of models with fairly arbitrary interaction.
Horizontal Grid Size Selection and its Influence on Mesoscale Model Simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvador, Rosa; Calbó, Josep; Millán, Millán M.
1999-09-01
The use of two-dimensional spectral analysis applied to terrain heights in order to determine characteristic terrain spatial scales and its subsequent use for the objective definition of an adequate grid size required to resolve terrain forcing are presented in this paper. In order to illustrate the influence of grid size, atmospheric flow in a complex terrain area of the Spanish east coast is simulated by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale numerical model using different horizontal grid resolutions. In this area, a grid size of 2 km is required to account for 95% of terrain variance. Comparison among results of the different simulations shows that, although the main wind behavior does not change dramatically, some small-scale features appear when using a resolution of 2 km or finer. Horizontal flow pattern differences are significant both in the nighttime, when terrain forcing is more relevant, and in the daytime, when thermal forcing is dominant. Vertical structures also are investigated, and results show that vertical advection is influenced highly by the horizontal grid size during the daytime period. The turbulent kinetic energy and potential temperature vertical cross sections show substantial differences in the structure of the planetary boundary layer for each model configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javaherchi, Teymour; Stelzenmuller, Nick; Seydel, Joseph; Aliseda, Alberto
2013-11-01
We investigate, through a combination of scale model experiments and numerical simulations, the evolution of the flow field around the rotor and in the wake of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. Understanding the dynamics of this flow field is the key to optimizing the energy conversion of single devices and the arrangement of turbines in commercially viable arrays. This work presents a comparison between numerical and experimental results from two different case studies of scaled horizontal axis MHK turbines (45:1 scale). In the first case study, we investigate the effect of Reynolds number (Re = 40,000 to 100,000) and Tip Speed Ratio (TSR = 5 to 12) variation on the performance and wake structure of a single turbine. In the second case, we study the effect of the turbine downstream spacing (5d to 14d) on the performance and wake development in a coaxial configuration of two turbines. These results provide insights into the dynamics of Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines, and by extension to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines in close proximity to each other, and highlight the capabilities and limitations of the numerical models. Once validated at laboratory scale, the numerical model can be used to address other aspects of MHK turbines at full scale. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.
Ahn, H W; Park, N S; Kim, S; Park, S Y; Wang, C K
2007-03-01
Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (HRF) is an alternative pretreatment method e.g. prior to Slow Sand Filtration (SSF). However, some of its limitations are that the effluent quality drops drastically at higher turbidity (>200NTU) and at higher filtration rate (>1 m h(-1)). To overcome these drawbacks, we suggested Direct Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (DHRF), which is a modified system of Horizontal-Flow Roughing Filtration (HRF) by addition of a low dose of coagulant prior to filtration. To optimize the DHRF configuration, a conceptual and mathematical model for the coarse compartment has been developed in analogy with multi-plate settler. Data from simple column settling test can be used in the model to predict the filter performance. Furthermore, the model developed herein has been validated by successive experiments. The conventional column settling test has been found to be handy and useful to predict the performance of DHRF for different raw water characteristics (e.g. coagulated or uncoagulated water, different amounts of organic matter, etc.) and different initial process conditions (e.g. coagulant dose, mixing time and intensity, etc.). An optimum filter design for the coarse compartment (grain size 20 mm) has been found to be of 3m h(-1) filtration rate with filter length of 4-4.5 m.
A 3D mathematical model for the horizontal anode baking furnace
Kocaefe, Y.S.; Dernedde, E.; Kocaefe, D.; Ouellet, R.; Jiao, Q.; Crowell, W.F.
1996-10-01
In the aluminum industry, carbon anodes are baked in large horizontal or vertical ring-type furnaces. The anode quality depends strongly on the baking conditions (heating rate, soaking time and final anode temperature). A three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed for a horizontal anode baking furnace to assess the effects of different parameters on the baking process and to improve the furnace operation and design at Noranda Aluminum Smelter in New Madrid, Missouri. The commercial CFD code CFDS-FLOW3D is used to solve the governing differential equations. The model gives the temperature, velocity and concentration distributions in the flue, and the variation of the temperature distribution with time in the pit. In this paper, a description of the 3D model for the horizontal anode baking furnace will be given. Some of the results from a case study will also be presented. The results show clearly the importance of flue geometry on the gas flow distribution in the flue and the heat transfer to the anodes.
A coronal magnetic field model with horizontal volume and sheet currents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhao, Xuepu; Hoeksema, J. Todd
1994-01-01
When globally mapping the observed photospheric magnetic field into the corona, the interaction of the solar wind and magnetic field has been treated either by imposing source surface boundary conditions that tacitly require volume currents outside the source surface or by limiting the interaction to thin current sheets between oppositely directed field regions. Yet observations and numerical Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculations suggest the presence of non-force-free volume currents throughout the corona as well as thin current sheets in the neighborhoods of the interfaces between closed and open field lines or between oppositely directed open field lines surrounding coronal helmet-streamer structures. This work presents a model including both horizontal volume currents and streamer sheet currents. The present model builds on the magnetostatic equilibria developed by Bogdan and Low and the current-sheet modeling technique developed by Schatten. The calculation uses synoptic charts of the line-of-sight component of the photospheric magnetic field measured at the Wilcox Solar Observatory. Comparison of an MHD model with the calculated model results for the case of a dipole field and comparison of eclipse observations with calculations for CR 1647 (near solar minimum) show that this horizontal current-current-sheet model reproduces polar plumes and axes of corona streamers better than the source-surface model and reproduces polar plumes and axes of corona streamers better than the source-surface model and reproduces coro nal helmet structures better than the current-sheet model.
On the Importance of Displacement History in Soft-Body Contact Models
2015-07-10
On the Importance of Displacement History in Soft-Body Contact Models Jonathan Fleischmann∗, Radu Serban, Dan Negrut Simulation Based Engineering...paramsothy.jayakumar.civ@mail.mil Two approaches are commonly used for handling fric- tional contact within the framework of the Discrete Ele- ment Method (DEM). One...in mutual contact . The second approach, called the Penalty Method (PM), invokes an elasticity argument to pro- duce a frictional contact force that
A new parametrized model of the global horizontal and vertical ionospheric current system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laundal, Karl M.; Finlay, Christopher C.; Olsen, Nils; Reistad, Jone P.; Tenfjord, Paul; Snekvik, Kristian; Østgaard, Nikolai
2017-04-01
We present a newly developed global empirical model of the ionospheric magnetic disturbance field, and the associated horizontal and vertical currents. The field is represented in terms of spherical harmonics, parametrized in terms of solar wind drivers, dipole tilt angle, and the F10.7 index. The model parameters are estimated by using magnetic field measurements from ESA's CHAMP and Swarm missions. The model represents an improvement compared to other empirical models of ionospheric currents by the following three characteristics: 1) Distortions due to Earth's main magnetic field are taken into account and essentially corrected for by use of magnetic apex coordinates. This allows us to interpret resulting currents independently of longitudinal, hemispheric, and temporal variations in the Earth's magnetic field. 2) We do not impose any symmetry between hemispheres, so that inter-hemispheric differences can be investigated. 3) We estimate both the Birkeland currents (and its closure) and the horizontal divergence-free currents (the equivalent current) simultaneously. They can be combined to calculate the true height-integrated horizontal current. This is only possible, without additional data or assumptions, because we use magnetic field measurements from low Earth orbit. In this presentation we compare modeled magnetic field perturbations at ground and in space with independent observations. We find that the total field aligned currents in the model are very well correlated with the total currents measured by AMPERE. We also show that, on time scales of > 1h, the model is well correlated with measured ground magnetic field perturbations. Neither AMPERE nor any ground magnetometers were used to estimate model coefficients.
Vertical and horizontal integration of knowledge and skills - a working model.
Snyman, W D; Kroon, J
2005-02-01
The new integrated outcomes-based curriculum for dentistry was introduced at the University of Pretoria in 1997. The first participants graduated at the end of 2001. Educational principles that underpin the new innovative dental curriculum include vertical and horizontal integration, problem-oriented learning, student-centred learning, a holistic attitude to patient care and the promotion of oral health. The aim of this research project was to develop and assay a model to facilitate vertical integration of knowledge and skills thereby justifying the above mentioned action. The learning methodology proposed for the specific outcome of the Odontology module, namely the diagnosis of dental caries and the design of a primary preventive programme, included problem-solving as the driving force for the facilitation of vertical and horizontal integration, and an instructional design for the integration of the basic knowledge and clinical skills into a single learning programme. The paper describes the methodology of problem-oriented learning as applied in this study together with the detail of the programme. The consensus of those teachers who represent the basic and clinical sciences and who participate in this learning programme is that this model is practical and can assist vertical as well as horizontal integration of knowledge.
Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, P.W.
1992-08-01
Several field experiments have been performed on attic radiant barriers under winter conditions; however, most of them have been confined to the fairly mild climates of Florida, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Only one field experiment in a very cold climate (Canada) has been performed. In addition, no previous laboratory experiments under winter conditions have been performed on an attic both with and without a radiant barrier. This paper presents the results of laboratory measurements of the thermal performance of clean horizontal radiant barriers in a simulated residential attic module under nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions. Comparing tests under the same conditions with and without a radiant barrier shows that the addition of a clean horizontal radiant barrier to insulation at the R-22 to R-25 level decreases the ceiling heat flow by 6 to 8%. The experimental results were found to be in very good agreement with predictions made with a mathematical model for the thermal performance of attics.
Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, P.W.
1992-01-01
Several field experiments have been performed on attic radiant barriers under winter conditions; however, most of them have been confined to the fairly mild climates of Florida, Oklahoma, and Tennessee. Only one field experiment in a very cold climate (Canada) has been performed. In addition, no previous laboratory experiments under winter conditions have been performed on an attic both with and without a radiant barrier. This paper presents the results of laboratory measurements of the thermal performance of clean horizontal radiant barriers in a simulated residential attic module under nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions. Comparing tests under the same conditions with and without a radiant barrier shows that the addition of a clean horizontal radiant barrier to insulation at the R-22 to R-25 level decreases the ceiling heat flow by 6 to 8%. The experimental results were found to be in very good agreement with predictions made with a mathematical model for the thermal performance of attics.
Shui, Xiaolong; Ying, Xiaozhou; Kong, Jianzhong; Feng, Yongzeng; Hu, Wei; Guo, Xiaoshan; Wang, Gang
2015-08-01
Our objective was to measure the sagittal plane rotational (flexion and extension) displacement of hemipelvis radiologically and analyze the ratio of flexion and extension displacement of unstable pelvic fractures. We used 8 cadaveric models to study the radiographic evidence of pelvic fractures in the sagittal plane. We performed pelvic osteotomy on 8 cadavers to simulate anterior and posterior pelvic ring injury. Radiological data were measured in the flexion and extension group under different angles (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°). We retrospectively reviewed 164 patients who were diagnosed with a unilateral fracture of the pelvis. Pelvic ring displacement was identified and recorded radiographically in cadaveric models. The flexion and extension displacement of pelvic fractures was measured in terms of the vertical distance of fracture from the top of iliac crest to the pubic tubercle (CD) or from the top of iliac crest to the lowest point of ischial tuberosity (AB). Fifty-seven pelves showed flexion displacement and 15 showed extension displacement. Closed reduction including internal fixation and external fixation was successfully used in 141 cases (86.0 %). The success rates of closed reduction in flexion and extension displacement groups were 77 and 73 %, respectively, which were lower than in unstable pelvic ring fractures. The sagittal plane rotation (flexion and extension) displacement of pelvic fractures could be measured by special points and lines on the radiographs. Minimally invasive reduction should be based on clearly identified differences between the sagittal plane rotation and the vertical displacement of pelvic fractures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berckmans, Julie; Hamdi, Rafiq; De Troch, Rozemien; Giot, Olivier
2015-04-01
At the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI), climate simulations are performed with the regional climate model (RCM) ALARO, a version of the ALADIN model with improved physical parameterizations. In order to obtain high-resolution information of the regional climate, lateral bounary conditions (LBC) are prescribed from the global climate model (GCM) ARPEGE. Dynamical downscaling is commonly done in a continuous long-term simulation, with the initialisation of the model at the start and driven by the regularly updated LBCs of the GCM. Recently, more interest exists in the dynamical downscaling approach of frequent reinitializations of the climate simulations. For these experiments, the model is initialised daily and driven for 24 hours by the GCM. However, the surface is either initialised daily together with the atmosphere or free to evolve continuously. The surface scheme implemented in ALARO is SURFEX, which can be either run in coupled mode or in stand-alone mode. The regional climate is simulated on different domains, on a 20km horizontal resolution over Western-Europe and a 4km horizontal resolution over Belgium. Besides, SURFEX allows to perform a stand-alone or offline simulation on 1km horizontal resolution over Belgium. This research is in the framework of the project MASC: "Modelling and Assessing Surface Change Impacts on Belgian and Western European Climate", a 4-year project funded by the Belgian Federal Government. The overall aim of the project is to study the feedbacks between climate changes and land surface changes in order to improve regional climate model projections at the decennial scale over Belgium and Western Europe and thus to provide better climate projections and climate change evaluation tools to policy makers, stakeholders and the scientific community.
Displacement monitoring and modelling of a high-speed railway bridge using C-band Sentinel-1 data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Qihuan; Crosetto, Michele; Monserrat, Oriol; Crippa, Bruno
2017-06-01
Bridge displacement monitoring is one of the key components of bridge structural health monitoring. Traditional methods, usually based on limited sets of sensors mounted on a given bridge, collect point-like deformation information and have the disadvantage of providing incomplete displacement information. In this paper, a Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) approach is used to monitor the displacements of the Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River high-speed railway bridge. Twenty-nine (29) European Space Agency Sentinel-1A images, acquired from April 25, 2015 to August 5, 2016, were used in the PSI analysis. A total of 1828 measurement points were selected on the bridge. The results show a maximum longitudinal displacement of about 150 mm on each side of the bridge. The measured displacements showed a strong correlation with the environmental temperature at the time the images used were acquired, indicating that they were due to thermal expansion of the bridge. At each pier, a regression model based on the PSI-measured displacements was compared with a model based on in-situ measurements. The good agreement of these models demonstrates the capability of the PSI technique to monitor long-span railway bridge displacements. By comparing the modelled displacements and dozens of PSI measurements, we show how the performance of movable bearings can be evaluated. The high density of the PSI measurement points is advantageous for the health monitoring of the entire bridge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi, Hoda Sadat; Boily, Mathieu; Martineau, Paul A.; Rivaz, Hassan
2017-03-01
Ultrasound elastography entails imaging mechanical properties of tissue and is therefore of significant clinical importance. In elastography, two frames of radio-frequency (RF) ultrasound data that are obtained while the tissue is undergoing deformation, and the time-delay estimate (TDE) between the two frames is used to infer mechanical properties of tissue. TDE is a critical step in elastography, and is challenging due to noise and signal decorrelation. This paper presents a novel and robust technique TDE using all samples of RF data simultaneously. We assume tissue deformation can be approximated by an affine transformation, and hence call our method ATME (Affine Transformation Model Elastography). The affine transformation model is utilized to obtain initial estimates of axial and lateral displacement fields. The affine transformation only has six degrees of freedom (DOF), and as such, can be efficiently estimated. A nonlinear cost function that incorporates similarity of RF data intensity and prior information of displacement continuity is formulated to fine-tune the initial affine deformation field. Optimization of this function involves searching for TDE of all samples of the RF data. The optimization problem is converted to a sparse linear system of equations, which can be solved in real-time. Results on simulation are presented for validation. We further collect RF data from in-vivo patellar tendon and medial collateral ligament (MCL), and show that ATME can be used to accurately track tissue displacement.
Gelinsky-Wersing, Dagmar; Wersing, Wolfram; Pompe, Wolfgang
2017-02-01
Molecular and functional analysis of small molecule binding to protein can provoke insights into cellular signaling and regulatory systems as well as facilitate pharmaceutical drug discovery. In label free small molecule detection the displacement assay format can be applied. This is beneficial because displacement of high molecular weight receptors is detected instead of low molecular weight ligand as in classical binding analysis. Thus, detection limit is potentially lowered. Using the influenza haemagglutinin (HA) peptide binding to mono or bivalent anti-haemagglutinin peptide antibody displacement assay formats could be established. The exact time resolved analysis of binding and dissolution of ligand HA and anti-Haemagglutinin peptide antibody was achieved with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. Mathematical models could be developed from kinetic equations of ligand binding to mono or bivalent antibodies. With this, an accurate simulation of the SPR results was reached. The simulation plot had to be exactly adjusted to the SPR results to determine all kinetic rate constants defining ligand and receptor binding kinetics. Large variations in receptor concentration gave almost identical rate constants in binding. It became obvious that rebinding is in any case not necessary to understand the binding kinetics of our model system HA/anti-HA. Maximum decline of SPR response could be used to determine ligand concentrations in analyte.
Mapping displacement and deformation of the heart with local sine-wave modeling.
Arts, T; Prinzen, Frits W; Delhaas, T; Milles, J R; Rossi, Alessandro C; Clarysse, Patrick
2010-05-01
The new SinMod method extracts motion from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-tagged (MRIT) image sequences. Image intensity in the environment of each pixel is modeled as a moving sine wavefront. Displacement is estimated at subpixel accuracy. Performance is compared with the harmonic-phase analysis (HARP) method, which is currently the most common method used to detect motion in MRIT images. SinMod can handle line tags, as well as speckle patterns. In artificial images (tag distance six pixels), SinMod detects displacements accurately (error < 0.02 pixels). Effects of noise are suppressed effectively. Sharp transitions in motion at the boundary of an object are smeared out over a width of 0.6 tag distance. For MRIT images of the heart, SinMod appears less sensitive to artifacts, especially later in the cardiac cycle when image quality deteriorates. For each pixel, the quality of the sine-wave model in describing local image intensity is quantified objectively. If local quality is low, artifacts are avoided by averaging motion over a larger environment. Summarizing, SinMod is just as fast as HARP, but it performs better with respect to accuracy of displacement detection, noise reduction, and avoidance of artifacts.
Mathematical models utilized in the retrieval of displacement information encoded in fringe patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Lamberti, Luciano
2016-02-01
All the techniques that measure displacements, whether in the range of visible optics or any other form of field methods, require the presence of a carrier signal. A carrier signal is a wave form modulated (modified) by an input, deformation of the medium. A carrier is tagged to the medium under analysis and deforms with the medium. The wave form must be known both in the unmodulated and the modulated conditions. There are two basic mathematical models that can be utilized to decode the information contained in the carrier, phase modulation or frequency modulation, both are closely connected. Basic problems connected to the detection and recovery of displacement information that are common to all optical techniques will be analyzed in this paper, focusing on the general theory common to all the methods independently of the type of signal utilized. The aspects discussed are those that have practical impact in the process of data gathering and data processing.
Novel SM-like Higgs decay into displaced heavy neutrino pairs in U(1)' models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Accomando, Elena; Rose, Luigi Delle; Moretti, Stefano; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire H.
2017-04-01
We examine the observability of heavy neutrino ( ν h ) signatures of a U(1)' enlarged Standard Model (SM) encompassing three heavy Majorana neutrinos alongside the known light neutrino states at the the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We show that heavy neutrinos can be rather long-lived particles producing distinctive displaced vertices that can be accessed in the CERN LHC detectors. We concentrate here on the gluon fusion production mechanism gg → H 1,2 → ν h ν h , where H 1 is the discovered SM-like Higgs and H 2 is a heavier state, yielding displaced leptons following ν h decays into weak gauge bosons. Using data collected by the end of the LHC Run 2, these signatures would prove to be accessible with negligibly small background.
A model for fluid flow during saturated boiling on a horizontal cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kheyrandish, K.; Dalton, C.; Lienhard, J. H.
1987-01-01
A model has been developed to represent the vapor removal pattern in the vicinity of a cylinder during nucleate flow boiling across a horizontal cylinder. The model is based on a potential flow representation of the liquid and vapor regions and an estimate of the losses that should occur in the flow. Correlation of the losses shows a weak dependence on the Weber number and a slightly stronger dependence on the saturated liquid-to-vapor density ratio. The vapor jet thickness, which is crucial to the prediction of the burnout heat flux, and the shape of the vapor film are predicted. Both are verified by qualitative experimental observations.
A model for fluid flow during saturated boiling on a horizontal cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kheyrandish, K.; Dalton, C.; Lienhard, J. H.
1987-01-01
A model has been developed to represent the vapor removal pattern in the vicinity of a cylinder during nucleate flow boiling across a horizontal cylinder. The model is based on a potential flow representation of the liquid and vapor regions and an estimate of the losses that should occur in the flow. Correlation of the losses shows a weak dependence on the Weber number and a slightly stronger dependence on the saturated liquid-to-vapor density ratio. The vapor jet thickness, which is crucial to the prediction of the burnout heat flux, and the shape of the vapor film are predicted. Both are verified by qualitative experimental observations.
Performance of European chemistry transport models as function of horizontal resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaap, M.; Cuvelier, C.; Hendriks, C.; Bessagnet, B.; Baldasano, J. M.; Colette, A.; Thunis, P.; Karam, D.; Fagerli, H.; Graff, A.; Kranenburg, R.; Nyiri, A.; Pay, M. T.; Rouïl, L.; Schulz, M.; Simpson, D.; Stern, R.; Terrenoire, E.; Wind, P.
2015-07-01
Air pollution causes adverse effects on human health as well as ecosystems and crop yield and also has an impact on climate change trough short-lived climate forcers. To design mitigation strategies for air pollution, 3D Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) have been developed to support the decision process. Increases in model resolution may provide more accurate and detailed information, but will cubically increase computational costs and pose additional challenges concerning high resolution input data. The motivation for the present study was therefore to explore the impact of using finer horizontal grid resolution for policy support applications of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) model within the Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) convention. The goal was to determine the "optimum resolution" at which additional computational efforts do not provide increased model performance using presently available input data. Five regional CTMs performed four runs for 2009 over Europe at different horizontal resolutions. The models' responses to an increase in resolution are broadly consistent for all models. The largest response was found for NO2 followed by PM10 and O3. Model resolution does not impact model performance for rural background conditions. However, increasing model resolution improves the model performance at stations in and near large conglomerations. The statistical evaluation showed that the increased resolution better reproduces the spatial gradients in pollution regimes, but does not help to improve significantly the model performance for reproducing observed temporal variability. This study clearly shows that increasing model resolution is advantageous, and that leaving a resolution of 50 km in favour of a resolution between 10 and 20 km is practical and worthwhile. As about 70% of the model response to grid resolution is determined by the difference in the spatial emission distribution, improved emission allocation
Okajima, T L; Hong, F T
1986-01-01
Fast displacement photocurrents have been reported in bacteriorhodopsin model membranes by several groups of investigators since 1977. A fast component (B1) is associated with positive charge displacement in the direction opposite to that of a physiological proton translocation. A slower component (B2) of opposite polarity is associated with positive charge displacement in the same direction as the proton translocation. Using two slightly different methods for model membrane formation, we observed photosignals with or without a significant B2 component under appropriate conditions. By means of the tunable voltage clamp method of measurement (Hong, F.T., and D. Mauzerall, 1974, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 71:1564-1568) we demonstrated that the time course of the B1 signal is completely predictable by an equivalent circuit containing a chemical capacitance. From the equivalent circuit analysis, we obtained a first-order relaxation time constant of 12.3 +/- 0.7 microseconds at room temperature. We also found a slight temperature dependence of the B1 relaxation with an activation energy of 2.54 +/- 0.24 kcal/mol. We found no pH dependence of the B1 component in the range of 0 to 11, whereas the B2 component is diminishing in a graded manner when the pH is varied from 0 to 10. These results are diametrically different from what reported previously (Drachev, L.A., A.D. Kaulen, L.V. Khitrina, and V.P. Skulachev, 1981, Eur. J. Biochem., 117:461-470). Our results support the interpretation that the B1 component is generated by an intramolecular charge displacement accompanying the light-induced reactions of bacteriorhodopsin and that the B2 component is generated by a process of proton uptake from the intracellular aqueous phase and subsequent release into the same aqueous phase. The impact of the present results on the conventional practice of identifying photointermediates of bacteriorhodopsin by spectroscopic means is discussed. PMID:3790693
Kinetic modelling of nitrogen and organics removal in vertical and horizontal flow wetlands.
Saeed, Tanveer; Sun, Guangzhi
2011-05-01
This paper provides a comparative evaluation of the kinetic models that were developed to describe the biodegradation of nitrogen and organics removal in wetland systems. Reaction kinetics that were considered in the model development included first order kinetics, Monod and multiple Monod kinetics; these kinetics were combined with continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) or plug flow pattern to produce equations to link inlet and outlet concentrations of each key pollutants across a single wetland. Using three statistical parameters, a critical evaluation of five potential models was made for vertical and horizontal flow wetlands. The results recommended the models that were developed based on Monod models, for predicting the removal of nitrogen and organics in a vertical and horizontal flow wetland system. No clear correlation was observed between influent BOD/COD values and kinetic coefficients of BOD(5) in VF and HF wetlands, illustrating that the removal of biodegradable organics was insensitive to the nature of organic matter. Higher effluent COD/TN values coincided with greater denitrification kinetic coefficients, signifying the dependency of denitrification on the availability of COD in VF wetland systems. In contrast, the trend was opposite in HF wetlands, indicating that availability of NO(3)-N was the main limiting step for nitrogen removal. Overall, the results suggested the possible application of the developed alternative predictive models, for understanding the complex biodegradation routes of nitrogen and organics removal in VF and HF wetland systems.
Dynamics of SI models with both horizontal and vertical transmissions as well as Allee effects.
Kang, Yun; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos
2014-02-01
A general SI (Susceptible-Infected) epidemic system of host-parasite interactions operating under Allee effects, horizontal and/or vertical transmission, and where infected individuals experience pathogen-induced reductions in reproductive ability, is introduced. The initial focus of this study is on the analyses of the dynamics of density-dependent and frequency-dependent effects on SI models (SI-DD and SI-FD). The analyses identify conditions involving horizontal and vertical transmitted reproductive numbers, namely those used to characterize and contrast SI-FD and SI-DD dynamics. Conditions that lead to disease-driven extinction, or disease-free dynamics, or susceptible-free dynamics, or endemic disease patterns are identified. The SI-DD system supports richer dynamics including limit cycles while the SI-FD model only supports equilibrium dynamics. SI models under "small" horizontal transmission rates may result in disease-free dynamics. SI models under with and inefficient reproductive infectious class may lead to disease-driven extinction scenarios. The SI-DD model supports stable periodic solutions that emerge from an unstable equilibrium provided that either the Allee threshold and/or the disease transmission rate is large; or when the disease has limited influence on the infectives growth rate; and/or when disease-induced mortality is low. Host-parasite systems where diffusion or migration of local populations manage to destabilize them are examples of what is known as diffusive instability. The exploration of SI-dynamics in the presence of dispersal brings up the question of whether or not diffusive instability is a possible outcome. Here, we briefly look at such possibility within two-patch coupled SI-DD and SI-FD systems. It is shown that relative high levels of asymmetry, two modes of transmission, frequency dependence, and Allee effects are capable of supporting diffusive instability. Published by Elsevier Inc.
DYNAMICS OF SI MODELS WITH BOTH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL TRANSMISSIONS AS WELL AS ALLEE EFFECTS*
Kang, Yun; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos
2014-01-01
A general SI (Susceptible-Infected) epidemic system of host-parasite interactions operating under Allee effects, horizontal and/or vertical transmission, and where infected individuals experience pathogen-induced reductions in reproductive ability, is introduced. The initial focus of this study is on the analyses of the dynamics of Density-Dependent and Frequency-Dependent effects on SI models (SI-DD and SI-FD). The analyses identify conditions involving horizontal and vertical transmitted reproductive numbers, namely those used to characterize and contrast SI-FD and SI-DD dynamics. Conditions that lead to disease-driven extinction, or disease-free dynamics, or susceptible-free dynamics, or endemic disease patterns are identified. The SI-DD system supports richer dynamics including limit cycles while the SI-FD model only supports equilibrium dynamics. SI models under “small” horizontal transmission rates may result in disease-free dynamics. SI models under with and inefficient reproductive infectious class may lead to disease-driven extinction scenarios. The SI-DD model supports stable periodic solutions that emerge from an unstable equilibrium provided that either the Allee threshold and/or the disease transmission rate is large; or when the disease has limited influence on the infectives growth rate; and/or when disease-induced mortality is low. Host-parasite systems where diffusion or migration of local populations manage to destabilize them are examples of what is known as diffusive instability. The exploration of SI-dynamics in the presence of dispersal brings up the question of whether or not diffusive instability is a possible outcome. Here, we briefly look at such possibility within two-patch coupled SI-DD and SI-FD systems. It is shown that relative high levels of asymmetry, two modes of transmission, frequency dependence, and Allee effects are capable of supporting diffusive instability. PMID:24389426
Dependence of partitioning of model implicit and explicit precipitation on horizontal resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Jorge Luís; Chou, Sin Chan
2010-02-01
Model precipitation can be produced implicitly through convective parameterization schemes or explicitly through cloud microphysics schemes. These two precipitation production schemes control the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation and consequently can yield distinct vertical profiles of heating and moistening in the atmosphere. The partition between implicit and explicit precipitation can be different as the model changes resolutions. Within the range of mesoscale resolutions (about 20 km) and cumulus scale, hybrid solutions are suggested, in which cumulus convection parameterization is acting together with the explicit form of representation. In this work, it is proposed that, as resolution increases, the convective scheme should convert less condensed water into precipitation. Part of the condensed water is made available to the cloud microphysics scheme and another part evaporates. At grid sizes smaller than 3 km, the convective scheme is still active in removing convective instability, but precipitation is produced by cloud microphysics. The Eta model version using KF cumulus parameterization was applied in this study. To evaluate the quantitative precipitation forecast, the Eta model with the KF scheme was used to simulate precipitation associated with the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Cold Front (CF) events. Integrations with increasing horizontal resolutions were carried out for up to 5 days for the SACZ cases and up to 2 days for the CF cases. The precipitation partition showed that most of precipitation was generated by the implicit scheme. As the grid size decreased, the implicit precipitation increased and the explicit decreased. However, as model horizontal resolution increases, it is expected that precipitation be represented more explicitly. In the KF scheme, the fraction of liquid water or ice, generated by the scheme, which is converted into rain or snow is controlled by a parameter S 1. An additional parameter was
Model-based design of horizontal subsurface flow constructed treatment wetlands: a review.
Rousseau, Diederik P L; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; De Pauw, Niels
2004-03-01
The increasing application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment coupled with increasingly strict water quality standards is an ever growing incentive for the development of better process design tools. This paper reviews design models for horizontal subsurface flow constructed treatment wetlands, ranging from simple rules of thumb and regression equations, to the well-known first-order k-C* models, Monod-type equations and more complex dynamic, compartmental models. Especially highlighted in this review are the model constraints and parameter uncertainty. A case study has been used to demonstrate the model output variability and to unravel whether or not more complex but also less manageable models offer a significant advantage to the designer.
Sensitivity of snow cover to horizontal resolution in a land surface model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutra, E.; Kotlarski, S.; Viterbo, P.; Balsamo, G.; Miranda, P. M. A.; Schär, C.
2010-09-01
Snow cover is a highly variable land surface condition that exerts a strong control on the heat and moisture budget of the overlying atmosphere. Modeling studies based on long integrations of global circulation models (GCM) are normally carried out at very low resolution (typically coarser than 100 km) due to their high computational demand. On local scales, snow cover plays an important socioeconomic role, ranging from water management applications to outdoor recreation. These latter applications vary in horizontal resolution from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers, where small scale topography, land cover and local circulation effects play a significant role. In this study our focus will be on horizontal scales ranging from typical GCM global climate modeling to high resolution global weather forecasts. In the land surface component of a GCM (land surface model - LSM), snow cover temporal and spatial variability is mainly determined by the overlying atmospheric conditions. However, once snowfall settles on the ground, the sub-grid scale variability associated with complex terrain and land cover variability (not resolved at the model resolution) is parameterized following simple physical and/or empirical relations. The present study intends to access the impact of horizontal resolution in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land surface model (HTESSEL). HTESSEL is forced by the ECMWF operational weather forecasts since March 2006 to December 2009 (runs in offline/stand-alone mode). The control run is carried out at the horizontal resolution of the forecasts at TL799 (gaussian reduced grid N400 -about 25 km). Two lower horizontal resolutions are then tested: TL255 (gaussian reduced grid - about 80 km, same as the ERA-Interim reanalysis), and TL95 (gaussian reduced grid N48 - about 200 km). The length of the simulations is rather small (only 46 months), however global meteorological forcing at 25 km can only be accessed through the
Energetic dynamics of a rotating horizontal convection model of an ocean basin with wind forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zemskova, Varvara; White, Brian; Scotti, Alberto
2016-11-01
We analyze the energetic dynamics in a rotating horizontal convection model, where flow is driven by a differential buoyancy forcing along a horizontal surface. This model is used to quantify the influence of surface heating and cooling and surface wind stress on the Meridional Overturning Circulation. We study a model of the Southern Ocean in a rectangular basin with surface cooling on one end (the South pole) and surface warming on the other end (mid-latitudes). Free-slip boundary conditions are imposed in the closed box, while zonally periodic boundary conditions are enforced in the reentrant channel. Wind stress and differential buoyancy forcing are applied at the top boundary. The problem is solved numerically using a 3D DNS model based on a finite-volume AMR solver for the Boussinesq Navier-Stokes equations with rotation. The overall dynamics, including large-scale overturning, baroclinic eddying, turbulent mixing, and resulting energy cascades are investigated using the local Available Potential Energy framework introduced in. We study the relative contributions of surface buoyancy and wind forcing along with the effects of bottom topography to the energetic balance of this dynamic model. This research is part of the Blue Waters sustained-petascale computing project, supported by the NSF (awards OCI-0725070, ACI-1238993 and ACI-14-44747) and the state of Illinois.
Zamani-Dahaj, Seyed Alireza; Okasha, Mohamed; Kosakowski, Jakub; Higgs, Paul G
2016-07-01
We analyze patterns of gene presence and absence in a maximum likelihood framework with rate parameters for gene gain and loss. Standard methods allow independent gains and losses in different parts of a tree. While losses of the same gene are likely to be frequent, multiple gains need to be considered carefully. A gene gain could occur by horizontal transfer or by origin of a gene within the lineage being studied. If a gene is gained more than once, then at least one of these gains must be a horizontal transfer. A key parameter is the ratio of gain to loss rates, a/v We consider the limiting case known as the infinitely many genes model, where a/v tends to zero and a gene cannot be gained more than once. The infinitely many genes model is used as a null model in comparison to models that allow multiple gains. Using genome data from cyanobacteria and archaea, it is found that the likelihood is significantly improved by allowing for multiple gains, but the average a/v is very small. The fraction of genes whose presence/absence pattern is best explained by multiple gains is only 15% in the cyanobacteria and 20% and 39% in two data sets of archaea. The distribution of rates of gene loss is very broad, which explains why many genes follow a treelike pattern of vertical inheritance, despite the presence of a significant minority of genes that undergo horizontal transfer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Small-Scale Modeling of Fluid Displacement Patterns in Layered Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karpyn, Z. T.; Ayala, L. F.
2007-05-01
Naturally occurring porous media are inherently heterogeneous. The depositional characteristics that give rise to permeable formations, and the complex diagenetic processes taking place afterwards, create important heterogeneous features such as bedding planes, fractures, and faults. Rock heterogeneities can have strong impact on fluid displacement patterns because they define preferential flow paths in underground permeable formations. The efficiency of processes of pollution and contaminant removal from soil and groundwater, as well as hydrocarbon recovery, is greatly controlled by our ability to understand and represent fluid transport in heterogeneous permeable media. The present study focuses on a numerical analysis of two-phase flow in fractured rocks exhibiting contrasting rock properties in the form of bedding planes. Simulation scenarios were conducted to monitor contaminant displacement during water imbibition in a synthetic permeable medium model with multiple layers and a single fracture. A commercially available reservoir simulator was used to construct the synthetic three-dimensional model. Previous laboratory observations aid in the construction of the model and interpretation of results. Rock and fluid properties assigned to the synthetic model were estimated from those reported in the literature for a similar rock-fluid system. The presence of bedding planes in the rock's structure was found to have a strong impact on the advancing water front. Temporal saturation maps and fluid displacement patterns are presented in this work for various rates of injection and rock-property contrasts. Even though fracture capillary pressures are often regarded as negligible in the modeling of fractured porous media, our findings suggest that fractures can still provide passages under strong capillary action, which are able to drive wetting fluids into the rock matrix. Such behavior can be captured through proper description of fracture capillary pressures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barletta, V. R.; Bevis, M.; Smith, B. E.; Wilson, T. J.; Willis, M. J.; Brown, A.; Bordoni, A.; Khan, S. A.; Smalley, R., Jr.; Kendrick, E. C.; Konfal, S. A.; Caccamise, D.; Aster, R.; Chaput, J. A.; Heeszel, D.; Wiens, D.; Lloyd, A. J.
2014-12-01
The Amundsen Embayment sector of West Antarctica is experiencing some of the fastest sustained bedrock uplift rates in the world. These motions, recorded by the Antarctic GPS Network (ANET), cannot be explained in terms of the earth's elastic response to contemporary ice loss, and the residues are far too rapid to be explained using traditional GIA models. We use 13 years of very high resolution DEM-derived ice mass change fields over the Amundsen sector to compute the elastic signal and remove it from the observed geodetic time series. We obtain a very large residual - up to 5 times larger than the computed elastic response. Low or very low mantle viscosities are expected in this area based on existing heat flow estimates, seismic velocity anomalies, thin crust, and active volcanism, all of which are associated with geologically recent rifting. We hypothesize that the rapid crustal displacement manifests a low viscosity short-time-scale response to post- Little Ice Age ice mass changes, including ice losses developed in the last decade or so. A plausible ice history for the last hundred years is made by using the actual measurements from 2002 to 2014, and 25% of the present day melting rate before 2002. We then simulate and fit the bedrock displacement - both vertical and horizontal - with a spherical compressible viscoelastic Earth model having a low viscosity shallow upper mantle. We show that we can constrain the shallow upper mantle viscosity very well and also explain most of the signal (amplitude and direction) by using 2 x10^18 Pa s. However we are not able to precisely constrain the thickness of the lithosphere (the preferred thickness is more than 50 km, quite thick for that region) or ice history. By using our preferred set up (earth model + ice history) we compute the GIA gravitational signature and convert it in equivalent superficial water density (see figure) that can be directly used to correct the mass changes observed by GRACE.For the Amundsen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barletta, V. R.; Bevis, M.; Smith, B. E.; Wilson, T. J.; Willis, M. J.; Brown, A.; Bordoni, A.; Khan, S. A.; Smalley, R., Jr.; Kendrick, E. C.; Konfal, S. A.; Caccamise, D.; Aster, R.; Chaput, J. A.; Heeszel, D.; Wiens, D.; Lloyd, A. J.
2015-12-01
The Amundsen Embayment sector of West Antarctica is experiencing some of the fastest sustained bedrock uplift rates in the world. These motions, recorded by the Antarctic GPS Network (ANET), cannot be explained in terms of the earth's elastic response to contemporary ice loss, and the residues are far too rapid to be explained using traditional GIA models. We use 13 years of very high resolution DEM-derived ice mass change fields over the Amundsen sector to compute the elastic signal and remove it from the observed geodetic time series. We obtain a very large residual - up to 5 times larger than the computed elastic response. Low or very low mantle viscosities are expected in this area based on existing heat flow estimates, seismic velocity anomalies, thin crust, and active volcanism, all of which are associated with geologically recent rifting. We hypothesize that the rapid crustal displacement manifests a low viscosity short-time-scale response to post- Little Ice Age ice mass changes, including ice losses developed in the last decade or so. A plausible ice history for the last hundred years is made by using the actual measurements from 2002 to 2014, and 25% of the present day melting rate before 2002. We then simulate and fit the bedrock displacement - both vertical and horizontal - with a spherical compressible viscoelastic Earth model having a low viscosity shallow upper mantle. We show that we can constrain the shallow upper mantle viscosity very well and also explain most of the signal (amplitude and direction) by using 2 x10^18 Pa s. However we are not able to precisely constrain the thickness of the lithosphere (the preferred thickness is more than 50 km, quite thick for that region) or ice history. By using our preferred set up (earth model + ice history) we compute the GIA gravitational signature and convert it in equivalent superficial water density (see figure) that can be directly used to correct the mass changes observed by GRACE.For the Amundsen
Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.
2014-02-01
A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Charging of the defects can produce high electric fields within the cluster which may influence transport and reaction of carriers and defects, and which may enhance carrier recombination through band-to-trap tunneling. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to pulsed neutron irradiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laryunin, Oleg
2016-09-01
Characteristic U-shaped traces cusps on ionograms have been identified as off-angle echoes from sloping electron density contours caused by the presence of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Dynamics of the cusps is associated with horizontal drift of the disturbances. A potential for reducing calculation time in numerical synthesis of vertical ionograms is under discussion. Since numerical ray tracing is expensive in terms of computer time, we have developed simplified formulation for this study. The suggested model of compound parabolic layer allows us to analytically calculate ray paths. Changes in the shape of the ionogram cusp caused by varying TID characteristics are examined.
Rhombic micro-displacement amplifier for piezoelectric actuator and its linear and hybrid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jinglong; Zhang, Chunlin; Xu, Minglong; Zi, Yanyang; Zhang, Xinong
2015-01-01
This paper proposes rhombic micro-displacement amplifier (RMDA) for piezoelectric actuator (PA). First, the geometric amplification relations are analyzed and linear model is built to analyze the mechanical and electrical properties of this amplifier. Next, the accurate modeling method of amplifier is studied for important application of precise servo control. The classical Preisach model (CPM) is generally implemented using a numerical technique based on the first-order reversal curves (FORCs). The accuracy of CPM mainly depends on the number of FORCs. However, it is generally difficult to achieve enough number of FORCs in practice. So, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is employed in the work to circumvent the deficiency of the CPM. Then the hybrid model, which is based on discrete CPM and SVM is developed to account for hysteresis and dynamic effects. Finally, experimental validation is carried out. The analyzed result shows that this amplifier with the hybrid model is suitable for control application.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Callaghan, Amee; Joshi, Manoj; Stevens, David; Mitchell, Daniel
2014-05-01
Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have become an increasingly popular topic of study due to the range of potential effects that they have on climate. Often stratospheric anomalies possess the ability to descend into the troposphere. These anomalies can then affect the surface climate for up to two months [Baldwin and Dunkerton, 2001] implying that improved scientific understanding could lead to extended forecasting. However, not all SSWs possess the ability to strongly affect the surface climate. Analysis of reanalysis data has shown that the behaviour of vortex splits and displacements (two classes of SSWs) is clearly distinct. Tropospheric anomalies associated with either type of event contain different spatial structures and often the response associated with vortex splits is stronger [Mitchell et al., 2013]. SSWs are identified in a 200 year integration of the Intermediate General Circulation Model (IGCM). The model's performance is evaluated following the benchmarks of Charlton et al. [2007], and is found to simulate both the frequency and the tropospheric response of SSWs well. Distinctive differences are found in the IGCM's responses to vortex splits and displacements. The vortex split composite displays a significant weakening of the Icelandic Low and Azores High for up to 60 days following an event, indicative of a negative NAM anomaly. On the other hand the vortex displacement composite displays little significant deviation from climatology, implying a lack of NAM anomaly descent. This reaffirms the findings from reanalysis and highlights the need to separate the distinct classes of Sudden Stratospheric Warming events in model studies. We discuss the sensitivity of the model response to other processes such as the parameterisation of gravity waves. References M Baldwin and T Dunkerton. Stratospheric harbingers of anomalous weather regimes. Science, 294:581-584, 2001. A Charlton and Coauthors. A new look at stratospheric sudden warmings. part II
Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J
2015-01-01
Finger flexor tendinopathies and carpal tunnel syndrome are histologically characterised by non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in the carpal tunnel, which is indicative of excessive and repetitive shear forces between the finger flexor tendons and SSCT. We assessed flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon and adjacent SSCT displacements with colour Doppler ultrasound as 16 healthy participants completed long finger flexion/extension movements captured by a motion capture system. FDS tendon displacements fit a second-order regression model based on metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joint flexion angles (R(2) = 0.92 ± 0.01). SSCT displacements were 33.6 ± 1.7% smaller than FDS tendon displacements and also fit a second-order regression model (R(2) = 0.89 ± 0.01). FDS tendon and SSCT displacement both correlated with finger joint thickness, enabling participant-specific anthropometric scaling. We propose the current regression models as an ergonomic method to determine relative displacements between the finger flexor tendons and SSCT. Relative displacements between the finger flexor tendons and SSCT provide insight into gliding and friction in the carpal tunnel. Our regression models represent a move towards mechanistic-based ergonomic risk assessment of the wrist/hand. This is a natural evolution of ergonomic methods based on tendon-joint interaction.
MOCVD of GaAs in a horizontal reactor - Modeling and growth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, Ivan O.; Fox, Bradley A.; Jesser, William A.; Black, Linda R.
1991-01-01
A two-dimensional model for metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaAs in a horizontal reactor is presented. The model is characterized by the following parameters: reactor geometry and operating pressure, thermal boundary conditions, ratio of reactants, chemical reactions, total inlet gas flow rate, as well as molecular weights, thermal conductivities, heat capacities, viscosities, and binary diffusion coefficients of the gas-phase species. Film thickness profiles predicted by the model are compared with those of GaAs thin films grown in the modeled reactor. Results obtained show a good agreement between the predictions and data over the entire length of the deposition region for the low pressure and high flow rate run. Attention is also given to the reactor design and growth conditions.
Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.
2015-02-02
We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decomposition models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.
A prominence with transition region: horizontal two-dimensional filament model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorshkov, A. B.; Anzer, U.; Heinzel, P.
2002-12-01
SOHO/SUMER observations of solar filaments in Lyman lines of hydrogen have revealed, in general, a two-peak form of the emission line profiles with peak to center ratio less than an order of magnitude. This fact strongly contradicts the results of numerical radiative transfer simulations, where profiles with strong dips and large (1.5-2 orders of magnitude) peak to center ratio are usually obtained due to the absence of incident radiation from above the filament and, as a consequence, very low atomic populations on the upper energy levels at the top of the filament. Recently it was shown (Schmieder et al. 1998) that this discrepancy can be removed by introducing a prominence-corona transition region (PCTR) to the radiative transfer models. This paper continues a set of publications (Anzer & Heinzel, 1999 and Heinzel & Anzer, 2001) devoted to the modelling of prominences as structures in MHS equilibrium. Here the prominence is represented by a horizontal 2D slab supported by a magnetic field. In our model we use a constant gas pressure and assume that the kinetic temperature profile and the PCTR extension are different in the vertical and horizontal directions due to magnetic field. In the PCTR the temperature sharply increases outwards from 8000K to 50000K on the scale of 100-600 km. To solve the radiative transfer problem we apply a 2D code based on the MALI iteration scheme and the modified long characteristics method.
Energetic dynamics of a rotating horizontal convection model with wind forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zemskova, Varvara; White, Brian; Scotti, Alberto
2015-11-01
We present a new test case for rotating horizontal convection, where the flow is driven by differential buoyancy forcing along a horizontal surface. This simple model is used to understand and quantify the influence of surface heating and cooling and wind stress on the Meridional Overturning Circulation. The domain is a rectangular basin with surface cooling at both ends (the poles) and surface warming in the middle (equatorial) region. To model the effect of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, reentrant channel is placed near the Southern pole. Free-slip boundary conditions are imposed in the closed box, while zonally periodic boundary conditions are enforced in the channel. The problem is solved numerically using a 3D DNS model based on a finite-volume AMR solver for the Boussinesq Navier-Stokes equations with rotation. The relative contributions of surface buoyancy and wind forcing and the energetic balance are analyzed at a Rayleigh number of 108 and a relatively high aspect ratio of [5, 10, 1] in zonal, meridional and vertical directions, respectively. The overall dynamics, including large-scale overturning, baroclinic eddying, and turbulent mixing are investigated using the local Available Potential Energy framework introduced in [Scotti and White, J. Fluid Mech., 2014]. This research is part of the Blue Waters sustained-petascale computing project, supported by the NSF (awards OCI-0725070, ACI-1238993 and ACI-14-44747) and the state of Illinois.
The representation of snow in the EC-Earth climate model: the impact of horizontal resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terzago, Silvia; Palazzi, Elisa; von Hardenberg, Jost
2017-04-01
The representation of the mountain cryosphere in climate models is critical owing to the scale mismatch between the snow-related processes, occurring at scales considerably smaller than 1 km, and the coarse grid of climate models, in the order of 10 and 100 km resolution. For instance, elevation gradients affect locally the air temperature which in turn controls the partition between solid and liquid precipitation, snowpack internal processes and snow melt at local scale. An adequate representation of the drivers of snow processes (e.g., temperature, snowfall), therefore, calls for high-resolution simulations. Moreover, a quantification of the uncertainty on snowpack estimates related to the coarse model resolution is of prime importance to correctly interpret the snow outputs of the large-scale models, e.g. those included in Coupled Models Intercomparison Project experiments. This study aims to quantify the impact of the horizontal resolution on the simulation of snow-related variables focusing on the Greater Alpine Region (4-19°E, 43-49°N). We exploit a set of 5 simulations performed with the Global Climate Model EC-Earth run at increasing spatial resolutions, from 125 to 16 km, and we assess the differences (i) in the climatologies of the drivers of snow processes (air temperature, total precipitation, snowfall) and (ii) in the climatologies of the snow water equivalent distribution. Preliminary results show that in the finest resolution runs a slightly higher amount of snow precipitation leads to significantly thicker snow depths. We also investigate the future expected changes of snow resources (mid 21st century, RCP8.5 scenario) and we quantify the discrepancies among the EC-Earth simulations run at the different horizontal resolutions. Finally we compare the results obtained with the EC-Earth model to those obtained in a previous study in which we considered the full ensemble of CMIP5 models.
Approximation for Horizontal Photon Transport in Cloud Remote Sensing Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plantnick, Steven
1999-01-01
The effect of horizontal photon transport within real-world clouds can be of consequence to remote sensing problems based on plane-parallel cloud models. An analytic approximation for the root-mean-square horizontal displacement of reflected and transmitted photons relative to the incident cloud-top location is derived from random walk theory. The resulting formula is a function of the average number of photon scatterings, and particle asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo. In turn, the average number of scatterings can be determined from efficient adding/doubling radiative transfer procedures. The approximation is applied to liquid water clouds for typical remote sensing solar spectral bands, involving both conservative and non-conservative scattering. Results compare well with Monte Carlo calculations. Though the emphasis is on horizontal photon transport in terrestrial clouds, the derived approximation is applicable to any multiple scattering plane-parallel radiative transfer problem. The complete horizontal transport probability distribution can be described with an analytic distribution specified by the root-mean-square and average displacement values. However, it is shown empirically that the average displacement can be reasonably inferred from the root-mean-square value. An estimate for the horizontal transport distribution can then be made from the root-mean-square photon displacement alone.
Applications of the polarizability model to various displacive-type ferroelectric systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bussmann-Holder, A.; Bilz, H.; Benedek, G.
1989-05-01
We apply the theory of ferroelectricity in the framework of the polarizability model, which has been presented in a previous paper, to various classes of displacive-type ferroelectrics. We show that the experimental data of temperature-dependent quantities like soft-mode frequencies and dielectric constants can be well reproduced using a very limited set of parameters. We present results for ABO3 perovskites, IV-VI compounds, SbSI, K2SeO4, hydrogen-bonded ferroelectrics, antiferroelectric compounds, and their mixed isostructural ferroelectrics.
Modelling of the Vajont rockslide displacements by delayed plasticity of interacting sliding blocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellanza, riccardo; Hedge, Amarnath; Crosta, Giovanni; di Prisco, Claudio; Frigerio, Gabriele
2015-04-01
In order to model complex sliding masses subject to continuous slow movements related to water table fluctuations it is convenient to: i) model the time-dependent mechanical behaviour of the materials by means of a viscous-plastic constitutive law; ii) assume the water table fluctuation as the main input to induce displacement acceleration; iii) consider, the 3D constrains by maintaining a level of simplicity such to allow the implementation into EWS (Early Warning System) for risk management. In this work a 1D pseudo-dynamic visco-plastic model (Secondi et al. 2011), based on Perzyna's delayed plasticity theory is applied. The sliding mass is considered as a rigid block subject to its self weight, inertial forces and seepage forces varying with time. All non-linearities are lumped in a thin layer positioned between the rigid block and the stable bedrock. The mechanical response of this interface is assumed to be visco-plastic. The viscous nucleus is assumed to be of the exponential type, so that irreversible strains develop for both positive and negative values of the yield function; the sliding mass is discretized in blocks to cope with complex rockslide geometries; the friction angle is assumed to reduce with strain rate assuming a sort of strain - rate law (Dietrich-Ruina law). To validate the improvements introduced in this paper the simulation of the displacements of the Vajont rockslide from 1960 to the failure, occurred on October the 9th 1963, is perfomed. It will be shown that, in its modified version, the model satisfactorily fits the Vajont pre-collapse displacements triggered by the fluctuation of the Vajont lake level and the associated groundwater level. The model is able to follow the critical acceleration of the motion with a minimal change in friction properties.The discretization in interacting sliding blocks confirms its suitability to model the complex 3D rockslide behaviour. We are currently implementing a multi-block model capable to include
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Byeongil; Washington, Gregory N.; Yoon, Hwan-Sik
2012-05-01
Currently, piezoelectric actuators are being used in many applications from precision positioning control to active vibration control of large space structures. They can take the form of a solid-state device and are conveniently controlled by a voltage input. In spite of their relative ease of control, positioning accuracy and actuator longevity can be compromised by the hysteresis. Thus, the primary objective of this research is to minimize the hysteretic effect of a piezoelectric actuator in order to obtain a near linear relationship between the input voltage and the output displacement. The reduction of the hysteresis is accomplished by a newly developed control methodology named model predictive sliding mode control. A nonlinear energy-based hysteresis model is developed for a piezoelectric stack actuator and model predictive sliding mode control is applied to force the system state to reach a sliding surface in an optimal manner and track the reference signal accurately thereafter. To validate this new approach, simulations and experiments are conducted and the results highlight significantly improved hysteresis reduction in the displacement control of the piezoelectric stack actuator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benjanirat, Sarun
Next generation horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWTs) will operate at very high wind speeds. Existing engineering approaches for modeling the flow phenomena are based on blade element theory, and cannot adequately account for 3-D separated, unsteady flow effects. Therefore, researchers around the world are beginning to model these flows using first principles-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approaches. In this study, an existing first principles-based Navier-Stokes approach is being enhanced to model HAWTs at high wind speeds. The enhancements include improved grid topology, implicit time-marching algorithms, and advanced turbulence models. The advanced turbulence models include the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model, k-epsilon, k-o and Shear Stress Transport (k-o-SST) models. These models are also integrated with detached eddy simulation (DES) models. Results are presented for a range of wind speeds, for a configuration termed National Renewable Energy Laboratory Phase VI rotor, tested at NASA Ames Research Center. Grid sensitivity studies are also presented. Additionally, effects of existing transition models on the predictions are assessed. Data presented include power/torque production, radial distribution of normal and tangential pressure forces, root bending moments, and surface pressure fields. Good agreement was obtained between the predictions and experiments for most of the conditions, particularly with the Spalart-Allmaras-DES model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonini, L.; Basili, R.; Burrato, P.; Kastelic, V.; Toscani, G.; Seno, S.; Valensise, G.
2013-12-01
The scaling relation between displacement and length of faults plays a crucial role in understanding the growth history of individual faults and their possible linkage and reactivation in future ruptures. Displacement-length relations are commonly based on empirical data. The measurement of fault geometric properties, however, is generally affected by large scattering due not only to intrinsic difficulties of making observations in natural cases (outcrop availability, seismic profiles), but also to the variety of geological factors that may affect the rupture patterns. These can be the interaction between the present-day tectonic regime and an inherited structural fabric, or that between a master fault at depth and shallow structural features. As an alternative to field observations, analogue modeling provides an opportunity to investigate the faulting processes in a controlled environment. During the last decade, the ability of scaled models to properly reproduce such geological processes has greatly improved thanks to the introduction of new materials (e.g. wet kaolin) suitable for reproducing brittle deformation in the upper crust and hi-tech monitoring systems (e.g. laser scanner, particle image velocimetry) with the ability of capturing structural details and performing accurate measurements. We use a dedicated apparatus with such properties to gain insights on the evolution of extensional faults through a suite of experiments which includes (a) setups in homogeneous material to test our ability in meeting general criteria related with fault displacement-length parameters; and (b) increasing complexities attained by inserting various pre-existing fault patterns to analyze how shallow mechanical discontinuities affect our ability to characterize a major fault at depth. Our results show that pre-existing faults can either halt or favor fault development and growth depending on their location/orientation with respect to the applied stress field and suggest the
Modeling of displacement damage in silicon carbide detectors resulting from neutron irradiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khorsandi, Behrooz
There is considerable interest in developing a power monitor system for Generation IV reactors (for instance GT-MHR). A new type of semiconductor radiation detector is under development based on silicon carbide (SiC) technology for these reactors. SiC has been selected as the semiconductor material due to its superior thermal-electrical-neutronic properties. Compared to Si, SiC is a radiation hard material; however, like Si, the properties of SiC are changed by irradiation by a large fluence of energetic neutrons, as a consequence of displacement damage, and that irradiation decreases the life-time of detectors. Predictions of displacement damage and the concomitant radiation effects are important for deciding where the SiC detectors should be placed. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop computer simulation methods to estimate the number of various defects created in SiC detectors, because of neutron irradiation, and predict at what positions of a reactor, SiC detectors could monitor the neutron flux with high reliability. The simulation modeling includes several well-known---and commercial---codes (MCNP5, TRIM, MARLOWE and VASP), and two kinetic Monte Carlo codes written by the author (MCASIC and DCRSIC). My dissertation will highlight the displacement damage that may happen in SiC detectors located in available positions in the OSURR, GT-MHR and IRIS. As extra modeling output data, the count rates of SiC for the specified locations are calculated. A conclusion of this thesis is SiC detectors that are placed in the thermal neutron region of a graphite moderator-reflector reactor have a chance to survive at least one reactor refueling cycle, while their count rates are acceptably high.
The seismic horizontal borehole problem: A mixed BEM-FEM-model approach in the frequency domain
Aubry, D.; Clouteau, D.; Svay, J.
1994-12-31
A hybrid method is developed in order to model seismic experiments performed in the specific configuration of horizontal boreholes. This method is based on a subdomain analysis which allows to couple together heterogeneous domains (fluid borehole, steel casing and layered soil) using virtual works, each domain is provided with a kinematically or geometrically appropriate model: the casing is handled with a thick cylindrical shell model, while fluid and soils are handled with boundary integral equations allowing to disregard their unbounded nature. A surfacic formulation of the problem is then obtained, which is further reduced to a lineic formulation using Fourier transform under the assumption of invariant media along the borehole axis. Numerical simulations make restitution of a tube wave guided along the borehole. Influences of the casing and a plane interface between two layers in the soil are also evaluated.
Blue horizontal branch field stars in the galactic halo - Observations versus kinematic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Christensen, Per Rex
1989-07-01
A sample of 185 blue horizontal branch field (BHBF) stars situated in four fields in the galactic halo at galactocentric distances r of less than 40 kpc has been analyzed. The BHBF stars are found to constitute a well mixed system. The Sommer-Larsen (1986, 1987) model is shown to provide a better fit to the kinematical data in all four fields than either the White (1985, 1988) or Ratnatunga and Freeman (1985, 1989) models. A formation scenario for the galactic halo which includes the effects of gas dynamical processes is proposed to account for the feature of the Sommer-Larsen model that the velocity distribution of halo stars is radially anisotropic in the inner halo, but tangentially anisotropic in the outer parts of the halo.
The effect of horizontal resolution on systematic errors of the GLA forecast model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Tsing-Chang; Chen, Jau-Ming; Pfaendtner, James
1990-01-01
Systematic prediction errors of the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) forecast system are reduced when the higher-resolution (2 x 2.5 deg) model version is used. Based on a budget analysis of the 200-mb eddy streamfunction, the improvement of stationary eddy forecasting is seen to be caused by the following mechanism: by increasing the horizontal spatial resolution of the forecast model, atmospheric diabatic heating over the three tropical continents is changed in a way that intensifies the planetary-scale divergent circulations associated with the three pairs of divergent-convergent centers over these continents. The intensified divergent circulation results in an enhancement of vorticity sources in the Northern Hemisphere. The additional vorticity is advected eastward by a stationary wave train along 30 deg N, thereby reducing systematic errors in the lower-resolution (4 x 5 deg) GLA model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galland, Olivier; Cobbold, Peter R.; de Bremond D'Ars, Jean; Hallot, Erwan
2007-06-01
Magmatic activity tends to concentrate at plate margins. At divergent margins, extensional tectonics provide steep conduits for magma to reach the surface. At rapidly convergent margins, such as the Andes, one might imagine that horizontal compression prevents the rise of magma. Nevertheless, volcanoes are also common. In order to study the mechanisms by which magma rises in a compressional context, we resorted to laboratory experiments, in which a brittle crust was shortened, while magma was intruding. Our model materials were (1) cohesive fine-grained silica powder, representing brittle crust, and (2) molten low-viscosity vegetable oil, representing magma. In general, horizontal shortening and injection were coeval but independent processes. Thrust faults accommodated the shortening, while overpressured oil formed hydraulic fractures. In those experiments where there was no shortening, injection resulted in a saucer-shaped intrusive body. In the other experiments, where there was shortening, oil formed a basal sill, before rising along thrust faults. Once in place, the sill lubricated the base of the model, so that arcuate thrusts formed at the leading edge of a plateau. Uplift of the plateau promoted further intrusion of oil at depth. In general, the pattern of deformation and intrusion depended on the kinematic ratio R between rates of shortening and injection. The lengths of the basal sill and plateau increased with decreasing R. On the basis of these results, we have reexamined two natural examples of magmatic complexes, which were emplaced in compressional tectonic settings, Tromen volcano in Argentina and the Boulder Batholith of Montana.
Approaching mathematical model of the immune network based DNA Strand Displacement system.
Mardian, Rizki; Sekiyama, Kosuke; Fukuda, Toshio
2013-12-01
One biggest obstacle in molecular programming is that there is still no direct method to compile any existed mathematical model into biochemical reaction in order to solve a computational problem. In this paper, the implementation of DNA Strand Displacement system based on nature-inspired computation is observed. By using the Immune Network Theory and Chemical Reaction Network, the compilation of DNA-based operation is defined and the formulation of its mathematical model is derived. Furthermore, the implementation on this system is compared with the conventional implementation by using silicon-based programming. From the obtained results, we can see a positive correlation between both. One possible application from this DNA-based model is for a decision making scheme of intelligent computer or molecular robot.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalali Farahani, R.; Fitzenz, D. D.; Nyst, M.
2015-12-01
Major components of tsunami hazard modeling include earthquake source characterization, seabed displacement, wave propagation, and coastal inundation/run-up. Accurate modeling of these components is essential to identify the disaster risk exposures effectively, which would be crucial for insurance industry as well as policy makers to have tsunami resistant design of structures and evacuation planning (FEMA, 2008). In this study, the sensitivity and variability of tsunami coastal inundation due to Cascadia megathrust subduction earthquake are studied by considering the different approaches for seabed displacement model. The first approach is the analytical expressions that were proposed by Okada (1985, 1992) for the surface displacements and strains of rectangular sources. The second approach was introduced by Meade (2006) who introduced analytical solutions for calculating displacements, strains, and stresses on triangular sources. In this study, the seabed displacement using triangular representation of geometrically complex fault surfaces is compared with the Okada rectangular representations for the Cascadia subduction zone. In the triangular dislocation algorithm, the displacement is calculated using superposition of two angular dislocations for each of the three triangle legs. The triangular elements could give a better and gap-free representation of the fault surfaces. In addition, the rectangular representation gives large unphysical vertical displacement along the shallow-depth fault edge that generates unrealistic short-wavelength waves. To study the impact of these two different algorithms on the final tsunami inundation, the initial tsunami wave as well as wave propagation and the coastal inundation are simulated. To model the propagation of tsunami waves and coastal inundation, 2D shallow water equations are modeled using the seabed displacement as the initial condition for the numerical model. Tsunami numerical simulation has been performed on high
1981-12-01
physical characteristics of the element, such as thickness, material identifiers, inertias, mass. 20 2. Material Cards (MATI, MAT2 ) described the...material characteristics, such as Young’s modulus, shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio. MATI was used for isotropic material. MAT2 was used for orthotropic...generated as necessary, based on fixed mesh size. Module 15 - Output MAT1 and MAT2 material property cards. These are explicit except for variations
Horizontal annular flow modelling using a compositional based interface capturing approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Xie, Zhizhua; Percival, James; Gomes, Jefferson; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar
2014-11-01
Progress on a consistent approach for interface-capturing in which each component represents a different phase/fluid is described. The aim is to develop a general multi-phase modelling approach based on fully-unstructured meshes that can exploit the latest mesh adaptivity methods, and in which each fluid phase may have a number of components. The method is compared against experimental results for a collapsing water column test case and a convergence study is performed. A number of numerical test cases are undertaken to demonstrate the method's ability to model arbitrary numbers of phases with arbitrary equations of state. The method is then used to simulate horizontal annular flows. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.
Development of a model counter-rotating type horizontal-axis tidal turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, B.; Yoshida, K.; Kanemoto, T.
2016-05-01
In the past decade, the tidal energies have caused worldwide concern as it can provide regular and predictable renewable energy resource for power generation. The majority of technologies for exploiting the tidal stream energy are based on the concept of the horizontal axis tidal turbine (HATT). A unique counter-rotating type HATT was proposed in the present work. The original blade profiles were designed according to the developed blade element momentum theory (BEMT). CFD simulations and experimental tests were adopted to the performance of the model counter-rotating type HATT. The experimental data provides an evidence of validation of the CFD model. Further optimization of the blade profiles was also carried out based on the CFD results.
Model-based optimization of gravity sagging for a horizontally mounted optical flat.
Quan, Haiyang; Gu, Wei; Hou, Xi; Wu, Fan
2016-02-10
A practical and generalized model-based gravity sagging reconstruction method for a horizontally mounted optical flat is proposed. It is a practical and generalized approach based on the finite element method (FEM) model and real experiment results. Gravity sagging and misalignment parameters are retrieved by solving the multivariable unconstrained optimization problem with a least squares sense. Finally, the accurate true surface figure can be obtained by subtracting the optimized gravity sagging from the test result in the practical mounting state. A reasonable agreement with the outcomes of the FEM analysis and the real experiment is achieved through the proposed method. The effectiveness of the method was verified by comparison with the result measured by three-flat calibration. Experimental results demonstrated that this reverse optimization method can effectively reconstruct the sagging information due to gravity, is generalized, and is computationally efficient in practice.
The horizontal planar structure of kinetic energy in a model vertical-axis wind turbine array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, Anna; Zeller, Robert; Zarama, Francisco; Weitzman, Joel; Dabiri, John; Koseff, Jeffrey
2013-11-01
Recent studies have indicated that arrays of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) could potentially harvest significantly more power per unit land area than arrays composed of conventional horizontal axis wind turbines. However, to design VAWT arrays for optimal power conversion, a more comprehensive understanding of inter-turbine energy transfer is needed. In the presented study, a geometrically scaled array of rotating circular cylinders is used to model a VAWT array. The horizontal inter-cylinder mean fluid velocities and Reynolds stresses are measured on several cross-sections using 2D particle image velocimetry in a flume. Two orientations of the array relative to the incoming flow are tested. The results indicate that cylinder rotation drives asymmetric mean flow patterns within and above the array, resulting in non-uniform distributions of turbulent kinetic energy. The variability is observed to be directly related to the ratio of the cylinder rotation speed to the streamwise water velocity. Emphasis is placed on the implications of the asymmetries for power production. Work supported by a Stanford Graduate Fellowship to A.E.C, by funding to J.O.D. from ONR N000141211047 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF2645, and by funding from the Environmental Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Stanford University.
Pore invasion dynamics during fluid front displacement - an interfacial front model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moebius, F.; Or, D.
2013-12-01
The dynamics of fluid fronts in porous media shape subsequent phase distribution and the transport properties of the partially saturated region with implications ranging from gaseous transport to plant roots to extraction or injection of fluids to petroleum reservoirs. What macroscopically seems as a smooth and continuous motion of a displacement fluid front, involves numerous rapid pore-scale interfacial jumps often resembling avalanches of invasion events. We present a 2D model for simulating interfacial front displacement that was developed to study details of invasion dynamics at the front and to systematically study effects of boundary conditions on the resulting macroscopic properties after passage of a front. The interfacial front is represented by hydraulically connected sinusoidal capillaries allowing for redistribution and capillary pressure relaxation through exchange with neighboring interfaces. The model focuses on processes at the front and neglects interfacial redistribution left behind the front as well as saturated fluid flow below the front. The description of the dynamics of the rapid non-wetting fluid invasions induced by constant wetting fluid withdrawal includes capillary, viscous and hydrostatic component and inertia. Results show that the additional inertial force (not considered in previous studies) does significantly affect invasion pathways such as the hypothesized 'consecutive jumps'. The menisci jump velocities show a strong relation to geometrical throat dimensions that reflect local capillary gradients. The front model further enables to link boundary conditions (macroscopic Capillary number, throat size distribution) effects on pore invasion sequences and impact on residual wetting phase entrapment and front morphology. A limited comparison of model predictions with experimental results from sintered glass-beads micro-models will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jha, B.; Juanes, R.
2015-12-01
Coupled processes of flow, transport, and deformation are important during production of hydrocarbons from oil and gas reservoirs. Effective design and implementation of enhanced recovery techniques such as miscible gas flooding and hydraulic fracturing requires modeling and simulation of these coupled proceses in geologic porous media. We develop a computational framework to model the coupled processes of flow, transport, and deformation in heterogeneous fractured rock. We show that the hydrocarbon recovery efficiency during unstable displacement of a more viscous oil with a less viscous fluid in a fractured medium depends on the mechanical state of the medium, which evolves due to permeability alteration within and around fractures. We show that fully accounting for the coupling between the physical processes results in estimates of the recovery efficiency in agreement with observations in field and lab experiments.
Modeling shear-induced CHO cell damage in a rotary positive displacement pump.
Kamaraju, Hari; Wetzel, Kenneth; Kelly, William J
2010-01-01
Rotary lobe pumps are commonly used in the biotechnology industry for a variety of purposes. Shear damage to animal cells within the rotary lobe pump can adversely affect the product yield or purity during, for example, cell concentration via cross-flow filtration. In this research, CHO cells grown in 20-L bioreactors were fed to a rotary lobe pump in both single pass and recycle experiments were conducted at different RPMs and "slip" conditions. The results indicate that the slip flow rate more severely impacts the viability of the CHO cells than the pump RPM. A novel mathematical modeling approach is presented that predicts shear rates in all of the positive displacement pump's slip regions, and then predicts cell death vs. operating conditions. This model accounts for the complex flow situation that results from changes to RPM, backpressure and pump geometry (i.e., clearances).
Pham, VT.; Silva, L.; Digonnet, H.; Combeaud, C.; Billon, N.; Coupez, T.
2011-05-04
The objective of this work is to model the viscoelastic behaviour of polymer from the solid state to the liquid state. With this objective, we perform experimental tensile tests and compare with simulation results. The chosen polymer is a PMMA whose behaviour depends on its temperature. The computation simulation is based on Navier-Stokes equations where we propose a mixed finite element method with an interpolation P1+/P1 using displacement (or velocity) and pressure as principal variables. The implemented technique uses a mesh composed of triangles (2D) or tetrahedra (3D). The goal of this approach is to model the viscoelastic behaviour of polymers through a fluid-structure coupling technique with a multiphase approach.
The ground surface energy balance in modelling horizontal ground heat exchangers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bortoloni, M.; Bottarelli, M.; Su, Y.
2017-01-01
The performance of horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs) is strongly dependent on climatic conditions, due to the low installation depth. In numerical modelling of HGHEs, the estimation of shallow soil temperature distribution is a key issue, therefore the boundary condition (BC) at the ground surface should be assigned carefully. With this in mind, a model of the energy balance at the ground surface (GSEB), based on weather variables, was developed. The model was tested as the 3rd kind BC at ground surface in modelling HGHEs by means of the FEM code Comsol Multiphysics, solving the unsteady heat transfer problem in a 2D domain. The GSEB model was calibrated and validated with the observed soil temperature at different depths. In addition, the effect on numerical solutions of different BCs, when assigned at the ground surface, was analysed. Three different simulations were carried out applying the GSEB model, the equivalent surface heat flux and temperature as boundary conditions of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd kind, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the use of the GSEB model is a preferable approach to the problem and that the use of the equivalent surface temperature can be considered as a reasonable simplification.
Modelling coastal low-level wind-jets: does horizontal resolution matter?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjha, Raza; Tjernström, Michael; Svensson, Gunilla; Semedo, Alvaro
2016-04-01
Atmospheric flows in coastal regions are impacted by land-sea temperature contrasts, complex terrain, shape of the coastline, among many things. Along the west coast of central North America, winds in the boundary layer are mainly from north or northwest, roughly parallel to the coastline. Frequently, the coastal low-level wind field is characterized by a sharp wind maximum along the coast in the lowest kilometre. This feature, commonly referred to as a coastal low-level jet (CLLJ), has significant impact on the climatology of the coastal region and affects many human activities in the littoral zone. Hence, a good understanding and forecasting of CLLJs are vital. This study evaluates the issue of proper mesoscale numerical model resolution to describe the physics of a CLLJ, and its impact on the upper ocean. The COAMPS® model is used for a summer event to determine the realism of the model results compared to observations, from an area of supercritical flow adjustment between Pt. Sur and Pt. Conception, California. Simulations at different model horizontal resolutions, from 54 to 2 km are performed. While the model produces realistic results with increasing details at higher resolution, the results do not fully converge even at a resolution of only few kilometres and an objective analysis of model errors do not show an increased skill with increasing resolution. Based on all available information, a compromise resolution appears to be at least 6 km. New methods may have to be developed to evaluate models at very high resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bleck, Rainer; Sun, Shan; Li, Haiqin; Benjamin, Stan
2016-04-01
Current efforts to close the gap between weather prediction and climate models have led to the construction of a coupled ocean-atmosphere system consisting of two high-resolution component models, operating on matching icosahedral grids and utilizing adaptive, near-isentropic/isopycnic vertical coordinates. The two components models, FIM and HYCOM (the latter converted to an icosahedral mesh for this purpose), have been tested extensively in twice-daily global medium-range weather prediction (http://fim.noaa.gov) and in real-time ocean data assimilation (http://hycom.org), respectively. The use of matching horizontal grids, currently at resolutions of 15km, 30km and 60km, avoids coastline ambiguities and interpolation errors at the air-sea interface. The intended purpose of the coupled model being subseasonal-to-seasonal prediction, our focus is on mid-term precipitation biases and the statistical steadiness of the atmospheric circulation (blocking frequency, Rossby wave breaking, meridional heat transport, etc.), as well as on possible causes of ocean model drift. An attempt is made to isolate the weather model's role in modifying water mass properties and ocean circulations (including meridional overturning) by comparing coupled model results to ocean-only experiments forced by observed atmospheric boundary conditions. A multi-decadal run at 60km resolution is used to illustrate ENSO variability in the coupled system.
Otterstetter, Ronald; Miller, Brian; Fridline, Mark; Boltz, Michelle; Faciana, Chris; Scanlon, Kelsey; Mendel, Ronald
2016-01-01
Predictive equations derived from regression techniques based on large samples are extensively utilized in estimating resting metabolic rate (RMR). Body composition assessments utilize model equations to estimate RMR. However, the agreement of these predictive models with indirect calorimetery (IC) has come into question. Our aim is to investigate the agreement of RMR estimation models using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) measures against a gas exchange IC system (RMR-C). Sixty-six participants (25 men, 41 women) completed the study. RMR measurements were obtained from IC and ADP within 10 minutes of one another. IC RMR estimates were tested against 9 other validated models using ADP measures via analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques with multiple comparisons testing and Bland-Altman analysis. Based on the ANOVA, the Nelson (1992) model underpredicted RMR compared to IC (p < 0.001). The Doré et al. (1982) model was the best predictor of RMR compared to the IC measures (p = 0.907). The current RMR estimation model using ADP measures underpredicts total caloric needs. The Doré et al. (1982) model more accurately predicted RMR in the entire sample.
Character displacement and the evolution of niche complementarity in a model biofilm community
Ellis, Crystal N; Traverse, Charles C; Mayo-Smith, Leslie; Buskirk, Sean W; Cooper, Vaughn S
2015-01-01
Colonization of vacant environments may catalyze adaptive diversification and be followed by competition within the nascent community. How these interactions ultimately stabilize and affect productivity are central problems in evolutionary ecology. Diversity can emerge by character displacement, in which selection favors phenotypes that exploit an alternative resource and reduce competition, or by facilitation, in which organisms change the environment and enable different genotypes or species to become established. We previously developed a model of long-term experimental evolution in which bacteria attach to a plastic bead, form a biofilm, and disperse to a new bead. Here, we focus on the evolution of coexisting mutants within a population of Burkholderia cenocepacia and how their interactions affected productivity. Adaptive mutants initially competed for space, but later competition declined, consistent with character displacement and the predicted effects of the evolved mutations. The community reached a stable equilibrium as each ecotype evolved to inhabit distinct, complementary regions of the biofilm. Interactions among ecotypes ultimately became facilitative and enhanced mixed productivity. Observing the succession of genotypes within niches illuminated changing selective forces within the community, including a fundamental role for genotypes producing small colony variants that underpin chronic infections caused by B. cenocepacia. PMID:25494960
Character displacement and the evolution of niche complementarity in a model biofilm community.
Ellis, Crystal N; Traverse, Charles C; Mayo-Smith, Leslie; Buskirk, Sean W; Cooper, Vaughn S
2015-02-01
Colonization of vacant environments may catalyze adaptive diversification and be followed by competition within the nascent community. How these interactions ultimately stabilize and affect productivity are central problems in evolutionary ecology. Diversity can emerge by character displacement, in which selection favors phenotypes that exploit an alternative resource and reduce competition, or by facilitation, in which organisms change the environment and enable different genotypes or species to become established. We previously developed a model of long-term experimental evolution in which bacteria attach to a plastic bead, form a biofilm, and disperse to a new bead. Here, we focus on the evolution of coexisting mutants within a population of Burkholderia cenocepacia and how their interactions affected productivity. Adaptive mutants initially competed for space, but later competition declined, consistent with character displacement and the predicted effects of the evolved mutations. The community reached a stable equilibrium as each ecotype evolved to inhabit distinct, complementary regions of the biofilm. Interactions among ecotypes ultimately became facilitative and enhanced mixed productivity. Observing the succession of genotypes within niches illuminated changing selective forces within the community, including a fundamental role for genotypes producing small colony variants that underpin chronic infections caused by B. cenocepacia.
Electron phonon coupling in Ni-based binary alloys with application to displacement cascade modeling
Samolyuk, German D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Stoller, Roger E.
2016-04-01
Energy transfer between lattice atoms and electrons is an important channel of energy dissipation during displacement cascade evolution in irradiated materials. On the assumption of small atomic displacements, the intensity of this transfer is controlled by the strength of electron–phonon (el–ph) coupling. The el–ph coupling in concentrated Ni-based alloys was calculated using electronic structure results obtained within the coherent potential approximation. It was found that Ni0.5Fe0.5, Ni0.5Co0.5 and Ni0.5Pd0.5 are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas Ni0.5Cr0.5 is nonmagnetic. Since the magnetism in these alloys has a Stoner-type origin, the magnetic ordering is accompanied by a decrease of electronic density of states atmore » the Fermi level, which in turn reduces the el–ph coupling. Thus, the el–ph coupling values for all alloys are approximately 50% smaller in the magnetic state than for the same alloy in a nonmagnetic state. As the temperature increases, the calculated coupling initially increases. After passing the Curie temperature, the coupling decreases. The rate of decrease is controlled by the shape of the density of states above the Fermi level. Introducing a two-temperature model based on these parameters in 10 keV molecular dynamics cascade simulation increases defect production by 10–20% in the alloys under consideration.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bjarke, Lisa J.
1991-01-01
During flight testing of the AFTI/F111 aircraft, horizontal tail buffet was observed. Flutter analysis ruled out any aeroelastic instability, so a water-tunnel flow visualization study was conducted to investigate possible flow disturbances on the horizontal tail which might cause buffet. For this study, a 1/48-scale model was used. Four different wing cambers and one horizontal tail setting were tested between 0 and 20 deg angle of attack. These wing cambers corresponded to the following leading training edge deflections: 0/2, 10/10, 10/2, and 0/10. Flow visualization results in the form of still photographs are presented for each of the four wing cambers between 8 and 12 deg angle of attack. In general, the horizontal tail experiences flow disturbances which become more pronounced with angle of attack or wing trailing-edge deflection.
Modelling long term rockslide displacements with non-linear time-dependent relationships
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Caro, Mattia; Volpi, Giorgio; Castellanza, Riccardo; Crosta, Giovanni; Agliardi, Federico
2015-04-01
Rockslides undergoing rapid changes in behaviour pose major risks in alpine areas, and require careful characterization and monitoring both for civil protection and mitigation activities. In particular, these instabilities can undergo very slow movement with occasional and intermittent acceleration/deceleration stages of motion potentially leading to collapse. Therefore, the analysis of such instabilities remains a challenging issue. Rockslide displacements are strongly conditioned by hydrologic factors as suggested by correlations with groundwater fluctuations, snowmelt, with a frequently observed delay between perturbation and system reaction. The aim of this work is the simulation of the complex time-dependent behaviour of two case studies for which also a 2D transient hydrogeological simulation has been performed: Vajont rockslide (1960 to 1963) and the recent Mt. de La Saxe rockslide (2009 to 2012). Non-linear time-dependent constitutive relationships have been used to describe long-term creep deformation. Analyses have been performed using a "rheological-mechanical" approach that fits idealized models (e.g. viscoelastic, viscoplastic, elasto-viscoplastic, Burgers, nonlinear visco-plastic) to the experimental behaviour of specific materials by means of numerical constants. Bidimensional simulations were carried out using the finite difference code FLAC. Displacements time-series, available for the two landslides, show two superimposed deformation mechanisms: a creep process, leading to movements under "steady state" conditions (e.g. constant groundwater level), and a "dynamic" process, leading to an increase in displacement rate due to changes of external loads (e.g. groundwater level). For both cases sliding mass is considered as an elasto-plastic body subject to its self-weight, inertial and seepage forces varying with time according to water table fluctuation (due to snowmelt or changing in reservoir level) and derived from the previous hydrogeological
The numerical modelling of falling film thickness flow on horizontal tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, I. A.; Sadikin, A.; Isa, N. Mat
2017-04-01
This paper presents a computational modelling of water falling film flowing over horizontal tubes. The objective of this study is to use numerical predictions for comparing the film thickness along circumferential direction of tube on 2-D CFD models. The results are then validated with a theoretical result in previous literatures. A comprehensive design of 2-D models have been developed according to the real application and actual configuration of the falling film evaporator as well as previous experimental parameters. A computational modelling of the water falling film is presented with the aid of Ansys Fluent software. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique is adapted in this analysis since its capabilities of determining the film thickness on tubes surface is highly reliable. The numerical analysis is carried out under influence of ambient pressures at temperature of 27 °C. Three types of CFD numerical models were analyzed in this simulation with inter tube spacing of 30 mm, 20 mm and 10 mm respectively. The use of a numerical simulation tool on water falling film has resulted in a detailed investigation of film thickness. Based on the numerical simulated results, it is found that the average values of water film thickness for each model are 0.53 mm, 0.58 mm, and 0.63 mm.
Influence of Reynolds number on performance modeling of horizontal axis wind rotors
Musial, W.D.; Cromack, D.E.
1988-05-01
This paper investigates the influence of Reynolds number on performance modeling of horizontal axis wind rotors. A procedure for accounting for Reynolds number effects on airfoil section models was developed and implemented for NACA 0012 and NACA 4415 profiles; both of these models is valid through angles of attack up to 90 deg and for Reynolds numbers ranging from 4 x 10/sup 4/ to 3 x 10/sup 6/. These models were incorporated into both a lifting line computer code, LL200R, adapted for this report. This enabled greater uncertainty to be obtained in evaluating theoretical performance codes with respect to actual data, as well as providing a means by which a parametric analysis of the relative effects of Re changes on rotor performance to be performed. The use of low Reynolds number section data was found to significantly lower the predicted values of power coefficient, particularly at off-design tip speed-ratios. For symmetrical airfoils, this effect on performance was only significant for low tip-speed- ratios, while cambered airfoils were affected more uniformly at all operating conditions. Changes in performance were induced by parametric variations of wind speed, rotor scale, and rotor generating mode using the Reynolds number dependent section models. Results show that wind speed variations are more significant for smaller rotors at lower wind-speeds, and section models represented at only a single Reynolds number are more suitable for the analysis of constant RPM rotors.
Cappa, F.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.; Thoraval, A.
2006-04-22
In situ fracture mechanical deformation and fluid flowinteractions are investigated through a series of hydraulic pulseinjection tests, using specialized borehole equipment that cansimultaneously measure fluid pressure and fracture displacements. Thetests were conducted in two horizontal boreholes spaced one meter apartvertically and intersecting a near-vertical highly permeable faultlocated within a shallow fractured carbonate rock. The field data wereevaluated by conducting a series of coupled hydromechanical numericalanalyses, using both distinct-element and finite-element modelingtechniques and both two- and three-dimensional model representations thatcan incorporate various complexities in fracture network geometry. Oneunique feature of these pulse injection experiments is that the entiretest cycle, both the initial pressure increase and subsequent pressurefall-off, is carefully monitored and used for the evaluation of the insitu hydromechanical behavior. Field test data are evaluated by plottingfracture normal displacement as a function of fluid pressure, measured atthe same borehole. The resulting normal displacement-versus-pressurecurves show a characteristic loop, in which the paths for loading(pressure increase) and unloading (pressure decrease) are different. Bymatching this characteristic loop behavior, the fracture normal stiffnessand an equivalent stiffness (Young's modulus) of the surrounding rockmass can be back-calculated. Evaluation of the field tests by couplednumerical hydromechanical modeling shows that initial fracture hydraulicaperture and normal stiffness vary by a factor of 2 to 3 for the twomonitoring points within the same fracture plane. Moreover, the analysesshow that hydraulic aperture and the normal stiffness of the pulse-testedfracture, the stiffness of surrounding rock matrix, and the propertiesand geometry of the surrounding fracture network significantly affectcoupled hydromechanical responses during the pulse injection test
A global horizontal shear velocity model of the upper mantle from multimode Love wave measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Tak; Priestley, Keith; Debayle, Eric
2016-10-01
Surface wave studies in the 1960s provided the first indication that the upper mantle was radially anisotropic. Resolving the anisotropic structure is important because it may yield information on deformation and flow patterns in the upper mantle. The existing radially anisotropic models are in poor agreement. Rayleigh waves have been studied extensively and recent models show general agreement. Less work has focused on Love waves and the models that do exist are less well-constrained than are Rayleigh wave models, suggesting it is the Love wave models that are responsible for the poor agreement in the radially anisotropic structure of the upper mantle. We have adapted the waveform inversion procedure of Debayle & Ricard to extract propagation information for the fundamental mode and up to the fifth overtone from Love waveforms in the 50-250 s period range. We have tomographically inverted these results for a mantle horizontal shear wave-speed model (βh(z)) to transition zone depths. We include azimuthal anisotropy (2θ and 4θ terms) in the tomography, but in this paper we discuss only the isotropic βh(z) structure. The data set is significantly larger, almost 500 000 Love waveforms, than previously published Love wave data sets and provides ˜17 000 000 constraints on the upper-mantle βh(z) structure. Sensitivity and resolution tests show that the horizontal resolution of the model is on the order of 800-1000 km to transition zone depths. The high wave-speed roots beneath the oldest parts of the continents appear to extend deeper for βh(z) than for βv(z) as in previous βh(z) models, but the resolution tests indicate that at least parts of these features could be artefacts. The low wave speeds beneath the mid-ocean ridges fade by ˜150 km depth except for the upper mantle beneath the East Pacific Rise which remains slow to ˜250 km depth. The resolution tests suggest that the low wave speeds at deeper depths beneath the East Pacific Rise are not solely due
Modeling horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the gut of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus
2011-01-01
Background Paratransgenesis is an approach to reducing arthropod vector competence using genetically modified symbionts. When applied to control of Chagas disease, the symbiont bacterium Rhodococcus rhodnii, resident in the gut lumen of the triatomine vector Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), is transformed to export cecropin A, an insect immune peptide. Cecropin A is active against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. While proof of concept has been achieved in laboratory studies, a rigorous and comprehensive risk assessment is required prior to consideration of field release. An important part of this assessment involves estimating probability of transgene horizontal transfer to environmental organisms (HGT). This article presents a two-part risk assessment methodology: a theoretical model predicting HGT in the gut of R. prolixus from the genetically transformed symbiont R. rhodnii to a closely related non-target bacterium, Gordona rubropertinctus, in the absence of selection pressure, and a series of laboratory trials designed to test the model. Results The model predicted an HGT frequency of less than 1.14 × 10-16 per 100,000 generations at the 99% certainty level. The model was iterated twenty times, with the mean of the ten highest outputs evaluated at the 99% certainty level. Laboratory trials indicated no horizontal gene transfer, supporting the conclusions of the model. Conclusions The model treats HGT as a composite event, the probability of which is determined by the joint probability of three independent events: gene transfer through the modalities of transformation, transduction, and conjugation. Genes are represented in matrices and Monte Carlo method and Markov chain analysis are used to simulate and evaluate environmental conditions. The model is intended as a risk assessment instrument and predicts HGT frequency of less than 1.14 × 10-16 per 100,000 generations. With laboratory studies that support the predictions of
Dynamic model for horizontal two-phase flow predicting low head flooding
Saarinen, M. . Nuclear Engineering Lab.)
1994-10-01
The countercurrent flow of gas and water in a short horizontal pipe is studied numerically with a two-phase flow model. It is observed that the onset of flooding cannot be predicted at low liquid flow rates using conventional one-dimensional equations. The conventional equations yield the same underestimated results as the Taitel-Dukler criterion. Utilizing physical reasoning, improved equations have been derived. The basic idea is that the distribution of the phase velocities should not be treated as uniform in the cross-sectional area occupied by phases but transverse dependencies for the velocities should be allowed. By comparing measurement data and calculated results, it is shown that flooding transition can be predicted accurately with these equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Otterman, J.; Brakke, T.
1986-01-01
The projections of leaf areas onto a horizontal plane and onto a vertical plane are examined for their utility in characterizing canopies for sunlight penetration (direct beam only) models. These projections exactly specify the penetration if the projections on the principal plane of the normals to the top surfaces of the leaves are in the same quadrant as the sun. Inferring the total leaf area from these projections (and therefore the penetration as a function of the total leaf area) is possible only with a large uncertainty (up to + or - 32 percent) because the projections are a specific measure of the total leaf area only if the leaf angle distribution is known. It is expected that this uncertainty could be reduced to more acceptable levels by making an approximate assessment of whether the zenith angle distribution is that of an extremophile canopy.
Numerical modelling of resolution and sensitivity of ERT in horizontal boreholes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danielsen, Berit E.; Dahlin, Torleif
2010-03-01
Resistivity in horizontal boreholes can give useful detailed information about the geological conditions for construction in rock, i.e. in front of a tunnel bore machine. This paper is an attempt to identify a suitable methodology for an effective measuring routine for this type of geophysical measurements under actual construction site conditions. Prior to any measurements numerical modelling was done in order to evaluate the resolution of different electrode arrays. Four different arrays were tested; dipole-pole, cross-hole dipole-dipole, cross-hole pole-tripole and multiple gradient array. Additionally the resolution of a combination of cross-hole dipole-dipole and multiple gradient was assessed. The 2D sensitivity patterns for various arrangements of the cross-hole dipole-dipole and multiple gradient array were examined. The sensitivity towards inaccurate borehole geometry and the influence of water in the boreholes were also investigated. Based on the model study the cross-hole dipole-dipole array, multiple gradient array and a combination of these were found to give the best result and therefore were used for test measurements in horizontal boreholes. The boreholes were 28.5 m long and drilled 6.5 m apart. Prototypes of semi-rigid borehole cables made it possible to insert multi electrode cables in an efficient way, allowing fast measurement routines. These measurements were then studied to determine their accuracy and applicability. The results showed a high resistivity rock mass at the site. A transition from high resistivity to slightly lower resistivity coincides well with a change in lithology from gneiss-granite to gneiss. It is likely that the shotcrete on the tunnel wall is seen as a low resistivity zone. The measurements are a valuable tool, but further development of the cables and streamlining of measuring routines have to be performed before the resistivity tomography can be used routinely in pilot holes during construction in rocks.
A dynamical model for reflex activated head movements in the horizontal plane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, G. C.; Hain, T. C.; Peterson, B. W.
1996-01-01
We present a controls systems model of horizontal-plane head movements during perturbations of the trunk, which for the first time interfaces a model of the human head with neural feedback controllers representing the vestibulocollic (VCR) and the cervicocollic (CCR) reflexes. This model is homeomorphic such that model structure and parameters are drawn directly from anthropomorphic, biomechanical and physiological studies. Using control theory we analyzed the system model in the time and frequency domains, simulating neck movement responses to input perturbations of the trunk. Without reflex control, the head and neck system produced a second-order underdamped response with a 5.2 dB resonant peak at 2.1 Hz. Adding the CCR component to the system dampened the response by approximately 7%. Adding the VCR component dampened head oscillations by 75%. The VCR also improved low-frequency compensation by increasing the gain and phase lag, creating a phase minimum at 0.1 Hz and a phase peak at 1.1 Hz. Combining all three components (mechanics, VCR and CCR) linearly in the head and neck system reduced the amplitude of the resonant peak to 1.1 dB and increased the resonant frequency to 2.9 Hz. The closed loop results closely fit human data, and explain quantitatively the characteristic phase peak often observed.
A dynamical model for reflex activated head movements in the horizontal plane
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, G. C.; Hain, T. C.; Peterson, B. W.
1996-01-01
We present a controls systems model of horizontal-plane head movements during perturbations of the trunk, which for the first time interfaces a model of the human head with neural feedback controllers representing the vestibulocollic (VCR) and the cervicocollic (CCR) reflexes. This model is homeomorphic such that model structure and parameters are drawn directly from anthropomorphic, biomechanical and physiological studies. Using control theory we analyzed the system model in the time and frequency domains, simulating neck movement responses to input perturbations of the trunk. Without reflex control, the head and neck system produced a second-order underdamped response with a 5.2 dB resonant peak at 2.1 Hz. Adding the CCR component to the system dampened the response by approximately 7%. Adding the VCR component dampened head oscillations by 75%. The VCR also improved low-frequency compensation by increasing the gain and phase lag, creating a phase minimum at 0.1 Hz and a phase peak at 1.1 Hz. Combining all three components (mechanics, VCR and CCR) linearly in the head and neck system reduced the amplitude of the resonant peak to 1.1 dB and increased the resonant frequency to 2.9 Hz. The closed loop results closely fit human data, and explain quantitatively the characteristic phase peak often observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasahara, Akira
2003-04-01
Roles of the horizontal component of the earth's rotation, which is neglected traditionally in atmospheric and oceanographic models, are studied through the normal mode analysis of a compressible and stratified model on a tangent plane in the domain that is periodic in the zonal and meridional directions but bounded at the top and bottom. As expected, there exist two distinct kinds of acoustic and buoyancy oscillations that are modified by the earth's rotation. When the cos(latitude) Coriolis terms are included, there exists another kind of wave oscillation whose frequencies are very close to the inertial frequency, 2 sin(latitude), where is the earth's angular velocity.The objective of this article is to clarify the circumstance in which a distinct kind of wave oscillation emerges whose frequencies are very close to the inertial frequency. Because this particular kind of normal mode appears only due to the presence of boundary conditions in the vertical, it may be appropriate to call these waves boundary-induced inertial (BII) modes as demonstrated through the normal mode analyses of a homogeneous and incompressible model and a Boussinesq model with thermal stratification. Thus, it can be understood that the BII modes can coexist with the acoustic and inertio-gravity modes when the effect of compressibility is added to the effects of buoyancy and complete Coriolis force in the compressible, stratified, and rotating model.
Shell tectonics: A mechanical model for strike-slip displacement on Europa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhoden, A.; Wurman, G.; Manga, M.; Hurford, T. A.
2010-12-01
We introduce a new model for producing strike-slip displacement on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. We invoke general principles of stress and failure along faults and include the influence of Europa’s elastic shell when determining the response of faults to periodic tidal stress. We apply a Coulomb failure criterion to determine when and if failure will occur and adopt a linear elastic model for slip and stress release to determine the direction of net offsets along pre-existing faults. Our model reproduces the global-scale strike-slip fault pattern observed on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults do so in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. One of the most compelling attributes of the tidal walking model for strike-slip formation on Europa (Hoppa et al., 1999) is its ability to generate this global pattern. The shell tectonics model includes a more physical treatment of fault mechanics than tidal walking and makes a prediction of slip direction along faults by computing the net slip over several orbits. Also, several assumptions made in the tidal walking model are incorporated explicitly in the shell tectonics model. A strike-slip formation model with application to Enceladus has also been proposed (Smith-Konter & Pappalardo, 2008) that includes a mechanical treatment of faults but does not incorporate the effects of the elastic shell. Since this model should be equally applicable to Europa, we present predictions made using this plate-tectonics model along with our shell tectonics predictions. We find that a model neglecting the elastic shell effects does not agree as well with the observations. In addition to global predictions of slip direction, shell tectonics provides an estimate of the relative growth rates of faults and implications for seismicity and heating along faults.
Displaced photon signal from a possible light scalar in minimal left-right seesaw model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhupal Dev, P. S.; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yongchao
2017-06-01
We point out that in the minimal left-right realization of TeV scale seesaw for neutrino masses, the neutral scalar from the right-handed S U (2 )R breaking sector could be much lighter than the right-handed scale. We discuss for the first time the constraints on this particle from low-energy flavor observables and find that the light scalar is necessarily long-lived. We show that it can be searched for at the LHC via displaced signals of a collimated photon jet and can also be tested in current and future high-intensity experiments. In contrast to the unique diphoton signal (and associated jets) in the left-right case, a generic beyond-standard-model light scalar decays mostly to leptons or jets. Thus, the diphoton channel proposed here provides a new avenue to test the left-right framework and reveal the underlying neutrino mass generation mechanism.
Using Microfluidics for Visualisation of Displacement Mechanisms on Pore Network Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerami Kaviri Nejad, A.; Mostaghimi, P.; Armstrong, R. T.; Rafeie, M.; Ebrahimi Warkiani, M.
2015-12-01
We use microfluidic methods for studying displacement mechanisms of immiscible fluids including drainage and imbibition in porous media at the pore scale. We use soft lithography method to make 4' diameter silicon wafer to be used as a mould of our designs. We have fabricated a range of microfluidic chips based on a range of patterns including pore junction with unequal throats, junction of throats with different coordination numbers, and junction of tortuous throats. We also fabricate more complex networks as a combination of the mentioned simple patterns. Decane and water are used as the wetting and non-wetting phases, respectively. Using high-resolution microscopy, we visualise the displacement processes and the movement of the interface between two fluids at different saturations. We initially test to micromodel chip for modelling drainage into a pore junction and compare our results with the prediction by the Young-Laplace equations. Then we focus on the sequence of pore filling and effects of pore space geometry, tortuosity and the injection rate. We use plasma treating to vary the contact angle and then study the effects of wettability on interface movement. Using accurate pump and pressure controller, we measure pressure drop across the micromodels at different time. By image processing of fluids distribution in the microfluidic chip, saturation of both phases can be estimated. Then, we plot relative permeability versus saturation curves for different pore space geometries. Our results can be used for validation of numerical two phase flow simulation and also we provide novel suggestions for modifying the equations of motion in pore network models.
A diffusive model for halo width growth during vertical displacement events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eidietis, N. W.; Humphreys, D. A.
2011-07-01
The electromagnetic loads produced by halo currents during vertical displacement events (VDEs) impose stringent requirements on the strength of ITER in-vessel components. A predictive understanding of halo current evolution is essential for ensuring the robust design of these components. A significant factor determining that evolution is the plasma resistance, which is a function of three quantities: the resistivities of the core and halo regions, and the halo region width. A diffusive model of halo width growth during VDEs has been developed, which provides one part of a physics basis for predictive halo current simulations. The diffusive model was motivated by DIII-D observations that VDEs with cold post-thermal quench plasma and a current decay time much faster than the vertical motion (type I VDE) possess much wider halo region widths than warmer plasma VDEs, where the current decay is much slower than the vertical motion (type II). A 2D finite element code is used to model the diffusion of toroidal halo current during selected type I and type II DIII-D VDEs. The model assumes a core plasma region within the last closed flux surface (LCFS) diffusing current into a halo plasma filling the vessel outside the LCFS. LCFS motion and plasma temperature are prescribed from experimental observations. The halo width evolution produced by this model compares favourably with experimental measurements of type I and type II toroidal halo current width evolution.
Salazar-Serrano, Luis José; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P.
2015-03-15
We report the implementation of a tunable beam displacer, composed of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and two mirrors, that divides an initially polarized beam into two parallel beams whose separation can be continuously tuned. The two output beams are linearly polarized with either vertical or horizontal polarization and no optical path difference is introduced between them. The wavelength dependence of the device as well as the maximum separation between the beams achievable is limited mainly by the PBS characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyder, M. A.; Sloan, L. C.; Bell, J. L.
2002-12-01
The need for high-resolution simulations of modern and future climates has driven the use of regional climate models in recent years. Regional climate models use a much higher horizontal resolution than global climate models, allowing more detailed investigations of climate at scales of importance to a wider range of parties. Here we explore the effects of increased horizontal resolution on the simulation of climate over the Western U. S. We performed three experiments of modern day climate, using the same boundary conditions, at three different horizontal resolutions, 20 km, 30 km, and 40 km. We compared the experiments with observations of climate and with each other in order to evaluate any improvement or lack of improvement in using the higher resolution. Initial comparisons suggest that a 20 km resolution produces more accurate snow and precipitation results, with temperature results being more similar and accurate between the 20 and 30 km cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, Winston T. L.; Pope, Ronald L.; Martin, Chris A.; Brazel, Anthony J.
2011-01-01
We examined the horizontal and vertical nocturnal cooling influence of a small park with irrigated lawn and xeric surfaces (˜3 ha) within a university campus of a hot arid city. Temperature data from 0.01- to 3-m heights observed during a bicycle traverse of the campus were combined with modeled spatial temperature data simulated from a three-dimensional microclimate model (ENVI-met 3.1). A distinct park cool island, with mean observed magnitudes of 0.7-3.6°C, was documented for both traverse and model data with larger cooling intensities measured closer to surface level. Modeled results possessed varying but generally reasonable accuracy in simulating both spatial and temporal temperature data, although some systematic errors exist. A combination of several factors, such as variations in surface thermal properties, urban geometry, building orientation, and soil moisture, was likely responsible for influencing differential urban and non-urban near-surface temperatures. A strong inversion layer up to 1 m over non-urban surfaces was detected, contrasting with near-neutral lapse rates over urban surfaces. A key factor in the spatial expansion of the park cool island was the advection of cooler park air to adjacent urban surfaces, although this effect was mostly concentrated from 0- to 1-m heights over urban surfaces that were more exposed to the atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Javaherchi, Teymour; Stelzenmuller, Nick; Seydel, Joseph; Aliseda, Alberto
2014-11-01
The performance, turbulent wake evolution and interaction of multiple Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines (HAHT) is analyzed in a 45:1 scale model setup. We combine experimental measurements with different RANS-based computational simulations that model the turbines with sliding-mesh, rotating reference frame and blame element theory strategies. The influence of array spacing and Tip Speed Ratio on performance and wake velocity structure is investigated in three different array configurations: Two coaxial turbines at different downstream spacing (5d to 14d), Three coaxial turbines with 5d and 7d downstream spacing, and Three turbines with lateral offset (0.5d) and downstream spacing (5d & 7d). Comparison with experimental measurements provides insights into the dynamics of HAHT arrays, and by extension to closely packed HAWT arrays. The experimental validation process also highlights the influence of the closure model used (k- ω SST and k- ɛ) and the flow Reynolds number (Re=40,000 to 100,000) on the computational predictions of devices' performance and characteristics of the flow field inside the above-mentioned arrays, establishing the strengths and limitations of existing numerical models for use in industrially-relevant settings (computational cost and time). Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC).
Modeling the effects of linear shallow-water internal waves on horizontal array coherence.
Rouseff, Daniel; Lunkov, Andrey A
2015-10-01
The coherence length of a horizontal array is the maximum separation between two points where coherent processing gives useful gain when a distant source is at broadside. In shallow water, the coherence length is limited by the environmental variability caused by several relevant oceanographic processes. In the present study, a statistical model is developed that quantifies how one oceanographic process, linear internal waves, affects the coherence length. A key input to the ocean sub-model is the vertically integrated energy density of the internal wave field. The acoustic sub-model is based on the adiabatic normal mode approximation and so should be reasonable for frequencies under 1 kHz. Numerical calculations using environmental data from the Shallow Water 2006 Experiment (SW06) show how the coherence length of individual modes varies with consequent effects on array coherence. The coherence length is shown to be a strong function of where the source and array are positioned in the water column. For a bottom-mounted array above a moderately lossy seabed, the model predicts a coherence length that depends only weakly on range, an effect observed in field experiments.
An anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass using air displacement plethysmography.
Deierlein, Andrea L; Thornton, John; Hull, Holly; Paley, Charles; Gallagher, Dympna
2012-03-21
Current validated neonatal body composition methods are limited/impractical for use outside of a clinical setting because they are labor intensive, time consuming, and require expensive equipment. The purpose of this study was to develop an anthropometric model to estimate neonatal fat mass (kg) using an air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD® Infant Body Composition System) as the criterion. A total of 128 healthy term infants, 60 females and 68 males, from a multiethnic cohort were included in the analyses. Gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, age (in days), anthropometric measurements of weight, length, abdominal circumference, skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, biceps, sub scapular, and thigh), and body composition by PEA POD® were collected within 1-3 days of birth. Backward stepwise linear regression was used to determine the model that best predicted neonatal fat mass. The statistical model that best predicted neonatal fat mass (kg) was: -0.012 -0.064*gender + 0.024*day of measurement post-delivery -0.150*weight (kg) + 0.055*weight (kg)2 + 0.046*ethnicity + 0.020*sum of three skin-fold thicknesses (triceps, sub scapular, and thigh); R2 = 0.81, MSE = 0.08 kg. Our anthropometric model explained 81% of the variance in neonatal fat mass. Future studies with a greater variety of neonatal anthropometric measurements may provide equations that explain more of the variance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chi-Yin; Chuang, Jen-Chen; Tu, Jia-Ying
2016-09-01
This paper proposes modified coefficients for the dynamic model of hydraulic journal bearing system that integrates the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic properties. In recent years, design of hydraulic bearing for machine tool attracts worldwide attention, because hydraulic bearings are able to provide higher capacity and accuracy with lower friction, compared to conventional bearing systems. In order to achieve active control of the flow pressure and enhance the operation accuracy, the dynamic model of hydraulic bearings need to be developed. Modified coefficients of hydrostatic stiffness, hydrodynamic stiffness, and squeeze damping of the dynamic model are presented in this work, which are derived referring to small displacement analysis from literature. The proposed modified coefficients and model, which consider the pressure variations, relevant geometry size, and fluid properties of the journal bearings, are able to characterise the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic properties with better precision, thus offering the following pragmatic contribution: (1) on-line prediction of the eccentricity and the position of the shaft in the face of external force that results in vibration; (2) development of active control system to regulate the supply flow pressure and to minimize the eccentricity of the shaft. Theoretical derivation and simulation results with different vibration cases are discussed to verify the proposed techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClean, J.; Veneziani, C.; Maltrud, M. E.; Taylor, M.; Bader, D. C.; Branstetter, M. L.; Evans, K. J.; Mahajan, S.
2016-02-01
The circulation of the upper ocean in the Arabian Sea switches direction seasonally due to the change in direction of the prevailing winds associated with the Indian Monsoon. Predictability of the monsoon circulation, however, is uncertain due to incomplete understanding of the physical processes operating on the monsoon and other time scales, particularly interannual and intraseasonal. We use the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with enhanced horizontal resolution in each of its components relative to standard coupled climate model resolution, to better understand these time scale interactions. A standard resolution CESM counterpart is used to assess how horizontal resolution impacts the depiction of these processes. In the enhanced resolution case, 0.25° Community Atmosphere Model 5 (CAM5) is coupled to, among other components, the tripolar nominal 0.1° Parallel Ocean Program 2 (POP2). The fine resolution CESM simulation was run for 85 years; constant 1850 preindustrial forcing was used throughout the run, allowing us to isolate internal variability of the coupled system. Model parameters were adjusted ("tuned") to produce an acceptably small top of the atmosphere radiation imbalance. The reversal of the Somali Current (SC), the western boundary current off northeast Africa, has typically been associated with that of the monsoon. The SC reverses from southwestward in boreal winter to northeastward in summer; coastal upwelling is induced by the summer monsoonal winds. Recently it has been shown from new observations that the SC starts to reverse prior to the monsoon switch. Westward propagating Rossby waves have been implicated as responsible for the early SC reversal. We will discuss the sequencing of remote and local forcing on the timing of the spring inter-monsoonal switch in the direction of the SC and the appearance of the Great Whirl off the Oman Coast. Particularly, we consider how the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) acts to modify the seasonal strength and
An analytical model for pressure of volume fractured tight oil reservoir with horizontal well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Qihong; Dou, Kaiwen; Zhang, Xianmin; Xing, Xiangdong; Xia, Tian
2017-05-01
The property of tight oil reservoir is worse than common reservoir that we usually seen before, the porosity and permeability is low, the diffusion is very complex. Therefore, the ordinary depletion method is useless here. The volume fracture breaks through the conventional EOR mechanism, which set the target by amplifying the contact area of fracture and reservoir so as to improving the production of every single well. In order to forecast the production effectively, we use the traditional dual-porosity model, build an analytical model for production of volume fractured tight oil reservoir with horizontal well, and get the analytical solution in Laplace domain. Then we construct the log-log plot of dimensionless pressure and time by stiffest conversion. After that, we discuss the influential factors of pressure. Several factors like cross flow, skin factors and threshold pressure gradient was analyzed in the article. This model provides a useful method for tight oil production forecast and it has certain guiding significance for the production capacity prediction and dynamic analysis.
Estimation of a Plate Motion Model From the ITRF2014 Horizontal Velocity Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altamimi, Z.; Metivier, L.; Rebischung, P.; Rouby, H.; Collilieux, X.
2016-12-01
For various geodetic and geophysical applications, users need to have access to a Plate Motion Model (PMM) that is consistent with the ITRF2014 frame. The aim of this paper is to discriminate between the different possible approaches for determining a PMM from the horizontal velocities of a subset of the ITRF2014 sites away from plate boundaries, Glacial Isostatic Adjustment regions and other deformation zones. We show that it is necessary to include in the global inversion model of all plates, a translation rate vector between the ITRF2014 origin (long-term averaged center of mass of the Earth as sensed by SLR) and the center of tectonic plate motion. Although including that translation rate vector in our inversion model has statistically negligible impact on the estimated Euler poles, it should nevertheless be taken into account when using the ITRF2014 PMM. We additionally assess the impact of the site distribution (i.e. network effect) on both the estimated Euler poles and translation rate vector.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oreopoulos, L.; Barker, H. W.; Chou, M.-D.; Cahalan, R. F.; Khairoutdinov, M.
2003-04-01
We examine the ability of a shortwave Column Radiation Model (CORAM) used in NASA-Goddard GCMs to simulate successfully radiative fluxes and heating rates of Cloud Resolving Model (CRM) fields by using only mean cloud optical depth and cloud fraction for each vertical layer. Our standard of comparison are the Independent Column Approximation (ICA) estimates from the same CORAM, calculated by averaging results of individual columns of the cloud field. We show that one of the main features of the CORAM, mainly the scaling of cloud optical depth and cloud fraction is beneficial to the performance of the model relative to an approach that would mix the clear and cloudy fluxes of a partially cloudy layer. More sophisticated approaches that also use horizontal cloud variability information can further improve performance of the basic algorithm, but not in all cases or on a consistent basis. Some of these new generation algorithms have been tested on CRM cloud fields before, but here we introduce new versions encompassing concepts about the radiative treatment of vertical cloud overlap that have appeared only recently in the literature. While some of the algorithms are quite successful in approximating the correct (ICA) boundary fluxes or integrated atmospheric absorptance, they do not necessarily capture the correct vertical distribution of heating which may be of equal or greater importance in GCM simulations. Our results stress the importance of using an expanded dataset of 3D cloud field input in order to evaluate more accurately the performance quality of multilayer radiation routines.
Electron phonon coupling in Ni-based binary alloys with application to displacement cascade modeling
Samolyuk, German D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Stoller, Roger E.
2016-04-01
Energy transfer between lattice atoms and electrons is an important channel of energy dissipation during displacement cascade evolution in irradiated materials. On the assumption of small atomic displacements, the intensity of this transfer is controlled by the strength of electron–phonon (el–ph) coupling. The el–ph coupling in concentrated Ni-based alloys was calculated using electronic structure results obtained within the coherent potential approximation. It was found that Ni_{0.5}Fe_{0.5}, Ni_{0.5}Co_{0.5} and Ni_{0.5}Pd_{0.5} are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas Ni_{0.5}Cr_{0.5} is nonmagnetic. Since the magnetism in these alloys has a Stoner-type origin, the magnetic ordering is accompanied by a decrease of electronic density of states at the Fermi level, which in turn reduces the el–ph coupling. Thus, the el–ph coupling values for all alloys are approximately 50% smaller in the magnetic state than for the same alloy in a nonmagnetic state. As the temperature increases, the calculated coupling initially increases. After passing the Curie temperature, the coupling decreases. The rate of decrease is controlled by the shape of the density of states above the Fermi level. Introducing a two-temperature model based on these parameters in 10 keV molecular dynamics cascade simulation increases defect production by 10–20% in the alloys under consideration.
Assessing the sensitivity to horizontal resolution of Unified Model simulations of Hurricane Katrina
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Hara, J. P.; Webster, S.
2012-12-01
In August 2005 Hurricane Katrina made landfall close to New Orleans with devastating consequences. It was one of the strongest storms to impact the coast of the United States and was also one of the most costly. At peak intensity, its central pressure was 902 hPa and 10 m wind speeds were 175 mph. The extreme nature of this weather system therefore makes it an ideal case study to assess the ability of the Met Office Unified Model to simulate and potentially forecast such phenomena. In this study we assess the ability of the Met Office Unified Model (UM) to simulate Hurricane Katrina at a range of horizontal resolutions. Thus a set of limited area model simulations have been performed at resolutions of 1.5 km, 4 km and 24 km. By careful implementation of the lateral boundary conditions it has been possible to (one way) nest all these simulations inside the 25 km operational global forecast model version of the UM. The configuration of the 1.5 km and 4 km models is based on the 1.5 km and 4 km models used operationally over the UK and hence convection is treated explicitly, whilst the 24 km LAM is configured in the same way as the operational global forecast model and hence convection is parametrized. The simulations are all performed on a 2400 km x 1600 km domain and are all initialised around four days prior to landfall, when the observed central pressure was close to 990 hPa. The initial data for the simulations are ERA-interim analyses with the 25 km global forecast generating hourly LBCs via a series of 24 hour long forecasts initialised from successive 12z analyses. Overall, these simulations have been configured in order to make as clean an assessment as possible of the impact of horizontal resolution on the simulation of Hurricane Katrina. In this presentation we first describe and illustrate results summarising the impact of model resolution on the simulated hurricane. Consistent with the systematic tropical cyclone behaviour of the global forecast model
Comparison of GPS station position and loading displacement model time series. What can we learn?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collilieux, X.; van Dam, T.; Métivier, L.; Altamimi, Z.; Ray, J.
2009-04-01
The International GNSS service (IGS) analysis centers have started to reanalyze GPS data to deliver to the scientific community fully self-consistent and improved products: station positions, satellites orbits, clocks and Earth Rotation parameters. After removing the linear trend mostly due to tectonic motion from the time series of GPS station positions, we suggest to compare the remaining non-linear part to a loading model, which includes the contribution of the atmosphere, non tidal ocean and hydrology. To properly compare those two data sources, it is necessary to express the station positions into the same reference frame or, in other words, to remove global biases that affect all position time series. A well distributed core network of stations is introduced for that purpose. Results including translation and scale time series variations, network-averaged East, north and Up displacement time series will be discussed and compared to the loading model equivalent quantities. Loading corrections applied before the estimation of Helmert parameters to GPS coordinates will be used to quantify the degree of agreement between GPS stations and loading models at individual sites.
Sub-grid drag models for horizontal cylinder arrays immersed in gas-particle multiphase flows
Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin; Sundaresan, Sankaran
2013-09-08
Immersed cylindrical tube arrays often are used as heat exchangers in gas-particle fluidized beds. In multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of large fluidized beds, explicit resolution of small cylinders is computationally infeasible. Instead, the cylinder array may be viewed as an effective porous medium in coarse-grid simulations. The cylinders' influence on the suspension as a whole, manifested as an effective drag force, and on the relative motion between gas and particles, manifested as a correction to the gas-particle drag, must be modeled via suitable sub-grid constitutive relationships. In this work, highly resolved unit-cell simulations of flow around an array of horizontal cylinders, arranged in a staggered configuration, are filtered to construct sub-grid, or `filtered', drag models, which can be implemented in coarse-grid simulations. The force on the suspension exerted by the cylinders is comprised of, as expected, a buoyancy contribution, and a kinetic component analogous to fluid drag on a single cylinder. Furthermore, the introduction of tubes also is found to enhance segregation at the scale of the cylinder size, which, in turn, leads to a reduction in the filtered gas-particle drag.
Modeling and analysis of ORNL horizontal storage tank mobilization and mixing
Mahoney, L.A.; Terrones, G.; Eyler, L.L.
1994-06-01
The retrieval and treatment of radioactive sludges that are stored in tanks constitute a prevalent problem at several US Department of Energy sites. The tanks typically contain a settled sludge layer with non-Newtonian rheological characteristics covered by a layer of supernatant. The first step in retrieval is the mobilization and mixing of the supernatant and sludge in the storage tanks. Submerged jets have been proposed to achieve sludge mobilization in tanks, including the 189 m{sup 3} (50,000 gallon) Melton Valley Storage tanks (MVST) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the planned 378 m{sup 3} (100,000 gallon) tanks being designed as part of the MVST Capacity Increase Project (MVST-CIP). This report focuses on the modeling of mixing and mobilization in horizontal cylindrical tanks like those of the MVST design using submerged, recirculating liquid jets. The computer modeling of the mobilization and mixing processes uses the TEMPEST computational fluid dynamics program (Trend and Eyler 1992). The goals of the simulations are to determine under what conditions sludge mobilization using submerged liquid jets is feasible in tanks of this configuration, and to estimate mixing times required to approach homogeneity of the contents.
Modeling the Test-Retest Statistics of a Localization Experiment in the Full Horizontal Plane.
Morsnowski, André; Maune, Steffen
2016-10-01
Two approaches to model the test-retest statistics of a localization experiment basing on Gaussian distribution and on surrogate data are introduced. Their efficiency is investigated using different measures describing directional hearing ability. A localization experiment in the full horizontal plane is a challenging task for hearing impaired patients. In clinical routine, we use this experiment to evaluate the progress of our cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Listening and time effort limit the reproducibility. The localization experiment consists of a 12 loudspeaker circle, placed in an anechoic room, a "camera silens". In darkness, HSM sentences are presented at 65 dB pseudo-erratically from all 12 directions with five repetitions. This experiment is modeled by a set of Gaussian distributions with different standard deviations added to a perfect estimator, as well as by surrogate data. Five repetitions per direction are used to produce surrogate data distributions for the sensation directions. To investigate the statistics, we retrospectively use the data of 33 CI patients with 92 pairs of test-retest-measurements from the same day. The first model does not take inversions into account, (i.e., permutations of the direction from back to front and vice versa are not considered), although they are common for hearing impaired persons particularly in the rear hemisphere. The second model considers these inversions but does not work with all measures. The introduced models successfully describe test-retest statistics of directional hearing. However, since their applications on the investigated measures perform differently no general recommendation can be provided. The presented test-retest statistics enable pair test comparisons for localization experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allanach, B. C.; Badziak, Marcin; Cottin, Giovanna; Desai, Nishita; Hugonie, Cyril; Ziegler, Robert
2016-09-01
We study the LHC phenomenology of the next-to-minimal model of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, both for Run I and Run II. The Higgs phenomenology of the model is consistent with observations: a 125 GeV standard model-like Higgs which mixes with singlet-like state of mass around 90 GeV that provides a 2σ excess at LEP II. The model possesses regions of parameter space where a longer-lived lightest neutralino decays in the detector into a gravitino and a b-jet pair or a tau pair resulting in potential displaced vertex signatures. We investigate current bounds on sparticle masses and the discovery potential of the model, both via conventional searches and via searches for displaced vertices. The searches based on promptly decaying sparticles currently give a lower limit on the gluino mass 1080 GeV and could be sensitive up to 1900 GeV with 100 fb^{-1}, whereas the current displaced vertex searches cannot probe this model due to b-quarks in the final state. We show how the displaced vertex cuts might be relaxed in order to improve signal efficiency, while simultaneously applied prompt cuts reduce background, resulting in a much better sensitivity than either strategy alone and motivating a fully fledged experimental study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Menzel, Andreas M.
2015-11-01
Diffusion of colloidal particles in a complex environment such as polymer networks or biological cells is a topic of high complexity with significant biological and medical relevance. In such situations, the interaction between the surroundings and the particle motion has to be taken into account. We analyze a simplified diffusion model that includes some aspects of a complex environment in the framework of a nonlinear friction process: at low particle speeds, friction grows linearly with the particle velocity as for regular viscous friction; it grows more than linearly at higher particle speeds; finally, at a maximum of the possible particle speed, the friction diverges. In addition to bare diffusion, we study the influence of a constant drift force acting on the diffusing particle. While the corresponding stationary velocity distributions can be derived analytically, the displacement statistics generally must be determined numerically. However, as a benefit of our model, analytical progress can be made in one case of a special maximum particle speed. The effect of a drift force in this case is analytically determined by perturbation theory. It will be interesting in the future to compare our results to real experimental systems. One realization could be magnetic colloidal particles diffusing through a shear-thickening environment such as starch suspensions, possibly exposed to an external magnetic field gradient.
Menzel, Andreas M
2015-11-01
Diffusion of colloidal particles in a complex environment such as polymer networks or biological cells is a topic of high complexity with significant biological and medical relevance. In such situations, the interaction between the surroundings and the particle motion has to be taken into account. We analyze a simplified diffusion model that includes some aspects of a complex environment in the framework of a nonlinear friction process: at low particle speeds, friction grows linearly with the particle velocity as for regular viscous friction; it grows more than linearly at higher particle speeds; finally, at a maximum of the possible particle speed, the friction diverges. In addition to bare diffusion, we study the influence of a constant drift force acting on the diffusing particle. While the corresponding stationary velocity distributions can be derived analytically, the displacement statistics generally must be determined numerically. However, as a benefit of our model, analytical progress can be made in one case of a special maximum particle speed. The effect of a drift force in this case is analytically determined by perturbation theory. It will be interesting in the future to compare our results to real experimental systems. One realization could be magnetic colloidal particles diffusing through a shear-thickening environment such as starch suspensions, possibly exposed to an external magnetic field gradient.
Wolter, Christian; Arlinghaus, Robert; Sukhodolov, Alexander; Engelhardt, Christof
2004-11-01
The likely extension of commercial inland navigation in the future could increase hazards directly impacting on the nurseries of freshwater fish, especially for smaller individuals with limited swimming abilities. One limitation of the evaluation of inland navigation on fish assemblages is the lack of suitable hydraulic models. This article presents a hydraulic model to assess the increase of navigation-induced physical forces due to higher vessel speed, length, and drought in a low-flowing waterway related to maximum swimming performance of fish to (1) foresee hazards of enhancement of inland navigation, (2) derive construction measures to minimize the hydraulic impact on small fish, and (3) improve fish recruitment in waterways. The derived model computed current velocities induced by passing commercial vessels in inland waterways experimentally verified and parameterized in a German lowland waterway. Results were linked with a model of maximum fish swimming performance to elucidate consequences for freshwater fish populations. The absolute magnitude of navigation-induced current limits the availability of littoral habitats for small fish. Typical navigation-induced current velocities of 0.7-1 m/s in the straight reaches of waterways will be maintained by fish longer than 42 mm only. Smaller juveniles unable to withstand those currents could become washed out, injured, or displaced. In contrast, in small local bays, the navigation-induced current declined significantly. According to our model, in a 20-m extended bay, the return current drops below 0.11 m/s, corresponding to the maximum swimming speed of a 9-mm-long fish. Thus, enhancing shoreline development by connecting oxbows, tributaries, and especially by purpose-built bays limits the impact on fish recruitment without restricting navigation resulting in more precautionary and sustainable inland navigation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nykolaishen, L.; Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; James, T. S.; de Lange Boom, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sinnott, D.
2014-12-01
The M7.8 low-angle thrust earthquake off the west coast of southern Haida Gwaii on October 28, 2012, provided Canadian scientists the opportunity to study a local large thrust earthquake and has provided important information towards an improved understanding of geohazards in coastal British Columbia. Most large events along the Pacific-North America boundary in this region have involved strike-slip motion, such as the 1949 M8.1 earthquake on the Queen Charlotte Fault. In contrast along the southern portion of Haida Gwaii, the young (~8 Ma) Pacific plate crust also underthrusts North America and has been viewed as a small-scale analogy of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Initial seismic-based rupture models for this event were improved through inclusion of GPS observed coseismic displacements, which are as large as 115 cm of horizontal motion (SSW) and 30 cm of subsidence. Additional campaign-style GPS surveys have since been repeated by the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) at seven vertical reference benchmarks throughout Haida Gwaii, significantly improving the coverage of coseismic displacement observations in the region. These added offsets were typically calculated by differencing a single occupation before and after the earthquake and preliminary displacement estimates are consistent with previous GPS observations from the Geological Survey of Canada. Addition of the CHS coseismic offset estimates may allow direct inversion of the GPS data to derive a purely GPS-based rupture model. To date, cumulative postseismic displacements at six sites indicate up to 6 cm of motion, varying in azimuth between SSW and SE. Preliminary postseismic timeseries curve fitting to date has utilized a double exponential function characteristic of mantle relaxation. The current postseismic trends also suggest afterslip on the deeper plate interface beneath central Haida Gwaii along with possible induced aseismic slip on a deeper segment of the Queen Charlotte Fault located offshore
Diagnostic tools for evaluating quasi-horizontal transport in global-scale chemistry models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Huikyo; Youn, Daeok; Patten, Kenneth O.; Olsen, Seth C.; Wuebbles, Donald J.
2012-10-01
The upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) plays an important role in climate and atmospheric chemistry. Despite its importance on the point of causing deep intrusions of tropics originated air into the midlatitudes, the quasi-horizontal transport process in the UTLS, represented by global chemistry-transport models (CTMs) or chemistry-climate models (CCMs), cannot easily be diagnosed with conventional analyses on isobaric surfaces. We use improved diagnostic tools to better evaluate CTMs and CCMs relative to satellite observations in the region of UTLS. Using the Hellinger distance, vertical profiles of probability density functions (PDFs) of chemical tracers simulated by the Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers 3.1 (MOZART-3.1) are quantitatively compared with satellite data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument in the tropopause relative altitude coordinate to characterize features of tracer distributions near the tropopause. Overall, the comparison of PDFs between MLS and MOZART-3.1 did not satisfy the same population assumption. Conditional PDFs are used to understand the meteorological differences between global climate models and the real atmosphere and the conditional PDFs between MOZART-3.1 and MLS showed better agreement compared to the original PDFs. The low static stability during high tropopause heights at midlatitudes suggests that the variation of tropopause height is related to transport processes from the tropics to midlatitudes. MOZART-3.1 with the GEOS4 GCM winds reproduces episodes of the tropical air intrusions. However, our diagnostic analyses show that the GEOS4 GCM did not properly reproduce the high tropopause cases at midlatitudes especially in spring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zempila, Melina-Maria; Taylor, Michael; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kazadzis, Stelios
2016-10-01
We report on the construction of generic models to calculate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from global horizontal irradiance (GHI), and vice versa. Our study took place at stations of the Greek UV network (UVNET) and the Hellenic solar energy network (HNSE) with measurements from NILU-UV multi-filter radiometers and CM pyranometers, chosen due to their long (≈1 M record/site) high temporal resolution (≈1 min) record that captures a broad range of atmospheric environments and cloudiness conditions. The uncertainty of the PAR measurements is quantified to be ±6.5% while the uncertainty involved in GHI measurements is up to ≈±7% according to the manufacturer. We show how multi-linear regression and nonlinear neural network (NN) models, trained at a calibration site (Thessaloniki) can be made generic provided that the input-output time series are processed with multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (M-SSA). Without M-SSA, both linear and nonlinear models perform well only locally. M-SSA with 50 time-lags is found to be sufficient for identification of trend, periodic and noise components in aerosol, cloud parameters and irradiance, and to construct regularized noise models of PAR from GHI irradiances. Reconstructed PAR and GHI time series capture ≈95% of the variance of the cross-validated target measurements and have median absolute percentage errors <2%. The intra-site median absolute error of M-SSA processed models were ≈8.2±1.7 W/m2 for PAR and ≈9.2±4.2 W/m2 for GHI. When applying the models trained at Thessaloniki to other stations, the average absolute mean bias between the model estimates and measured values was found to be ≈1.2 W/m2 for PAR and ≈0.8 W/m2 for GHI. For the models, percentage errors are well within the uncertainty of the measurements at all sites. Generic NN models were found to perform marginally better than their linear counterparts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matichard, F.; Evans, M.; Mittleman, R.; MacInnis, M.; Biscans, S.; Dooley, K. L.; Sohier, H.; Lauriero, A.; Paris, H.; Koch, J.; Knothe, P.; Carbajo, A.; Dufort, C.
2016-06-01
Tilt-horizontal coupling in inertial sensors limits the performance of active isolation systems such as those used in gravitational wave detectors. Inertial rotation sensors can be used to subtract the tilt component from the signal produced by horizontal inertial sensors, but such techniques are often limited by the sensor noise of the tilt measurement. A different approach is to mechanically filter the tilt transmitted to the horizontal inertial sensor, as discussed in this article. This technique does not require an auxiliary rotation sensor and can produce a lower noise measurement. The concept investigated uses a mechanical suspension to isolate the inertial sensor from input tilt. Modeling and simulations show that such a configuration can be used to adequately attenuate the tilt transmitted to the instrument, while maintaining translation sensitivity in the frequency band of interest. The analysis is supported by experimental results showing that this approach is a viable solution to overcome the tilt problem in the field of active inertial isolation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yost, Charles
Although often hard to correctly forecast, mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are responsible for a majority of warm-season, localized extreme rain events. This study investigates displacement errors often observed by forecasters and researchers in the Global Forecast System (GFS) and the North American Mesoscale (NAM) models, in addition to the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the 4-km convection allowing NSSL-WRF models. Using archived radar data and Stage IV precipitation data from April to August of 2009 to 2011, MCSs were recorded and sorted into unique six-hour intervals. The locations of these MCSs were compared to the associated predicted precipitation field in all models using the Method for Object-Based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) tool, produced by the Developmental Testbed Center and verified through manual analysis. A northward bias exists in the location of the forecasts in all lead times of the GFS, NAM, and ECMWF models. The MODE tool found that 74%, 68%, and 65% of the forecasts were too far to the north of the observed rainfall in the GFS, NAM and ECMWF models respectively. The higher-resolution NSSL-WRF model produced a near neutral location forecast error with 52% of the cases too far to the south. The GFS model consistently moved the MCSs too quickly with 65% of the cases located to the east of the observed MCS. The mean forecast displacement error from the GFS and NAM were on average 266 km and 249 km, respectively, while the ECMWF and NSSL-WRF produced a much lower average of 179 km and 158 km. A case study of the Dubuque, IA MCS on 28 July 2011 was analyzed to identify the root cause of this bias. This MCS shattered several rainfall records and required over 50 people to be rescued from mobile home parks from around the area. This devastating MCS, which was a classic Training Line/Adjoining Stratiform archetype, had numerous northward-biased forecasts from all models, which are examined here. As common with
2012-01-01
Background If the geographical displacement of one species by another is accompanied by hybridization, mitochondrial DNA can introgress asymmetrically, from the outcompeted species into the invading species, over a large area. We explore this phenomenon using the two parapatric crested newt species, Triturus macedonicus and T. karelinii, distributed on the Balkan Peninsula in south-eastern Europe, as a model. Results We first delimit a ca. 54,000 km2 area in which T. macedonicus contains T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA. This introgression zone bisects the range of T. karelinii, cutting off a T. karelinii enclave. The high similarity of introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotypes with those found in T. karelinii suggests a recent transfer across the species boundary. We then use ecological niche modeling to explore habitat suitability of the location of the present day introgression zone under current, mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum conditions. This area was inhospitable during the Last Glacial Maximum for both species, but would have been habitable at the mid-Holocene. Since the mid-Holocene, habitat suitability generally increased for T. macedonicus, whereas it decreased for T. karelinii. Conclusion The presence of a T. karelinii enclave suggests that T. karelinii was the first to colonize the area where the present day introgression zone is positioned after the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequently, we propose T. karelinii was outcompeted by T. macedonicus, which captured T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA via introgressive hybridization in the process. Ecological niche modeling suggests that this replacement was likely facilitated by a shift in climate since the mid-Holocene. We suggest that the northwestern part of the current introgression zone was probably never inhabited by T. karelinii itself, and that T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA spread there through T. macedonicus exclusively. Considering the spatial distribution of the introgressed mitochondrial DNA and
Wielstra, Ben; Arntzen, Jan W
2012-08-30
If the geographical displacement of one species by another is accompanied by hybridization, mitochondrial DNA can introgress asymmetrically, from the outcompeted species into the invading species, over a large area. We explore this phenomenon using the two parapatric crested newt species, Triturus macedonicus and T. karelinii, distributed on the Balkan Peninsula in south-eastern Europe, as a model. We first delimit a ca. 54,000 km(2) area in which T. macedonicus contains T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA. This introgression zone bisects the range of T. karelinii, cutting off a T. karelinii enclave. The high similarity of introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotypes with those found in T. karelinii suggests a recent transfer across the species boundary. We then use ecological niche modeling to explore habitat suitability of the location of the present day introgression zone under current, mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum conditions. This area was inhospitable during the Last Glacial Maximum for both species, but would have been habitable at the mid-Holocene. Since the mid-Holocene, habitat suitability generally increased for T. macedonicus, whereas it decreased for T. karelinii. The presence of a T. karelinii enclave suggests that T. karelinii was the first to colonize the area where the present day introgression zone is positioned after the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequently, we propose T. karelinii was outcompeted by T. macedonicus, which captured T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA via introgressive hybridization in the process. Ecological niche modeling suggests that this replacement was likely facilitated by a shift in climate since the mid-Holocene. We suggest that the northwestern part of the current introgression zone was probably never inhabited by T. karelinii itself, and that T. karelinii mitochondrial DNA spread there through T. macedonicus exclusively. Considering the spatial distribution of the introgressed mitochondrial DNA and the signal derived from
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiryadinata, Steven
Service life modeling was performed to gage the viability of unitary 3.5 kWt, ground-source terminal heat pumps (GTHP) employing horizontal directionally drilled geothermal heat exchangers (GHX) over air-source terminal heat pumps (PTHP) in hotels and motels and residential apartment building sectors in California's coastal and inland climates. Results suggest the GTHP can reduce hourly peak demand for the utility by 7%-25% compared to PTHP, depending on the climate and building type. The annual energy savings, which range from -1% to 5%, are highly dependent on the GTHP pump energy use relative to the energy savings attributed to the difference in ground and air temperatures (DeltaT). In mild climates with small ?T, the pump energy use may overcome any advantage to utilizing a GHX. The majority of total levelized cost savings - ranging from 0.18/ft2 to 0.3/ft 2 - are due to reduced maintenance and lifetime capital cost normally associated with geothermal heat pump systems. Without these reductions (not validated for the GTHP system studied), the GTHP technology does not appear to offer significant advantages over PTHP in the climate zones studied here. The GTHP levelized cost was most sensitive to variations in installed cost and in some cases, energy use (influenced by climate zone choice), which together highlights the importance of climate selection for installation, and the need for larger market penetration of ground-source systems in order to bring down installed costs as the technology matures.
Mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube -- Part 2: Results and modeling
Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.
2000-04-01
Experimental studies on mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube have been performed. Wall temperature distributions have been measured under various main steam flow rates, droplet mass ratios, and wall heat fluxes. Generally, the heat transfer performance of steam can be significantly improved by adding mist into the main flow. An average enhancement of 100% with the highest local heat transfer enhancement of 200% is achieved with 5% mist. When the test section is mildly heated, an interesting wall temperature distribution is observed: the wall temperature increases first, then decreases, and finally increases again. A three-stage heat transfer model with transition boiling, unstable liquid fragment evaporation, and dry-wall mist cooling has been proposed and has shown some success in predicting the wall temperature of the mist/steam flow. The PDPA measurements have facilitated better understanding and interpreting of the droplet dynamics and heat transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, this study has shed light on how to generate appropriate droplet sizes to achieve effective droplet transportation, and has shown that it is promising to extend present results to a higher temperature and higher pressure environment.
Modelling Air and Water Two-Phase Annular Flow in a Small Horizontal Pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Jun; Yao, Yufeng; Arini, Antonino; McIiwain, Stuart; Gordon, Timothy
2016-06-01
Numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been carried out to study air and water two-phase flow in a small horizontal pipe of an inner diameter of 8.8mm, in order to investigate unsteady flow pattern transition behaviours and underlying physical mechanisms. The surface liquid film thickness distributions, determined by either wavy or full annular flow regime, are shown in reasonable good agreement with available experimental data. It was demonstrated that CFD simulation was able to predict wavy flow structures accurately using two-phase flow sub-models embedded in ANSYS-Fluent solver of Eulerian-Eulerian framework, together with a user defined function subroutine ANWAVER-UDF. The flow transient behaviours from bubbly to annular flow patterns and the liquid film distributions revealed the presence of gas/liquid interferences between air and water film interface. An increase of upper wall liquid film thickness along the pipe was observed for both wavy annular and full annular scenarios. It was found that the liquid wavy front can be further broken down to form the water moisture with liquid droplets penetrating upwards. There are discrepancies between CFD predictions and experimental data on the liquid film thickness determined at the bottom and the upper wall surfaces, and the obtained modelling information can be used to assist further 3D user defined function subroutine development, especially when CFD simulation becomes much more expense to model full 3D two-phase flow transient performance from a wavy annular to a fully developed annular type.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwun, Jihye; Song, Hyo-Jong; Park, Jong-Im
2013-04-01
Background error covariance matrix is very important for variational data assimilation system, determining how the information from observed variables is spread to unobserved variables and spatial points. The full representation of the matrix is impossible because of the huge size so the matrix is constructed implicitly by means of a variable transformation. It is assumed that the forecast errors in the control variables chosen are statistically independent. We used the cubed-sphere geometry based on the spectral element method which is better for parallel application. In cubed-sphere grids, the grid points are located at Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto points on each local element of 6 faces on the sphere. The two stages of the transformation were used in this study. The first is the variable transformation from model to a set of control variables whose errors are assumed to be uncorrelated, which was developed on the cubed sphere-using Galerkin method. Winds are decomposed into rotational part and divergent part by introducing stream function and velocity potential as control variables. The dynamical constraint for balance between mass and wind were made by applying linear balance operator. The second is spectral transformation which is to remove the remaining spatial correlation. The bases for the spectral transform were generated for the cubed-sphere grid. 6-hr difference fields of shallow water equation (SWE) model run initialized by variational data assimilation system were used to obtain forecast error statistics. In the horizontal background error covariance modeling, the regression analysis of the control variables was performed to define the unbalanced variables as the difference between full and correlated part. Regression coefficient was used to remove the remaining correlations between variables.
Simulation of the northern summer monsoon in the ECMWF model: Sensitivity to horizontal resolution
Sperber, K.R.; Potter, G.L.; Boyle, J.S.; Hameed, S.
1994-11-01
The ability of the ECMWF model (cycle 33) to simulate the Indian and East Asian summer monsoons is evaluated at four different horizontal resolutions: T21, T42, T63, and T106. Generally, with respect to the large-scale features of the circulation, the largest differences among the simulations occur at T42 relative to T21. However, on regional scales, important differences among the high-frequency temporal variability serve as a further critical test of the model`s ability to simulate the monsoon. T106 best captures both the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Indian and East Asian monsoons, whereas T42 fails to correctly simulate the sequence and development of synoptic-scale milestones that characterize the monsoon flow. In particular, T106 is superior at simulating the development and migration of the monsoon trough over the Bay of Bengal. In the T42 simulation, the development of the monsoon occurs one month earlier than typically observed. At this time the trough is incorrectly located adjacent to the east coast of India, which results in an underestimate of precipitation over the Burma-Thailand region. This early establishment of the monsoon trough affects the evolution of the East Asian monsoon and yields excessive preseason rainfall over the Mei-yu-region. EOF analysis of precipitation over China indicates that T106 best simulates the Mei-yu mode of variability, which is associated with an oscillation of the rainband that gives rise to periods of Mei-yu mode of variability, which is associated with an oscillation of the rainband that gives rise to periods of enhanced rainfall over the Yangtze River valley. The coarse resolution of T21 precludes simulation of the aforementioned regional-scale monsoon flows. 43 refs., 14 figs.
Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; ...
2015-02-02
We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decompositionmore » models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen; Lust, Ethan
2016-11-01
2D PIV measurements in the near wake flow field (x/D<2) are presented for a 1/25 scale, 0.8 m diameter (D) two bladed horizontal axis tidal turbine. All measurements were obtained in the USNA 380 ft tow tank with turbine towed at a constant carriage speed (Utow = 1.68 m/s), at the nominal tip speed ratio (TSR) of 7 and incoming regular waves with a period of 2.3 seconds and 0.18 m wave height. Near wake mapping is accomplished by "tiling" phase locked individual 2D PIV fields of view (nominally 30x30 cm2) with approximately 5 cm overlap. The discussion will focus on the downstream evolution of coherent tip vortices shed by the rotor blades and their vertical/horizontal displacements by the wave induced fluctuations. This observed phenomena ultimately results in significantly increased downstream wake expansion in comparison with the same conditions without waves. Office of Naval Research.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F. G.; Argus, D. F.; Santamaria-Gomez, A.; Willis, P.; Soudarin, L.; Gravelle, M.; Ferrage, P.
2016-01-01
In the context of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014), the International DORIS Service (IDS) has delivered to the IERS a set of 1140 weekly SINEX files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. From this set of weekly SINEX files, the IDS Combination Center estimated a cumulative DORIS position and velocity solution to obtain mean horizontal and vertical motion of 160 stations at 71 DORIS sites. The main objective of this study is to validate the velocities of the DORIS sites by comparison with external models or time series. Horizontal velocities are compared with two recent global plate models (GEODVEL 2010 and NNR-MORVEL56). Prior to the comparisons, DORIS horizontal velocities were corrected for Global Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) from the ICE-6G (VM5a) model. For more than half of the sites, the DORIS horizontal velocities differ from the global plate models by less than 2-3 mm/yr. For five of the sites (Arequipa, Dionysos/Gavdos, Manila, Santiago) with horizontal velocity differences wrt these models larger than 10 mm/yr, comparisons with GNSS estimates show the veracity of the DORIS motions. Vertical motions from the DORIS cumulative solution are compared with the vertical velocities derived from the latest GPS cumulative solution over the time span 1995.0-2014.0 from the University of La Rochelle (ULR6) solution at 31 co-located DORIS-GPS sites. These two sets of vertical velocities show a correlation coefficient of 0.83. Vertical differences are larger than 2 mm/yr at 23 percent of the sites. At Thule the disagreement is explained by fine-tuned DORIS discontinuities in line with the mass variations of outlet glaciers. Furthermore, the time evolution of the vertical time series from the DORIS station in Thule show similar trends to the GRACE equivalent water height.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F. G.; Argus, D. F.; Santamaria-Gomez, A.; Willis, P.; Soudarin, L.; Gravelle, M.; Ferrage, P.
2016-01-01
In the context of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014), the International DORIS Service (IDS) has delivered to the IERS a set of 1140 weekly SINEX files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. From this set of weekly SINEX files, the IDS Combination Center estimated a cumulative DORIS position and velocity solution to obtain mean horizontal and vertical motion of 160 stations at 71 DORIS sites. The main objective of this study is to validate the velocities of the DORIS sites by comparison with external models or time series. Horizontal velocities are compared with two recent global plate models (GEODVEL 2010 and NNR-MORVEL56). Prior to the comparisons, DORIS horizontal velocities were corrected for Global Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) from the ICE-6G (VM5a) model. For more than half of the sites, the DORIS horizontal velocities differ from the global plate models by less than 2-3 mm/yr. For five of the sites (Arequipa, Dionysos/Gavdos, Manila, Santiago) with horizontal velocity differences wrt these models larger than 10 mm/yr, comparisons with GNSS estimates show the veracity of the DORIS motions. Vertical motions from the DORIS cumulative solution are compared with the vertical velocities derived from the latest GPS cumulative solution over the time span 1995.0-2014.0 from the University of La Rochelle (ULR6) solution at 31 co-located DORIS-GPS sites. These two sets of vertical velocities show a correlation coefficient of 0.83. Vertical differences are larger than 2 mm/yr at 23 percent of the sites. At Thule the disagreement is explained by fine-tuned DORIS discontinuities in line with the mass variations of outlet glaciers. Furthermore, the time evolution of the vertical time series from the DORIS station in Thule show similar trends to the GRACE equivalent water height.
Modeling of stress-triggered faulting and displacement magnitude along Agenor Linea, Europa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nahm, A.; Cameron, M. E.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Pappalardo, R. T.
2012-12-01
We investigate the relationship between shear and normal stresses at Agenor Linea (AL) to better understand the role of tidal stress sources and implications for faulting on Europa. AL is a ~1500 km long, E-W trending, 20-30 km wide zone of geologically young deformation located in the southern hemisphere, and it forks into two branches at its eastern end. Based on photogeological evidence and stress orientation predictions, AL is primarily a right-lateral strike slip fault and may have accommodated up to 20 km of right-lateral slip. We compute tidal shear and normal stresses along present-day AL using SatStress, a numerical code that calculates tidal stresses at any point on the surface of a satellite for both diurnal and non-synchronous rotation (NSR) stresses. We adopt model parameters appropriate for Europa with a spherically symmetric, 20 km thick ice shell underlain by a global subsurface ocean and assume a coefficient of friction μ = 0.6. Along AL, shear stresses are primarily right-lateral (~1.8 MPa), while normal stresses are predominantly compressive along the west side of the structure (~0.7 MPa) and tensile along the east side (~2.9 MPa). Failure along AL is assessed using the Coulomb failure criterion, which states that shear failure occurs when the shear stress exceeds the frictional resistance of the fault. Where fault segments meet these conditions for shear failure, coseismic displacements are determined (assuming complete stress drop). We calculate shallow displacements as large as ~50 m at 1 km depth and ~10 m at 3 km depth. Triggered stresses from coseismic fault slip may also contribute to the total slip. We investigate the role of stress triggering by computing the change in Coulomb failure stress (ΔCFS) along AL. Where slip has occurred, negative ΔCFS is calculated; positive ΔCFS values indicate segments where failure is promoted. Positive ΔCFS is calculated at the western tip and the intersection of the branches with the main fault at a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smaoui, Nejib; Gharbi, Ridha
2000-11-01
An approach to model fluid displacements in porous media that combines two powerful techniques, namely Karhunen-Loéve (KL) decomposition and artificial neural networks (ANNs) is descibed. KL decomposition known, for data compression and feature identification, is used to extract coherent structures or eigenfunctions using fluid concentration maps obtained from fine-mesh numerical simulations of miscible fluid displacements of oil by solvent in a two-dimensional vertical cross-section. Twenty KL eigenfunctions that capture 98.8% of the total energy are extracted. Corresponding data coefficients are constructed by projecting the fluid concentration maps of the numerical simulations onto the KL eigenfunctions. Processing these data coefficients through an ANN is found to be a powerful tool in predicting the fluid displacements of the fine-mesh numerical simulations without actually performing these simulations.
Fully 3D modeling of tokamak vertical displacement events with realistic parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfefferle, David; Ferraro, Nathaniel; Jardin, Stephen; Bhattacharjee, Amitava
2016-10-01
In this work, we model the complex multi-domain and highly non-linear physics of Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs), one of the most damaging off-normal events in tokamaks, with the implicit 3D extended MHD code M3D-C1. The code has recently acquired the capability to include finite thickness conducting structures within the computational domain. By exploiting the possibility of running a linear 3D calculation on top of a non-linear 2D simulation, we monitor the non-axisymmetric stability and assess the eigen-structure of kink modes as the simulation proceeds. Once a stability boundary is crossed, a fully 3D non-linear calculation is launched for the remainder of the simulation, starting from an earlier time of the 2D run. This procedure, along with adaptive zoning, greatly increases the efficiency of the calculation, and allows to perform VDE simulations with realistic parameters and high resolution. Simulations are being validated with NSTX data where both axisymmetric (toroidally averaged) and non-axisymmetric induced and conductive (halo) currents have been measured. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Subramaniam, Dhananjay Radhakrishnan; Mylavarapu, Goutham; Fleck, Robert J; Amin, Raouf S; Shott, Sally R; Gutmark, Ephraim J
2017-07-01
Pharyngeal narrowing in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) results from flow-induced displacement of soft tissue. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of airflow parameters and material model on soft tissue displacement for planning surgical treatment in pediatric patients with OSA and Down syndrome (DS). Anatomically accurate, three-dimensional geometries of the pharynx and supporting tissue were reconstructed for one pediatric OSA patient with DS using magnetic resonance images. Six millimeters of adenoid tissue was virtually removed based on recommendations from the surgeon, to replicate the actual adenoidectomy. Computational simulations of flow-induced obstruction of the pharynx during inspiration were performed using patient-specific values of tissue elasticity for pre and post-operative airways. Sensitivity of tissue displacement to selection of turbulence model, variation in inspiratory airflow, nasal airway resistance and choice of non-linear material model was evaluated. The displacement was less sensitive to selection of turbulence model (10% difference) and more sensitive to airflow rate (20% difference) and nasal resistance (30% difference). The sensitivity analysis indicated that selection of Neo-Hookean, Yeoh, Mooney-Rivlin or Gent models would result in identical tissue displacements (less than 1% difference) for the same flow conditions. Change in pharyngeal airway resistance between the rigid and collapsible models was nearly twice for the pre-operative case as compared to the post-operative scenario. The tissue strain at the site of obstruction in the velopharyngeal airway was lowered by approximately 84% following surgery. Inclusion of tissue elasticity resulted in better agreement with the actual surgical outcome compared to a rigid wall assumption, thereby emphasizing the importance of pharyngeal compliance for guiding treatment in pediatric OSA patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Percival, Susan M.; Salaris, Maurizio
2011-04-01
The presence of an extended blue horizontal branch (HB) in a stellar population is known to affect the age inferred from spectral fitting to stellar population synthesis models. This is due to the hot blue component which increases the strength of the Balmer lines and can make an old population look spuriously young. However, most population synthesis models still rely on theoretical isochrones, which do not include realistic modelling of extended HBs. In this work, we create detailed models for a range of old simple stellar populations (SSPs), with metallicities ranging from [Fe/H]=-1.3 to solar, to create a variety of realistic HB morphologies, from extended red clumps, to extreme blue HBs. We achieve this by utilizing stellar tracks from the BaSTI data base and implementing a different mass-loss prescription for each SSP created. This includes setting an average mass and a Gaussian spread in masses of individual stars coming on to the zero-age HB for each model, and hence resulting in different HB morphologies. We find that, for each metallicity, there is some HB morphology which maximizes Hβ, making an underlying 14-Gyr population look ˜5-6 Gyr old for the low- and intermediate-metallicity cases, and as young as 2 Gyr in the case of the solar metallicity SSP. We explore whether there are any spectral indices capable of breaking the degeneracy between an old SSP with extended blue HB and a truly young or intermediate-age SSP, and find that the Ca II index of Rose and the strength of the Mg II doublet at 2800 Å are promising candidates, in combination with Hβ and other metallicity indicators, such as Mgb and Fe5406. We also run Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the level of statistical fluctuations in the spectra of typical stellar clusters. We find that fluctuations in spectral indices are significant even for average to large globular clusters and that various spectral indices are affected in different ways, which has implications for full
A simple hydrodynamic model of a laminar free-surface jet in horizontal or vertical flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haustein, Herman D.; Harnik, Ron S.; Rohlfs, Wilko
2017-08-01
A useable model for laminar free-surface jet evolution during flight, for both horizontal and vertical jets, is developed through joint analytical, experimental, and simulation methods. The jet's impingement centerline velocity, recently shown to dictate stagnation zone heat transfer, encompasses the entire flow history: from pipe-flow velocity profile development to profile relaxation and jet contraction during flight. While pipe-flow is well-known, an alternative analytic solution is presented for the centerline velocity's viscous-driven decay. Jet-contraction is subject to influences of surface tension (We), pipe-flow profile development, in-flight viscous dissipation (Re), and gravity (Nj = Re/Fr). The effects of surface tension and emergence momentum flux (jet thrust) are incorporated analytically through a global momentum balance. Though emergence momentum is related to pipe flow development, and empirically linked to nominal pipe flow-length, it can be modified to incorporate low-Re downstream dissipation as well. Jet contraction's gravity dependence is extended beyond existing uniform-velocity theory to cases of partially and fully developed profiles. The final jet-evolution model relies on three empirical parameters and compares well to present and previous experiments and simulations. Hence, micro-jet flight experiments were conducted to fill-in gaps in the literature: jet contraction under mild gravity-effects, and intermediate Reynolds and Weber numbers (Nj = 5-8, Re = 350-520, We = 2.8-6.2). Furthermore, two-phase direct numerical simulations provided insight beyond the experimental range: Re = 200-1800, short pipes (Z = L/d . Re ≥ 0.01), variable nozzle wettability, and cases of no surface tension and/or gravity.
Eisma, Roos; Gueorguieva, Mariana; Immel, Erwin; Toomey, Rachel; McLeod, Graeme; Soames, Roger; Melzer, Andreas
2013-09-01
Respiration-related movement of organs is a complication in a range of diagnostic and interventional procedures. The development and validation of techniques to compensate for such movement requires appropriate models. Human cadavers embalmed with the Thiel method remain flexible and could provide a suitable model. In this study liver displacement during ventilation was assessed in eight Thiel embalmed cadavers, all of which showed thoracic and abdominal motion. Four cadavers displayed realistic lung behaviour, one showed some signs of pneumothorax after prolonged ventilation, one had limited filling of the lungs, and two displayed significant leakage of air into the thorax. A coronal slice containing the largest section through the liver was imaged with a real-time Fast Gradient Echo (FGR) MRI sequence: Craniocaudal displacement of the liver was then determined from a time-series of slices. The maximum liver displacement observed in the cadavers ranged from 7 to 35 mm. The ventilation applied was comparable to tidal breathing at rest and the results found for liver displacement are similar to values in the literature for respiratory motion of the liver under similar conditions. This indicates that Thiel embalmed cadavers have potential as a model for research and training in minimally invasive procedures.
Westendorff, Stephanie; Kuang, Shenbing; Taghizadeh, Bahareh; Donchin, Opher
2015-01-01
Different error signals can induce sensorimotor adaptation during visually guided reaching, possibly evoking different neural adaptation mechanisms. Here we investigate reach adaptation induced by visual target errors without perturbing the actual or sensed hand position. We analyzed the spatial generalization of adaptation to target error to compare it with other known generalization patterns and simulated our results with a neural network model trained to minimize target error independent of prediction errors. Subjects reached to different peripheral visual targets and had to adapt to a sudden fixed-amplitude displacement (“jump”) consistently occurring for only one of the reach targets. Subjects simultaneously had to perform contralateral unperturbed saccades, which rendered the reach target jump unnoticeable. As a result, subjects adapted by gradually decreasing reach errors and showed negative aftereffects for the perturbed reach target. Reach errors generalized to unperturbed targets according to a translational rather than rotational generalization pattern, but locally, not globally. More importantly, reach errors generalized asymmetrically with a skewed generalization function in the direction of the target jump. Our neural network model reproduced the skewed generalization after adaptation to target jump without having been explicitly trained to produce a specific generalization pattern. Our combined psychophysical and simulation results suggest that target jump adaptation in reaching can be explained by gradual updating of spatial motor goal representations in sensorimotor association networks, independent of learning induced by a prediction-error about the hand position. The simulations make testable predictions about the underlying changes in the tuning of sensorimotor neurons during target jump adaptation. PMID:25609106
Molenkamp, C.R.; Grossman, A.
1999-12-20
A network of small balloon-borne transponders which gather very high resolution wind and temperature data for use by modern numerical weather predication models has been proposed to improve the reliability of long-range weather forecasts. The global distribution of an array of such transponders is simulated using LLNL's atmospheric parcel transport model (GRANTOUR) with winds supplied by two different general circulation models. An initial study used winds from CCM3 with a horizontal resolution of about 3 degrees in latitude and longitude, and a second study used winds from NOGAPS with a 0.75 degree horizontal resolution. Results from both simulations show that reasonable global coverage can be attained by releasing balloons from an appropriate set of launch sites.
Haapala, Stephenie A; Enderle, John D
2003-01-01
This paper describes the next phase of research on a parametric model of the head-neck system for dynamic simulation of horizontal head rotation. A skull has been imported into Pro/Engineer software and has been assigned mass properties such as density, surface area and moments of inertia. The origin of a universal coordinate system has been located at the center of gravity of the T1 vertebrae. Identification of this origin allows insertion and attachment points of the sternocleidomastoid (SCOM) and splenius capitis to be located. An assembly has been created, marking the location of both muscle sets. This paper will also explore the obstacles encountered when working with an imported feature in Pro/E and attempts to resolve some of these issues. The goal of this work involves the creation of a 3D homeomorphic saccadic eye and head movement system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vest, Kimberly R.; Elmore, Andrew J.; Kaste, James M.; Okin, Gregory S.; Li, Junran
2013-06-01
erosion is a significant environmental problem that removes soil resources from sensitive ecosystems and contributes to air pollution. In regions of shallow groundwater, friable (puffy) soils are maintained through capillary action, surface evaporation of solute-rich soil moisture, and protection from mobilization by groundwater-dependent grasses and shrubs. When a reduction in vegetation cover occurs through any disturbance process, there is potential for aeolian transport and dust emission. We find that as mean gap size between vegetation elements scaled by vegetation height increases, total horizontal aeolian sediment flux increases and explains 58% of the variation in total horizontal aeolian sediment flux. We also test a probabilistic model of wind erosion based on gap size between vegetation elements scaled by vegetation height (the Okin model), which predicts measured total horizontal aeolian sediment flux more closely than another commonly used model based on the average plant area observed in profile (Raupach model). The threshold shear velocity of bare soil appears to increase as gap size between vegetation elements scaled by vegetation height increases, reflecting either surface armoring or reduced interaction between the groundwater capillary zone and surface sediments. This work advances understanding of the importance of measuring gap size between vegetation elements scaled by vegetation height for empirically estimating Q and for structuring process-based models of desert wind erosion in groundwater-dependent vegetation.
Clotet, Xavier; Ortín, Jordi; Santucci, Stéphane
2016-01-01
We report the results of an experimental investigation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of stable imbibition fronts in a disordered medium, in the regime of capillary disorder, for a wide range of experimental conditions. We have used silicone oils of various viscosities μ and nearly identical oil-air surface tension and forced them to slowly invade a model open fracture at different constant flow rates v. In this first part of the study we have focused on the local dynamics at a scale below the size of the quenched disorder. Changing μ and v independently, we have found that the dynamics is not simply controlled by the capillary number Ca∼μv. Specifically, we have found that the wide statistical distributions of local front velocities, and their large spatial correlations along the front, are indeed controlled by the capillary number Ca. However, local velocities exhibit also very large temporal correlations, and these correlations depend more strongly on the mean imposed velocity v than on the viscosity μ of the invading fluid. Correlations between local velocities lead to a burstlike dynamics. Avalanches, defined as clusters of large local velocities, follow power-law distributions-both in size and duration-with exponential cutoffs that diverge as Ca→0, the pinning-depinning transition of stable imbibition displacements. Large data sets have led to reliable statistics, from which we have derived accurate values of critical exponents of the relevant power-law distributions. We have investigated also the dependence of their cutoffs on μ and v and related them to the autocorrelations of local velocities in space and time.
Displacement cascades in Fesbnd Nisbnd Mnsbnd Cu alloys: RVP model alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terentyev, D.; Zinovev, A.; Bonny, G.
2016-07-01
Primary damage due to displacement cascades (10-100 keV) has been assessed in Fesbnd 1%Mnsbnd 1%Ni-0.5%Cu and its binary alloys by molecular dynamics (MD), using a recent interatomic potential, specially developed to address features of the Fesbnd Mnsbnd Nisbnd Cu system in the dilute limit. The latter system represents the model matrix for reactor pressure vessel steels. The applied potential reproduces major interaction features of the solutes with point defects in the binary, ternary and quaternary dilute alloys. As compared to pure Fe, the addition of one type of a solute or all solutes together does not change the major characteristics of primary damage. However, the chemical structure of the self-interstitial defects is strongly sensitive to the presence and distribution of Mn and Cu in the matrix. 20 keV cascades were also studied in the Fesbnd Nisbnd Mnsbnd Cu matrix containing <100> dislocation loops (with density of 1024 m-3 and size 2 nm). Two solute distributions were investigated, namely: a random one and one obtained by Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations from our previous work. The presence of the loops did not affect the defect production efficiency but slightly reduced the fraction of isolated self-interstitials and vacancies. The cascade event led to the transformation of the loops into ½<111> glissile configurations with a success rate of 10% in the matrix with random solute distribution, while all the pre-created loops remain stable if the alloy's distribution was applied using the Monte-Carlo method. This suggests that solute segregation to loops "stabilizes" the pre-existing loops against transformation or migration induced by collision cascades.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clotet, Xavier; Ortín, Jordi; Santucci, Stéphane
2016-01-01
We report the results of an experimental investigation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of stable imbibition fronts in a disordered medium, in the regime of capillary disorder, for a wide range of experimental conditions. We have used silicone oils of various viscosities μ and nearly identical oil-air surface tension and forced them to slowly invade a model open fracture at different constant flow rates v . In this first part of the study we have focused on the local dynamics at a scale below the size of the quenched disorder. Changing μ and v independently, we have found that the dynamics is not simply controlled by the capillary number Ca˜μ v . Specifically, we have found that the wide statistical distributions of local front velocities, and their large spatial correlations along the front, are indeed controlled by the capillary number Ca. However, local velocities exhibit also very large temporal correlations, and these correlations depend more strongly on the mean imposed velocity v than on the viscosity μ of the invading fluid. Correlations between local velocities lead to a burstlike dynamics. Avalanches, defined as clusters of large local velocities, follow power-law distributions—both in size and duration—with exponential cutoffs that diverge as Ca→0 , the pinning-depinning transition of stable imbibition displacements. Large data sets have led to reliable statistics, from which we have derived accurate values of critical exponents of the relevant power-law distributions. We have investigated also the dependence of their cutoffs on μ and v and related them to the autocorrelations of local velocities in space and time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohtake, Hideaki; Gari da Silva Fonseca, Joao, Jr.; Takashima, Takumi; Oozeki, Takashi; Yamada, Yoshinori
2014-05-01
Many photovoltaic (PV) systems have been installed in Japan after the introduction of the Feed-in-Tariff. For an energy management of electric power systems included many PV systems, the forecast of the PV power production are useful technology. Recently numerical weather predictions have been applied to forecast the PV power production while the forecasted values invariably have forecast errors for each modeling system. So, we must use the forecast data considering its error. In this study, we attempted to estimate confidence intervals for hourly forecasts of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values obtained from a mesoscale model (MSM) de-veloped by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In the recent study, we found that the forecasted values of the GHI of the MSM have two systematical forecast errors; the first is that forecast values of the GHI are depended on the clearness indices, which are defined as the GHI values divided by the extraterrestrial solar irradiance. The second is that forecast errors have the seasonal variations; the overestimation of the GHI forecasts is found in winter while the underestimation of those is found in summer. The information of the errors of the hourly GHI forecasts, that is, confidence intervals of the forecasts, is of great significance for planning the energy management included a lot of PV systems by an electric company. On the PV systems, confidence intervals of the GHI forecasts are required for a pinpoint area or for a relatively large area control-ling the power system. For the relatively large area, a spatial-smoothing method of the GHI values is performed for both the observations and forecasts. The spatial-smoothing method caused the decline of confidence intervals of the hourly GHI forecasts on an extreme event of the GHI forecast (a case of large forecast error) over the relatively large area of the Tokyo electric company (approximately 68 % than for a pinpoint forecast). For more credible estimation of the confidence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Peng; Bai, Xian-Xu; Qian, Li-Jun; Choi, Seung-Bok
2017-06-01
This paper presents a new hysteresis model based on the force-displacement characteristics of magnetorheological (MR) fluid actuators (or devices) subjected to squeeze mode operation. The idea of the proposed model is originated from experimental observation of the field-dependent hysteretic behavior of MR fluids, which shows that from a view of rate-independence of hysteresis, a gap width-dependent hysteresis is occurred in the force-displacement relationship instead of the typical relationship of the force-velocity. To effectively and accurately portray the hysteresis behavior, the gap width-dependent hysteresis elements, the nonlinear viscous effect and the inertial effect are considered for the formulation of the hysteresis model. Then, a model-based feedforward force tracking control scheme is established through an observer which can estimate the virtual displacement. The effectiveness of the proposed hysteresis model is validated through the identification and prediction of the damping force of MR fluids in the squeeze mode. In addition, it is shown that superior force tracking performance of the feedforward control associated with the proposed hysteresis mode is evaluated by adopting several tracking trajectories.
Pore-scale simulation of liquid CO2 displacement of water using a two-phase lattice Boltzmann model
Liu, Haihu; Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Kang, Oinjun; Oostrom, Martinus
2014-11-01
A lattice Boltzmann color-fluid model, which was recently proposed by Liu et al. [H. Liu, A.J. Valocchi, and Q. Kang. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flow simulations. Phys. Rev. E, 85:046309, 2012.] based on a concept of continuum surface force, is improved to simulate immiscible two-phase flows in porous media. The new improvements allow the model to account for different kinematic viscosities of both fluids and to model fluid-solid interactions. The capability and accuracy of this model is first validated by two benchmark tests: a layered two-phase flow with a viscosity ratio, and a dynamic capillary intrusion. This model is then used to simulate liquid CO2 (LCO2) displacing water in a dual-permeability pore network. The extent and behavior of LCO2 preferential flow (i.e., fingering) is found to depend on the capillary number (Ca), and three different displacement patterns observed in previous micromodel experiments are reproduced. The predicted variation of LCO2 saturation with Ca, as well as variation of specific interfacial length with LCO2 saturation, are both in good agreement with the experimental observations. To understand the effect of heterogeneity on pore-scale displacement, we also simulate LCO2 displacing water in a randomly heterogeneous pore network, which has the same size and porosity as the dual-permeability pore network. In comparison to the dual-permeability case, the transition from capillary fingering to viscous fingering occurs at a higher Ca, and LCO2 saturation is higher at low Ca but lower at high Ca. In either pore network, the LCO2-water specific interfacial length is found to obey a power-law dependence on LCO2 saturation.
Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint
Snyder, Glenn J.
1988-01-01
A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.
Race to Displace: A Game to Model the Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Communities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hopwood, Jennifer L.; Flowers, Susan K.; Seidler, Katie J.; Hopwood, Erica L.
2013-01-01
Invasive species are a substantial threat to biodiversity. Educating students about invasive species introduces fundamental concepts in biology, ecology, and environmental science. In the Race to Displace game, students assume the characteristics of select native or introduced plants and experience first hand the influences of species interactions…
Race to Displace: A Game to Model the Effects of Invasive Species on Plant Communities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hopwood, Jennifer L.; Flowers, Susan K.; Seidler, Katie J.; Hopwood, Erica L.
2013-01-01
Invasive species are a substantial threat to biodiversity. Educating students about invasive species introduces fundamental concepts in biology, ecology, and environmental science. In the Race to Displace game, students assume the characteristics of select native or introduced plants and experience first hand the influences of species interactions…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auracher, Hein; Wohlfeil, Arnold; Ziegler, Felix
2008-03-01
For one horizontal tube in an absorber the Nusselt solution for film thickness and velocity distribution was applied, assuming steady state in heat transfer and a semi-infinite body’s concentration profile with unsteady state mass transfer. The model was applied to the absorption of steam into aqueous lithium bromide in absorption chillers. The results are compared to published experimental values and show fair agreement.
Haerendel, G.; Eccles, J.V.; Cakir, S. )
1992-02-01
Companion papers in this series present (1) the role of equatorial E region postsunset ionosphere, (2) the origin of horizontal plasma shear flow in the postsunset equatorial ionosphere (this paper), (3) the Colored Bubbles experiments results, and (4) computer simulations of artificial initiation of plasma density depletions (bubbles) in the equatorial ionosphere. Within this paper, equations describing the time evolution of the equatorial ionosphere are developed using flux tube integrated and flux tube weighted quantities which model the chemistry, dynamics, and electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere. The resulting two-dimensional set of equations can be used to investigate equatorial ionosphere. The resulting two-dimensional set of equations can be used to investigate equatorial electric fields neglecting small-scale phenomena ({lambda} < 1 km). An immediate result derived from the integrated current equations is an equation describing the physics of the shear in the horizontal flow of the equatorial plasma during the evening hours. The profile of the horizontal flow has three important contributing terms relating to the neutral wind dynamo, Hall conduction, and the equatorial electrojet current divergence. Using a one-dimensional model of the velocity shear equation and the integrated ionosphere transport equations, a time history of the development of the shear feature during postsunset hours is presented. The one-dimensional model results are compared to the velocity shear measurements from the Colored Bubbles experiments.
Assimilation of scalar versus horizontal gradient information from the VAS into a mesoscale model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diak, George
1987-01-01
Comparisons are made between analyses and forecasts which incorporate VAS geopotential data as either scalar or horizontal gradient information for a case study on the AVE/VAS day of Mar. 6, 1982. On this day, incorporating the VAS information in analysis as a variational constraint on horizontal geopotential gradients significantly mitigated the effects of large data biases which made VAS assimilation by standard scalar methods very difficult. A subsequent forecast made from the gradient assimilation was superior to one made from the standard analysis and of comparable quality in geopotentials to a control forecast from synoptic data. Most impact was noted in the forecasts of vertical motion and precipitation in the gradient vs this control simulation.
Assimilation of scalar versus horizontal gradient information from the VAS into a mesoscale model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diak, George
1987-01-01
Comparisons are made between analyses and forecasts which incorporate VAS geopotential data as either scalar or horizontal gradient information for a case study on the AVE/VAS day of Mar. 6, 1982. On this day, incorporating the VAS information in analysis as a variational constraint on horizontal geopotential gradients significantly mitigated the effects of large data biases which made VAS assimilation by standard scalar methods very difficult. A subsequent forecast made from the gradient assimilation was superior to one made from the standard analysis and of comparable quality in geopotentials to a control forecast from synoptic data. Most impact was noted in the forecasts of vertical motion and precipitation in the gradient vs this control simulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lane, J. E.; Metzger, P. T.
2010-01-01
A simple trajectory model has been developed and is presented. The particle trajectory path is estimated by computing the vertical position as a function of the horizontal position using a constant horizontal velocity and a vertical acceleration approximated as a power law. The vertical particle position is then found by solving the differential equation of motion using a double integral of vertical acceleration divided by the square of the horizontal velocity, integrated over the horizontal position. The input parameters are: x(sub 0) and y(sub 0), the initial particle starting point; the derivative of the trajectory at x(sub 0) and y(sub 0), s(sub 0) = s(x(sub 0))= dx(y)/dy conditional expectation y = y((sub 0); and b where bx(sub 0)/y(sub 0) is the final trajectory angle before gravity pulls the particle down. The final parameter v(sub 0) is an approximation to a constant horizontal velocity. This model is time independent, providing vertical position x as a function of horizontal distance y: x(y) = (x(sub 0) + s(sub 0) (y-y(sub 0))) + bx(sub 0) -(s(sub 0)y(sub 0) ((y - y(sub 0)/y(sub 0) - ln((y/y(sub 0)))-((g(y-y(sub 0)(exp 2))/ 2((v(sub 0)(exp 2). The first term on the right in the above equation is due to simple ballistics and a spherically expanding gas so that the trajectory is a straight line intersecting (0,0), which is the point at the center of the gas impingement on the surface. The second term on the right is due to vertical acceleration, which may be positive or negative. The last term on the right is the gravity term, which for a particle with velocities less than escape velocity will eventually bring the particle back to the ground. The parameters b, s(sub 0), and in some cases v(sub 0), are taken from an interpolation of similar parameters determined from a CFD simulation matrix, coupled with complete particle trajectory simulations.
Sa, Young Jo; Lee, Jongho; Jeong, Jin Yong; Choi, Moonhee; Park, Soo Seog; Sim, Sung Bo; Jo, Keon Hyon
2016-01-19
Bar displacement is one of the most common and serious complications after the Nuss procedure. However, measurements of and factors affecting bar displacement have not been reported. The objectives of this study were to develop a decision model to guide surgeons considering repeat treatment and to estimate optimal cut-off values to determine whether reoperation to correct bar displacement is warranted. From July 2011 to August 2013, ninety bars were inserted in 61 patients who underwent Nuss procedures for pectus excavatum. Group A did not need surgical intervention and Group B required reoperation for bar displacement. Bar position was measured as the distance from the posterior superior end of the sternal body to the upper border of the metal bar on lateral chest radiographs. The bar displacement index (BDI) was calculated using D0 - Dx / D0 x 100 (D0: bar position the day after surgery; Dx: minimal or maximal distance of bar position on the following postoperative days). The optimal cut-off values of BDI warranting reoperation were assessed on the basis of ROC curve analysis. Of the 61 patients, 32 had single bars inserted whereas 29 had parallel bars inserted. There was a significant difference in age (14.0 ± 7.5 vs. 23.3 ± 12.0, p = 0.0062), preoperative Haller index (HI) (4.0 ± 1.1 vs. 5.0 ± 1.0, p = 0.033), and postoperative HI (2.7 ± 0.4 vs. 3.2 ± 0.5 p = 0.006) between the two groups. The optimal cut-off value of BDI was 8.7. We developed a BDI model for surgeons considering performing reoperation after Nuss procedure. The optimal cut-off value of BDI was 8.7. This model may help surgeons to decide objectively whether corrective surgery should be performed. The main factors affecting the relationship between bar displacement and reoperation were age and preoperative HI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreaux, G.; Lemoine, F. G.; Argus, D. F.; Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Willis, P.; Soudarin, L.; Gravelle, M.; Ferrage, P.
2016-10-01
In the context of the 2014 realization of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, the International DORIS (Doppler Orbitography Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) Service (IDS) has delivered to the IERS a set of 1140 weekly SINEX files including station coordinates and Earth orientation parameters, covering the time period from 1993.0 to 2015.0. From this set of weekly SINEX files, the IDS combination centre estimated a cumulative DORIS position and velocity solution to obtain mean horizontal and vertical motion of 160 stations at 71 DORIS sites. The main objective of this study is to validate the velocities of the DORIS sites by comparison with external models or time-series. Horizontal velocities are compared with two recent global plate models (GEODVEL 2010 and NNR-MORVEL56). Prior to the comparisons, DORIS horizontal velocities were corrected for Global Isostatic Adjustment from the ICE-6G (VM5a) model. For more than half of the sites, the DORIS horizontal velocities differ from the global plate models by less than 2-3 mm yr-1. For five of the sites (Arequipa, Dionysos/Gavdos, Manila and Santiago) with horizontal velocity differences with respect to these models larger than 10 mm yr-1, comparisons with GNSS estimates show the veracity of the DORIS motions. Vertical motions from the DORIS cumulative solution are compared with the vertical velocities derived from the latest GPS cumulative solution over the time span 1995.0-2014.0 from the University of La Rochelle solution at 31 co-located DORIS-GPS sites. These two sets of vertical velocities show a correlation coefficient of 0.83. Vertical differences are larger than 2 mm yr-1 at 23 percent of the sites. At Thule, the disagreement is explained by fine-tuned DORIS discontinuities in line with the mass variations of outlet glaciers. Furthermore, the time evolution of the vertical time-series from the DORIS station in Thule show similar trends to the GRACE equivalent water height.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bahrami, Parviz A.
1996-01-01
Theoretical analysis and numerical computations are performed to set forth a new model of film condensation on a horizontal cylinder. The model is more general than the well-known Nusselt model of film condensation and is designed to encompass all essential features of the Nusselt model. It is shown that a single parameter, constructed explicitly and without specification of the cylinder wall temperature, determines the degree of departure from the Nusselt model, which assumes a known and uniform wall temperature. It is also known that the Nusselt model is reached for very small, as well as very large, values of this parameter. In both limiting cases the cylinder wall temperature assumes a uniform distribution and the Nusselt model is approached. The maximum deviations between the two models is rather small for cases which are representative of cylinder dimensions, materials and conditions encountered in practice.
1992-09-01
issues to the forefront. One event took place between 1976 and 1978 at Love Canal . Hazardous chemicals were disposed of in accordance with laws of...come" (27:16). These events and others raised questions as to the adequacy of existing environmental legislation. Before the events at Love Canal and...34The Theory of the Displaced Ideal," Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems. 123. 153-206 (1976). 40. Zeusse, Eric. " Love Canal : The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jeen-Hwa
2013-12-01
The correlation of the scaled energy, ê = E s/ M 0, versus earthquake magnitude, M s, is studied based on two models: (1) Model 1 based on the use of the time function of the average displacements, with a ω -2 source spectrum, across a fault plane; and (2) Model 2 based on the use of the time function of the average displacements, with a ω -3 source spectrum, across a fault plane. For the second model, there are two cases: (a) As τ ≒ T, where τ is the rise time and T the rupture time, lg( ê) ~ - M s; and (b) As τ ≪ T, lg( ê) ~ -(1/2) M s. The second model leads to a negative value of ê. This means that Model 2 cannot work for studying the present problem. The results obtained from Model 1 suggest that the source model is a factor, yet not a unique one, in controlling the correlation of ê versus M s.
Modelling the effect of electrode displacement on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS).
Ramaraju, Sriharsha; Roula, Mohammed Ali; McCarthy, Peter
2017-09-19
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers a low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas with the purpose of modulating underlying brain activity. Recent studies have reported inconsistencies in tDCS outcomes. The underlying assumption of many tDCS studies has been that replication of electrode montage equates to replicating stimulation conditions. It is possible however that anatomical difference between subjects, as well as inherent inaccuracies in montage placement, could affect current flow to targeted areas. The hypothesis that stimulation of a defined brain region will be stable under small displacements was tested. Approach: Initially, we compared the total simulated current flowing through ten specific brain areas for four commonly used tDCS montages: F3-Fp2, C3-Fp2, Fp1-F4, and P3-P4 using the software tool COMETS. The effect of a slight (~1cm in each of four directions) anode displacement on the simulated regional current density for each of the four tDCS montages was then determined. Current flow was calculated and compared through 10 segmented brain areas to determine the effect of montage type and displacement. The regional currents, as well as the localised current densities, were compared with the original electrode location, for each of these new positions. Results: Recommendations for montages that maximise stimulation current for the ten brain regions are considered. We noted that the extent to which stimulation is affected by electrode displacement varies depending on both area and montage type. The F3-Fp2 montage was found to be the least stable with up to 38% change in average current density in the left frontal lobe while the Fp1-F4 montage was found to the most stable exhibiting only 1% change when electrodes were displaced. Significance: These results indicate that even relatively small changes in stimulation electrode placement appear to result in surprisingly large
Displacement-based back-analysis of the model parameters of the Nuozhadu high earth-rockfill dam.
Wu, Yongkang; Yuan, Huina; Zhang, Bingyin; Zhang, Zongliang; Yu, Yuzhen
2014-01-01
The parameters of the constitutive model, the creep model, and the wetting model of materials of the Nuozhadu high earth-rockfill dam were back-analyzed together based on field monitoring displacement data by employing an intelligent back-analysis method. In this method, an artificial neural network is used as a substitute for time-consuming finite element analysis, and an evolutionary algorithm is applied for both network training and parameter optimization. To avoid simultaneous back-analysis of many parameters, the model parameters of the three main dam materials are decoupled and back-analyzed separately in a particular order. Displacement back-analyses were performed at different stages of the construction period, with and without considering the creep and wetting deformations. Good agreement between the numerical results and the monitoring data was obtained for most observation points, which implies that the back-analysis method and decoupling method are effective for solving complex problems with multiple models and parameters. The comparison of calculation results based on different sets of back-analyzed model parameters indicates the necessity of taking the effects of creep and wetting into consideration in the numerical analyses of high earth-rockfill dams. With the resulting model parameters, the stress and deformation distributions at completion are predicted and analyzed.
Displacement-Based Back-Analysis of the Model Parameters of the Nuozhadu High Earth-Rockfill Dam
Zhang, Zongliang; Yu, Yuzhen
2014-01-01
The parameters of the constitutive model, the creep model, and the wetting model of materials of the Nuozhadu high earth-rockfill dam were back-analyzed together based on field monitoring displacement data by employing an intelligent back-analysis method. In this method, an artificial neural network is used as a substitute for time-consuming finite element analysis, and an evolutionary algorithm is applied for both network training and parameter optimization. To avoid simultaneous back-analysis of many parameters, the model parameters of the three main dam materials are decoupled and back-analyzed separately in a particular order. Displacement back-analyses were performed at different stages of the construction period, with and without considering the creep and wetting deformations. Good agreement between the numerical results and the monitoring data was obtained for most observation points, which implies that the back-analysis method and decoupling method are effective for solving complex problems with multiple models and parameters. The comparison of calculation results based on different sets of back-analyzed model parameters indicates the necessity of taking the effects of creep and wetting into consideration in the numerical analyses of high earth-rockfill dams. With the resulting model parameters, the stress and deformation distributions at completion are predicted and analyzed. PMID:25121115
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shuai; Yuan, Le; Weng, Xiaolong; Deng, Longjiang
2014-11-01
The scattering and absorption cross sections of horizontally oriented metallic flake particles are estimated by extended geometric optics that includes diffraction and edge effects. Emissivity of the coating containing those particles is calculated using Kubelka-Munk theory. The dependence of emissivity of the coating on the radius, thickness, content of metallic flake particles and coating thickness is discussed. Finally, theoretical results are compared with the experimental measurements with Al/acrylic resin coating system and the results show that simulation values are in good agreement with experimental ones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Fen; Wang, Mi; Li, Deren
2008-12-01
The study on epipolarity model of satellite stereo-imagery has been the research focus in application field of remote sensing for a long time. So far, there are basically two technical routines for exploring the epipolarity model of satellite images: one totally disregards any geometric sensor model when establishing the epipolar relations but figures out the epipolar curves in image-space by image correspondence and mathematical modeling, e.g. the Polynomial Fitting Model (PFM); on the contrary, the other attempts to exploit the epipolar relations based on specific sensor models, such as the Projection Trajectory based Epipolarity Model (PTEM), the Parallel Projection Transformation based Epipolarity Model (PPEM), etc. Although such models have been studied and used to generate epipolar images of satellite stereo pairs, some technical limitations still exist when taking the universality, applicability and implemental simplicity into account. Accordingly, this paper proposes a novel epipolarity model for satellite stereo-imagery based on the Virtual Horizontal Plane (VHP) of object-space. Firstly, the principle of the VHP-based epipolarity model is described; and then, the workflow of VHP-based epipolar resampling is outlined in detail; finally, to verify the feasibility and correctness of new theory and method, the approximate epipolar images of SPOT5-HRG stereo-imagery are generated. It is demonstrated that the vertical parallaxes of conjugate image points have all reached the sub-pixel level after epipolar resampling; besides, by rearranging the approximate epipolar lines on the VHP defined in our method, the stereoscopic model that is horizontal to the object-space and with consistent resolution can be available.
Research on high-precision laser displacement sensor-based error compensation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhai, Yusheng; Su, Zhan; Qiao, Lin; Tang, Yiming; Wang, Xinjie; Su, Yuling; Song, Zhijun
2015-08-01
The triangulation measurement is a kind of active vision measurement. The laser triangulation displacement is widely used with advantages of non-contact, high precision, high sensitivity. The measuring error will increase with the nonlinear and noise disturbance when sensors work in large distance. The paper introduces the principle of laser triangulation measurement and analyzes the measuring error and establishes the compensation error. Spot centroid is extracted with digital image processing technology to increase noise-signal ratio. Results of simulation and experiment show the method can meet requirement of large distance and high precision.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masoumi, Salim; McClusky, Simon; Koulali, Achraf; Tregoning, Paul
2017-04-01
Improper modeling of horizontal tropospheric gradients in GPS analysis induces errors in estimated parameters, with the largest impact on heights and tropospheric zenith delays. The conventional two-axis tilted plane model of horizontal gradients fails to provide an accurate representation of tropospheric gradients under weather conditions with asymmetric horizontal changes of refractivity. A new parametrization of tropospheric gradients whereby an arbitrary number of gradients are estimated as discrete directional wedges is shown via simulations to significantly improve the accuracy of recovered tropospheric zenith delays in asymmetric gradient scenarios. In a case study of an extreme rain event that occurred in September 2002 in southern France, the new directional parametrization is able to isolate the strong gradients in particular azimuths around the GPS stations consistent with the "V" shape spatial pattern of the observed precipitation. In another study of a network of GPS stations in the Sierra Nevada region where highly asymmetric tropospheric gradients are known to exist, the new directional model significantly improves the repeatabilities of the stations in asymmetric gradient situations while causing slightly degraded repeatabilities for the stations in normal symmetric gradient conditions. The average improvement over the entire network is ˜31%, while the improvement for one of the worst affected sites P631 is ˜49% (from 8.5 mm to 4.3 mm) in terms of weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) error and ˜82% (from -1.1 to -0.2) in terms of skewness. At the same station, the use of the directional model changes the estimates of zenith wet delay by 15 mm (˜25%).
Modeling and experimental study of nucleate boiling on a vertical array of horizontal plain tubes
Ribatski, Gherhardt; Saiz Jabardo, Jose M.
2008-09-15
An investigation of nucleate boiling on a vertical array of horizontal plain tubes is presented in this paper. Experiments were performed with refrigerant R123 at reduced pressures varying from 0.022 to 0.64, tube pitch to diameter ratios of 1.32, 1.53 and 2.00, and heat fluxes from 0.5 to 40 kW/m{sup 2}. Brass tubes with external diameters of 19.05 mm and average roughness of 0.12 {mu}m were used in the experiments. The effect of the tube spacing on the local heat transfer coefficient along the tube array was negligible within the present range of experimental conditions. For partial nucleate boiling, characterized by low heat fluxes, and low reduced pressures, the tube positioning shows a remarkable effect on the heat transfer coefficient. Based on these data, a general correlation for the prediction of the nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient on a vertical array of horizontal tubes under flooded conditions was proposed. According to this correlation, the ratio between the heat transfer coefficients of a given tube and the lowest tube in the array depends only on the tube row number, the reduced pressure and the heat flux. By using the proposed correlation, most of the experimental heat transfer coefficients obtained in the present study were predicted within {+-}15%. The new correlation compares reasonably well with independent data from the literature. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasahara, Katsuo
2016-04-01
Location of monitoring of the deformation and the groundwater level in a slope is important for time-prediction of an onset of shallow landslides based on the monitoring. The analysis of the monitored data of the surface displacement and the groundwater level at different locations in sandy model slope under artificial rainfall was conducted in this study. The monitored data showed that the surface displacement increased with the increase of the groundwater level significantly. Then the analysis of the monitored data revealed that the relation between the surface displacement and the groundwater level can be modified as hyperbolic curve. The surface displacement grew larger and maximum groundwater level was smaller at farther location from the toe of the slope. Time-prediction of an onset of a landslide based on the monitored data at different location on the slope was proposed as following procedures. (1) To make a regression equation for the relation between the surface displacement and the groundwater level based on the monitored data at any time before the failure, (2) To make a regression equation for the relation between the time and the groundwater level based on the same data with (1), and (3) To incorporate the equation for the relation between the time and the groundwater level into that between the surface displacement and the groundwater level to derive the time - the surface displacement relation. (4) To derive the time - the inverse of the surface displacement velocity from the equation for the time - the surface displacement relation. The equation for the time - the surface displacement and the equation for the time - the inverse of the surface displacement velocity could simulate the actual phenomena of the slope well based on the monitored data at any location on the model slope.
Hertel; Lehman
1998-01-07
Character displacement has been analysed in the past but not with an approach that considers nearest-neighbor distances between members of a guild. Vultures provide a model system in which to test a new analytical approach presented here to assess character displacement. Vultures are represented by two geographically isolated and taxonomically distinct groups: the Old World accipitrids and New World vultures. These two groups provide an excellent case of convergent evolution in which functional similarities can be compared among obligate carrion-feeding birds. The vulture guild was analysed from several geographic regions where species occur in a high diversity: East Africa, South Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Amazonia, and the pleistocene deposits from Rancho La Brea, California. A three-dimensional morphospace was constructed derived from features of the skull, beak, and mandible to assess feeding capabilities. Species packing and their distribution within the morphospace were compared using a nearest-neighbor approach through Monte Carlo simulations. Vultures seem to exhibit a similar array of ecomorphological types wherever they occur in a high diversity, even though there are phylogenetic differences among some regions. Phylogenetic effects appear to have little influence on the distribution of functional types in each region and evidence for character displacement was found only at Rancho La Brea where both Old and New World vultures were present.Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited Copyright 1998 Academic Press Limited
The effect of horizontal resolution on simulation quality in the Community Atmospheric Model, CAM5.1
Wehner, Michael F.; Reed, Kevin A.; Li, Fuyu; Prabhat, -; Bacmeister, Julio; Chen, Cheng -Ta; Paciorek, Christopher; Gleckler, Peter J.; Sperber, Kenneth R.; Collins, William D.; Gettelman, Andrew; Jablonowski, Christiane
2014-11-05
We present an analysis of version 5.1 of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5.1) at a high horizontal resolution. Intercomparison of this global model at approximately 0.25°, 1°, and 2° is presented for extreme daily precipitation as well as for a suite of seasonal mean fields. In general, extreme precipitation amounts are larger in high resolution than in lower-resolution configurations. In many but not all locations and/or seasons, extreme daily precipitation rates in the high-resolution configuration are higher and more realistic. The high-resolution configuration produces tropical cyclones up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale and a comparison to observations reveals both realistic and unrealistic model behavior. In the absence of extensive model tuning at high resolution, simulation of many of the mean fields analyzed in this study is degraded compared to the tuned lower-resolution public released version of the model.
Dissipation and displacement of hotspots in reaction-diffusion models of crime.
Short, Martin B; Brantingham, P Jeffrey; Bertozzi, Andrea L; Tita, George E
2010-03-02
The mechanisms driving the nucleation, spread, and dissipation of crime hotspots are poorly understood. As a consequence, the ability of law enforcement agencies to use mapped crime patterns to design crime prevention strategies is severely hampered. We also lack robust expectations about how different policing interventions should impact crime. Here we present a mathematical framework based on reaction-diffusion partial differential equations for studying the dynamics of crime hotspots. The system of equations is based on empirical evidence for how offenders move and mix with potential victims or targets. Analysis shows that crime hotspots form when the enhanced risk of repeat crimes diffuses locally, but not so far as to bind distant crime together. Crime hotspots may form as either supercritical or subcritical bifurcations, the latter the result of large spikes in crime that override linearly stable, uniform crime distributions. Our mathematical methods show that subcritical crime hotspots may be permanently eradicated with police suppression, whereas supercritical hotspots are displaced following a characteristic spatial pattern. Our results thus provide a mechanistic explanation for recent failures to observe crime displacement in experimental field tests of hotspot policing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, E. C.; Le Corvec, N.; Galgana, G.
2014-12-01
Basaltic shield volcanoes are subjected to important gravitational loads that lead to their spreading. Such deformation influences the stress state within the volcano, thus the formation of faults and the location of earthquakes and the propagation of magmas and the potential eruption location. Using distinct numerical approaches constrained by geophysical data from the Hawai`i Island Shield Volcano (HISV), we studied the extent to which horizontal deviatoric stresses (HDS) induced from gravitational loading drives the process of volcanic spreading. Two distinct numerical approaches based on similar models were used: 1- the thin-sheet method, and 2- finite element models using COMSOL Multiphysics. We quantified depth integrals of vertical stress (i.e., the gravitational potential energy per unit area or GPE) and then we derived the HDS that balance the horizontal gradients in GPE. We performed the integration over series of single layers that encompasses the surface of variable topography down to a uniform depth of 10 km b.s.l. consistent with the base of the HISV. To compare the results of our numerical approaches we built a fine-scale, Island-wide, set of kinematically constrained deformation indicators (KCDI) using the slip-rate and fault style information from a comprehensive fault database for the HISV. We measure the success of each numerical approach by how well model HDS match the horizontal styles of the strain rates associated with KCDI. Thus far we find that the HDS obtained using the thin-sheet method match well with the KCDI. This may indicate that to first order that patterns of observed surface deformation on the HISV are governed by gradients in GPE. This provides a balance to the gravitationally-induced stresses associated with the volcano load. These HDS do not account for other competing sources of stress (e.g., flexure, magmatic, or hoop) that taken all together may combine to better explain the volcano spreading process for basaltic shield type
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, S.; Sobel, A. H.; Nie, J.
2015-12-01
Two Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) events were observed during October and November 2011 in the equatorial Indian Ocean during the DYNAMO field campaign. Precipitation rates and large-scale vertical motion profiles derived from the DYNAMO northern sounding array are simulated in a small-domain cloud-resolving model using parameterized large-scale dynamics. Three parameterizations of large-scale dynamics --- the conventional weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation, vertical mode based spectral WTG (SWTG), and damped gravity wave coupling (DGW) --- are employed. The target temperature profiles and radiative heating rates are taken from a control simulation in which the large-scale vertical motion is imposed (rather than directly from observations), and the model itself is significantly modified from that used in previous work. These methodological changes lead to significant improvement in the results.Simulations using all three methods, with imposed time -dependent radiation and horizontal moisture advection, capture the time variations in precipitation associated with the two MJO events well. The three methods produce significant differences in the large-scale vertical motion profile, however. WTG produces the most top-heavy and noisy profiles, while DGW's is smoother with a peak in midlevels. SWTG produces a smooth profile, somewhere between WTG and DGW, and in better agreement with observations than either of the others. Numerical experiments without horizontal advection of moisture suggest that that process significantly reduces the precipitation and suppresses the top-heaviness of large-scale vertical motion during the MJO active phases, while experiments in which the effect of cloud on radiation are disabled indicate that cloud-radiative interaction significantly amplifies the MJO. Experiments in which interactive radiation is used produce poorer agreement with observation than those with imposed time-varying radiative heating. Our results highlight the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rainey, A Gerald; Igoe, William B
1958-01-01
The buffeting loads acting on the wing and horizontal tail of a 1/4-scale model of the X-1E airplane have been measured in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel in the Mach number range from 0.40 to 0.90. When the buffeting loads were reduced to a nondimensional aerodynamic coefficient of buffeting intensity, it was found that the maximum buffeting intensity of the horizontal tail was about twice as large as that of the wing. Comparison of power spectra of buffeting loads acting on the horizontal tail of the airplaneand of the model indicated that the model horizontal tail, which was of conventional force-test-model design, responded in an entirely different mode than did the airplane.This result implied that if quantitative extrapolation of model data to flight conditions were desired a dynamically scaled model of the rearward portion of the fuselage and empennage would be required. A study of the sources of horizontal-tail buffeting of the model indicated that the wing wake contributed a large part of the total buffeting load. At one condition it was found that removal of the wing wake would reduce the buffeting loads on the horizontal tail to about one-third of the original value.
Horizontal geometrical reaction time model for two-beam nacelle LiDARs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beuth, Thorsten; Fox, Maik; Stork, Wilhelm
2015-06-01
Wind energy is one of the leading sustainable energies. To attract further private and state investment in this technology, a broad scaled drop of the cost of energy has to be enforced. There is a trend towards using Laser Doppler Velocimetry LiDAR systems for enhancing power output and minimizing downtimes, fatigue and extreme forces. Since most used LiDARs are horizontally setup on a nacelle and work with two beams, it is important to understand the geometrical configuration which is crucial to estimate reaction times for the actuators to compensate wind gusts. In the beginning of this article, the basic operating modes of wind turbines are explained and the literature on wind behavior is analyzed to derive specific wind speed and wind angle conditions in relation to the yaw angle of the hub. A short introduction to the requirements for the reconstruction of the wind vector length and wind angle leads to the problem of wind shear detection of angled but horizontal homogeneous wind fronts due to the spatial separation of the measuring points. A distance is defined in which the wind shear of such homogeneous wind fronts is not present which is used as a base to estimate further distance calculations. The reaction time of the controller and the actuators are having a negative effect on the effective overall reaction time for wind regulation as well. In the end, exemplary calculations estimate benefits and disadvantages of system parameters for wind gust regulating LiDARs for a wind turbine of typical size. An outlook shows possible future improvements concerning the vertical wind behavior.
Romero, V.J.; Ingber, M.S.
1995-07-01
A numerical model for simulating the transient nonlinear behavior of 2-D viscous sloshing flows in rectangular containers subjected to arbitrary horizontal accelerations is presented. The potential-flow formulation uses Rayleigh damping to approximate the effects of viscosity, and Lagrangian node movement is used to accommodate violent sloshing motions. A boundary element approach is used to efficiently handle the time-changing fluid geometry. Additionally, a corrected equation is presented for the constraint condition relating normal and tangential derivatives of the velocity potential where the fluid free surface meets the rigid container wall. The numerical model appears to be more accurate than previous sloshing models, as determined by comparison against exact analytic solutions and results of previously published models.
Reilly, Sean M; Potty, Gopu R; Thibaudeau, David
2016-09-01
Acoustic transmission loss measurements from the calibration operations (CALOPS) experiment for the Shallow Water Array Performance (SWAP) program included horizontally refracted returns that were as much as 30° away from the true bearing between source and receiver. In many cases, the in-shore refracted path was 20 dB stronger than the true bearing path. In this study CALOPS transmission loss measurements at 415 Hz are compared to predictions from a three-dimensional Gaussian ray bundling model. The geoacoustic model that provides good model-data comparison is consistent with the geologic and sediment core data collected at the location but differs slightly from the bottom model used at lower frequencies (206 and 52.5 Hz) in a previous study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wehner, M. F.; Prabhat, M.; Li, F.; Paciorek, C. J.; Collins, W.
2014-12-01
Contemporary high performance computing technology currently enables multi-decadal global atmospheric models at horizontal resolutions of 25km. Simulated storms in such models exhibit sharper gradients and higher extreme precipitations rates than is typical in CMIP5 class models. We compare daily and pentad extreme precipitation statistics from the Community Atmospheric model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) at resolutions of approximately 200, 100 and 25km at the equator with available gridded observational products. We find that there is considerable observational uncertainty in these products, but that the high-resolution configuration performs better than low-resolution configurations when cumulus processes do not contribute significantly to precipitation rates. However, we also find no evidence that simulated extreme precipitation rates have converged at the 25km resolution.
Weyand, Nathan J.; Wertheimer, Anne M.; Hobbs, Theodore R.; Sisko, Jennifer L.; Taku, Nyiawung A.; Gregston, Lindsay D.; Clary, Susan; Higashi, Dustin L.; Biais, Nicolas; Brown, Lewis M.; Planer, Shannon L.; Legasse, Alfred W.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Wong, Scott W.; So, Magdalene
2013-01-01
The strict tropism of many pathogens for man hampers the development of animal models that recapitulate important microbe–host interactions. We developed a rhesus macaque model for studying Neisseria–host interactions using Neisseria species indigenous to the animal. We report that Neisseria are common inhabitants of the rhesus macaque. Neisseria isolated from the rhesus macaque recolonize animals after laboratory passage, persist in the animals for at least 72 d, and are transmitted between animals. Neisseria are naturally competent and acquire genetic markers from each other in vivo, in the absence of selection, within 44 d after colonization. Neisseria macacae encodes orthologs of known or presumed virulence factors of human-adapted Neisseria, as well as current or candidate vaccine antigens. We conclude that the rhesus macaque model will allow studies of the molecular mechanisms of Neisseria colonization, transmission, persistence, and horizontal gene transfer. The model can potentially be developed further for preclinical testing of vaccine candidates. PMID:23382234
Potter, G.L.
1995-05-01
With expanding computer capability and capacity there has been considerable interest in increasing the resolution in GCMs. The primary driving force behind this are two fold: (1) increased resolution may reduce the systematic errors inherent in parameterization of sub-grid scale processes, and (2) higher resolution may improve confidence in regional scale studies of climatic features that are orographically influenced -- such as the effect of the Tibetan Plateau on the East Asian Monsoon. This study focuses on the effect of horizontal resolution on the spatial and temporal systematic errors of cloud radiative forcing and its components. In this paper, the top-of-the-atmosphere radiation fields are taken from a series of simulations using the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) general circulation model (cycle 33), run at four different horizontal resolutions. Section 2 discusses the concept of cloud radiative forcing and describes the simulations from the ECMWF model. The observed global field of cloud forcing from ERBE is presented in section 3 along with the model-produced fields of the net solar and longwave cloud forcing. The seasonal effect of forcing is described in section 4, and the results are summarized in section 5.
Modeling the Impact of Deformation on Unstable Miscible Displacements in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santillán, D.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.
2014-12-01
Coupled flow and geomechanics is a critical research challenge in engineering and the geosciences. The simultaneous flow of two or more fluids with different densities or viscosities through deformable media is ubiquitous in environmental, industrial, and biological processes, including the removal of non-aqueous phase liquids from underground water bodies, the geological storage of CO2, and current challenges in energy technologies, such as enhanced geothermal systems, unconventional hydrocarbon resources or enhanced oil recovery techniques. Using numerical simulation, we study the interplay between viscous-driven flow instabilities (viscous fingering) and rock mechanics, and elucidate the structure of the displacement patterns as a function of viscosity contrast, injection rate and rock mechanical properties. Finally, we discuss the role of medium deformation on transport and mixing processes in porous media.
Modeling the Impact of Fracture Growth on Fluid Displacements in Deformable Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santillán, D.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.
2015-12-01
Coupled flow and geomechanics is a critical research challenge in engineering and the geosciences. The flow of a fluid through a deformable porous media is present in manyenvironmental, industrial, and biological processes,such as the removal of pollutants from underground water bodies, enhanced geothermal systems, unconventional hydrocarbon resources or enhanced oil recovery techniques. However, the injection of a fluid can generate or propagate fractures, which are preferential flow paths. Using numerical simulation, we study the interplay between injection and rock mechanics, and elucidate fracture propagation as a function of injection rate, initial crack topology and mechanical rock properties. Finally, we discuss the role of fracture growth on fluid displacements in porous media. Figure: An example of fracture (in red) propagated in a porous media (in blue)
Modeling of damage generation mechanisms in silicon at energies below the displacement threshold
Santos, Ivan; Marques, Luis A.; Pelaz, Lourdes
2006-11-01
We have used molecular dynamics simulation techniques to study the generation of damage in Si within the low-energy deposition regime. We have demonstrated that energy transfers below the displacement threshold can produce a significant amount of damage, usually neglected in traditional radiation damage calculations. The formation of amorphous pockets agrees with the thermal spike concept of local melting. However, we have found that the order-disorder transition is not instantaneous, but it requires some time to reach the appropriate kinetic-potential energy redistribution for melting. The competition between the rate of this energy redistribution and the energy diffusion to the surrounding atoms determines the amount of damage generated by a given deposited energy. Our findings explain the diverse damage morphology produced by ions of different masses.
Should tsunami simulations include a nonzero initial horizontal velocity?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotto, Gabriel C.; Nava, Gabriel; Dunham, Eric M.
2017-08-01
Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require initial conditions on sea surface height and depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). Full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor confirm that substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean. However, almost all of that initial momentum is carried away by ocean acoustic waves, with negligible momentum imparted to the tsunami. We also compare tsunami propagation in each simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial velocity. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves from ocean acoustic and seismic waves at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami waves to their initial state by solving the
Shin, Kyun Ho; Lee, Haseok; Kang, Seonghyun; Ko, You-Jin; Lee, Seung-Yup; Park, Jung-Ho; Bae, Ji-Hoon
2015-01-01
There are limited reports on the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on meniscus healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP) on potential healing of the horizontal medial meniscus tears in a rabbit model. A horizontal medial meniscus tear was created in both knees of nine skeletally mature adult rabbits. Left or right knees were randomly assigned to a L-PRP group, or a control group. 0.5 mL of L-PRP from 10 mL of each rabbit's whole blood was prepared and injected into the horizontal tears in a L-PRP group. None was applied to the horizontal tears in a control group. The histological assessment of meniscus healing was performed at two, four, and six weeks after surgery. We found that there were no significant differences of quantitative histologic scoring between two groups at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery (p > 0.05). This study failed to show the positive effect of single injection of L-PRP on enhancing healing of the horizontal medial meniscus tears in a rabbit model. Single injection of L-PRP into horizontal meniscus tears may not effectively enhance healing of horizontal medial meniscus tears.
Saibal Bhattacharya
2005-08-31
constraints afflicting mature Mississippian fields. A publicly accessible databank of representative petrophysical properties and relationships was developed to overcome the paucity of such data that is critical to modeling the storage and flow in these reservoirs. Studies in 3 Mississippian fields demonstrated that traditional reservoir models built by integrating log, core, DST, and production data from existing wells on 40-acre spacings are unable to delineate karst-induced compartments, thus making 3D-seismic data critical to characterize these fields. Special attribute analyses on 3D data were shown to delineate reservoir compartments and predict those with pay porosities. Further testing of these techniques is required to validate their applicability in other Mississippian reservoirs. This study shows that detailed reservoir characterization and simulation on geomodels developed by integrating wireline log, core, petrophysical, production and pressure, and 3D-seismic data enables better evaluation of a candidate field for horizontal infill applications. In addition to reservoir compartmentalization, two factors were found to control the economic viability of a horizontal infill well in a mature Mississippian field: (a) adequate reservoir pressure support, and (b) an average well spacing greater than 40-acres.
Berri, G.J.; Nunez, M.N. Pabellon II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires )
1993-05-01
A hydrostatic and incompressible mesoscale model with transformed horizontal coordinates is presented. The model is applied to study the sea-land-breeze circulation over Rio de La Plata. One of the new coordinates is shoreline-following and the other one is locally quasi-perpendicular to the first one. The original set of equations in the Cartesian coordinates is rewritten in the curvilinear coordinates. This transformation is useful provided that the curvilinear coordinates are close to being orthogonal. The horizontal domain covers 250 km [times] 250 km, and the vertical domain is 2 km deep. To predict the sea-land-breeze circulation the model is integrated over 12 h. The forcing of the model is a cyclic perturbation of the surface temperature. The changes in the wind direction during the day are in good agreement with the observations from six weather stations in the region. The same program code is applied to uniform domains of different resolutions in order to test the coordinate transformation. Results show that the predictions based upon the variable-resolution version resemble ones obtained using high uniform resolution but consume only one-fourth the computer time needed by the latter. Comparison of the vertical velocity patterns predicted by the model to the cumulus clouds distribution observed from satellite images show a very good agreement too. The authors believe that all these results justify the use of the coordinate transformation in this type of model, although further verifications are needed in order to draw more definitive conclusions. 28 refs., 11 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roman, D. C.
2003-12-01
A complete understanding of the initiation, evolution, and termination of volcanic eruptions requires reliable monitoring techniques to detect changes in the conduit system during periods of activity, as well as corresponding knowledge of conduit structure and of magma physical properties. Case studies of stress field orientation prior to, during, and after magmatic activity can be used to relate changes in stress field orientation to the state of the magmatic conduit system. These relationships may be tested through modeling of induced stresses. Here I present evidence from case studies and modeling that horizontal rotation of the axis of maximum compressive stress at an active volcano indicates pressurization of a magmatic conduit, and that this rotation, when observed, may also be indicative of the physical properties of the ascending magma. Changes in the local stress field orientation during the 1992 eruption sequence at Crater Peak (Mt. Spurr), Alaska were analyzed by calculating and inverting subsets of over 150 fault-plane solutions. Local stress tensors for four time periods, corresponding approximately to changes in activity at the volcano, were calculated based on the misfit of individual fault-plane solutions to a regional stress tensor. Results indicate that for nine months prior to the eruption, local maximum compressive stress was oriented perpendicular to regional maximum compressive stress. A similar horizontal rotation was observed beginning in November of 1992, coincident with an episode of elevated earthquake and tremor activity indicating intrusion of magma into the conduit. During periods of quiescence the local stress field was similar to the regional stress field. Similar horizontal rotations have been observed at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand (Miller and Savage 2001, Gerst 2003), Usu Volcano, Japan (Fukuyama et al. 2001), Unzen Volcano, Japan (Umakoshi et al. 2001), and Mt. St. Helens Volcano, USA (Moran 1994) in conjunction with eruptive
Droplet evaporation on a horizontal substrate under gravity field by mesoscopic modeling.
Xie, Chiyu; Zhang, Jianying; Bertola, Volfango; Wang, Moran
2016-02-01
The evaporation of water drop deposited on a horizontal substrate is investigated using a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for multiphase flows with a large-density ratio. To account for the variation of evaporation flux distribution along the drop interface, a novel evaporation scheme is introduced into the LBM framework, and validated by comparison with experimental data. We aim at discovering the effect of gravity on the evaporating drop in detail, and various evaporation conditions are considered as well as different wetting properties of the substrates. An effective diameter is introduced as an indicator of the critical drop size under which gravity is negligible. Our results show that such critical diameter is much smaller than the capillary length, which has been widely accepted as the critical size in previous and current works. The critical diameter is found to be almost independent of the evaporation conditions and the surface wettability. A correlation between this critical diameter and the capillary length is also proposed for easy use in applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iannetti, Aldo; Stickland, Matthew T.; Dempster, William M.
2015-09-01
An advanced transient CFD model of a positive displacement reciprocating pump was created to study its behavior and performance in cavitating condition during the inlet stroke. The "full" cavitation model developed by Singhal et al. was utilized, and a sensitivity analysis test on two air mass fraction amounts (1.5 and 15 parts per million) was carried out to study the influence of the dissolved air content in water on the cavitation phenomenon. The model was equipped with user defined functions to introduce the liquid compressibility, which stabilizes the simulation, and to handle the two-way coupling between the pressure field and the inlet valve lift history. Estimation of the performance is also presented in both cases.
Li, Hui; Cai, Xieyi; Wang, Shaoyi; Yang, Chi; Song, Hao; Huang, Linjian
2014-11-01
The aim of this study was to compare the disc positions and condylar changes induced by different stretching forces in the modified animal model for anterior disc displacement (ADD) of the temporomandibular joint. In the experimental group, 30 rabbits were equally divided into 3 subgroups and underwent surgical ADD via different stretching forces: group A with 0.5 N, group B with 1 N, and group C with 2 N. In the sham group, 6 rabbits underwent the same surgery without the disc being pulled anteriorly. The diagnosis of ADD was made when the anterior band of the disc was located anteriorly to the articular eminence. Histologic and radiographic changes of the condyles were observed under light microscopy and micro-computed tomography scanning 1 week after surgery. The success rates of ADD were both 100% in groups B and C and 70% in group A. The correlations between the stretching force and severity of ADD, the stretching force and severity of cartilage changes, and the severity of ADD and cartilage changes were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The most advanced ADD and severest condylar changes were induced in group C. Condylar remodeling and scleroses were found in micro-computed tomography scans. The rabbit model for ADD has been successfully established in this study, which is feasible and minimally invasive. The stretching force of at least 1 N could induce the disc displaced successfully. Larger stretching force would induce severer ADD and condylar degenerative changes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, J.; Zhu, W. D.; Charalambides, P. G.; Shao, Y. M.; Xu, Y. F.; Fang, X. M.
2016-11-01
As one of major failure modes of mechanical structures subjected to periodic loads, embedded cracks due to fatigue can cause catastrophic failure of machineries. Understanding the dynamic characteristics of a structure with an embedded crack is helpful for early crack detection and diagnosis. In this work, a new three-segment beam model with local flexibilities at crack tips is developed to investigate the vibration of a cantilever beam with a closed, fully embedded horizontal crack, which is assumed to be not located at its clamped or free end or distributed near its top or bottom side. The three-segment beam model is assumed to be a linear elastic system, and it does not account for the nonlinear crack closure effect; the top and bottom segments always stay in contact at their interface during the beam vibration. It can model the effects of local deformations in the vicinity of the crack tips, which cannot be captured by previous methods in the literature. The middle segment of the beam containing the crack is modeled by a mechanically consistent, reduced bending moment. Each beam segment is assumed to be an Euler-Bernoulli beam, and the compliances at the crack tips are analytically determined using a J-integral approach and verified using commercial finite element software. Using compatibility conditions at the crack tips and the transfer matrix method, the nature frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam are obtained. The three-segment beam model is used to investigate the effects of local flexibilities at crack tips on the first three natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam. A stationary wavelet transform (SWT) method is used to process the mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam; jumps in single-level SWT decomposition detail coefficients can be used to identify the length and location of an embedded horizontal crack.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Baokuan
2017-06-01
Euler-Euler simulations of transient horizontal gas-liquid flow in a continuous-casting mold are presented. The predictions were compared with previous experimental measurements by two-channel laser Doppler velocimeter. Simulations were performed to understand the sensitivity to different turbulence closure models [ k- ɛ, shear stress transport (SST), Reynolds stress model (RSM), and large-eddy simulation (LES)] and different interfacial forces (drag, lift, virtual mass, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion). It was found that the LES model showed better agreement than the other turbulence models in predicting the velocity components of the liquid phase. Furthermore, an appropriate drag force coefficient model, lift force coefficient model, and virtual mass force coefficient were chosen. Meanwhile, the wall lubrication force and turbulent dispersion force did not have much effect on the current gas-liquid two-phase system. This work highlights the importance of choosing an appropriate bubble size in accordance with experiment. Finally, coupled with the optimized interfacial force models and bubble size, LES with a dynamic subgrid model was used to calculate the transient two-phase turbulent flow inside the mold. More instantaneous details of the two-phase flow characteristics in the mold were captured by LES, including multiscale vortex structures, fluctuation characteristics, and the vorticity distribution. The LES model can also be used to describe the time-averaged gas-liquid flow field, giving reasonably good agreement with mean experimental data. Thus, LES can be used effectively to study transient two-phase flow inside molds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhongqiu; Li, Baokuan
2017-03-01
Euler-Euler simulations of transient horizontal gas-liquid flow in a continuous-casting mold are presented. The predictions were compared with previous experimental measurements by two-channel laser Doppler velocimeter. Simulations were performed to understand the sensitivity to different turbulence closure models [k-ɛ, shear stress transport (SST), Reynolds stress model (RSM), and large-eddy simulation (LES)] and different interfacial forces (drag, lift, virtual mass, wall lubrication, and turbulent dispersion). It was found that the LES model showed better agreement than the other turbulence models in predicting the velocity components of the liquid phase. Furthermore, an appropriate drag force coefficient model, lift force coefficient model, and virtual mass force coefficient were chosen. Meanwhile, the wall lubrication force and turbulent dispersion force did not have much effect on the current gas-liquid two-phase system. This work highlights the importance of choosing an appropriate bubble size in accordance with experiment. Finally, coupled with the optimized interfacial force models and bubble size, LES with a dynamic subgrid model was used to calculate the transient two-phase turbulent flow inside the mold. More instantaneous details of the two-phase flow characteristics in the mold were captured by LES, including multiscale vortex structures, fluctuation characteristics, and the vorticity distribution. The LES model can also be used to describe the time-averaged gas-liquid flow field, giving reasonably good agreement with mean experimental data. Thus, LES can be used effectively to study transient two-phase flow inside molds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galvez, P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Rahnema, K.; Bader, M.
2014-12-01
The 2011 Mw9 Tohoku earthquake has been recorded with a vast GPS and seismic network given unprecedented chance to seismologists to unveil complex rupture processes in a mega-thrust event. In fact more than one thousand near field strong-motion stations across Japan (K-Net and Kik-Net) revealed complex ground motion patterns attributed to the source effects, allowing to capture detailed information of the rupture process. The seismic stations surrounding the Miyagi regions (MYGH013) show two clear distinct waveforms separated by 40 seconds. This observation is consistent with the kinematic source model obtained from the inversion of strong motion data performed by Lee's et al (2011). In this model two rupture fronts separated by 40 seconds emanate close to the hypocenter and propagate towards the trench. This feature is clearly observed by stacking the slip-rate snapshots on fault points aligned in the EW direction passing through the hypocenter (Gabriel et al, 2012), suggesting slip reactivation during the main event. A repeating slip on large earthquakes may occur due to frictional melting and thermal fluid pressurization effects. Kanamori & Heaton (2002) argued that during faulting of large earthquakes the temperature rises high enough creating melting and further reduction of friction coefficient. We created a 3D dynamic rupture model to reproduce this slip reactivation pattern using SPECFEM3D (Galvez et al, 2014) based on a slip-weakening friction with sudden two sequential stress drops . Our model starts like a M7-8 earthquake breaking dimly the trench, then after 40 seconds a second rupture emerges close to the trench producing additional slip capable to fully break the trench and transforming the earthquake into a megathrust event. The resulting sea floor displacements are in agreement with 1Hz GPS displacements (GEONET). The seismograms agree roughly with seismic records along the coast of Japan.The simulated sea floor displacement reaches 8-10 meters of
Simplified clear sky model for direct and diffuse insolation on horizontal surfaces
Bird, R.E.; Hulstrom, R.L.
1981-02-01
A detailed comparison was made between five simple broadband models for clear sky global insolation. Compared models were those of Atwater and Ball, Davies and Hay, Watt, Hoyt, and Lacis and Hansen. A sixth simple model, called the Bird model, has been formulated by using parts of these five models and by comparison with the results from three rigorous radiative transfer codes. All of the simple models provide results that agree within < 10% with the three rigorous codes when the sun is in the zenith position. The Bird and Hoyt models agree within 3% with each other and with the results of the rigorous codes. However, the Bird model is easier to implement and has broader application than the Hoyt model.
Pore-scale modeling of wettability effects on CO2-brine displacement during geological storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basirat, F.; Yang, Z.; Niemi, A. P.
2016-12-01
Wetting properties of reservoir rocks and caprocks can significantly influence sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep geological formations. This work investigates the fundamental role wettability plays in CO2-brine two-phase flow at the level of the pores. Our focus is on clarifying the pore-scale fluid-fluid displacement mechanisms under different wetting conditions and on quantifying the effect of contact angle on the macroscopic parameters such as residual brine saturation, capillary pressure, and specific interfacial area. For this, we use the phase field method to simulate the incompressible two-phase flow of CO2 and brine in realistic pore geometries with high resolution and under different flow conditions characterized by the mobility ratio and the capillary number. An adaptive mesh refinement technique is employed to achieve adequate numerical accuracy while maintaining an optimal number of mesh elements. We demonstrate that the phase field method can be applied to a complex porous medium with realistic reservoir permeability. Besides, it is shown that the method can deal with large viscosity contrasts and strongly water-wet (low contact angles) conditions which are difficult to handle with other direct numerical approaches. Our results show that residual brine saturation decreases with increasing contact angle. Analysis of domain-average capillary pressure suggests that increasing contact angle reduces the capillary pressure in porous domain and that this reduction effect depends on the mobility ratio and the capillary number. We also find that the specific interfacial area in the strongly water-wet case is significantly larger than that of the other contact angle cases, a result that can be attributed to the water (brine) film production in the strongly water-wet system. These results have implications on how to account for the effect of wettability in Darcy scale macroscopic parameters for two-phase flow.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mock, W. D.; Latham, R. A.; Tisher, E. D.
1982-01-01
The NASTRAN model plans for the horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer, and nacelle structure were expanded in detail to generate the NASTRAN model for each of these substructures. The grid point coordinates were coded for each element. The material properties and sizing data for each element were specified. Each substructure model was thoroughly checked out for continuity, connectivity, and constraints. These substructures were processed for structural influence coefficients (SIC) point loadings and the deflections were compared to those computed for the aircraft detail models. Finally, a demonstration and validation processing of these substructures was accomplished using the NASTRAN finite element program installed at NASA/DFRC facility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayor, T. S.; Couto, S.; Psikuta, A.; Rossi, R. M.
2015-12-01
The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s-1) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 102-3 × 105). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow patterns and
Mayor, T S; Couto, S; Psikuta, A; Rossi, R M
2015-12-01
The ability of clothing to provide protection against external environments is critical for wearer's safety and thermal comfort. It is a function of several factors, such as external environmental conditions, clothing properties and activity level. These factors determine the characteristics of the different microclimates existing inside the clothing which, ultimately, have a key role in the transport processes occurring across clothing. As an effort to understand the effect of transport phenomena in clothing microclimates on the overall heat transport across clothing structures, a numerical approach was used to study the buoyancy-driven heat transfer across horizontal air layers trapped inside air impermeable clothing. The study included both the internal flow occurring inside the microclimate and the external flow occurring outside the clothing layer, in order to analyze the interdependency of these flows in the way heat is transported to/from the body. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted considering different values of microclimate thickness (8, 25 and 52 mm), external air temperature (10, 20 and 30 °C), external air velocity (0.5, 1 and 3 m s(-1)) and emissivity of the clothing inner surface (0.05 and 0.95), which implied Rayleigh numbers in the microclimate spanning 4 orders of magnitude (9 × 10(2)-3 × 10(5)). The convective heat transfer coefficients obtained along the clothing were found to strongly depend on the transport phenomena in the microclimate, in particular when natural convection is the most important transport mechanism. In such scenario, convective coefficients were found to vary in wavy-like manner, depending on the position of the flow vortices in the microclimate. These observations clearly differ from data in the literature for the case of air flow over flat-heated surfaces with constant temperature (which shows monotonic variations of the convective heat transfer coefficients, along the length of the surface). The flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arakawa, O.; Kitoh, A.
2014-12-01
We use an MRI atmospheric global model (MRI-AGCM3.2) with three different horizontal resolutions (20km:SPA/60km:HPA/180km:LPA) to examine water budget and its dependency on horizontal resolution of AGCM over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and surrounding mountainous regions at which headwater regions of large rivers are located. Seasonal cycle of atmospheric water budget shows that MRI-AGCM3.2 has a bias to overestimate precipitation over TP all year round, but its bias becomes smaller as the horizontal resolution becomes finer. Surface evaporation has little dependence on the horizontal resolution. Over western TP, precipitation shows a bi-modal seasonal cycle. In SPA and HPA, the primary (secondary) peak is in Jul.-Aug. (Mar.-Apr.), while two peaks have the same magnitude in LPA. A magnitude of the peak in spring becomes smaller as the horizontal resolution becomes finer. In eastern TP, precipitation has its annual maximum in July. In LPA, a larger positive precipitation bias than that in SPA and HPA is explained by a larger positive bias of moisture flux convergence, which implies that there is more moisture inflow into TP in LPA than that in SPA and HPA. Many of global climate models in CMIP5, whose horizontal resolution is 200km or coarser, has potential not to simulate water budget over TP properly, which may impact on a reproducibility of seasonal cycle of streamflow.
Chen, Yuan; Dall Ara, Enrico; Sales, Erika; Manda, Krishnagoud; Wallace, Robert; Pankaj, Pankaj; Viceconti, Marco
2017-01-01
Non-destructive 3D micro-computed tomography (microCT) based finite element (microFE) models are used to estimate bone mechanical properties at tissue level. However, their validation remains challenging. Recent improvements in the quantification of displacements in bone tissue biopsies subjected to staged compression, using refined Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) techniques, now provide a full field displacement information accurate enough to be used for microFE validation. In this study, three specimens (two humans and one bovine) were tested with two different experimental set-ups, and the resulting data processed with the same DVC algorithm. The resulting displacement vector field was compared to that predicted by microFE models solved with three different boundary conditions (BC): nominal force resultant, nominal displacement resultant, distributed displacement. The first two conditions were obtained directly from the measurements provided by the experimental jigs, whereas in the third case the displacement field measured by the DVC in the top and bottom layer of the specimen was applied. Results show excellent relationship between the numerical predictions (x) and the experiments (y) when using BC derived from the DVC measurements (UX: y=1.07x-0.002, RMSE: 0.001mm; UY: y=1.03x-0.001, RMSE: 0.001mm; UZ: y=x+0.0002, RMSE: 0.001 mm for bovine specimen), whereas only poor correlation was found using BCs according to experiment set-ups. In conclusion, microFE models were found to predict accurately the vectorial displacement field using interpolated displacement boundary condition from DVC measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Hussain, Mozammil; Gay, Ralph E; An, Kai-Nan
2010-05-01
The purpose of this study was to quantify the biomechanical changes that occur in a compressed cervical disk with the application of axial distraction when the annular fiber orientation angles are varied between the horizontal and vertical planes. A 3-dimensional finite element (FE) model of a cervical motion segment was developed. From this model, 3 FE models were developed and validated corresponding to 3 different fiber angles relative to the end plate-disk interface: +/-25 degrees (oriented toward the horizontal plane), +/-45 degrees (midway between the horizontal and vertical planes), and +/-65 degrees (oriented toward the vertical plane). Compression (50N), followed by an axial distraction (17N), was simulated. Annulus and nucleus stresses, von-Mises fiber stresses, annulus radial bulging, and nucleus radial displacement were computed. Hard tissue (cortical and cancellous bones and end plate) stresses were also quantified. With increasing fiber angle (toward vertical), axial segmental stiffness increased, whereas annulus and nucleus stresses, fiber stresses, annulus radial bulging, and nucleus radial displacement decreased. Similar outcomes were observed when axial distraction was applied to the compressed segment. Hard tissues were not affected with varying fiber angles; however, their mechanics changed when axial distraction was applied on the compressed segment. We noted lower disk stress in axial distraction than in compression. The results confirmed the hypothesis that fibers oriented toward the vertical plane reduce disk and fiber stresses and disk bulging. By aligning annular fibers toward the vertical plane axial distraction may help reduce disk and fiber stresses. Axial disk stresses decrease radially from outside to inside under compressive loading and that the anterior annulus is more stressed than the posterior-lateral annulus during both compression and distraction. Stresses decreased in both the annulus tissue matrix and fibers with increasing
Sahel decadal rainfall variability and the role of model horizontal resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vellinga, Michael; Roberts, Malcolm; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Mizielinski, Matthew S.; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Schiemann, Reinhard; Strachan, Jane; Bain, Caroline
2016-01-01
Substantial low-frequency rainfall fluctuations occurred in the Sahel throughout the twentieth century, causing devastating drought. Modeling these low-frequency rainfall fluctuations has remained problematic for climate models for many years. Here we show using a combination of state-of-the-art rainfall observations and high-resolution global climate models that changes in organized heavy rainfall events carry most of the rainfall variability in the Sahel at multiannual to decadal time scales. Ability to produce intense, organized convection allows climate models to correctly simulate the magnitude of late-twentieth century rainfall change, underlining the importance of model resolution. Increasing model resolution allows a better coupling between large-scale circulation changes and regional rainfall processes over the Sahel. These results provide a strong basis for developing more reliable and skilful long-term predictions of rainfall (seasons to years) which could benefit many sectors in the region by allowing early adaptation to impending extremes.
On the horizontal resolution of fronts in numerical weather prediction models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reeder, Michael J.; Smith, Roger K.
1988-01-01
A two-dimensional model is used to study the ability of current numerical weather prediction models to capture frontogenesis and to determine frontal motion. Particular attention is given to the ability of a simulation with a very coarse grid to represent the dynamics of a frontogenetically-active model cold front in a simulation with a relatively fine grid. A resolution between 50 and 100 km is satisfactory for capturing frontal scale motions.
On the horizontal resolution of fronts in numerical weather prediction models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reeder, Michael J.; Smith, Roger K.
1988-01-01
A two-dimensional model is used to study the ability of current numerical weather prediction models to capture frontogenesis and to determine frontal motion. Particular attention is given to the ability of a simulation with a very coarse grid to represent the dynamics of a frontogenetically-active model cold front in a simulation with a relatively fine grid. A resolution between 50 and 100 km is satisfactory for capturing frontal scale motions.
Orlov, Dmitry M.; Moyer, Richard A.; Evans, Todd E.; Wingen, Andreas; Buttery, Richard J.; Ferraro, Nathaniel M.; Grierson, Brian A.; Eldon, David; Watkins, Jonathan G.; Nazikian, Raffi
2014-08-15
Numerical modeling of the plasma boundary position and its displacement due to external magnetic perturbations in DIII-D low-collisionality H-mode discharges is presented. The results of the vacuum model are compared to the experimental measurements for boundary displacements including Thomson scattering electron temperature T_{e}, charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, beam emission spectroscopy, soft x-ray, and divertor Langmuir probe measurements. Magnetically perturbed discharges with toroidal mode number n=2 and n=3 are studied. It is shown that the vacuum model predictions agree well with the measurements above and below the midplane, and disagree at the outer midplane in discharges where significant kink amplification is present. Lastly, the role of the plasma response is studied using the two-fluid MHD code M3D-C^{1}, and the results are compared to the vacuum model showing that the plasma response model underestimates the boundary displacements.
Orlov, D. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Evans, T. E.; Wingen, Andreas; Buttery, Richard J.; Ferraro, N. M.; Grierson, Brian A.; Eldon, D.; Watkins, J. G.; Nazikian, R.
2014-08-15
In this paper, numerical modelling of the plasma boundary position and its displacement due to external magnetic perturbations in DIII-D low-collisionality H-mode discharges is presented. The results of the vacuum model are compared to the experimental measurements for boundary displacements including Thomson scattering electron temperature T_{e}, charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, beam emission spectroscopy, soft x-ray, and divertor Langmuir probe measurements. Magnetically perturbed discharges with toroidal mode number n = 2 and n = 3 are studied. It is shown that the vacuum model predictions agree well with the measurements above and below the midplane, and disagree at the outer midplane in discharges where significant kink amplification is present. Finally, the role of the plasma response is studied using the two-fluid MHD code M3D-C^{1}, and the results are compared to the vacuum model showing that the plasma response model underestimates the boundary displacements.
Orlov, Dmitry M.; Moyer, Richard A.; Evans, Todd E.; ...
2014-08-15
Numerical modeling of the plasma boundary position and its displacement due to external magnetic perturbations in DIII-D low-collisionality H-mode discharges is presented. The results of the vacuum model are compared to the experimental measurements for boundary displacements including Thomson scattering electron temperature Te, charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, beam emission spectroscopy, soft x-ray, and divertor Langmuir probe measurements. Magnetically perturbed discharges with toroidal mode number n=2 and n=3 are studied. It is shown that the vacuum model predictions agree well with the measurements above and below the midplane, and disagree at the outer midplane in discharges where significant kink amplification ismore » present. Lastly, the role of the plasma response is studied using the two-fluid MHD code M3D-C1, and the results are compared to the vacuum model showing that the plasma response model underestimates the boundary displacements.« less
Horizontal motions, bedrock incision, and the structure of relief in growing folds and orogens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seixas, G.; Alejandre, J.; Hilley, G. E.
2013-12-01
Topographic divide asymmetry may arise from gradients in rock erodibility and orographic precipitation across a mountain belt, and/or tectonic displacement fields that uplift and translate rock horizontally during orogenesis. While simple models exploring relief in active orogens typically consider tectonic motions that are uniform and vertical, the displacement field at Earth's surface generated by slip on finite-length faults is inherently inhomogeneous and contains vertical and horizontal components, which may play an important role in divide asymmetry. In this study, we consider channel profiles that evolve according to the shear stress rule for bedrock fluvial erosion and that experience inhomogeneous horizontal and vertical components of tectonic motion. Dimensional analysis of our revised shear stress rule reveals a dimensionless coefficient that relates bedrock erodibility and basin geometry to slip rate on the underlying fault. We implement our model in a series of 1D non-dimensional numerical experiments that calculate river profile geometry on either side of a topographic divide that is free to advect through the model domain in response to horizontal motion. We drive the models with displacements calculated over a dipping, buried edge dislocation, and examine non-dimensional relief and divide asymmetry resulting from variations in fault dip, non-dimensional fault tip location and non-dimensional model extent. We find that asymmetry results from the full displacement field and from the vertical displacement field alone. Fault dip plays a strong role in the magnitude and direction of divide asymmetry, both in models that include the horizontal motions and those that neglect them. The greatest divide asymmetry resulting from the full displacement field is achieved over dislocations with shallow non-dimensional upper tip depths and small dip angles, although steeply-dipping faults produce asymmetry in the opposite direction. By setting the horizontal
Horizontal-branch models and the second-parameter phenomeon: The caseof NGC 288 and NGC 362
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catelan, M.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.
1994-09-01
It has been argued in the recent literature that the horizontal-branch (HB) evolutionary tracks of Castellani, Chieffi, & Pulone (1991) are superior to those of Lee & Demarque (1990) in accounting for the properties of RR Lyrae variables in Galactic globular clusters (GGCs). In the present study, we show that the conclusions reached by Catelan & de Freitas Pacheco (1993) on the role played by age as a second parameter affecting the HB morphologies of the GGCs NGC 288 and NGC 362, originally based upon the analysis of the latter tracks, are confirmed when the Castellani et al. set is employed instead. More specifically, we confirm that an age difference between these clusters as small as approximately 2-3 Gyr can only be consistent with HB models if additional parameters are varying between them, and/or both clusters are younger than approximately 10 Gry, and/or stellar evolution at the core He-burning phase is not properly understood.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mack, Stefanie L.; Dinniman, Michael S.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Sedwick, Peter N.; Klinck, John M.
2017-02-01
Phytoplankton production in the Ross Sea is regulated by the availability of dissolved iron (dFe), a limiting micro-nutrient, whose sources include Circumpolar Deep Water, sea ice melt, glacial melt, and benthic sources (sediment efflux and remineralization). We employ a passive tracer dye to model the benthic dFe sources and track pathways from deep areas of the continental shelf to the surface mixed layer in simulations with and without tidal forcing, and at 5 and 1.5 km horizontal resolution. This, combined with dyes for each of the other dFe sources, provides an estimate of total dFe supply to surface waters. We find that tidal forcing increases the amount of benthic dye that covers the banks on the continental shelf. Calculations of mixed layer depth to define the surface ocean give similar average values over the shelf, but spatial patterns differ between simulations, particularly along the ice shelf front. Benthic dFe supply in simulations shows an increase with tidal forcing and a decrease with higher resolution. The changes in benthic dFe supply control the difference in total supply between simulations. Overall, the total dFe supply from simulations varies from 5.60 to 7.95 μmol m-2 year-1, with benthic supply comprising 32-50%, comparing well with recent data and model synthesis. We suggest that including tides and using high horizontal resolution is important, especially when considering spatial variability of iron supply on the Ross Sea shelf.
The effect of horizontal resolution on simulation quality in the Community Atmospheric Model, CAM5.1
Wehner, Michael F.; Reed, Kevin A.; Li, Fuyu; ...
2014-11-05
We present an analysis of version 5.1 of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5.1) at a high horizontal resolution. Intercomparison of this global model at approximately 0.25°, 1°, and 2° is presented for extreme daily precipitation as well as for a suite of seasonal mean fields. In general, extreme precipitation amounts are larger in high resolution than in lower-resolution configurations. In many but not all locations and/or seasons, extreme daily precipitation rates in the high-resolution configuration are higher and more realistic. The high-resolution configuration produces tropical cyclones up to category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale and a comparison to observations revealsmore » both realistic and unrealistic model behavior. In the absence of extensive model tuning at high resolution, simulation of many of the mean fields analyzed in this study is degraded compared to the tuned lower-resolution public released version of the model.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Akio; Ament, Felix; Lammert, Andrea
2017-04-01
Large-eddy simulations have been performed since several decades, but due to computational limits most studies were restricted to small domains or idealised initial-/boundary conditions. Within the High definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project realistic weather forecasting like LES simulations were performed with the newly developed ICON LES model for several days. The domain covers central Europe with a horizontal resolution down to 156 m. The setup consists of more than 3 billion grid cells, by what one 3D dump requires roughly 500 GB. A newly developed online evaluation toolbox was created to check instantaneously for realistic model simulations. The toolbox automatically combines model results with observations and generates several quicklooks for various variables. So far temperature-/humidity profiles, cloud cover, integrated water vapour, precipitation and many more are included. All kind of observations like aircraft observations, soundings or precipitation radar networks are used. For each dataset, a specific module is created, which allows for an easy handling and enhancement of the toolbox. Most of the observations are automatically downloaded from the Standardized Atmospheric Measurement Database (SAMD). The evaluation tool should support scientists at monitoring computational costly model simulations as well as to give a first overview about model's performance. The structure of the toolbox as well as the SAMD database are presented. Furthermore, the toolbox was applied on an ICON LES sensitivity study, where example results are shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wendong; Su, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiao; Sheng, Guanglong; Ren, Long
2015-03-01
This paper formulates a fractal-tree network model to address the challenging problem of characterizing the hydraulic fracture network in unconventional reservoirs. It has been proved that the seepage flow in tight/shale oil reservoirs is much more complicated to the conventional formation. To further understand the flow mechanisms in such a complex system, a semi-analytical model considering "branch network fractures" was established stage by stage using point source method and superposition principle. Fractal method was employed to generate and represent induced fracture network around bi-wing fractures. In addition, based on the new established model and solution, deterministic fractal-tree-like fracture network patterns and heterogeneity were carefully investigated and compared with the simulation model. Results show that the fractal dimension for the fracture network has significant effect on the connectivity of the stimulated reservoir. The proposed fractal model may capture the characteristics of the heterogeneous complex fracture network and help in understanding the flow and transport mechanisms of multiple fractured horizontal wells.
Crack growth rate in core shroud horizontal welds using two models for a BWR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arganis Juárez, C. R.; Hernández Callejas, R.; Medina Almazán, A. L.
2015-05-01
An empirical crack growth rate correlation model and a predictive model based on the slip-oxidation mechanism for Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) were used to calculate the crack growth rate in a BWR core shroud. In this study, the crack growth rate was calculated by accounting for the environmental factors related to aqueous environment, neutron irradiation to high fluence and the complex residual stress conditions resulting from welding. In estimating the SCC behavior the crack growth measurements data from a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant are referred to, and the stress intensity factor vs crack depth throughout thickness is calculated using a generic weld residual stress distribution for a core shroud, with a 30% stress relaxation induced by neutron irradiation. Quantitative agreement is shown between the measurements of SCC growth rate and the predictions of the slip-oxidation mechanism model for relatively low fluences (5 × 1024 n/m2), and the empirical model predicted better the SCC growth rate than the slip-oxidation model for high fluences (>1 × 1025 n/m2). The relevance of the models predictions for SCC growth rate behavior depends on knowing the model parameters.
Wu, Chang-Fu; Lin, Hung-I; Ho, Chi-Chang; Yang, Tzu-Hui; Chen, Chu-Chih; Chan, Chang-Chuan
2014-08-01
Land use regression (LUR) models are increasingly used to evaluate intraurban variability in population exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, most of these models lack information on PM2.5 elemental compositions and vertically distributed samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraurban exposure to PM2.5 concentrations and compositions for populations in an Asian city using LUR models, with special emphasis on examining the effects of having measurements on different building stories. PM2.5 samples were collected at 20 sampling sites below the third story (low-level sites). Additional vertically stratified sampling sites were set up on the fourth to sixth (mid-level sites, n=5) and seventh to ninth (high-level sites, n=5) stories. LUR models were built for PM2.5, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), and zinc (Zn). The explained concentration variance (R(2)) of the PM2.5 model was 65%. R(2) values were >69% in the Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Si, and Zn models and <44% in the K and S models. Sampling height from ground level was a significant predictor in the PM2.5 and Si models. This finding stresses the importance of collecting vertically stratified information on PM2.5 mass concentrations to reduce potential exposure misclassification in future health studies. In addition to traffic variables, some models identified gravel-plant, industrial, and port variables with large buffer zones as important predictors, indicating that PM from these sources had significant effects at distant places.
A Reduced Order Model of Force Displacement Curves for the Failure of Mechanical Bolts in Tension.
Moore, Keegan J.; Brake, Matthew Robert
2015-12-01
Assembled mechanical systems often contain a large number of bolted connections. These bolted connections (joints) are integral aspects of the load path for structural dynamics, and, consequently, are paramount for calculating a structure's stiffness and energy dissipation prop- erties. However, analysts have not found the optimal method to model appropriately these bolted joints. The complexity of the screw geometry causes issues when generating a mesh of the model. This report will explore different approaches to model a screw-substrate connec- tion. Model parameters such as mesh continuity, node alignment, wedge angles, and thread to body element size ratios are examined. The results of this study will give analysts a better understanding of the influences of these parameters and will aide in finding the optimal method to model bolted connections.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Yanchao; Fan, Dongming; You, Wei
2017-07-01
Eleven GPS crustal vertical displacement (CVD) solutions for 110 IGS08/IGS14 core stations provided by the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service Analysis Centers are compared with seven Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-modeled CVD solutions. The results of the internal comparison of the GPS solutions from multiple institutions imply large uncertainty in the GPS postprocessing. There is also evidence that GRACE solutions from both different institutions and different processing approaches (mascon and traditional spherical harmonic coefficients) show similar results, suggesting that GRACE can provide CVD results of good internal consistency. When the uncertainty of the GPS data is accounted for, the GRACE data can explain as much as 50% of the actual signals and more than 80% of the GPS annual signals. Our study strongly indicates that GRACE data have great potential to correct the nontidal loading in GPS time series.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alavi Fazel, S. Ali
2017-03-01
A new optimized model which can predict the heat transfer in the nucleate boiling at isolated bubble regime is proposed for pool boiling on a horizontal rod heater. This model is developed based on the results of direct observations of the physical boiling phenomena. Boiling heat flux, wall temperature, bubble departing diameter, bubble generation frequency and bubble nucleation site density have been experimentally measured. Water and ethanol have been used as two different boiling fluids. Heating surface was made by several metals and various degrees of roughness. The mentioned model considers various mechanisms such as latent heat transfer due to micro-layer evaporation, transient conduction due to thermal boundary layer reformation, natural convection, heat transfer due to the sliding bubbles and bubble super-heating. The fractional contributions of individual mentioned heat transfer mechanisms have been calculated by genetic algorithm. The results show that at wall temperature difference more that about 3 K, bubble sliding transient conduction, non-sliding transient conduction, micro-layer evaporation, natural convection, radial forced convection and bubble super-heating have higher to lower fractional contributions respectively. The performance of the new optimized model has been verified by comparison of the existing experimental data.
Ma, Po -Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Minghuai; Wang, Hailong; Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yuying; Ma, Hsi -Yen
2015-06-28
The Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 is run at horizontal grid spacing of 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 degrees, with the meteorology nudged towards the Year Of Tropical Convection analysis, and cloud simulators and the collocated A-Train satellite observations are used to explore the resolution dependence of aerosol-cloud interactions. The higher-resolution model produces results that agree better with observations, showing an increase of susceptibility of cloud droplet size, indicating a stronger first aerosol indirect forcing (AIF), and a decrease of susceptibility of precipitation probability, suggesting a weaker second AIF. The resolution sensitivities of AIF are attributed to those of droplet nucleation and precipitation parameterizations. The annual average AIF in the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes (where most anthropogenic emissions occur) in the 0.25° model is reduced by about 1 W m⁻² (-30%) compared to the 2° model, leading to a 0.26 W m⁻² reduction (-15%) in the global annual average AIF.
Li, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Lijuan; Zhang, Manyin; Wang, Yifei
2015-08-01
A horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) was designed to improve the water quality of an artificial lake in Beijing Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center, Beijing, China. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), including multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF), were used to model the removal of total phosphorus (TP). Four variables were selected as the input parameters based on the principal component analysis: the influent TP concentration, water temperature, flow rate, and porosity. In order to improve model accuracy, alternative ANNs were developed by incorporating meteorological variables, including precipitation, air humidity, evapotranspiration, solar heat flux, and barometric pressure. A genetic algorithm and cross-validation were used to find the optimal network architectures for the ANNs. Comparison of the observed data and the model predictions indicated that, with careful variable selection, ANNs appeared to be an efficient and robust tool for predicting TP removal in the HSSF-CW. Comparison of the accuracy and efficiency of MLP and RBF for predicting TP removal showed that the RBF with additional meteorological variables produced the most accurate results, indicating a high potentiality for modeling TP removal in the HSSF-CW.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Kensuke
A new analysis tool, an unsteady Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model, for a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) in yawed flow is presented, and its convergence and low cost computational performance are demonstrated. In earlier work, a steady Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model was developed with a view to improving simulation results obtained by participants of the NASA Ames blind comparison workshop, following the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment. The hybrid method was shown to better predict rotor torque and power over the range of wind speeds, from fully attached to separated flows. A decade has passed since the workshop was held and three dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes analyses have become available using super computers. In the first chapter, recent results of unsteady Euler and Navier-Stokes computations are reviewed as standard references of what is currently possible and are contrasted with results of the Hybrid Navier-Stokes/Vortex Model in steady flow. In Chapter 2, the computational method for the unsteady Hybrid model is detailed. The grid generation procedure, using ICEM CFD, is presented in Chapter 3. Steady and unsteady analysis results for the NREL Phase IV rotor and for a modified "swept NREL rotor" are presented in Chapter 4-Chapter 7.
Caffeine-induced Ca2+ oscillations in type I horizontal cell of carp retina: A mathematical model
Lv, Ting; Zhang, Pu-Ming; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji
2014-01-01
Oscillations in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) have been observed in a variety of cell types. In the present study, we constructed a mathematical model to simulate the caffeine-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations based on experimental data obtained from isolated type I horizontal cell of carp retina. The results of model analysis confirm the notion that the caffeine-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations involve a number of cytoplasmic and endoplasmic Ca2+ processes that interact with each other. Using this model, we evaluated the importance of store-operated channel (SOC) in caffeine-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations. The model suggests that store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is elicited upon depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When the SOC conductance is set to 0, caffeine-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations are abolished, which agrees with the experimental observation that [Ca2+]i oscillations were abolished when SOC was blocked pharmacologically, verifying that SOC is necessary for sustained [Ca2+]i oscillations. PMID:25483284
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alavi Fazel, S. Ali
2017-09-01
A new optimized model which can predict the heat transfer in the nucleate boiling at isolated bubble regime is proposed for pool boiling on a horizontal rod heater. This model is developed based on the results of direct observations of the physical boiling phenomena. Boiling heat flux, wall temperature, bubble departing diameter, bubble generation frequency and bubble nucleation site density have been experimentally measured. Water and ethanol have been used as two different boiling fluids. Heating surface was made by several metals and various degrees of roughness. The mentioned model considers various mechanisms such as latent heat transfer due to micro-layer evaporation, transient conduction due to thermal boundary layer reformation, natural convection, heat transfer due to the sliding bubbles and bubble super-heating. The fractional contributions of individual mentioned heat transfer mechanisms have been calculated by genetic algorithm. The results show that at wall temperature difference more that about 3 K, bubble sliding transient conduction, non-sliding transient conduction, micro-layer evaporation, natural convection, radial forced convection and bubble super-heating have higher to lower fractional contributions respectively. The performance of the new optimized model has been verified by comparison of the existing experimental data.
Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann
2015-04-01
aggregate these ideas into a framework of disaster displacement vulnerability that distinguishes between three main aspects of disaster displacement. Disaster displacement can be considered in terms of the number of displaced people and the length of that displacement. However, the literature emphasizes that the severity of disaster displacement can not be measured completely in quantitative terms. Thus, we include a measure representing people who are trapped and unable to leave their homes due to mobility, resources or for other reasons. Finally the third main aspect considers the difficulties that are associated with displacement and reflects the difference between the experiences of those who are displaced into safe and supportive environments as compared to those whose only alternate shelter is dangerous and inadequate for their needs. Finally, we apply the framework to demonstrate a methodology to estimate vulnerability to disaster displacement. Using data from the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Social and Economic Vulnerability sub-National Database, we generate an index to measure the vulnerability of Japanese prefectures to the dimensions of displacement included in the framework. References Yonitani, M. (2014). Global Estimates 2014: People displaced by disasters. http://www.internal-displacement.org/publications/2014/global-estimates-2014-people-displaced-by-disasters/
The modelled surface mass balance of the Antarctic Peninsula at 5.5 km horizontal resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Wessem, J. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Reijmer, C. H.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Barrand, N. E.; Thomas, E. R.; Turner, J.; Wuite, J.; Scambos, T. A.; van Meijgaard, E.
2016-02-01
This study presents a high-resolution (˜ 5.5 km) estimate of surface mass balance (SMB) over the period 1979-2014 for the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), generated by the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.3 and a firn densification model (FDM). RACMO2.3 is used to force the FDM, which calculates processes in the snowpack, such as meltwater percolation, refreezing and runoff. We evaluate model output with 132 in situ SMB observations and discharge rates from six glacier drainage basins, and find that the model realistically simulates the strong spatial variability in precipitation, but that significant biases remain as a result of the highly complex topography of the AP. It is also clear that the observations significantly underrepresent the high-accumulation regimes, complicating a full model evaluation. The SMB map reveals large accumulation gradients, with precipitation values above 3000 mm we yr-1 in the western AP (WAP) and below 500 mm we yr-1 in the eastern AP (EAP), not resolved by coarser data sets such as ERA-Interim. The average AP ice-sheet-integrated SMB, including ice shelves (an area of 4.1 × 105 km2), is estimated at 351 Gt yr-1 with an interannual variability of 58 Gt yr-1, which is dominated by precipitation (PR) (365 ± 57 Gt yr-1). The WAP (2.4 × 105 km2) SMB (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), where PR is large (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), dominates over the EAP (1.7 × 105 km2) SMB (75 ± 11 Gt yr-1) and PR (84 ± 11 Gt yr-1). Total sublimation is 11 ± 2 Gt yr-1 and meltwater runoff into the ocean is 4 ± 4 Gt yr-1. There are no significant trends in any of the modelled AP SMB components, except for snowmelt that shows a significant decrease over the last 36 years (-0.36 Gt yr-2).
New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes
Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X.; Wang, S.
2014-01-29
Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yadong; Serre, Marc L.; Reyes, Jeanette M.; Vizuete, William
2017-10-01
We have developed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) framework that integrates observations from a surface monitoring network and predictions from a Chemical Transport Model (CTM) to create improved exposure estimates that can be resolved into any spatial and temporal resolution. The flexibility of the framework allows for input of data in any choice of time scales and CTM predictions of any spatial resolution with varying associated degrees of estimation error and cost in terms of implementation and computation. This study quantifies the impact on exposure estimation error due to these choices by first comparing estimations errors when BME relied on ozone concentration data either as an hourly average, the daily maximum 8-h average (DM8A), or the daily 24-h average (D24A). Our analysis found that the use of DM8A and D24A data, although less computationally intensive, reduced estimation error more when compared to the use of hourly data. This was primarily due to the poorer CTM model performance in the hourly average predicted ozone. Our second analysis compared spatial variability and estimation errors when BME relied on CTM predictions with a grid cell resolution of 12 × 12 km2 versus a coarser resolution of 36 × 36 km2. Our analysis found that integrating the finer grid resolution CTM predictions not only reduced estimation error, but also increased the spatial variability in daily ozone estimates by 5 times. This improvement was due to the improved spatial gradients and model performance found in the finer resolved CTM simulation. The integration of observational and model predictions that is permitted in a BME framework continues to be a powerful approach for improving exposure estimates of ambient air pollution. The results of this analysis demonstrate the importance of also understanding model performance variability and its implications on exposure error.
Mating unplugged: a model for the evolution of mating plug (dis-)placement.
Fromhage, Lutz
2012-01-01
Mating plugs are male-derived structures that may impede female remating by physically obstructing the female genital tract. Although mating plugs exist in many taxa, the forces shaping their evolution are poorly understood. A male can clearly benefit if his mating plug secures his paternity. It is unclear, however, how plug efficacy can be maintained over evolutionary time in the face of counteracting selection on males' ability to remove any plugs placed by their rivals. Here, I present a game-theory model and a simulation model to address this problem. The models predict that evolutionarily stable levels of mating-plug efficacy should be high when (1) the number of mating attempts per female is low; (2) the sex ratio is male-biased, and (3) males are sperm-limited. I discuss these results in the light of empirical data. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Amatoury, Jason; Cheng, Shaokoon; Kairaitis, Kristina; Wheatley, John R; Amis, Terence C; Bilston, Lynne E
2016-04-01
The mechanisms leading to upper airway (UA) collapse during sleep are complex and poorly understood. We previously developed an anesthetized rabbit model for studying UA physiology. On the basis of this body of physiological data, we aimed to develop and validate a two-dimensional (2D) computational finite element model (FEM) of the passive rabbit UA and peripharyngeal tissues. Model geometry was reconstructed from a midsagittal computed tomographic image of a representative New Zealand White rabbit, which included major soft (tongue, soft palate, constrictor muscles), cartilaginous (epiglottis, thyroid cartilage), and bony pharyngeal tissues (mandible, hard palate, hyoid bone). Other UA muscles were modeled as linear elastic connections. Initial boundary and contact definitions were defined from anatomy and material properties derived from the literature. Model parameters were optimized to physiological data sets associated with mandibular advancement (MA) and caudal tracheal displacement (TD), including hyoid displacement, which featured with both applied loads. The model was then validated against independent data sets involving combined MA and TD. Model outputs included UA lumen geometry, peripharyngeal tissue displacement, and stress and strain distributions. Simulated MA and TD resulted in UA enlargement and nonuniform increases in tissue displacement, and stress and strain. Model predictions closely agreed with experimental data for individually applied MA, TD, and their combination. We have developed and validated an FEM of the rabbit UA that predicts UA geometry and peripharyngeal tissue mechanical changes associated with interventions known to improve UA patency. The model has the potential to advance our understanding of UA physiology and peripharyngeal tissue mechanics.
Santra, Sumita; Balaji, S.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Serruys, Yves; Robertson, C.; Ana, Alamo; Sundar, C. S.
2012-06-05
Model ODS alloy containing Fe-0.3% yttria was prepared by ball milling and hipping at high temperature and the effect of irradiation on stability of yttria nanoclusters in model ODS alloy is studied by dual beam ion irradiation using 5 MeV Fe{sup +} and 1.5 MeV He{sup +} ions. TEM studies on irradiated sample show that these particles are stable at 25 dpa and 40 appm He concentration. However, at 80 dpa and 360 appm He concentration Yttria particles were found to be unstable as evidenced from increase in average particle size and particle size distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santra, Sumita; Balaji, S.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Serruys, Yves; Robertson, C.; Ana, Alamo; Sundar, C. S.
2012-06-01
Model ODS alloy containing Fe-0.3% yttria was prepared by ball milling and hipping at high temperature and the effect of irradiation on stability of yttria nanoclusters in model ODS alloy is studied by dual beam ion irradiation using 5 MeV Fe+ and 1.5 MeV He+ ions. TEM studies on irradiated sample show that these particles are stable at 25 dpa and 40 appm He concentration. However, at 80 dpa and 360 appm He concentration Yttria particles were found to be unstable as evidenced from increase in average particle size and particle size distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, E.; Yang, J.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E. S.
2012-04-01
In the 1980s, Lenormand et al. carried out their pioneering work on displacement mechanisms of fluids in etched networks [1]. Here we further examine displacement mechanisms in relation to capillary filling rules for spontaneous imbibition. Understanding the role of spontaneous imbibition in fluid displacement is essential for refining pore network models. Generally, pore network models use simple capillary filling rules and here we examine the validity of these rules for spontaneous imbibition. Improvement of pore network models is vital for the process of 'up-scaling' to the field scale for both enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and carbon sequestration. In this work, we present our experimental microfluidic research into the displacement of both supercritical CO2/deionised water (DI) systems and analogous n-decane/air - where supercritical CO2 and n-decane are the respective wetting fluids - controlled by imbibition at the pore scale. We conducted our experiments in etched PMMA and silicon/glass micro-fluidic hydrophobic chips. We first investigate displacement in single etched pore junctions, followed by displacement in complex network designs representing actual rock thin sections, i.e. Berea sandstone and Sucrosic dolomite. The n-decane/air experiments were conducted under ambient conditions, whereas the supercritical CO2/DI water experiments were conducted under high temperature and pressure in order to replicate reservoir conditions. Fluid displacement in all experiments was captured via a high speed video microscope. The direction and type of displacement the imbibing fluid takes when it enters a junction is dependent on the number of possible channels in which the wetting fluid can imbibe, i.e. I1, I2 and I3 [1]. Depending on the experiment conducted, the micro-models were initially filled with either DI water or air before the wetting fluid was injected. We found that the imbibition of the wetting fluid through a single pore is primarily controlled by the
The effect of small-scale vertical mixing of horizontal momentum in a general circulation model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, P. H.; Somerville, R. C. J.; Quirk, W. J.
1974-01-01
Several experiments are described in which the sub-grid-scale vertical eddy viscosity in the GISS global general circulation model was varied. The results show that large viscosities suppress large-scale eddies in middle and high latitudes, but enhance the circulation in the tropical Hadley cell and increase the extent of the tropical easterlies. Comparison with observations shows that the GISS model requires eddy viscosities about 1 sq m per sec or less to give realistic results for middle and high latitudes, and eddy viscosities about 100 sq m per sec to give realistic results for low latitudes. A plausible mechanism for the implied increase in small-scale mixing in low latitudes is cumulus convection.
A dual-motive model of scapegoating: displacing blame to reduce guilt or increase control.
Rothschild, Zachary K; Landau, Mark J; Sullivan, Daniel; Keefer, Lucas A
2012-06-01
The authors present a model that specifies 2 psychological motives underlying scapegoating, defined as attributing inordinate blame for a negative outcome to a target individual or group, (a) maintaining perceived personal moral value by minimizing feelings of guilt over one's responsibility for a negative outcome and (b) maintaining perceived personal control by obtaining a clear explanation for a negative outcome that otherwise seems inexplicable. Three studies supported hypotheses derived from this dual-motive model. Framing a negative outcome (environmental destruction or climate change) as caused by one's own harmful actions (value threat) or unknown sources (control threat) both increased scapegoating, and these effects occurred indirectly through feelings of guilt and perceived personal control, respectively (Study 1), and were differentially moderated by affirmations of moral value and personal control (Study 2). Also, scapegoating in response to value threat versus control threat produced divergent, theoretically specified effects on self-perceptions and behavioral intentions (Study 3).
Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik
2013-01-01
An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software.
Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik
2013-01-01
An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software. PMID:24282389
Elaboration of A Numerical Model For The Study of The Dam Rupture Wave Displacement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iddir, R.; Laradi, N.
The essential purpose assigned to this present research is the contribution to the devel- opment of a model numeric two-dimensional permitting the simulation of a transient flow to free surface, quickly varied, resulting of a total and instantaneous rupture of a dam in a rectangular channel. For that to make, we present in a first section, the representative mathematical model of this flow, based on Saint Venat equations two- dimensional. An algorithm in finite differences is developed then to resolve this system of equations. The algorithm for needs of our research is to fractional step, based on the numeric diagram of Mac Cormack. During this simulation, we put in evidence the evolution in the time, the height and the speed of the flow in different positions, and this until drains it of the dam. We are also interested to the survey of the certain param- eter influence on the flow as the slope of the bottom, the roughness of Manning and the initial height of water in the reservoir. Finally to validate and to test performances of the model developed, we did several applications in the second section, then compared results gotten to the experimental and numeric results.
Fuzzy logic-based analogue forecasting and hybrid modelling of horizontal visibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuba, Zoltán; Bottyán, Zsolt
2017-02-01
Forecasting visibility is one of the greatest challenges in aviation meteorology. At the same time, high accuracy visibility forecasts can significantly reduce or make avoidable weather-related risk in aviation as well. To improve forecasting visibility, this research links fuzzy logic-based analogue forecasting and post-processed numerical weather prediction model outputs in hybrid forecast. Performance of analogue forecasting model was improved by the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process. Then, linear combination of the mentioned outputs was applied to create ultra-short term hybrid visibility prediction which gradually shifts the focus from statistical to numerical products taking their advantages during the forecast period. It gives the opportunity to bring closer the numerical visibility forecast to the observations even it is wrong initially. Complete verification of categorical forecasts was carried out; results are available for persistence and terminal aerodrome forecasts (TAF) as well in order to compare. The average value of Heidke Skill Score (HSS) of examined airports of analogue and hybrid forecasts shows very similar results even at the end of forecast period where the rate of analogue prediction in the final hybrid output is 0.1-0.2 only. However, in case of poor visibility (1000-2500 m), hybrid (0.65) and analogue forecasts (0.64) have similar average of HSS in the first 6 h of forecast period, and have better performance than persistence (0.60) or TAF (0.56). Important achievement that hybrid model takes into consideration physics and dynamics of the atmosphere due to the increasing part of the numerical weather prediction. In spite of this, its performance is similar to the most effective visibility forecasting methods and does not follow the poor verification results of clearly numerical outputs.
Modeling of Sediment Bed Behavior for Critical Velocity in Horizontal Piping
Rector, David R.; Stewart, Mark L.; Poloski, Adam P.
2009-10-01
This paper compares results from a predictive tool for modeling transport of a multiphase mixture (solids in a liquid) in a pipeline, (up to and including plugging) with experiments performed to support the Hanford site’s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The treatment of high-level waste at the DOE Office of River Protection’s WTP will involve the transfer of high solid content suspensions through pipelines. Pipeline plugging was identified as a significant potential issue by a panel of external experts. In response to their concerns an experimental effort was initiated at PNNL to determine the critical velocities for a variety of operating conditions. A computational method has been developed to predict the dynamic behavior of a sediment bed in response to the surrounding suspension flow. The flow field is modeled using a lattice kinetics method, similar to the lattice Boltzmann method, which scales very well on highly parallel computers. Turbulent quantities are calculated using a k-epsilon RANS model. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a process simulation capability for a wide range of applications. Solids are represented using two different continuum fields. The suspended solids are treated as passive scalars in the flow field, including terms for hindered settling and Brownian diffusion. Normal stresses created by the irreversible collisions of particles during shearing are added to the pressure tensor. The sediment bed interface is represented using a continuum phase field with a diffuse interface. The bed may change with time due to settling, erosion and deposition through convection. The erosion rates are calculated using the local shear stress obtained from the turbulence model. The method is compared with data from the PNNL pipeline experiments conducted at PNNL (Poloski et al. 2008). The experimental flow loop consists of 3-inch schedule 40 piping with instrumentation for determining flow rate and pressure gradient. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhanhui; Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Xingbing; Tang, Xingong; Chang, Liao
2016-08-01
We present a generic 1D forward modeling and inversion algorithm for transient electromagnetic (TEM) data with an arbitrary horizontal transmitting loop and receivers at any depth in a layered earth. Both the Hankel and sine transforms required in the forward algorithm are calculated using the filter method. The adjoint-equation method is used to derive the formulation of data sensitivity at any depth in non-permeable media. The inversion algorithm based on this forward modeling algorithm and sensitivity formulation is developed using the Gauss-Newton iteration method combined with the Tikhonov regularization. We propose a new data-weighting method to minimize the initial model dependence that enhances the convergence stability. On a laptop with a CPU of i7-5700HQ@3.5 GHz, the inversion iteration of a 200 layered input model with a single receiver takes only 0.34 s, while it increases to only 0.53 s for the data from four receivers at a same depth. For the case of four receivers at different depths, the inversion iteration runtime increases to 1.3 s. Modeling the data with an irregular loop and an equal-area square loop indicates that the effect of the loop geometry is significant at early times and vanishes gradually along the diffusion of TEM field. For a stratified earth, inversion of data from more than one receiver is useful in noise reducing to get a more credible layered earth. However, for a resistive layer shielded below a conductive layer, increasing the number of receivers on the ground does not have significant improvement in recovering the resistive layer. Even with a down-hole TEM sounding, the shielded resistive layer cannot be recovered if all receivers are above the shielded resistive layer. However, our modeling demonstrates remarkable improvement in detecting the resistive layer with receivers in or under this layer.
Ellis, Kenneth J; Yao, Manjiang; Shypailo, Roman J; Urlando, Alessandro; Wong, William W; Heird, William C
2007-01-01
A better understanding of the associations of early infant nutrition and growth with adult health requires accurate assessment of body composition in infancy. This study evaluated the performance of an infant-sized air-displacement plethysmograph (PEA POD Infant Body Composition System) for the measurement of body composition in infants. Healthy infants (n = 49; age: 1.7-23.0 wk; weight: 2.7-7.1 kg) were examined with the PEA POD system. Reference values for percentage body fat (%BF) were obtained from a 4-compartment (4-C) body-composition model, which was based on measurements of total body water, bone mineral content, and total body potassium. Mean (+/- SD) reproducibility of %BF values obtained with the PEA POD system was 0.4 +/- 1.3%. Mean %BF obtained with the PEA POD system (16.9 +/- 6.5%) did not differ significantly from that obtained with the 4-C model (16.3 +/- 7.2%), and the regression between %BF for the 4-C model and that for the PEA POD system (R2 = 0.73, SEE = 3.7%BF) did not deviate significantly from the line of identity (y = x). The PEA POD system provided a reliable, accurate, and immediate assessment of %BF in infants. Because of its ease of use, good precision, minimum safety concerns, and bedside accessibility, the PEA POD system is highly suitable for monitoring changes in body composition during infant growth in both the research and clinical settings.
Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor
Duden, Thomas
2014-04-22
A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ouazzani, Jalil; Rosenberger, Franz
1990-01-01
A systematic numerical study of the MOCVD of GaAs from trimethylgallium and arsine in hydrogen or nitrogen carrier gas at atmospheric pressure is reported. Three-dimensional effects are explored for CVD reactors with large and small cross-sectional aspect ratios, and the effects on growth rate uniformity of tilting the susceptor are investigated for various input flow rates. It is found that, for light carrier gases, thermal diffusion must be included in the model. Buoyancy-driven three-dimensional flow effects can greatly influence the growth rate distribution through the reactor. The importance of the proper design of the lateral thermal boundary conditions for obtaining layers of uniform thickness is emphasized.
Stable, accurate and efficient computation of normal modes for horizontal stratified models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Bo; Chen, Xiaofei
2016-08-01
We propose an adaptive root-determining strategy that is very useful when dealing with trapped modes or Stoneley modes whose energies become very insignificant on the free surface in the presence of low-velocity layers or fluid layers in the model. Loss of modes in these cases or inaccuracy in the calculation of these modes may then be easily avoided. Built upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficients, the concept of `family of secular functions' that we herein call `adaptive mode observers' is thus naturally introduced to implement this strategy, the underlying idea of which has been distinctly noted for the first time and may be generalized to other applications such as free oscillations or applied to other methods in use when these cases are encountered. Additionally, we have made further improvements upon the generalized reflection/transmission coefficient method; mode observers associated with only the free surface and low-velocity layers (and the fluid/solid interface if the model contains fluid layers) are adequate to guarantee no loss and high precision at the same time of any physically existent modes without excessive calculations. Finally, the conventional definition of the fundamental mode is reconsidered, which is entailed in the cases under study. Some computational aspects are remarked on. With the additional help afforded by our superior root-searching scheme and the possibility of speeding calculation using a less number of layers aided by the concept of `turning point', our algorithm is remarkably efficient as well as stable and accurate and can be used as a powerful tool for widely related applications.
Zumstein, Matthias A; Schiessl, Philippe; Ambuehl, Benedikt; Bolliger, Lilianna; Weihs, Johannes; Maurer, Martin H; Moor, Beat K; Schaer, Michael; Raniga, Sumit
2017-05-25
The aim of this study was to identify the most accurate and reliable quantitative radiographic parameters for assessing vertical and horizontal instability in different Rockwood grades of acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) separations. Furthermore, the effect of projectional variation on these parameters was investigated in obtaining lateral Alexander view radiographs. A Sawbone model of a scapula with clavicle was mounted on a holding device, and acromioclavicular dislocations as per the Rockwood classification system were simulated with the addition of horizontal posterior displacement. Projectional variations for each injury type were performed by tilting/rotating the Sawbone construct in the coronal, sagittal or axial plane. Radiographic imaging in the form of an anterior-posterior Zanca view and a lateral Alexander view were taken for each injury type and each projectional variation. Five newly defined radiographic parameters for assessing horizontal and vertical displacement as well as commonly used coracoclavicular distance view were measured. Reliability, validity and the effect of projectional variation were investigated for these radiographic measurements. All radiographic parameters showed excellent intra- and interobserver reliability. The validity was excellent for the acromial centre line to dorsal clavicle (AC-DC) in vertical displacement and for the glenoid centre line to posterior clavicle (GC-PC) in horizontal displacement, whilst the remaining measurements showed moderate validity. For AC-DC and GC-PC, convergent validity expressed strong correlation to the effective distance and discriminant validity demonstrated its ability to differentiate between various grades of ACJ dislocations. The effect of projectional variation increased with the degree of deviation and was maximal (3 mm) for AC-DC in 20° anteverted malpositioning and for GC-PC in 20° retroverted malpositioning. AC-DC and the GC-PC are two novel quantitative radiographic parameters of
Li, Xin; Gao, Deli; Chen, Xuyue
2017-06-08
Hydraulic extended-reach limit (HERL) model of horizontal extended-reach well (ERW) can predict the maximum measured depth (MMD) of the horizontal ERW. The HERL refers to the well's MMD when drilling fluid cannot be normally circulated by drilling pump. Previous model analyzed the following two constraint conditions, drilling pump rated pressure and rated power. However, effects of the allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate (Q min ≤ Q ≤ Q max ) were not considered. In this study, three cases of HERL model are proposed according to the relationship between allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate and rated flow rate of drilling pump (Q r ). A horizontal ERW is analyzed to predict its HERL, especially its horizontal-section limit (L h ). Results show that when Q min ≤ Q r ≤ Q max (Case I), L h depends both on horizontal-section limit based on rated pump pressure (L h1 ) and horizontal-section limit based on rated pump power (L h2 ); when Q min < Q max < Q r (Case II), L h is exclusively controlled by L h1 ; while L h is only determined by L h2 when Q r < Q min < Q max (Case III). Furthermore, L h1 first increases and then decreases with the increase in drilling fluid flow rate, while L h2 keeps decreasing as the drilling fluid flow rate increases. The comprehensive model provides a more accurate prediction on HERL.
FEM-based Surface Displacement Modeling of Magma Intrusions at Kilauea Volcano
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charco, M.; González, P. J.; Galán del Sastre, P.; Negredo, A. M.
2015-12-01
Volcanic deformation is the surface expression of the internal dynamics of an inherently complex system resulting from the interaction of magma with the surrounding rocks. Geodetic techniques, as Global Positioning System (GPS) and/or Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), are being extensively used to monitor such ground deformation. Nevertheless, it is impossible to directly observe the processes at depth that cause the observed ground deformation. The interpretation of geodetic data requires both, mathematical modeling to simulate the observed signals and inversion approaches to estimate the deformation source parameters. In this study we provide a numerical tool for interpreting geodetic data by solving in an efficient and accurate way the inverse problem to estimate the optimal parameters for magmatic sources (spherical magma chambers and tensile dislocations). In doing so, we propose a Finite Element Method (FEM) for the calculation of Green functions in an heterogeneous medium. The key aspect of the methodology lies in how to incorporate the source into the model and in applying the reciprocity relationship between the station and the source. In our approach, deformation sources are independent of the simulation mesh. The search for the best fit point source(s) is conducted for an array of 3-D locations extending below a predefined volume region. The total number of Green functions is reduced to the number of the observation points by using the reciprocity relationship. We apply this methodology to the recent inflation observed at Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in May 2015, observed with the new Sentinel-1 radar interferometry satellite mission, to report the magma transport along the zone.
The photoelectric displacement converter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dragoner, Valeriu V.
2005-02-01
In the article are examined questions of constructing photoelectric displacement converter satisfying demands that are stated above. Converter has channels of approximate and precise readings. The approximate reading may be accomplished either by the method of reading from a code mask or by the method of the consecutive calculation of optical scale gaps number. Phase interpolator of mouar strips" gaps is determined as a precise measuring. It is shown mathematical model of converter that allow evaluating errors and operating speed of conversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce
2010-05-01
model predictions of soil moisture content and soil temperature with measurements at different GCHP locations over the UK. The combined effect of environment dynamics and horizontal GCHP technical properties on long-term GCHP performance will be assessed using a detailed land surface model (JULES: Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, Meteorological Office, UK) with additional equations embedded describing the interaction between GCHP heat exchangers and the surrounding soil. However, a number of key soil physical processes are currently not incorporated in JULES, such as groundwater flow, which, especially in lowland areas, can have an important effect on the heat flow between soil and HE. Furthermore, the interaction between HE and soil may also cause soil vapour and moisture fluxes. These will affect soil thermal conductivity and hence heat flow between the HE and the surrounding soil, which will in turn influence system performance. The project will address these issues. We propose to drive an improved version of JULES (with equations to simulate GCHP exchange embedded), with long-term gridded (1 km) atmospheric, soil and vegetation data (reflecting current and future environmental conditions) to reliably assess the mitigation potential of GCHPs over the entire domain of the UK, where uptake of GCHPs has been low traditionally. In this way we can identify areas that are most suitable for the installation of GCHPs. Only then recommendations can be made to local and regional governments, for example, on how to improve the mitigation potential in less suitable areas by adjusting GCHP configurations or design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levannier, A.; Delhomme, J.
2003-12-01
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) projects are now used to temporarily store water in the subsurface and to recover it when needed. When freshwater is injected into a brackish aquifer, a transition zone forms, due to mixing, diffusion and gravity. The front displacement and the width of the transition zone depend on the characteristics of the aquifer but, from repeated surveys conducted with an array of downhole electrodes placed against the borehole wall, the changes in the front position/shape can be continuously monitored. Synthetic data were created for a targeted ASR situation through hydrodynamic and hydrodispersive modeling (performed with a finite difference scheme) that gave the salt concentration distribution in the aquifer, as a function of space and time, during ASR inject/store/pump cycles. Concentrations were converted first into water resistivity values Rw, and then into formation resistivity values Rt through Archie's law (1) calibrated on logging data: \\begin{equation} R_{t}=\\frac{a}{\\phi^{m}}R_w where φ is the porosity, and a and m depend on the lithology. Based on this information, the response of downhole electrodes was computed by solving equation (2) (using a finite element modeling code) for electrical surveys conducted at repeated times during the planned ASR cycles, and in particular during the initial ASR testing phase: \\begin{equation} \
Aggelopoulos, C A; Tsakiroglou, C D
2009-04-01
This work focuses on the phenomenon of the immiscible two-phase flow of water and oil in saturated heterogeneous soil columns. The goal is to develop a fast and reliable method for quantifying soil heterogeneities for incorporation into the relevant capillary pressure and relative permeability functions. Such data are commonly used as input data in simulators of contaminant transport in the subsurface. Rate-controlled drainage experiments are performed on undisturbed soil columns and the transient response of the axial distribution of water saturation is determined from electrical measurements. The transient responses of the axial distribution of water saturation and total pressure drop are fitted with the multi-flowpath model (MFPM) where the pore space is regarded as a system of parallel paths of different permeability. The MFPM enables us to quantify soil heterogeneity at two scales: the micro-scale parameters describe on average the effects of pore network heterogeneities on the two-phase flow pattern; the macro-scale parameters indicate the variability of permeability at the scale of interconnected pore networks. The capillary pressure curve is consistent with that measured with mercury intrusion porosimetry over the low pressure range. The oil relative permeability increases sharply at a very low oil saturation (<10(-3)) and tends to a high end value. The water relative permeability decreases abruptly at a low oil saturation (~0.1), whereas the irreducible wetting phase saturation is quite high. The foregoing characteristics of the two-phase flow properties are associated with critical (preferential) flowpaths that comprise a very small percentage of the total pore volume, control the overall hydraulic conductivity, and are consistent with the very broad range of pore-length scales usually probed in soil porous matrix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gani, Abdullah; Mohammadi, Kasra; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Khorasanizadeh, Hossein; Seyed Danesh, Amir; Piri, Jamshid; Ismail, Zuraini; Zamani, Mazdak
2016-08-01
The availability of accurate solar radiation data is essential for designing as well as simulating the solar energy systems. In this study, by employing the long-term daily measured solar data, a neural network auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (NN-ARX) is applied to predict daily horizontal global solar radiation using day of the year as the sole input. The prime aim is to provide a convenient and precise way for rapid daily global solar radiation prediction, for the stations and their immediate surroundings with such an observation, without utilizing any meteorological-based inputs. To fulfill this, seven Iranian cities with different geographical locations and solar radiation characteristics are considered as case studies. The performance of NN-ARX is compared against the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The achieved results prove that day of the year-based prediction of daily global solar radiation by both NN-ARX and ANFIS models would be highly feasible owing to the accurate predictions attained. Nevertheless, the statistical analysis indicates the superiority of NN-ARX over ANFIS. In fact, the NN-ARX model represents high potential to follow the measured data favorably for all cities. For the considered cities, the attained statistical indicators of mean absolute bias error, root mean square error, and coefficient of determination for the NN-ARX models are in the ranges of 0.44-0.61 kWh/m2, 0.50-0.71 kWh/m2, and 0.78-0.91, respectively.
Mahato, Niladri K; Montuelle, Stephane; Goubeaux, Craig; Cotton, John; Williams, Susan; Thomas, James; Clark, Brian C
2017-05-01
The purpose of this study was to develop a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based modeling technique for measuring intervertebral displacements. Here, we present the measurement bias and reliability of the developmental work using a porcine spine model. Porcine lumbar vertebral segments were fitted in a custom-built apparatus placed within an externally calibrated imaging volume of an open-MRI scanner. The apparatus allowed movement of the vertebrae through pre-assigned magnitudes of sagittal and coronal translation and rotation. The induced displacements were imaged with static (T1) and fast dynamic (2D HYCE S) pulse sequences. These images were imported into animation software, in which these images formed a background 'scene'. Three-dimensional models of vertebrae were created using static axial scans from the specimen and then transferred into the animation environment. In the animation environment, the user manually moved the models (rotoscoping) to perform model-to-'scene' matching to fit the models to their image silhouettes and assigned anatomical joint axes to the motion-segments. The animation protocol quantified the experimental translation and rotation displacements between the vertebral models. Accuracy of the technique was calculated as 'bias' using a linear mixed effects model, average percentage error and root mean square errors. Between-session reliability was examined by computing intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and the coefficient of variations (CV). For translation trials, a constant bias (β0) of 0.35 (±0.11) mm was detected for the 2D HYCE S sequence (p=0.01). The model did not demonstrate significant additional bias with each mm increase in experimental translation (β1Displacement=0.01mm; p=0.69). Using the T1 sequence for the same assessments did not significantly change the bias (p>0.05). ICC values for the T1 and 2D HYCE S pulse sequences were 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. For rotation trials, a constant bias (β0) of 0
Algorithms and a short description of the D1_Flow program for numerical modeling of one-dimensional steady-state flow in horizontally heterogeneous aquifers with uneven sloping bases are presented. The algorithms are based on the Dupuit-Forchheimer approximations. The program per...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newsom, William A., Jr.
1960-01-01
An investigation has been made to study the effect of ground proximity on the aerodynamic characteristics of two jet vertical-take-off-and-landing airplane models in which the fuselage remains in a horizontal attitude for the take-off and landing. The first model (called the tilt-wing model) had a tilting wing-engine assembly which was set at 90 deg incidence for the take-off and landing. The second model, called the deflected-jet model) had a cascade of retractable turning vanes to deflect the exhaust of the horizontally mounted jet engines downward for vertical take-off and landing while the entire model remained in a horizontal attitude. With the models at various heights above the ground in the take-off and landing configuration, the lift, drag, and pitching moment were measured and tuft surveys were made to determine the flow field caused by the jet exhaust. The tilt-wing model experienced a loss of lift of less than 3 percent near the ground. The deflected-jet model, however, suffered losses in lift as high as 45 percent near the ground because of a low pressure region under the model caused by the entrainment of air by the jet exhaust as it spread out along the ground. This loss in lift for the deflected-jet configuration could probably be reduced to less than 5 percent by the use of a longer landing gear and a high wing location.
Anderman, Evan R.; Kipp, K.L.; Hill, Mary C.; Valstar, Johan; Neupauer, R.M.
2002-01-01
This report documents the model-layer variable-direction horizontal anisotropy (LVDA) capability of the Hydrogeologic-Unit Flow (HUF) Package of MODFLOW-2000. The LVDA capability allows the principal directions of horizontal anisotropy to be different than the model-grid row and column directions, and for the directions to vary on a cell-by-cell basis within model layers. The HUF Package calculates effective hydraulic properties for model grid cells based on hydraulic properties of hydrogeologic units with thicknesses defined independently of the model layers. These hydraulic properties include, among other characteristics, hydraulic conductivity and a horizontal anisotropy ratio. Using the LVDA capability, horizontal anisotropy direction is defined for model grid cells within which one or more hydrogeologic units may occur. For each grid cell, the HUF Package calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the primary direction of anisotropy using the hydrogeologic-unit hydraulic conductivities, and calculates the effective horizontal hydraulic conductivity along the orthogonal anisotropy direction using the effective primary direction hydraulic conductivities and horizontal anisotropy ratios. The direction assigned to the model layer effective primary hydraulic conductivity is specified using a new data set defined by the LVDA capability, when active, to calculate coefficients needed to solve the ground-water flow equation. Use of the LVDA capability is illustrated in four simulation examples, which also serve to verify hydraulic heads, advective-travel paths, and sensitivities calculated using the LVDA capability. This version of the LVDA capability defines variable-direction horizontal anisotropy using model layers, not the hydrogeologic units defined by the HUF Package. This difference needs to be taken into account when designing model layers and hydrogeologic units to produce simulations that accurately represent a given field problem. This
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freed, Andrew M.; Hashima, Akinori; Becker, Thorsten W.; Okaya, David A.; Sato, Hiroshi; Hatanaka, Yuki
2017-02-01
We developed a 3-D, viscoelastic finite element model of the M9 2011 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake capable of predicting postseismic displacements due to viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip. We consider seismically inferred slab geometries associated with the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plate and a wide range of candidate viscoelastic rheologies. For each case, we invert for afterslip based on residual surface displacements (observed GPS minus that predicted due to viscoelastic relaxation) to develop combined viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip models. We are able to find a mechanical model that fully explains all observed geodetic on-land and seafloor horizontal and vertical postseismic displacements. We find that postseismic displacements are in about equal parts due to viscoelastic relaxation and afterslip, but their patterns are spatially distinct. Accurately predicting both horizontal and vertical on-land postseismic displacements requires a mantle wedge viscosity structure that is depth dependent, reflecting the manner in which temperature, pressure, and water content influence viscosity. No lateral heterogeneities within the mantle wedge viscosity structure beneath northern Honshu are required. Westward-directed postseismic seafloor displacements may be due flow via low-temperature, plastic creep within the lower half of a Pacific lithosphere weakened by plate bending. The distribution of afterslip is controlled by the location of coseismic slip from the Tohoku-oki and other regional historic earthquakes. The paradigm by which afterslip is thought of as the dominant postseismic mechanism immediately following earthquakes, with viscoelastic relaxation to follow in later years, is shown to no longer be valid.
Sperber, K.R.; Potter, G.L.; Boyle, J.S.; Hameed, S.
1993-11-01
The ability of the ECMWF model (Cycle 33) to simulate the Indian and East Asian summer monsoon is evaluated at four different horizontal resolutions: T21, T42, T63, and T106. Generally, with respect to the large scale features of the circulation, the largest differences among the simulations occur at T42 relative to T21. However, on regional scales, important differences among the high frequency temporal variabilitY serve as a further critical test of the model`s ability to simulate the monsoon. More generally, the results indicate the importance of evaluating high frequency time scales as a component of the climate system. T106 best captures both the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Indian and East Asian Monsoon, while T42 fails to correctly simulate the sequence and development of synoptic scale milestones that characterize the monsoon flow. In particular, T106 is superior at simulating the development and migration of the monsoon trough over the Bay of Bengal. In the T42 simulation, the development of the monsoon occurs one month earlier than typically observed. At this time the trough is incorrectly located adjacent to the east coast of India which results in an underestimate of precipitation over the Burma/Thailand region. This early establishment of the monsoon trough affects the evolution of the East-Asian monsoon and yields excessive preseason rainfall over the Mei-yu region. EOF analysis of precipitation over China indicates that T106 best simulates the Mei-yu mode of variability associated with an oscillation of the rainband that gives rise to periods of enhanced rainfall over the Yangize River Valley. The coarse resolution of T21 precludes simulation of the aforementioned regional scale monsoon flows.
Dicyclic horizontal symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Otto Cho Wing
In the very successful standard theory of particle physics, the occurrence of repeated quark and lepton flavors, and especially their peculiar mass spectrum, can be accommodated parametrically but is largely unexplained. The present dissertation is an investigation into dicyclic horizontal symmetries as a theory addressing this elusive problem of flavor, as well as some other related issues in particle physics. A horizontal symmetry is a supplement to the perspective based on the experimentally well-established standard model, and its (supersymmetric) unification theories. Dicyclic groups are a special class of discrete non- abelian groups. The most pressing part of the flavor problem in the standard model is the existence of three families of (fermionic) matter and the unnaturally large hierarchy among the parameters describing their masses and mixing. In particular, the top quark is singled out as the only fermion having a natural mass at electroweak breaking scale. While bottom and tau masses may be suppressed by the Higgs vacuum expectation value, the small masses of the other two families beg an explanation. The supersymmetric counterpart of the problem is the need for a high degree of degeneracy especially among the squarks of the lighter two families. We first analyze the phenomenologically-viable quark and squark mass matrix textures using a simple algebraic method, paying particular attention to a 2 + 1 family structure. These serve as inputs for our model building exercises. We next illustrate how the various theoretical and phenomenological constraints single out a gauged dicyclic group as the most appealing candidate for a horizontal symmetry and discuss systematically our major model building strategies. A few models obtained along this line are then presented. These include a supersymmetric SU(5) /otimes Q12 /otimes U(1) model that successfully produces a phenomenologically-viable mass matrix texture pattern for the quarks and squarks.
Moro, Erik A.
2012-06-07
Optical fiber sensors offer advantages over traditional electromechanical sensors, making them particularly well-suited for certain measurement applications. Generally speaking, optical fiber sensors respond to a desired measurand through modulation of an optical signal's intensity, phase, or wavelength. Practically, non-contacting fiber optic displacement sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. Intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensors relate target displacement to a power measurement. The simplest intensity-modulated sensor architectures are not robust to environmental and hardware fluctuations, since such variability may cause changes in the measured power level that falsely indicate target displacement. Differential intensity-modulated sensors have been implemented, offering robustness to such intensity fluctuations, and the speed of these sensors is limited only by the combined speed of the photodetection hardware and the data acquisition system (kHz-MHz). The primary disadvantages of intensity-modulated sensing are the relatively low accuracy (?m-mm for low-power sensors) and the lack of robustness, which consequently must be designed, often with great difficulty, into the sensor's architecture. White light interferometric displacement sensors, on the other hand, offer increased accuracy and robustness. Unlike their monochromatic-interferometer counterparts, white light interferometric sensors offer absolute, unambiguous displacement measurements over large displacement ranges (cm for low-power, 5 mW, sources), necessitating no initial calibration, and requiring no environmental or feedback control. The primary disadvantage of white light interferometric displacement sensors is that their utility in dynamic testing scenarios is limited, both by hardware bandwidth and by their inherent high-sensitivity to Doppler-effects. The decision of whether to use either an intensity
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Stationary Compression Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Part 60, Subpt. IIII, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Emission Standards for...-2007 Model Year Engines With a Displacement of 1 Table 1 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyons, Thomas M.; Knight, Glen A.
A model project was conducted to demonstrate how Chrysler, in partnership with the education community and the government, could provide technical training to enable displaced workers to contribute to the "H-Body" car launch, to improve their job skills, and to enhance their future employability. The training was conducted on a pilot…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samolyuk, G. D.; Osetsky, Y. N.; Stoller, R. E.
2015-10-01
We used molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades to characterize the nature of primary radiation damage in 3C-SiC. We demonstrated that the most commonly used interatomic potentials are inconsistent with ab initio calculations of defect energetics. Both the Tersoff potential used in this work and a modified embedded-atom method potential reveal a barrier to recombination of the carbon interstitial and carbon vacancy which is much higher than the density functional theory (DFT) results. The barrier obtained with a newer potential by Gao and Weber is closer to the DFT result. This difference results in significant differences in the cascade production of point defects. We have completed both 10 keV and 50 keV cascade simulations in 3C-SiC at a range of temperatures. In contrast to the Tersoff potential, the Gao-Weber potential produces almost twice as many C vacancies and interstitials at the time of maximum disorder (∼0.2 ps) but only about 25% more stable defects at the end of the simulation. Only about 20% of the carbon defects produced with the Tersoff potential recombine during the in-cascade annealing phase, while about 60% recombine with the Gao-Weber potential. The Gao-Weber potential appears to give a more realistic description of cascade dynamics in SiC, but still has some shortcomings when the defect migration barriers are compared to the ab initio results.
Samolyuk, German D.; Osetskiy, Yury N.; Stoller, Roger E.
2015-06-03
We used molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades to characterize the nature of primary radiation damage in 3C-SiC. We demonstrated that the most commonly used interatomic potentials are inconsistent with ab initio calculations of defect energetics. Both the Tersoff potential used in this work and a modified embedded-atom method potential reveal a barrier to recombination of the carbon interstitial and carbon vacancy which is much higher than the density functional theory (DFT) results. The barrier obtained with a newer potential by Gao and Weber is closer to the DFT result. This difference results in significant differences in the cascade production of point defects. We have completed both 10 keV and 50 keV cascade simulations in 3C-SiC at a range of temperatures. In contrast to the Tersoff potential, the Gao-Weber potential produces almost twice as many C vacancies and interstitials at the time of maximum disorder (~0.2 ps) but only about 25% more stable defects at the end of the simulation. Only about 20% of the carbon defects produced with the Tersoff potential recombine during the in-cascade annealing phase, while about 60% recombine with the Gao-Weber potential.
Samolyuk, German D.; Osetskiy, Yury N.; Stoller, Roger E.
2015-06-03
We used molecular dynamics modeling of atomic displacement cascades to characterize the nature of primary radiation damage in 3C-SiC. We demonstrated that the most commonly used interatomic potentials are inconsistent with ab initio calculations of defect energetics. Both the Tersoff potential used in this work and a modified embedded-atom method potential reveal a barrier to recombination of the carbon interstitial and carbon vacancy which is much higher than the density functional theory (DFT) results. The barrier obtained with a newer potential by Gao and Weber is closer to the DFT result. This difference results in significant differences in the cascademore » production of point defects. We have completed both 10 keV and 50 keV cascade simulations in 3C-SiC at a range of temperatures. In contrast to the Tersoff potential, the Gao-Weber potential produces almost twice as many C vacancies and interstitials at the time of maximum disorder (~0.2 ps) but only about 25% more stable defects at the end of the simulation. Only about 20% of the carbon defects produced with the Tersoff potential recombine during the in-cascade annealing phase, while about 60% recombine with the Gao-Weber potential.« less
Shields, Christine A.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.; Meehl, Gerald A.
2016-06-02
The global fully coupled half-degree Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) was integrated for a suite of climate change ensemble simulations including five historical runs, five Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 [RCP8.5) runs, and a long Pre-Industrial control run. This study focuses on precipitation at regional scales and its sensitivity to horizontal resolution. The half-degree historical CCSM4 simulations are compared to observations, where relevant, and to the standard 1° CCSM4. Both the halfdegree and 1° resolutions are coupled to a nominal 1° ocean. North American and South Asian/Indian monsoon regimes are highlighted because these regimes demonstrate improvements due to highermore » resolution, primarily because of better-resolved topography. Agriculturally sensitive areas are analyzed and include Southwest, Central, and Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australia. Both mean and extreme precipitation is discussed for convective and large-scale precipitation processes. Convective precipitation tends to decrease with increasing resolution and large-scale precipitation tends to increase. Improvements for the half-degree agricultural regions can be found for mean and extreme precipitation in the Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australian regions. Climate change responses differ between the model resolutions for the U.S. Southwest/Central regions and are seasonally dependent in the Southeast and Australian regions. Both resolutions project a clear drying signal across Southern Europe due to increased greenhouse warming. As a result, differences between resolutions tied to the representation of convective and large-scale precipitation play an important role in the character of the climate change and depend on regional influences.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shields, Christine A.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.; Meehl, Gerald A.
2016-06-01
The global fully coupled half-degree Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) was integrated for a suite of climate change ensemble simulations including five historical runs, five Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 [RCP8.5) runs, and a long Pre-Industrial control run. This study focuses on precipitation at regional scales and its sensitivity to horizontal resolution. The half-degree historical CCSM4 simulations are compared to observations, where relevant, and to the standard 1° CCSM4. Both the half-degree and 1° resolutions are coupled to a nominal 1° ocean. North American and South Asian/Indian monsoon regimes are highlighted because these regimes demonstrate improvements due to higher resolution, primarily because of better-resolved topography. Agriculturally sensitive areas are analyzed and include Southwest, Central, and Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australia. Both mean and extreme precipitation is discussed for convective and large-scale precipitation processes. Convective precipitation tends to decrease with increasing resolution and large-scale precipitation tends to increase. Improvements for the half-degree agricultural regions can be found for mean and extreme precipitation in the Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australian regions. Climate change responses differ between the model resolutions for the U.S. Southwest/Central regions and are seasonally dependent in the Southeast and Australian regions. Both resolutions project a clear drying signal across Southern Europe due to increased greenhouse warming. Differences between resolutions tied to the representation of convective and large-scale precipitation play an important role in the character of the climate change and depend on regional influences.
Nykyri, Johanna; Niemi, Outi; Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E Tapio
2012-01-01
Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot
Koskinen, Patrik; Nokso-Koivisto, Jussi; Pasanen, Miia; Broberg, Martin; Plyusnin, Ilja; Törönen, Petri; Holm, Liisa; Pirhonen, Minna; Palva, E. Tapio
2012-01-01
Soft rot disease is economically one of the most devastating bacterial diseases affecting plants worldwide. In this study, we present novel insights into the phylogeny and virulence of the soft rot model Pectobacterium sp. SCC3193, which was isolated from a diseased potato stem in Finland in the early 1980s. Genomic approaches, including proteome and genome comparisons of all sequenced soft rot bacteria, revealed that SCC3193, previously included in the species Pectobacterium carotovorum, can now be more accurately classified as Pectobacterium wasabiae. Together with the recently revised phylogeny of a few P. carotovorum strains and an increasing number of studies on P. wasabiae, our work indicates that P. wasabiae has been unnoticed but present in potato fields worldwide. A combination of genomic approaches and in planta experiments identified features that separate SCC3193 and other P. wasabiae strains from the rest of soft rot bacteria, such as the absence of a type III secretion system that contributes to virulence of other soft rot species. Experimentally established virulence determinants include the putative transcriptional regulator SirB, two partially redundant type VI secretion systems and two horizontally acquired clusters (Vic1 and Vic2), which contain predicted virulence genes. Genome comparison also revealed other interesting traits that may be related to life in planta or other specific environmental conditions. These traits include a predicted benzoic acid/salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase of eukaryotic origin. The novelties found in this work indicate that soft rot bacteria have a reservoir of unknown traits that may be utilized in the poorly understood latent stage in planta. The genomic approaches and the comparison of the model strain SCC3193 to other sequenced Pectobacterium strains, including the type strain of P. wasabiae, provides a solid basis for further investigation of the virulence, distribution and phylogeny of soft rot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostovan, Y.; Uzol, O.
2016-09-01
The focus of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of winglets on the performance of two interacting similar horizontal axis model wind turbines. For this purpose, a downwind winglet is designed and manufactured to be attached to the blade tips of the upstream turbine. A set of wing extensions with the same length as the winglets is also produced to be compared to the winglets. Power and thrust coefficients of both turbines are measured with winglets as well as with wing extensions attached to the blade tips of the upstream turbine and are compared to the baseline case (rectangular tip without any tip devices). The model turbines are three bladed and have a rotor diameter of 0.94 m. The measurements are performed in two different wind tunnels (closed test section and open jet). For both sets of measurements, winglets have a noticeable increasing effect on the power coefficient of the individual turbine. There is an increase in the thrust coefficient as well. Measurements on the second turbine are done while it is positioned at downstream locations in line with the upstream turbine. Results show that it produces less power while operating in the wake of the upstream turbine with winglets. However, the overall power efficiency of two turbines can increase for the wingletted case. Moreover, results with wing extensions show that although upstream turbine produces more power with wing extensions attached, the power coefficient remains the same as the baseline case due to growth in rotor swept area and hence, it is less than the power coefficient of wingletted turbine.
Shields, Christine A.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.; Meehl, Gerald A.
2016-06-02
The global fully coupled half-degree Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) was integrated for a suite of climate change ensemble simulations including five historical runs, five Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 [RCP8.5) runs, and a long Pre-Industrial control run. This study focuses on precipitation at regional scales and its sensitivity to horizontal resolution. The half-degree historical CCSM4 simulations are compared to observations, where relevant, and to the standard 1° CCSM4. Both the halfdegree and 1° resolutions are coupled to a nominal 1° ocean. North American and South Asian/Indian monsoon regimes are highlighted because these regimes demonstrate improvements due to higher resolution, primarily because of better-resolved topography. Agriculturally sensitive areas are analyzed and include Southwest, Central, and Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australia. Both mean and extreme precipitation is discussed for convective and large-scale precipitation processes. Convective precipitation tends to decrease with increasing resolution and large-scale precipitation tends to increase. Improvements for the half-degree agricultural regions can be found for mean and extreme precipitation in the Southeast U.S., Southern Europe, and Australian regions. Climate change responses differ between the model resolutions for the U.S. Southwest/Central regions and are seasonally dependent in the Southeast and Australian regions. Both resolutions project a clear drying signal across Southern Europe due to increased greenhouse warming. As a result, differences between resolutions tied to the representation of convective and large-scale precipitation play an important role in the character of the climate change and depend on regional influences.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, Lewis R.; Williams, James L.
1958-01-01
A research model of an airplane with a configuration suitable for supersonic flight was tested at transonic speeds in order to establish the effects on longitudinal and lateral stability of certain changes in both wing sweep and height of the horizontal tail. Two wings of aspect ratio 3 and taper ratio 0.15, one having the quarter-chord line swept back 30 deg and the other 45 deg, were each tested with the horizontal tail of the model in a low and in a high position. One configuration was also tested with fuselage strakes. The tests were made at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.17 and Reynolds numbers from 1.9 x 10(exp 6) to 2.6 x 10(exp 6). The results indicated that a low horizontal-tail position (below the wing-chord plane) gave positive longitudinal stability for the model for all angles of attack used (angles of attack up to 24 deg); whereas, a higher tail position (above the wing-chord plane) resulted in a large reduction in stability at moderate angles of attack. With the higher horizontal tail, the 30 deg-swept-wing model had somewhat more stability than the 45 deg-swept-wing model at subsonic Mach numbers. With the lower tail, the 45 deg-swept-wing model had slightly more stability at all Mach numbers. The model with the 30 deg swept wing had greater directional stability with the tail in the higher rather than the lower position, but the opposite was true for the 45 deg-swept-wing model. The directional stability decreased sharply at high angles of attack; this characteristic was alleviated by the use of fuselage strakes which, however, proved to be detrimental to the longitudinal stability of the model tested.
Characterization of Horizontal Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Using Markov Model-Based Complex Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Li-Dan; Jin, Ning-De; Gao, Zhong-Ke
2013-05-01
Horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow widely exists in many physical systems and chemical engineering processes. Compared with vertical upward gas-liquid two-phase flow, investigations on dynamic behavior underlying horizontal gas-liquid flows are quite limited. Complex network provides a powerful framework for time series analysis of complex dynamical systems. We use a network generation method based on Markov transition probability to infer directed weighted complex networks from signals measured from horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow experiment and find that the networks corresponding to different flow patterns exhibit different network structure. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of horizontal gas-liquid flows, we construct a number of complex networks under different flow conditions, and explore the network indices for each constructed network. In addition, we investigate the sample entropy of different flow patterns. Our results suggest that the network statistic can well represent the complexity in the transition among different flow patterns and further allows characterizing the interface fluctuation behavior in horizontal gas-liquid two-phase flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langer, Maria; Kühn, Michael
2016-04-01
Shallow groundwater resources could be possibly affected by intruding brines, which are displaced along hydraulically conductive faults as result of subsurface activities like CO2 injection. To avoid salinization of potable freshwater aquifers an early detection of intruding saline water is necessary, especially in regions where an initial geogenic salinization already exists. Our study is based on work of Tillner et al. [1] and Langer et al. [2] who investigated the influence of permeable fault systems on brine displacement for the prospective storage site Beeskow-Birkholz in the Northeast German Basin. With a 3D regional scale model considering the deep groundwater system, they demonstrated that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on the effective damage zone volume, the initial salinity distribution and overlying reservoirs [2], while permeability of fault zones does not influence salinization of shallower aquifers significantly [1]. Here we extracted a 2D cross section regarding the upper 220 m of the study area mainly represented by shallow freshwater aquifers, but also considering an initial geogenic salinization [3]. We took flow rates of the intruding brines from the previous studies [2] and implemented species transport simulations with the program code SHEMAT [4]. Results are investigated and interpreted with the hydrochemical genesis model GEBAH [5] which has been already applied as early warning of saltwater intrusions into freshwater aquifers and surface water [6]. GEBAH allows a categorization of groundwater by the ion ratios of the dissolved components and offers a first indicative determination for an existence and the intensity of saline water intrusion in shallow groundwater aquifer, independent of the concentration of the solution. With our model we investigated the migration of saline water through a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollard, Thomas B
Recent advances in microbiology, computational capabilities, and microelectromechanical-system fabrication techniques permit modeling, design, and fabrication of low-cost, miniature, sensitive and selective liquid-phase sensors and lab-on-a-chip systems. Such devices are expected to replace expensive, time-consuming, and bulky laboratory-based testing equipment. Potential applications for devices include: fluid characterization for material science and industry; chemical analysis in medicine and pharmacology; study of biological processes; food analysis; chemical kinetics analysis; and environmental monitoring. When combined with liquid-phase packaging, sensors based on surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) technology are considered strong candidates. For this reason such devices are focused on in this work; emphasis placed on device modeling and packaging for liquid-phase operation. Regarding modeling, topics considered include mode excitation efficiency of transducers; mode sensitivity based on guiding structure materials/geometries; and use of new piezoelectric materials. On packaging, topics considered include package interfacing with SAW devices, and minimization of packaging effects on device performance. In this work novel numerical models are theoretically developed and implemented to study propagation and transduction characteristics of sensor designs using wave/constitutive equations, Green's functions, and boundary/finite element methods. Using developed simulation tools that consider finite-thickness of all device electrodes, transduction efficiency for SAW transducers with neighboring uniform or periodic guiding electrodes is reported for the first time. Results indicate finite electrode thickness strongly affects efficiency. Using dense electrodes, efficiency is shown to approach 92% and 100% for uniform and periodic electrode guiding, respectively; yielding improved sensor detection limits. A numerical sensitivity analysis is presented targeting viscosity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emerson, Horace F.; Axelson, John A.
1949-01-01
An additional series of high-speed wind-tunnel tests of a modified 0.17-scale model of the McDonnell XF2H-1 airplane was conducted to evaluate the effects of a reduction in the thickness-to-chord ratios of the tail planes, the displacement of the horizontal tail relative to the vertical tail, and the extension of the trailing edge of the wing. Two tail-intersection fairings designed to improve the flow at the tail were also tested. The pitching-moment characteristics of the model were improved slightly by the use of the thinner tail sections. Rearward or rearward and downward displacements of the horizontal tail increased the critical Mach number at the tail intersection from 0.725 to a maximum of 0.80, but caused an excessive change in pitching-moment coefficient at the higher Mach numbers. Extending the trailing edge of the wing did not improve the static longitudinal-stability characteristics, but increased the pitching-down tendency between 0.725 and 0.825 Mach numbers prior to the pitching-up tendency. The extended wing did, however, increase the Mach numbers at which these tendencies occurred. The increase in the Mach numbers of divergence and the tuft studies indicate a probable increase in the buffet limit of the prototype airplane. No perceptible improvement of flow at the tail intersection was observed with the two fairings tested on the forward tail configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vintzileos, A.; Saha, S.; Pan, H.; Johansson, A.; Thiaw, C.
2005-05-01
General circulation models are notorious for their misrepresentation of Tropical Intraseasonal Oscillations. Hitherto, some improvements due to (i) increased vertical resolution, (ii) the type of convective parameterizations and (iii) coupling to ocean have been reported. Here we investigate the impact of increasing horizontal resolution in a high vertical resolution atmospheric component of a coupled ocean - atmosphere model. The high vertical resolution assures consistency with the horizontal discretization in both coarse and dense configurations. A series of retrospective forecast of Tropical Intraseasonal Oscillations from 1997 to 2004 performed with the GFS-T126L64/MOM3 is compared to the results of the operational version of the NCEP coupled seasonal forecasting dynamical system CFS i.e., GFS-T62L64/MOM3. In order to account for the effects of model drift and initialization shocks to the TIO, we further extend this comparison to long coupled experiments where the initial adjustment period is removed.
Jacob, Benjamin G; Muturi, Ephantus J; Caamano, Erick X; Gunter, James T; Mpanga, Enoch; Ayine, Robert; Okelloonen, Joseph; Nyeko, Jack Pen-Mogi; Shililu, Josephat I; Githure, John I; Regens, James L; Novak, Robert J; Kakoma, Ibulaimu
2008-03-14
The aim of this study was to determine if remotely sensed data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) can test relationships between Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval habitats and environmental parameters within Internally Displaced People (IDP) campgrounds in Gulu, Uganda. A total of 65 georeferenced aquatic habitats in various IDP camps were studied to compare the larval abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. The aquatic habitat dataset were overlaid onto Land Use Land Cover (LULC) maps retrieved from Landsat imagery with 150 m x 150 m grid cells stratified by levels of drainage. The LULC change was estimated over a period of 14 years. Poisson regression analyses and Moran's I statistics were used to model relationships between larval abundance and environmental predictors. Individual larval habitat data were further evaluated in terms of their covariations with spatial autocorrelation by regressing them on candidate spatial filter eigenvectors. Multispectral QuickBird imagery classification and DEM-based GIS methods were generated to evaluate stream flow direction and accumulation for identification of immature Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. and abundance. The main LULC change in urban Gulu IDP camps was non-urban to urban, which included about 71.5 % of the land cover. The regression models indicate that counts of An. gambiae s.l. larvae were associated with shade while Cx. quinquefasciatus were associated with floating vegetation. Moran's I and the General G statistics for mosquito density by species and instars, identified significant clusters of high densities of Anopheles; larvae, however, Culex are not consistently clustered. A stepwise negative binomial regression decomposed the immature An. gambiae s.l. data into empirical orthogonal bases. The data suggest the presence of roughly 11% to 28 % redundant information in the larval count samples. The DEM suggest a positive correlation for Culex (0.24) while for
Jacob, Benjamin G; Muturi, Ephantus J; Caamano, Erick X; Gunter, James T; Mpanga, Enoch; Ayine, Robert; Okelloonen, Joseph; Nyeko, Jack Pen-Mogi; Shililu, Josephat I; Githure, John I; Regens, James L; Novak, Robert J; Kakoma, Ibulaimu
2008-01-01
Background The aim of this study was to determine if remotely sensed data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) can test relationships between Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval habitats and environmental parameters within Internally Displaced People (IDP) campgrounds in Gulu, Uganda. A total of 65 georeferenced aquatic habitats in various IDP camps were studied to compare the larval abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. The aquatic habitat dataset were overlaid onto Land Use Land Cover (LULC) maps retrieved from Landsat imagery with 150 m × 150 m grid cells stratified by levels of drainage. The LULC change was estimated over a period of 14 years. Poisson regression analyses and Moran's I statistics were used to model relationships between larval abundance and environmental predictors. Individual larval habitat data were further evaluated in terms of their covariations with spatial autocorrelation by regressing them on candidate spatial filter eigenvectors. Multispectral QuickBird imagery classification and DEM-based GIS methods were generated to evaluate stream flow direction and accumulation for identification of immature Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. and abundance. Results The main LULC change in urban Gulu IDP camps was non-urban to urban, which included about 71.5 % of the land cover. The regression models indicate that counts of An. gambiae s.l. larvae were associated with shade while Cx. quinquefasciatus were associated with floating vegetation. Moran's I and the General G statistics for mosquito density by species and instars, identified significant clusters of high densities of Anopheles; larvae, however, Culex are not consistently clustered. A stepwise negative binomial regression decomposed the immature An. gambiae s.l. data into empirical orthogonal bases. The data suggest the presence of roughly 11% to 28 % redundant information in the larval count samples. The DEM suggest a positive correlation for Culex
Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.
2011-04-15
Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.
Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.; Algieri, C.
2011-03-01
One key question regarding current climate models is whether the projection of climate extremes converges to a realistic representation as the spatial and temporal resolutions of the model are increased. Ideally the model extreme statistics should approach a fixed distribution once the resolutions are commensurate with the characteristic length and time scales of the processes governing the formation of the extreme phenomena of interest. In this study, a series of AGCM runs with idealized 'aquaplanet-steady-state' boundary conditions have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3 to investigate the effect of horizontal resolution on climate extreme simulations. The use of the aquaplanet framework highlights the roles of model physics and dynamics and removes any apparent convergence in extreme statistics due to better resolution of surface boundary conditions and other external inputs. Assessed at a same large spatial scale, the results show that the horizontal resolution and time step have strong effects on the simulations of precipitation extremes. The horizontal resolution has a much stronger impact on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Updrafts are strongly correlated with extreme precipitation at tropics at all the resolutions, while positive low-tropospheric temperature anomalies are associated with extreme precipitation at mid-latitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benedict, Imme; van Heerwaarden, Chiel; Weerts, Albrecht; Hazeleger, Wilco
2017-04-01
We assess the benefits of exceptionally high horizontal resolution global climate- and hydrological models by analysing precipitation and discharge of two well-known basins: the Mississippi and Rhine delta. By increasing the resolution, we expect that large-scale meteorological processes will be better simulated and small-scale extremes will be more pronounced. In addition, river delineation and land-use will be better represented. Coarse and high resolution simulations of a state-of-the-art climate and hydrological model are compared for two very distinct river basins: the large Mississippi basin is strongly influenced by moisture input from the Pacific and the Caribbean, and the moderately sized Rhine basin receives most of its precipitation from mid-latitude cyclones. With increased horizontal resolution ( 25 by 25 km), the representation of precipitation over the Rhine improves significantly, caused by the better represented large-scale circulation patterns. This improvement could not have been achieved by regional downscaling from coarse resolution climate models, which emphasizes the need for high resolution global models for the Rhine basin. On the contrary, the precipitation budget over the Mississippi does not change with increased horizontal resolution, most likely because it is strongly dependent on the representation of even smaller scale convective processes. Therefore, the Mississippi basin is more appropriate for downscaling. Besides, there is a large bias between the simulated and observed precipitation over the Mississippi. By forcing the global hydrological model with the climate model output, we find that the precipitation signals are clearly reflected in the discharge and evaporation budget of the two basins. Changing towards a higher horizontal resolution in a hydrological model ( 5 by 5 km) is a complex task, as it strongly depends on the availability of necessary input parameters. Such a higher resolution model requires a significant amount
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, D.; Tan, Y. M.; Chamorro, L. P.; Arndt, R.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sheng, J.
2011-12-01
Understanding vortical flow structures and turbulence in the wake flow behind a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) has widespread applications in efficient blade design. Moreover, the knowledge of wake-turbine interactions allows us to devise optimal operational parameters, such as the spatial allocation and control algorithms of wind turbines, for a densely populated wind farm. To understand the influence of tip vortices on energy containing mean flow and turbulence, characteristics of vortical structures and turbulence must be quantified thoroughly. In this study, we conduct phase-locked Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the flow before and after a model HAWT, which is located in a zero-pressure gradient wind tunnel with a cross section of 1.7 × 1.7 m and a test section of 16 m in length. A three-blade model HAWT with a diameter of 605 mm and tip-speed ratio of 5 is used. PIV images are recorded by a 2048 × 2048 CCD camera and streamed at 6 Hz continuously; and phased locked with the passage of the blade at its vertical position. Each PIV measurement covers a 0.13 × 0.13 m2 sample area with the spatial resolution of 63 μm and a vector spacing of 0.5 mm. All experiments are conducted at the free-stream wind speed of 10 m/s. Flow fields at thirty consecutive downstream locations up to six rotor diameters and 144 mid chord lengths are measured. At each location, we obtain at least 10,000 instantaneous PIV realizations or 20,000 images. Three different configurations: single, dual, and trio turbines located at 5 rotor diameter upstream to each other, are examined experimentally. The flow statistics include mean wake velocity distributions, characteristics of tip vortices evolving downstream, fluctuation velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, stresses, and energy spectra. We find that tip vortices decay much faster in the wake of the upstream turbines (multiple-turbine configurations), whereas they maintain the coherence and strength behind a single
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolentino, Jerome T.; Rejuso, Ma. Victoria; Inocencio, Loureal Camille; Ang, Ma. Rosario Concepcion; Bagtasa, Gerry
2016-10-01
Wind energy is one of the best options for renewable energy such that, many researchers work on wind resource assessment, specifically using numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to forecast atmospheric behavior on a given domain. In addition, every combination of parameterization configuration influences wind assessment. At the same time, choosing the optimum vertical and horizontal resolution may affect its output and processing time. Regardless of available researches, most of them focuses on mid-latitude area but not in tropical areas like the Philippines. In the study, sensitivity analysis of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 with 4 configurations was performed. The duration of the simulation was from January 1, 2014 00:00 to December 31, 2014 23:00. The parameters involved were horizontal resolution and vertical levels. Also, meteorological input data from NCEP Final Analysis with 1 degree resolution every 6 hours was used. For validation, wind speed measurements at 10 m height from NOAA Integrated Surface Database (ISD) were utilized, of which, the 3 weather stations are located in Manila, Science Garden and Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA). The results show that increasing horizontal resolution from 4 km to 1 km have no significant increase to wind speed accuracy. In majority, higher vertical levels tend to increase its accuracy. Moreover, the model has higher accuracy during the rainy season and months of April and May. Overall, the model overestimated the observed wind speed but the diurnal cycle of wind speed follows all the simulation.
Protein-water displacement distributions.
Doster, Wolfgang; Settles, Marcus
2005-06-01
The statistical properties of fast protein-water motions are analyzed by dynamic neutron scattering experiments. Using isotopic exchange, one probes either protein or water hydrogen displacements. A moment analysis of the scattering function in the time domain yields model-independent information such as time-resolved mean square displacements and the Gauss-deviation. From the moments, one can reconstruct the displacement distribution. Hydration water displays two dynamical components, related to librational motions and anomalous diffusion along the protein surface. Rotational transitions of side chains, in particular of methyl groups, persist in the dehydrated and in the solvent-vitrified protein structure. The interaction with water induces further continuous protein motions on a small scale. Water acts as a plasticizer of displacements, which couple to functional processes such as open-closed transitions and ligand exchange.
Use of Displacement Damage Dose in an Engineering Model of GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Damage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morton, T. L.; Chock, R.; Long, K. J.; Bailey, S.; Messenger, S. R.; Walters, R. J.; Summers, G. P.
2005-01-01
Current methods for calculating damage to solar cells are well documented in the GaAs Solar Cell Radiation Handbook (JPL 96-9). An alternative, the displacement damage dose (D(sub d)) method, has been developed by Summers, et al. This method is currently being implemented in the SAVANT computer program.
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Background: A better understanding of the associations of early infant nutrition and growth with adult health requires accurate assessment of body composition in infancy. Objective: This study evaluated the performance of an infant-sized air-displacement plethysmograph (PEA POD Infant Body Compositi...
Resonant neutron-induced atomic displacements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elmaghraby, Elsayed K.
2017-05-01
A model for displacement cascade function was modified to account for the continuous variation of displacement density in the material in response to neutron exposure. The model is based on the Gaussian distribution of displacement energies of atoms in a material. Analytical treatment for moderated epithermal neutron field was given in which the displacement density was divided into two terms, discrete-resonance term and continuum term. Calculation are done for all isotopes using ENDF/B VII.1 data files and temperature dependent cross section library. Weighted elemental values were reported a fitting was performed to obtain energy-dependent formula of displacement density and reduce the number of parameters. Results relevant the present specification of the cascade function are tabulated for each element to enable calculation of displacement density at any value of displacement energy in the between 5 eV and 55 eV.
Safi, Kamran; Gagliardo, Anna; Wikelski, Martin; Kranstauber, Bart
2016-01-01
Olfaction represents an important sensory modality for navigation of both homing pigeons and wild birds. Experimental evidence in homing pigeons showed that airborne volatile compounds carried by the winds at the home area are learned in association with wind directions. When displaced, pigeons obtain information on the direction of their displacement using local odors at the release site. Recently, the role of olfactory cues in navigation has been reported also for wild birds during migration. However, the question whether wild birds develop an olfactory navigational map similar to that described in homing pigeons or, alternatively, exploit the distribution of volatile compounds in different manner for reaching the goal is still an open question. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we evaluate the possibilities of reconstructing spatio-temporally explicit aerosol dispersion at large spatial scales using the particle dispersion model FLEXPART. By combining atmospheric information with particle dispersion models, atmospheric scientists predict the dispersion of pollutants for example, after nuclear fallouts or volcanic eruptions or wildfires, or in retrospect reconstruct the origin of emissions such as aerosols. Using simple assumptions, we reconstructed the putative origin of aerosols traveling to the location of migrating birds. We use the model to test whether the putative odor plume could have originated from an important stopover site. If the migrating birds knew this site and the associated plume from previous journeys, the odor could contribute to the reorientation towards the migratory corridor, as suggested for the model scenario in displaced Lesser black-backed gulls migrating from Northern Europe into Africa.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MacLachlan, Robert
1945-01-01
A 1/6-scale model of the Republic XF-12 vertical tail with stub fuselage and stub horizontal tail was tested in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the model, The investigation included a study of the effects of boundarylayer thickness, rudder area, and cover-plate alinement on the aerodynamic characteristics. Tuft studies were made in the vicinity of the junction of the vertical and stub horizontal tails. The results of the investigation indicated that the flow in the vicinity of the junction of the vertical and stub horizontal tails was only slightly improved by the addition of a fillet. An increase in boundary-layer thickness produced a slight decrease in rudder effectiveness. The increase in lift of the combined rudders over that of the upper rudder alone was not proportional at low deflections and was approximately proportional at high deflections to the increase in rudder area. When the balance-chamber cover plates were bowed out, the change in rudder hinge moment with rudder angle was less negative. The variation of the lift coefficient with angle of attack and the variation, at small values of angle of attack, of rudder hinge-noment coefficient with angle of attack was approximately the same for all model configurations tested. The upper rudder used in conjunction with a tab was found to satisfy the Army specifications regarding asymmetric power on a multiengine airplane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jorba, O.; Piot, M.; Pay, M. T.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; López, E.; Pérez, C.; Gassó, S.; Baldasano, J. M.
2009-09-01
In the frame of the CALIOPE project (Baldasano et al., 2008a), a high-resolution air quality forecasting system, WRF-ARW/HERMES/CMAQ/DREAM, is under development and applied to the European domain (12km x 12km, 1hr) as well as to the Iberian Peninsula domain (4km x 4km, 1hr) to provide air quality forecasts for Spain (http://www.bsc.es/caliope/). The simulation of such high-resolution model system is possible by its implementation on the MareNostrum supercomputer. To reassure potential users and reduce uncertainties, the model system must be evaluated to assess its performances in terms of air quality levels and dynamics reproducibility. The present contribution describes a thorough quantitative evaluation study performed for a reference year (2004). CALIOPE is a complex system that integrates a variety of environmental models. WRF-ARW provides high-resolution meteorological fields to the system. It is configured with 38 vertical layers reaching up to 50 hPa. Meteorological initial and boundary conditions are obtained from the NCEP final analysis data. The HERMES emission model (Baldasano et al., 2008b) computes the emissions for the Iberian Peninsula simulation at 4 km horizontal resolution every hour using a bottom-up approach. For the European domain, HERMES disaggregates the EMEP expert emission inventory for 2004. The CMAQ chemical transport model solves the physico-chemical processes in the system. The vertical resolution of CMAQ for gas-phase and aerosols has been increased from 8 to 15 layers in order to simulate vertical exchanges more accurately. Chemical boundary conditions are provided by the LMDz-INCA2 global climate-chemistry model (see Hauglustaine et al., 2004). Finally, the DREAM model simulates long-range transport of mineral dust over the domains under study. In order to evaluate the performances of the CALIOPE system, model simulations were compared with ground-based measurements from the EMEP and Spanish air quality networks. For the European
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Yong; Moorthi, S.; Bates, J. Ray; Suarez, Max J.
1994-01-01
High order horizontal diffusion of the form K Delta(exp 2m) is widely used in spectral models as a means of preventing energy accumulation at the shortest resolved scales. In the spectral context, an implicit formation of such diffusion is trivial to implement. The present note describes an efficient method of implementing implicit high order diffusion in global finite difference models. The method expresses the high order diffusion equation as a sequence of equations involving Delta(exp 2). The solution is obtained by combining fast Fourier transforms in longitude with a finite difference solver for the second order ordinary differential equation in latitude. The implicit diffusion routine is suitable for use in any finite difference global model that uses a regular latitude/longitude grid. The absence of a restriction on the timestep makes it particularly suitable for use in semi-Lagrangian models. The scale selectivity of the high order diffusion gives it an advantage over the uncentering method that has been used to control computational noise in two-time-level semi-Lagrangian models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babonneix, A.; Gourdeau, L.; Durand, F.; Menkes, C. E.; Djath, N.
2012-04-01
As the most powerful source of climatic variability in the Pacific Ocean, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) deeply impacts the equatorial oceanic currents. The Pacific Equatorial UnderCurrent (EUC) is a powerful jet flowing eastward and shoaling with the thermocline in the eastern Pacific, bringing cold waters in surface that retroact with the atmosphere. Its transport has thus been found to follow significant variations at ENSO timescale, with an increased (decreased) transport in La Niña (El Niño) phases. However, the EUC mean properties also vary more slowly due to extratropical forcing. This process is able to modify the heat and mass transports of the subducted waters that feed the EUC. By changing the mean equatorial oceanic conditions, this is suspected to modulate in return the ENSO signal. The EUC sources have very different origins: contributions come from both hemispheres, in part from the Low-Latitude Western Boundary Currents (LLWBCs) and the remaining from the interior ocean. Each source follows different pathways and is characterized by particular properties which differently influences the properties of the downstream equatorial undercurrent and the cold tongue upwelling. The question of the location of the different EUC sources is thus of crucial importance. In this poster, we investigate the links between the ENSO variability and the partitioning of the EUC sources. For this purpose, we use a set of five simulations made available by the DRAKKAR project ranging from a 2° laminar resolution to a turbulent 1/12° partly resolving the meso-scale processes. Increasing models horizontal resolution is largely thought to improve the quality of the resulting simulated currents, in terms of dynamics as of variability. Results show that if some distinct elements appear in terms of mean transit times, little variations are found in terms of partitioning within the different simulations. However, we show that the partitioning between the EUC sources
Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.
1992-04-24
The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahrens, T. J.; Smither, C. L.
1992-04-01
The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow the determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.
Horizontal drilling developments
Gust, D.
1997-05-01
The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.
Clotet, Xavier; Santucci, Stéphane; Ortín, Jordi
2016-01-01
We report the results of an experimental investigation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of stable imbibition fronts in a disordered medium, in the regime of capillary disorder, for a wide range of experimental conditions. We have used silicone oils of various viscosities μ and nearly identical oil-air surface tension, and forced them to slowly invade a model open fracture at very different flow rates v. In this second part of the study we have carried out a scale-dependent statistical analysis of the front dynamics. We have specifically analyzed the influence of μ and v on the statistical properties of the velocity V_{ℓ}, the spatial average of the local front velocities over a window of lateral size ℓ. We have varied ℓ from the local scale defined by our spatial resolution up to the lateral system size L. Even though the imposed flow rate is constant, the signals V_{ℓ}(t) present very strong fluctuations which evolve systematically with the parameters μ, v, and ℓ. We have verified that the non-Gaussian fluctuations of the global velocity V_{ℓ}(t) are very well described by a generalized Gumbel statistics. The asymmetric shape and the exponential tail of those distributions are controlled by the number of effective degrees of freedom of the imbibition fronts, given by N_{eff}=ℓ/ℓ_{c} (the ratio of the lateral size of the measuring window ℓ to the correlation length ℓ_{c}∼1/sqrt[μv]). The large correlated excursions of V_{ℓ}(t) correspond to global avalanches, which reflect extra displacements of the imbibition fronts. We show that global avalanches are power-law distributed, both in sizes and durations, with robustly defined exponents-independent of μ, v, and ℓ. Nevertheless, the exponential upper cutoffs of the distributions evolve systematically with those parameters. We have found, moreover, that maximum sizes ξ_{S} and maximum durations ξ_{T} of global avalanches are not controlled by the same mechanism. While ξ_{S} are also
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki; Taguchi, Dai
2015-09-01
The probing and modeling of carrier motions in materials as well as in electronic devices is a fundamental research subject in science and electronics. According to the Maxwell electromagnetic field theory, carriers are a source of electric field. Therefore, by probing the dielectric polarization caused by the electric field arising from moving carriers and dipoles, we can find a way to visualize the carrier motions in materials and in devices. The techniques used here are an electrical Maxwell-displacement current (MDC) measurement and a novel optical method based on the electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. The MDC measurement probes changes of induced charge on electrodes, while the EFISHG probes nonlinear polarization induced in organic active layers due to the coupling of electron clouds of molecules and electro-magnetic waves of an incident laser beam in the presence of a DC field caused by electrons and holes. Both measurements allow us to probe dynamical carrier motions in solids through the detection of dielectric polarization phenomena originated from dipolar motions and electron transport. In this topical review, on the basis of Maxwell’s electro-magnetism theory of 1873, which stems from Faraday’s idea, the concept for probing electron and hole transport in solids by using the EFISHG is discussed in comparison with the conventional time of flight (TOF) measurement. We then visualize carrier transit in organic devices, i.e. organic field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, and others. We also show that visualizing an EFISHG microscopic image is a novel way for characterizing anisotropic carrier transport in organic thin films. We also discuss the concept of the detection of rotational dipolar motions in monolayers by means of the MDC measurement, which is capable of probing the change of dielectric spontaneous polarization formed by dipoles in organic monolayers. Finally we
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clotet, Xavier; Santucci, Stéphane; Ortín, Jordi
2016-01-01
We report the results of an experimental investigation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of stable imbibition fronts in a disordered medium, in the regime of capillary disorder, for a wide range of experimental conditions. We have used silicone oils of various viscosities μ and nearly identical oil-air surface tension, and forced them to slowly invade a model open fracture at very different flow rates v . In this second part of the study we have carried out a scale-dependent statistical analysis of the front dynamics. We have specifically analyzed the influence of μ and v on the statistical properties of the velocity Vℓ, the spatial average of the local front velocities over a window of lateral size ℓ . We have varied ℓ from the local scale defined by our spatial resolution up to the lateral system size L . Even though the imposed flow rate is constant, the signals Vℓ(t ) present very strong fluctuations which evolve systematically with the parameters μ , v , and ℓ . We have verified that the non-Gaussian fluctuations of the global velocity Vℓ(t ) are very well described by a generalized Gumbel statistics. The asymmetric shape and the exponential tail of those distributions are controlled by the number of effective degrees of freedom of the imbibition fronts, given by Neff=ℓ /ℓc (the ratio of the lateral size of the measuring window ℓ to the correlation length ℓc˜1 /√{μ v } ). The large correlated excursions of Vℓ(t ) correspond to global avalanches, which reflect extra displacements of the imbibition fronts. We show that global avalanches are power-law distributed, both in sizes and durations, with robustly defined exponents—independent of μ , v , and ℓ . Nevertheless, the exponential upper cutoffs of the distributions evolve systematically with those parameters. We have found, moreover, that maximum sizes ξS and maximum durations ξT of global avalanches are not controlled by the same mechanism. While ξS are also determined by
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haines, R. F.
1985-01-01
The displacement threshold (DT) during voluntary visual tracking of a line and during fixation of a stable spot located at the initial stimulus position was determined to help in the modeling pilot manual dynamics during the nose-up 'flare' maneuver. Forty-six observers made paired comparison, forced choice judgments of the maximal downward displacements of a horizontal line moving at various speeds for the durations of 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 sec. The results indicated that the DT is significantly lower, the confidence is higher, and the number of errors and guesses is smaller when a fixation dot is present; moreover, increasing both the stimulus velocity and duration significantly improves the accuracy of displacement discrimination and increases mean confidence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vu-Quoc, L.; Lesburg, L.; Zhang, X.
2004-05-01
An elasto-plastic frictional tangential force-displacement (TFD) model for spheres in contact for accurate and efficient granular-flow simulations is presented in this paper; the present TFD is consistent with the elasto-plastic normal force-displacement (NFD) model presented in [ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 67 (2) (2000) 363; Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 455 (1991) (1999) 4013]. The proposed elasto-plastic frictional TFD model is accurate, and is validated against non-linear finite-element analyses involving plastic flows under both loading and unloading conditions. The novelty of the present TFD model lies in (i) the additive decomposition of the elasto-plastic contact area radius into an elastic part and a plastic part, (ii) the correction of the particles' radii at the contact point, and (iii) the correction of the particles' elastic moduli. The correction of the contact-area radius represents an effect of plastic deformation in colliding particles; the correction of the radius of curvature represents a permanent indentation after impact; the correction of the elastic moduli represents a softening of the material due to plastic flow. The construction of both the present elasto-plastic frictional TFD model and its consistent companion, the elasto-plastic NFD model, parallels the formalism of the continuum theory of elasto-plasticity. Both NFD and TFD models form a coherent set of force-displacement (FD) models not available hitherto for granular-flow simulations, and are consistent with the Hertz, Cattaneo, Mindlin, Deresiewicz contact mechanics theory. Together, these FD models will allow for efficient simulations of granular flows (or granular gases) involving a large number of particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amorebieta, Josu; Garcia, Iker; Durana, Gaizaka; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon; Zubia, Joseba; Sáez-Ocáriz, Idurre
2017-06-01
Impact detection is used as proof of concept to demonstrate that the design principle of optical fibre-based reflective displacement sensors is versatile enough to fit applications that go beyond the original concept for which they were designed, i.e. Tip Clearance and Tip Timing. For that, a custom software has been created that allows to find the best fibre arrangement within the fibre bundle that matches the specifications of the target application. After fabricating the fibre bundle, the validity and usefulness of the simulations have been assessed by means of laboratory measurements on the reflective displacement sensor. Finally some preliminary impact tests have been carried out to confirm the previous work.
Angular displacement measuring device
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A system for measuring the angular displacement of a point of interest on a structure, such as aircraft model within a wind tunnel, includes a source of polarized light located at the point of interest. A remote detector arrangement detects the orientation of the plane of the polarized light received from the source and compares this orientation with the initial orientation to determine the amount or rate of angular displacement of the point of interest. The detector arrangement comprises a rotating polarizing filter and a dual filter and light detector unit. The latter unit comprises an inner aligned filter and photodetector assembly which is disposed relative to the periphery of the polarizer so as to receive polarized light passing the polarizing filter and an outer aligned filter and photodetector assembly which receives the polarized light directly, i.e., without passing through the polarizing filter. The purpose of the unit is to compensate for the effects of dust, fog and the like. A polarization preserving optical fiber conducts polarized light from a remote laser source to the point of interest.