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Sample records for horizontal steam generator

  1. Modeling of a horizontal steam generator for the submerged nuclear power station concept

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    A submerged nuclear power station has been proposed as an alternative power station with a relatively low environmental impact for use by both industrialized and developing countries. The station would be placed 10 m above the seabed at a depth of 30--100 m and a distance of 10--30 km from shore. The submerged nuclear power station would be manufactured and refueled in a central facility, thus gaining the economies of factoryfabrication and the flexibility of short-lead-time deployment. To minimize the size of the submerged hull, horizontal steam generators are proposed for the primary-to-secondary heat transfer, instead of the more traditional vertical steam generators. The horizontal steam generators for SNPS would be similar in design to the horizontal steam generators used in the N-Reactors except the tube orientation is horizontal (the tube's inlet and outlet connection points on the tubesheet are at the same elevation). Previous RELAP5 input decks for horizontal steam generators have been either very simplistic (Loviisa PWR) or used a vertical tube orientation (N-Reactor). This paper will present the development and testing of a RELAP5 horizontal steam generator model, complete with a simple secondary water level control system, that accounts for the dynamic flow conditions which exist inside horizontal steam generators.

  2. Modeling of a horizontal steam generator for the submerged nuclear power station concept

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    1993-05-01

    A submerged nuclear power station has been proposed as an alternative power station with a relatively low environmental impact for use by both industrialized and developing countries. The station would be placed 10 m above the seabed at a depth of 30--100 m and a distance of 10--30 km from shore. The submerged nuclear power station would be manufactured and refueled in a central facility, thus gaining the economies of factoryfabrication and the flexibility of short-lead-time deployment. To minimize the size of the submerged hull, horizontal steam generators are proposed for the primary-to-secondary heat transfer, instead of the more traditional vertical steam generators. The horizontal steam generators for SNPS would be similar in design to the horizontal steam generators used in the N-Reactors except the tube orientation is horizontal (the tube`s inlet and outlet connection points on the tubesheet are at the same elevation). Previous RELAP5 input decks for horizontal steam generators have been either very simplistic (Loviisa PWR) or used a vertical tube orientation (N-Reactor). This paper will present the development and testing of a RELAP5 horizontal steam generator model, complete with a simple secondary water level control system, that accounts for the dynamic flow conditions which exist inside horizontal steam generators.

  3. Horizontal Steam Generator Thermal-Hydraulics at Various Steady-State Power Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanovic, Vladimir D.; Stosic, Zoran V.; Kiera, Michael; Stoll, Uwe

    2002-07-01

    Three-dimensional computer simulation and analyses of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics of the WWER 1000 nuclear power plant have been performed for 50% and 75% partial loads, 100% nominal load and 110% over-load. Presented results show water and steam mass flow rate vectors, steam void fraction spatial distribution, recirculation zones, swell level position, water mass inventory on the shell side, and other important thermal-hydraulic parameters. The simulations have been performed with the computer code 3D ANA, based on the 'two-fluid' model approach. Steam-water interface transport processes, as well as tube bundle flow resistance, energy transfer, and steam generation within tube bundles are modelled with {sup c}losure laws{sup .} Applied approach implies non-equilibrium thermal and flow conditions. The model is solved by the control volume procedure, which has been extended in order to take into account the 3D flow of liquid and gas phase. The methodology is validated by comparing numerical and experimental results of real steam generator operational conditions at various power levels of the WWER Novovoronezh, Unit 5. One-dimensional model of the horizontal steam generator has been built with the RELAP 5 standard code on the basis of the multidimensional two-phase flow structure obtained with the 3D ANA code. RELAP 5 and 3D ANA code results are compared, showing acceptable agreement. (authors)

  4. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  5. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  6. A study of natural circulation in the evaporator of a horizontal-tube heat recovery steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Pleshanov, K. A.; Sterkhov, K. V.

    2014-07-01

    Results obtained from investigations of stable natural circulation in an intricate circulation circuit with a horizontal layout of the tubes of evaporating surface having a negative useful head are presented. The possibility of making a shift from using multiple forced circulation organized by means of a circulation pump to natural circulation in vertical heat recovery steam generator is estimated. Criteria for characterizing the performance reliability and efficiency of a horizontal evaporator with negative useful head are proposed. The influence of various design solutions on circulation robustness is considered. With due regard of the optimal parameters, the most efficient and least costly methods are proposed for achieving more stable circulation in a vertical heat recovery steam generator when a shift is made from multiple forced to natural circulation. A procedure for calculating the circulation parameters and an algorithm for checking evaporator performance reliability are developed, and recommendations for the design of heat recovery steam generator, nonheated parts of natural circulation circuit, and evaporating surface are suggested.

  7. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  8. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  9. STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

    1963-07-16

    The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

  10. Steam generator tube integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  11. GCFR steam generator conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, R.A.; Elliott, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) steam generators are large once-through heat exchangers with helically coiled tube bundles. In the GCFR demonstration plant, hot helium from the reactor core is passed through these units to produce superheated steam, which is used by the turbine generators to produce electrical power. The paper describes the conceptual design of the steam generator. The major components and functions of the design are addressed. The topics discussed are the configuration, operating conditions, design criteria, and the design verification and support programs.

  12. Downhole steam generation: material studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Weirick, L.J.; Muir, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    One enhanced oil recovery technique for extracting heavy crude from deep reservoirs by steam at the bottom of an injection well. Development of a downhole steam generator that will produce steam and inject it into formations at depths greater than 2500 feet is one objective of a Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories development effort - Project DEEP STEAM. Extensive material studies have been performed in support of Project DEEP STEAM; current efforts are devoted primarily to the selection and evaluation of materials for use in downhole steam generators. This paper presents observations of the performance of candidate metals and refractory ceramics (combustor liners) during tests of two prototypic, high pressure, diesel/air combustion, direct contact, downhole steam generators. The first downhole test of such a generator provides data on the performance of various metals (304L, 310 and 316S stainless steels and plain carbon steel) exposed for several weeks to a warm, aerated saltwater environment. A number of corrosion mechanisms acted to cause severely degraded perforance of some of the metals. Several refractory liner designs were evaluated during ground level tests of a generator having a ceramic-lined combustion chamber. Of the two refractories employed, alumina and silicon carbide, the alumina liners exhibited more serious surface degradation and corrosion.

  13. NUCLEAR FLASH TYPE STEAM GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johns, F.L.; Gronemeyer, E.C.; Dusbabek, M.R.

    1962-09-01

    A nuclear steam generating apparatus is designed so that steam may be generated from water heated directly by the nuclear heat source. The apparatus comprises a pair of pressure vessels mounted one within the other, the inner vessel containing a nuclear reactor heat source in the lower portion thereof to which water is pumped. A series of small ports are disposed in the upper portion of the inner vessel for jetting heated water under pressure outwardly into the atmosphere within the interior of the outer vessel, at which time part of the jetted water flashes into steam. The invention eliminates the necessity of any intermediate heat transfer medium and components ordinarily required for handling that medium. (AEC)

  14. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Bryers, Richard W.; Taylor, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  15. Steam drive recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Snavely, E. S.; Hopkins, D. N.

    1984-09-18

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  16. Steam drive oil recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nopkins, D. N.; Snavely, E. S.

    1984-10-23

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water or a stable hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  17. RPV steam generator pressure boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Strosnider, J.

    1996-03-01

    As the types of SG tube degradation affecting PWR SGs has changed, and improvements in tube inspection and repair technology have occurred, current SG regulatory requirements and guidance have become increasingly out of date. This regulatory situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis, however to resolve this problem in the long term, the NRC has begun development of a performance-based rule. As currently structured, the proposed steam generator rule would require licensees to implement SG programs that monitor the condition of the steam generator tubes against accepted performance criteria to provide reasonable assurance that the steam generator tubes remain capable of performing their intended safety functions. Currently the staff is developing three performance criteria that will ensure the tubes can continue to perform their safety function and therefore satisfy the SG rule requirements. The staff, in developing the criteria, is striving to ensure that the performance criteria have the two key attributes of being (1) measurable (enabling the tube condition to be {open_quotes}measured{close_quotes} against the criteria) and (2) tolerable (ensuring that failures to meet the criteria do not result in unacceptable consequences). A general description of the criteria are: (1) Structural integrity criteria: Ensures that the structural integrity of the SG tubes is maintained for the operating cycle consistent with the margins intended by the ASME Code. (2) Leakage integrity criteria: Ensures that postulated accident leakages and the associated dose releases are limited relative to 10 CFR Part 50 guidelines and 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix A GDC 19. (3) Operational leakage criteria: Ensures that the operating unit will be shut down as a defense-in depth measure when operational SG tube leakage exceeds established leakage limits.

  18. Steam generator tubing NDE performance

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, G.; Welty, C.S. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator (SG) non-destructive examination (NDE) is a fundamental element in the broader SG in-service inspection (ISI) process, a cornerstone in the management of PWR steam generators. Based on objective performance measures (tube leak forced outages and SG-related capacity factor loss), ISI performance has shown a continually improving trend over the years. Performance of the NDE element is a function of the fundamental capability of the technique, and the ability of the analysis portion of the process in field implementation of the technique. The technology continues to improve in several areas, e.g. system sensitivity, data collection rates, probe/coil design, and data analysis software. With these improvements comes the attendant requirement for qualification of the technique on the damage form(s) to which it will be applied, and for training and qualification of the data analysis element of the ISI process on the field implementation of the technique. The introduction of data transfer via fiber optic line allows for remote data acquisition and analysis, thus improving the efficiency of analysis for a limited pool of data analysts. This paper provides an overview of the current status of SG NDE, and identifies several important issues to be addressed.

  19. LMR steam generator blowdown with RETRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    One of the transients being considered in the FSAR Chapter 15 analyses of anticipated LMR transients is the fast blowdown of a steam generator upon inadvertent actuation of the liquid metal/water reaction mitigation system. For the blowdown analysis, a stand-alone steam generator model for the IFR plant was constructed using RETRAN.

  20. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  1. Hockey-stick steam generator for LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinan, G.J.; Svedlund, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the criteria and evaluation leading to the selection of the Hockey Stick Steam Generator Concept and subsequent development of that concept for LMFBR application. The selection process and development of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG) is discussed, including the extensive test programs that culminated in the manufacture and test of a 35 MW(t) Steam Generator. The design of the CRBRP Steam Generator is described, emphasizing the current status and a review of the critical structural areas. CRBRP steam generator development tests are evaluated, with a discussion of test objectives and rating of the usefulness of test results to the CRBRP prototype design. Manufacturing experience and status of the CRBRP prototype and plant units is covered. The scaleup of the Hockey Stick concept to large commercial plant application is presented, with an evaluation of scaleup limitations, transient effects, and system design implications.

  2. Condensation heat transfer of steam on a single horizontal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graber, K. A.

    1983-06-01

    An experimental apparatus was designed, constructed and instrumented in an effort to systematically and carefully study the condensation heat-transfer coefficient on a single, horizontal tube. A smooth, thick-walled copper tube of length 133.5 mm, with an outside diameter of 15.9 mm and an inside diameter of 12.7 mm was instrumented with six wall thermocouples. The temperature rise across the test section was measured accurately using quartz crystal thermometers. The inside heat-transfer coefficient was determined using the Sieder-Tate correlation with leading coefficient of 0.029. Initial steam side data were taken at atmospheric pressure to test the data acquisition/reduction computer programs.

  3. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadokami, E.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  4. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Boland, James F.; Koenig, John F.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  5. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  6. Anthracite firing -- Largest steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, P.; Winkin, J.; Changqin, G.

    1998-07-01

    The size and scope of the Hanfeng Power Plant is a large undertaking by any definition. It is progressing very well with good coordination and cooperation of all those involved. Start-up is scheduled for the first unit in the year 2000 with the second unit following by eight months. The boiler island scope covers all equipment and structural steel from the bunkers to the stack. This includes the world's two largest anthracite fired boilers burning a blend of very low volatile Chinese anthracite and lean coal (bituminous). The coal blending is designed to maximize the use of the local anthracite coal. This is done by controlled blending at the entrance to the large FW D12D ball mills. Scaling up from earlier extensive experience with arch fired boilers is reviewed as well as key features of the Hanfeng boilers each of which are capable of generating 563 kg/s of steam at 540.8 C and 175 bar (equivalent to 717 MW of turbine/generator output). The design of the boiler and related equipment for the Hanfeng project has been the subject of in-depth reviews by independent engineers representing the banks to assure reliability of the boiler to support the economic model. It has been shown that FW's extensive experience burning anthracite coals has justified the scaling up of the various components to meet the requirements of the specification. This experience is based on operating similar type anthracite arch fired boilers with fuel blends that are comparable to the coals to be supplied for the Hanfeng project. The materials and equipment for the Hanfeng boiler island are being supplied on a multi-national basis in support of the various requirements of the financing institutions involved. The overall design has been finalized and the detail design is well underway. Most of the large critical components are already in manufacturing.

  7. US PWR steam generator management: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, C.S. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    This paper provides an overview on the status of steam generator management activities in US PWRs, and includes: (1) an overview of the impact of steam generator problems; (2) a brief discussion of historical damage trends and the current damage mechanism of most concern; (3) a discussion of the elements of {open_quotes}steam generator management{close_quotes}; and (4) a description of the approach being followed to implement a degradation-specific protocol for tubing inspection and repair. This paper was prepared in conjunction with another paper presented during the Plenary Session of this Conference, {open_quotes}Steam Generator Degradation: Current Mitigation Strategies for Controlling Corrosion{close_quotes}, and is provided as a supplement to that material.

  8. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114... Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a) Periodic steam generator inspection. Except as provided in § 229.33, each steam generator shall be inspected and tested in accordance...

  9. Sullair low pressure downhole steam generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Scientists and engineers are continually searching for techniques to release more oil from known reservoirs to improve productivity and lessen dependence on new finds. Based on a record of success dating to the early 1960s, thermal methods, and in particular methodology for steam treating deep reservoirs, have become an area of intense activity. In the U.S. alone, it has been reported that ca 300,000 bopd was produced in 1981 by traditional surface steam methods. Of the thermal techniques emerging, downhole steam generation is of particular interest in this discussion. 11 references.

  10. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  11. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  12. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  13. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  14. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  15. Thermal hydraulics of steam generator sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ulke, A.

    1991-12-31

    The sludge deposits on top of the tubesheet in commercial steam generators create regions of high susceptibility to tube corrosion. It is believed that the corrosion occurs when the sludge deposit becomes too deep for the liquid to penetrate freely. This leads to liquid deficient regions with high chemical concentrations on the tube surface. A one-dimensional model of two-phase flow in porous media has been developed. The model considers a slab of porous medium on a horizontal non-porous surface, both under water. Heat is transferred from a vertical surface. The vapor, which is generated, flows vertically upward and the liquid is replenished by a counterflow. Under steady state conditions the mass flow rate of liquid equals that of vapor at every point along the flow path. The solution requires a minimum of five equations; continuity and momentum for the liquid and the vapor phases and energy. The momentum equations are extensions of the Darcy equation to the inertial flow regime in porous media. All five equations can be described as first order differential equations. They can be integrated with respect to distance into the sludge pile using the appropriate boundary conditions at the top of the porous slab and the transition point to ``dryout`` or at the bottom of the slab whichever comes first. The conservation of chemical species can be easily incorporated into the above system of equations. A FORTRAN computer program was developed to solve the above set of equations. The solution yields the distribution of the liquid and the vapor velocities and pressures, the heat flux, the liquid saturation and the chemical concentration.

  16. Downhole steam generator for heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The HI-KO steam generator (HI-KO DSG) is operated electronically and is designed to operate efficiently and cost effectively at any depth, temperature, and injection pressure with minimal labor and maintenance. The generator is transported easily and is free of pollutants, both above and below ground. Moreover, the well needs no special cement job to prepare it for steaming; nor are corrosive gases created in the liner. The HI-KO DSG operates at ca 100% efficiency. Being controlled from the surface, the btu's and temperature going into the formation are monitored at all times.

  17. Deep heavy oil recovery by steam injection using twin horizontal drainholes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G.A.; Zeyrek, M.S.; Gondouin, M.

    1992-12-01

    We propose a novel method for improving the efficiency of recovery of heavy oil. Two horizontal drainholes are made at the bottom of a vertical well so that one may be steamed while the other is in production. Downgoing steam and rising produced fluids are carried in the same vertical casing so that heat from the produced fluids reduces heat losses from the steam. This arrangement requires a downhole valve that will switch steam and produced fluids between the boreholes. We discuss the design of a suitable well and of the valves, and report results of tests to select suitable materials to function in the high temperature downhole environment.

  18. Deep heavy oil recovery by steam injection using twin horizontal drainholes

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G.A.; Zeyrek, M.S. ); Gondouin, M. )

    1992-01-01

    We propose a novel method for improving the efficiency of recovery of heavy oil. Two horizontal drainholes are made at the bottom of a vertical well so that one may be steamed while the other is in production. Downgoing steam and rising produced fluids are carried in the same vertical casing so that heat from the produced fluids reduces heat losses from the steam. This arrangement requires a downhole valve that will switch steam and produced fluids between the boreholes. We discuss the design of a suitable well and of the valves, and report results of tests to select suitable materials to function in the high temperature downhole environment.

  19. Horizontal fields generated by return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooray, Vernon

    1991-01-01

    Horizontal fields generated by return strokes play an important role in the interaction of lightning generated electric fields with power lines. In many of the recent investigations on the interaction of lightning electromagnetic fields with power lines, the horizontal field was calculated by employing the expression for the tilt of the electric field of a plane wave propagating over finitely conducting earth. The method is suitable for calculating horizontal fields generated by return strokes at distances as close as 200m. At these close ranges, the use of the wavetilt expression can cause large errors.

  20. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  1. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Corletti, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  2. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  3. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  4. Steam Generator Group Project. Annual report, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.A.; Lewis, M.

    1984-02-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project (SGGP) is an NRC program joined by additional sponsors. The SGGP utilizes a steam generator removed from service at a nuclear plant (Surry 2) as a vehicle for research on a variety of safety and reliability issues. This report is an annual summary of progress of the program for 1982. Information is presented on the Steam Generator Examination Facility (SGEF), especially designed and constructed for this research. Loading of the generator into the SGEF is then discussed. The report then presents radiological field mapping results and personnel exposure monitoring. This is followed by information on field reduction achieved by channel head decontaminations. The report then presents results of a secondary side examination through shell penetrations placed prior to transport, confirming no change in generator condition due to transport. Decontamination of the channel head is discussed followed by plans for eddy current testing and removal of the plugs placed during service. Results of a preliminary profilometry examination are then provided.

  5. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Isolation of a steam generator. A steam generator will be considered isolated if the water suction pipe to the water pump and the leads to the main switch (steam generator switch) are disconnected, and the... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements...

  6. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Isolation of a steam generator. A steam generator will be considered isolated if the water suction pipe to the water pump and the leads to the main switch (steam generator switch) are disconnected, and the... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements...

  7. Solar steam generation by heat localization.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Hadi; Ni, George; Marconnet, Amy Marie; Loomis, James; Yerci, Selcuk; Miljkovic, Nenad; Chen, Gang

    2014-07-21

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated surfaces or vacuum. New solar receiver concepts such as porous volumetric receivers or nanofluids have been proposed to decrease these losses. Here we report development of an approach and corresponding material structure for solar steam generation while maintaining low optical concentration and keeping the bulk liquid at low temperature with no vacuum. We achieve solar thermal efficiency up to 85% at only 10 kW m(-2). This high performance results from four structure characteristics: absorbing in the solar spectrum, thermally insulating, hydrophilic and interconnected pores. The structure concentrates thermal energy and fluid flow where needed for phase change and minimizes dissipated energy. This new structure provides a novel approach to harvesting solar energy for a broad range of phase-change applications.

  8. Solar steam generation by heat localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Hadi; Ni, George; Marconnet, Amy Marie; Loomis, James; Yerci, Selcuk; Miljkovic, Nenad; Chen, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated surfaces or vacuum. New solar receiver concepts such as porous volumetric receivers or nanofluids have been proposed to decrease these losses. Here we report development of an approach and corresponding material structure for solar steam generation while maintaining low optical concentration and keeping the bulk liquid at low temperature with no vacuum. We achieve solar thermal efficiency up to 85% at only 10 kW m-2. This high performance results from four structure characteristics: absorbing in the solar spectrum, thermally insulating, hydrophilic and interconnected pores. The structure concentrates thermal energy and fluid flow where needed for phase change and minimizes dissipated energy. This new structure provides a novel approach to harvesting solar energy for a broad range of phase-change applications.

  9. Evaluation of alternatives in downhole steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The objective is to evaluate two alternative approaches, taken by Sandia and World Energy Systems in their development of downhole steam generators, in terms of the requirements for commercialization and the technical and economic goals which each one must reach in order to satisfy those requirements. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The high-pressure downhole steam generator being developed by Sandia has potential for commercialization for production of heavy oil in the next few years. (2) The critical performance parameter is oil yield and can be expressed in terms of bbl oil/million Btu of steam generated; the yield which is required for clear economic attractiveness of the high-pressure generator is 1.2 bbl/10/sup 6/ Btu which corresponds to 5.3 bbl steam/bbl oil. (3) The downhole hydrogen/oxygen burner being developed by World Energy Systems has potential for commercialization for production of resources which are now unproducible or uneconomical. (4) The critical performance provided in nearly 1100 pre- and post-training forms returned by the solarr and 201 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Ground water data indicate that high uranium values occur almost exclusively in the western portion of the quadrangle along the eastern portion of the Williston Basin. These high uranium values occur primarily in Pleistocene delta deposits and in glacial outwash and till. Groundwater in this area is geographically associated with high values of calcium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and total alkalinity. Stream sediment data indicate high uranium value the relative concentration of Sm/sup 2 +/ and Sm/sup 3 +/ ions changes with the change of composition.

  10. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  11. Evaluation of on-line chelant addition to PWR steam generators. Steam generator cleaning project

    SciTech Connect

    Tvedt, T.J.; Wallace, S.L.; Griffin, F. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    The investigation of chelating agents for continuous water treatment of secondary loops of PWR steam generators were conducted in two general areas: the study of the chemistry of chelating agents and the study of materials compatability with chelating agents. The thermostability of both EDTA and HEDTA metal chelates in All Volatile Treatment (AVT) water chemistry were shown to be greater than or equal to the thermostability of EDTA metal chelates in phosphate-sulfite water chemistry. HEDTA metal chelates were shown to have a much greater stability than EDTA metal chelates. Using samples taken from the EDTA metal chelate thermostability study and from the Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) model steam generators (MSG), EDTA decomposition products were determined. Active metal surfaces were shown to become passivated when exposed to EDTA and HEDTA concentrations as high as 0.1% w/w in AVT. Trace amounts of iron in the water were found to increase the rate of passivation. Material balance and visual inspection data from CRC model steam generators showed that metal was transported through and cleaned from the MSG's. The Inconel 600 tubes of the salt water fouled model steam generators experienced pitting corrosion. Results of this study demonstrates the feasibility of EDTA as an on-line water treatment additive to maintain nuclear steam generators in a clean condition.

  12. 45. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EARLY STEAM GENERATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EARLY STEAM GENERATING UNIT USED TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY FOR MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS AND FOR THE TOWN OF RAINELLE. STEAM ENGINE IS A HAMILTON CORLISS. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  13. Film Condensation of Steam on Externally Finned Horizontal Tubes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    portion of the tube. Differential eguations were obtained for the height of condensate between fin bases, and tempera - ture distribution along the fin...boiler input power. A more detailed descrip- tion of the boiler power supply is provided by Poole (6]. The internal system pressure was measured manually ...0.2 K ir the steam tempera - ture, or an error of _ 1.0 mmHg in the system pressure would lead to an error of ± 1.2 percent in the non-condensing

  14. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.

    1982-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil-bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generation, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generation are discussed.

  15. High pressure combustor for generating steam downhole

    SciTech Connect

    Retallick, W.B.

    1983-08-09

    A catalytic combustor for generating a mixture of steam and combustion gas is located downhole in oil well, so that the gas mixture can be injected directly into the oil reservoir to displace heavy oils from the reservoir. There can be a single stage of catalytic combustion, or there can be a stage of thermal combustion followed by a catalytic stage. In either case the purpose of the catalyst is drive the combustion to completion so that the gas mixture contains no soot that would plug the reservoir.

  16. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, C.

    The application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. The technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses are compared. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality.

  17. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhold steam generation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generatjion, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generatjion are discussed. (JMT)

  18. Mathematical modeling of control system for the experimental steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlasek, Szymon; Lalik, Krzysztof; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Sornek, Krzysztof; Kupski, Robert; Raś, Anita

    2016-03-01

    A steam generator is an essential unit of each cogeneration system using steam machines. Currently one of the cheapest ways of the steam generation can be application of old steam generators came from army surplus store. They have relatively simple construction and in case of not so exploited units - quite good general conditions, and functionality of mechanical components. By contrast, electrical components and control systems (mostly based on relay automatics) are definitely obsolete. It is not possible to use such units with cooperation of steam bus or with steam engines. In particular, there is no possibility for automatically adjustment of the pressure and the temperature of the generated steam supplying steam engines. Such adjustment is necessary in case of variation of a generator load. The paper is devoted to description of improvement of an exemplary unit together with construction of the measurement-control system based on a PLC. The aim was to enable for communication between the steam generator and controllers of the steam bus and steam engines in order to construction of a complete, fully autonomic and maintenance-free microcogeneration system.

  19. Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Garner, Daniel C.; Wineman, Arthur L.; Robey, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

  20. Status of steam generator tubing integrity at Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Cepcek, S.

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator represents one of the most important component of nuclear power plants. Especially, loss of tubing integrity of steam generators can lead to the primary coolant leak to secondary circuit and in worse cases to the unit shut down or to the PTS events occurrence. Therefore, to ensure the steam generator tubing integrity and the current knowledge about tube degradation propagation and development is of the highest importance. In this paper the present status of steam generator tubing integrity in operated NPP in Slovak Republic is presented.

  1. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  2. Double tube helical coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, G.; De Luca, R.A.

    1987-02-24

    A steam generator is described comprising a container having a closed lower end, divided into longitudinally arranged sections including an uppermost disengaging chamber, an upper plenum, and a lower plenum. The upper plenum is above the lower plenum and contains a multiplicity of double tube helical coils, wherein each of the double tube helical coils is comprised of an inner tube individually enclosed for at least a portion of its length by an outer tube to form a double tube portion and thereby define an annular gap which is outside the inner tube but enclosed by the outer tube; the inner tube being attached at one end to a feedwater inlet, and the inner tube being attached at the other end to a steam outlet; the outer tube being in open communication at both ends with the disengaging chamber; the double tube portion being in the configuration of a helix for part of its length; the upper plenum having no communication with the disengaging chamber and having restricted communication with the lower plenum such that liquid metal entering the upper plenum and flowing to the lower plenum closely contacts at least a portion of the double tube helical coils; and the annular gap being at least partially filled with liquid metal.

  3. Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects.

  4. Thermal hydraulics of steam generator sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ulke, A.; Goldberg, I.

    1990-12-31

    Experimental and analytical studies of thermal hydraulic processes in commercial steam generator tube sheet sludge have been previously reported. That work was performed because the authors believed that tubing corrosion occurs when the sludge deposit becomes too deep for the liquid to penetrate freely, leading to formation of a liquid deficient region with high chemical concentrations on the tube surface. The primary objective of this work is to determine analytically the extent of liquid penetration into porous sludge. The secondary objectives are determinations of liquid saturation and chemical concentration profiles along the sludge covered tube length. The method described in this paper differs from those used in previous works in that it allows specification of porosity and permeability as a function of distance into the sludge and, also, in some of the auxiliary equations used.

  5. Steam generator issues in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Strosnider, J.R.

    1997-02-01

    Alloy 600 steam generator tubes in the US have exhibited degradation mechanisms similar to those observed in other countries. Effective programs have been implemented to address several degradation mechanisms including: wastage; mechanical wear; pitting; and fatigue. These degradation mechanisms are fairly well understood as indicated by the ability to effectively mitigate/manage them. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the dominant degradation mechanism in the US. SCC poses significant inspection and management challenges to the industry and the regulators. The paper also addresses issues of research into SCC, inspection programs, plugging, repair strategies, water chemistry, and regulatory control. Emerging issues in the US include: parent tube cracking at sleeve joints; detection and repair of circumferential cracks; free span cracking; inspection and cracking of dented regions; and severe accident analysis.

  6. Crevice chemistry control in PWR steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Sawochka, S.G.; Choi, S.S.; Millett, P.J.; Bates, J.; Gardner, J.

    1995-12-31

    To establish a basis for predicting and eventually controlling crevice solution chemistry in PWR steam generators, hideout tests were performed at several units. Results indicated that impurity hideout rates varied with the species and with bulk water concentration. Field evaluations of crevice impurity inventory models based on the hideout rate data indicated that further model refinements were necessary, e.g., more frequent quantification of the relation of hideout rates and bulk water concentration. An alternate crevice inventory model based on a real-time mass balance approach also began to be pursued. Modeling results currently are being used at several PWRs to establish a chloride injection rate consistent with development of a near neutral crevice solution to minimize IGA/SCC. Hideout return data are being used to independently establish predictions of crevice chemistry and to substantiate the hideout rate and mass balance model predictions.

  7. Steam generator tube inspection in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Shigetaka

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator tube inspection was first carried out in 1971 at Mihama Unit-1 that is first PWR plant in Japan, when the plant was brought into the first annual inspection. At that time, inspection was made on sampling basis, and only bobbin coil probe was used. After experiencing various kinds of tube degradations, inspection method was changed from sampling to all number of tubes, and various kinds of probes were used to get higher detectability of flaw. At present, it is required that all the tubes shall be inspected in their full length at each annual inspection using standard bobbin coil probe, and some special probes for certain plants that have susceptibility of occurrence of flaw. Sleeve repaired portion is included in this inspection. As a result of analyses of eddy current testing data, all indications that have been evaluated to be 20% wall thickness or deeper shall be repaired by either plugging or sleeving, where flaw morphology is to be a wastage or wear. Other types of flaw such as IGA/SCC are not allowed to be left inservice when those indications are detected. These inspections are performed according to inspection procedures that are approved by regulatory authority. Actual inspections are witnessed by the Japan Power engineering and inspection corporation (JAPEIC)`s inspectors during data acquisition and analysis, and they issue inspection report to authority for review and approval. It is achieved high safety performance of steam generator through this method of inspections, however. some tube leakage problems were experienced in the past. To prevent recurrence of such events, government is conducting development and verification test program for new eddy current testing technology.

  8. Examination of a steam generator tube removed from Maine Yankee

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, T.P.; Plante, P.J.

    1992-12-31

    Non-destructive and destructive examinations performed on an Alloy 600 steam generator tube with a circumferential indication confirmed that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) had occurred in high temperature final mill annealled material. The tube material generally has low susceptibility to PWSCC. Additional PWSCC in this material is expected but would not by itself lead to steam generator replacement.

  9. Preoperational practices for steam generators and secondary-system components

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    PWR operating experience has shown that proper control of steam generator and secondary plant cleanliness during construction will prevent corrosion of critical components, minimize impurity transport to the steam generators, and minimize startup delays. This volume contains the following guidelines which address preoperational practices: Preoperational Flushing, Cleaning, and Layup of PWR Steam/Feedwater/Condensate Systems, Revision 1; and Guidelines to Minimize Contamination of PWR Steam Generators during Plant Construction, Revision 1. The guidelines provide specific recommendations and associated justifications for maintaining steam generator cleanliness during shipment, storage, and installation; and secondary plant cleanliness during construction. Recommendations for preoperational cleaning and flushing of secondary systems are also provided. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. New technology for purging the steam generators of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Budko, I. O.; Kutdjusov, Yu. F.; Gorburov, V. I.; Rjasnyj, S. I.

    2011-07-15

    A technology for removal of undissolved impurities from a horizontal steam generator using purge water is developed on the basis of a theoretical analysis. A purge with a maximal flow rate is drawn off from the zone with the highest accumulation of sludge in the lower part of the steam generator after the main circulation pump of the corresponding loop is shut off and the temperatures of the heat transfer medium at the inlet and outlet of the steam generator have equilibrated. An improved purge configuration is used for this technology; it employs shutoff and regulator valves, periodic purge lines separated by a cutoff fixture, and a D{sub y} 100 drain union as a connector for the periodic purge. Field tests show that the efficiency of this technology for sludge removal by purge water is several times that for the standard method.

  11. Supplementary steam - A viable hydrogen power generation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lee, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Technical and economic aspects of a supplementary steam generation for peaking power applications are discussed. Preliminary designs of the hydrogen/oxygen combustors to be used for such applications are described. The integration of the hydrogen/oxygen steam-generating equipment into a typical coal-fired steam station is studied. The basic steam generation system was designed as a 20 MW supplementary system to be added to the existing 160 MW system. An analysis of the operating and design requirements of the supplementary system is conducted. Estimates were made for additional steam and fuel supply lines and for additional control required to operate the combustors and to integrate the combustor system into the facility.

  12. Steam generator tube integrity flaw acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Cochet, B.

    1997-02-01

    The author discusses the establishment of a flaw acceptance criteria with respect to flaws in steam generator tubing. The problem is complicated because different countries take different approaches to the problem. The objectives in general are grouped in three broad areas: to avoid the unscheduled shutdown of the reactor during normal operation; to avoid tube bursts; to avoid excessive leak rates in the event of an accidental overpressure event. For each degradation mechanism in the tubes it is necessary to know answers to an array of questions, including: how well does NDT testing perform against this problem; how rapidly does such degradation develop; how well is this degradation mechanism understood. Based on the above information it is then possible to come up with a policy to look at flaw acceptance. Part of this criteria is a schedule for the frequency of in-service inspection and also a policy for when to plug flawed tubes. The author goes into a broad discussion of each of these points in his paper.

  13. Steam generator secondary pH during a steam generator tube rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.; Peterson, E.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires utilizes to determine the response of a pressurized water reactor to a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) as part of the safety analysis for the plant. The SGTR analysis includes assumptions regarding the partitioning of iodine between liquid and vapor in steam generator secondary. Experimental studies have determined that the partitioning of iodine in water is very sensitive to the pH. Based on this experimental evidence, the NRC requested the INEL to perform an analytical assessment of secondary coolant system (SCS) pH during an SGTR. Design basis thermal and hydraulic calculations were used together with industry standard chemistry guidelines to determine the SCS chemical concentrations during an SGTR. These were used as input to the Facility for Analysis of Chemical Thermodynamics computer system to calculate the equilibrium pH in the SCS at various discrete time during an SGTR. The results of this analysis indicate that the SCS pH decreases from the initial value of 8.8 to approximately 6.5 by the end of the transient, independent of PWR design.

  14. Estimating probable flaw distributions in PWR steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, J.A.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes methods for estimating the number and size distributions of flaws of various types in PWR steam generator tubes. These estimates are needed when calculating the probable primary to secondary leakage through steam generator tubes under postulated accidents such as severe core accidents and steam line breaks. The paper describes methods for two types of predictions: (1) the numbers of tubes with detectable flaws of various types as a function of time, and (2) the distributions in size of these flaws. Results are provided for hypothetical severely affected, moderately affected and lightly affected units. Discussion is provided regarding uncertainties and assumptions in the data and analyses.

  15. Automated Diagnosis and Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gabe V. Garcia

    2004-10-01

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is tube degradation. Tube defects are divided into seven categories, one of which is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). Defects of this type usually begin on the outer surface of the tubes and propagate both inward and laterally. In many cases these defects occur at or near the tube support plates. Several different methods exist for the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear steam generator tubes for defect characterization.

  16. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, James D.

    1983-01-01

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  17. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines. However, to quantify steam as a coolant, there exists practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  18. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  19. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  20. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  1. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  2. Research of laser cleaning technology for steam generator tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Suixa; Luo, Jijun; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Bo

    2010-10-01

    Surface cleaning based on the laser-induced breakdown of gas and subsequent shock wave generation can remove small particles from solid surfaces. Accordingly, several studies in steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants were performed to expand the cleaning capability of the process. In this work, experimental apparatus of laser cleaning was designed in order to clean heat tubes in steam generator. The laser cleaning process is monitored by analyzing acoustic emission signal experimentally. Experiments demonstrate that laser cleaning can remove smaller particles from the surface of steam generator tubes better than other cleaning process. It has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource, and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes, which can be real-time monitoring in laser cleaning process of heat tubes by AE signal. As a green cleaning process, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect.

  3. Steam Generator of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure

    SciTech Connect

    Cinotti, L.; Bruzzone, M.; Meda, N.; Corsini, G.; Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.; Conway, L.E.

    2002-07-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a light water cooled, 335 MWe power reactor which is being designed by an international consortium as part of the US DOE NERI Program. IRIS features an integral reactor vessel that contains all the main reactor coolant system components including the reactor core, the coolant pumps, the steam generators and the pressurizer. This integral design approach eliminates the large coolant loop piping, and thus eliminates large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) as well as the individual component pressure vessels and supports. In addition, IRIS is being designed with a long-life core and enhanced safety to address the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors. The design of the steam generators, which are internally contained within the reactor vessel, is a major design effort in the development of the integral IRIS concept. The ongoing design activity about the steam generator is the subject of this paper. (authors)

  4. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  5. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  6. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  7. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  8. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  9. Subcooled choked flow through steam generator tube cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Brian J.

    The work presented here describes an experimental investigation into the choked flow of initially subcooled water through simulated steam generator tube cracks at pressures up to 6.9 MPa. The study of such flow is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from a nuclear reactor primary side to secondary side through cracks in steam generator tubes. An experimental approach to measuring such flow is de- scribed. Experimental results from data found in literature as well as the data collected in this work are compared with predictions from presented models as well as predictions from the thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5. It is found that the homogeneous equilibrium model underpredicts choked flow rates of subcooled water through slits and artificial steam generator tube cracks. Additional modeling of thermal non-equilibrium improves the predictibility of choking mass flux for homogeneous models, however they fail to account for the characteristics of the two-phase pressure drop. An integral modeling approach is enhanced using a correlation developed from the data herein. Also, an assessment of the thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5 is performed and it’s applicability to predict choking flow rates through steam generator tube cracks is addressed. This assessment determined that the Henry & Fauske model, as coded in RELAP5, is best suited for modeling choked flow through steam generator tube cracks. Finally, an approach to applying choked flow data that is not at the same thermo-dynamic conditions as a prototype is developed.

  10. Performance of 500 MW coal fired steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Zachariah, J.

    1996-11-01

    Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited in association with ABB-CE, USA has engineered and supplied twelve 500 MW units. The first steam generator is in service from 1984. The design of these 500 MW steam generators was based on the experience of the 200 and 210 MW units. The Indian coals have high ash content, lower calorific value and high moisture experienced during rainy season. Because of this there were a few performance problems in the first few units. The experience of assessing and improving the performance of these steam generators is the main theme of this paper. The combustion characteristics of the Indian coals are good. However, the high ash content and low calorific value associated with high moisture required specific changes in steam generator design. Tests done in different units with different coals helped in analyzing the problem. The analysis of the test data resulted in engineering changes. The modifications done improved the performance of these units. It also helped in updating design standards and methods. The paper gives an outline of the key aspects to look for in steam generator design for high ash Indian coals. The paper also outlines the testing and performance analysis methods used.

  11. A PDE model of a waterwalls steam generation process.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Miguel A; Suárez, Dionisio A; Moreno, Jaime A

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes a model of a forced circulation waterwalls steam generator, derived from first principles. The distributed parameter criteria were applied to the heat transfer process and to the steam production inside the waterwalls. The model is capable of representing swell and shrink effects as well as the condensation-vaporization phenomena that take place inside the waterwall tubes, when large drum steam pressure variations are introduced. The swell and shrink effects are responsible for water displacement from the waterwalls to the drum and from the drum to the waterwalls. Open loop simulated test were produced with the steam pressure disturbance. Closed loop tests, including the models of the drum level and the combustion system and their control systems are presented.

  12. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  13. Design with constructal theory: Steam generators, turbines and heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Sung

    This dissertation shows that the architecture of steam generators, steam turbines and heat exchangers for power plants can be predicted on the basis of the constructal law. According to constructal theory, the flow architecture emerges such that it provides progressively greater access to its currents. Each chapter shows how constructal theory guides the generation of designs in pursuit of higher performance. Chapter two shows the tube diameters, the number of riser tubes, the water circulation rate and the rate of steam production are determined by maximizing the heat transfer rate from hot gases to riser tubes and minimizing the global flow resistance under the fixed volume constraint. Chapter three shows how the optimal spacing between adjacent tubes, the number of tubes for the downcomer and the riser and the location of the flow reversal for the continuous steam generator are determined by the intersection of asymptotes method, and by minimizing the flow resistance under the fixed volume constraints. Chapter four shows that the mass inventory for steam turbines can be distributed between high pressure and low pressure turbines such that the global performance of the power plant is maximal under the total mass constraint. Chapter five presents the more general configuration of a two-stream heat exchanger with forced convection of the hot side and natural circulation on the cold side. Chapter six demonstrates that segmenting a tube with condensation on the outer surface leads to a smaller thermal resistance, and generates design criteria for the performance of multi-tube designs.

  14. Once-through testing of the CRBRP prototype steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Gabler, M.J.; Carlson, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The prototype steam generator for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) was designed, built, and tested by Rockwell International. A portion of these tests, performed by the Energy Technology Engineering Center during early 1983, had the specific objective of supporting the design of a hockey-stick-type steam generator for use in the once-through cycle mode, including demonstration of steady-state operation, startup and shutdown in a once-through mode, and stable operation at low power. Eighteen steady-state performance tests were performed at power levels from 33 to 70 MWt, which represented 20 to 42 percent full power per tube of a commercial design. Pretest predictions are compared with test results. Startup and shutdown operations under a full-liquid condition in the steam generator are described. Steam generator tube inlet orifices, removed during the CRBRP test program, were not replaced for these tests. Therefore, dynamic instability was encountered during certain tests, and the results are compared with the DYNAM code for predicting flow instability conditions. Sodium and steam temperature maldistributions cause by testing at off-design conditions for this unit are also discussed.

  15. Overview of steam generator tube degradation and integrity issues

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-10-01

    The degradation of steam generator tubes in pressurized water nuclear reactors continues to be a serious problem. Primary water stress corrosion cracking is commonly observed at the roll transition zone at U-bends, at tube denting locations, and occasionally in plugs and sleeves. Outer-diameter stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack commonly occur near the tube support plate crevice, near the tube sheet in crevices or under sludge piles, and occasionally in the free span. A particularly troubling recent trend has been the increasing occurrence of circumferential cracking at the RTZ on both the primary and secondary sides. Segmented axial cracking at the tubes support plate crevices is also becoming more common. Despite recent advances in in-service inspection technology, a clear need still exists for quantifying and improving the reliability of in- service inspection methods with respect to the probability of detection of the various types of flaws and their accurate sizing. Improved inspection technology and the increasing occurrence of such degradation modes as circumferential cracking, intergranular attack, and discontinuous axial cracking have led to the formulation of a new performance-based steam generator rule. This new rule would require the development and implementation of a steam generator management program that monitors tube condition against accepted performance criteria to ensure that the tubes perform the required safety function over the next operating cycle. The new steam generator rule will also be applied to severe accident conditions to determine the continued serviceability of a steam generator with degraded tubes in the event of a severe accident. Preliminary analyses are being performed for a hypothetical severe accident scenario to determine whether failure will occur first in the steam generator tubes, which would lead to containment bypass, or instead in the hot leg nozzle or surge line, which would not.

  16. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Two techniques believed capable of chemically dissolving the corrosion products in the annuli between tubes and support plates were developed in laboratory work in Phase I of this project and were pilot tested in Indian Point Unit No. 1 steam generators. In Phase II, one of the techniques was shown to be inadequate on an actual sample taken from an Indian Point Unit No. 2 steam generator. The other technique was modified slightly, and it was demonstrated that the tube/support plate annulus could be chemically cleaned effectively.

  17. Evaluation of steam generator WWER 440 tube integrity criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J.; Burda, J.

    1997-02-01

    The main corrosion damage in WWER steam generators under operating conditions has been observed on the outer surface of these tubes. An essential operational requirement is to assure a low probability of radioactive primary water leakage, unstable defect development and rupture of tubes. In the case of WWER 440 steam generators the above requirements led to the development of permissible limits for data evaluation of the primary-to-secondary leak measurements and determination of acceptable values for plugging of heat exchange tubes based on eddy current test (ECT) inspections.

  18. Health and safety impact of steam generator tube degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Marston T.

    1997-02-01

    In this paper the author addresses the problems inherent in evaluating the safety of steam generators with respect to tube rupture as part of a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) of a reactor plant. He reviews the history of PSA as applied to reactors, and then looks at tube rupture histories as a start toward establishing event frequencies. He considers tube ruptures from the aspect of being an initiating event to being a conditional event to some other event, and then the question of performance of the steam generator in the face of a severe accident in the reactor.

  19. Design of Steam Generator for 700 MWe IPHWR

    SciTech Connect

    John, Benny; Ghadge, S.G.

    2006-07-01

    The next stage in the Indian Nuclear Power programme consists of building 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) units. This involves up-rating of all the plant equipment like Reactor, Steam Generators (SGs), turbo-generator, major pumps etc. The 434 MWth SG used in the current generation 540 MWe IPHWRs, is a mushroom type, inverted U tube, natural circulation steam generator. The challenge, for evolution of the 540 MWth SG design, was to keep the tube diameter, tube pitch and outer diameter of the steam generator sections identical to the 434 MWth SG as far as possible. Further, the temperature difference between the primary inlet and outlet temperatures from SG was also to be maintained equal to that of 434 MWth SG. The paper describes the thermal hydraulic studies carried out for arriving at an optimal process design of 540 MWth SG. The studies were carried out using the validated 1-D code developed in house. The paper covers the issues like, extraction of the extra 106 MWth power, maintenance of a good circulation ratio under all operating conditions, additional capacity requirements of steam separators and accommodation of internals in the given space. (authors)

  20. Prediction of the combustion characteristics in a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Naugler, David G.; Mohtadi, M. F.

    1984-02-01

    Downhole steam generation is an attractive alternative to conventional surface steam generation for recovery of heavy oils from deep reservoirs. Downhole steam generation technique has been under development in the past five years in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. The main advantages of this method are very high thermal efficiency, flexibility of operation and lower environmental pollution load. In conjunction with experimental work on the development of a downhole steam generator at the University of Calgary, two computer models for prediction of the combustion characteristics in such generators have been developed. The first model is based on the assumption of a balanced reaction and complete combustion of the fuel. It determines the reaction temperature and the enthalpy of the product gases at different pressures, air/fuel ratios and water injection rates. The second model uses a modified version of the Dixon Lewis method to determine equilibrium for all species of the reaction system, including nitrogen oxides. A non-Jacobian numerical method is used for the solution of the resulting system of non-linear equations. The results show that to a fairly good approximation, the reaction temperature and the composition of product gases may be correlated with the main operating variables by simple logarithmic plots. This facilitates extrapolation of the experimental data by the use of allocation transformations.

  1. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

  2. Status of the CRBRP steam-generator design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.E.; Martinez, R.S.; Murdock, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    Fabrication of the Prototype Unit is near completion and will be delivered to the test site in August, 1981. The Plant Unit design is presently at an advanced stage and will result in steam generator units fully capable of meeting all the requiments of the CRBRP Power Plant.

  3. Leak suppression at steam generator man-, hand-, and eyeholes

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvain, C.; Sutz, P.; Gemma, A.

    1988-01-01

    Plant unavailability associated with primary and secondary holes is approximately the same as that caused by steam generator tube defects, i.e., 0.5%. Problems encountered with steam generator man-, hand-, and eyeholes during plant operation have led Electricite de France (EdF) and Framatome to improve hole seal design and to develop robots for closing and cleaning them. The data base available in France in this field on some 150 steam generators in 900- and 1300-MW(electric) pressurized water reactors (the equivalent of 300 reactor-yr of operation) has been the base of the developments described in this paper. Incidents occurring in operation primarily concern had-and inspection holes located on the steam generator's secondary side. They include four kinds: (1) leakage detected in operation, requiring forced outages, (2) leakage detected during plant restart after a scheduled shutdown and resulting in a restart delay, (3) pitting of seal mating surfaces, not inducing any leakage but jeopardizing subsequent compliance and requiring difficult and costly repairs, and (4) seizing of screws or bolts. New primary and secondary hole stud tightening and maintenance machines help to improve the efficiency of the in-service closing operations. They provide savings of up to 80% on labor, duration of operations, and exposure.

  4. VIEW OF FORMER STACK WITH 1955 STEAM GENERATOR BEHIND. BAGASSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FORMER STACK WITH 1955 STEAM GENERATOR BEHIND. BAGASSE CONVEYORS TO LEFT WITH BOILER HOUSE WING’S GABLE END IN LEFT BACKGROUND. A CONDENSATE TANK IS TO THE RIGHT, WITH BOILING HOUSE GABLE END IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  5. Steam generators regulatory practices and issues in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, C.; Castelao, C.; Ruiz-Colino, J.; Figueras, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents the actual status of Spanish Steam Generator tubes, actions developed by PWR plant owners and submitted to CSN, and regulatory activities related to tube degradation mechanisms analysis; NDT tube inspection techniques; tube, tubesheet and TSPs integrity studies; tube plugging/repair criteria; preventive and corrective measures including whole SGs replacement; tube leak measurement methods and other operational aspects.

  6. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  7. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOEpatents

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  8. Modeling a Helical-coil Steam Generator in RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan A. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Options for the primary heat transport loop heat exchangers for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant are currently being evaluated. A helical-coil steam generator is one heat exchanger design under consideration. Safety is an integral part of the helical-coil steam generator evaluation. Transient analysis plays a key role in evaluation of the steam generators safety. Using RELAP5-3D to model the helical-coil steam generator, a loss of pressure in the primary side of the steam generator is simulated. This report details the development of the steam generator model, the loss of pressure transient, and the response of the steam generator primary and secondary systems to the loss of primary pressure. Back ground on High Temperature Gas-cooled reactors, steam generators, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant is provided to increase the readers understanding of the material presented.

  9. Steam generator tube integrity program: Phase II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, R.J.; Bickford, R.L.; Clark, R.A.; Morris, C.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1988-08-01

    The Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (SGTIP) was a three phase program conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The first phase involved burst and collapse testing of typical steam generator tubing with machined defects. The second phase of the SGTIP continued the integrity testing work of Phase I, but tube specimens were degraded by chemical means rather than machining methods. The third phase of the program used a removed-from-service steam generator as a test bed for investigating the reliability and effectiveness of in-service nondestructive eddy-current inspection methods and as a source of service degraded tubes for validating the Phase I and Phase II data on tube integrity. This report describes the results of Phase II of the SGTIP. The object of this effort included burst and collapse testing of chemically defected pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing to validate empirical equations of remaining tube integrity developed during Phase I. Three types of defect geometries were investigated: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), uniform thinning and elliptical wastage. In addition, a review of the publicly available leak rate data for steam generator tubes with axial and circumferential SCC and a comparison with an analytical leak rate model is presented. Lastly, nondestructive eddy-current (EC) measurements to determine accuracy of defect depth sizing using conventional and alternate standards is described. To supplement the laboratory EC data and obtain an estimate of EC capability to detect and size SCC, a mini-round robin test utilizing several firms that routinely perform in-service inspections was conducted.

  10. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1983-04-19

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (Atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  11. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  12. 14. DETAIL OF GENERATING UNIT NO. 3 SHOWING HORIZONTAL TURBINECONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF GENERATING UNIT NO. 3 SHOWING HORIZONTAL TURBINE-CONNECTED SHAFT EMERGING FROM WEST WALL AT UPPER RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Powerhouse, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  13. Multifunctional Porous Graphene for High-Efficiency Steam Generation by Heat Localization.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshikazu; Tanabe, Yoichi; Han, Jiuhui; Fujita, Takeshi; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Chen, Mingwei

    2015-08-05

    Multifunctional nanoporous graphene is realized as a heat generator to convert solar illumination into high-energy steam. The novel 3D nanoporous graphene demonstrates a highly energy-effective steam generation with an energy conversation of 80%.

  14. Use of reinforced soil wall to support steam generator transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Davie, J.R.; Wang, J.T. ); Gladstone, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Consumers Power Company had the two steam generators at its Palisades Nuclear Plant in Michigan replaced in November 1990. This replacement was accomplished through a 26-foot wide by 28-foot high opening cut into the wall of the containment building, about 45 feet above the original ground surface. Because this ground surface was at an approximately 3-H:1-V slope, leveling was required before replacement in order to provide access for the steam generators and adequate support for the heavy-duty gantry crane system used to transfer the generators. A 25-foot high reinforced soil wall was constructed to achieve the level surface. This paper describes the design and construction of the heavily loaded reinforced soil wall, including ground improvement measures required to obtain adequate wall stability. The performance of the wall under test loading will also be presented and discussed.

  15. Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

  16. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  17. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  18. Investigation of a steam generator tube rupture sequence using VICTORIA

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.; Erickson, C.M.; Schaperow, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    VICTORIA-92 is a mechanistic computer code for analyzing fission product behavior within the reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe reactor accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radionuclides and nonradioactive materials from the core and transport of these materials within the RCS. The modeling accounts for the chemical and aerosol processes that affect radionuclide behavior. Coupling of detailed chemistry and aerosol packages is a unique feature of VICTORIA; it allows exploration of phenomena involving deposition, revaporization, and re-entrainment that cannot be resolved with other codes. The purpose of this work is to determine the attenuation of fission products in the RCS and on the secondary side of the steam generator in an accident initiated by a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). As a class, bypass sequences have been identified in NUREG-1150 as being risk dominant for the Surry and Sequoyah pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants.

  19. Performance demonstration requirements for eddy current steam generator tube inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Anderson, C.M.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the methodology used for developing performance demonstration tests for steam generator tube eddy current (ET) inspection systems. The methodology is based on statistical design principles. Implementation of a performance demonstration test based on these design principles will help to ensure that field inspection systems have a high probability of detecting and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented. Probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described.

  20. Heat transfer simulation in a helically coiled tube steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Bazargan; Keshavarz, Ali; Ebrahimi, Masood

    2014-01-01

    A symmetric helically coiled tube steam generator that operates by methane has been simulated analytically and numerically. In the analytical method, the furnace has been divided into five zones. The numerical method computes the total heat absorbed in the furnace, while the existing analytical methods compute only the radiation heat transfer. In addition, according to the numerical results, a correlation is proposed for the Nusselt number in the furnace.

  1. Corrosion inhibiting media for pressurized water reactor steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Panson, A.J.

    1988-08-16

    A method is described for inhibiting carbon steel corrosion in the secondary system of a nuclear steam generator comprising: providing a corrosion inhibiting quantity of boric acid in the secondary system water; and incorporating in the boric acid containing secondary system water, an activating amount of a polyhydric compound sufficient to increase the acid strength of the boric acid and improve the corrosion inhibiting characteristics thereof.

  2. Investigation of thermal storage and steam generator issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A review and evaluation of steam generator and thermal storage tank designs for commercial nitrate salt technology showed that the potential exists to procure both on a competitive basis from a number of qualified vendors. The report outlines the criteria for review and the results of the review, which was intended only to assess the feasibility of each design, not to make a comparison or select the best concept.

  3. A simple physical model for steam absorption into a falling film of aqueous lithium bromide solution on a horizontal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auracher, Hein; Wohlfeil, Arnold; Ziegler, Felix

    2008-03-01

    For one horizontal tube in an absorber the Nusselt solution for film thickness and velocity distribution was applied, assuming steady state in heat transfer and a semi-infinite body’s concentration profile with unsteady state mass transfer. The model was applied to the absorption of steam into aqueous lithium bromide in absorption chillers. The results are compared to published experimental values and show fair agreement.

  4. COMMIX analysis of the sodium heated helical coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kakarala, C.R.; Burge, S.W.; Sha, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the COMMIX-HCSG computer program and compares predictions to data obtained from performance tests on a 76 MWt Helical Coil Steam Generator (HCSG) test unit. COMMIX-HCSG is a multi-dimensional thermal/hydraulic code that models both steady state and transient operation of an HCSG. The code solves a system of Navier-Stokes continuum equations that have been modified with a combination of volume and directional surface porosities and distributed resistances. This formulation properly accounts for the presence of tube bundle, supports, and baffles on the shell side of the steam generator. Turbulence models and heat transfer and pressure drop equations are used as applicable for the different regions including the upper plenum, the tube bundle, and the lower plenum of the HCSG. The data was obtained from performance tests conducted in early 1987 on the 76 MWt HCSG test unit at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). The test unit contains over 700 instruments. HCSG development and tests are carried out as part of the Department of Energy program to develop reliable and economical liquid metal heated steam generators.

  5. Steam Generator tube integrity -- US Nuclear Regulatory Commission perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.L.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1997-02-01

    In the US, the current regulatory framework was developed in the 1970s when general wall thinning was the dominant degradation mechanism; and, as a result of changes in the forms of degradation being observed and improvements in inspection and tube repair technology, the regulatory framework needs to be updated. Operating experience indicates that the current U.S. requirements should be more stringent in some areas, while in other areas they are overly conservative. To date, this situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis in the US. However, the NRC staff is now developing a proposed steam generator rule as a generic framework for ensuring that the steam generator tubes are capable of performing their intended safety functions. This paper discusses the current U.S. regulatory framework for assuring steam generator (SG) tube integrity, the need to update this regulatory framework, the objectives of the new proposed rule, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guide (RG) that will accompany the rule, how risk considerations affect the development of the new rule, and some outstanding issues relating to the rule that the NRC is still dealing with.

  6. Techniques for in-service inspection of heat-transfer tubes in steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, R.W.; Day, R.A.; Neely, H.H.; Powers, T.

    1981-01-01

    A multifaceted development program is in progress in the United States to study techniques for in-service inspection (ISI) of heat transfer tubes in breeder reactor steam generators. Several steam generator designs are involved. Although there are some similarities in the approaches, many of the details of techniques and capabilities are specific to the steam generator design. This paper describes the ultrasonic, eddy-current and penetrating radiation techniques being studied for the various steam generators, including the Large Leak Test Rig, the Clinch River Breeder Reactor design, and alternate steam generators being developed by Westinghouse and Babcock and Wilcox.

  7. COSTEAM, an industrial steam generation cost model: updated users' manual

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mary; Reierson, James; Lethi, Minh- Triet

    1980-10-01

    COSTEAM is a tool for designers and managers faced with choosing among alternative systems for generating process steam, whether for new or replacement applications. Such a decision requires a series of choices among overall system concepts, component characteristics, fuel types and financial assumptions, all of which are interdependent and affect the cost of steam. COSTEAM takes the user's input on key characteristics of a proposed process steam generation facility, and computes its capital, operating and maintenance costs. Versatility and simplicity of operation are major goals of the COSTEAM system. As a user, you can work to almost any level of detail necessary and appropriate to a given stage of planning. Since the values you specify are retained and used by the computer throughout each terminal session, you can set up a hypothetical steam generation system fixed in all characteristics but one or two of special interest. It is then quick and easy to obtain a series of results by changing only those one or two values between computer runs. This updated version of the Users' Manual contains instructions for using the expanded and improved COSTEAM model. COSTEAM has three technology submodels which address conventional coal, conventional oil and atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The structure and calculation methods of COSTEAM are not discussed in this guide, and need not be understood in order to use the model. However, you may consult the companion volume of this report, COSTEAM Expansion and Improvements: Design of a Coal-Fired Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Submodel, an Oil-Fired Submodel, and Input/Output Improvements, MTR80W00048, which presents the design details.

  8. Wastes are dominant energy source for new steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1987-11-01

    The tabulation given in this article which provides a significant sample of boilers ordered last year, shows just how important wastes are becoming to the production of steam and electricity in smokestack America. Refinery gas, landfill gas, municipal refuse, biomass, and anthracite culm will fire 32 boilers in 21 of the 32 fuel-burning projects listed (one project has two heat-recovery boilers operating on gas-turbine exhaust). Refinery gas will be burned in the largest steam generator listed, an 800,000-lb/hr unit purchased by Gulf States Utilities Co; landfill gas will be fired in four others. Municipal refuse powers eight projects (15 boilers), with mass-burn combustion (six projects, 10 boilers) preferred over refuse-derived fuel by a two-to-one margin in units. Biomass, primarily woodwaste, is burned in 10 boilers serving nine projects. Circulating fluidized-bed boilers, ranging in size from 170,000 to 355,000 lb/hr captured the majority of orders for coal-fired steam generators.

  9. Geological aspects of drilling horizontal wells in steam flood reservoirs, west side, southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Crough, D.D.; Holman, M.L.; Sande, J.J. )

    1994-04-01

    Shell Western E P Inc. has drilled 11 horizontal wells in four mature steam floods in the Coalinga, South Belridge, and Midway-Sunset fields. Two medium radius wells are producing from the Pliocene Etchegoin Formation in Coalinga. One medium radius well is producing from the Pleistocene Tulare Formation in South Belridge field. Three short radius and five medium radius wells are producing from the upper Miocene, Sub-Hoyt and Potter sands in Midway-Sunset field. Horizontal wells at the base of these reservoirs and/or structurally downdip near the oil-water contact are ideally suited to take advantage of the gravity drainage production mechanism. Reservoir studies and production experience have shown these horizontal wells should increase reserves, improve recovery efficiency, improve the oil-steam ratio, and improve project profitability. Geological considerations of targeting the wells vary between fields because of the different depositional environments and resulting reservoir characteristics. The thin sands and semicontinuous shales in the Tulare Formation and the Etchegoin Formation require strict structural control on the top and base of the target sand. In the Sub-Hoyt and Potter sands, irregularities of the oil-water contact and sand and shale discontinuities must be understood. Logging and measurement while drilling provide geosteering capability in medium radius wells. Teamwork between all engineering disciplines and drilling and producing operations has been critical to horizontal well success.

  10. Ultrasonic guided wave inspection concepts for steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.L.; Rajana, K.M. ); Carr, F.T. )

    1994-02-01

    Some very exciting and promising results have been obtained with respect to the utilization and guided wave techniques for inspecting steam generator tubing. In addition to some theoretical considerations that were studied recently, work has been carried out in special probe design and development. This special probe is used in demonstration of law detection feasibility, and in understanding the conceptual development of a complete flaw detection system. This includes transducer, pulser-receiver system, and appropriate signal processing and pattern recognition software for reliable inspection. Ultrasonic NDE techniques have progressed quite rapidly during this decade for two principal reasons: advanced signal processing, and the use and understanding of multi-mode ultrasonic wave propagation. Both concepts are useful in the proposed work on guided wave propagation in steam generator tubing. These new directions go beyond the use of normal beam longitudinal waves and angle beam shear waves for inspection. Guided waves such as surface and Lamb waves can be used to monitor larger volumes of material with greater efficiency. The generation of these waves, however, is more complex. Theoretically one can produce a large number of modes in a structure with a simple loading arrangement. However, the generation of sufficient amounts of energy in a specific mode strongly depends on several factors. They include the loading system, angle of attack, probe frequency, frequency bandwidth, and a whole host of special transducer design and instrumentation parameters.

  11. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B.

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  12. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bud'ko, I. O.; Zhukov, A. G.

    2013-11-15

    An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

  13. Blow-down tests in a sodium-heated steam generator tube. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    France, D.M.; Carlson, R.D.; Chiang, T.

    1983-01-01

    The design of steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) electric power plants is based on both normal load operation and plant transient conditions. Perhaps the most severe transient to which an LMFBR steam generator may be subjected is known as the water-side isolation and dump transient, often called the blow-down transient. LMFBR steam generators must be designed to accommodate a small but finite number of the blow-down transients. The purpose of this investigation was to perform a blow-down experiment in a well instrumented, full scale, single tube model of an LMFBR steam generator. The data may be used directly in steam generator design and as a validation point for steam generator mathematical models in plant transient computer codes.

  14. Robotized system for removal of slime from the bottom of steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, O. V.; Shvarov, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    Reliability of steam generators depends not only on the main technical characteristics and correctness of the operational mode but also on the cleanliness of the heat-exchange surface and the presence of slime precipitated on the bottom. To provide the cleanliness, chemical methods of cleaning the heatexchange surfaces are used. In this article, we consider the process of removal of sediments that are formed precisely on the bottom of the steam generator from its volume. Possible mechanical methods for removal of sediments are presented. The consideration of variants of cleaning approved for acting steam generators showed the efficiency and applicability of the developed installation for the slime removal from steam generators. The main principles of construction of the system for slime removal from the steam generator bottom and constructive features of the installation, which make it possible to implement the stated tasks on the slime removal from the steam generator bottom, are given.

  15. Boric acid inhibition of steam generator materials corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Wootten, M.J.; Wolfe, C.R.; Hermer, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    In 1974, Westinghouse recommended a change from phosphate water chemistry control for nuclear steam generators to one in which no solids are intentionally added, called all volatile treatment (AVT). The reason for the recommended change in water chemistry control was the occurrence of phosphate thinning of the Alloy 600 heat transfer tubes in some operating plants. Since the change over to AVT, other types of corrosion from impurities in the water have been observed of the materials of construction of nuclear steam generators. Initially, several plants observed denting, which is caused by the corrosion of the carbon steel tube support plates. After 8 yr of usage as a denting inhibitor in nuclear plants, no detrimental effects have been identified as due to boric acid. It is believed that boric acid will inhibit denting-type corrosion and caustic attack of Alloy 600; however, it must be stressed that it is not a substitute for good chemistry practices and all levels and disciplines within the operating plant should recognize the importance of rigorous, long-term chemistry control.

  16. Recent operating experiences with steam generators in Japanese NPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Yashima, Seiji

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Genkai-3 of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. and the Ikata-3 of Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. started commercial operation, and now 22 PWR plants are being operated in Japan. Since the first PWR plant now 22 PWR plants are being operated in was started to operate, Japanese PWR plants have had an operating experience of approx. 280 reactor-years. During that period, many tube degradations have been experienced in steam generators (SGs). And, in 1991, the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) occurred in the Mihama-2 of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. However, the occurrence of tube degradation of SGs has been decreased by the instructions of the MITI as regulatory authorities, efforts of Electric Utilities, and technical support from the SG manufacturers. Here the author describes the recent SGs in Japan about the following points. (1) Recent Operating Experiences (2) Lessons learned from Mihama-2 SGTR (3) SG replacement (4) Safety Regulations on SG (5) Research and development on SG.

  17. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  18. Actual operation and regulatory activities on steam generator replacement in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Saeki, Hitoshi

    1997-02-01

    This paper summarizes the operating reactors in Japan, and the status of the steam generators in these plants. It reviews plans for replacement of existing steam generators, and then goes into more detail on the planning and regulatory steps which must be addressed in the process of accomplishing this maintenance. The paper also reviews the typical steps involved in the process of removal and replacement of steam generators.

  19. SWAAM-code development and verification and application to steam generator designs

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.; Valentin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the family of SWAAM codes which were developed by Argonne National Laboratory to analyze the effects of sodium-water reactions on LMR steam generators. The SWAAM codes were developed as design tools for analyzing various phenomena related to steam generator leaks and the resulting thermal and hydraulic effects on the steam generator and the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS). The paper discusses the theoretical foundations and numerical treatments on which the codes are based, followed by a description of code capabilities and limitations, verification of the codes and applications to steam generator and IHTS designs. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  20. Magnetic field simulation of magnetic phase detection sensor for steam generator tube in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwon-sang; Son, Derac; Park, Duck-gun; Kim, Yong-il

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic phases and defects are partly produced in steam generator tubes by stress and heat, because steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants are used under high temperature, high pressure, and radioactivity. The magnetic phases induce an error in the detection of the defects in steam generator tubes by the conventional eddy current method. So a new method is needed for detecting the magnetic phases in the steam generator tubes. We designed a new U-type yoke which has two kinds of coils and simulated the signal by the magnetic phases and defects in the Inconnel 600 tube.

  1. GENERATION, TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF TUNGSTEN-OXIDE AEROSOLS AT 1000 C IN FLOWING AIR-STEAM MIXTURES.

    SciTech Connect

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2001-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the rates of oxidation and vaporization of pure tungsten rods in flowing air, steam and air-steam mixtures in laminar flow. Also measured were the downstream transport of tungsten-oxide condensation aerosols and their region of deposition, including plateout in the superheated flow tube, rainout in the condenser and ambient discharge which was collected on an array of sub-micron aerosol filters. The nominal conditions of the tests, with the exception of the first two tests, were tungsten temperatures of 1000 C, gas mixture temperatures of 200 C and wall temperatures of 150 C to 200 C. It was observed that the tungsten oxidation rates were greatest in all air and least in all steam, generally decreasing non-linearly with increasing steam mole fraction. The tungsten oxidation rates in all air were more than five times greater than the tungsten oxidation rates in all steam. The tungsten vaporization rate was zero in all air and increased with increasing steam mole fraction. The vaporization rate became maximum at a steam mole fraction of 0.85 and decreased thereafter as the steam mole fraction was increased to unity. The tungsten-oxide was transported downstream as condensation aerosols, initially flowing upwards from the tungsten rod through an 18-inch long, one-inch diameter quartz tube, around a 3.5-inch radius, 90{sup o} bend and laterally through a 24-inch horizontal run. The entire length of the quartz glass flow path was heated by electrical resistance clamshell heaters whose temperatures were individually controlled and measured. The tungsten-oxide plateout in the quartz tube was collected, nearly all of which was deposited at the end of the heated zone near the entrance to the condenser which was cold. The tungsten-oxide which rained out in the condenser as the steam condensed was collected with the condensate and weighed after being dried. The aerosol smoke which escaped the condenser was collected on the sub

  2. Steam generator degradation: Current mitigation strategies for controlling corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, P.

    1997-02-01

    Steam Generator degradation has caused substantial losses of power generation, resulted in large repair and maintenance costs, and contributed to significant personnel radiation exposures in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) operating throughout the world. EPRI has just published the revised Steam Generator Reference Book, which reviews all of the major forms of SG degradation. This paper discusses the types of SG degradation that have been experienced with emphasis on the mitigation strategies that have been developed and implemented in the field. SG degradation is presented from a world wide perspective as all countries operating PWRs have been effected to one degree or another. The paper is written from a US. perspective where the utility industry is currently undergoing tremendous change as a result of deregulation of the electricity marketplace. Competitive pressures are causing utilities to strive to reduce Operations and Maintenance (O&M) and capital costs. SG corrosion is a major contributor to the O&M costs of PWR plants, and therefore US utilities are evaluating and implementing the most cost effective solutions to their corrosion problems. Mitigation strategies developed over the past few years reflect a trend towards plant specific solutions to SG corrosion problems. Since SG degradation is in most cases an economic problem and not a safety problem, utilities can focus their mitigation strategies on their unique financial situation. Accordingly, the focus of R&D has shifted from the development of more expensive, prescriptive solutions (e.g. reduced impurity limits) to corrosion problems to providing the utilities with a number of cost effective mitigation options (e.g. molar ratio control, boric acid treatment).

  3. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  4. Neutralization of steam generator denting. Volume 1. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.; Esposito, J.N.; Wozniak, S.M.; Whyte, D.D.

    1983-09-01

    This report deals with experimental laboratory work, the purpose of which was to reproduce the denting phenomenon observed in some steam generator heat transfer tubing and then to determine the effectiveness of selected candidate additives with regard to their ability to inhibit the denting phenomenon. Denting was shown to be dependent on a synergism between materials, oxidants, chloride, crevice geometry, superheats and temperature. A reference denting environment was developed and candidate inhibitors to this environment were subsequently added in an attempt to prevent and/or stop the denting process. Boric acid applications in a soak/on-line mode were found to be completely effective with no indications of deleterious side effects. Boric acid has been recommended for field application on a plant-specific basis. Calcium hydroxide and sodium phosphate additions in an on-line mode were effective inhibitors.

  5. Neutralization of steam generator denting. Volume 2. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, C.R.; Esposito, J.N.; Wozniak, S.M.; Whyte, D.D.

    1983-09-01

    This report deals with experimental laboratory work, the purpose of which was to reproduce the denting phenomenon observed in some steam generator heat transfer tubing and then to determine the effectiveness of selected candidate additives with regard to their ability to inhibit the denting phenomenon. Denting was shown to be dependent on a synergism between materials, oxidants, chloride, crevice geometry, superheats and temperature. A reference denting environment was developed and candidate inhibitors to this environment were subsequently added in an attempt to prevent and/or stop the denting process. Boric acid applications in a soak/on-line mode were found to be completely effective with no indications of deleterious side effects. Boric acid has been recommended for field application on a plant-specific basis. Calcium hydroxide and sodium phosphate additions in an on-line mode were effective inhibitors.

  6. Modeling local chemistry in PWR steam generator crevices

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    Over the past two decades steam generator corrosion damage has been a major cost impact to PWR owners. Crevices and occluded regions create thermal-hydraulic conditions where aggressive impurities can become highly concentrated, promoting localized corrosion of the tubing and support structure materials. The type of corrosion varies depending on the local conditions, with stress corrosion cracking being the phenomenon of most current concern. A major goal of the EPRI research in this area has been to develop models of the concentration process and resulting crevice chemistry conditions. These models may then be used to predict crevice chemistry based on knowledge of bulk chemistry, thereby allowing the operator to control corrosion damage. Rigorous deterministic models have not yet been developed; however, empirical approaches have shown promise and are reflected in current versions of the industry-developed secondary water chemistry guidelines.

  7. Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation from Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed; Kesavan, Sathees

    2006-01-01

    An economically viable and environmental friendly method of generating hydrogen for fuel cells is by the reaction of certain metals with steam, called metal-steam reforming (MSR). This technique does not generate any toxic by-products nor contributes to the undesirable greenhouse effect. From the standpoint of favorable thermodynamics, total…

  8. 26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric GenerationSteam Stations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric Generation--Steam Stations, New York, New York, 1956, figure I-1) THE GENERAL WAY IN WHICH ELECTRICITY IS CREATED THROUGH THE STEAM GENERATION PROCESS - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  9. Leak injection/detection input for B and W prototype steam generator test request

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-18

    The goal of the leak injection/detection phase of the test program on the prototype steam generator is to obtain data that can be used to specify the leak protection system for the plant unit steam generators. Both chemical and two acoustic leak detection methods (by GE and Rockwell International) are to be considered. The chemical system has been selected as the reference based on its more developed state. The acoustic methods have potential both as small leak detection systems and as intermediate leak protection/automatic shutdown systems. Simulated leak injections will be made at various locations within the steam generator to determine the performance of the chemical system as specifically applied to the B and W helical coil steam generator geometry. Acoustic tests will be made to characterize the various steam generator background noise sources and to record acoustic signals during smulated leak injections, in order to predict the performance of both systems.

  10. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  11. Further Studies in Filmwise Condensation of Steam on Horizontal Finned Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    and then descended down a 1.52 m straight length of pyrex glass piping. The steam then entered the stainless steel test section containing the...test section. The auxiliary condenser was constructed of a single copper coil mounted to a stainless steel baseplate enclosed within a pyrex glass... stainless steel side plates with penetrations for pressure bleed, vacuum line, and a pressure transducer. These three penetrations were fitted with screw

  12. Dancing with STEAM: Creative Movement Generates Electricity for Young Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson Steele, Jamie; Fulton, Lori; Fanning, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The integration of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) serves to develop creative thinking and twenty-first-century skills in the classroom (Maeda 2012). Learning through STEAM promotes novelty, innovation, ingenuity, and task-specific purposefulness to solve real-world problems--all aspects that define creativity. Lisa…

  13. Improved eddy-current inspection for steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.; Allen, J.D. Jr.; Allen , Knoxville, TN )

    1989-01-01

    Computer programs have been written to allow the analysis of different types of eddy-current probes and their performance under different steam generator test conditions. The probe types include the differential bobbin probe, the absolute bobbin probe, the pancake probe and the reflection probe. The generator test conditions include tube supports, copper deposits, magnetite deposits, denting, wastage, pitting, cracking and IGA. These studies are based mostly on computed values, with the limited number of test specimens available used to verify the computed results. The instrument readings were computed for a complete matrix of the different test conditions, and then the test conditions determined as a function of the readings by a least-squares technique. A comparison was made of the errors in fit and instrument drift for the different probe types. The computations of the change in instrument reading due to the defects have led to an inversion'' technique in which the defect properties can be computed from the instrument readings. This has been done both experimentally and analytically for each of these probe types. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOEpatents

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  15. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOEpatents

    McDermott, Daniel J.; Schrader, Kenneth J.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  16. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.; Mulac, Anthony J.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  17. Rupture pressure of wear degraded alloy 600 steam generator tubings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Namgung, Chan; Jung, Man Kyo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, Joung Soo

    2008-02-01

    Fretting/wear degradation at the tube support in the U-bend region of a steam generator (SG) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been reported. Simulated fretted flaws were machined on SG tubes of 195 mm in length. A pressure test was carried out with the tubes at room temperature by using a high pressure test facility which consisted of a water pressurizing pump, a test specimen section and a control unit. Water leak rates just after a ligament rupture or a burst were measured. Tubes degraded by up to 70% of the tube wall thickness (TW) showed a high safety margin in terms of the burst pressure during normal operating conditions. Tubes degraded by up to 50% of the TW did not show burst. Burst pressure depended on the defect depths rather than on the wrap angles. The tube with a wrap angle of 0° showed a fish mouth fracture, whereas the tube with a 45° wrap angle showed a three way fracture.

  18. Laboratory study of corrosion of steam generator tubes: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, B.; Organista, M.; Henry, K.; Erre, R.; Gelpi, A.; Cattant, F.; Dupin, M.

    1995-12-31

    The secondary side intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of steam generator tubes often occurs in crevices where impurities are concentrated, due to local elevated temperatures and restricted water flow. From the analysis of tubes pulled from plants, it is believed that alumino-silicates deposits and/or organic species may play a role in the development of IGA in near neutral environments. New observations suggest that similar environments and similar processes are operative inside the corroded grain boundaries. A former study using autoclave tests was mainly devoted to the formation of alumino-silicate deposits similar to those observed in plants. The present work pursued the study of local environments responsible for IGA/SC. It confirms former results on the catalytic decomposition of organic species into acetates and presents more details on the mechanism of formation of alumino-silicate deposits on alloy 600, particularly on the role of iron and, to a lesser extent, nickel cations. It was showed that, under the alumino-silicate deposits and in the presence of some organic species, a non-protective chromium rich layer may grow instead of the usual protective spinel oxide. The mechanism responsible for the formation of this layer is believed to involve interaction between iron and, to a lesser extent, nickel with silica and/or possible interaction between chromium and acetates. Preliminary capsule tests indicate that these conditions may induce the initiation of IGA.

  19. Corrosion of Palo Verde 2 upper bundle steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, T.P.; Molkenthin, J.P.; Hall, J.F.; Melton, M.A.; Sachs, D.E.; Sweeney, K.M.; Begley, J.

    1995-12-31

    Palo Verde Unit-2 (PV-2) has experienced degradation in the upper bundle region of some of its Alloy 600 steam generator (SG) tubes. Arizona Public Service (APS) initiated several mitigating actions, including a 1994 chemical cleaning to remove tube deposits. Eddy current tests (ECT) conducted after chemical cleaning showed an increase in the number of indications. To detail the bend region indications, APS elected to remove the hot leg bend portion of 21 tubes for laboratory examination. The examination showed that the degradation mode was outside diameter initiated intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The most severe corrosion occurred beneath ridge-like deposits, although shallow IGA was discovered on large areas of free-span tubing. In some cases, degradation was associated with scratches or gouges on the tubes. Some wear was apparently caused by periodic tube-to-tube contact. Degradation was found in tubing with both poor and partial correspondence between grain boundaries and carbides. The chemical conditions that caused the tube degradation were likely neutral to alkaline solutions containing residual sulfur (sulfide) species. The burst strength of all tubes tested significantly exceeded Regulatory Guide 1.121 requirements. These results confirmed past PV-2 tube corrosion examination results.

  20. Physical limits on steam generation by radioactive decay heat

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.A.

    1991-12-01

    This report briefly discusses the possibilities that flood water contacting the hot radioactive waste and rock at Yucca Mountain could produce enough steam to lift the top of the mountain off the repository.

  1. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  2. Report covering examination of parts from downhole steam generators. [Combustor head and sleeve parts

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.

    1983-08-01

    Combustor head and sleeve parts were examined by using optical and scanning electron metallography after use in oxygen/diesel and air/diesel downhole steam generators. The degradation of the different alloy components is described in terms of reactions with oxygen, sulfur and carbon in the presence of cyclic stresses, all generated by the combustion process. Recommendations are presented for component materials (alloys and coatings) to extend component lives in the downhole steam generators. 9 references, 22 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Circumferential cracking in steam generator tubes repaired by mechanical sleeving

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbe, J.; Pierson, E.; Laire, C.; Nedden, L. zur; Somville, P.; Royen, P. Van

    1995-12-31

    After one service cycle, leaks were detected in Doel 4 steam generator (SG) tubes repaired by mechanical sleeving (hydraulically + roll expanded). Two tubes were pulled and examined, one of them showing a big leak and the second being, pulled randomly. They both revealed through wall circumferential primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) at the upper hydraulic transition so that it was concluded that the problem was generic. A thorough assessment of the root causes of failure was undertaken, including stress and strain direct measurement by X-ray diffraction and photoelasticity, local stresses and temperature evaluation by calculation and stress corrosion cracking tests. Stress corrosion tests were carried out in 10 % NAOH environment, on mock-ups manufactured from reserve tubing of the plant simulating not only the upper joint but also the complete assembly (two joints). An estimate of the expected life was performed by comparison with reference mock-ups representative of the roll transitions (including the kiss roll). The findings are that the hydraulic expansion may generate high residual stresses, in spite of the very low residual deformations. Concerning, the temperature however, there are some indications that it could be substantially lower at the level of the cracking than at the tube to tubesheet roll transitions, which makes the quantified evaluation somewhat inaccurate. It is concluded that repair by mechanical sleeving is influenced by many parameters, including details of the installation procedure. Lifetime may be very limited when applied to PWSCC sensitive tubes and must be evaluated by appropriate testing. In particular, corrosion mock-ups should represent the entire sleeve, with both joints.

  4. French Regulatory practice and experience feedback on steam generator tube integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Sandon, G.

    1997-02-01

    This paper summarizes the way the French Safety Authority applies regulatory rules and practices to the problem of steam generator tube cracking in French PWR reactors. There are 54 reactors providing 80% of French electrical consumption. The Safety Authority closely monitors the performance of tubes in steam generators, and requires application of a program which deals with problems prior to the actual development of leakage. The actual rules regarding such performance are flexible, responding to the overall performance of operating steam generators. In addition there is an inservice inspection service to examine tubes during shutdown, and to monitor steam generators for leakage during operation, with guidelines for when generators must be pulled off line.

  5. An optimized strategy for the management of spent steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrel, Eric; Denissen, Luc; Davain, Henri; Leveau, Jean-Phillipe; Lauwers, Johan; Gillet, Thierry

    2007-07-01

    The decommissioning of the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) approaches its final phase. The electro-mechanical dismantling is almost completed and the program related to the decontamination of the building structures has been initiated. The issue of the evacuation of the primary circuit large components, and more specifically of the Steam Generator (SG), has been dealt successfully, applying innovative technologies to lead to remarkable results in terms of waste volume minimization and occupational radiation exposure. The strategy applied for the evacuation of the BR3 SG resulted from the elaboration and comparison of the following scenarios: - Closed loop chemical decontamination prior to dismantling, cutting and unconditional release or release after melting, - Cutting of the components without decontamination and evacuation of the materials in their respective waste categories, - Cutting, decontamination of the SG secondary side and evacuation of the full SG primary side to the melting facility for recycling. While the availability of the in-house developed MEDOC{sup R} process made the clearance of the SG bundle technically feasible, nuclear safety requirements and financial aspects were also in favour of the closed loop decontamination: minimization of contamination spreading and staff exposure during all subsequent manipulations, minimization of radwaste costs. For the segmentation of this component, different techniques have been considered: An abrasive water jet (AWJ) cutting tool, A prototype diamond wire developed for this application. The diamond wire allowed to cut in a single pass both the carbon steel shell and the stainless steel tube bundle. While the implementation of the diamond wire saw is rather simple, working conditions must be optimised to limit wearing of the wire and secondary waste production. Existing experience can be extrapolated to different legal frameworks in order to propose a financially and technically optimised 'all-in' strategy for the

  6. Susceptibility of steam generator tubes in secondary conditions: Effects of lead and sulphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Garcia, M.S.; Castano, M.L.; Lancha, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    IGA/SCC on the secondary side of steam generators is increasing every year, and represents the cause of some steam generator replacements. Until recently, caustic and acidic environments have been accepted as causes of IGA/SCC, particulary in certain environments: in sludge pile on the tube sheet; at support crevices; in free span. Lead and sulfur have been identified as significant impurities. Present thoughts are that some IGA/SCC at support crevices may have occurred in nearly neutral or mildly alkaline environments. Here the authors present experimental work aimed at studying the influence of lead and sulfur on the behaviour of steam generator tube alloys in different water environments typical of steam generators. Most test results ran for at least 2000 hours, and involved visual and detailed surface analysis during and following the test procedures.

  7. Steam generators secondary side chemical cleaning at Point Lepreau using the Siemens high temperature process

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, K.; MacNeil, C.; Odar, S.; Kuhnke, K.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the chemical cleaning of the four steam generators at the Point Lepreau facility, which was accomplished as a part of a normal service outage. The steam generators had been in service for twelve years. Sludge samples showed the main elements were Fe, P and Na, with minor amounts of Ca, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cl, Cu, Ni, Ti, Si, and Pb, 90% in the form of Magnetite, substantial phosphate, and trace amounts of silicates. The steam generators were experiencing partial blockage of broached holes in the TSPs, and corrosion on tube ODs in the form of pitting and wastage. In addition heat transfer was clearly deteriorating. More than 1000 kg of magnetite and 124 kg of salts were removed from the four steam generators.

  8. Design and Activation of a LOX/GH Chemical Steam Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.; Mulkey, C. A.; Taylor, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed description of the design and activation of the LOX/GH fueled chemical steam generator installed in Cell 2 of the E3 test facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC). The steam generator uses a liquid oxygen oxidizer with gaseous hydrogen fuel. The combustion products are then quenched with water to create steam at pressures from 150 to 450 psig at temperatures from 350 to 750 deg F (from saturation to piping temperature limits).

  9. Horizontal visibility graphs generated by type-I intermittency.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Ángel M; Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Gómez, Jose Patricio; Robledo, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    The type-I intermittency route to (or out of) chaos is investigated within the horizontal visibility (HV) graph theory. For that purpose, we address the trajectories generated by unimodal maps close to an inverse tangent bifurcation and construct their associated HV graphs. We show how the alternation of laminar episodes and chaotic bursts imprints a fingerprint in the resulting graph structure. Accordingly, we derive a phenomenological theory that predicts quantitative values for several network parameters. In particular, we predict that the characteristic power-law scaling of the mean length of laminar trend sizes is fully inherited by the variance of the graph degree distribution, in good agreement with the numerics. We also report numerical evidence on how the characteristic power-law scaling of the Lyapunov exponent as a function of the distance to the tangent bifurcation is inherited in the graph by an analogous scaling of block entropy functionals defined on the graph. Furthermore, we are able to recast the full set of HV graphs generated by intermittent dynamics into a renormalization-group framework, where the fixed points of its graph-theoretical renormalization-group flow account for the different types of dynamics. We also establish that the nontrivial fixed point of this flow coincides with the tangency condition and that the corresponding invariant graph exhibits extremal entropic properties.

  10. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  11. A nonlinear dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, M.A.

    1993-07-01

    A dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator is presented. The model simulates the advanced liquid metal reactor superheated cycle steam generator with a four-region, moving-boundary, drift-flux model. The model is described by a set of nonlinear differential equations derived from the fundamental equations of conversation of mass, energy, and momentum. Sample results of steady-state and transient calculations are presented.

  12. Studies of the steam generator degraded tubes behavior on BRUTUS test loop

    SciTech Connect

    Chedeau, C.; Rassineux, B.

    1997-04-01

    Studies for the evaluation of steam generator tube bundle cracks in PWR power plants are described. Global tests of crack leak rates and numerical calculations of crack opening area are discussed in some detail. A brief overview of thermohydraulic studies and the development of a mechanical probabilistic design code is also given. The COMPROMIS computer code was used in the studies to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of a steam generator tube rupture.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic response and iodine transport during a steam generator tube rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, R.A.

    1988-10-01

    Recent reanalyses of the offsite dose consequences following a steam generator tube rupture have identified a possible non-conservatism in original FSAR analyses. Post-trip uncovery of the top of the steam generator U-tubes, in conjunction with a break near the U-tube top, could lead to increased iodine release due to a reduced ''scrubbing'' of the iodine in the primary break fluid by the steam generator secondary liquid. To evaluate this issue, analyses were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The RELAP5 computer code was used to conduct an analysis of the Surry plant to determine whether the post-trip steam generator secondary mixture level was sufficient to maintain continuous coverage of the U-tubes. The results indicated continuous coverage of the U-tubes. The RELAP5 result was supported by a hand calculation. Additional RELAP5 analyses were conducted to determine magnitudes of iodine release for a steam generator tube rupture. Two sensitivity studies were conducted. The amount of iodine released to the atmosphere was strongly dependent on the assumed value of the partition coefficient. The assumption of steam generator U-tube uncovery, on a collapsed liquid level basis, following reactor trip had a minor effect on the amount of released iodine. 17 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Stem drive oil recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator and anti clay-swelling agent

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, D. N.; Snavely, E. S.

    1985-06-11

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water or a stable hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion containing an anti clay-swelling agent and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well. Suitable anti clay-swelling agents include metal halide salts and diammonium phosphate.

  15. Condensation of steam on the underside of a horizontal surface in the presence of air and helium

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.P.; Cho, D.H.; Lambert, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments and data analysis for the condensation of steam on the underside of a horizontal surface in a closed vessel are described. Previously reported results for film condensation with air as a noncondensable gas are reviewed and compared with new data with helium as the noncondensable in the same apparatus. Observations, including photographs of the condensate configurations, related to the occurrence of dropwise condensation are also discussed. It is noted that data reproducibility over long periods of time were possible only with film condensation and that with dropwise condensation condensing surface temperatures exhibited large nonuniformities and random fluctuations with time. The well known mass transfer calculational model for accounting for the presence of noncondensable gases had been shown previously to be successful with air. The same model when applied to the helium data was not successful except for small gas contents. It appears that the suppression of convection that would be expected to occur with the less dense gas is counteracted by convection induced by fog or mist formation.

  16. Rapid Generation of Superheated Steam Using a Water-containing Porous Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shoji; Okuyama, Kunito

    Heat treatment by superheated steam has been utilized in several industrial fields including sterilization, desiccation, and cooking. In particular, cooking by superheated steam is receiving increased attention because it has advantages of reducing the salt and fat contents in foods as well as suppressing the oxidation of vitamin C and fat. In this application, quick startup and cut-off responses are required. Most electrically energized steam generators require a relatively long time to generate superheated steam due to the large heat capacities of the water in container and of the heater. Zhao and Liao (2002) introduced a novel process for rapid vaporization of subcooled liquid, in which a low-thermal-conductivity porous wick containing water is heated by a downward-facing grooved heating block in contact with the upper surface of the wick structure. They showed that saturated steam is generated within approximately 30 seconds from room-temperature water at a heat flux 41.2 kW⁄m2. In order to quickly generate superheated steam of approximately 300°C, which is required for cooking, the heat capacity of the heater should be as small as possible and the imposed heat flux should be so high enough that the porous wick is able to dry out in the vicinity of the contact with the heater and that the resulting heater temperature becomes much higher than the saturation temperature. The present paper proposes a simple structured generator to quickly produce superheated steam. Only a fine wire heater is contacted spirally on the inside wall in a hollow porous material. The start-up, cut-off responses and the rate of energy conversion for input power are investigated experimentally. Superheated steam of 300°C is produced in approximately 19 seconds from room-temperature water for an input power of 300 W. The maximum rate of energy conversion in the steady state is approximately 0.9.

  17. Modeling and field studies of fouling in once-through steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.; Gaudreau, T.

    1995-12-31

    Efforts of the past 10 years to minimize fouling of the Crystal River-3 once-through steam generators are reviewed. The major focus has been on improving at-temperature pH control in the secondary cycle. Various concentrations of different pH control agents were tested in the field for hundreds of days to determine their effect on steam generator fouling. High concentrations of morpholine (50--100 ppm) in the feedwater were found to apparently produce de-fouling of the steam generators without an associated decrease in feedwater iron concentration as compared to that at lower levels of morpholine. Computer modeling of the pH(t) within the OTSG for the various chemistries tested indicates that the pH can change significantly with elevation within the steam generator by varying the pH control agent or its concentration. It is postulated that these variations in pH may change the surface charge of the tubes, tube support plates, and/or corrosion product particles in solution, to favor either deposition or repulsion of the particles, and thereby producing conditions that either favor fouling or de-fouling of the OTSG. Crystal River-3 experience indicates that corrosion product deposition and release processes inside the steam generator can be chemically manipulated to favor release, and thereby maximize plant performance, and delay or avoid costly hydraulic or chemical cleanings.

  18. Radiological Assessment of Steam Generator Removal and Replacement: Update and Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenes, G. R.; Mueller, M. A.; McCormack, W. D.

    1980-12-01

    A previous analysis of the radiological impact of removing and replacing corroded steam generators has been updated based on experience gained during steam generator repairs at Surry Unit 2. Some estimates of occupational doses involved in the operation have been revised but are not significantly different from the earlier estimates. Estimates of occupational doses and radioactive effluents for new tasks have been added. Health physics concerns that arose at Surry included the number of persons involved in the operation, tne training of workers, the handling of quantitites.of low-level waste, and the application of the ALARA principle. A review of these problem areas may help in the planning of other similar operations. A variety of processes could be used to decontaminate steam generators. Research is needed to assess these techniques and their associated occupational doses and waste volumes. Contaminated steam generators can be stored or disposed of after removal without significant radiological problems. Onsite storage and intact shipment have the least impact. In-placing retubing, an alternative to steam generator removal, results in occupational doses and effluents similar to those from removal, but prior decontamination of the channel head is needed. The retubing option should be assessed further.

  19. Steam generator tube degradation at the Doel 4 plant influence on plant operation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Scheveneels, G.

    1997-02-01

    The steam generator tubes of Doel 4 are affected by a multitude of corrosion phenomena. Some of them have been very difficult to manage because of their extremely fast evolution, non linear evolution behavior or difficult detectability and/or measurability. The exceptional corrosion behavior of the steam generator tubes has had its drawbacks on plant operation and safety. Extensive inspection and repair campaigns have been necessary and have largely increased outage times and radiation exposure to personnel. Although considerable effort was invested by the utility to control corrosion problems, non anticipated phenomena and/or evolution have jeopardized plant safety. The extensive plugging and repairs performed on the steam generators have necessitated continual review of the design basis safety studies and the adaptation of the protection system setpoints. The large asymmetric plugging has further complicated these reviews. During the years many preventive and recently also defence measures have been implemented by the utility to manage corrosion and to decrease the probability and consequences of single or multiple tube rupture. The present state of the Doel 4 steam generators remains troublesome and further examinations are performed to evaluate if continued operation until June `96, when the steam generators will be replaced, is justified.

  20. Analysis of potential for jet-impingement erosion from leaking steam generator tubes during severe accidents.

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Diercks, D. R.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes analytical evaluation of crack-opening areas and leak rates of superheated steam through flaws in steam generator tubes and erosion of neighboring tubes due to jet impingement of superheated steam with entrained particles from core debris created during severe accidents. An analytical model for calculating crack-opening area as a function of time and temperature was validated with tests on tubes with machined flaws. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code was used to calculate the jet velocity impinging on neighboring tubes as a function of tube spacing and crack-opening area. Erosion tests were conducted in a high-temperature, high-velocity erosion rig at the University of Cincinnati, using micrometer-sized nickel particles mixed in with high-temperature gas from a burner. The erosion results, together with analytical models, were used to estimate the erosive effects of superheated steam with entrained aerosols from the core during severe accidents.

  1. Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Arrell

    2006-05-31

    To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

  2. Steam condensation and liquid hold-up in steam generator U-tubes during oscillatory natural circulation

    SciTech Connect

    De Santi, G.F.; Mayinger, F.

    1990-01-01

    In many accident scenarios, natural circulation is an important heat transport mechanism for long-term cooling of light water reactors. In the event of a small pipe break, with subsequent loss of primary cooling fluid loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), or under abnormal operating conditions, early tripping of the main coolant pumps can be actuated. Primary fluid flow will then progress from forced to natural convection. Understanding of the flow regimes and heat-removal mechanisms in the steam generators during the entire transient is of primary importance to safety analysis. Flow oscillations during two-phase natural circulation experiments for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) with inverted U-tube steam generators occur at high pressure and at a primary inventory range between two-phase circulation and reflex heat removal. This paper deals with the oscillatory flow behavior that was observed in the LOBI-MOD2 facility during the transition period between two-phase natural circulation and reflex condensation.

  3. Intermediate leak protection/automatic shutdown for B and W helical coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The report summarizes a follow-on study to the multi-tiered Intermediate Leak/Automatic Shutdown System report. It makes the automatic shutdown system specific to the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) helical coil steam generator and to the Large Development LMFBR Plant. Threshold leak criteria specific to this steam generator design are developed, and performance predictions are presented for a multi-tier intermediate leak, automatic shutdown system applied to this unit. Preliminary performance predictions for application to the helical coil steam generator were given in the referenced report; for the most part, these predictions have been confirmed. The importance of including a cover gas hydrogen meter in this unit is demonstrated by calculation of a response time one-fifth that of an in-sodium meter at hot standby and refueling conditions.

  4. Microfabricated rankine cycle steam turbine for power generation and methods of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frechette, Luc (Inventor); Muller, Norbert (Inventor); Lee, Changgu (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip has been provided. The integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip of the present invention comprises a miniature electric power generation system fabricated using silicon microfabrication technology and lithographic patterning. The present invention converts heat to electricity by implementing a thermodynamic power cycle on a chip. The steam turbine power plant on-a-chip generally comprises a turbine, a pump, an electric generator, an evaporator, and a condenser. The turbine is formed by a rotatable, disk-shaped rotor having a plurality of rotor blades disposed thereon and a plurality of stator blades. The plurality of stator blades are interdigitated with the plurality of rotor blades to form the turbine. The generator is driven by the turbine and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  5. ATHOS: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators. Volume 2. Programmer's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, A.K.; Keeton, L.W.; Przekwas, A.J.; Weems, J.S.

    1982-10-01

    ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators) is a computer code developed by CHAM of North America Incorporated, under the contract RP 1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California. ATHOS supercedes the earlier code URSULA2. ATHOS is designed for three-dimensional, steady-state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. The current version of the code has been checked out for: three different configurations of the recirculating-type U-tube steam generators; the homogeneous and algebraic-slip flow models; and full and part load operating conditions. The description of ATHOS is divided into the following four volumes: Volume 1, Mathematical and Physical Models and Methods of Solution; Volume 2, Programmer's Manual; Volume 3, User's Manual; and Volume 4, Applications. The code's possible uses, capabilities and limitations are described in Volume 1 as well as in Volume 3.

  6. Evaluation and field validation of Eddy-Current array probes for steam generator tube inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Improved Eddy-Current ISI for Steam Generator Tubing program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for inservice inspection of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification, and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC`s mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report describes the design of specialized high-speed 16-coil eddy-current array probes. Both pancake and reflection coils are considered. Test results from inspections using the probes in working steam generators are given. Computer programs developed for probe calculations are also supplied.

  7. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  8. Coincident steam generator tube rupture and stuck-open safety relief valve carryover tests: MB-2 steam generator transient response test program

    SciTech Connect

    Garbett, K; Mendler, O J; Gardner, G C; Garnsey, R; Young, M Y

    1987-03-01

    In PWR steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) faults, a direct pathway for the release of radioactive fission products can exist if there is a coincident stuck-open safety relief valve (SORV) or if the safety relief valve is cycled. In addition to the release of fission products from the bulk steam generator water by moisture carryover, there exists the possibility that some primary coolant may be released without having first mixed with the bulk water - a process called primary coolant bypassing. The MB-2 Phase II test program was designed specifically to identify the processes for droplet carryover during SGTR faults and to provide data of sufficient accuracy for use in developing physical models and computer codes to describe activity release. The test program consisted of sixteen separate tests designed to cover a range of steady-state and transient fault conditions. These included a full SGTR/SORV transient simulation, two SGTR overfill tests, ten steady-state SGTR tests at water levels ranging from very low levels in the bundle up to those when the dryer was flooded, and three moisture carryover tests without SGTR. In these tests the influence of break location and the effect of bypassing the dryer were also studied. In a final test the behavior with respect to aerosol particles in a dry steam generator, appropriate to a severe accident fault, was investigated.

  9. Steam generator with circulating atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wein, W.; Hoeffgen, H.; Maintok, K. H.; Daradimos, G.

    1982-08-01

    The combustion of coal in power plants by conventional combustion techniques is studied with emphasis on combustion in a circulating atmospheric fluidized bed (CFBC). The CFBC method stays half way between the classical fluidized bed with a well defined bed height and the pneumatic transport where particles and fluidizing gas have the same velocity. The main advantages of CFBC are: flexibility with respect to coal types; easy elimination of 80% of sulfur by mixing the coal with calcium carbonate to a molecular ratio Ca/S of about two; reduced nitrogen oxides production due to the low combustion temperature of 900 C; high steam production efficiency with the combustion degree exceeding 99%; high overall efficiency with no further desulfurizing being needed; easy regulation; high heat transmission rates (350 to 400 W/m2K) reducing exchange surfaces; small boiler building; and the possibility to build in one module a 300 MW unit.

  10. Downhole steam-generator study. Volume 1: Conception and feasibilty evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    A feasibility evaluation of a downhill steam generator was performed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International, under contract to Sandia National Laboratories, from September 1978 to September 1980. The study was conducted in four phases: (1) selection of a preliminary system design, (2) parametric analysis of the selected system, (3) experimental studies to demonstrate feasibility and develop design data, and (4) development of a final system design based on the parametric and experimental results. The feasibility of a low pressure combustion, indirect contact, downhole steam generator system was demonstrated. Key results from all phases of the study are presented herein.

  11. Reactance simulation for the defects in steam generator tube with outside ferrite sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Kwon-sang; Kima, Yong-il; Son, Derac; Park, Duck-gun; Jung, Jae-kap

    2009-04-01

    A magnetic sludge is partly produced around the tube sheet outside a steam generator due to stress and heat. The sludge with magnetite is one of the important factors affecting eddy current signals. It causes trouble for the safety of the steam generator tubes and is difficult to detect by conventional eddy current methods. A new type of probe is needed to detect the signals for the magnetic sludge. We designed a new U-type yoke which has two kinds of coils--a magnetizing coil and the other a detecting coil--and we simulated the signal induced by the ferromagnetic sludge in the Inconel 600 tube.

  12. Maine Yankee steam generator tube sleeving thermal-hydraulic and safety analysis impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, K.R.; Palmer, S.; Harvey, R.C.; Bergeron, P.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the impact of the complete plugging and sleeving campaign at Maine Yankee on the thermal-hydraulic analysis. A discussion of the hydraulic resistance calculations associated with the plugging and sleeving is provided. Finally, the impact on the plant safety analyses is provided, considering the changes in the hydraulic resistance of the steam generator tubes and the associated impact on reactor coolant system flow rate including asymmetry, steam generator overall heat transfer capability (UA), LOCA, reactor coolant pump coastdown, and Reactor Protection System trip setpoints.

  13. MINET simulation of a helical coil sodium/water steam generator, including structural effects

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1984-04-01

    A test transient performed at a helical coil sodium-to-water steam generator test facility was simulated using the MINET code. It was determined that correct calculation of the sodium outlet temperature requires representation of heat capacitance of the structure.

  14. Development of a helically coiled tube steam generator model for the SASSYS computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzica, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    A helically coiled steam generator design has been found to provide many advantages when considering the requirements of a liquid-metal reactor (LMR) power plant. A few of these advantages are a smaller number of longer, larger-diameter, thicker-walled tubes; fewer tube-to-tubesheet welds; better accommodation of thermal expansion; compact heat transfer geometry; and the mitigation of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) effects. Therefore, this type of steam generator was chosen as the reference design for the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor (ALMR) project. This design is a vertically oriented, helical coil, sodium-to-water counter-cross-flow shell and tube heat exchanger with water on the tube side. The SASSYS LMR accident analysis computer code has been improved over the last several years by the addition of a number of new component models, one of which is for the steam generator. In addition to this straight-tube model, a new model now treats helically coiled tubes in the steam generator. Both models are available to calculate once-through as well as recirculation-type designs.

  15. Development and field validation of advanced array probes for steam generator inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    The aging of the steam generators at the nation`s nuclear power plants has led to the appearance of new forms of degradation in steam generator tubes and an increase in the frequency of forced outages due to major tube leak events. The eddy-current techniques currently being used for the inspection of steam generator tubing are no longer adequate to ensure that flaws will be detected before they lead to a shutdown of the plant. To meet the need for a fast and reliable method of inspection, ORNL has designed a 16-coil eddy-current array probe which combines an inspection speed similar to that of the bobbin coil with a sensitivity to cracks of any orientation similar to the rotating pancake coil. In addition, neural network and least square methods have been developed for the automatic analysis of the data acquired with the new probes. The probes and analysis software have been tested at two working steam generators where we have found an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of a factor of five an increase in the inspection speed of a factor of 75 over the rotating pancake coil which maintaining similar detection and characterization capabilities.

  16. Transmit-receive eddy current probes for defect detection and sizing in steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Cecco, V.S.; Sullivan, S.P.

    1997-02-01

    Inspection of steam generator tubes in aging Nuclear Generating Stations is increasingly important. Defect detection and sizing, especially in defect prone areas such as the tubesheet, support plates and U-bend regions, are required to assess the fitness-for-service of the steam generators. Information about defect morphology is required to address operational integrity issues, i.e., risk of tube rupture, number of tubes at risk, consequential leakage. A major challenge continues to be the detection and sizing of circumferential cracks. Utilities around the world have experienced this type of tube failure. Conventional in-service inspection, performed with eddy current bobbin probes, is ineffectual in detecting circumferential cracks in tubing. It has been demonstrated in CANDU steam generators, with deformation, magnetite and copper deposits that multi-channel probes with transmit-receive eddy current coils are superior to those using surface impedance coils. Transmit-receive probes have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization according to crack orientation. They are less sensitive to lift-off noise and magnetite deposits and possess good discrimination to internal defects. A single pass C3 array transmit-receive probe developed by AECL can detect and size circumferential stress corrosion cracks as shallow as 40% through-wall. Since its first trial in 1992, it has been used routinely for steam generator in-service inspection of four CANDU plants, preventing unscheduled shutdowns due to leaking steam generator tubes. More recently, a need has surfaced for simultaneous detection of both circumferential and axial cracks. The C5 probe was designed to address this concern. It combines transmit-receive array probe technology for equal sensitivity to axial and circumferential cracks with a bobbin probe for historical reference. This paper will discuss the operating principles of transmit-receive probes, along with inspection results.

  17. Modeling considerations for the analysis of LMFBR steam generator tube clamps

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, D.M.; Piper, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    In the design of the Babcock and Wilcox Helical Coil Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Steam Generator, the tube bundle is connected to the feedwater and steam plenums via ''inlet/outlet tubes''. Of prime importance in the design of these tubes is the tube-to-tube and tube-to-shell clamps which are provided to prevent detrimental vibration. This paper presents a method of modeling the tube-to-tube clamps to accurately predict tube-to-clamp interaction in the finite element analysis. It also demonstrates the validity of specific modeling assumptions in determining stresses in the clamp assembly.

  18. Analysis and potential of once-through steam generators in line focus systems - Final results of the DUKE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldhoff, Jan Fabian; Hirsch, Tobias; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Valenzuela, Loreto

    2016-05-01

    The direct steam generation in line focus systems such as parabolic troughs and linear Fresnel collectors is one option for providing `solar steam' or heat. Commercial power plants use the recirculation concept, in which the steam generation is separated from the superheating by a steam drum. This paper analyzes the once-through mode as an advanced solar field concept. It summarizes the results of the DUKE project on loop design, a new temperature control strategy, thermo-mechanical stress analysis, and an overall cost analysis. Experimental results of the temperature control concept at the DISS test facility at Plataforma Solar de Almería are presented.

  19. Three-dimensional two-fluid code for U-tube steam generator thermal design analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.Y.; No, H.C.

    1986-11-01

    A computer code, FAUST (Flow Analysis of U-tube Steam generators), for U-tube steam generator design analysis is developed on the basis of the pressurized water reactor core transient analysis code, THERMIT. The original (x,y,z) coordinates used in THERMIT are transformed into the cylindrical (r,theta,z) coordinates for FAUST, which are better fitted in the geometry of steam generators. To couple the primary side with the secondary side, a one-dimensional tube representative of a computational cell in the heat transfer model is developed with a geometrical mapping between the primary and secondary sides. The special unitary group SU(2) is used to treat the complex geometry of the U-bend region for frictional wall force. A form loss model for tube support plates in two-phase flow is implemented in the code. The steam dome model developed here enables us to consider the different amounts of feedwater distributed into the hot and cold sides of the downcomer.

  20. Waste-heat steam generation is economically viable in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    McMann, F.C.; Marshall, R.W.

    1984-03-01

    Generation of electric power by turbine-driven generators serviced by waste heat boilers is not a blue sky dream. It is time-proven technology, employing time-proven equipment-equipment that is expected to run uninterrupted in fouryear cycles. This equipment and its control are made right here in the U.S. The equipment is very simple to operate and maintain. This article describes the applications of ceramics in this industry.

  1. Generation and behavior of metal oxide colloids in PWR steam systems

    SciTech Connect

    Varsanik, R.G.

    1984-10-01

    This work reviews the curently available literature and research work on the generation and behavior of metal oxide colloids in PWR steam systems. The work of E. Matijevic et al on the generation and adhesion of iron and copper oxides is described. The role of colloid chemistry in the control of plant sludge and corrosion products is described. Factors affecting the adherence and re-entrainment of colloidal metal oxides along with possible methods for the control of metal oxide deposition are reviewed.

  2. Direct-fired downhole steam generator: from design to field test

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, R.M.; Eson, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    A direct-fired downhole steam generator (DFDSG) has been developed which shows considerable promise for production of heavy oil. Generation of steam by surface boilers is inefficient because of heat losses, and air pollution curtails crude production. The technology of DFDSG is very attractive because it deals with both of these problems directly, and there are additional benefits. By carrying out the combustion process at high pressure, and then adding water, a mixture of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and steam is charged directly into the heavy oil reservoir. This eliminates the need for expensive, and inefficient, stack scrubbers to remove sulfur dioxide, as well as sophisticated NO/sub x/ control techniques. The carbon dioxide created during the fuel burning process is absorbed by the heavy oil and increases its mobility without expending additional energy. Even the nitrogen contributes a high-velocity drag which increases both crude production rate and efficiency. DFDSG offers the potential for placing into the production zone, regardless of its depth, any quality effluent desired, from wet to superheated steam.

  3. Tritium permeation through steam generator tubing of helium-cooled ceramic breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Fuetterer, M.; Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The potential sources of tritium contamination of the helium-coolant of ceramic breeder blankets have been evaluated in a previous paper for the specific case of the European BIT DEMO blanket. This evaluation associated with a rough assessment of the permeability to tritium of the tubing of helium-heated steam generators confirmed that the control of tritium losses to the steam circuit is a critical issue for this class of blanket requiring developments in three areas: (1) permeation barriers, (2) tritium recovery processes maintaining a very low concentration in tritiated species in the coolant, and (3) methods for controlling the chemistry of the coolant. Consequently, in order to define the specifications of these developments, a detailed evaluation of the permeability to tritium of helium-heated steam generators (SGs) was performed, which will be reported in this paper. This study includes the definition of the thermal-hydraulic operating conditions of the SGs through thermodynamic cycle calculations, and its thermal-hydraulic design. The obtained geometry, area and temperature profiles along the tubes are then used to estimate, based on relevant permeability data, the tritium permeation through the SG as a function of the composition in tritiated species of the coolant. The implications of these results, in terms of requirements for the considered tritium control methods, will also be discussed on the basis of expected limits in tritium release to the steam circuit.

  4. The Development of a Small High Speed Steam Microturbine Generator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Adrian; Nichol, Philip; Frisby, Ben

    2015-08-01

    The efficient use of energy is paramount in every kind of business today. Steam is a widely used energy source. In many situations steam is generated at high pressures and then reduced in pressure through control valves before reaching point of use. An opportunity was identified to convert some of the energy at the point of pressure reduction into electricity. This can be accomplished using steam turbines driving alternators on large scale systems. To take advantage of a market identified for small scale systems, a microturbine generator was designed based on a small high speed turbo machine. This gave rise to a number of challenges which are described with the solutions adopted. The challenges included aerodynamic design of high efficiency impellers, sealing of a high speed shaft, thrust control and material selection to avoid steam erosion. The machine was packaged with a sophisticated control system to allow connection to the electricity grid. Some of the challenges in packaging the machine are also described. The Spirax Sarco TurboPower has now concluded performance and initial endurance tests which are described with a summary of the results.

  5. Probabilistic analysis for axial cracking in Palo Verde Unit 1 steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, B.W.; Begley, J.A.; Brown, S.D.; Sweeney, K.; Radspinner, M.; Melton, M.

    1995-12-31

    Axial stress corrosion cracks have been observed on the outer diameter of steam generator tubing in the upper bundle region in units at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generator Station (PVNGS). This paper describes a Monte-Carlo probabilistic model developed to provide an overall assessment of the risk of exceeding Regulatory Guide 1.121 structural limit requirements during plant operation. The chosen approach models crack initiation, crack growth, detection of cracks and subsequent removal from service. Cracking statistics from inspection results for Units 2 and 3 are used to predict the expected performance of Unit 1. A general approach to calculating the probability of structural limit exceedance as a function of run time is described for steam generator tubing experiencing stress corrosion cracking.

  6. Flow Distribution Control Characteristics in Marine Gas Turbine Waste- Heat Recovery Systems. Phase 2. Flow Distribution Control in Waste-Heat Steam Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    waste-heat steam generators. The applicable steam generator design concepts and general design consideration were reviewed and critical problems...a once-through forced-circulation steam generator design should be selected because of stability, reliability, compact- ness and lightweight...consists of three sections and one appendix. In Section I, the applicable steam generator design conccpts and general design * considerations are reviewed

  7. Development of large-capacity main steam isolation valves and safety relief valves for next-generation BWR plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsugu Nishimura; Shin-ichi Furukawa; Gen Itoh; Kikuo Takeshima

    2002-07-01

    A study was made of high capacity main steam isolation valves (MSIV) and safety relief valves (SRV) for the main steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). The next-generation BWR plants, which are planned to have higher thermal power, have raised concerns relating to the main steam line of an increase in maintenance work to SRVs and erosion of the MSIV valve seat due to the increased main steam flow velocity. In this research project, the capacity of the MSIV and SRV was increased and the valve configuration was changed in an attempt to solve these problems. (authors)

  8. Prediction and modeling of the two-dimensional separation characteristic of a steam generator at a nuclear power station with VVER-1000 reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parchevsky, V. M.; Guryanova, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    A computational and experimental procedure for construction of the two-dimensional separation curve (TDSC) for a horizontal steam generator (SG) at a nuclear power station (NPS) with VVER-reactors. In contrast to the conventional one-dimensional curve describing the wetness of saturated steam generated in SG as a function of the boiler water level at one, usually rated, load, TDSC is a function of two variables, which are the level and the load of SGB that enables TDSC to be used for wetness control in a wide load range. The procedure is based on two types of experimental data obtained during rated load operation: the nonuniformity factor of the steam load at the outlet from the submerged perforated sheet (SPS) and the dependence of the mass water level in the vicinity of the "hot" header on the water level the "cold" end of SG. The TDSC prediction procedure is presented in the form of an algorithm using SG characteristics, such as steam load and water level as the input and giving the calculated steam wetness at the output. The zoneby-zone calculation method is used. The result is presented in an analytical form (as an empirical correlation) suitable for uploading into controllers or other controls. The predicted TDSC can be used during real-time operation for implementation of different wetness control scenarios (for example, if the effectiveness is a priority, then the minimum water level, minimum wetness, and maximum turbine efficiency should be maintained; if safety is a priority, then the maximum level at the allowable wetness and the maximum water inventory should be kept), for operation of NPS in controlling the frequency and power in a power system, at the design phase (as a part of the simulation complex for verification of design solutions), during construction and erection (in developing software for personnel training simulators), during commissioning tests (to reduce the duration and labor-intensity of experimental activities), and for training.

  9. The development of a control system for a small high speed steam microturbine generator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, A.; Nichol, P.; Saunders, M.; Frisby, B.

    2015-08-01

    Steam is a widely used energy source. In many situations steam is generated at high pressures and then reduced in pressure through control valves before reaching point of use. An opportunity was identified to convert some of the energy at the point of pressure reduction into electricity. To take advantage of a market identified for small scale systems, a microturbine generator was designed based on a small high speed turbo machine. This machine was packaged with the necessary control valves and systems to allow connection of the machine to the grid. Traditional machines vary the speed of the generator to match the grid frequency. This was not possible due to the high speed of this machine. The characteristics of the rotating unit had to be understood to allow a control that allowed export of energy at the right frequency to the grid under the widest possible range of steam conditions. A further goal of the control system was to maximise the efficiency of generation under all conditions. A further complication was to provide adequate protection for the rotating unit in the event of the loss of connection to the grid. The system to meet these challenges is outlined with the solutions employed and tested for this application.

  10. Characterization of the secondary side deposits of pulled steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Laire, C.; Platbrood, G.; Stubbe, J.

    1995-12-31

    Several Belgian pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants have presented secondary side corrosion on steam generator tubes at different locations and replacements of steam generators are foreseen for this reason. In order to understand and to mitigate secondary side corrosion it is important to characterize the deposits generated during operation and the oxide layers at the tube surface. Also for the choice of tube materials for the new steam generators it is necessary to have a better understanding of the local conditions leading to secondary side degradations. An overview is given of the Belgian experience based on investigations of pulled tubes. Different analytical techniques were used, including elemental as well as structural analysis and molecular identification of organic species. The protective oxide layers at the metal surface may be rather thick and are in most cases characterized by a high ratio of Cr to Ni which points to an acidic environment. A comparison is made with tubes tested in a medium presumed to exist in the service conditions, including model boiler tests.

  11. ATHOS: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators. Volume 3. User's manual. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, A.K.; Keeton, L.W.; Przekwas, A.J.; Weems, J.S.

    1982-10-01

    ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators) is a computer code developed by CHAM of North America Incorporated, under the contract RP 1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California. ATHOS supersedes the earlier code URSULA2. ATHOS is designed for three-dimensional, steady state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. The current version of the code has been checked out for: three different configurations of the recirculating-type U-tube steam generators; the homogeneous and algebraic-slip flow models; and full and part load operating conditions.

  12. Steam generator feedwater nozzle transition piece replacement experience at Salem Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, D.B.; Perrin, J.S.; Roberts, A.T.; Cofie, N.G.; Mattson, R.A.; Amberg, A.A.; Burkhalter, S.M.; Amador, P.E.

    1996-12-01

    Cracking of steam generator feedwater piping adjacent to the feedwater nozzles has been a recurring problem since 1979 at Salem Unit 1 owned and operated by Public Service Electric and Gas Company. In addition to the cracking problem, erosion-corrosion at the leading edge of the feedwater nozzle thermal sleeve was also observed in 1992. To provide a long-term solution for the pipe cracking and thermal sleeve erosion-corrosion problems, a unique transition piece forging was specially designed, fabricated, and installed for each of the four steam generators during the 1995 outage. This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and installation of the transition piece forgings at Salem Unit 1, and the experiences gained from this project. It is believed that these experiences may help other utilities when planning similar replacements in the future.

  13. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1996-09-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation is confirmed by further tests at high temperatures as well as by finite element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation is confirmed by finite element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure is developed and validated by tests under varying temperature and pressure loading expected during severe accidents.

  14. CRBRP modular steam generator tube-to-tubesheet and shell-closure welding

    SciTech Connect

    Viri, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    The original Modular Steam Generator (MSG), whiand inh was designed, built, and tested by the Energy Systems Group (ESG) of Rockwell International, was a departure from conventional boilers or heat exchangers. The design was a hockeystick concept - the upper section of the generator is curved 90/sup 0/. Factors affecting operating parameters were considered and incorporated in the original MSG design. The MSG was fully instrumented and functionally tested at the Energy Technology Engineering Center at Rockwell. The MSG steamed continuously for over 4000 h, and at the conclusion of the 9000-h test cycle, it was systematically dismantled and examined for wear to critical components. This paper explains the solutions to several manufacturing challenges presented by the unique design of the MSG.

  15. Investigation of on-line chelant addition to PWR steam generators. Annual report, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Tvedt, T.J.; Wallace, S.L.; Griffin, F. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    The thermostability of both ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and hydroxyethylethylenediamininetriacetic acid (HEDTA) metal chelates in all volatile treatment water chemistry (AVT) was shown to be greater than or equal to thermostability of EDTA metal chelates in phosphate-sulfite water chemistry. HEDTA metal chelates were shown to have a much greater stability than EDTA metal chelates. Using samples taken from the EDTA metal chelate thermostability studies and samples from Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) model steam generators (MSG), EDTA decomposition products were determined. Active metal surfaces were shown to become passivated when exposed to EDTA and HEDTA concentrations as high as 0.1% w/w in AVT. Trace amounts of iron in the water were found to increase the rate of passivation. Material balance and visual inspection data from CRC model steam generators showed that metal is being transported through and cleaning from the MSG's. EDTA metal chelates were removed from chelate solutions by passing the solutions over strong anion exchange resins.

  16. ATHOS: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators. Volume 4. Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, A.K.; Keeton, L.W.; Przekwas, A.J.; Weems, J.S.

    1984-08-01

    Purpose of this volume is to consolidate the description of all code qualification and verification applications. These have been divided into five categories: code checkout studies, parametric calculations, simulations of small-scale experiments, model steam generator simulations, and full-scale operating steam generator simulations. Findings can be summarized as follows: Agreement with available experimental data is generally good. Agreement with experimental data is always better when employing the algebraic-slip (rather than homogeneous) flow model. Consistent and plausible trends are found in all parametric studies undertaken. Agreement with experiment is generally not as good for low-power-levl cases (less than 50%). This indicates that further study of empirical correlations is needed, particularly for low-power-level calculations. Several model improvements and further developments are identified and suggested for future implementation.

  17. Robust and Low-cost Flame-Treated Wood for High-Performance Solar Steam Generation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Guobin; Liu, Kang; Chen, Qian; Yang, Peihua; Li, Jia; Ding, Tianpeng; Duan, Jiangjiang; Qi, Bei; Zhou, Jun

    2017-04-12

    Solar-enabled steam generation has attracted increasing interests in recent years for its potential applications in power generation, desalination and wastewater treatment etc. Latest researches have reported many strategies to promote the efficiency by employing absorbers based on carbon materials or plasmonic metal nanoparticles with well-defined pores. In this work, we report that natural wood can be utilized as an ideal solar absorber after a simple flame treatment. With ultra-high solar absorbance (~99%), low thermal conductivity (0.33 W m-1 K-1), good hydrophilicity, the flame-treated wood can localize the solar-heating at the evaporation surface and enable a solar thermal efficiency of ~72% under a solar intensity of 1 kW m-2, which demonstrating a renewable, scalable, low-cost and robust material for solar steam applications.

  18. Thermo-economic study on the implementation of steam turbine concepts for flexible operation on a direct steam generation solar tower power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topel, Monika; Ellakany, Farid; Guédez, Rafael; Genrup, Magnus; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    Among concentrating solar power technologies, direct steam generation solar tower power plants represent a promising option. These systems eliminate the usage of heat transfer fluids allowing for the power block to be run at greater operating temperatures and therefore further increasing the thermal efficiency of the power cycle. On the other hand, the current state of the art of these systems does not comprise thermal energy storage as there are no currently available and techno-economically feasible storage integration options. This situation makes direct steam generation configurations even more susceptible to the already existing variability of operating conditions due to the fluctuation of the solar supply. In the interest of improving the annual performance and competitiveness of direct steam generation solar tower systems, the present study examines the influence of implementing two flexibility enhancing concepts which control the steam flow to the turbine as a function of the incoming solar irradiation. The proposed concepts were implemented in a reference plant model previously developed by the authors. Then, a multi-objective optimization was carried out in order to understand which configurations of the steam turbine concepts yield reductions of the levelized cost of electricity at a lower investment costs when compared to the reference model. Results show that the implementation of the proposed strategies can enhance the thermo-economic performance of direct steam generation systems by yielding a reduction of up to 9.2% on the levelized cost of electricity, mainly due to allowing 20% increase in the capacity factor, while increasing the investment costs by 7.8%.

  19. Eddy Current Signature Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects Using A Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network

    SciTech Connect

    Gabe V. Garcia

    2005-01-03

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is degradation of their tubes. Although seven primary defect categories exist, one of the principal causes of tube failure is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). This type of defect usually begins on the secondary side surface of the tubes and propagates both inwards and laterally. In many cases this defect is found at or near the tube support plates.

  20. Steam generator tube integrity program: Annual report, August 1995--September 1996. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Bakhtiari, S.; Kasza, K.E.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on the Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program from the inception of the program in August 1995 through September 1996. The program is divided into five tasks: (1) assessment of inspection reliability, (2) research on ISI (inservice-inspection) technology, (3) research on degradation modes and integrity, (4) tube removals from steam generators, and (5) program management. Under Task 1, progress is reported on the preparation of facilities and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation techniques for inspecting a mock-up steam generator for round-robin testing, the development of better ways to correlate failure pressure and leak rate with eddy current (EC) signals, the inspection of sleeved tubes, workshop and training activities, and the evaluation of emerging NDE technology. Results are reported in Task 2 on closed-form solutions and finite-element electromagnetic modeling of EC probe responses for various probe designs and flaw characteristics. In Task 3, facilities are being designed and built for the production of cracked tubes under aggressive and near-prototypical conditions and for the testing of flawed and unflawed tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe-accident conditions. Crack behavior and stability are also being modeled to provide guidance for test facility design, develop an improved understanding of the expected rupture behavior of tubes with circumferential cracks, and predict the behavior of flawed and unflawed tubes under severe accident conditions. Task 4 is concerned with the acquisition of tubes and tube sections from retired steam generators for use in the other research tasks. Progress on the acquisition of tubes from the Salem and McGuire 1 nuclear plants is reported.

  1. Proceedings: 20th Steam Generator NDE Workshop: Orlando, Florida, July 9-11, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    The 2001 workshop took place in Orlando, Florida, from July 9 to 11, 2001. It covered one full day and two half-days of presentations. Attendees included representatives from domestic and overseas nuclear utilities, NSSS vendors, NDE service and equipment organizations, research laboratories, and regulatory bodies. This annual workshop serves as a forum for NDE specialists to gather and discuss current steam generator NDE issues and means for their resolution.

  2. Evaluation of field applications of boric acid in PWR steam generators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, W.L.; Sawochka, S.G.; Choi, S.S.

    1984-03-01

    Secondary system chemistry and steam generator denting progression data for seven pressurized water reactors were reviewed in an attempt to evaluate the effects of boric acid addition on denting. Although laboratory data were conclusive relative to the beneficial effect of boric acid, data from KoRi 1, Indian Point 2, and Indian Point 3, where boric acid was employed for extensive periods, did not allow a similar conclusion to be developed for operating plants.

  3. Hideout of sea water impurities in steam generator deposits: Laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Turner, C.W.; Thompson, R.; Sawochka, S.

    1995-12-31

    Sea water impurities hide out within thin ({approx}10 {micro}m) deposits on steam generator tubes, as demonstrated by both laboratory studies using segments of fouled steam generator tubes pulled in 1992 from Crystal River-3 nuclear power station, and field hideout return studies performed during recent plant shutdowns. Laboratory tests performed at 279 C (534 F) and heat fluxes ranging from 35 to 114 kW/m{sup 2} (11,100--36,150 Btu/h.ft{sup 2}), conditions typical of the lower tubesheet to the first support plate region of a once-through steam generator, showed that impurity hideout can occur in thin free-span tube deposits. The extent of hideout increased with increasing heat flux. Soluble species, such as sodium and chloride ions, returned promptly to the bulk water from the deposits on turning the heat flux off, whereas less soluble species, such as calcium sulfate and magnesium hydroxide, returned more slowly. Recent field hideout return studies performed at Crystal River-3 in which the water level in the steam generators was maintained below the first tube support plate during the shutdown, thus wetting only the thin deposits in the free span and the small sludge pile, corroborate the laboratory findings, showing that hideout does indeed occur in the free-span regions of the tubes. These findings suggest that hideout within tube deposits has to be accounted for in the calculation of crevice chemistry from hideout return studies and in controlling the bulk chemistry using the molar ratio criterion.

  4. Structure interaction due to thermal bowing of shrouds in steam generator of gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The design of the gas-cooled reactor steam generators includes a tube bundle support plate system which restrains and supports the helical tubes in the steam generator. The support system consists of an array of radially oriented, perforated plates through which the helical tube coils are wound. These support plates have tabs on their edges which fit into vertical slots in the inner and outer shrouds. When the helical tube bundle and support plates are installed in the steam generator, they most likely cannot fit evenly between the inner and outer shrouds. This imperfection leads to different gaps between two extreme sides of the tube bundle and the shrouds. With different gaps through the tube bundle height, the helium flow experiences different cooling effects from the tube bundle. Hence, the temperature distribution in the shrouds will be non-uniform circumferentially since their surrounding helium flow temperatures are varied. These non-uniform temperatures in the shrouds result in the phenomenon of thermal bowing of shrouds.

  5. An experimental study of subcooled choked flow through steam generator tube cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadlamani, Ram Anand

    The Work conducted in this Research involved the simulation of Pressurized Water Reactor Conditions of Steam Generators to study the complex phenomenon of Subcooled Choked Flow or two-phase critical flow that occurs when water leaks from the primary side of a steam generator into the secondary side, thus making it highly relevant to Reactor Safety and Probabilistic Risk assessment methods. Slits of small L/D ratio were manufactured and tested on the Facility for Leak Rate Testing at pressures (6.89 MPa) and high temperatures (280°C) relevant to Pressurized Water Reactors over a range of subcooling. Small flow channel length was used (1.3mm) equivalent to steam generator tube thickness with the study of a variety of geometries with differences in surface roughness. Unique to literature, the samples had very small L/Ds and the study was a controlled parametric study of choked flow. The effect of L/D was examined, compared to recent studies conducted at Purdue University by Wolf and Revankar while contrasting with others in literature. Analytical models were applied highlighting the importance of non-equilibrium effects and contrasted with other studies of different L/Ds. RELAP5, a well developed code widely utilized in industry was studied to analyze its predictive capabilities and conditions for best estimate. L/D effects on mass fluxes were studied and it was observed that mass fluxes were affected to a very small degree by subcooling.

  6. Spanish approach to research and development applied to steam generator tubes structural integrity and life management

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, J.; Bollini, G.J.

    1997-02-01

    The operating experience acquired from certain Spanish Nuclear Power Plant steam generators shows that the tubes, which constitute the second barrier to release of fission products, are susceptible to mechanical damage and corrosion as a result of a variety of mechanisms, among them wastage, pitting, intergranular attack (IGA), stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), fatigue-induced cracking, fretting, erosion/corrosion, support plate denting, etc. These problems, which are common in many plants throughout the world, have required numerous investments by the plants (water treatment plants, replacement of secondary side materials such as condensers and heaters, etc.), have meant costs (operation, inspection and maintenance) and have led to the unavailability of the affected units. In identifying and implementing all these preventive and corrective measures, the Spanish utilities have moved through three successive stages: in the initial stage, the main source of information and of proposals for solutions was the Plant Vendor, whose participation in this respect was based on his own Research and Development programs; subsequently, the Spanish utilities participated jointly in the EPRI Steam Generator Owners Group, collaborating in financing; finally, the Spanish utilities set up their own Steam Generator Research and Development program, while maintaining relations with EPRI programs and those of other countries through information interchange.

  7. Assessment of the leak tightness integrity of the steam generator tubes affected by ODSCC at the tube support plates

    SciTech Connect

    Cuvelliez, Ch.; Roussel, G.

    1997-02-01

    An EPRI report gives a method for predicting a conservative value of the total primary-to-secondary leak rate which may occur during, a postulated steam generator depressurization accident such as a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) in a steam generator with axial through-wall ODSCC at the TSP intersections. The Belgian utility defined an alternative method deviating somewhat from the EPRI method. When reviewing this proposed method, the Belgian safety authorities performed some calculations to investigate its conservatism. This led them to recommend some modifications to the EPRI method which should reduce its undue conservatism while maintaining the objective of conservatism in the offsite dose calculations.

  8. Novel metallic alloys as phase change materials for heat storage in direct steam generation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Maestre, J.; Iparraguirre-Torres, I.; Velasco, Z. Amondarain; Kaltzakorta, I.; Zubieta, M. Merchan

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is one of the key electricity production renewable energy technologies with a clear distinguishing advantage: the possibility to store the heat generated during the sunny periods, turning it into a dispatchable technology. Current CSP Plants use an intermediate Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF), thermal oil or inorganic salt, to transfer heat from the Solar Field (SF) either to the heat exchanger (HX) unit to produce high pressure steam that can be leaded to a turbine for electricity production, or to the Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. In recent years, a novel CSP technology is attracting great interest: Direct Steam Generation (DSG). The direct use of water/steam as HTF would lead to lower investment costs for CSP Plants by the suppression of the HX unit. Moreover, water is more environmentally friendly than thermal oils or salts, not flammable and compatible with container materials (pipes, tanks). However, this technology also has some important challenges, being one of the major the need for optimized TES systems. In DSG, from the exergy point of view, optimized TES systems based on two sensible heat TES systems (for preheating of water and superheating vapour) and a latent heat TES system for the evaporation of water (around the 70% of energy) is the preferred solution. This concept has been extensively tested [1, 2, 3] using mainly NaNO3 as latent heat storage medium. Its interesting melting temperature (Tm) of 306°C, considering a driving temperature difference of 10°C, means TES charging steam conditions of 107 bar at 316°C and discharging conditions of 81bar at 296°C. The average value for the heat of fusion (ΔHf) of NaNO3 from literature data is 178 J/g [4]. The main disadvantage of inorganic salts is their very low thermal conductivity (0.5 W/m.K) requiring sophisticated heat exchanging designs. The use of high thermal conductivity eutectic metal alloys has been recently proposed [5, 6, 7] as a feasible alternative. Tms

  9. Solar tower power plant using a particle-heated steam generator: Modeling and parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Michael; Bartsch, Philipp; Pointner, Harald; Zunft, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Within the framework of the project HiTExStor II, a system model for the entire power plant consisting of volumetric air receiver, air-sand heat exchanger, sand storage system, steam generator and water-steam cycle was implemented in software "Ebsilon Professional". As a steam generator, the two technologies fluidized bed cooler and moving bed heat exchangers were considered. Physical models for the non-conventional power plant components as air- sand heat exchanger, fluidized bed coolers and moving bed heat exchanger had to be created and implemented in the simulation environment. Using the simulation model for the power plant, the individual components and subassemblies have been designed and the operating parameters were optimized in extensive parametric studies in terms of the essential degrees of freedom. The annual net electricity output for different systems was determined in annual performance calculations at a selected location (Huelva, Spain) using the optimized values for the studied parameters. The solution with moderate regenerative feed water heating has been found the most advantageous. Furthermore, the system with moving bed heat exchanger prevails over the system with fluidized bed cooler due to a 6 % higher net electricity yield.

  10. Modeling considerations for the analysis of LMFBR steam generator tube clamps

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, D.M.; Piper, R.M.

    1983-10-01

    In the design of the Babcock and Wilcox Helical Coil Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Steam Generator, the tube bundle is connected to the feedwater and steam plenums via ''inlet/outlet tubes.'' Of prime importance in the design of these tubes is the tube-to-tube and tube-to-shell clamps which are provided to prevent detrimental vibration. This paper presents a method of modeling the tubeto-tube clamps to accurately predict tube-to-clamp interaction in the finite element analysis. It is also the objective of this paper to demonstrate the validity of specific modeling assumptions in determining stresses in the clamp assembly. As this paper deals only with the analytical approach taken, no detailed results are presented.

  11. Design, fabrication and demonstration of a MEMS steam generator for ejector pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, Feras; Velásquez-García, Luis Fernando; Livermore, Carol

    2010-10-01

    The design, fabrication, successful demonstration and characterization of a microfabricated steam generator based on the homogeneous catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide are presented. The device consists of a mixer, a reactor and a nozzle, and it produces a jet of high-speed steam that can be used for driving ejector pumps and for nanosatellite microthrusters. Numerically implemented coupled chemical, thermal and fluidic modeling was used to design the device, which was then fabricated via bulk micromachining and enclosed in a thermally insulating package. The device operated successfully with 90% peroxide catalyzed by a ferrous chloride tetrahydrate solution. Refractive index analysis is used to confirm full peroxide decomposition, and visual inspection and temperature measurements are used to confirm full water vaporization. The experimental results are analyzed to provide comprehensive model verification.

  12. Background noise measurements on prototype of SNR 300 steam generator at Hengelo

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.A.; Meyer, G.J.A.M.; Ahlgren, F.F.; Van Westerbrugge, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    Acoustic noise amplitudes were measured in a 50 MW helical coil prototype of a steam generator mounted in the Hengelo test facility in a joint technical program betwen GE/DOE and TNO/NERATOOM. Background noise measurements were completed with test conditions ranging from quiescent (with no sodium or water flow) to high thermal power transfer from the sodium circuit to the water circuit. The acoustic noise pressure on the vessel wall was measured using externally mounted accelerometers. Data were obtained for the effect of sodium flow rate on the acoustic noise amplitude. A preliminary correlation was derived for the acoustic noise generated by nucleate boiling. Leak detection and location were demonstrated.

  13. Endoscopic laser-induced steam generator: a new method of treatment for early gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takuya; Arai, Tsunenori; Tajiri, Hisao; Nogami, Yashiroh; Hino, Kunihiko; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1996-05-01

    The minimum invasive endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer has been popular in Japan. The endoscopic mucosal resection and laser coagulation by Nd:YAG laser irradiation has been the popular treatment method in this field. However, the submucosal cancer has not been successfully treated by these methods. To treat the submucosal cancer endoscopically, we developed a new coagulation therapy using hot steam generated by Nd:YAG laser. The steam of which temperature was over 10 deg. in Celsius was generated by the laser power of 30 W with 5 ml/min. of saline. The steam was emitted to canine gastric wall under laparotomy or endoscopy for 50 s respectively. Follow up endoscopy was performed on 3, 7, 14, 28 days after the treatment. Histological examination was studied on 7, 28 days, and just after the emission. In the acute observation, the submucosal layer was totally coagulated. On the 7th day, ulceration with white coat was seen. The mucosal defect, submucosal coagulation, and marked edema without muscle degeneration were found by the histological study. On the 14th day, the ulcer advanced in the scar stage. On the 28th day, it completely healed into white scar with mucosal regeneration and mucosal muscle thickening. We could obtain reproducible coagulation up to deep submucosal layer with large area in a short operation time. Moreover there were no degeneration of proper muscle. This treatment effectiveness could be easily controlled by the steam temperature and emission duration. We think that this method can be applied to early gastric cancer including the submucosal cancer, in particular poor risk case for operation. Further study should be done to apply this method to clinical therapy.

  14. Molten salt steam generator subsystem research experiment. Volume I. Phase 1 - Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    A study was conducted for Phase 1 of a two-phase project whose objectives were to develop a reliable, cost-effective molten salt steam generating subsystem for solar thermal plants, minimize uncertainty in capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and demonstrate the ability of molten salt to generate high-pressure, high-temperature steam. The Phase 1 study involved the conceptual design of molten salt steam generating subsystems for a nominal 100-MWe net stand-alone solar central receiver electric generating plant, and a nominal 100-MWe net hybrid fossil-fueled electric power generating plant that is 50% repowered by a solar central receiver system. As part of Phase 1, a proposal was prepared for Phase 2, which involves the design, construction, testing and evaluation of a Subsystem Research Experiment of sufficient size to ensure successful operation of the full-size subsystem designed in Phase 1. Evaluation of several concepts resulted in the selection of a four-component (preheater, evaporator, superheater, reheater), natural circulation, vertically oriented, shell and tube (straight) heat exchanger arrangement. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the system included full and part load performance, circulation requirements, stability, and critical heat flux analysis. Flow-induced tube vibration, tube buckling, fatigue evaluation of tubesheet junctions, steady-state tubesheet analysis, and a simplified transient analysis were included in the structural analysis of the system. Operating modes and system dynamic response to load changes were identified. Auxiliary equipment, fabrication, erection, and maintenance requirements were also defined. Installed capital costs and a project schedule were prepared for each design.

  15. Design Evolution and Verification of the A-3 Chemical Steam Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirchner, Casey K.

    2009-01-01

    Following is an overview of the Chemical Steam Generator system selected to provide vacuum conditions for a new altitude test facility, the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center (SSC) in Bay St. Louis, MS. A-3 will serve as NASA s primary facility for altitude testing of the J-2X rocket engine, to be used as the primary propulsion device for the upper stages of the Ares launch vehicles. The Chemical Steam Generators (CSGs) will produce vacuum conditions in the test cell through the production and subsequent supersonic ejection of steam into a diffuser downstream of the J-2X engine nozzle exit. The Chemical Steam Generators chosen have a rich heritage of operation at rocket engine altitude test facilities since the days of the Apollo program and are still in use at NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in New Mexico. The generators at WSTF have been modified to a degree, but are still very close to the heritage design. The intent for the A-3 implementation is to maintain this heritage design as much as possible, making minimal updates only where necessary to substitute for obsolete parts and to increase reliability. Reliability improvements are especially desired because the proposed system will require 27 generators, which is nine times the largest system installed in the 1960s. Improvements were suggested by the original design firm, Reaction Motors, by NASA SSC and NASA WSTF engineers, and by the A-3 test stand design contractor, Jacobs Technology, Inc. (JTI). This paper describes the range of improvements made to the design to date, starting with the heritage generator and the minor modifications made over time at WSTF, to the modernized configuration which will be used at A-3. The paper will discuss NASA s investment in modifications to SSC s E-2 test facility fire a full-scale Chemical Steam Generator in advance of the larger steam system installation at A-3. Risk mitigation testing will be performed in early 2009 at this test facility to verify that the CSGs

  16. Minimising hydrogen sulphide generation during steam assisted production of heavy oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Wren; Sephton, Mark A.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Zeng, Huang; Rees, Andrew C.

    2015-02-01

    The majority of global petroleum is in the form of highly viscous heavy oil. Traditionally heavy oil in sands at shallow depths is accessed by large scale mining activities. Recently steam has been used to allow heavy oil extraction with greatly reduced surface disturbance. However, in situ thermal recovery processes can generate hydrogen sulphide, high levels of which are toxic to humans and corrosive to equipment. Avoiding hydrogen sulphide production is the best possible mitigation strategy. Here we use laboratory aquathermolysis to reproduce conditions that may be experienced during thermal extraction. The results indicate that hydrogen sulphide generation occurs within a specific temperature and pressure window and corresponds to chemical and physical changes in the oil. Asphaltenes are identified as the major source of sulphur. Our findings reveal that for high sulphur heavy oils, the generation of hydrogen sulphide during steam assisted thermal recovery is minimal if temperature and pressure are maintained within specific criteria. This strict pressure and temperature dependence of hydrogen sulphide release can allow access to the world's most voluminous oil deposits without generating excessive amounts of this unwanted gas product.

  17. Minimising hydrogen sulphide generation during steam assisted production of heavy oil.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Wren; Sephton, Mark A; Watson, Jonathan S; Zeng, Huang; Rees, Andrew C

    2015-02-11

    The majority of global petroleum is in the form of highly viscous heavy oil. Traditionally heavy oil in sands at shallow depths is accessed by large scale mining activities. Recently steam has been used to allow heavy oil extraction with greatly reduced surface disturbance. However, in situ thermal recovery processes can generate hydrogen sulphide, high levels of which are toxic to humans and corrosive to equipment. Avoiding hydrogen sulphide production is the best possible mitigation strategy. Here we use laboratory aquathermolysis to reproduce conditions that may be experienced during thermal extraction. The results indicate that hydrogen sulphide generation occurs within a specific temperature and pressure window and corresponds to chemical and physical changes in the oil. Asphaltenes are identified as the major source of sulphur. Our findings reveal that for high sulphur heavy oils, the generation of hydrogen sulphide during steam assisted thermal recovery is minimal if temperature and pressure are maintained within specific criteria. This strict pressure and temperature dependence of hydrogen sulphide release can allow access to the world's most voluminous oil deposits without generating excessive amounts of this unwanted gas product.

  18. Minimising hydrogen sulphide generation during steam assisted production of heavy oil

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Wren; Sephton, Mark A.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Zeng, Huang; Rees, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of global petroleum is in the form of highly viscous heavy oil. Traditionally heavy oil in sands at shallow depths is accessed by large scale mining activities. Recently steam has been used to allow heavy oil extraction with greatly reduced surface disturbance. However, in situ thermal recovery processes can generate hydrogen sulphide, high levels of which are toxic to humans and corrosive to equipment. Avoiding hydrogen sulphide production is the best possible mitigation strategy. Here we use laboratory aquathermolysis to reproduce conditions that may be experienced during thermal extraction. The results indicate that hydrogen sulphide generation occurs within a specific temperature and pressure window and corresponds to chemical and physical changes in the oil. Asphaltenes are identified as the major source of sulphur. Our findings reveal that for high sulphur heavy oils, the generation of hydrogen sulphide during steam assisted thermal recovery is minimal if temperature and pressure are maintained within specific criteria. This strict pressure and temperature dependence of hydrogen sulphide release can allow access to the world's most voluminous oil deposits without generating excessive amounts of this unwanted gas product. PMID:25670085

  19. Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system

    DOEpatents

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  20. Steam generation under one sun enabled by a floating structure with thermal concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, George; Li, Gabriel; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Li, Hongxia; Yang, Weilin; Zhang, Tiejun; Chen, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Harvesting solar energy as heat has many applications, such as power generation, residential water heating, desalination, distillation and wastewater treatment. However, the solar flux is diffuse, and often requires optical concentration, a costly component, to generate the high temperatures needed for some of these applications. Here we demonstrate a floating solar receiver capable of generating 100 ∘C steam under ambient air conditions without optical concentration. The high temperatures are achieved by using thermal concentration and heat localization, which reduce the convective, conductive and radiative heat losses. This demonstration of a low-cost and scalable solar vapour generator holds the promise of significantly expanding the application domain and reducing the cost of solar thermal systems.

  1. Flooding characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal U bend pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, T.; Hosokawa, S.; Fujii, Y.

    1995-09-01

    For next-generation nuclear reactors, hybrid safety systems which consist of active and passive safety systems have been planned. Steam generators with horizontal U bend pipelines will be used as one of the passive safety systems. It is required to clarify flow characteristics, especially the onset of flooding, in the horizontal U bend pipelines in order to examine their safety. Flooding in vertical pipes has been studied extensively. However, there is little study on flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines. It is supposed that the onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines is different from that in vertical pipes. On the other hand, liquid is generated due to condensation of steam in pipes of the horizontal steam generators at the loss of coolant accident because the steam generators will be used as a condenser of a cooling system of steam from the reactor. It is necessary to simulate this situation by the supply of water at the middle of horizontal pipe. In the present paper, experiments were carried out using a horizontal U bend pipeline with a liquid supply section in the midway of pipeline. The onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipeline was measured. Effects of the length of horizontal pipe and the radius of U bend on the onset of flooding were discussed.

  2. Hydrogen generation from 2,2,4-trimethyl pentane reforming over molybdenum carbide at low steam-to-carbon ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheekatamarla, Praveen K.; Thomson, William J.

    Because of the need for an efficient and inexpensive reforming catalyst, the objective of this work is to determine the feasibility of employing Mo 2C catalyst for the steam reforming and oxy-steam reforming of the higher hydrocarbons typical of transportation fuels such as gasoline. It is shown that bulk Mo 2C catalysts can successfully reform 2,2,4-trimethyl pentane (isooctane) to generate H 2, CO and CO 2 at very low steam/carbon ratios, without coke formation, eliminating the need for pre-reforming. Maximum hydrogen generation was observed at a S/C ratio of 1.3 and 1000 °C during SR reactions and S/C of 0.71, O 2/C of 0.12 at 900 °C during oxidative steam reforming reactions.

  3. Evaluation of Models for Solubility and Volatility of Copper Compounds Under Steam Generation Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.; Petrov, A.

    1999-09-12

    The loss in efficiency of power plants with mixed metallurgy, due to transport and deposition of copper and its oxides in HP turbines, has been recognized as one of the key problems to be solved in the utility industry worldwide. Within this context, the most important problem to be addressed is the solubility and volatility of copper compounds under steam generation condition. This paper presents an evaluation of different solubility end volatility models for copper compounds, and presents a comparison between the calculated and test data.

  4. Tube vibration in a half-scale sector model of a helical tube steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. S.; Jendrzejczyk, J. A.; Wambsganss, M. W.

    1983-12-01

    This paper presents the experimental technique and results of tests on a half-scale sector model of a steam generator helical coil tube bank. A series of tests was performed: (1) bench tests of a single helical tube in air; (2) tests of the sector model in air; (3) tests of the sector model in stationary water to determine natural frequencies and damping; (4) tests in flow. The experimental results reveal the general characteristics of the sector model and provide the information for the design evaluation of a helical tube array to avoid detrimental fluidelastic instability.

  5. Investigation of eddy current examination on OD fatigue crack for steam generator tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yuying; Ding, Boyuan; Li, Ming; Liu, Jinhong; Chen, Huaidong; Meyendorf, Norbert G.

    2015-03-01

    The opening width of fatigue crack was very small, and conventional Bobbin probe was very difficult to detect it in steam generator tubes. Different sizes of 8 fatigue cracks were inspected using bobbin probe rotating probe. The analysis results showed that, bobbin probe was not sensitive for fatigue crack even for small through wall crack mixed with denting signal. On the other hand, the rotating probe was easily to detect all cracks. Finally, the OD phase to depth curve for fatigue crack using rotating probe was established and the results agreed very well with the true crack size.

  6. TMI-2 B-loop steam generator tube sheet loose debris examination and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayner, G O; Hardt, T L

    1989-06-01

    The debris recovered from the upper tube sheet of the TMI-2-B-loop steam generator was analyzed in an effort to determine the concentration and distribution of the chemical and radiochemical species. The debris is of special interest because it is believed to have been transported from the core region sequence between 174 and 192 min after accident initiation when a B-loop reactor coolant pump was restarted. Characterization of five size fractions and 10 of the largest particles was accomplished by destructive (chemical, radiochemical, metallography, and SEM/EDS) and nondestructive (photographic examination and density) methods of analysis. 2 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D.; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator. PMID:23836642

  8. Fault Diagnosis of Steam Generator Using Signed Directed Graph and Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, Mohamed N.; Hegazy, Hesham N.

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis is a very complex and important task for finding the root cause of faults in nuclear power plants. The objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of using the combination of signed directed graph (SDG) and artificial neural networks for fault diagnosis in nuclear power plants especially in U-Tube steam generator. Signed directed graph has been the most widely used form of qualitative based model methods for process fault diagnosis. It is constructed to represent the cause-effect relations among the dynamic process variables. Signed directed graph consists of nodes represent the process variables and branches. The branch represents the qualitative influence of a process variable on the related variable. The main problem in fault diagnosis using the signed directed graph is the unmeasured variables. Therefore, neural networks are used to estimate the values of unmeasured nodes. In this work, different four cases of faults in the steam generator ( SG) have been diagnosed, three of them are single fault and the fourth is multiple fault. The first three faults are by pass valve leakage (Vbp(+)), main feed water valve opening increase (Vfw(+)), main feed water valve opening decrease (Vfw (-)). The fourth fault is a multiple fault where by-pass valve leakage and main feed water valve opening decrease (Vbp(+) and Vfw (-)) in the same time. The used data are collected from a basic principle simulator of pressurized water reactor 925 Mwe. The signed directed graph of the steam generator is constructed to represent the cause-effect relations among SG variables. It consists of 26 nodes represent the SG variables, and 48 branches represent the cause effect relations among this variables. For each fault the values of measured nodes are coming from sensors and the values of unmeasured nodes are coming from the trained neural networks. These values of the nodes are compared by normal values to get the sign of the nodes. The cause-effect graph for each

  9. Characterization of Elevated Temperature Properties of Heat Exchanger and Steam Generator Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Wright; L.J. Carroll; J.K. Benz; J.A. Simpson; R.N. Wright; W.R. Lloyd; J.A. Chapman

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is considering Alloy 800H and Alloy 617 for steam generator and intermediate heat exchangers. It is envisioned that a steam generator would operate with reactor outlet temperatures from 750 to 800°C, while an intermediate heat exchanger for primary to secondary helium would operate up to an outlet temperature of 950°C. Although both alloys are of interest due in part to their technical maturity, a number of specific properties require further characterization for design of nuclear components. Strain rate sensitivity of both alloys has been characterized and is found to be significant above 600°C. Both alloys also exhibit dynamic strain aging, characterized by serrated flow, over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. In general dynamic strain aging is observed to begin at higher temperatures and serrated flow persists to higher temperatures in Alloy 617 compared to Alloy 800H. Dynamic strain aging is a concern for these materials since it is observed to result in reduced ductility for many solid solution alloys. The role of dynamic strain aging in the creep-fatigue behavior of Alloy 617 at temperatures of 800°C and above has also been examined in detail. Serrated flow is found to persist in cyclic stress-strain curves up to nearly the cycle to failure in some temperature and strain regimes. Results of those experiments and implications for creep-fatigue testing protocols will be described.

  10. Numerical simulation of a parabolic trough solar collector for hot water and steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachicha, Ahmed Amine

    2016-05-01

    Parabolic trough solar collectors (PTCs) are currently one of the most mature and prominent solar technology for the production of electricity. In order to reduce the electricity cost and improve the overall efficiency, Direct Steam generation (DSG) technology can be used for industrial heat process as well as in the solar fields for electricity production. In the last decades, this technology is experiencing an important development last decades and it is considered as one of the most feasible process for the next generation of power plants using PTCs. A numerical model based on Finite Volume Method (FVM) balance is presented to predict the thermal behavior of a parabolic trough solar collector used for hot water and steam generation. The realistic non-uniform solar flux is calculated in a pre-processing task and inserted to the general model. A numerical-geometrical method based on ray trace and FVM techniques is used to determine the solar flux distribution around the absorber tube with high accuracy.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF HEAT EXCHANGER AND STEAM GENERATOR ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Wright; L.J. Carroll; C.J. Cabet; T. Lillo; J.K. Benz; J.A. Simpson; A. Chapman; R.N. Wright

    2012-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is considering Alloy 800H and Alloy 617 for steam generator and intermediate heat exchangers. It is envisioned that a steam generator would operate with reactor outlet temperatures from 750 to 800 C, while an intermediate heat exchanger for primary to secondary helium would operate up to an outlet temperature of 950 C. Although both alloys are of interest due in part to their technical maturity, a number of specific properties require further characterization for design of nuclear components. Strain rate sensitivity of both alloys has been characterized and is found to be significant above 600 C. Both alloys also exhibit dynamic strain aging, characterized by serrated flow, over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. High temperature tensile testing of Alloy 617 has been conducted over a range of temperatures. Dynamic strain aging is a concern for these materials since it is observed to result in reduced ductility for many solid solution alloys. Creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue properties of Alloy 617 have been measured as well, with the goal of determining the influence of the temperature, strain rate and atmosphere on the creep fatigue life of Alloy 617. Elevated temperature properties and implications for codification of the alloys will be described.

  12. Detailed partial load investigation of a thermal energy storage concept for solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, M.; Hübner, S.; Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Direct steam generation enables the implementation of a higher steam temperature for parabolic trough concentrated solar power plants. This leads to much better cycle efficiencies and lower electricity generating costs. For a flexible and more economic operation of such a power plant, it is necessary to develop thermal energy storage systems for the extension of the production time of the power plant. In the case of steam as the heat transfer fluid, it is important to use a storage material that uses latent heat for the storage process. This leads to a minimum of exergy losses during the storage process. In the case of a concentrating solar power plant, superheated steam is needed during the discharging process. This steam cannot be superheated by the latent heat storage system. Therefore, a sensible molten salt storage system is used for this task. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal energy storages within the concentrating solar power area of application, a storage system for a direct steam generation plant consists of a latent and a sensible storage part. Thus far, no partial load behaviors of sensible and latent heat storage systems have been analyzed in detail. In this work, an optimized fin structure was developed in order to minimize the costs of the latent heat storage. A complete system simulation of the power plant process, including the solar field, power block and sensible and latent heat energy storage calculates the interaction between the solar field, the power block and the thermal energy storage system.

  13. Risk assessment of severe accident-induced steam generator tube rupture

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the basis, results, and related risk implications of an analysis performed by an ad hoc working group of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the containment bypass potential attributable to steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) induced by severe accident conditions. The SGTR Severe Accident Working Group, comprised of staff members from the NRC`s Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), undertook the analysis beginning in December 1995 to support a proposed steam generator integrity rule. The work drew upon previous risk and thermal-hydraulic analyses of core damage sequences, with a focus on the Surry plant as a representative example. This analysis yielded new results, however, derived by predicting thermal-hydraulic conditions of selected severe accident scenarios using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, flawed tube failure modeling, and tube failure probability estimates. These results, in terms of containment bypass probability, form the basis for the findings presented in this report. The representative calculation using Surry plant data indicates that some existing plants could be vulnerable to containment bypass resulting from tube failure during severe accidents. To specifically identify the population of plants that may pose a significant bypass risk would require more definitive analysis considering uncertainties in some assumptions and plant- and design-specific variables. 46 refs., 62 figs., 37 tabs.

  14. Dryout occurrence in a helically coiled steam generator for nuclear power application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santini, L.; Cioncolini, A.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.

    2014-03-01

    Dryout phenomena have been experimentally investigated in a helically coiled steam generator tube. The experiences carried out in the present work are part of a wide experimental program devoted to the study of a GEN III+ innovative nuclear power plant [1].The experimental facility consists in an electrically heated AISI 316L stainless steel coiled tube. The tube is 32 meters long, 12.53 mm of inner diameter, with a coil diameter of 1m and a pitch of 0.79 m, resulting in a total height of the steam generator of 8 meters. The thermo-hydraulics conditions for dryout investigations covered a spectrum of mass fluxes between 199 and 810 kg/m2s, the pressures ranges from 10.7 to 60.7 bar, heat fluxes between 43.6 to 209.3 kW/m2.Very high first qualities dryout, between 0.72 and 0.92, were found in the range of explored conditions, comparison of our results with literature available correlations shows the difficulty in predicting high qualities dryout in helical coils., immediately following the heading. The text should be set to 1.15 line spacing. The abstract should be centred across the page, indented 15 mm from the left and right page margins and justified. It should not normally exceed 200 words.

  15. MELCOR Analysis of Steam Generator Tube Creep Rupture in Station Blackout Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Y.; Vierow, K.

    2005-12-15

    A pressurized water reactor steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) is of concern because it represents a bypass of the containment for radioactive materials to the environment. In a station blackout accident, tube integrity could be threatened by creep rupture, particularly if cracks are present in the tube walls. Methods are developed herein to improve assessment capabilities for SGTR by using the severe-accident code MELCOR. Best-estimate assumptions based on recent research and computational fluid dynamics calculations are applied in the MELCOR analysis to simulate two-dimensional natural circulation and to determine the relative creep-rupture timing in the reactor coolant pressure boundary components. A new method is developed to estimate the steam generator (SG) hottest tube wall temperature and the tube critical crack size for the SG tubes to fail first. The critical crack size for SG tubes to fail first is estimated to be 20% of the wall thickness larger than by a previous analysis. Sensitivity studies show that the failure sequence would change if some assumptions are modified. In particular, the uncertainty in the countercurrent flow limit model could reverse the failure sequence of the SG tubes and surge line.

  16. Evaluation of surface modification techniques for PWR steam generator channel heads. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spalaris, C.N.

    1986-06-01

    Surface modification which were developed under a previous EPRI program and then applied to Boiling Water Reactor replacement piping, were modified for treating PWR steam generator channel head surfaces. Surface modifications have been shown to reduce out-of-core activity build up in BWR and thought to be equally effective in PWR circuits as well. Prototypical surface test specimens were used to develop techniques appropriate to PWR alloy substrates which were then applied to treat the surfaces of a spare, full size PWR channel head in a field demonstration. Modified surfaces cut from test specimens and pieces removed from the field demonstration were submitted to metallurgical investigations. No damage to the substrate alloys was detected as a result of the surface modification processes. Combination of mechanical and electropolishing action improved the as fabricated finish by at least a factor of 3 for the Inconel plate and factors of 20 for the stainless weld overlay. Field demonstration yielded a factor of 10 improvement in the weld overlay and 30 to 40% in the divider plate. Because these surfaces are known to be responsible for 57% of the area radioactivity in PWR steam generators in service, prepolishing is expected to reduce radiation fields substantially. 31 figs.

  17. Selection of the reference steam generator for the advanced liquid metal reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Loewen, Eric P.; Boardman, Chuck

    2007-07-01

    In February 2006 President Bush announced the Advanced Energy Initiative, which included the Department of Energy's (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). GNEP has seven broad goals; one of the major elements being to develop and deploy advanced nuclear fuel recycling technology that includes consuming spent nuclear fuel in an Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR). DOE is contemplating accelerating the deployment of these technologies to achieve the construction of a commercial scale application of these technologies. DOE now defines this approach as 'two simultaneous tracks: (1) deployment of commercial scale facilities for which advanced technologies are available now or in the near future, and (2) further research and development of transmutation fuels technologies'. GEHitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC (GHNEA) believes an integrated technical solution is achievable in the near term to accelerate the commercial demonstration of GNEP infrastructure. The GHNEA ARR concept involves a single integrated recycling facility sized to service a single reactor module ARR capable of destroying light water and fast reactor sourced actinides. This paper describes the bases and rationale behind the selection of the helical coil steam generator (HCSG) as the reference steam generator concept for the ALMR and S-PRISM reactor concepts. (authors)

  18. Impact of makeup water system performance on PWR steam generator corrosion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.J.; Pearl, W.L.; Sawochka, S.G.; Smith, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of this project were to review makeup system design and performance and assess the possible relation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator corrosion to makeup water impurity ingress at fresh water sites. Project results indicated that makeup water transport of most ionic impurities can be expected to have a significant impact on secondary cycle chemistry only if condenser inleakage and other sources of impurities are maintained at very low levels. Since makeup water oxygen control techniques at most study plants were not consistent with state-of-the-art technology, oxygen input to the cycle via makeup can be significant. Leakage of colloidal silica and organics through makeup water systems can be expected to control blowdown silica levels and organic levels throughout the cycle at many plants. Attempts to correlate makeup water quality to steam generator corrosion observations were unsuccessful since (1) other impurity sources were significant compared to makeup at most study plants, (2) many variables are involved in the corrosion process, and (3) in the case of IGA, the variables have not been clearly established. However, in some situations makeup water can be a significant source of contaminants suspected to lead to both IGA and denting.

  19. Self-assembly of highly efficient, broadband plasmonic absorbers for solar steam generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Tan, Yingling; Ji, Dengxin; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Jun; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Yu, Zongfu; Zhu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    The study of ideal absorbers, which can efficiently absorb light over a broad range of wavelengths, is of fundamental importance, as well as critical for many applications from solar steam generation and thermophotovoltaics to light/thermal detectors. As a result of recent advances in plasmonics, plasmonic absorbers have attracted a lot of attention. However, the performance and scalability of these absorbers, predominantly fabricated by the top-down approach, need to be further improved to enable widespread applications. We report a plasmonic absorber which can enable an average measured absorbance of ~99% across the wavelengths from 400 nm to 10 μm, the most efficient and broadband plasmonic absorber reported to date. The absorber is fabricated through self-assembly of metallic nanoparticles onto a nanoporous template by a one-step deposition process. Because of its efficient light absorption, strong field enhancement, and porous structures, which together enable not only efficient solar absorption but also significant local heating and continuous stream flow, plasmonic absorber–based solar steam generation has over 90% efficiency under solar irradiation of only 4-sun intensity (4 kW m−2). The pronounced light absorption effect coupled with the high-throughput self-assembly process could lead toward large-scale manufacturing of other nanophotonic structures and devices. PMID:27152335

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 89-270-2080, Harrisburg Steam Generation Facility, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    In response to a request from the City of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, a health hazard evaluation was conducted at the Harrisburg Steam Generation Facility (HSGF)(SIC-4953) concerning possible exposure to fly ash, combustion products and asbestos (1332214). The facility was a waste to energy site where municipal refuse was incinerated at approximately 1400 degrees-F. The steam generated was either sold directly or converted to electricity via an on site turbine. Employees used hard hats, safety shoes and glasses, work clothes and single use disposable dust and mist respirators. There was a potential for exposure to fly ash for employees working in the boiler and basement areas. Total particulate exposures ranged from 5 to llmg/m3 for laborers. The concentration of lead (7439921) exceeded the standards set by OSHA permissible exposure level of 0.05mg/kg in three of the personal breathing zone air samples. Amosite (12172735) and chrysotile (12001295) asbestos were identified in bulk samples of insulation and asbestos taken from a settled dust sample in the boiler area. Surface wipe samples indicated the possibility of hand to mouth contact with fly ash, particularly in the break and locker rooms. The author concludes that there is a need for reducing worker exposure to fly ash particulate. The author recommends engineering and work practice controls to reduce particulate exposures, increased cleaning and maintenance activities; and further evaluation of asbestos contamination at the facility.

  1. Predictions of structural integrity of steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, an severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.

    1997-02-01

    Available models for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions are reviewed. Tests conducted in the past, though limited, tended to show that the earlier flow-stress model for part-through-wall axial cracks overestimated the damaging influence of deep cracks. This observation was confirmed by further tests at high temperatures, as well as by finite-element analysis. A modified correlation for deep cracks can correct this shortcoming of the model. Recent tests have shown that lateral restraint can significantly increase the failure pressure of tubes with unsymmetrical circumferential cracks. This observation was confirmed by finite-element analysis. The rate-independent flow stress models that are successful at low temperatures cannot predict the rate-sensitive failure behavior of steam generator tubes at high temperatures. Therefore, a creep rupture model for predicting failure was developed and validated by tests under various temperature and pressure loadings that can occur during postulated severe accidents.

  2. Wood-Graphene Oxide Composite for Highly Efficient Solar Steam Generation and Desalination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keng-Ku; Jiang, Qisheng; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2017-03-01

    Solar steam generation is a highly promising technology for harvesting solar energy, desalination and water purification. We introduce a novel bilayered structure composed of wood and graphene oxide (GO) for highly efficient solar steam generation. The GO layer deposited on the microporous wood provides broad optical absorption and high photothermal conversion resulting in rapid increase in the temperature at the liquid surface. On the other hand, wood serves as a thermal insulator to confine the photothermal heat to the evaporative surface and to facilitate the efficient transport of water from the bulk to the photothermally active space. Owing to the tailored bilayer structure and the optimal thermo-optical properties of the individual components, the wood-GO composite structure exhibited a solar thermal efficiency of ∼83% under simulated solar excitation at a power density of 12 kW/m(2). The novel composite structure demonstrated here is highly scalable and cost-efficient, making it an attractive material for various applications involving large light absorption, photothermal conversion and heat localization.

  3. Self-assembly of highly efficient, broadband plasmonic absorbers for solar steam generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Tan, Yingling; Ji, Dengxin; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Jun; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Yu, Zongfu; Zhu, Jia

    2016-04-01

    The study of ideal absorbers, which can efficiently absorb light over a broad range of wavelengths, is of fundamental importance, as well as critical for many applications from solar steam generation and thermophotovoltaics to light/thermal detectors. As a result of recent advances in plasmonics, plasmonic absorbers have attracted a lot of attention. However, the performance and scalability of these absorbers, predominantly fabricated by the top-down approach, need to be further improved to enable widespread applications. We report a plasmonic absorber which can enable an average measured absorbance of ~99% across the wavelengths from 400 nm to 10 μm, the most efficient and broadband plasmonic absorber reported to date. The absorber is fabricated through self-assembly of metallic nanoparticles onto a nanoporous template by a one-step deposition process. Because of its efficient light absorption, strong field enhancement, and porous structures, which together enable not only efficient solar absorption but also significant local heating and continuous stream flow, plasmonic absorber-based solar steam generation has over 90% efficiency under solar irradiation of only 4-sun intensity (4 kW m(-2)). The pronounced light absorption effect coupled with the high-throughput self-assembly process could lead toward large-scale manufacturing of other nanophotonic structures and devices.

  4. Thermal hydraulic analysis/data comparisons of two U-tube steam generators using the ATHOS3 code

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, L.W.; Habchi, S.D.; Singhal, A.K.; Srikantiah, G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes numerical simulations of two full-scale, U-Tube steam generators of the Westinghouse Model 51-type. The selected generators are instrumented and operated by Electricite de France (EdF) at the Bugey-4 and Tricastin-1 power plants. The computer code used is ATHOS3, which is designed for three-dimensional, two-phase, steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of U-Tube I (UTSG) and Once-Through (OTSG) steam generators. The purpose of the study is to verify the ATHOS3 code.

  5. Comparison of measured and calculated sound pressure levels around a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Willshire, William L., Jr.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a large number of simultaneous acoustic measurements around a large horizontal axis downwind configuration wind turbine generator. In addition, comparisons are made between measurements and calculations of both the discrete frequency rotational harmonics and the broad band noise components. Sound pressure time histories and noise radiation patterns as well as narrow band and broadband noise spectra are presented for a range of operating conditions. The data are useful for purposes of environmental impact assessment.

  6. ATHOS3: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators. Volume 2. Programmer's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, L.W.; Singhal, A.K.

    1986-07-01

    This is the programmer's manual for the ATHOS3 code. ATHOS3 is a computer code for three-dimensional, steady-state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. It has been developed by upgrading an earlier code, ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators). The ATHOS3 code is designed for three-dimensional, steady-state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. ATHOS3 has several additional capabilities, including a much improved and generalized geometry pre-processor module, and has been developed in a fully upwards-compatible manner from the predecessor ATHOS code. For the convenience of new users, the ATHOS3 code is documented in four self-contained volumes, i.e. no reference to the earlier ATHOS volumes is necessary. Furthermore, for the benefit of old (i.e. ATHOS code) users, it may be stated that the new (ATHOS3) documentation has been produced by updating and modifying the earlier documentation.

  7. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  8. Evaluation of CFD Methods for Simulation of Two-Phase Boiling Flow Phenomena in a Helical Coil Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Pointer, William David; Shaver, Dillon; Liu, Yang; Vegendla, Prasad; Tentner, Adrian

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy charges participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with the development of advanced modeling and simulation capabilities that can be used to address design, performance and safety challenges in the development and deployment of advanced reactor technology. The NEAMS has established a high impact problem (HIP) team to demonstrate the applicability of these tools to identification and mitigation of sources of steam generator flow induced vibration (SGFIV). The SGFIV HIP team is working to evaluate vibration sources in an advanced helical coil steam generator using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the turbulent primary coolant flow over the outside of the tubes and CFD simulations of the turbulent multiphase boiling secondary coolant flow inside the tubes integrated with high resolution finite element method assessments of the tubes and their associated structural supports. This report summarizes the demonstration of a methodology for the multiphase boiling flow analysis inside the helical coil steam generator tube. A helical coil steam generator configuration has been defined based on the experiments completed by Polytecnico di Milano in the SIET helical coil steam generator tube facility. Simulations of the defined problem have been completed using the Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid modeling capabilities of the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+. Simulations suggest that the two phases will quickly stratify in the slightly inclined pipe of the helical coil steam generator. These results have been successfully benchmarked against both empirical correlations for pressure drop and simulations using an alternate CFD methodology, the dispersed phase mixture modeling capabilities of the open source CFD code Nek5000.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide generation by reaction of natural gas, sulfur, and steam. Report of investigations/1981

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, S.R.; Crocker, L.; Nissen, W.I.

    1981-07-01

    One Bureau of Mines goal is to minimize the undesirable environmental impacts associated with industrial plants emitting waste gases containing SO/sub 2/. To help meet this goal, a regenerable flue gas desulfurization process was developed. This process, known as the citrate process, uses a buffered weak acid solution to absorb SO/sub 2/ from the waste gas. The absorbed SO/sub 2/ is reacted with H/sub 2/S to precipitate elemental sulfur and regenerate the solution for recycle. The H/sub 2/S feedstock for the process, if not otherwise available, may be produced by reacting two-thirds of the recovered elemental sulfur with natural gas and steam. Laboratory investigations and pilot plant operations were conducted by the Bureau to determine if H2S from the natural gas, sulfur, and steam reaction was suitable for the citrate process. The laboratory investigations, in which an H2S generator was integrated with other citrate process operations, provided a basis for design and operation of the pilot plant. The objective of the pilot plant was primarily to provide H2S for the citrate process pilot plant at the Bunker Hill Co. lead smelter in Kellogg, Idaho.

  10. Computational thermal-hydraulic modeling of a steam generator and a boiler simulator autoclave

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, R.H.; Keeton, L.W.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion of heat transfer tubing in nuclear steam generators has been a persistent problem in the power generation industry, assuming many different forms over the years depending on chemistry and operating conditions. Whatever the corrosion mechanism, a funding understanding of the process is essential to establish effective management strategies. To gain this fundamental understanding requires an integrated investigative approach that merges technology from many diverse scientific disciplines. An important aspect of an integrated approach is characterization of the corrosive environment at high temperature. This begins with a thorough understanding of local thermal-hydraulic conditions, since they affect deposit formation, chemical concentration, and ultimately corrosion. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can and should play an important role in characterizing the thermal-hydraulic environment and in predicting the consequences of that environment. The evolution of CFD technology now allows accurate calculation of steam generator thermal-hydraulic conditions and the resulting sludge deposit profiles. Similar calculations are also possible for model boilers, so that tests can be designed to be prototypic of the heat exchanger environment they are supposed to simulate. This paper illustrates the utility of CFD technology by way of examples in each of these two areas. This technology can be further extended to produce more detailed local calculations of the chemical environment in support plate crevices, beneath thick deposits on tubes, and deep in tubesheet sludge. Knowledge of this local chemical environment will provide the foundation for development of mechanistic corrosion models, which can be used to optimize inspection and cleaning schedules and focus the search for a viable fix.

  11. Fuzzy logic control of steam generator water level in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kuan, C.C.; Lin, C.; Hsu, C.C. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-10-01

    In this paper a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical mode of the object to be controlled. The design is based on a set of linguistic rules that were adopted from the human operator's experience. After off-line fuzzy computation, the controller is a lookup table, and thus, real-time control is achieved. Shrink-and-swell phenomena are considered in the linguistic rules, and the simulation results show that their effect is dramatically reduced. The performance of the control system can also be improved by changing the input and output scaling factors, which is convenient for on-line tuning.

  12. Performance demonstration tests for eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Anderson, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the methodology and results for development of performance demonstration tests for eddy current (ET) inspection of steam generator tubes. Statistical test design principles were used to develop the performance demonstration tests. Thresholds on ET system inspection performance were selected to ensure that field inspection systems would have a high probability of detecting and and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented in detail. Statistical test design calculations for probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described. A recommended performance demonstration test based on the design calculations is presented. A computer program for grading the probability of detection portion of the performance demonstration test is given.

  13. Preliminary assessment of PWR Steam Generator modelling in RELAP5/MOD3. International Agreeement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, R.J.; Putney, J.M.

    1993-07-01

    A preliminary assessment of Steam Generator (SG) modelling in the PWR thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD3 is presented. The study is based on calculations against a series of steady-state commissioning tests carried out on the Wolf Creek PWR over a range of load conditions. Data from the tests are used to assess the modelling of primary to secondary side heat transfer and, in particular, to examine the effect of reverting to the standard form of the Chen heat transfer correlation in place of the modified form applied in RELAP5/MOD2. Comparisons between the two versions of the code are also used to show how the new interphase drag model in RELAP5/MOD3 affects the calculation of SG liquid inventory and the void fraction profile in the riser.

  14. Fabrication of intermediate heat exchangers, steam generators, and sodium pumps for SNR-300

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hoft, A.J.; DeJong, J.J.; Vroom, J.P.; Kupers, G.R.

    1987-09-01

    The sodium pumps, intermediate heat exchangers, and steam generators for the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) SNR-300 were delivered by Neratoom and its industrial partners Royal Schelde and Stork Boilers. All main components were delivered to and erected in the plant between 1983 and 1085 after a long period of delay, caused mainly by continuously changing requirements with respect to the latest state-of-the-art construction and design. It is therefore concluded that to realize an effective manufacturing of breeder components an authorized and final specification is absolutely necessary. After the legal formalization of the licensing step Teilgenehmigung 7/5, it was hardly possible to further change the specification of the SNR-300 components.

  15. Development and analysis of a linearly segmented CPC collector for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, J.A.A.

    1980-06-01

    This study involves the design, analysis and construction of a modular, non-imaging, trough, concentrating solar collector for generation of process steam in a tropical climate. The most innovative feature of this concentrator is that the mirror surface consists of long and narrow planar segments placed inside sealed low-cost glass tubes. The absorber is a cylindrical fin inside an evacuated glass tube. As an extension of the same study, the optical efficiency of the segmented concentrator has been simulated by means of a Monte-Carlo Ray-Tracing program. Laser Ray-Tracing techniques were also used to evaluate the possibilities of this new concept. A preliminary evaluation of the experimental concentrator was done using a relatively simple method that combines results from two experimental measurements: overall heat loss coefficient and optical efficiency. A transient behaviour test was used to measure the overall heat loss coefficient throughout a wide range of temperatures.

  16. Evaluation of the transgranular cracking phenomenon on the Indian Point No. 3 steam generator vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A metallurgical investigation was performed on specimens from the shell of steam generators Nos. 31 and 32 of the Indian Point-3 Power Plant. The shell material exhibited high values in hardness which was indicative that relatively high residual stresses may have been present. All observed cracks were transgranular in appearance and were associated with pits on the vessels' inside surfaces. Both stress relieved and non-stress relieved specimens of SA302 Grade B material were tested in a constant extension rate apparatus in various environments in order to reproduce the transgranular cracking at Indian Point No. 3. The paper concludes that SA302 Grade B material is susceptible to transgranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in constant extension rate testing (CERT) with as little as 1 ppM chloride (as CUCL/sub 2/) in 268/sup 0/C H/sub 2/O. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Assessment of PWR Steam Generator modelling in RELAP5/MOD2. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Putney, J.M.; Preece, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of Steam Generator (SG) modelling in the PWR thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 is presented. The assessment is based on a review of code assessment calculations performed in the UK and elsewhere, detailed calculations against a series of commissioning tests carried out on the Wolf Creek PWR and analytical investigations of the phenomena involved in normal and abnormal SG operation. A number of modelling deficiencies are identified and their implications for PWR safety analysis are discussed -- including methods for compensating for the deficiencies through changes to the input deck. Consideration is also given as to whether the deficiencies will still be present in the successor code RELAP5/MOD3.

  18. CCFL in hot legs and steam generators and its prediction with the CATHARE code

    SciTech Connect

    Geffraye, G.; Bazin, P.; Pichon, P.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a study about the Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) prediction in hot legs and steam generators (SG) in both system test facilities and pressurized water reactors. Experimental data are analyzed, particularly the recent MHYRESA test data. Geometrical and scale effects on the flooding behavior are shown. The CATHARE code modelling problems concerning the CCFL prediction are discussed. A method which gives the user the possibility of controlling the flooding limit at a given location is developed. In order to minimize the user effect, a methodology is proposed to the user in case of a calculation with a counter-current flow between the upper plenum and the SF U-tubes. The following questions have to be made clear for the user: when to use the CATHARE CCFL option, which correlation to use, and where to locate the flooding limit.

  19. Steam generator tube integrity program. Semiannual report, August 1995--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Bakhtiari, S.; Chopra, O.K.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on the Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program from the inception of that program in August 1995 through March 1996. The program is divided into five tasks, namely (1) Assessment of Inspection Reliability, (2) Research on ISI (in-service-inspection) Technology, (3) Research on Degradation Modes and Integrity, (4) Development of Methodology and Technical Requirements for Current and Emerging Regulatory Issues, and (5) Program Management. Under Task 1, progress is reported on the preparation of and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for inspecting a mock-up steam generator for round-robin testing, the development of better ways to correlate burst pressure and leak rate with eddy current (EC) signals, the inspection of sleeved tubes, workshop and training activities, and the evaluation of emerging NDE technology. Under Task 2, results are reported on closed-form solutions and finite element electromagnetic modeling of EC probe response for various probe designs and flaw characteristics. Under Task 3, facilities are being designed and built for the production of cracked tubes under aggressive and near-prototypical conditions and for the testing of flawed and unflawed tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions. In addition, crack behavior and stability are being modeled to provide guidance on test facility design, to develop an improved understanding of the expected rupture behavior of tubes with circumferential cracks, and to predict the behavior of flawed and unflawed tubes under severe accident conditions. Task 4 is concerned with the cracking and failure of tubes that have been repaired by sleeving, and with a review of literature on this subject.

  20. Performance tests and efficiency analysis of Solar Invictus 53S - A parabolic dish solar collector for direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Umer; Ali, Wajahat

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on Solar Invictus 53S `system'; an economically effective solar steam generation solution designed and developed by ZED Solar Ltd. The system consists of a dual axis tracking parabolic solar dish and bespoke cavity type receiver, which works as a Once Through Solar Steam Generator `OTSSG' mounted at the focal point of the dish. The overall performance and efficiency of the system depends primarily on the optical efficiency of the solar dish and thermal efficiency of the OTSSG. Optical testing performed include `on sun' tests using CCD camera images and `burn plate' testing to evaluate the sunspot for size and quality. The intercept factor was calculated using a colour look-back method to determine the percentage of solar rays focused into the receiver. Solar dish tracking stability tests were carried out at different times of day to account for varying dish elevation angles and positions, movement of the sunspot centroid was recorded and logged using a CCD camera. Finally the overall performance and net solar to steam efficiency of the system was calculated by experimentally measuring the output steam parameters at varying Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) levels at ZED Solar's test facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Thermal losses from OTSSG were calculated using the known optical efficiency and measured changes in output steam enthalpy.

  1. 2. Credit BG. Looking west at east facade of Steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit BG. Looking west at east facade of Steam Generator Plant, Building 4280/E-81; steam generators have been removed as part of dismantling program for Test Stand 'D.' Metal cylindrical objects to left of door were roof vents. The steam-driven ejector system for Dv Cell is clearly visible on the east side of Test Stand 'D' tower. The X-stage ejector is vertically installed at the bottom left of the tower, Y-stage is horizontally positioned close to the tower top, and the Z- and Z-1 stages are attached to the top of the interstage condenser. Light-colored piping is thermally insulated steam line. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Steam Generator Plant, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. Steam Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

  4. Design and modelling of an innovative three-stage thermal storage system for direct steam generation CSP plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Pierre; Vuillerme, Valéry; Olcese, Marco; El Mourchid, Nadim

    2016-05-01

    Thermal Energy Storage systems (TES) for a Direct Steam Generation (DSG) solar plant feature preferably three stages in series including a latent heat storage module so that steam can be recovered with a limited temperature loss. The storage system designed within the Alsolen Sup project is characterized by an innovative combination of sensible and latent modules. A dynamic model of this three-stage storage has been developed and applied to size the storage system of the Alsolen Sup® plant demonstrator at CEA Cadarache. Results of this simulation show that this promising concept is an efficient way to store heat in DSG solar plants.

  5. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  6. High performance steam development

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1995-12-31

    DOE has launched a program to make a step change in power plant to 1500 F steam, since the highest possible performance gains can be achieved in a 1500 F steam system when using a topping turbine in a back pressure steam turbine for cogeneration. A 500-hour proof-of-concept steam generator test module was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. It has four once-through steam generator circuits. The complete HPSS (high performance steam system) was tested above 1500 F and 1500 psig for over 102 hours at full power.

  7. Steam Generator Component Model in a Combined Cycle of Power Conversion Unit for Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Chang H; Han, James; Barner, Robert; Sherman, Steven R

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. A combined cycle is considered as one of the power conversion units to be coupled to the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). The combined cycle configuration consists of a Brayton top cycle coupled to a Rankine bottoming cycle by means of a steam generator. A detailed sizing and pressure drop model of a steam generator is not available in the HYSYS processes code. Therefore a four region model was developed for implementation into HYSYS. The focus of this study was the validation of a HYSYS steam generator model of two phase flow correlations. The correlations calculated the size and heat exchange of the steam generator. To assess the model, those calculations were input into a RELAP5 model and its results were compared with HYSYS results. The comparison showed many differences in parameters such as the heat transfer coefficients and revealed the different methods used by the codes. Despite differences in approach, the overall results of heat transfer were in good agreement.

  8. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  9. Assessment of dose during an SGTR. [Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires utilities to determine the response of a pressurized water reactor to a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) as part of the safety analysis for the plant. The SGTR analysis includes assumptions regarding the iodine concentration in the reactor coolant system (RCS) due to iodine spikes, primary flashing and bypass fractions, and iodine partitioning in the secondary coolant system (SCS). Experimental and analytical investigations have recently been completed wherein these assumptions were tested to determine whether and to what degree they were conservative (that is, whether they result in a calculated iodine source term/dose that is at least as large or larger than that expected during an actual event). The current study has the objective to assess the overall effects of the results of these investigations on the calculated iodine dose to the environment during an SGTR. To assist in this study, a computer program, DOSE, was written. This program uses a simple, non-mechanistic model to calculate the iodine source term to the environment during an SGTR as a function of water mass inventories and flow rates and iodine concentrations in the RCS and SCS. The principal conclusion of this study is that the iodine concentration in the RCS is the dominant parameter, due to the dominance of primary flashing on the iodine source term.

  10. Iodine partition coefficient measurements at simulated PWR steam generator conditions: Interim data report

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, S.D.; Simmons, C.M.

    1987-05-01

    Iodine partition coefficients (defined as the ratio of the concentration of iodine species in the aqueous solution to the iodine concentration in the vapor phase) were measured at simulated PWR steam generator conditions (285C and 6.9 MPa), using carrier-free radioactive T I in the form of sodium iodide. The iodine tracer concentration was maintained at approx.6 x 10 mol/L; boric acid concentration was varied from 0 to 0.4 mol/L; and the solution pH (measured at 25C) was adjusted from 4 to 9 by the addition of lithium hydroxide. Iodine partition coefficients decrease with increasing boric acid concentration; however, the iodine volatility is essentially independent of the solution pH for a given boric acid concentration. Sparging the solutions with air at room temperature increases the iodine volatility by an order of magnitude, compared to that achieved with argon sparging. Iodine partition coefficient measurements ranged from a low of 200 (in 0.2 M boric acid sparged with air) to 400,000 (in purified water sparged with argon).

  11. Device performance of in situ steam generated gate dielectric nitrided by remote plasma nitridation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shareef, H. N.; Karamcheti, A.; Luo, T. Y.; Bersuker, G.; Brown, G. A.; Murto, R. W.; Jackson, M. D.; Huff, H. R.; Kraus, P.; Lopes, D.; Olsen, C.; Miner, G.

    2001-06-01

    In situ steam generated (ISSG) oxides have recently attracted interest for use as gate dielectrics because of their demonstrated reliability improvement over oxides formed by dry oxidation. [G. Minor, G. Xing, H. S. Joo, E. Sanchez, Y. Yokota, C. Chen, D. Lopes, and A. Balakrishna, Electrochem. Soc. Symp. Proc. 99-10, 3 (1999); T. Y. Luo, H. N. Al-Shareef, G. A. Brown, M. Laughery, V. Watt, A. Karamcheti, M. D. Jackson, and H. R. Huff, Proc. SPIE 4181, 220 (2000).] We show in this letter that nitridation of ISSG oxide using a remote plasma decreases the gate leakage current of ISSG oxide by an order of magnitude without significantly degrading transistor performance. In particular, it is shown that the peak normalized transconductance of n-channel devices with an ISSG oxide gate dielectric decreases by only 4% and the normalized drive current by only 3% after remote plasma nitridation (RPN). In addition, it is shown that the reliability of the ISSG oxide exhibits only a small degradation after RPN. These observations suggest that the ISSG/RPN process holds promise for gate dielectric applications.

  12. Steam generator mock-up for assessment of inservice inspection technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiari, S.; Kupperman, D. S.; Muscara, J.

    1999-09-11

    A steam generator mock-up has been assembled for round-robin studies of the effectiveness of currently practiced inservice inspection (ISI) technology for detection of current-day flaws. The mock-up will also be used to evaluate emerging inspection technologies. The 3.66-m (12-ft.)-tall mock-up contains 400 tube openings, each consisting of 9 test sections that can be used to simulate current-day field-induced flaws and artifacts. Included in the mock-up are simulations of tube support plate (TSP) intersections and the tube sheet (TS). Cracks are present at the TSP, TS, and in the free span sections of the mock-up. For initial evaluation of the round-robin results, various eddy current methods, as well as multivariate models for data analysis techniques, are being used to estimate the depth and length of defects in the mock-up. To ensure that the round-robin is carried out with procedures as close as possible to those implemented in the field, input was obtained from industry experts on the protocol and procedures to be used for the exercise. One initial assembly of the mock-up with a limited number of flaws and artifact has been completed and tested. A second completed configuration with additional flaw and artifacts simulations will be used for the round-robin.

  13. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    SciTech Connect

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.

    1989-02-01

    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. Structural alterations, pore generation, and deacetylation of α- and β-chitin submitted to steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Too Shen; Chin, Hui Yen; Tsai, Min-Lang; Liu, Chao-Lin

    2015-05-20

    The purpose of this study was to use an environmentally friendly steam explosion method to achieve α- and β-chitin structural alterations, pore generation, and deacetylation, enhancing the degree of deacetylation (DD) in chitin and extending its applications. The samples of α- and β-chitin possessing various moisture contents that were exploded at 9 kg/cm(2) exhibited higher DDs, lower densities, lower crystallinity and more porous structures compared to unexploded chitin. After explosion, β-chitin exhibited a larger expansion ratio, lower crystallinity and contained a larger proportion of small-sized particles compared to α-chitin. The highest DD values of exploded α- and β-chitin with 75% moisture content were 42.9% and 43.7%, respectively. The exploded chitin samples with lower moisture content exhibited lower DDs, densities, crystallinity indices, smaller particle sizes, and higher expansion ratios than the chitin samples with higher moisture content. The chitin samples with lower moisture content also contained larger and more numerous pores.

  15. Analysis of pulsed eddy current data using regression models for steam generator tube support structure inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear steam generators (SGs) are a critical component for ensuring safe and efficient operation of a reactor. Life management strategies are implemented in which SG tubes are regularly inspected by conventional eddy current testing (ECT) and ultrasonic testing (UT) technologies to size flaws, and safe operating life of SGs is predicted based on growth models. ECT, the more commonly used technique, due to the rapidity with which full SG tube wall inspection can be performed, is challenged when inspecting ferromagnetic support structure materials in the presence of magnetite sludge and multiple overlapping degradation modes. In this work, an emerging inspection method, pulsed eddy current (PEC), is being investigated to address some of these particular inspection conditions. Time-domain signals were collected by an 8 coil array PEC probe in which ferromagnetic drilled support hole diameter, depth of rectangular tube frets and 2D tube off-centering were varied. Data sets were analyzed with a modified principal components analysis (MPCA) to extract dominant signal features. Multiple linear regression models were applied to MPCA scores to size hole diameter as well as size rectangular outer diameter tube frets. Models were improved through exploratory factor analysis, which was applied to MPCA scores to refine selection for regression models inputs by removing nonessential information.

  16. Corrosion inhibition of steam generator tubesheet by Alloy 690 cladding in secondary side environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Do Haeng; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Han, Jung Ho; Shim, Hee Sang

    2013-11-01

    Denting is a phenomenon that a steam generator tube is distorted by a volume expansion of corrosion products of the tube support and tubesheet materials adjacent to the tube. Although denting has been mitigated by a modification of the design and material of the tube support structures, it has been an inevitable concern in the crevice region of the top of tubesheet. This paper provides a new technology to prevent denting by cladding the secondary surface of the tubesheet with a corrosion resistant material. In this study, Alloy 690 material was cladded onto the surface of an SA508 tubesheet to a thickness of about 9 mm. The corrosion rates of the original SA508 tubesheet and the Alloy 690 clad material were measured in acidic and alkaline simulated environments. Using Alloy 690 cladding, the corrosion rate of the tubesheet within a magnetite sludge pile decreased by a factor of 680 in 0.1 M NiCl2 solution at 300 °C, and by a factor of 58 in 2 M NaOH solution at 315 °C. This means that denting can drastically be prevented by cladding the secondary tubesheet surface with corrosion resistant materials.

  17. Continuous-wave radar to detect defects within heat exchangers and steam generator tubes.

    SciTech Connect

    Nassersharif, Bahram (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Caffey, Thurlow Washburn Howell; Jedlicka, Russell P.; Garcia, Gabe V. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2003-01-01

    A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The experimental program resulted in a completed product development schedule and the design of an experimental apparatus for studying handling of the probe and data acquisition. These tests were completed as far as the prototypical probe performance allowed. The prototype probe design did not have sufficient sensitivity to detect a defect signal using the defined radar technique and did not allow successful completion of all of the project milestones. The best results from the prototype probe could not detect a tube defect using the radar principle. Though a more precision probe may be possible, the cost of design and construction was beyond the scope of the project. This report describes the probe development and the status of the design at the termination of the project.

  18. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, D.E.; Mulac, A.J.

    1980-10-10

    An apparatus is described for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  19. Control of alkaline stress corrosion cracking in pressurized-water reactor steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, I.S. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Park, I.G. . Div. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1999-06-01

    Outer-diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC) of alloy 600 (UNS N06600) tubings in steam generators of the Kori-1 pressurized-water reactor (PWR) caused an unscheduled outage in 1994. Failure analysis and remedy development studies were undertaken to avoid a recurrence. Destructive examination of a removed tube indicated axial intergranular cracks developed at the top of sludge caused by a boiling crevice geometry. A high ODSCC propagation rate was attributed to high local pH and increased corrosion potential resulting from oxidized copper presumably formed during the maintenance outage and plant heatup. Remedial measures included: (1) crevice neutralization by crevice flushing with boric acid (H[sub 3]BO[sub 3]) and molar ratio control using ammonium chloride (NH[sub 4]Cl), (2) corrosion potential reduction by hydrazine (H[sub 2]NNH[sub 2]) soaking and suppression of oxygen below 20 ppb to avoid copper oxide formation, (3) titanium dioxide (TiO[sub 2]) inhibitor soaking, and (4) temperature reduction of 5 C. Since application of the remedy program, no significant ODSCC has been observed, which clearly demonstrates the benefit of departing from an oxidizing alkaline environment. In addition, the TiO[sub 2] inhibitor appeared to have a positive effect, warranting further examination.

  20. Experimental investigation on denting in PWR steam generators: causes and corrective actions

    SciTech Connect

    Nordmann, F.; Brunet, J.P.; Duret, J.; Pinard-Legry, G.

    1983-10-01

    Denting studies have been undertaken in order to assess the influence of the most important parameters which could initiate corrosion of the carbon steel occurring in the tube-tube support plate crevices of some PWR steam generators. Tests have been carried out in model boilers where feedwater was polluted with sea or river water. Specific effects of chloride or sulfate and influence of oxygen content, magnetite addition and pH value were investigated. In magnetite prepacked crevices, denting is obtained within 1000 hrs for seawater pollution of 0.3 ppm chloride at the blowdown. In neutral chloride or in river water, denting is observed only with oxygen addition. Denting prevention is effective in the case of an on-line addition of phosphate, boric acid, or calcium hydroxide. For denting stopping, boric acid or calcium hydroxide is efficient even with a high seawater pollution. Soaks cannot stop denting if they are not followed by an on-line treatment (boric acid, calcium hydroxide). With quadrifoil holes, denting doesn't occur. In very severe test conditions, 13 percent Cr steel can be corroded, but the corrosion rate is low and oxide morphology is different from that growing on carbon steel.

  1. Risk analysis of heat recovery steam generator with semi quantitative risk based inspection API 581

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is a major problem that most often occurs in the power plant. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an equipment that has a high risk to the power plant. The impact of corrosion damage causing HRSG power plant stops operating. Furthermore, it could be threaten the safety of employees. The Risk Based Inspection (RBI) guidelines by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 58 has been used to risk analysis in the HRSG 1. By using this methodology, the risk that caused by unexpected failure as a function of the probability and consequence of failure can be estimated. This paper presented a case study relating to the risk analysis in the HRSG, starting with a summary of the basic principles and procedures of risk assessment and applying corrosion RBI for process industries. The risk level of each HRSG equipment were analyzed: HP superheater has a medium high risk (4C), HP evaporator has a medium-high risk (4C), and the HP economizer has a medium risk (3C). The results of the risk assessment using semi-quantitative method of standard API 581 based on the existing equipment at medium risk. In the fact, there is no critical problem in the equipment components. Damage mechanisms were prominent throughout the equipment is thinning mechanism. The evaluation of the risk approach was done with the aim of reducing risk by optimizing the risk assessment activities.

  2. Status of the steam generator tube circumferential ODSCC degradation experienced at the Doel 4 plant

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel, G.

    1997-02-01

    Since the 1991 outage, the Doel Unit 4 nuclear power plant is known to be affected by circumferential outside diameter intergranular stress corrosion cracking at the hot leg tube expansion transition. Extensive non destructive examination inspections have shown the number of tubes affected by this problem as well as the size of the cracks to have been increasing for the three cycles up to 1993. As a result of the high percentage of tubes found non acceptable for continued service after the 1993 in-service inspection, about 1,700 mechanical sleeves were installed in the steam generators. During the 1994 outage, all the tubes sleeved during the 1993 outage were considered as potentially cracked to some extent at the upper hydraulic transition and were therefore not acceptable for continued service. They were subsequently repaired by laser welding. Furthermore all the tubes not sleeved during the 1993 outage were considered as not acceptable for continued service and were repaired by installing laser welded sleeves. During the 1995 outage, some unexpected degradation phenomena were evidenced in the sleeved tubes. This paper summarizes the status of the circumferential ODSCC experienced in the SG tubes of the Doel 4 plant as well as the other connected degradation phenomena.

  3. A mathematical model for localized corrosion in steam generator crevices under heat transfer conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, G.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Sikora, J.; Macdonald, D.D.; Millett, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    A predictive and self-consistent mathematical model has been developed to describe the localized corrosion in steam generators. The model recognizes that the internal and external environment are coupled by the need to conserve charge in the system. Thus, solution of Laplace`s equation for the external environment (outside the crevice) provides the boundary condition for the electric potential at the crevice mouth, which is needed for solving the system of mass transfer equations for the internal environment (inside the crevice). Mass transfer by diffusion, ion migration, and convection was considered. Heat and momentum transfer equations are solved simultaneously, with the mass balance equation for each species and the condition of electroneutrality inside the cavity being considered. The model takes into account the porosity and tortuosity in the corrosion product deposit in the crevice. The homogeneous chemical reactions (hydrolysis of the products of the anodic reaction and the autoprotolysis of water) are included in the model. The model, in this preliminary form predicts the solution chemistry, potential drop, and temperature distribution inside the crevice. An order of magnitude estimate of the crevice corrosion rate also obtained. At this point, the model predicts only the steady state solution, but it is recognized that a steady state may not exist under normal conditions.

  4. Embrittlement of Alloy 400 by lead in secondary side steam generator environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.D.; Goszczynski, G.; Peca, F.

    1995-12-31

    An investigation of intergranular attack and cracking of Alloy 400 steam generator tubes from an Ontario Hydro nuclear power plant identified lead as a possible embrittling agent. The aim of the present work was to establish whether Alloy 400 is susceptible to solid metal embrittlement (SME) or any other cracking mechanism by lead. A program of constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests on Alloy 400 was performed, concentrating on the role of lead oxide in secondary side water. These show that a high level of lead ({>=}1,700 ppm), added as PbO, results in intergranular cracking. Changing from reducing to oxidizing conditions at 2,000 ppm lead exacerbates cracking, as does the addition of sulphate and chloride ions. PbO is thought to enhance nickel dissolution at the grain boundaries producing Metallic lead in the process. Metallic lead itself is not thought to be the embrittling agent. Sulphate and chloride exacerbate the cracking because they form semi-protective films thereby focusing nickel dissolution in regions of film rupture.

  5. Characterization of deposits in Dampierre-1 steam generator support plate crevices

    SciTech Connect

    Albertin, L.; Cattant, F.; Baum, A.; Kuchirka, P.

    1995-12-31

    Westinghouse and EDF have independently characterized the chemical and physical properties of tube support plate crevice assemblies removed from a retired steam generator at the Dampierre-1 plant. In addition to obtaining SEM photomicrographs at numerous crevice locations, the crevice chemistry was evaluated by EDS, EPMA, ICP, and X-ray diffraction. The crevice porosity distribution was determined by image analysis of the photomicrographs. The Westinghouse evaluations found considerable radial and axial variation in both the porosity and constituent distributions. The porosity was reduced at the tube surface and along the edges of the crevice by precipitation of bulk contaminants, while it was reduced adjacent to the tube support plate by the precipitation of dissolved iron emanating from the corrosion of the tube support plate. Largely because of subtle differences in the regions selected for examination, the EDF evaluation found less porosity reduction and a more uniform constituent distribution. Significant porosity reductions, either at the tube surface or along the crevice boundary are likely to reduce the sensitivity of the tube corrosion kinetics to changes in the bulk water chemistry.

  6. ASCO steam generators operating experience. Safety criteria for defect management and effectiveness of preventive measures

    SciTech Connect

    Toribio, E.L.

    1997-02-01

    ASCO NPP is a two W-PWR 930 Mwe Units. Each Unit is provided with three Westinghouse Model D3 steam generators which are of preheater type and Inconel 600 MA as tube material. The Secondary side was designed and erected with copper alloys. Unit I: 81.072 EFPH, and Unit II: 69.720 EFPH. The results of the Eddy Currents Inspections performed during the first refueling outage showed Denting at tube support plates and PWSCC at roll transition zone in Unit I and Denting in Unit II. Later inspections showed other types of damages, such as: (1) ODSCC at tube support plates intersections. (2) Circumferential cracks OD and ID at roll transition zone. (3) Wear at antivibration bars and preheater baffles level. Consequently, in order to limit the plugging rate, A.N. ASCO decided to license new plugging criteria in addition to the 40% depth criterion included in Technical Specification. The new licensing criteria and surveillance requirements, varying with tube zone, are explained in the paper.

  7. On the probability of exceeding allowable leak rates through degraded steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cizelj, L.; Sorsek, I.; Riesch-Oppermann, H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses some possible ways of predicting the behavior of the total leak rate through the damaged steam generator tubes. This failure mode is of special concern in cases where most through-wall defects may remain In operation. A particular example is the application of alternate (bobbin coil voltage) plugging criterion to Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking at the tube support plate intersections. It is the authors aim to discuss some possible modeling options that could be applied to solve the problem formulated as: Estimate the probability that the sum of all individual leak rates through degraded tubes exceeds the predefined acceptable value. The probabilistic approach is of course aiming at reliable and computationaly bearable estimate of the failure probability. A closed form solution is given for a special case of exponentially distributed individual leak rates. Also, some possibilities for the use of computationaly efficient First and Second Order Reliability Methods (FORM and SORM) are discussed. The first numerical example compares the results of approximate methods with closed form results. SORM in particular shows acceptable agreement. The second numerical example considers a realistic case of NPP in Krsko, Slovenia.

  8. Development of Design Criteria for Fluid Induced Structural Vibration in Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Catton, Ivan; Dhir, Vijay K.; Alquaddoomi, O.S.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Adinolfi, Pierangelo

    2004-03-26

    OAK-B135 Flow-induced vibration in heat exchangers has been a major cause of concern in the nuclear industry for several decades. Many incidents of failure of heat exchangers due to apparent flow-induced vibration have been reported through the USNRC incident reporting system. Almost all heat exchangers have to deal with this problem during their operation. The phenomenon has been studied since the 1970s and the database of experimental studies on flow-induced vibration is constantly updated with new findings and improved design criteria for heat exchangers. In the nuclear industry, steam generators are often affected by this problem. However, flow-induced vibration is not limited to nuclear power plants, but to any type of heat exchanger used in many industrial applications such as chemical processing, refrigeration and air conditioning. Specifically, shell and tube type heat exchangers experience flow-induced vibration due to the high velocity flow over the tube banks. Flow-induced vibration in these heat exchangers leads to equipment breakdown and hence expensive repair and process shutdown. The goal of this research is to provide accurate measurements that can help modelers to validate their models using the measured experimental parameters and thereby develop better design criteria for avoiding fluid-elastic instability in heat exchangers. The research is divided between two primary experimental efforts, the first conducted using water alone (single phase) and the second using a mixture of air or steam and water as the working fluid (two phase). The outline of this report is as follows: After the introduction to fluid-elastic instability, the experimental apparatus constructed to conduct the experiments is described in Chapter 2 along with the measurement procedures. Chapter 3 presents results obtained on the tube array and the flow loop, as well as techniques used in data processing. The project performance is described and evaluated in Chapter 4 followed by

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright

    2010-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  10. Pulsed eddy current inspection of broach support plates in steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokros, Sarah Gwendolyn

    Steam Generators (SGs) are a critical component of nuclear reactors, employing thousands of SG tubes to convert heat generated in the reactor core into useable energy. SG tubes are supported at numerous locations by Broach Support Plates (BSPs) that have trefoil shaped holes, which prevent excessive tube vibrations, while allowing water to easily flow through the support structures. A number of degradation modes occur in SGs, such as SG tube fretting, cracking or denting, requiring periodic inspection. Currently, conventional Eddy Current Testing (ECT) is used to non-destructively assess the condition of SG tubes and components. However, as reactors age, new modes of degradation will likely appear that may be difficult to detect and characterize using conventional ECT, such as wall loss in BSPs and build-up of corrosion products, which typically form as a hard sludge called magnetite. Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) technologies are an emerging technique that is presented in this work as a method to further advance inspection techniques used in CANDURTM nuclear reactors. A PEC probe was designed to inspect the unique shape of the trefoil shaped hole to detect and characterize wall loss and the presence of magnetite in A516 carbon steel BSPs with trefoil shaped holes from within 15.9 mm (5/8") Alloy-800 SG tubes. PEC was also used to observe how measurements of wall loss were affected by the presence of magnetite. This work presents Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations and experimental results collected to observe these degradation modes. The probe was demonstrated to be capable of detecting far side wall loss as low as 20%, locating and characterizing the relative permeability of magnetite, and of detecting wall loss when magnetite was present. FEM simulations and experimental results were found to be in good agreement, suggesting that additional investigations of the effects of BSP degradation on PEC signal response may also be performed using FEM models.

  11. Failure behavior of internally pressurized flawed and unflawed steam generator tubing at high temperatures -- Experiments and comparison with model predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Shack, W.J.; Diercks, D.R.; Mruk, K.; Franklin, J.; Knoblich, L.

    1998-03-01

    This report summarizes experimental work performed at Argonne National Laboratory on the failure of internally pressurized steam generator tubing at high temperatures ({le} 700 C). A model was developed for predicting failure of flawed and unflawed steam generator tubes under internal pressure and temperature histories postulated to occur during severe accidents. The model was validated by failure tests on specimens with part-through-wall axial and circumferential flaws of various lengths and depths, conducted under various constant and ramped internal pressure and temperature conditions. The failure temperatures predicted by the model for two temperature and pressure histories, calculated for severe accidents initiated by a station blackout, agree very well with tests performed on both flawed and unflawed specimens.

  12. Corrosion response of downhole steam generator assembly and instrumentation and supply line tubings at Long Beach field test

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.

    1983-07-01

    Three families of metals were used to make the non-combustor components for Sandia's downhole steam generator assembly and supply and instrumentation lines. These three families were: first, plain carbon steel (API Grade J 55); second, austenitic stainless steels (316 and 310); and third, a nickel-base superalloy (Inconel 600). The metals in all three of these families were found to be deficient in their corrosion response. J 55 exhibited minimal to severe general corrosion (rusting). The austenitic stainless steels pitted and cracked. Inconel 600 showed both severe pitting and some intergranular attack. For the most part, these materials were found to be unsuitable for extended life in a downhole steam generator. It is recommended that Inconel 625 be used in future systems where a moderate strength material is specified and Inconel 718 be considered where a high strength material is necessary. 11 references, 45 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Strategies for steam

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1996-03-01

    This article is a review of worldwide developments in the steam turbine and heat recovery steam generator markets. The Far East is driving the market in HRSGs, while China is driving the market in orders placed for steam turbine prime movers. The efforts of several major suppliers are discussed, with brief technical details being provided for several projects.

  14. Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Gary E. Rochau and Thurlow W.H. Caffey, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0740; Bahram Nassersharif and Gabe V. Garcia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001; Russell P. Jedlicka, Klipsch School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001

    2003-05-01

    OAK B204 Continuous-Wave Radar to Detect Defects Within Heat Exchangers and Steam Generator Tubes ; Revised September 3, 2003. A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The technique is 100% volumetric, and may find smaller defects, more rapidly, and less expensively than present methods. The project described in this report was a joint development effort between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) funded by the US Department of Energy. The goal of the project was to research, design, and develop a new concept utilizing a continuous wave radar to detect defects inside metallic tubes and in particular nuclear plant steam generator tubing. The project was divided into four parallel tracks: computational modeling, experimental prototyping, thermo-mechanical design, and signal detection and analysis.

  15. Effect of steam generator configuration in a loss of the RHR during mid-loop operation at PKL facility

    SciTech Connect

    Villanueva, J. F.; Carlos, S.; Martorell, S.; Sanchez, F.

    2012-07-01

    The loss of the residual heat removal system in mid-loop conditions may occur with a non-negligible contribution to the plant risk, so the analysis of the accidental sequences and the actions to mitigate the accident are of great interest in shutdown conditions. In order to plan the appropriate measures to mitigate the accident is necessary to understand the thermal-hydraulic processes following the loss of the residual heat removal system during shutdown. Thus, transients of this kind have been simulated using best-estimate codes in different integral test facilities and compared with experimental data obtained in different facilities. In PKL (Primaerkreislauf-Versuchsanlage, primary coolant loop test facility) test facility different series of experiments have been undertaken to analyze the plant response in shutdown. In this context, the E3 and F2 series consist of analyzing the loss of the residual heat removal system with a reduced inventory in the primary system. In particular, the experiments were developed to investigate the influence of the steam generators secondary side configuration on the plant response, what involves the consideration of different number of steam generators filled with water and ready for activation, on the heat transfer mechanisms inside the steam generators U-tubes. This work presents the results of such experiments calculated using, RELAP5/Mod 3.3. (authors)

  16. Accelerated corrosion of steam generator tubes by solutes concentrated in defects by boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashmore, C.B.; Hurdus, M.H.; Mead, A.P.; Silver, P.J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accelerated corrosion and deposition processes have been studied at defects (holes of 125, 250 and 500 ..mu..m diameter) in steam generator tubes at high heat flux (440-690 kW/m/sup 2/) under realistic conditions (350/sup 0/C, 17.6 MPa). The occurrence of accelerated corrosion and deposition was found to depend on defect geometry, whilst the pattern of corrosion attack and deposition depended on the nature of the solute. Where the depth/diameter ratio of a defect was less than or equal to1 neither accelerated corrosion nor significant deposition was observed. When this ratio was greater than or equal to2 the corrosion rate was increased by up to twenty fold and deposits were formed. Of the four water chemistry situations investigated (AVT, alkali fault, acid sulphate fault, neutral chloride fault), accelerated corrosion was observed in only the alkali and acid sulphate fault cases. In the alkali case, the rate of corrosion increased with distance into a defect. For acid sulphate, corrosion reached a maximum, part way into a defect, and then decreased. The absence of accelerated corrosion under neutral chloride conditions agrees with the findings of other workers. Porous deposits of the least soluble compounds present in the water were formed at the point of maximum entry of water into defects. A cyclic boiling mechanism, with the defect acting as a bubble nucleation site, is best able to explain the observed results. A model based on this mechanism predicts that threshold levels of solute are necessary before concentrated solutions can be formed in defects.

  17. How to simulate acid corrosion of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, E.; Stubbe, J.; Cullen, W.H.; Kazanjian, S.M.; Paine, P.N.

    1995-12-31

    Laborelec and MEA have completed a series of steam generator (SG) tube capsule tests to further assess the effects of acidified environments on wastage, intergranular attack (IGA) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in alloy 600 tubing. Most of the tests were performed with deaerated solutions containing magnetite, sodium silicate and cationic resin beads. The results from the two laboratories were remarkably coherent and showed deep, intergranular SCC with only minor occurrence of IGA or wastage, together with thick Cr enriched oxide layers, in good agreement with the secondary side corrosion morphology at Doel 4 or other Belgian plants. High cracking rates were obtained, up to 5 {micro}m/h (45 mm/y). The only influence of lead addition was to increase slightly the cracking rate in lesser-strained areas, which also supports plant observations. A similar effect was observed for organics coming from the decomposition of the resin beads, as shown by comparison with the results obtained by replacing the resins by their calculated sulfate equivalent. Addition of a previously investigated solution of chlorides and sulfates to the resin solution further increased the cracking rate up to 20 {micro}m/h. However, the presence of carbon steel coupons in the capsules appeared to completely inhibit SCC of the alloy 600 tubes, which was not the case for the initial resin or sulfate solutions (without chlorides). In less concentrated sulfuric and/or acetic acid solutions containing magnetite, producing lower intergranular cracking rates, the addition of lead had a marked influence on the mode of cracking, which became partially transgranular. Here again, the maximum cracking rate was not modified but SCC was enhanced in lesser-strained areas.

  18. Experimental residual stress evaluation of hydraulic expansion transitions in Alloy 690 steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, R.; Doherty, P.; Hornbach, D.; Abdelsalam, U.

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear Steam Generator (SG) service reliability and longevity have been seriously affected worldwide by corrosion at the tube-to-tubesheet joint expansion. Current SG designs for new facilities and replacement projects enhance corrosion resistance through the use of advanced tubing materials and improved joint design and fabrication techniques. Here, transition zones of hydraulic expansions have undergone detailed experimental evaluation to define residual stress and cold-work distribution on and below the secondary-side surface. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, with supporting finite element analysis, variations are compared in tubing metallurgical condition, tube/pitch geometry, expansion pressure, and tube-to-hole clearance. Initial measurements to characterize the unexpanded tube reveal compressive stresses associated with a thin work-hardened layer on the outer surface of the tube. The gradient of cold-work was measured as 3% to 0% within .001 inch of the surface. The levels and character of residual stresses following hydraulic expansion are primarily dependent on this work-hardened surface layer and initial stress state that is unique to each tube fabrication process. Tensile stresses following expansion are less than 25% of the local yield stress and are found on the transition in a narrow circumferential band at the immediate tube surface (< .0002 inch/0.005 mm depth). The measurements otherwise indicate a predominance of compressive stresses on and below the secondary-side surface of the transition zone. Excellent resistance to SWSCC initiation is offered by the low levels of tensile stress and cold-work. Propagation of any possible cracking would be deterred by the compressive stress field that surrounds this small volume of tensile material.

  19. Evaluation of machine learning tools for inspection of steam generator tube structures using pulsed eddy current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes and support structures can result in a loss of reactor efficiency. Regular in-service inspection, by conventional eddy current testing (ECT), permits detection of cracks, measurement of wall loss, and identification of other SG tube degradation modes. However, ECT is challenged by overlapping degradation modes such as might occur for SG tube fretting accompanied by tube off-set within a corroding ferromagnetic support structure. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an emerging technology examined here for inspection of Alloy-800 SG tubes and associated carbon steel drilled support structures. Support structure hole size was varied to simulate uniform corrosion, while SG tube was off-set relative to hole axis. PEC measurements were performed using a single driver with an 8 pick-up coil configuration in the presence of flat-bottom rectangular frets as an overlapping degradation mode. A modified principal component analysis (MPCA) was performed on the time-voltage data in order to reduce data dimensionality. The MPCA scores were then used to train a support vector machine (SVM) that simultaneously targeted four independent parameters associated with; support structure hole size, tube off-centering in two dimensions and fret depth. The support vector machine was trained, tested, and validated on experimental data. Results were compared with a previously developed artificial neural network (ANN) trained on the same data. Estimates of tube position showed comparable results between the two machine learning tools. However, the ANN produced better estimates of hole inner diameter and fret depth. The better results from ANN analysis was attributed to challenges associated with the SVM when non-constant variance is present in the data.

  20. Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1995-12-01

    Heavy Oil is abundant in California. It is a very viscous fluid, which must be thinned in order to flow from wells at economical rates. The best method of oil viscosity reduction is by cyclic steam injection into the oil-containing rock formations. Making steam in conventional generators fueled with Natural Gas is, however, a costly process. The main objective of this Project is to reduce the cost of the required steam, per Barrel of Oil produced. This is made possible by a combination of Patented new technologies with several known methods. The best known method for increasing the production rate from oil wells is to use horizontal drainholes, which provide a much greater flow area from the oil zone into the well. A recent statistic based on 344 horizontal wells in 21 Canadian Oil fields containing Heavy Oil shows that these are, on the average six times more prolific than vertical wells. The cost of horizontal wells, however, is generally two to three times that of a vertical well, in the same field, so our second goal is to reduce the net cost of horizontal wells by connecting two of them to the same vertical casing, well head and pumping system. With such a well configuration, it is possible to get two horizontal wells for the price of about one and a half times the price of a single vertical well.

  1. Thermal gain of CHP steam generator plants and heat supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziganshina, S. K.; Kudinov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Heating calculation of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) installed behind the BKZ-420-140 NGM boiler resulting in determination of HRU heat output according to fire gas value parameters at the heat recovery unit inlet and its outlet, heated water quantity, combustion efficiency per boiler as a result of installation of HRU, and steam condensate discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point and HRU heat exchange area has been performed. Inspection results of Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM power boilers and field tests of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) made on the bimetal calorifier base KCk-4-11 (KSk-4-11) installed behind station no. 2 Ulyanovsk CHP-3 DE-10-14 GM boiler were the basis of calculation. Integration of the surface condensation heat recovery unit behind a steam boiler rendered it possible to increase combustion efficiency and simultaneously decrease nitrogen oxide content in exit gases. Influence of the blowing air moisture content, the excess-air coefficient in exit gases, and exit gases temperature at the HRU outlet on steam condensate amount discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point has been analyzed. The steam condensate from HRU gases is offered as heat system make-up water after degasification. The cost-effectiveness analysis of HRU installation behind the Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM steam boiler with consideration of heat energy and chemically purified water economy has been performed. Calculation data for boilers with different heat output has been generalized.

  2. Development and testing of vortex generators for small horizontal axis wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyatt, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vortex generators (VGs) for a small (32 ft diameter) horizontal axis wind turbine, the Carter Model 25, have been developed and tested. Arrays of VGs in a counterrotating arrangement were tested on the inbound half-span, outboard half-span, and on the entire blade. VG pairs had their centerlines spaced at a distance of 15% of blade chord, with a spanwise width of 10% of blade chord. Each VG had a length/height ratio of 4, with a height of between 0.5% and 1.0% of the blade chord. Tests were made with roughness strips to determine whether VGs alleviated the sensitivity of some turbines to an accumulation of bugs and dirt on the leading edge. Field test data showed that VGs increased power output up to 20% at wind speeds above 10 m/s with only a small (less than 4%) performance penalty at lower speeds. The VGs on the outboard span of the blade were more effective than those on inner sections. For the case of full span coverage, the energy yearly output increased almost 6% at a site with a mean wind speed of 16 mph. The VGs did reduce the performance loss caused by leading edge roughness. An increase in blade pitch angle has an effect on the power curve similar to the addition of VGs. VGs alleviate the sensitivity of wind turbine rotors to leading edge roughness caused by bugs and drift.

  3. Pouring on the steam

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-02-01

    Engineers at Solar Turbines Inc. in San Diego have achieved a breakthrough in steam power by using modern gas-turbine technology, high-temperature-resistant superalloys, advanced manufacturing technologies, and a new class of steam generators to build a high-performance steam system (HPSS). The system is a full-scale, 4-megawatt industrial prototype steam power plant that produces steam heated to 1,500 F and pressurized to 1,500 psig. In a cogeneration steam cycle, these temperatures and pressures can double the power generated using the same amount of steam, according to the US Department of Energy (DOE), which sponsored the project as part of the Advanced Turbine System Program.

  4. Inspection of ferromagnetic support structures from within alloy 800 steam generator tubes using pulsed eddy current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Jeremy Andrew

    Nondestructive testing is a critical aspect of component lifetime management. Nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes are the thinnest barrier between irradiated primary heat transport system and the secondary heat transport system, whose components are not rated for large radiation fields. Conventional eddy current testing (ECT) and ultrasonic testing are currently employed for inspecting SG tubes, with the former doing most inspections due to speed and reliability based on an understanding of how flaws affect coil impedance parameters when conductors are subjected to harmonically induced currents. However, when multiple degradation modes are present simultaneously near ferromagnetic materials, such as tube fretting, support structure corrosion, and magnetite fouling, ECT reliability decreases. Pulsed eddy current (PEC), which induces transient eddy currents via square wave excitation, has been considered in this thesis to simultaneously examine SG tube and support structure conditions. An array probe consisting of a central driver, coaxial with the tube, and an array of 8 sensing coils, was used in this thesis to perform laboratory measurements. The probe was delivered from the inner diameter (ID) of the SG tube, where support hole diameter, tube frets, and 2D off-centering were varied. When considering two variables simultaneously, scores obtained from a modified principal components analysis (MPCA) were sufficient for parameter extraction. In the case of hole ID variation with two dimensional tube off-centering (three parameters), multiple linear regression (MLR) of the MPCA scores provided good estimates of parameters. However, once a fourth variable, outer diameter tube frets, was introduced, MLR proved insufficient. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were investigated in order to perform pattern recognition on the MPCA scores to simultaneously extract the four measurement parameters from the data. All models throughout this thesis were created and validated using

  5. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of aerosol in a U-shaped steam generator tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longmire, Pamela

    scenario evaluated but ranged from 1.61 to 3.2. At the outlet, the computed AMMD (1.9 mum) had GSD between 1.12 and 2.76. Decontamination factors (DF), computed based on deposition from trajectory calculations, were just over 3.5 for the bend and 4.4 at the outlet. Computed DFs were consistent with expert elicitation cited in NUREG-1150 for aerosol retention in steam generators.

  6. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  7. Patterns of Fluid Circulation and Steam Generation in Caldera-Hosted Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, M. E.; Cook, S. J.

    2009-05-01

    Steam formation is an important mechanism powering near surface phenomena in active hydrothermal systems (e.g., Yellowstone) and an established ore deposition mechanism in ancient equivalents (e.g., Creede). To gain insights into factors controlling steam formation and distribution in these systems, a series of steady-state numerical models were run on a hypothetical caldera-hosted system based on characteristics of a representative suite of calderas (e.g., Yellowstone, Valles, Creede). Base model conditions consisted of (1) a 10 km-wide caldera with a flat floor and rim height of 800 m; (2) a 500 C intrusion 1.5 km below the caldera centre; (3) a regional conductive heat flux twice continental average (0.10 W/m2); (4) host rock thermal conductivity of 2.5 W/m C, density 2650 kg/m3 and pore fraction 0.05. An impermeable intrusion was modeled with a 500 m wide surrounding region with a permeability (k) 10-3 m2 less than the system meant to represent a ductile region produced by elevated temperature (T > 350 C). The remainder of the system was given homogenous permeability. Cylindrical coordinates were used to represent caldera geometry. For these conditions, a minimum k = 10-15 m2 was required to achieve the target thermal condition of T approximately 220 C at 300 m below ground surface observed in active systems (e.g., Yellowstone). This model also resulted in a continuous steam plume originating at the intrusive contact that reached within 300 m of the surface along the edges of the caldera ~2 km from caldera centre. Models with k < 10-15 m2 produced steam, but at greater depths and failed to match the target conditions. Models with intrusion temperatures reduced by 20% shifted the steam plume toward the caldera centre and reduced its volume, but still achieved target conditions. Increasing intrusion temperature by 10% produced a second distinct plume at the caldera centre that also achieved target conditions. Increasing the rim height for these conditions

  8. Boxberg III-2 x 500 MW units: Refurbishing and environmental protection measures on the 815 T/H steam generator of works II in Boxberg Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Cossman, R.; Fritz, M.; Bauchmueller, R.

    1995-12-01

    The object of the upgrading measures on the steam generators is: (1) To comply with the requirements of the German antipollution law, which imposes a permissible NO{sub x} content in the flue gas of less than 200 Mg/m{sup 3} STP and a CO content of less than 250 Mg/m{sup 3} STP. (2) To increase the boiler efficiency and availability and the efficiency of the water/steam cycle.

  9. Types and analysis of defects in welding junctions of the header to steam generator shells on power-generating units with VVER-1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhigov, L. S.; Voevodin, V. N.; Mitrofanov, A. S.; Vasilenko, R. L.

    2016-10-01

    Investigation objects were metal templates, which were cut during the repair of welding junction no. 111 (header to the steam generator shell) on a power-generating unit with VVER-1000 of the South-Ukraine NPP, and substances of mud depositions collected from walls of this junction. Investigations were carried out using metallography, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion microanalysis by an MMO-1600-AT metallurgical microscope and a JEOL JSM-7001F scanning electron microscope with the Shottky cathode. As a result of investigations in corrosion pits and mud depositions in the area of welding junction no. 111, iron and copper-enriched particles were revealed. It is shown that, when contacting with the steel header surface, these particles can form microgalvanic cells causing reactions of iron dissolution and the pit corrosion of metal. Nearby corrosion pits in metal are microcracks, which can be effect of the stress state of metal under corrosion pits along with revealed effects of twinning. The hypothesis is expressed that pitting corrosion of metal occurred during the first operation period of the power-generating unit in the ammonia water chemistry conditions (WCC). The formation of corrosion pits and nucleating cracks from them was stopped with the further operation under morpholine WCC. The absence of macrocracks in metal of templates verifies that, during operation, welding junction no. 111 operated under load conditions not exceeding the permissible ones by design requirements. The durability of the welding junction of the header to the steam generator shell significantly depends on the technological schedule of chemical cleaning and steam generator shut-down cooling.

  10. In Situ Steam Fracture Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP In Situ Steam Generation Steam Diffusion Downhole 14 1 2 1 J il Properties...in the high- permeability paintbrush-type tuff found in P-Tunnel. All tests were -. performed using downhole steam generation systems capable of...Command, Albuquerque. S-CUBED developed, designed, fabricated, and fielded the downhole , steam - . . generation system. In addition, S-CUBED was

  11. Review of Dissimilar Metal Welding for the NGNP Helical-Coil Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect

    John N. DuPont

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently funding research and development of a new high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) that is capable of providing high temperature process heat for industry. The steam generator of the HTGR will consist of an evaporator economizer section in the lower portion and a finishing superheater section in the upper portion. Alloy 800H is expected to be used for the superheater section, and 2.25Cr 1Mo steel is expected to be used for the evaporator economizer section. Dissimilar metal welds (DMW) will be needed to join these two materials. It is well known that failure of DMWs can occur well below the expected creep life of either base metal and well below the design life of the plant. The failure time depends on a wide range of factors related to service conditions, welding parameters, and alloys involved in the DMW. The overall objective of this report is to review factors associated with premature failure of DMWs operating at elevated temperatures and identify methods for extending the life of the 2.25Cr 1Mo steel to alloy 800H welds required in the new HTGR. Information is provided on a variety of topics pertinent to DMW failures, including microstructural evolution, failure mechanisms, creep rupture properties, aging behavior, remaining life estimation techniques, effect of environment on creep rupture properties, best practices, and research in progress to improve DMW performance. The microstructure of DMWs in the as welded condition consists of a sharp chemical concentration gradient across the fusion line that separates the ferritic and austenitic alloys. Upon cooling from the weld thermal cycle, a band of martensite forms within this concentration gradient due to high hardenability and the relatively rapid cooling rates associated with welding. Upon aging, during post weld heat treatment (PWHT), and/or during high temperature service, C diffuses down the chemical potential gradient from the ferritic 2.25Cr 1Mo steel

  12. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  13. ATHOS3: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators. Volume 3. User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, L.W.; Singhal, A.K.

    1986-07-01

    This is the user's manual for the ATHOS3 computer code. ATHOS3 is a computer code for three-dimensional, steady-state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. It has been developed by upgrading an earlier code, ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators). Both ATHOS and ATHOS3 have been developed by CHAM of North America, Inc., under the contract RP1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute. ATHOS3 supercedes ATHOS and all other intermediate versions of the code. ATHOS3 has several additional capabilities, including a much improved and generalized geometry pre-processor module, and has been developed in a fully upwards-compatible manner from the predecessor ATHOS code. For the convenience of new users, the ATHOS3 code is documented in four self-contained volumes, i.e., no reference to the earlier ATHOS volumes is necessary. Furthermore, for the benefit of old (i.e., ATHOS code) users, it may be stated that the new (ATHOS3) documentation has been produced by updating and modifying the earlier documentation.

  14. The influence of manufacturing processes on the microstructure, grain boundary characteristics and SCC behavior of Alloy 690 steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Sarver, J.M.; Doherty, P.E.; Doyle, D.M.; Palumbo, G.

    1995-12-31

    Thermally treated Alloy 690 is the tubing material of choice for replacement steam generators in the United States. Throughout the world, it is manufactured using different melting and thermomechanical processing methods. The influence of different processing steps on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior of Alloy 690 has not been thoroughly evaluated. Evaluations were performed on Alloy 690 steam generator tubing produced using several different melting practices and thermomechanical processing procedures. The evaluations included extensive microstructural examinations as well as constant extension rate (CERT) tests. The CERT test results indicated that the thermally treated Alloy 690 tubing which was subjected to higher annealing temperatures displayed the highest degree of resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Examination of the microstructures indicated that the microstructural changes which are produced by increased annealing temperatures are subtle. In an attempt to further elucidate and quantify the effect of manufacturing processes on corrosion behavior, grain boundary character distribution (GBCD) measurements were performed on the same materials which were CERT tested. Analysis of GBCDs of the samples used in this study indicate that Alloy 690 exhibits a significantly larger fraction of special boundaries as compared to Alloy 600 and Alloy 800, regardless of the processing history of the tubing. Preliminary results indicate that a correlation may exist between processing method, GBCD`s and degree of IGSCC exhibited by the thermally treated samples examined in this study.

  15. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-02-18

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  16. Condensation heat transfer of pure steam and steam from gas-steam mixture in tubes of AES-2006 PHRS SG heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balunov, B. F.; Il'in, V. A.; Shcheglov, A. A.; Lychakov, V. D.; Alekseev, S. B.; Kuhtevich, V. O.; Svetlov, S. V.; Sidorov, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    Results of experimental determination of the average heat transfer coefficient upon condensation of pure steam αc and steam from air-steam mixture αas.m in tubes of a large-scale model of the emergency cooling heat exchanger in the system of passive heat removal through steam generators of AES-2006 project at Leningrad II NPP are presented. The model contained 16 parallel tubes with a diameter of 16 × 2 mm and a length of 2.9 m connected to the upper steam distributing and lower condensate gathering horizontal collectors; the distance between their axes was 2.28 m. The tube segments were vertical, horizontal, or inclined. The internal diameter of the collectors was 40 or 60 mm. The model was placed in the lower part of a tank with a height of 6.5 m and a volume of 5.85 m3 filled with boiling water at atmospheric pressure. The experimental parameters were as follows: pressure range 0.43-7.77 MPa, condensate Reynolds number Ref = (0.87-9.3) × 103, and average air volume fraction at the segment with air-steam mixture 0.18-0.85. The studies showed that nonuniformity of static pressure distribution along the steam-distributing collector strongly influences the reduction of αc value (ejecting effect). The agreement between experimental and calculated according to statutory guidelines values of αc for vertical tubes is achieved if the dynamic head of the steam flow at the input of the steam-distributing collector does not exceed 1 kPa. Equations for calculation of the diffusion heat transfer coefficient at steam condensation from the air-steam mixture αas.m on the internal tube surface are proposed. In the considered conditions, air is completely displaced by steam flow from the upper to the lower part of the tubes. The boundary between these regions is characterized by an average reduced steam velocity through this cross section of 1.6 ± 0.4 m/s. Above the boundary cross section, it is recommended to calculate αc. according to [1].

  17. Comparative analysis of steam delivery cost for surface and downhole steam drive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    A basis is established for evaluating the economic performances of the technologies for enhanced recovery of heavy crude being investigated through the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM. Conventional surface steam drive is compared with: (1) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam; (2) low pressure combustion downhole steam generation; (3) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation; (4) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source; and (5) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. A parametric analysis is performed for varying depths, injection rates, and steam qualities.

  18. J-resistance curves for Inconel 690 and Incoloy 800 nuclear steam generators tubes at room temperature and at 300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergant, Marcos A.; Yawny, Alejandro A.; Perez Ipiña, Juan E.

    2017-04-01

    The structural integrity of steam generator tubes is a relevant issue concerning nuclear plant safety. In the present work, J-resistance curves of Inconel 690 and Incoloy 800 nuclear steam generator tubes with circumferential and longitudinal through wall cracks were obtained at room temperature and 300 °C using recently developed non-standard specimens' geometries. It was found that Incoloy 800 tubes exhibited higher J-resistance curves than Inconel 690 for both crack orientations. For both materials, circumferential cracks resulted into higher fracture resistance than longitudinal cracks, indicating a certain degree of texture anisotropy introduced by the tube fabrication process. From a practical point of view, temperature effects have found to be negligible in all cases. The results obtained in the present work provide a general framework for further application to structural integrity assessments of cracked tubes in a variety of nuclear steam generator designs.

  19. ATHOS: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators. Volume 1. Mathematical and physical models and method of solution. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, A.K.; Keeton, L.W.; Spalding, D.B.; Srikantiah, G.S.

    1982-10-01

    ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators) is a computer code developed by CHAM of North America Incorporated, under the contract RP 1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California. ATHOS supersedes the earlier code URSULA2. ATHOS is designed for three-dimensional, steady state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. The current version of the code has been checked out for: three different configurations of the recirculating-type U-tube steam generators; the homogeneous and algebraic-slip flow models; and full and part load operating conditions. The description of ATHOS is divided into four volumes. Volume 1 includes the mathematical and physical models and method of solution.

  20. SCC analysis of Alloy 600 tubes from a retired steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2013-09-01

    Steam generators (SG) equipped with Alloy 600 tubes of a Korean nuclear power plants were replaced with a new one having Alloy 690 tubes in 1998 after 20 years of operation. To set up a guide line for an examination of the other SG tubes, a metallographic examination of the defected tubes was carried out. A destructive analysis on 71 tubes was addressed, and a relation among the stress corrosion crack (SCC) defect location, defect depth, and location of the sludge pile was obtained. Tubes extracted from the retired SG were transferred to a hot laboratory. Detailed nondestructive analysis examinations were taken again at the laboratory, and the tubes were then destructively examined. The types and sizes of the cracks were characterized. The location and depth of the SCC were evaluated in terms of the location and height of the sludge. Most axial cracks were in the sludge pile, whereas the circumferential ones were around the top of the tube sheet (TTS) or below the TTS. Average defect depth of the axial cracks was deeper than that of the circumferential ones. Axial cracks at tube support plate (TSP) seem to be related with corrosion/sludge in crevice like at the TTS region. Circumferential cracks at TSP seem to be caused by tube denting at the upper part of the TSP. Tubes not having clear ECT signals for quantifying an ECT data-base. Tubes having no ECT signal. Tubes with a large ECT signal. Tubes with various types and sizes of flaws (primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), outside diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC), Pit). Tubes with distinct PWSCC or ODSCC. Tubes were extracted from the RSG based on the field ECT with the criteria, and transferred to a hot laboratory at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for destructive examination. A comprehensive ECT inspection was performed again at the hot laboratory to confirm the location of the cracks obtained from a field inspection. These exact locations of the defects were marked on the

  1. Steam generation in line-focus solar collectors: a comparative assessment of thermal performance, operating stability, and cost issues

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, L.M.; May, E.K.

    1982-04-01

    The engineering and system benefits of using direct steam (in situ) generation in line-focus collectors are assessed. The major emphasis of the analysis is a detailed thermal performance comparison of in situ systems (which utilize unfired boilers). The analysis model developed for this study is discussed in detail. An analysis of potential flow stability problems is also provided along with a cursory cost analysis and an assessment of freeze protection, safety, and control issues. Results indicated a significant thermal performance advantage over the more conventional oil and flash systems and the flow stability does not appear to be a significant problem. In particular, at steam temperatures of 220/sup 0/C (430/sup 0/F) under the chosen set of assumptions, annual delivered energy predictions indicate that the in situ system can deliver 15% more energy than an oil system and 12% more energy than a flash system, with all of the systems using the same collector field. Further, the in situ system may result in a 10% capital cost reduction. Other advantages include improvement in simpler control when compared with flash systems, and fluid handling and safety enhancement when compared with oil systems.

  2. Seasonal Climate Forecasts and Water Management for Steam-Electric Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Greis, N.P.

    1982-12-01

    A water demand model for electricity production is presented which estimates the variablility of water demand for energy production as a function of climate, especially temperature. The model incorporates the effects of temperature on both consumer energy demand levels and process evaporation for steam-electric cooling. The weather-sensitive analysis of water use contained herein is motivated by two factors. First, the electric power industry is using an increasingly large quantity of water, primarily for cooling. The extent of this use is highly dependent on weather conditions. Second, the current state-of-the-art of seasonal climate forecasting, especially temperature, continues to advance. Whether or not seasonal forecasts can be of beneficial use in water management in the electric power industry becomes an important question in the face of a prolonged water shortage.

  3. RELAP5/MOD3 Analysis of Transient Steam-Generator Behavior During Turbine Trip Test of a Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshihisa Shindo; Hiroshi Endo; Tomoko Ishizu; Kazuo Haga

    2006-07-01

    In order to develop a thermal-hydraulic model of the steam-generator (SG) to simulate transient phenomena in the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR) MONJU, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) verified the SG model using the RELAP5/MOD3 code against the results of the turbine trip test at a 40% power load of MONJU. The modeling by using RELAP5 was considered to explain the significant observed behaviors of the pressure and the temperature of the EV steam outlet, and the temperature of water supply distributing piping till 600 seconds after the turbine trip. The analysis results of these behaviors showed good agreement with the test results based on results of parameter study as the blow efficiency (release coef.) and heat transferred from the helical coil region to the down-comer (temperature heating down-comer tubes). It was found that the RELAP5/MOD3 code with a two-fluids model can predict well the physical situation: the gas-phase of steam generated by the decompression boiling moves upward in the down-comer tubes accompanied by the enthalpy increase of the water supply chambers; and that the pressure change of a 'shoulder' like shape is induced by the mass balance between the steam mass generated in the down-comer tubes and the steam mass blown from the SG. The applicability of RELAP5/MOD3 to SG modeling was confirmed by simulating the actual FBR system. (authors)

  4. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Hines, J. Wesley; Lu, Baofu

    2005-06-03

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 September 2004. Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance.Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. Development of advanced signal processing methods using

  5. The Ultrasonic Inspection System (UIS) for inspection of steam generator materials of NPP`s VVER440

    SciTech Connect

    Kuna, M.; Macecek, M.

    1994-12-31

    Ultrasonic Inspection System (UIS) is a complex ultrasonic control system working in conjunction with a mechanical manipulator which provides a complete evaluation of collected data. The system was designed and manufactured by Techno Scientific Inc. (TSI) in Woodbridge, Ontario, Canada to specifications by the Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute for full compatibility with manipulator ZOK PG1. The system is used for the automated control of material and welds of primary collectors of steam generator of Nuclear Plants VVER440. The control unit of the manipulator acts as a master to UIS and synchronizes data collection with the reading of co-ordinates for ultrasonic probes. Data is evaluated by software. Defect sizing and 3D displays are performed.

  6. Analysis of a helical coil once-through molten salt steam generator: Experimental results and heat transfer evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seubert, B.; Rojas, E.; Rivas, E.; Gaggioli, W.; Rinaldi, L.; Fluri, T.

    2016-05-01

    A molten salt helical coil steam generator is an alternative to kettle- or drum-type evaporators which are currently used in commercial-scale solar thermal power plants. A 300 kW prototype was tested during the OPTS project at ENEA. The experimental results presented in this paper have been used to validate a detailed heat transfer analysis of the whole system. The heat transfer analysis deals with the study of both the overall heat transfer coefficient and the shell-side heat transfer coefficient. Due to the specific features of this type of system, no correlations were available in the literature. A new numerical model to predict the performance of large-scale systems is also presented.

  7. Evaluation of a main steam line break with induced, multiple tube ruptures: A comparison of NUREG 1477 (Draft) and transient methodologies Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents the approach taken to analyze the radiological consequences of a postulated main steam line break event, with one or more tube ruptures, for the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The analysis was required to support the restart of PVNGS Unit 2 following the steam generator tube rupture event on March 14, 1993 and to justify continued operation of Units 1 and 3. During the post-event evaluation, the NRC expressed concern that Unit 2 could have been operating with degraded tubes and that similar conditions could exist in Units 1 and 3. The NRC therefore directed that a safety assessment be performed to evaluate a worst case scenario in which a non-isolable main steam line break occurs inducing one or more tube failures in the faulted steam generator. This assessment was to use the generic approach described in NUREG 1477, Voltage-Based Interim Plugging Criteria for Steam Generator Tubes - Task Group Report. An analysis based on the NUREG approach was performed but produced unacceptable results for off-site and control room thyroid doses. The NUREG methodology, however, does not account for plant thermal-hydraulic transient effects, system performance, or operator actions which could be credited to mitigate dose consequences. To deal with these issues, a more detailed analysis methodology was developed using a modified version of the Combustion Engineering Plant Analysis Code, which examines the dose consequences for a main steam line break transient with induced tube failures for a spectrum equivalent to 1 to 4 double ended guillotine U-tube breaks. By incorporating transient plant system responses and operator actions, the analysis demonstrates that the off-site and control room does consequences for a MSLBGTR can be reduced to acceptable limits. This analysis, in combination with other corrective and recovery actions, provided sufficient justification for continued operation of PVNGS Units 1 and 3, and for the subsequent restart of Unit 2.

  8. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  9. Correlation of secondary-side IGA/SCC degradation of recirculating steam generator tubing with the on-line addition of boric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, M.J.; Zemitis, W.S.; Gorman, J.A. )

    1992-08-01

    A survey of field data indicates that the on-line addition of boric acid can reduce the rate of intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) within the hot leg tube support crevices for some PWR steam generators. However, the beneficial effect was not seen at all surveyed plants. 68 refs., 12 tabs., 12 refs.

  10. Production of HBR from bromine and steam for off-peak electrolytic hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Schlief, R.E.; Hanrahan, R.J.; Stoy, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a renewable energy source based solar-electrolytic system for production of hydrogen and oxygen. It employs water, bromine, solar energy and supplemental electrical power. The concept is being developed by Solar Reactor Technologies, Inc., (SRT), with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). An overview of the nature and objectives of this program is provided here, and technical progress made during the first (three-month) performance period of the Phase I work effort is reported. The SRT concept entails (1) absorption of concentrated solar radiation by bromine vapor Br{sub 2(g)} in a high-temperature reactor producing Br{sub (g)} atoms, (2) reaction of Br{sub (g)} with water yielding hydrogen bromide (HBr), and (3) electrolysis of stored hydrogen bromide for production of H{sub 2(g)} and recovery of Br{sub 2(I)}. Incorporation of solar radiation in the primary photochemical step (1) reduces by 50 - 70% the electrical power required to split water. The SRT concept is very attractive from an economic viewpoint as well. The reversible fuel cell, employed in the SRT electrolysis concept is capitalized via its use in load leveling by the utility. A 1 kW solar reactor was designed and constructed during the first three-month performance period by SRT personnel at the University of Florida, Gainesville. It was employed in taking survey data of the reaction between bromine and steam at temperatures between 900 and 1300 K. This reaction was run under purely thermal conditions, i.e. in the absence of solar photons. The experimental data are reported and interpreted employing concomitant thermodynamic calculations. The anticipated improvement is discussed briefly as well as the effect of a photochemical boost to the reaction. The amount of this enhancement will be studied in the next three month performance period.

  11. Removal of the steam generators and pressurizer at the Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Holmgren, B.W.; Parker, J.E.

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) components can be safely and economically removed from shutdown nuclear facilities. In many cases, intact removal of contaminated components is less costly and results in less radiation exposure to personnel than segmented removal. Component removal activities can be conducted prior to Decommissioning Plan approval, provided that the activities are within the bounds of the 10CFR50 operating license and 10CFR50.59, the removal work does not increase the total cost of decommissioning, and does not foreclose the release of the site for unrestricted use. The average citizen appears to be comfortable with the decommissioning process for nuclear power plants, provided the facts are made known. Many anti-nuclear activists, however, do not want nuclear plants to be dismantled right away. Their preference is to place these plants in a SAFSTOR mode for 50 years or more to lower exposure risks to workers and the public. In the case of Yankee Rowe, SAFSTOR will do little to reduce worker and public risk. It could, however, dramatically drive up the cost of decommissioning -- costs which the public pays. The commercial nuclear industry must continue to address the public`s legitimate concerns and respond to misleading antinuclear attacks with facts and information. State and local governments are becoming more interested in nuclear plant decommissioning planning. This trend is likely to continue as more nuclear plants face the end of operation. As several states move toward construction of low-level waste disposal facilities, this may have a positive effect on that process. The need exists for consensus on these facilities which must include provisions for large waste forms such as NSSS components.

  12. Preliminary analysis of the audible noise of constant-speed, horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators

    SciTech Connect

    Keast, D. N.; Potter, R. C.

    1980-07-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for calculating certain aerodynamic sound levels produced by large, horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators (WTG's) such as the DOE/NASA Mods-0, -0A, -1, and -2. This preliminary procedure is based upon very limited field data from the Mod-0. It postulates a noise component due to the (constant) rotation of the blades of the WTG, plus a wake-noise component that increases with the square of the power produced by the WTG. Mechanical sound from machinery, and low-frequency impulsive sounds produced by blade interaction with the wake of the support tower are not considered.

  13. Numerical study of Pavlovskiy coal pulverized combustion in the furnace of BKZ-210-140 steam boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorin, A. S.; Gil, A. V.; Khaustov, P. S.; Tabakaev, R. B.; Buslov, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper pulverized combustion of insufficiently investigated low-grade Pavlovskiy coal is simulated using the modern engineering software FIRE 3D. The object of study is a widespread in Russia BKZ-210-140 steam boiler. The results of computer simulation are represented with average temperatures in horizontal sections and oxygen concentration. Curves are plotted for three steam generating capacity loads of the boiler: 100%, 70% and 50%.

  14. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal

  15. Second law analysis and optimization of a parabolic trough receiver tube for direct steam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, H. C.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    Entropy generation in the receiver tube of a parabolic trough solar collector can mainly be attributed to the fluid friction and finite temperature differences. The contribution of each of these components is investigated under different circumstances. Mass flow rates, tube diameters and operating pressures are investigated to obtain good guidelines for receiver tube and plant design. Operating pressures between 3 MPa (saturation temperature of 233.9 °C) and 9 MPa (saturation temperature of 303.3 °C) were investigated. Results show that small diameters can result in excessive fluid friction, especially when the mass flow rates are high. For most cases, tube diameters beyond 20 mm will exclusively be subject to entropy generation due to finite temperature differences, and entropy generation due to fluid friction will be small to negligible. Increasing the concentration ratio will decrease entropy generation, due to a higher heat flux per unit meter. This will ultimately result in shorter receiver tube lengths. From a simulated annealing optimization it was seen that if the diameter is increased, the entropy generation can be lowered, provided that the concentration ratio is kept constant. However, beyond a certain point gains in minimizing the entropy generation become negligible. The optimal operating pressure will generally increase if the mass flow rate is increased. Finally it was seen that higher operating pressures are more advantageous when the entropy generation minimization is considered in conjunction with the work output.

  16. Procedure of calculation of the spatial distribution of temperatures and heat fluxes in the steam generator of a nuclear power installation with an RBEC fast-neutron reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, A. A.; Sedov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    A method for combined 3D/1D-modeling of thermohydraulics of a once-through steam generator (SG) based on the joint analysis of three-dimensional thermo- and hydrodynamics of a single-phase heating coolant in the intertube space and one-dimensional thermohydraulics of steam-generating channels (tubes) with the use of well-known friction and heat-transfer correlations under various boiling conditions is discussed. This method allows one to determine the spatial distribution of temperatures and heat fluxes of heat-exchange surfaces of SGs with a single-phase heating coolant in the intertube space and with steam generation within tubes. The method was applied in the analytical investigation of typical operation of a once-through SG of a nuclear power installation with an RBEC fast-neutron heavy-metal reactor that is being designed by Kurchatov Institute in collaboration with OKB GIDROPRESS and Leipunsky Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. Flow pattern and temperature fields were obtained for the heavy-metal heating coolant in the intertube space. Nonuniformities of heating of the steam-water coolant in different heat-exchange tubes and nonuniformities in the distribution of heat fluxes at SG heat-exchange surfaces were revealed.

  17. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  18. Cost Reduction Strategies - Steam

    SciTech Connect

    2001-03-01

    Boilers play a particularly important role in integrated mills because they not only provide the steam needed for key processes but also consume by-product fuels generated in the coke ovens, blast furnace, and BOF.

  19. Simulation analysis of Maanshan steam generator level high-high transient due to reactor coolant pump trip and restart

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Shawcuang; Wang, Jyhgang; Lee, Heikuang; King, Chuanheng

    1990-06-01

    On March 21, 1989, the reactor coolant pump (RCP) of Maanshan nuclear power plant unit 1 was tripped so that the power output of loop 1 decreased to almost zero. After this short transient, the unit 1 reactor remained in steady-state operation and maintained 19% of rated power with only two loops (two RCPs). The problem of RCP-A was then resolved, and it was restarted at {approximately} 30 min after the prior trip. After 11 s, a water-level transient occurred in steam generator (SG)-A, and shortly thereafter the turbine and generator were automatically tripped because of the SG-A high-high level setpoint. At that point, because of another electrical system failure, the electrical bus could not automatically switch over the RCP power supply to off-site power so that all three RCPs were tripped because of a low-voltage signal. The resulted in a reactor trip. In this study, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research was requested to analyze the scenario of the Maanshan nuclear power plant unit 1 SG-A high-high level transient event, which was induced by RCP-A restart after an accidental trip.

  20. Candu 6 severe core damage accident consequence analysis for steam generator tube rupture scenario using MAAP4-CANDU V4.0.5A: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Petoukhov, S.M.; Awadh, B.; Mathew, P.M.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of the consequence analysis for a generic AECL CANDU 6 station, when it undergoes a postulated, low probability Steam Generator multiple Tube Rupture (SGTR) severe accident with assumed unavailability of several critical plant safety systems. The Modular Accident Analysis Program for CANDU (MAAP4-CANDU) code was used for this analysis. The SGTR accident is assumed to begin with the guillotine rupture of 10 steam generator tubes in one steam generator in Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) loop 1. For the reference case, the following systems were assumed unavailable: moderator and shield cooling, emergency core cooling, crash cool-down, and main and auxiliary feed water. Two additional cases were analyzed, one with the crash cool-down system available, and another with the crash cool-down and the auxiliary feed water systems available. The three scenarios considered in this study show that most of the initial fission product inventory would be retained within the containment by various fission product retention mechanisms. For the case where the crash cool-down system was credited but the auxiliary feed water systems were not credited, the total mass of volatile fission products released to the environment including stable and radioactive isotopes was about four times more than in the reference case, because fission products could be released directly from the PHTS to the environment through the Main Steam Safety Valves (MSSVs), bypassing the containment. For the case where the crash cool-down and auxiliary feed water systems were credited, the volatile fission product release to the environment was insignificant, because the fission product release was substantially mitigated by scrubbing in the water pool in the secondary side of the steam generator (SG). (authors)

  1. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  2. Influence of atmospheric parameters on vertical profiles and horizontal transport of aerosols generated in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Van Eijk, A. M. J.; Piazzola, J.

    2013-10-01

    The vertical and horizontal transport of aerosols generated over the surf zone is discussed. Experimental data were collected during the second campaign of the Surf Zone Aerosol Experiment that took place in Duck NC (USA) in November 2007. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method was used to analyze the vertical concentration gradients, and allowed separating the surf aerosols from aerosols advected from elsewhere. The numerical Marine Aerosol Concentration Model (MACMod) supported the analysis by confirming that the concentration gradients are more pronounced under stable conditions and that aerosol plumes are then more confined to the surface. The model also confirmed the experimental observations made during two boat runs along the offshore wind vector that surf-generated aerosols are efficiently advected out to sea over several tens of kilometers.

  3. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-11-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  4. Backgrounder: Geothermal resource production, steam gathering, and power generation at Salton Sea Unit 3, Calipatria, California

    SciTech Connect

    1989-04-01

    The 10,000-kilowatt Salton Sea Unit 1 power plant was designed to demonstrate that electrical power generation, using the highly saline brines from the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir, was technically and economically feasible. Unit 1, owned by Earth Energy, a Unocal subsidiary, began operating in 1982, initiating an intensive testing program which established the design criteria necessary to construct the larger 47,500-kilowatt Unit 3 power plant, unit 3 contains many of the proprietary or patented technological innovations developed during this program. Design, construction and start-up of the Unit 3 power generating facility began in December, 1986, and was completed in 26 months. By the end of 1988, the brine handling system was in full operation, and the turbine had been tested at design speed. Desert Power Company, a Unocal subsidiary, owns the power generating facility. Unocal owns the brine resource production facility. Power is transmitted by the Imperial Irrigation District to Southern California Edison Company.

  5. Direct numerical simulation of interfacial wave generation in turbulent gas-liquid flows in horizontal channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bryce; Hendrickson, Kelli; Liu, Yuming; Subramani, Hariprasad

    2014-11-01

    For gas-liquid flows through pipes and channels, a flow regime (referred to as slug flow) may occur when waves form at the interface of a stratified flow and grow until they bridge the pipe diameter trapping large elongated gas bubbles within the liquid. Slug formation is often accompanied by strong nonlinear wave-wave interactions, wave breaking, and gas entrainment. This work numerically investigates the fully nonlinear interfacial evolution of a two-phase density/viscosity stratified flow through a horizontal channel. A Navier-Stokes flow solver coupled with a conservative volume-of-fluid algorithm is use to carry out high resolution three-dimensional simulations of a turbulent gas flowing over laminar (or turbulent) liquid layers. The analysis of such flows over a range of gas and liquid Reynolds numbers permits the characterization of the interfacial stresses and turbulent flow statistics allowing for the development of physics-based models that approximate the coupled interfacial-turbulent interactions and supplement the heuristic models built into existing industrial slug simulators.

  6. ATHOS3 code analysis of tube plugging effects on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a once-through steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, L.W.; Singhal, A.K.; Irani, A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of tube plugging on local and global thermal-hydraulic parameters are analyzed for a full-scale once-through steam generator (Three-Mile Island Unit 1A). A three-dimensional analysis has been performed, by considering all pertinent geometric details, including the presence of an open tube-free lane in the generator. Three test cases have been analyzed by using the ATHOS3 computer code. First, a normal unit is simulated, and then the same unit with about 8% plugged tubes is simulated by using the same computational grid. Finally, the plugged-tube case is analyzed with a finer grid. In all calculations, the algebraic-slip flow model, based on a drift-flux formulation, has been used with the assumption of thermal equilibrium between steam and water. The calculations indicate that, although the plugged tubes to not have any major effect on the overall thermal-hydraulic parameters, they do induce severe non-uniformities in the flow field. For example, over a small circumferential sector, wet steam is predicted to be exiting radially to the steam outlet. Further numerical and experimental investigations are recommended for the verification of such details.

  7. 78 FR 41907 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... generation, Power plants, Waste treatment and disposal, Water pollution control. Dated: July 3, 2013. Ellen... electronically at http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Water Docket in the EPA Docket Center, EPA/DC... the Public Reading Room is 202-566-1744, and the telephone number for the Water Docket is...

  8. Thermal efficient steam producing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced Energy Systems Inc. manufactures compact, high-pressure combustion direct-contact steam generation systems for thermal stimulation of oil-bearing formations. The products were designed to leverage off the field experience and test information obtained under the U.S. Department of Energy Project Deep Steam. The thermal- efficient line of steam stimulation systems is the result of extensive design and testing activities aimed at modifying the technology demonstrated in the Deep Steam Project for reliable and cost effective commercial recovery operations. Specific products are produced for steam and inert gas stimulation in a wide range of reservoir conditions using either wellhead or downhole positioning of the steam generator. The steam systems utilize full electronic monitoring on all products and electronic control for downhole systems.

  9. Heat transfer characteristics of porous sludge deposits and their impact on the performance of commercial steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Kreider, M.A.; White, G.A.; Varrin, R.D.; Ouzts, P.J.

    1998-12-01

    Steam generator (SG) fouling, in the form of corrosion deposits on the secondary sides of SG tubes, has been known to occur in almost all commercial US nuclear PWR (pressurized water reactor) plants. The level of fouling, as measured by the quantity of corrosion products that form, varies widely from plant to plant. In addition, the effect of SG fouling, as measured by a decrease in effective heat-transfer coefficient, has also varied substantially among commercial US plants. While some have observed large decreases in heat transfer, others have noted little change in performance despite the presence of significant quantities of secondary corrosion layers on their SG tubes. This observation has led to considerable confusion about what role secondary deposits play in causing heat-transfer degradation in SGs. As will become clear later in this report, secondary deposits can have a wide range of effects on heat transfer, from highly resistive to slightly enhancing (reflected by negative fouling). These different behaviors are the result of differences in deposit thickness, composition, and morphology. The main focus of this report is an investigation of the effects of secondary deposits on SG thermal performance. This investigation includes compilation of detailed information on the properties of tube scale at five commercial US nuclear plants and corresponding information characterizing SG thermal performance at these plants.

  10. Differential geometry based model for eddy current inspection of U-bend sections in steam generator tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Saptarshi; Rosell, Anders; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish; Tamburrino, Antonello

    2017-02-01

    The modeling of U-Bend segment in steam generator tubes for predicting eddy current probe signals from cracks, wear and pitting in this region poses challenges and is non-trivial. Meshing the geometry in the cartesian coordinate system might require a large number of elements to model the U-bend region. Also, since the lift-off distance between the probe and tube wall is usually very small, a very fine mesh is required near the probe region to accurately describe the eddy current field. This paper presents a U-bend model using differential geometry principles that exploit the result that Maxwell's equations are covariant with respect to changes of coordinates and independent of metrics. The equations remain unaltered in their form, regardless of the choice of the coordinates system, provided the field quantities are represented in the proper covariant and contravariant form. The complex shapes are mapped into simple straight sections, while small lift-off is mapped to larger values, thus reducing the intrinsic dimension of the mesh and stiffness matrix. In this contribution, the numerical implementation of the above approach will be discussed with regard to field and current distributions within the U-bend tube wall. For the sake of simplicity, a two dimensional test case will be considered. The approach is evaluated in terms of efficiency and accuracy by comparing the results with that obtained using a conventional FE model in cartesian coordinates.

  11. Determination of nickel species in stack emissions from eight residual oil-fired utility steam-generating units.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Frank E; Galbreath, Kevin C; Eylands, Kurt E; Van Loon, Lisa L; Olson, Jeremy A; Zillioux, Edward J; Ward, Stephen G; Lynch, Paul A; Chu, Paul

    2011-07-15

    XAFS spectroscopy has been used to determine the Ni species in particulate matter collected on quartz thimble filters in the stacks of eight residual (No. 6 fuel) oil-burning electric utility steam-generating units. Proper speciation of nickel in emitted particulate matter is necessary to correctly anticipate potential health risks. Analysis of the spectroscopic data using least-squares linear combination methods and a newly developed method specific for small quantities of Ni sulfide compounds in such emissions show that potentially carcinogenic Ni sulfide compounds are absent within the detection limits of the method (≤ 3% of the total Ni) in the particulate matter samples investigated. In addition to the major nickel sulfate phase (NiSO(4)·6H(2)O), lesser amounts of (Ni,Mg)O and/or NiFe(2)O(4) were also identified in most emission samples. On the basis of the results from these emission characterization studies, the appropriateness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's assumption that the Ni compound mixture emitted from residual oil-fired power plants is 50% as carcinogenic as nickel subsulfide (Ni(3)S(2)) should be re-evaluated.

  12. Determination of Nickel Species in Stack Emissions from Eight Residual Oil-Fired Utility Steam-Generating Units

    SciTech Connect

    F Huggins; K Galbreath; K Eylands; L Van Loon; J Olson; E Zillioux; S Ward; P Lynch; P Chu

    2011-12-31

    XAFS spectroscopy has been used to determine the Ni species in particulate matter collected on quartz thimble filters in the stacks of eight residual (No. 6 fuel) oil-burning electric utility steam-generating units. Proper speciation of nickel in emitted particulate matter is necessary to correctly anticipate potential health risks. Analysis of the spectroscopic data using least-squares linear combination methods and a newly developed method specific for small quantities of Ni sulfide compounds in such emissions show that potentially carcinogenic Ni sulfide compounds are absent within the detection limits of the method ({le}3% of the total Ni) in the particulate matter samples investigated. In addition to the major nickel sulfate phase (NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O), lesser amounts of (Ni,Mg)O and/or NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were also identified in most emission samples. On the basis of the results from these emission characterization studies, the appropriateness of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's assumption that the Ni compound mixture emitted from residual oil-fired power plants is 50% as carcinogenic as nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) should be re-evaluated.

  13. Corrosion aspects of Ni-Cr-Fe based and Ni-Cu based steam generator tube materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, R. S.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews corrosion related issues of Ni-Cr-Fe based (in a general sense) and Ni-Cu based steam generator tube materials for nuclear power plants those have been dealt with for last more than four decades along with some updated information on corrosion research. The materials include austenitic stainless steels (SSs), Alloy 600, Monel 400, Alloy 800 and Alloy 690. Compatibility related issues of these alloys are briefly discussed along with the alloy chemistry and microstructure. For austenitic SSs, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour in high temperature aqueous environments is discussed. For Alloy 600, intergranular cracking in high temperature water including hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking is highlighted along with the interactions of material in various environments. In case of Monel 400, intergranular corrosion and pitting corrosion at ambient temperature and SCC behaviour at elevated temperature are briefly described. For Alloy 800, the discussion covers SCC behaviour, surface characterization and microstructural aspects of pitting, whereas hydrogen-related issues are also highlighted for Alloy 690.

  14. Flow and Temperature Distribution Evaluation on Sodium Heated Large-sized Straight Double-wall-tube Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Moribe, Takeshi; Sakai, Takaaki

    2006-07-01

    The sodium heated steam generator (SG) being designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems is a straight double-wall-tube type. The SG is large sized to reduce its manufacturing cost by economics of scale. This paper addresses the temperature and flow multi-dimensional distributions at steady state to obtain the prospect of the SG. Large-sized heat exchanger components are prone to have non-uniform flow and temperature distributions. These phenomena might lead to tube buckling or tube to tube-sheet junction failure in straight tube type SGs, owing to tubes thermal expansion difference. The flow adjustment devices installed in the SG are optimized to prevent these issues, and the temperature distribution properties are uncovered by analysis methods. The analysis model of the SG consists of two parts, a sodium inlet distribution plenum (the plenum) and a heat transfer tubes bundle region (the bundle). The flow and temperature distributions in the plenum and the bundle are evaluated by the three-dimensional code 'FLUENT' and the two dimensional thermal-hydraulic code 'MSG', respectively. The MSG code is particularly developed for sodium heated SGs in JAEA. These codes have revealed that the sodium flow is distributed uniformly by the flow adjustment devices, and that the lateral tube temperature distributions remain within the allowable temperature range for the structural integrity of the tubes and the tube to tube-sheet junctions. (authors)

  15. In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Eric P

    2011-05-24

    A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

  16. Gravity-dependent estimates of object mass underlie the generation of motor commands for horizontal limb movements.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, F; McIntyre, J; Thonnard, J-L; Lefèvre, P

    2014-07-15

    Moving requires handling gravitational and inertial constraints pulling on our body and on the objects that we manipulate. Although previous work emphasized that the brain uses internal models of each type of mechanical load, little is known about their interaction during motor planning and execution. In this report, we examine visually guided reaching movements in the horizontal plane performed by naive participants exposed to changes in gravity during parabolic flight. This approach allowed us to isolate the effect of gravity because the environmental dynamics along the horizontal axis remained unchanged. We show that gravity has a direct effect on movement kinematics, with faster movements observed after transitions from normal gravity to hypergravity (1.8g), followed by significant movement slowing after the transition from hypergravity to zero gravity. We recorded finger forces applied on an object held in precision grip and found that the coupling between grip force and inertial loads displayed a similar effect, with an increase in grip force modulation gain under hypergravity followed by a reduction of modulation gain after entering the zero-gravity environment. We present a computational model to illustrate that these effects are compatible with the hypothesis that participants partially attribute changes in weight to changes in mass and scale incorrectly their motor commands with changes in gravity. These results highlight a rather direct internal mapping between the force generated during stationary holding against gravity and the estimation of inertial loads that limb and hand motor commands must overcome.

  17. Design and Application of Novel Horizontal Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lit, Q. H.; Zhang, Y. G.; Meng, A. H.

    The vertical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler has been found wide application in power generation and tends to be enlarged in capacity. Because CFB is one of environment friendly and high efficiency combustion technologies, the CFB boiler has also been expected to be used in the industrial area, such as textile mill, region heating, brewery, seed drying and so on. However, the necessary height of furnace is hard to be implemented for CFB with especially small capacity. Thereby, a novel horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler has been proposed and developed. The horizontal CFB is composed of primary combustion chamber, secondary combustion chamber, burnout chamber, cyclone, loop seal, heat recovery area. The primary combustion chamber is a riser like as that in vertical CFB, and the secondary combustion chamber is a downward passage that is a natural extension of the primary riser, which can reduce the overall height of the boiler. In some extent, the burnout chamber is also the extension of primary riser. The capacity of horizontal CFB is about 4.2-24.5MWth (6-35t/h) steam output or equivalent hot water supply. The hot water boiler of 7MWth and steam boilers of 4.2MWth (6t/h) and 10.5MWth (15t/h) are all designed and working well now. The three units of hot water horizontal CFB boiler were erected in the Neimenggu Autonomous Region, Huhehaote city for region heating. The three units of steam horizontal CFB has been installed in Yunnan, Jiang Xi and Guangdong provinces, respectively. The basic principle for horizontal CFB and experiences for designing and operating are presented in this paper. Some discussions are also given to demonstrate the promising future of horizontal CFB.

  18. HORIZONTAL BOILING REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the boiling water type are described wherein water serves both as the moderator and coolant. The reactor system consists essentially of a horizontal pressure vessel divided into two compartments by a weir, a thermal neutronic reactor core having vertical coolant passages and designed to use water as a moderator-coolant posltioned in one compartment, means for removing live steam from the other compartment and means for conveying feed-water and water from the steam compartment to the reactor compartment. The system further includes auxiliary apparatus to utilize the steam for driving a turbine and returning the condensate to the feed-water inlet of the reactor. The entire system is designed so that the reactor is self-regulating and has self-limiting power and self-limiting pressure features.

  19. The generation of torque in the horizontal plane at the foot-base during laterally directed manual exertions.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, A T; Grieve, D W

    1996-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the mechanisms by which both translational forces and a turning moment in the horizontal plane at the foot-base are transmitted by the lower limb during laterally directed manual exertions. The first used a force plate to measure forces and moments exerted by the feet separately or together in order to investigate the contribution of each foot to the moment. The second examined the role of flexors and extensors of the hip, knee and ankle in the transmission of torque. The results suggest that approximately half of the moment is generated by each foot exerting a translational force at a distance from, and in the opposite direction to, the other. The other half is by each foot exerting an individual torque upon the floor. It is suggested that biomechanical models of asymmetric exertion should take these mechanisms into account. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8771404

  20. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  1. Integration of a sludge deposition model into the ATHOS3 computer program and application to a sample U-tube steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, L.W.; Keefer, R.H.; Clark, P.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study pursues a approach to sludge deposition prediction, similar to that published by Keefer, et al.. Starting with the same basic model as Beal and Chen, Keefer, et al. made several simplifying assumptions so that a closed form solution to the equations describing deposition and reentrainment could be obtained. Using a similar approach, this study shows how the physics of the sludge model can be integrated directly into a steady-state thermal-hydraulic analysis computer program such as ATHOS3 to provide an estimate of the relative amounts of sludge expected to accumulate in various regions of a steam generator. This allows sludge deposition and reentrainment rates (i.e. rate coefficients) to be calculated at every node used to model the steam generator (which can be many thousands), so that sludge deposition patterns can readily be examined along with thermal-hydraulic parameters.

  2. Tests of types 51A and 51M steam generators at Bugey 4 and Tricastin 1 nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Procaccia, H.; David, J.; de Penguern, L.; Hamon, P.; Wazzan, A.R.

    1982-10-01

    Following some incidents on a number of US steam generators (SGs), alterations were made to the Westinghouse SGs of series 51 installed on the EDF 900 MW units. To check the merits of these alterations and to better understand the operation of this equipment, a series of tests were run on SG No. 14 of Bugey 4 and No. 20 of Tricastin 1 nuclear units. The tests results are described.

  3. Measurement and prediction of broadband noise from large horizontal axis wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F. W.; Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. Spectra are predicted for several large machines including the proposed MOD-5B. Measured data are presented for the MOD-2, the WTS-4, the MOD-OA, and the U.S. Windpower Inc. machines. Good agreement is shown between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.

  4. Evaluation of sampling plans for in-service inspection of steam generator tubes. Volume 2, Comprehensive analytical and Monte Carlo simulation results for several sampling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Baird, D.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of three previous studies to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of sampling plans for steam generator tube inspections. An analytical evaluation and Monte Carlo simulation techniques were the methods used to evaluate sampling plan performance. To test the performance of candidate sampling plans under a variety of conditions, ranges of inspection system reliability were considered along with different distributions of tube degradation. Results from the eddy current reliability studies performed with the retired-from-service Surry 2A steam generator were utilized to guide the selection of appropriate probability of detection and flaw sizing models for use in the analysis. Different distributions of tube degradation were selected to span the range of conditions that might exist in operating steam generators. The principal means of evaluating sampling performance was to determine the effectiveness of the sampling plan for detecting and plugging defective tubes. A summary of key results from the eddy current reliability studies is presented. The analytical and Monte Carlo simulation analyses are discussed along with a synopsis of key results and conclusions.

  5. Component Test Facility (Comtest) Phase 1 Engineering For 760°C (1400°F) Advanced Ultrasupercritical (A-USC) Steam Generator Development

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, Paul

    2016-05-13

    The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) performed a Pre-Front End Engineering Design (Pre-FEED) of an A-USC steam superheater for a proposed component test program achieving 760°C (1400°F) steam temperature. This would lead to follow-on work in a Phase 2 and Phase 3 that would involve detail design, manufacturing, construction and operation of the ComTest. Phase 1 results have provided the engineering data necessary for proceeding to the next phase of ComTest. The steam generator superheater would subsequently supply the steam to an A-USC prototype intermediate pressure steam turbine. The ComTest program is important in that it will place functioning A-USC components in operation and in coordinated boiler and turbine service. It is also important to introduce the power plant operation and maintenance personnel to the level of skills required and provide the first background experience with hands-on training. The project will provide a means to exercise the complete supply chain events required in order to practice and perfect the process for A-USC power plant design, supply, manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance. Representative participants will then be able to transfer knowledge and recommendations to the industry. ComTest is conceived in the manner of using a separate standalone plant facility that will not jeopardize the host facility or suffer from conflicting requirements in the host plant’s mission that could sacrifice the nickel alloy components and not achieve the testing goals. ComTest will utilize smaller quantities of the expensive materials and reduce the risk in the first operational practice for A-USC technology in the United States. Components at suitable scale in ComTest provide more assurance before putting them into practice in the full size A-USC demonstration plant.

  6. Evaluation of cracking in feedwater piping adjacent to the steam generators in Nine Pressurized Water Reactor Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A.; Streit, R.D.; Scott, R.G.

    1980-06-25

    Cracking in ASTM A106-B and A106-C feedwater piping was detected near the inlet to the steam generators in a number of pressurized water reactor plants. We received sections with cracks from nine of the plants with the objective of identifying the cracking mechanism and assessing various factors that might contribute to this cracking. Variations were observed in piping surface irregularities, corrosion-product, pit, and crack morphology, surface elmental and crystal structure analyses, and steel microstructures and mechanical properties. However, with but two exceptions, namely, arrest bands and major surface irregularities, we were unable to relate the extent of cracking to any of these factors. Tensile and fracture toughness (J/sub Ic/ and tearing modulus) properties were measured over a range of temperatures and strain rates. No unusual properties or microstructures were observed that could be related to the cracking problem. All crack surfaces contained thick oxide deposits and showed evidence of cyclic events in the form of arrest bands. Transmission electron microscopy revealed fatigue striations on replicas of cleaned crack surfaces from one plant and possibly from three others. Calculations based on the observed striation spacings gave a value of ..delta..sigma = 150 MPa (22 ksi) for one of the major cracks. The direction of crack propagation was invariably related to the piping surface and not to the piping axis. These two factors are consistent with the proposed concept of thermally induced, cyclic, tensile surface stresses. Although surface irregularities and corrosion pits were sources for crack initiation and corrosion may have contributed to crack propagation, it is proposed that the overriding factor in the cracking problem is the presence of unforeseen cyclic loads.

  7. Eddy-current inspection for steam generator tubing program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Deeds, W.E.; McClung, R.W.

    1980-07-01

    Eddy-current methods provide the best in-service inspection of steam generator tubing, but present techniques can produce ambiguity because of the many independent variables that affect the signals. The current development program has used mathematical models and developed or modified computer programs to design optimum probes, instrumentation, and techniques for multifrequency, multiproperty examinations. Interactive calculations and experimental measurements have been made with the use of modular eddy-current instrumentation and a minicomputer. These establish the coefficients for the complex equations that define the values of the desired properties (and the attainable accuracy) despite changes in other significant variables. The computer programs for calculating the accuracy with which various properties can be measured indicate that the tubing wall thickness and the defect size can be measured much more accurately than is currently required, even when other properties are varying. Our experimental measurements have confirmed these results, although more testing is needed for all the different combinations of cases and different types of defects. To facilitate the extensive laboratory scanning of the matrix of specimens that are necessary to develop algorithms for detection and analysis for all the possible combinations of positions of flaws, tube supports, and probe coils, we have designed, constructed, and begun operation of a computer-controlled automatic positioner. We have demonstrated the ability to overcome the large signals produced by the edge of the tube supports. An advanced microcomputer has been designed, constructed, and installed in the instrumentation to control the examination and provide real-time calculations of the desired properties for display recording during the scanning of the tube.

  8. Clarification of stress corrosion cracking mechanism on nickel base alloys in steam generators for their long lifetime assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Nagano, Hiroo; Kajimura, Haruhiko

    1995-12-31

    Thermally treated (TT) Alloys 600 (16%Cr-8%Fe-bal.Ni) and 690 (30%Cr-10%Fe-bal.Ni) have been successfully used in the steam generators of operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper deals with intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mechanisms in Ni-base alloys in various corrosive environments such as deaerated water, air-saturated chloride medium, and caustic solutions at high temperatures with focus on Cr content and Cr carbide precipitation at grain boundaries in the alloys. Nickel base alloys of high purity, or with different Cr, C, and B contents with different heat treatments were put to various corrosion tests. SCC resistance of Alloy 600 is affected differently by water chemistry of environments, while Alloy 690 is almost immune to the environments investigated: (1) Cr depletion at grain boundaries is clearly detrimental to IGSCC resistance of Alloy 600 in air-saturated water containing Cl{sup {minus}} ions at 300 C. (2) High purity Alloy 600 has weaker SCC resistance in deaerated water at 360 C than commercially available Alloy 600. Cr depletion along grain boundaries is detrimental to the IGSCC resistance, however its detrimental effect disappears when Cr carbides precipitate at grain boundaries in semi-continuous or continuous way. The NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} film formed on the metal surfaces enhances the IGSCC resistance. Similar relationship between Cr depletion and Cr carbide precipitation is also observed in Alloy 600 in deaerated caustic solutions at high temperatures. (3) Concerning intergranular attack (IGA), which occurs in oxidizing caustic solutions at high temperature, existence of semi-continuous or continuous Cr carbides improves the IGA resistance regardless of Cr depletion. A dual layer corrosion protective film composed of an upper layer of NiO and lower layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed on metal surfaces, of which formation is accelerated by selective Cr carbide dissolution, may be responsible for the IGA resistance.

  9. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  10. Waste to Energy Conversion by Stepwise Liquefaction, Gasification and "Clean" Combustion of Pelletized Waste Polyethylene for Electric Power Generation---in a Miniature Steam Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi Anaraki, Saber

    The amounts of waste plastics discarded in developed countries are increasing drastically, and most are not recycled. The small fractions of the post-consumer plastics which are recycled find few new uses as their quality is degraded; they cannot be reused in their original applications. However, the high energy density of plastics, similar to that of premium fuels, combined with the dwindling reserves of fossil fuels make a compelling argument for releasing their internal energy through combustion, converting it to thermal energy and, eventually, to electricity through a heat engine. To minimize the emission of pollutants this energy conversion is done in two steps, first the solid waste plastics undergo pyrolytic gasification and, subsequently, the pyrolyzates (a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen) are blended with air and are burned "cleanly" in a miniature power plant. This plant consists of a steam boiler, a steam engine and an electricity generator.

  11. TRAC PF1/MOD1 calculations and data comparisons for mist feed and bleed and steam generator tube rupture experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Siebe, D.A.; Boyack, B.E.; Steiner, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a participant in the Integral System Test (IST) program initiated in June 1983 for the purpose of providing integral system test data on specific issues/phenomena relevant to post-small-break loss-of-coolant accidents, loss of feedwater and other transients in Babcock and Wilcox (BandW) plant designs. The Multi-Loop Integral System Test (MIST) facility is the largest single component in the IST program. MIST is a 2 /times/ 4 (two hot legs and steam generators (SGs), four cold legs and reactor coolant pumps) representation of lowered-loop reactor system of the BandW design. It is a full-height, full-pressure facility with 1/817 power and volume scaling. Two other integral experimental facilities are included in the IST program: test loops at the University of Maryland, College Park, and at SRI International (SRI-2). The objective of the IST tests is to generate high-quality experimental data to be used for assessing thermal-hydraulic safety computer codes. Efforts are under way at Los Alamos to assess TRAC-PF1/MOD1 against data from each of the IST facilities. Calculations and data comparisons for TRAC-PF1/MOD1 assessment are presented for two transients run in the MIST facility. These are MIST Test 330302, a feed and bleed test with delayed high-pressure injection; and Test 3404AA, an SG tube-rupture test with the affected SG isolated. Only MIST assessment results are presented in this paper. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculations completed to date for MIST tests are in reasonable agreement with the data from these tests. Reasonable agreement is defined as meaning that major trends are predicted correctly, although TRAC values are frequently outside the range of data uncertainty. We believe that correct conclusions will be reached if the code is used in similar applications despite minor code/model deficiencies. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Steaming Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoverson, Rick

    2006-01-01

    Schools can provide a cleaner, more healthful school environment by simply combining heat and water. Steam vapor systems use only tap water with no chemicals added. Low-pressure (12 psi to 65 psi) steam vapor sanitizes and deodorizes. This process can then be used safely in many situations, but is especially suited for restrooms and food-service…

  13. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jan; Griffin, Mr. Bob; Wright, Anthony L

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  14. The STEAM Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schéele, F.; Steam Team

    The proposed satellite project "Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange And climate Monitor" (STEAM) is dedicated to the investigation of chemical, dynamical, and radiative processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) altitude range and their links with the Earth climate and stratosphere evolution. The main objectives are to provide vertically and horizontally resolved information on the global distributions of UT/LS key species such as H2O, O3, and CO, and global fields of O3, H2O and halogen compounds responsible for the O3 destruction like ClO in the stratosphere. The UT/LS region plays an important role in the Earth's climate system. Despite its importance there is still a lack of accurate, height-resolved data from the UT/LS. Confronting 3-D climate and chemical-transport models with STEAM observations will improve our knowledge of this atmospheric region. Furthermore, it will be important to continue monitoring the evolution of the stratosphere regarding the expected decline of halogen compounds and recovery of the ozone layer. STEAM consists of a microwave limb-sounding instrument, operating in the 320-360 GHz range to sound the UT/LS and in the 485-505 GHz range to sound the stratosphere, and an optical instrument. By sounding the Earth atmosphere's limb from 5 to 28 km employing a new technique with 8 simultaneous measurements, STEAM will produce a global dataset of UT/LS key species with high vertical (1.5-2.5 km) and horizontal (30-50 km) resolution. The sub-mm band will cover 15 to 40 km. An optical instrument, co-aligned with the mm-wave band, will support micro-wave measurements with cloud indications and in addition provide stratospheric ozone, and aerosol and cloud property measurements. STEAM, planned for a launch in 2008, will be a collaboration between laboratories, industry and agencies in several countries. The Odin heritage of the project (e.g. microwave and optical instruments) provides technical maturity and will help to keep

  15. ATHOS3: a computer program for thermal-hydraulic analysis of steam generators. Volume 1. Mathematical and physical models and method of solution

    SciTech Connect

    Keeton, L.W.; Singhal, A.K.; Srikantiah, G.S.

    1986-07-01

    The mathematical and physical models as well as the method of solution are presented for ATHOS3. ATHOS3 is a computer code for three-dimensional, steady-state and transient analyses of PWR steam generators. It has been developed by upgrading an earlier code, ATHOS (Analysis of the Thermal Hydraulics of Steam Generators). Both ATHOS and ATHOS3 have been developed by CHAM of North America, Inc., under the contract RP1066-1 from the Electric Power Research Institute. ATHOS3 supercedes ATHOS and all other intermediate versions of the code. ATHOS3 has several additional capabilities, including a much improved and generalized geometry pre-processor module, and has been developed in a fully upwards-compatible manner from the predecessor ATHOS code. For the convenience of new users, the ATHOS3 code is documented in four self-contained volumes, i.e. no reference to the earlier ATHOS volumes is necessary. Furthermore, for the benefit of old (i.e. ATHOS code) users, it may be stated that the new (ATHOS3) documentation has been produced by updating and modifying the earlier documentation.

  16. Constraints on silicates formation in the Si-Al-Fe system: Application to hard deposits in steam generators of PWR nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Gilles; Million-Picallion, Lisa; Lefevre, Grégory; Delaunay, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: The hydrothermal crystallization of silicates phases in the Si-Al-Fe system may lead to industrial constraints that can be encountered in the nuclear industry in at least two contexts: the geological repository for nuclear wastes and the formation of hard sludges in the steam generator of the PWR nuclear plants. In the first situation, the chemical reactions between the Fe-canister and the surrounding clays have been extensively studied in laboratory [1-7] and pilot experiments [8]. These studies demonstrated that the high reactivity of metallic iron leads to the formation of Fe-silicates, berthierine like, in a wide range of temperature. By contrast, the formation of deposits in the steam generators of PWR plants, called hard sludges, is a newer and less studied issue which can affect the reactor performance. Experiments: We present here a preliminary set of experiments reproducing the formation of hard sludges under conditions representative of the steam generator of PWR power plant: 275°C, diluted solutions maintained at low potential by hydrazine addition and at alkaline pH by low concentrations of amines and ammoniac. Magnetite, a corrosion by-product of the secondary circuit, is the source of iron while aqueous Si and Al, the major impurities in this system, are supplied either as trace elements in the circulating solution or by addition of amorphous silica and alumina when considering confined zones. The fluid chemistry is monitored by sampling aliquots of the solution. Eh and pH are continuously measured by hydrothermal Cormet© electrodes implanted in a titanium hydrothermal reactor. The transformation, or not, of the solid fraction was examined post-mortem. These experiments evidenced the role of Al colloids as precursor of cements composed of kaolinite and boehmite, and the passivation of amorphous silica (becoming unreactive) likely by sorption of aqueous iron. But no Fe-bearing was formed by contrast to many published studies on the Fe

  17. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  18. Steam drying -- Modeling and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmerstedt, R.; Hager, J.

    1996-08-01

    The concept of steam drying originates from the mid of the last century. However, a broad industrial acceptance of the technique has so far not taken place. The paper deals with modelling the steam drying process and applications of steam drying within certain industrial sectors where the technique has been deemed to have special opportunities. In the modelling section the mass and heat transfer processes are described along with equilibrium, capillarity and sorption phenomena occurring in porous materials during the steam drying process. In addition existing models in the literature are presented. The applications discussed involve drying of fuels with high moisture contents, cattle feed exemplified by sugar beet pulp, lumber, paper pulp, paper and sludges. Steam drying is compared to flue gas drying of biofuels prior to combustion in a boiler. With reference to a current installation in Sweden, the exergy losses, as manifested by loss of co-generation capacity, are discussed. The energy saving potential when using steam drying of sugar beet pulp as compared to other possible plant configurations is demonstrated. Mechanical vapor recompression applied to steam drying is analyzed with reference to reported data from industrial plants. Finally, environmental advantages when using steam drying are presented.

  19. Sliding discharges in steam: effects of dielectric surface and hydrocarbon additives on hydrogen, oxygen and hydrogen peroxide generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2013-04-01

    A sliding surface discharge was formed on a dielectric layer in steam at ˜100 °C and atmospheric pressure. The material properties and the thickness of the dielectric layer were found to strongly affect the energy deposition into the plasma. With a 0.32 cm thick dielectric the energy deposition was 1.4 times greater than with a 0.48 cm thick dielectric, and with window glass it was 1.3 times greater than with Macor of the same thickness. Product gases were H2 (73 ± 4%) and O2 (27 ± 1%), and H2O2 accumulated in the condensed water up to 0.4 g l-1. The energy yield for hydrogen was 1.2 ± 0.1 g H2 kWh-1 and independent of the input power and thickness or material of the dielectric. However, for hydrogen peroxide the energy yield, which varied between 0.61 and 3.2 g H2O2 kWh-1, was found to depend strongly on the thickness and material of the dielectric. The addition of benzene to the steam increased the energy efficiency of hydrogen to 2.3 g kWh-1, and decreased oxygen and hydrogen peroxide by about 3 and 6 times, respectively. It also caused the deposition of phenol and polymer-like layers on the dielectric. The results are explained on the basis of reactions of H and OH radicals adsorbed on the surface and/or in gas phase.

  20. Condensation heat transfer of actual flue gas on horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Itoh, Tugue; Yagi, Kiyoyuki

    1999-07-01

    In order to improve the boiler efficiency, latent heat recovery from an exhaust flue gas is a very important concept. Condensation heat transfer on horizontal stainless steel tubes was investigated experimentally using an actual flue gas from a natural gas boiler. The experiment was conducted at different air ratios and steam mass concentrations of the flue gas, and in a wide range of tube wall temperature. The condensation pattern was similar to the dropwise condensation near the dew point. As the wall temperature was decreased, the wall region covered with a thin liquid film increased. The heat and mass transfer behavior were well predicted with the simple analogy correlation in the high wall temperature region. But in the low wall temperature region, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. At a high steam mass concentration artificially generated with steam injection, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. The analogy correlation using the modified Sherwood number taking account of the mass absorption effect was proposed. The modified correlation gave a good prediction of the heat flux at the high steam mass concentration.

  1. On the role of horizontal wind shears in the generation of F0.5 layers over the dip equatorial location of Thiruvananthapuram: A numerical simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mridula, N.; Pant, Tarun Kumar

    2017-03-01

    A numerical simulation is carried out to estimate the rate of convergence of ionization required to produce a F0.5 layer with peak plasma frequency (foF0.5) of 3.2 MHz from three different background layer densities, over Thiruvananthapuram (8.5°N; 77°E; dip latitude 0.5°N), a dip equatorial station in India. Further the simulation study is extended to understand the convergences required by considering the seasonal mean peak F0.5 layer frequencies also. One possible mechanism by which this convergence can be produced is by a horizontal shear in the meridional wind. The corresponding shears required to generate the layer with the above convergence conditions are estimated. It is found that gravity waves are capable of generating wind shears, leading to the pooling of ionization and the generation of the layer over the dip equator. A meridional wind with the gravity wave induced wind shear is numerically estimated. Finally, the short scale gravity waves of periods around 3-23 min have been inferred to be more efficient in generating the wind shear when compared to large scale horizontal waves leading to the generation of F0.5 layer.

  2. Environmental Assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies across the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), for the proposed granting of DOE permission of offloading activities to support the movement Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies (SGSAs) across the Savannah River Site (SRS). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact. On the basis of the floodplain/wetlands assessment in the EA, DOE has determined that there is no practicable alternative to the proposed activities and that the proposed action has been designed to minimize potential harm to or within the floodplain of the SRS boat ramp. No wetlands on SRS would be affected by the proposed action.

  3. Development of a multiphysics analysis system for sodium-water reaction phenomena in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Uchibori, Akihiro; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-31

    A multiphysics analysis system for sodium-water reaction phenomena in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors was newly developed. The analysis system consists of the mechanistic numerical analysis codes, SERAPHIM, TACT, and RELAP5. The SERAPHIM code calculates the multicomponent multiphase flow and sodium-water chemical reaction caused by discharging of pressurized water vapor. Applicability of the SERAPHIM code was confirmed through the analyses of the experiment on water vapor discharging in liquid sodium. The TACT code was developed to calculate heat transfer from the reacting jet to the adjacent tube and to predict the tube failure occurrence. The numerical models integrated into the TACT code were verified through some related experiments. The RELAP5 code evaluates thermal hydraulic behavior of water inside the tube. The original heat transfer correlations were corrected for the tube rapidly heated by the reacting jet. The developed system enables evaluation of the wastage environment and the possibility of the failure propagation.

  4. Development of a multiphysics analysis system for sodium-water reaction phenomena in steam generators of sodium-cooled fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchibori, Akihiro; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    A multiphysics analysis system for sodium-water reaction phenomena in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors was newly developed. The analysis system consists of the mechanistic numerical analysis codes, SERAPHIM, TACT, and RELAP5. The SERAPHIM code calculates the multicomponent multiphase flow and sodium-water chemical reaction caused by discharging of pressurized water vapor. Applicability of the SERAPHIM code was confirmed through the analyses of the experiment on water vapor discharging in liquid sodium. The TACT code was developed to calculate heat transfer from the reacting jet to the adjacent tube and to predict the tube failure occurrence. The numerical models integrated into the TACT code were verified through some related experiments. The RELAP5 code evaluates thermal hydraulic behavior of water inside the tube. The original heat transfer correlations were corrected for the tube rapidly heated by the reacting jet. The developed system enables evaluation of the wastage environment and the possibility of the failure propagation.

  5. General purpose steam table library :

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John H.; Belcourt, Kenneth Noel; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Completion of the CASL L3 milestone THM.CFD.P7.04 provides a general purpose tabular interpolation library for material properties to support, in particular, standardized models for steam properties. The software consists of three parts, implementations of analytic steam models, a code to generate tables from those models, and an interpolation package to interface the tables to CFD codes such as Hydra-TH. Verification of the standard model is maintained through the entire train of routines. The performance of interpolation package exceeds that of freely available analytic implementation of the steam properties by over an order of magnitude.

  6. SCDAP/RELAP5 Evaluation of the Potential for Steam Generator Tube Ruptures as a Result of Severe Accidents in Operating PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, Darrell Lee; Ghan, Larry Scott; Dobbe, Charles Albin

    1998-09-01

    Natural circulation flows can develop within a reactor coolant system (RCS) during certain severe reactor accidents, transferring decay energy from the core to other parts of the RCS. The associated heatup of RCS structures can lead to pressure boundary failures; with notable vulnerabilities in the pressurizer surge line, the hot leg nozzles, and the steam generator (SG) tubes. The potential for a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) is of particular concern because fission products could be released to the environment through such a failure. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed a program to address SG tube integrity issues in operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs) based on the possibility for environmental release. An extensive effort to evaluate the potential for accident-induced SGTRs using SCDAP/RELAP5 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) was directed as one part of the NRC program. All SCDAP/RELAP5 calculations performed during the INEEL evaluation were based on station blackout accidents (and variations thereof) because those accidents are considered to be one of the more likely scenarios leading to natural circulation flows at temperatures and pressures that could threaten SG tube integrity (as well as the integrity of other vulnerable RCS pressure boundaries). Variations that were addressed included consideration of the effects of RCP seal leaks, intentional RCS depressurization through pressurizer PORVs, SG secondary depressurization, DC-HL bypass flows, U-tube SG sludge accumulation, and quenching of upper plenum stainless steel upon relocation to the lower head. Where available, experimental data was used to guide simulation of natural circulation flows. Independent reviews of the applicability of the natural circulation experimental data, the suitability of the code, and the adequacy of the modeling were completed and review recommendations were incorporated into the evaluation within budget and

  7. Project DEEP STEAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschliman, D. P.; Clay, R. G.; Donaldson, A. B.; Eisenhawer, S. W.; Fox, R. L.; Johnson, D. R.; Mulac, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology to economically produce heavy oils from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are the development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. During the period January 1-March 31, 1981, effort has continued on a low pressure combustion downhole generator (Rocketdyne), and on two high pressure designs (Foster-Miller Associates, Sandia National Laboratories). The Sandia design was prepared for deployment in the Wilmington Field at Long Beach, California. Progress continued on the Min-Stress II packer concept at L'Garde, Inc., and on the extruded metal packer at Foster-Miller. Initial bare string field data are reported on the insulated tubular test at Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada.

  8. RELAP5-3D Modeling of Heat Transfer Components (Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Helical-Coil Steam Generator) for NGNP Application

    SciTech Connect

    N. A. Anderson; P. Sabharwall

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is aimed at the research and development of a helium-cooled high-temperature gas reactor that could generate both electricity and process heat for the production of hydrogen. The heat from the high-temperature primary loop must be transferred via an intermediate heat exchanger to a secondary loop. Using RELAP5-3D, a model was developed for two of the heat exchanger options a printed-circuit heat exchanger and a helical-coil steam generator. The RELAP5-3D models were used to simulate an exponential decrease in pressure over a 20 second period. The results of this loss of coolant analysis indicate that heat is initially transferred from the primary loop to the secondary loop, but after the decrease in pressure in the primary loop the heat is transferred from the secondary loop to the primary loop. A high-temperature gas reactor model should be developed and connected to the heat transfer component to simulate other transients.

  9. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  10. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  11. Regenerative Heater Optimization for Steam Turbo-Generation Cycles of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants with a Comparison of Two Concepts for the Westinghouse International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.C.

    2002-08-01

    The intent of this study is to discuss some of the many factors involved in the development of the design and layout of a steam turbo-generation unit as part of a modular Generation IV nuclear power plant. Of the many factors involved in the design and layout, this research will cover feed water system layout and optimization issues. The research is arranged in hopes that it can be generalized to any Generation IV system which uses a steam powered turbo-generation unit. The research is done using the ORCENT-II heat balance codes and the Salisbury methodology to be reviewed herein. The Salisbury methodology is used on an original cycle design by Famiani for the Westinghouse IRIS and the effects due to parameter variation are studied. The vital parameters of the Salisbury methodology are the incremental heater surface capital cost (S) in $/ft{sup 2}, the value of incremental power (I) in $/kW, and the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) in Btu/ft{sup 2}-degrees Fahrenheit-hr. Each is varied in order to determine the effects on the cycles overall heat rate, output, as well as, the heater surface areas. The effects of each are shown. Then the methodology is then used to compare the optimized original Famiani design consisting of seven regenerative feedwater heaters with an optimized new cycle concept, INRC8, containing four regenerative heaters. The results are shown. It can be seen that a trade between the complexity of the seven stage regenerative Famiani cycle and the simplicity of the INRC8 cycle can be made. It is desired that this methodology can be used to show the ability to evaluate modularity through the value of size a complexity of the system as well as the performance. It also shows the effectiveness of the Salisbury methodology in the optimization of regenerative cycles for such an evaluation.

  12. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  13. Water cooled steam jet

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  14. Cooked yields, color, tenderness, and sensory traits of beef roasts cooked in an oven with steam generation versus a commercial convection oven to different endpoint temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bowers, L J; Dikeman, M E; Murray, L; Stroda, S L

    2012-10-01

    A CVap steam generation oven was compared with a Blodgett convection oven to examine effects on yields, cooked color, tenderness, and sensory traits of beef Longissimus lumborum (LL), Deep pectoralis (DP), and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles cooked to 1 of 3 temperatures (65.6, 71.1, or 76.7°C). Four roasts were cooked in the CVap for a constant time, and 2 roasts were cooked in the Blodgett until they reached target temperatures (3 replications). Cooking yields were higher (P<0.05) for BF and LL roasts in the CVap. Slice shear force (SSF) for BF roasts was lowest (P<0.05) in the CVap but lowest (P<0.05) for DP roasts in the Blodgett. No oven effect (P>0.05) was found for LL roasts. Sensory tenderness for BF roasts in the CVap was higher (P<0.05) than those in the Blodgett. Juiciness was higher (P<0.05) for LL roasts in the Blodgett. The CVap oven offers some tenderization (BF) and cooking yield advantages (BF and DP) over forced-air convection cooking.

  15. International agreement report: Assessment study of RELAP-5 MOD-2 Cycle 36. 01 based on the DOEL-2 Steam Generator Tube Rupture incident of June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbe, E J

    1986-10-01

    This report presents a code assessment study based on a real plant transient that occurred at the DOEL 2 power plant in Belgium on June 25th 1979. DOEL 2 is a two-loop WESTINGHOUSE PWR plant of 392 MWe. A steam generator tube rupture occurred at the end of a heat-up phase which initiated a plant transient which required substantial operator involvement and presented many plant phenomena which are of interest for code assessment. While real plant transients are of special importance for code validation because of the elimination of code scaling uncertainties, they introduce however some uncertainties related to the specifications of the exact initial and boundary conditions which must be reconstructed from available on-line plant recordings and on-line computer diagnostics. Best estimate data have been reconstructed for an assessment study by means of the code RELAP5/MOD2/CYCLE 36.01. Because of inherent uncertainties in the plant data, the assessment work is focussed on phenomena whereby the comparison between plant data and computer data is based more on trends than on absolute values. Such approach is able to uncover basic code weaknesses and strengths which can contribute to a better understanding of the code potential.

  16. BWR drywell behavior under steam blowdown

    SciTech Connect

    NguyenLe, Q.A.; Ishii, Mamoru

    1998-12-31

    Historically, the focus of thermal-hydraulics analyses on large-break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) has been on the transients within the reactor or steam generator. Few have studied the effects of steam blowdown on the containment building. The authors present some numerical and experimental results of the blowdown tests performed at the Purdue University multidimensional integrated test assembly (PUMA).

  17. Calculation of zero-offset vertical seismic profiles generated by a horizontal point force acting on the surface of an elastic half-space

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsi-Ping, Liu

    1990-01-01

    Impulse responses including near-field terms have been obtained in closed form for the zero-offset vertical seismic profiles generated by a horizontal point force acting on the surface of an elastic half-space. The method is based on the correspondence principle. Through transformation of variables, the Fourier transform of the elastic impulse response is put in a form such that the Fourier transform of the corresponding anelastic impulse response can be expressed as elementary functions and their definite integrals involving distance angular frequency, phase velocities, and attenuation factors. These results are used for accurate calculation of shear-wave arrival rise times of synthetic seismograms needed for data interpretation of anelastic-attenuation measurements in near-surface sediment. -Author

  18. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    DOEpatents

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  19. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on

  20. Techno-economic performance evaluation of direct steam generation solar tower plants with thermal energy storage systems based on high-temperature concrete and encapsulated phase change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guédez, R.; Arnaudo, M.; Topel, M.; Zanino, R.; Hassar, Z.; Laumert, B.

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, direct steam generation concentrated solar tower plants suffer from the absence of a cost-effective thermal energy storage integration. In this study, the prefeasibility of a combined sensible and latent thermal energy storage configuration has been performed from thermodynamic and economic standpoints as a potential storage option. The main advantage of such concept with respect to only sensible or only latent choices is related to the possibility to minimize the thermal losses during system charge and discharge processes by reducing the temperature and pressure drops occurring all along the heat transfer process. Thermodynamic models, heat transfer models, plant integration and control strategies for both a pressurized tank filled with sphere-encapsulated salts and high temperature concrete storage blocks were developed within KTH in-house tool DYESOPT for power plant performance modeling. Once implemented, cross-validated and integrated the new storage model in an existing DYESOPT power plant layout, a sensitivity analysis with regards of storage, solar field and power block sizes was performed to determine the potential impact of integrating the proposed concept. Even for a storage cost figure of 50 USD/kWh, it was found that the integration of the proposed storage configuration can enhance the performance of the power plants by augmenting its availability and reducing its levelized cost of electricity. As expected, it was also found that the benefits are greater for the cases of smaller power block sizes. Specifically, for a power block of 80 MWe a reduction in levelized electricity costs of 8% was estimated together with an increase in capacity factor by 30%, whereas for a power block of 126 MWe the benefits found were a 1.5% cost reduction and 16% availability increase.

  1. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  3. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOEpatents

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  4. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  5. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOEpatents

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  6. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  7. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOEpatents

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Muir, James F.; Wayland, Jr., J. Robert

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  8. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  9. STEAM PLANT, TRA609. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. STEAM UNITS, OFFICE, MAINTENANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEAM PLANT, TRA-609. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. STEAM UNITS, OFFICE, MAINTENANCE AREA, UTILITY ROOM FOR ELECTRIC GEAR, AIR INTAKE AND FILTERING, DIESEL GENERATOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-809-2, 8/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0609-00-098-100684, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Heat loss through insulated steam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepfer, J.G.; Dykstra, S.

    1982-02-22

    Heat loss through piping is a costly problem in steam-oriented thermal recovery operations. To determine the heat loss from above- and below-ground insulated steam piping, a program has been written for the TI-59 programmable calculator. Given the pipe parameters, steam temperature, and wind velocity, this program calculates the heat loss in w/m. Assuming pressure drop through the line is negligible, steam quality may be calculated at any point along the pipe. The newton-Raphson iterative technique is used to solve 2 simultaneous equations for the skin temperature. Once convergence is complete, skin temperature is used to calculate the heat loss. The program will allow the engineer to determine heat lost from the steam generator to the wellhead.

  11. The Invisibility of Steam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature…

  12. 4. Credit BG. Detail view of pair of Clayton steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Credit BG. Detail view of pair of Clayton steam generators. Left part of image shows front, right part shows back. Generators were removed from 4280/E-81 for shipment to a new owner. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Steam Generator Plant, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Evidence for the Role of Horizontal Transfer in Generating pVT1, a Large Mosaic Conjugative Plasmid from the Clam Pathogen, Vibrio tapetis

    PubMed Central

    Bidault-Toffin, Adeline; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Bouloc, Philippe; Paillard, Christine; Jacq, Annick

    2011-01-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio tapetis is the causative agent of the brown ring disease, which affects the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and causes heavy economic losses in North of Europe and in Eastern Asia. Further characterization of V. tapetis isolates showed that all the investigated strains harbored at least one large plasmid. We determined the sequence of the 82,266 bp plasmid pVT1 from the CECT4600T reference strain and analyzed its genetic content. pVT1 is a mosaic plasmid closely related to several conjugative plasmids isolated from Vibrio vulnificus strains and was shown to be itself conjugative in Vibrios. In addition, it contains DNA regions that have similarity with several other plasmids from marine bacteria (Vibrio sp., Shewanella sp., Listonella anguillarum and Photobacterium profundum). pVT1 contains a number of mobile elements, including twelve Insertion Sequences or inactivated IS genes and an RS1 phage element related to the CTXphi phage of V. cholerae. The genetic organization of pVT1 underscores an important role of horizontal gene transfer through conjugative plasmid shuffling and transposition events in the acquisition of new genetic resources and in generating the pVT1 modular organization. In addition, pVT1 presents a copy number of 9, relatively high for a conjugative plasmid, and appears to belong to a new type of replicon, which may be specific to Vibrionaceae and Shewanelleacae. PMID:21326607

  14. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  15. Thorough Chemical Decontamination with the MEDOC Process : Batch Treatment of Dismantled Pieces or Loop Treatment of Large Components Such as the BR3 Steam Generator and Pressurizer

    SciTech Connect

    Ponnet, M.; Klein, M.; Massaut, V.; Davain, H.; Aleton, G.

    2003-02-25

    The dismantling of the BR3-PWR reactor leads to the production of large masses of contaminated metallic pieces, including structural materials, primary pipings, tanks and heat exchangers. One of our main objectives is to demonstrate that we can minimize the volume of radioactive waste in an economical way, by the use of alternative waste routes, such as the clearance of materials after thorough decontamination. The SCKoCEN uses its own developed chemical decontamination process, so-called MEDOC (Metal Decontamination by Oxidation with Cerium), based on the use of cerium IV as strong oxidant in sulphuric acid with continuous regeneration using ozone. An industrial installation has been designed and constructed in close collaboration with Framatome-ANP (France). This installation started operation in September 1999 for the treatment of the metallic pieces arising from the dismantling of the BR3 reactor. Since then, more than 25 tons of contaminated material including primary pipes have been treated batchwise with success. 75 % of material could be directly cleared after treatment (Activity lower than 0.1 Bq/g for 60Co) and the other 25% free released after melting activity. The SCKoCEN performed in April 2002 the closed loop decontamination of the BR3 Steam Generator by connection of the MEDOC plant after few adaptations. The decontamination was done within 30 cycles in 3 weeks with consecutive steps like decontamination steps (injection of the solution into the SG) and regeneration steps with ozone. In total, 60 hours of decontamination at 70 C and 130 hours of regeneration were needed to reach the objectives. The tube bundle (600 m2) was attacked and about 10 {micro}m representing more than 41 kg of stainless steel and 2.06 GBq of 60Co was dissolved into the solution. The residual contamination measurements made directly into the water box are still going on, however it seems that the objective to reach the free release criteria after melting is achieved. The next

  16. 10. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Simple, singlecylinder, horizontal, reciprocating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Simple, single-cylinder, horizontal, reciprocating steam engine, model No. 1, 5' x 10', 6 hp, 175 rpm. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. View: Steam engine powered the mill's centrifugals. To the left of the horizontal (fluted) cylinder is the water pump which moved the boiler feed water through the engine's pre-heat system (the exhaust steam heated the boiler feedwater before it was pumped on to the boiler). The steam-feed port, manual throttle valve, and fly-ball governor and pulley and to the right of the cylinder. The drive shaft with flywheel to the left and pulley to the right are seen behind the piston rod, cross-head, wrist pen, connecting rod and the slide valve and eccentric. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  17. Steam trap monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  18. Development, construction, and use of pneumometric tubes for measurement of steam flow in the steam lines of PVG-1000 at NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, Yu. S.; Ageev, A. G.; Vasil'eva, R. V.; Korol'kov, B. M.

    2007-05-15

    A system for the direct measurement of steam flow in steam lines after a steam generator, which utilizes a special design of pneumometric tubes and a computing unit that accounts for variation in steam pressure, has been developed to improve the quality of water-level regulation in the steam generators of VVER-1000 power-generating units in the stationary and transitional modes. The advantage of the pneumometric tubes consists in their structural simplicity, high erosion resistance, and absence of irrevocable losses during measurement of steam flow. A similar measurement system is used at foreign NPP. The measurement system in question has been placed in experimental service at the No. 3 unit of the Balakovo NPP, and has demonstrated its worthiness. This measurement system can also be used to determine steam flow in the steam lines of NPP units with VVER-1000 and VVER-440 reactors, and PBMK-1000 power-generating units.

  19. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Salamah, Samir A.; DeStefano, Thomas Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  20. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  1. BWR drywell behavior under steam blowdown.

    SciTech Connect

    NguyenLe, Q.

    1998-05-08

    Historically, thermal hydraulics analyses on Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) have been focused on the transients within the reactor or steam generator. Few have studied the effects of steam blowdown on the containment building. This paper discusses some theoretical issues as well as presenting numerical and experimental results of the blowdown tests performed at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integrated Test Assembly (PUMA).

  2. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  3. The Invisibility of Steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-11-01

    Almost everyone "knows" that steam is visible. After all, one can see the cloud of white issuing from the spout of a boiling tea kettle. In reality, steam is the gaseous phase of water and is invisible. What you see is light scattered from the tiny droplets of water that are the result of the condensation of the steam as its temperature falls below 100 °C (under standard conditions).

  4. Evaluating steam trap performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, N.Y.

    1985-08-08

    This paper presents a method for evaluating the performance level of steam traps by preparing an economic analysis of several types to determine the equivalent uniform annual cost. A series of tests on steam traps supplied by six manufacturers provided data for determining the relative efficiencies of each unit. The comparison was made using a program developed for the Texas Instruments T1-59 programmable calculator to evaluate overall steam trap economics.

  5. 14. MARINE STEAM BOILERS AT WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MARINE STEAM BOILERS AT WEST SIDE OF CROSSCUT STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. August 4, 1947 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. SHOWS CURRENT LEVEL OF DISREPAIR. December 4, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Headspace Volatile Compounds of Steamed Liriopis Tuber Tea Affected by Steaming Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Yong; Park, So-Hae; Lee, Heeseob; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Flavor quality of Liriopis tuber tea that was made using a steaming process was studied by measuring changes in headspace volatile compounds. Headspace volatile compounds of the prepared samples were isolated, separated and identified by the combined system of purge & trap, automatic thermal desorber, gas chromatography, and mass selective detector. As steaming frequencies were increased, the area percent of aldehydes decreased from 32.01% to 3.39% at 1 and 9 steaming frequency times, respectively. However, furans and ketones increased from 18.67% to 33.86% and from 9.60% to 17.40% at 1 and 9 times, respectively. The savory flavor of Liriopis tuber tea was due to a decrease in aldehydes contributing a fresh flavor at the 1st steaming process and newly generated furans from nonenzymatic browning with repeated steaming frequencies. These results will provide basic information for quality control of the newly developed Liriopis tuber tea. PMID:25580396

  8. Downhole steam injector

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  9. SATURATED-SUBCOOLED STRATIFIED FLOW IN HORIZONTAL PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schultz

    2010-08-01

    Advanced light water reactor systems are designed to use passive emergency core cooling systems with horizontal pipes that provide highly subcooled water from water storage tanks or passive heat exchangers to the reactor vessel core under accident conditions. Because passive systems are driven by density gradients, the horizontal pipes often do not flow full and thus have a free surface that is exposed to saturated steam and stratified flow is present.

  10. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  11. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOEpatents

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  12. Chemical filtration for steam purity

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalcik, F.

    1985-03-01

    Few industrial process systems are as vulnerable to corrosion as the steam generating loop of an electric power plant. Impurities inevitably migrate into the steam cycle, and must be removed to prevent turbine blade corrosion. It is critical to understand the behavior of the condensate polishing resins used to remove the impurities. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) participated in investigations involving ion chromatography which identified chloride as a problem in studies of regeneration and polishing procedures. A modified regeneration procedure consists of ammonium sulfate treatment of the resin before and after ammonia recirculation, followed by a dilute ammonia rinse. A joint study with Southern California Edison also simulated condenser leaks to find the effect of cooling water intrusion.

  13. Running Out of Steam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Promod

    2000-01-01

    Explains why schools should evaluate whether their older steam-heating systems are still cost-effective, or need to be repaired or replaced. The symptoms of deterioration are listed along with discussions on repair or replacement decision making on three areas of steam heating systems: boilers; distribution system; and terminal equipment. (GR)

  14. Steampunk: Full Steam Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    Steam-powered machines, anachronistic technology, clockwork automatons, gas-filled airships, tentacled monsters, fob watches, and top hats--these are all elements of steampunk. Steampunk is both speculative fiction that imagines technology evolved from steam-powered cogs and gears--instead of from electricity and computers--and a movement that…

  15. Safety Picks up "STEAM"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This column shares safety information for the classroom. STEAM subjects--science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics--are essential for fostering students' 21st-century skills. STEAM promotes critical-thinking skills, including analysis, assessment, categorization, classification, interpretation, justification, and prediction, and are…

  16. STEAM by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Linda; Keane, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We live in a designed world. STEAM by Design presents a transdisciplinary approach to learning that challenges young minds with the task of making a better world. Learning today, like life, is dynamic, connected and engaging. STEAM (Science, Technology, Environment, Engineering, Art, and Math) teaching and learning integrates information in…

  17. Film Condensation of Steam on Externally Enhanced Horizontal Tubes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    all the runs were collected, the data were reprocessed using a new Sieder -Tate Coefficient found by the modified Wilson method. E. TUBES TESTED For... Sieder -Tate constant 16 for the inside heat-transfer coefficient. The separation of the individual thermal resistances (water-side, wall, and vapor...overall heat-transfer resistance is given by equation (4.1), while the inside heat-transfer coefficient is given by a Sieder -Tate type equation (equation

  18. Filmwise Condensation of Steam on Externally-Finned Horizontal Tubes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    heat- transfer coefficient using the Sieder -Tate equation. The leading coefficient for this equation was found to be 0.034 ± 0.001, and was used to...36 A. PROGRAM SIEDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 B. PROGRAM WILSON . ........... .... 36 C. PROGRAM DEP...coeffizient, W/M 2-K X Parameter, D -- / /Zk,. Y Parameter, . 1/3[ 1/U. - R,,] z Sieder -Tate parameter. ReO-8Pr1/3Gs/&,)O.I Q Expansion coefficient of

  19. Condensation Heat Transfer of Steam on a Single Horizontal Tube.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    thermometers. The inside heat-transfer coefficient was determined using the Sieder - Tate correlation with leading coefficient of 0.029. Initial...measured accurately using quartz crystal thermometers. The inside heat-transfer coefficient was determined using the Sieder -Tate correlation with...ACQUISITION/REDUCTION 34 A. DATA ACQUISITION AND STORAGE 34 3. DATA REDUCTION 34 C. STEPWISE SOLUTION PROCEDURE 35 1 . Program SIEDER 35

  20. Solar process steam for a pharmaceutical company in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, M.; Mokhtar, M.; Zahler, C.; Al-Najami, M. M. R.; Krüger, D.; Hennecke, K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents details of the recent installation of a linear Fresnel collector to provide saturated steam for process heat usage through Direct Steam Generation (DSG) for industrial use in the Jordanian pharmaceuticals manufacturing company RAM Pharma, where first solar steam has been provided in March 2015. This commercial DSG project also represents the first solar DSG plant in MENA. During sunshine, the system achieves a solar fraction of 100 %, and the conventional steam boiler is not needed. In the evening the fossil fired backup takes over automatically and replaces the solar collector in operation. Operational experience, details of the control strategy, and measurement data are presented in the paper.

  1. Steam trap monitor

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  2. Apparatus and method for acoustic monitoring of steam quality and flow

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-09-13

    An apparatus and method for noninvasively monitoring steam quality and flow and in pipes or conduits bearing flowing steam, are described. By measuring the acoustic vibrations generated in steam-carrying conduits by the flowing steam either by direct contact with the pipe or remotely thereto, converting the measured acoustic vibrations into a frequency spectrum characteristic of the natural resonance vibrations of the pipe, and monitoring the amplitude and/or the frequency of one or more chosen resonance frequencies, changes in the steam quality in the pipe are determined. The steam flow rate and the steam quality are inversely related, and changes in the steam flow rate are calculated from changes in the steam quality once suitable calibration curves are obtained.

  3. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; N. M. Yanar

    2011-09-07

    Materials Performance in USC Steam: (1) pressure effects on steam oxidation - unique capability coming on-line; (2) hydrogen evolution - hydrogen permeability apparatus to determine where hydrogen goes during steam oxidation; and (3) NETL materials development - steam oxidation resource for NETL developed materials.

  4. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  5. 8. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Simple, singlecylinder, horizontal, reciprocating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Simple, single-cylinder, horizontal, reciprocating steam engine, model No. 1, 5' x 10', 6 hp, 175 rpm. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. View: Steam engine powered the mill's centrifugals. It received steam from the locomotive type, fire-tube portable boiler in the background. The engine's water pump which pumped water from the feed-water clarifying cistern, in between the boiler and engine, through a pre-heat system and on to the boiler, is seen in front of the fluted cylinder. The fly-ball governor, missing its balls, the steam port, and manual throttle valve are above and behind the cylinder. The flywheel, drive shaft, and pulley are on the left side of the engine bed. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  6. 21. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 18761889. Simple, singlecylinder, horizontal, reciprocating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. RW Meyer Sugar Mill: 1876-1889. Simple, single-cylinder, horizontal, reciprocating steam engine, model no. 1, 5' x 10', 6 hp, 175 rpm. Manufactured by Ames Iron Works, Oswego, New York, 1879. View: Steam engine powered the mill's centrifugals. Steam-feed pipe at top left of engine. Steam exhaust pipe leaves base of engine on right end and projects upwards. The boiler feed and supply pipe running water through the engine's pre-heat system are seen running to the lower left end of the engine. Pulley in the foreground was not used. The centrifugals were powered by a belt running from the flywheel in the background. Ball-type governor and pulley are on left end of the engine. - R. W. Meyer Sugar Mill, State Route 47, Kualapuu, Maui County, HI

  7. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  8. An analysis of factors causing the occurrence of off-design thermally induced force effects in the zone of weld joint no. 111-1 in a PGV-1000M steam generator and recommendations on excluding them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirov, M. B.; Levchuk, V. I.; Povarov, V. P.; Gromov, A. F.

    2014-08-01

    Inadmissible operational flaws occurring in the critical zones of heat-transfer and mechanical equipment are commonly revealed in all nuclear power plant units both in Russia and abroad. The number of such flaws will only grow in the future because the majority of nuclear power plants have been in operation for a time that is either close to or even exceeds the assigned service life. In this connection, establishing cause-and-effect relations with regard to accelerated incipience and growth of flaws, working out compensating measures aimed at reducing operational damageability, and setting up monitoring of equipment integrity degradation of during operation are becoming the matters of utmost importance. There is a need to introduce new approaches to comprehensive diagnostics of the technical state of important nuclear power plant equipment, including continuous monitoring of its operational damageability and the extent of its loading in the most critical zones. Starting from 2011, such a monitoring system has successfully been used for the Novovoronezh NPP Unit 5 in the zone of weld joint no. 111-1 of steam generator no. 4. Based on the results from operation of this system in 2011-2013, unsteady thermally induced force effects (periodic thermal shocks and temperature abnormalities) were reveled, which had not been considered in the design, and which have an essential influence on the operational loading of this part. Based on an analysis of cause-and-effect relations pertinent to temperature abnormalities connected with technological operations, a set of measures aimed at reducing the thermally induced force loads exerted on pipeline sections was developed, which includes corrections to the process regulations for safe operation and to the operating manuals (involving changes in the algorithms for manipulating with the stop and control valves in the steam generator blowdown system).

  9. Project DEEP STEAM. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Clay, R.G.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Johnson, D.R.; Lyle, W.D.; Mulac, A.J.

    1981-09-01

    The objective of project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this project are development of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. Field testing of insulated strings for improved thermal efficiency of steam delivery to deep reservoirs has been set up in cooperation with Husky Oil Company in Lloydminster, Canada. The instrumentation system for this test was successfully tested this quarter. Efforts to develop the liquid fueled downhole generation system for testing in deep reservoirs have continued. Legal agreement between Sandia and the City of Long Beach for testing of the downhole generator has been achieved.

  10. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  11. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  12. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Dogan, O.N.; Rawers, J.C.; Schrems, K.K.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This project examines the steamside oxidation of candidate alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. As part of this research a concern has arisen about the possibility of high chromia evaporation rates of protective scales in the turbine. A model to calculate chromia evaporation rates is presented.

  13. Industrial-scale steam explosion pretreatment of sugarcane straw for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for production of second generation ethanol and value-added products.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando M V; Pinheiro, Irapuan O; Souto-Maior, Ana M; Martin, Carlos; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Rocha, George J M

    2013-02-01

    Steam explosion at 180, 190 and 200°C for 15min was applied to sugarcane straw in an industrial sugar/ethanol reactor (2.5m(3)). The pretreated straw was delignificated by sodium hydroxide and hydrolyzed with cellulases, or submitted directly to enzymatic hydrolysis after the pretreatment. The pretreatments led to remarkable hemicellulose solubilization, with the maximum (92.7%) for pretreatment performed at 200°C. Alkaline treatment of the pretreated materials led to lignin solubilization of 86.7% at 180°C, and only to 81.3% in the material pretreated at 200°C. All pretreatment conditions led to high hydrolysis conversion of cellulose, with the maximum (80.0%) achieved at 200°C. Delignification increase the enzymatic conversion (from 58.8% in the cellulignin to 85.1% in the delignificated pulp) of the material pretreated at 180°C, but for the material pretreated at 190°C, the improvement was less remarkable, while for the pretreated at 200°C the hydrolysis conversion decreased after the alkaline treatment.

  14. Update of comparative analysis of steam delivery costs for surface and downhole steam drive technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.M.; Muir, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    A review and update is presented of a previous analysis which compared the economic performance of the surface and downhole steam delivery technologies investigated in the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM for the enhanced recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs. Emphasis is placed on an examination and revision of the compression and wellbore heat loss assumptions and their effects on sandface steam delivery costs. Multistage compression with intercooling and aftercooling, increased overall compression efficiency, and waste heat scavenging all serve to decrease the cost of steam generated downhole and reduce differences among the various surface and downhole delivery system costs. Wellbore heat loss increases dramatically when water is present in the annulus, causing a reduction in the depth to which surface steaming is effective and an increase in steam delivery costs. Other concerns potentially impacting the cost comparisons are discussed. These include: crude versus diesel generator fuel, reliability of both surface and downhole hardware, capital equipment costs, surface transmission losses, and the assumption of hydrostatic reservoir pressure. 16 references, 19 figures, 1 table.

  15. Inter-generational micro-class mobility during and after socialism: The power, education, autonomy, capital, and horizontal (PEACH) model in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lippényi, Zoltán; Gerber, Theodore P

    2016-07-01

    We propose a theoretical model of how occupational mobility operates differently under socialism than under market regimes. Our model specifies four vertical dimensions of occupational resources-power, education, autonomy, and capital-plus a horizontal dimension consisting of linkages among occupations in the same economic branch. Given the nature of state socialist political-economic institutions, we expect power to exhibit much stronger effects in the socialist mobility regime, while autonomy and capital should play greater stratifying roles after the market transition. Education should have stable effects, and horizontal linkages should diminish in strength with market reforms. We estimate our model's parameters using data from surveys conducted in Hungary during and after the socialist period. We adopt a micro-class approach, though we test it against approaches that use more aggregated class categories. Our model provides a superior fit to other mobility models, and our results confirm our hypotheses about the distinctive features of the state socialist mobility regime. Mobility researchers often look for common patterns characterizing mobility in all industrialized societies. Our findings suggest that national institutions can produce fundamentally distinct patterns of mobility.

  16. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  17. Computer modeling of a convective steam superheater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojan, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Superheater is for generating superheated steam from the saturated steam from the evaporator outlet. In the case of pulverized coal fired boiler, a relatively small amount of ash causes problems with ash fouling on the heating surfaces, including the superheaters. In the convection pass of the boiler, the flue gas temperature is lower and ash deposits can be loose or sintered. Ash fouling not only reduces heat transfer from the flue gas to the steam, but also is the cause of a higher pressure drop on the flue gas flow path. In the case the pressure drop is greater than the power consumed by the fan increases. If the superheater surfaces are covered with ash than the steam temperature at the outlet of the superheater stages falls, and the flow rates of the water injected into attemperator should be reduced. There is also an increase in flue gas temperature after the different stages of the superheater. Consequently, this leads to a reduction in boiler efficiency. The paper presents the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the first stage superheater of both the boiler OP-210M using the commercial software. The temperature distributions of the steam and flue gas along the way they flow together with temperature of the tube walls and temperature of the ash deposits will be determined. The calculated steam temperature is compared with measurement results. Knowledge of these temperatures is of great practical importance because it allows to choose the grade of steel for a given superheater stage. Using the developed model of the superheater to determine its degree of ash fouling in the on-line mode one can control the activation frequency of steam sootblowers.

  18. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  19. Solar-Power System Produces High-Pressure Steam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    Combination of three multistaged solar collectors produces highpressure steam for large-scale continuously operating turbines for generating mechanical or electrical energy. Superheated water vapor drives turbines, attaining an overall system efficiency about 22 percent.

  20. View of steam powered air compressor in boiler house. Gas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steam powered air compressor in boiler house. Gas engine powered electric generators are visible in far left background. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  1. 14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. STEAM CABINETS & SITZ BATH IN STEAM ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  2. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  3. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: steam rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, I. G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton's and Avogadro's laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  4. Steam-injected gas turbine analysis: Steam rates

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, I.G.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of steam rates in steam-injected gas turbines (simple and reheat). In considering a gas turbine of this type, the steam-injection flow is separated from the main gas stream for analysis. Dalton`s and Avogadro`s laws of partial pressure and gas mixtures are applied. Results obtained provide for the accurate determination of heat input, gas expansion based on partial pressures, and heat-rejection steam-enthalpy points.

  5. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  6. Steam treatment of zebra mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.; Rybarik, D.L.; Thiel, J.

    1995-06-01

    Steam injection into intake bays is a nonchemical method to control zebra mussels. This technique was demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s J.P. Madgett Station located in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was funded by the EPRI Zebra Mussel Consortium which includes: Dairyland Power Cooperative, Central Illinois Public Service, Duke Power, Illinois Power Company, PSI Energy, Public Service Electric & Gas, and Tennessee Valley Authority. This technique can be used by other power plants with a similar problem. A contract between Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone & Webster) was initiated in August 1994. The steam treatments were performed at the J.P. Madgett intake in Alma, Wisconsin, on September 14 and 18, 1994. The J.P. Madgett Station has two water intake bays with storage capacities of approximately 295,000 and 265,000 gallons, respectively. Each intake can be isolated, permitting either full or reduced generation depending on river temperature conditions. In addition to the intake bays, the outside fire protection loop and hydrants were also treated with the hot water from one of the bays. This paper presents the process design, piping and steam educator configurations, portable industrial boiler sizing and description, and the thermocouples to monitor the water temperature in the intake bay. The biological mortality and control test protocol and treatment results are also presented. Treatment effectiveness was 100%; however, equipment installation and operation was more problematic than anticipated. A generic computer program is developed and verified using thermal data from the test. The PC program will allow other utilities to size the boiler and estimate the heat losses from an intake bay. The treatment also provided valuable information that simplifies future applications and provides for more realistic design and installation schedules and costs.

  7. High performance steam development

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1995-10-01

    Over 30 years ago U.S. industry introduced the world`s highest temperature (1200{degrees}F at 5000 psig) and most efficient power plant, the Eddystone coal-burning steam plant. The highest alloy material used in the plant was 316 stainless steel. Problems during the first few years of operation caused a reduction in operating temperature to 1100{degrees}F which has generally become the highest temperature used in plants around the world. Leadership in high temperature steam has moved to Japan and Europe over the last 30 years.

  8. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  9. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  10. Consider the cold facts about steam-jet vacuum cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, L.O. )

    1993-01-01

    This article compares the advantages of steam-jet vacuum cooling systems with mechanical compression or absorption systems. Steam-jet vacuum systems are popular where large flow rates of cool water are continuously required. Some utility and cogeneration plants find steam-jet cooling a convenient use for excess summer steam to improve the summer load balance between steam production and electric power generation. Initial costs depend on size and capacity. A 100-200 ton unit may be comparable to a mechanical system of the same size. In addition a cooling tower will be needed where river, pond, or lake water is not available. Simplicity and reliability of the system means savings in maintenance costs.

  11. Steam Rankine Solar Receiver, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deanda, L. E.; Faust, M.

    1981-01-01

    A steam rankine solar receiver (SRSR) based on a tubular concept was designed and developed. The SRSR is an insulated, cylindrical coiled tube boiler which is mounted at the focal plane of a fully tracking parabolic solar reflector. The concentrated solar energy received at the focal plane is then transformed to thermal energy through steam generation. The steam is used in a small Rankine cycle heat engine to drive a generator for the production of electrical energy. The SRSR was designed to have a dual mode capability, performing as a once through boiler with and without reheat. This was achieved by means of two coils which constitute the boiler. The boiler core size of the SRSR is 17.0 inches in diameter and 21.5 inches long. The tube size is 7/16 inch I.D. by 0.070 inch wall for the primary, and 3/4 inch I.D. by 0.125 inch wall for the reheat section. The materials used were corrosion resistant steel (CRES) type 321 and type 347 stainless steel. The core is insulated with 6 inches of cerablanket insulation wrapped around the outer wall. The aperture end and the reflector back plate at the closed end section are made of silicon carbide. The SRSR accepts 85 kwth and has a design life of 10,000 hrs when producing steam at 1400 F and 2550 psig.

  12. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. The list of alloys being examined is discussed, including the addition of new alloys to the study. These include alloy 625, selected because of its use as one of the two alloys used for turbine rotors, valves, casings, blading and bolts in the European AD700 full-scale demonstration plant (Scholven Unit F). The other alloy, alloy 617, is already one of the alloys currently being examined by this project. Other new alloys to the study are the three round robin alloys in the UK-US collaboration: alloys 740, TP347HFG, and T92. Progress on the project is presented on cyclic oxidation in 50% air – 50% water vapor, furnace exposures in moist air, and thermogravimetric analysis in argon with oxygen saturated steam. An update on the progress towards obtaining an apparatus for high pressure exposures is given.

  13. An Industrial Steam Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Frederick S.; Schuerch, Conrad

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemistry experiment which demonstrates the use of codistillation for the separation of substances of low volatility from nonvolatiles. Pine gum is separated into turpentine and rosin by means of codistillation with steam at temperatures above 100 degrees centigrade. (MLH)

  14. District steam and the St. Louis steam loop

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, T.M.; Sauer, H.J. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Owned and operated by large public electric utilities, district steam systems flourished in most northern US cities in the first half of this century. Following World War II, however, district steam systems became minor and, in some cases, unprofitable portions of the utilities' operations. Consequently, public utilities ceased promoting district steam to existing and potential customers, leading to the decline of their use. In recent years, district steam systems have been revitalized by independent enterprises that have the commitment and expertise to make these systems once again reliable and cost-effective energy sources. This paper reports on one such system, The St. Louis Steam Loop. The St. Louis steam loop consists of 22 miles of insulated underground steam piping encompassing a 400-square block area in the city's downtown business district. The loop is supplied with steam by the Ashley Plant, which was built in 1904 for the St. Louis World's Fair. Due to the rising cost of oil, which has been used to fuel the Ashley Plant since 1972, and the subsequent loss of customers, many people considered the steam system a dinosaur in the jet age. In 1982, Trigen-St. Louis Energy Corporation purchased the steam system and embarked on an aggressive campaign to upgrade all aspects of the system, including valves, piping, and meters. In 1999, Trigen-St. Louis will install an ISMW state-of-the-art combustion turbine cogenerator to provide 95% of the steam to the steam loop. A primary reason for the St. Louis Steam Loop's longevity is that it has reliably supplied steam to many downtown buildings for the better part of the 20th century.

  15. Steamer of steam circulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Onodera, M.

    1986-09-23

    A conveyor steamer is described which consists of: a room enclosed with heat-insulated walls, floor, and ceiling, the room having an entrance and an exit for goods to be steamed, a conveyor means for carrying the goods to be steamed, the conveyor means traversing into the entrance of the room, through the room, and out of the exit of the room; a source of heated primary steam; first pipe means, arranged beneath the conveyor means, for jetting the heated primary steam upwardly from across the floor of the room; second pipe means disposed across the entire ceiling of the room arranged above the conveyor means, for scavenging spent steam from across the entire ceiling of the room; and an ejector-condenser means, interconnected between the first pipe means, the source of primary heated steam and the second pipe means, for mixing the spent steam from the second pipe means with the heated primary steam in the first pipe means; whereby the spent steam mixed with the heated primary steam is caused to recirculate in the first pipe means through the room, thus saving energy and consuming less heated primary steam so that cost reductions will result.

  16. Feasibility of steam injection process in a thin, low-permeability heavy oil reservoir of Arkansas -- a numerical simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.K.; Sarathi, P.S.

    1993-12-01

    This report details the findings of an in-depth study undertaken to assess the viability of the steam injection process in the heavy oil bearing Nacatoch sands of Arkansas. Published screening criteria and DOE`s steamflood predictive models were utilized to screen and select reservoirs for further scrutiny. Although, several prospects satisfied the steam injection screening criteria, only a single candidate was selected for detailed simulation studies. The selection was based on the availability of needed data for simulation and the uniqueness of the reservoir. The reservoir investigated is a shallow, thin, low-permeability reservoir with low initial oil saturation and has an underlying water sand. The study showed that the reservoir will respond favorably to steamdrive, but not to cyclic steaming. Steam stimulation, however, is necessary to improve steam injectivity during subsequent steamdrive. Further, in such marginal heavy oil reservoirs (i.e., reservoir characterized by thin pay zone and low initial oil saturation) conventional steamdrive (i.e., steam injection using vertical wells) is unlikely to be economical, and nonconventional methods must be utilized. It was found that the use of horizontal injectors and horizontal producers significantly improved the recovery and oil-steam ratio and improved the economics. It is recommended that the applicability of horizontal steam injection technology in this reservoir be further investigated.

  17. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  18. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  19. Steam foam studies in the presence of residual oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.A.; Demiral, B.; Castanier, L.M.

    1992-05-01

    The lack of understanding regarding foam flow in porous media necessitates further research. This paper reports on going work at Stanford University aimed at increasing our understanding in the particular area of steam foams. The behavior of steam foam is investigated with a one dimensional (6 ft. {times} 2.15 in.) sandpack under residual oil conditions of approximately 12 percent. The strength of the in-situ generated foam, indicated by pressure drops, is significantly affected by injection procedure, slug size, and steam quality. The surfactant concentration effect is minor in the range studied. In the presence of residual oil the simultaneous injection of steam and surfactant fails to generate foam in the model even though the same procedure generates a strong foam in the absence of oil. Nevertheless when surfactant is injected as a slug ahead of the steam using a surfactant alternating (SAG) procedure, foam is generated. The suggested reason for the success of SAG is the increased phase mixing that results from steam continually having to reestablish a path through a slug of surfactant solution.

  20. A NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SINGLE-WELL STEAM ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SW-SAGD) PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    K.T. Elliot; A.R. Kovscek

    2001-06-01

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an effective method to produce heavy oil and bitumen which are important energy resources. In a typical SAGD approach, steam is injected into a horizontal well located directly above a horizontal producer helping to displace heated oil. Single-well (SW) SAGD attempts to create a similar process using only one horizontal well. To improve early-time response of SW-SAGD, it is necessary to heat the near-wellbore area to reduce oil viscosity and allow gravity drainage to begin. Ideally heating should occur with minimal circulation or bypassing of steam. We have investigated early-time processes to improve reservoir heating. A numerical simulation study was performed to gauge combinations of cyclic steam injection and steam circulation prior to SAGD in an effort to better understand and improve early-time performance. Results from this study, include cumulative recoveries, temperature distributions, and production rates. It is found that cyclic steaming of the reservoir offers the most favorable option for heating the near-wellbore area to create conditions that improve initial SAGD response. More favorable reservoir conditions such as low viscosity, thick oil zones, and solution gas, improved reservoir response. Under unfavorable conditions, response was limited.