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Sample records for hormonas tiroideas 1996-1999

  1. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, B. J.; Epstein, J. H.; Neill, A. S.; Heel, K.; Field, H.; Barrett, J.; Smith, G. A.; Selvey, L. A.; Rodwell, B.; Lunt, R.

    2000-01-01

    Two human deaths caused by Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL) infection have been reported since 1996. Information was obtained from 205 persons (mostly adults from south Brisbane and the South Coast of Queensland), who reported potential ABL exposure to the Brisbane Southside Public Health Unit from November 1,1996, to January 31, 1999. Volunteer animal handlers accounted for 39% of potential exposures, their family members for 12%, professional animal handlers for 14%, community members who intentionally handled bats for 31%, and community members with contacts initiated by bats for 4%. The prevalence of Lyssavirus detected by fluorescent antibody test in 366 sick, injured, or orphaned bats from the area was 6%. Sequelae of exposure, including the requirement for expensive postexposure prophylaxis, may be reduced by educating bat handlers and the public of the risks involved in handling Australian bats. PMID:10827115

  2. Research in Mathematics Education in Australasia, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kay, Ed.; Mousley, Judy, Ed.

    This volume presents different issues and views on research in mathematics education in Australia. Chapters include: (1) "An Introduction to This Review" (Kay Owens); (2) "Recent Research Monographs" (Kay Owens and editors of the monographs); (3) "Language Factors in Mathematics Education" (Nerida Ellerton, Ken…

  3. The Bill of Rights in Action, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bill, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These newsletter volumes deal with topics in U.S. history, world history, and U.S. government relating to the Bill of Rights. The newsletters present background information for classroom reading, in some instances provide a list of topical issues, and offer activities for discussion and writing. Some of the topics considered in the newsletters…

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens in Trinidad, 1996-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Orrett, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among urinary pathogens has been increasing worldwide. Laboratory diagnosed urinary tract infections were retrospectively evaluated for the years 1996 through 1999, to document the common pathogens and their changing antimicrobial profiles. From 14,853 hospital specimens, an isolation rate of 6.1% was found; and from 5330 community specimens, the isolation rate was 27.9%. E. coli was the predominant cause of urinary tract infections in both hospital and community practices. The rate of isolation of the other pathogens was relatively stable except for citrobacter species, which increased from 1.3% in 1996 to 20.1% in 1999 (p < 0.001) among community isolates. Significant changes in the susceptibility patterns of uropathogens also were observed. E. coli strains from hospitals were significantly more resistant to cefuroxime than community strains (p < 0.001), while resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid was high in both practices. No substantial changes in susceptibility to gentamicin and tetracycline were noticed during the four-year period compared to the 99% resistance to tetracycline in 1995. In relation to nitrofurantoin, no significant changes were noted in both practices where resistant rates remained low, but susceptibility to augmentin showed much improvement among all isolates, including E. coli. Urinary isolates were more commonly recovered from the paediatric age group (1-10 years) and those older than 50 years of age, and males were the predominant gender in both age groups. The study showed that the antibiotics useful in the treatment of UTI in decreasing order of effectiveness in community practice were gentamicin, norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin and cefuroxime. For nosocomial UTI, the drugs most effective include norfloxacin, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. PMID:12793792

  5. Council Connections: A Newsletter of the Reading Recovery Council of North America, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council Connections, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of three years' worth (8 issues) of "Council Connections," the newsletter of the Reading Recovery Council of North America. Each issue offers brief articles, updates of Reading Recovery programs in various countries, messages from the organization's president, past president, and/or the executive director, updates…

  6. Interseismic strain accumulation in south central Chile from GPS measurements, 1996-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruegg, J. C.; Campos, J.; Madariaga, R.; Kausel, E.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Armijo, R.; Dimitrov, D.; Georgiev, I.; Barrientos, S.

    2002-06-01

    Two campaigns of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements were carried out in the Concepción-Constitución area of Chile in 1996 and 1999. It is very likely that this area is a mature seismic gap, since no subduction earthquake has occurred there since 1835. In 1996, 32 sites were occupied in the range 35°S-37°S, between the Pacific coast of Chile and the Andes near the Chile-Argentina border. In 1999, the network was extended by the installation of 9 new points in the Arauco region whereas 13 points among the 1996 stations were reoccupied. The analysis of this campaign data set, together with the data recorded at eight continuous GPS sites (mostly IGS stations) in South America and surrounding regions, indicates a velocity of about 40 +/- 10 mm/yr in the direction N80-90°S for the coastal sites with respect to stable cratonic South America. This velocity decreases to about 20-25 mm/yr towards the Andes. We interpret this result as reflecting interseismic strain accumulation above the Nazca-South America subduction zone, due to a locked thrust zone extending down to about 60 km depth.

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Grand Coulee Dam Mitigation, 1996-1999 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, B.; Singer, Kelly; Abrahamson, Twa-le

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) study was to determine baseline habitat units and to estimate future habitat units for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation projects on the Spokane Indian Reservation. The mitigation between BPA and the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI) is for wildlife habitat losses on account of the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the HEP survey data will assist in mitigation crediting and appropriate management of the mitigation lands.

  8. Multicultural Early Childhood Team Training: Outreach 1996-1999. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA. Helen A. Kellar Inst. for Human disAbilities.

    This final report summarizes the activities and outcomes of a grant-funded project designed to infuse cultural competence in early childhood programs by disseminating and replicating a proven parent and professional inservice training module, Multicultural Early Childhood Team Training (MECTT). During the 3 years of the project, the following…

  9. The Safe Futures Substance Abuse and Violence Prevention Program at Chief Leschi Elementary School, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.; Whited, David L.

    A 3-year intervention project focused on preventing substance abuse, violence, gang violence, and truancy among K-12 students at the Chief Leschi School in Tacoma, Washington, a tribally controlled, urban school for high risk and adjudicated Native youth. This paper reports the elementary school results. The Positive Reinforcement in Drug…

  10. Geochemical Data on Waters, gases, scales, and rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, Fraser; Bergfeld, Deborah; Janik, C.J.; et al

    2002-08-01

    This report tabulates an extensive geochemical database on waters, gases, scales, rocks, and hot-spring deposits from the Dixie Valley region, Nevada. The samples from which the data were obtained were collected and analyzed during 1996 to 1999. These data provide useful information for ongoing and future investigations on geothermal energy, volcanism, ore deposits, environmental issues, and groundwater quality in this region.

  11. Patterns of brachytherapy practice for patients with carcinoma of the cervix (1996-1999): A Patterns of Care Study

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Beth . E-mail: berickson@radonc.mcw.edu; Eifel, Patricia; Moughan, Jennifer; Rownd, Jason M.S.; Iarocci, Thomas; Owen, Jean

    2005-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: To analyze the details of brachytherapy practice in patients treated for carcinoma of the cervix in the United States between 1996 and 1999. Methods and Materials: Radiation facilities were selected from a stratified random sample. Patients were randomly selected from lists of eligible patients treated at each facility. A total of 442 patients' records were reviewed in 59 facilities to obtain data about patients' characteristics, evaluation, tumor extent, and treatment. National estimates were made using weights that reflected the relative contribution of each institution and of each patient within the sampled institutions. From our survey we estimate that 16,375 patients were treated in the United States during this study period. Unless otherwise specified, brachytherapy practice was based on the 408 patients who had their brachytherapy or all their treatment at the surveyed facility. Results: A total of 91.5% of patients underwent brachytherapy at the initial treating institution; 8.5% were referred to a second site for brachytherapy. Forty-two percent of U.S. facilities referred at least some patients to a second facility for brachytherapy. Of U.S. facilities that treated {<=}2 eligible patients per year, 61% referred all of their patients to a second facility for brachytherapy or treated with external RT alone; none of the U.S. facilities with larger experience (>2 eligible patients per year) referred all their patients to a second facility for brachytherapy treatment, but 28% referred some patients to an outside facility for brachytherapy. Overall, 94% of patients who completed treatment with curative intent received brachytherapy. Of these patients who had brachytherapy, 77.8%, 13.3%, and 0.9%, respectively, were treated with low-dose-rate (LDR), high-dose-rate (HDR), or a combination of HDR and LDR brachytherapy; 7.9% had interstitial brachytherapy (5.7% LDR and 1.9% HDR, 0.3% mixed). In facilities that treated >2 patients per year, 15.5% and 9.4% of brachytherapy procedures included HDR or interstitial, respectively; in facilities that treated fewer patients, 3.4% had HDR brachytherapy, and only 1.2% had interstitial brachytherapy. Patients treated with LDR intracavitary radiotherapy had one (23.5%), two (74.1%), or three (2.4%) implants. For patients treated with curative intent who completed radiation therapy with LDR intracavitary radiation therapy without hysterectomy, the median brachytherapy dose to Point A was 40.3 Gy, and the median total dose to Point A was 82.9 Gy. Patients were treated with HDR intracavitary radiation therapy using a variety of treatment schedules using 1-2 fractions (7.5%), 3-4 fractions (17.4%), 5-6 fractions (38.5%), 7-9 fractions (33.5%), or 12 fractions (3%). Fraction sizes were <500 cGy (29.5%), 500-<600 (25.2%), 600 (28.1%), >600 (8%), or unknown (9.2%). For patients treated with HDR, the median total dose to Point A (corrected for fraction size using a {alpha}/{beta} = 10) was 85.8 Gy (range: 56.2-116.1 Gy). At institutions treating <500 new patients per year, the percentage of patients receiving a brachytherapy dose <40 Gy was significantly higher than at institutions treating {>=}500 new patients per year (p < 0.0001). For LDR intracavitary radiation therapy, 5.8% had neither bladder nor rectal doses recorded for any of their implants, whereas in HDR intracavitary radiation therapy, 73.4% had neither bladder nor rectal doses recorded for any of their implants. The median total duration of radiation therapy was identical for patients who had HDR or LDR intracavitary radiation therapy (57 days). For LDR at institutions treating <500 new patients per year, the percentage of patients with treatment duration >56 days was significantly greater than at institutions {>=}500 new patients per year (p = 0.002). Of the patients who had LDR intracavitary radiation therapy implants, 65% were treated using tandem and shielded Fletcher-Suit-Delclos colpostats; other patients had mini ovoids (10.9%), cylinders (3.9%), Henschke (3.7%), or other/mixed applicators (16.5%) . In contrast, of patients treated with HDR intracavitary radiation therapy, 68.7% had tandem and rings, 18.2% Fletcher-Suit-Delclos ovoids, 7.5% mini ovoids, 2.3% cylinders, and 3.2% other or mixed applicators. Conclusions: The median duration of treatment and median Point A dose were very similar for patients treated with HDR or LDR. Patients with HDR were treated using a variety of treatment schedules. Different applicator types were favored for LDR vs. HDR. Of patients treated with HDR, 73.4% had no brachytherapy bladder or rectal doses recorded, suggesting that full dosimetric calculations were performed only for the first fraction in many institutions. Facility size significantly impacted on referral to another institution for brachytherapy, brachytherapy dose, and treatment duration.

  12. Evolution of 1996-1999 La Nina and El Nino conditions off the western coast of South America: a remote sensing perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. E.; Strub, P. T.; Thomas, A. C.; Blanco, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    We present the evolution of oceanographic conditions off the western coast of South America between 1996 and 1999, including the cold periods of 1996 and 1998??9 and the 1997??8 El Nino, using satellite observations of sea level, winds, sea surface temperature (SST), and chlorophyll concentration. Following a period of cold SST and low sea levels in 1996, both were anomalously high between March 1997 and May 1998.

  13. [Incidence of HIV infection in consultants reviewed after a first negative test in an anonymous and free screening center at the Institut Pasteur of Cambodia, 1996-1999].

    PubMed

    Kruy, S L; Glaziou, P; Flye Sainte Marie, F; Buisson, Y

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of HIV seroconversion among repeat consultants attending the voluntary testing and counselling centre of the Institut Pasteur of Cambodia as well as factors associated with HIV seroconversion. From 1996 to 1999, 5541 repeat consultants were selected for the study. Exclusion criteria included being aged under 15 years, having initially tested positive or inconclusive and a time span of fewer than 30 days since the last test. In all, 276 persons had seroconverted to HIV, giving an incidence rate of 5.56 per 100 person-years. The seroconversion rate declined from 8.46% in 1996, to 3.06% in 1999 (chi 2 test for trend, p = 10(-5)). Among the risk factors analysed, 3 were significantly associated with lack of seroconversion: being a student (RR = 0.53, p = 0.032) or a civil servant (RR = 0.63, p = 0.012) and systematic condom use with causal partners (RR = 0.37, p = 10(-5)). The decline of HIV seroconversion among repeat consultants attending the VCT centre over the study period may reflect changes in risk behaviour and the beneficial impact of counselling.

  14. The association of selenium status with thyroid hormones and anthropometric values in dyslipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Roberta F; Rosa, Glorimar; Huguenin, Grazielle V B; Luiz, Ronir R; Moreira, Annie S B; Oliveira, Glaucia M M

    2015-04-01

    Contexto: El selenio (Se) es un micronutriente esencial que realiza las funciones fisiológicas en el metabolismo de la hormona tiroidea y pueden tener una asociación con las variables antropométricas pertinentes a la enfermedad cardiovascular. Objetivo: Estudiar la asociación entre el estado de Se, hormonas tiroideas y las variables antropométricas en pacientes con dislipidemia. Métodos: Ochenta y tres pacientes fueron evaluados en un estudio transversal. Se analizaron muestras de sangre para Se y hormonas tiroideas. Las medidas antropométricas fueron tomadas, y la ingesta de la dieta Se fue investigado. Resultados: La media de las concentraciones de Se en plasma fueron bajas en los pacientes, a 88,7 ± 16,7 mg / l. Se encontró que los pacientes con niveles plasmáticos de Se ≥ 95 mg / L de tener un índice de masa corporal (IMC) (30.74 ± 4.31 vs 27.68 ± 5.63 kg / m 2, P = 0,02) y la relación cintura-estatura (0,65 ± 0,05 vs 0,59 ± 0,07, P = 0,003) en comparación con aquellos con concentraciones entre 80 y 94 g / l. Ingesta de Se asoció positivamente con relación T3L / T4L (r = 0,273, p = 0,03), índice de masa corporal (r = 0,257, P = 0,04) y WC (r = 0,299, P = 0,02). Conclusión: Se encontró que los pacientes con las más altas concentraciones de Se en plasma normal tener incrementos en las variables antropométricas que investigamos. Hay una necesidad de un mayor estudio para dilucidar estos hallazgos. Además, se encontró una asociación positiva entre el consumo de Se y la forma más metabólicamente activa de las hormonas tiroideas.

  15. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION VIA BRAZIL NUT (BERTHOLLETIA EXCELSA, HBK) ON THYROID HORMONES LEVELS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS: A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Barcza Stockler-Pinto, Milena; Carrero, Juan Jesús; De Carvalho Cardoso Weide, Luciene; Franciscato Cozzolino, Silvia Maria; Mafra, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la funcion tiroidea depende de minerales traza de selenio (Se), que esta en el centro activo de la deiodinasa yodotironina, que cataliza la conversion de la tiroxina (T4) a la forma activa de la hormona tiroidea, triyodotironina (T3). Hemodialisis (HD) de los pacientes ha reducido los niveles de T3 de los pacientes, debido en parte a la conversion hormonal alterada que puede estar relacionada con la deficiencia de Se, una caracteristica comun en estos pacientes. Este estudio evaluo el efecto de las nueces de Brasil (la mas rica fuente de Se) en los niveles de hormonas tiroideas en pacientes en HD. Métodos: se realizo una intervencion no controlada con 40 pacientes en HD (53,3 } 16,1 anos, dialisis vendimia 62,0 (8,0 - 207,0 meses)), que recibieron una nuez (≈ 5, promedio 58,1 mg Se/g) por dia durante tres meses. Determinaron los niveles plasmaticos de Se por espectrofotometria de absorcion atomica con generacion de hidruros y los niveles de T3, T4 libre (FT4), TSH en suero, asi como la actividad de la glutation peroxidasa (GPx) por ELISA. Resultados: todos los pacientes tenian niveles bajos de Se y T3 al inicio del estudio. Despues de la intervencion, los niveles plasmaticos de Se (de 17,6 } 11,6 a 153,4 } 86,1 mg/L), actividad GPx (de 33,7 } 5,9 a 41,4 } 11,2 nmol/min/ml), T3 (de 27,3 } 8,8 a 50,2 } 4,8 ng/dL) y T4L (0,87 } 0,2 a 0,98 } 0,4 ng/dL) se incrementaron significativamente (p < 0,05), mientras que los niveles de TSH se redujeron (de 2,17 } 1,3 a 1,96 } 1,1 IUU/ml), pero no de forma significativa. Conclusión: en conclusion, el aumento de los niveles de Se via suplementacion con nuez brasilena se asocia con una mejoria en los niveles de hormonas tiroideas en pacientes en HD, aunque la cantidad de Se dada no fue capaz de restablecer la T3 a los niveles normales.

  16. [Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder associated with other prevalent pathologies of early childhood?].

    PubMed

    Cardo, Esther; Amengual-Gual, Marta

    2015-02-25

    Objetivo. Revisar si el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) se asocia con otras patologias medicas prevalentes de la edad pediatrica. Desarrollo. Se han seleccionado varias patologias pediatricas con el objetivo de revisar su asociacion con TDAH: en neumologia pediatrica, asma y otros procesos alergicos; en neurologia pediatrica, cefalea y convulsion febril; en gastroenterologia pediatrica, diarrea, estreñimiento, dolor abdominal, reflujo gastroesofagico e infeccion por Helicobacter pylori; en nefrologia pediatrica, enuresis; en cardiologia pediatrica, soplos y cardiopatias congenitas; en endocrinologia pediatrica, alteraciones tiroideas y obesidad, y en oftalmologia pediatrica, ametropia y estrabismo. Conclusion. Se han encontrado varios estudios que relacionan el TDAH con procesos alergicos, sobrepeso/obesidad, resistencia periferica a la hormona tiroidea, enuresis, convulsion febril, cefalea, cardiopatias congenitas, alteraciones oftalmologicas y caries, con algunas controversias y detalles por definir. Se puede concluir que son necesarios mas estudios interdisciplinarios para esclarecer las asociaciones y los mecanismos subyacentes implicados, con la finalidad de conocer mejor la compleja entidad TDAH y plantearse intervenciones preventivas, diagnosticas y terapeuticas en cuanto a sus comorbilidades se refiere.

  17. Hormonas juveniles y su aplicacion en la tecnica del insecto esteril

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control in SIT is achieved by the massive release of sterile males which copulate with wild females. Females mated by sterile males produce no offspring and rarely copulate again. For the optimization of SIT sterile males must compete equally with wild males for females. Detailed studies have shown ...

  18. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THYROID HORMONES AND OBESITY SEVERITY, METABOLIC SYNDROME AND ITS COMPONENTS IN TURKISH CHILDREN WITH OBESITY.

    PubMed

    Özer, Samet; Bütün, İlknur; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Yılmaz, Resul; Demir, Osman

    2015-08-01

    Antecedentes: hemos investigado las relaciones entre la función tiroidea y la severidad de la obesidad, el síndrome metabólico (MS) y los componentes del MS en 260 niños y adolescentes obesos de entre 10 y 17 años de edad. Objetivos: pretendemos determinar la asociación de las funciones tiroideas con la severidad de la obesidad y los componentes del síndrome metabólico (MS) en pacientes pediátricos obesos. Métodos: solo se incluyeron niños y adolescentes obesos, y se dividió a los niños obesos en tres grupos según los cuartiles de índice de masa corporal (BM). El primer cuartil fue el grupo 1, el segundo y tercer cuartil fueron el grupo 2, y el cuarto cuartil fue el grupo 3. El grupo 3 indicó obesidad severa. Los criterios WHO modificados adaptados para los niños se utilizaron para diagnosticar MS. Evaluamos los datos antropométricos y los parámetros del suero bioquímico, incluyendo el perfil lípido y los niveles de glucosa en ayunas (FG), insulina, hormona estimulante del tiroides (TSH), tiroxina libre (fT4) y triyodotironina libre (fT3). Se midió la presión sanguínea (BP) con un esfigmomanómetro digital estándar. La evaluación del modelo de homeostasis de la resistencia de la insulina se calculó para determinar la resistencia a la insulina (IR). Resultados: el nivel de TSH fue significativamente mayor en niños obesos con MS que en los demás (p = 0,045). El nivel medio de TSH no fue diferente entre los grupos BMI (p = 0,590). Los niveles de TSH y la proporción fT3/ fT4 no fueron diferentes en niños con dislipidemia, IR o hipertensión (p = 0,515; 0,805; 0,973; 0,750; 0,515 y 0,805, respectivamente). Discusión: la severidad de la obesidad no afecta al nivel de TSH ni a la proporción fT3/fT4 en niños y adolescentes obesos. La IR está en relación directa con el nivel de TSH. El nivel elevado de TSH es un factor de riesgo para el MS.

  19. [MCT8-specific thyroid hormone cell transporter deficiency: a case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    López-Marín, Laura; Martín-Belinchón, Mónica; Gutiérrez-Solana, Luis G; Morte-Molina, Beatriz; Duat-Rodríguez, Anna; Bernal, Juan

    2013-06-16

    Introduccion. El MCT8 es un transportador especifico para las hormonas tiroideas T4 y T3, que permite su entrada en el cerebro y otros organos. La deficiencia de MCT8, o sindrome de Allan-Herndon-Dudley, es un trastorno ligado a X que, generalmente, se presenta como un cuadro neurologico grave de inicio precoz, con un perfil tiroideo caracteristico (aumento de T3 y disminucion de T4 y rT3). Objetivo. Se presenta el primer caso diagnosticado en España con este sindrome y se revisa la bibliografia publicada, las distintas formas de presentacion clinica, los avances geneticos, el diagnostico diferencial y las perspectivas terapeuticas, y se propone un algoritmo diagnostico. Caso clinico. Varon de 5 años con un cuadro clinico compatible con una enfermedad de Pelizaeus-Merzbacher. La secuenciacion del gen PLP1 no mostro alteraciones. Todos los estudios metabolicos y geneticos realizados fueron normales. Finalmente, un estudio completo del perfil tiroideo revelo alteraciones compatibles con una deficiencia del transportador MCT8. La secuenciacion del gen SLC16A2 (MCT8) mostro una mutacion en el exon 3 y el estudio celular confirmo que esta mutacion cambia las propiedades de la proteina. Conclusiones. En los ultimos años se han multiplicado las publicaciones sobre este sindrome, con la identificacion de mas de 50 familias en el mundo. Es importante conocer este sindrome y sospecharlo, porque el diagnostico es facil, economico y accesible (perfil tiroideo), y, aunque no tiene tratamiento especifico, el diagnostico precoz evita pruebas innecesarias y permite ofrecer consejo genetico a las familias afectadas.

  20. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help You Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions La menopausia y las hormonas: Preguntas más frecuentes Compounded Bio- ... Menopause and Hormones Card (PDF - 1.3MB) La menopausia y las hormonas tarjeta (PDF - 1.6MB) Order ...

  1. The Mental Space Function of BUT as a Lexical Discourse Marker in American Sign Language Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrow, William George

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation centers on the application of the mental space theory to expand our understanding of the role lexical discourse markers (LDMs) play in discourse. LDMs have been recognized by many researchers for their discourse connective function(s) (Levinson, 1983; Schiffrin, 1987; Blakemore, 1989, 2000, 2001, 2002; Fraser, 1996, 1999, 2006).…

  2. Changing Coverage of Domestic Violence Murders: A Longitudinal Experiment in Participatory Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charlotte; Anastario, Mike; DaCunha, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Stressing relation-building and participatory communication approaches, the Rhode Island Coalition against Domestic Violence worked with journalists to develop a best practices handbook on news coverage of domestic violence murders. This study compares print coverage of domestic violence murders prehandbook (1996-1999) and posthandbook…

  3. Student Nurse Attrition: Use of an Exit-Interview Procedure To Determine Students' Leaving Reasons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glossop, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Attrition from a nursing program in Wales was studied through exit interviews with 105 students who left from 1996-1999. Academic difficulties, wrong career choice, and family, health, and financial problems were key reasons. Almost half had at least two reasons for leaving, suggesting a complex interplay of factors. (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  4. Riverside: A Case Study of Social Capital and Cultural Reproduction and Their Relationship to Leadership Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharakis, Jeff; Flora, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This case study research is based on a 3-year project (1996-1999) in which Iowa State University Extension developed and implemented a long-term community development project based on strengthening social capital using participatory research. The results of this mapping were initially interpreted as indicating a high level of social capital, but…

  5. Women in Vocational Education and Training: An Analysis of 1996 and 1999 Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Oanh

    The participation of women in vocational education and training (VET) in Australia in 1996-1999 was examined. Data for the analysis were obtained from annual national VET data collections and relevant reports. The analysis focused on the following areas: general trends, fields of study, qualifications, areas of learning, module outcomes,…

  6. Effects of Focused Feedback on the Acquisition of Two English Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kao, Chian-Wen

    2013-01-01

    It has been debated whether teachers should treat students' grammatical errors in second language writing instruction (Truscott, 1996, 1999, 2010; Ferris, 1999, 2004, 2010). Several meta-analyses have investigated correction effects (e.g. Russell & Spada, 2006; Truscott, 2007). Their findings, however, have been conflicting. A recent trend to…

  7. Bovine leukemia virus seroprevalence among cattle presented for slaughter in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) results in economic loss due reduced productivity, especially the reduction of milk production and early culling. In the USA.,USA, previous studies in 1996, 1999 and 2007 showed BLV infections widespread, especially in the dairy herds. The goal of this stud...

  8. [Helminth fauna in insectivores (Mammalia: Insectivora) of canal banks in meliorated territories].

    PubMed

    Shimalov, V V

    2007-01-01

    Helminth fauna of Insectivora was investigated in canal banks situated in meliorated territories of Belorussian Polesie during 1996-1999. Thirty-three helminth species were found in the animals examined. Most of the parasites are usual in common shrew Sorex araneus L., which is a predominate insectivore species in canal banks.

  9. Inhibition of Embryonic Genes to Control Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Russia BIFIP, Russia UAB, Alabama B.S./M.S. Ph.D. Postdoctoral training 1982 1997 1999- 2000 Biology/Biochemistry Biology... Biotechnology Gene Therapy RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: Concluding with present position, list in chronological order, previous employment...Biology, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russia 1992-1996 Research Scientist 1996-1999 Senior Research Scientist, Laboratory of

  10. EVALUATION OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH PREDOMINANTLY DOMESTIC INPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to survey estrogenic releases from two primarily domestic wastewater treatment plants over three seasons (1996-1999). Mature male channel catfish were maintained at two sites within each WWTP and a reference site for 21 days. Estrogenic activity of e...

  11. Why (Urban) Mathematics Teachers Need Political Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez, Rochelle

    2013-01-01

    Rochelle Gutiérrez has spent 15 years researching effective, urban high school mathematics departments that served Black, Latin@ and low-income adolescents (see, e.g., Gutiérrez, 1996, 1999a, 1999b, 2000, 2002). These were schools where students took more mathematics than was required by their district; where English learners, recent immigrants,…

  12. Compliance and Support for Smoke-Free School Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, D. R.; Gilpin, E. A.; Pierce, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to examine factors associated with compliance and support for a smoke-free campus before and after a 1995 campus-wide smoking ban for everyone, including teachers and visitors, in California. Adolescent (12-17 years) data from the 1993, 1996, 1999 and 2002 (N approximately 6000 each year) California Tobacco Surveys…

  13. Effects of Professional Development on Teachers' Instruction: Results from a Three-year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura M.; Porter, Andrew C.; Garet, Michael S.; Yoon, Kwang Suk; Birman, Beatrice F.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of professional development on teachers' instruction using a purposeful sample of about 207 teachers across 5 states for 1996-1999. Professional development focused on specific instructional practices increased teachers' use of those practices in the classroom, and specific features, such as active learning opportunities,…

  14. The National Strategic Plan and Action Agenda for Agricultural Education: Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020. Creating the Preferred Future for Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Agricultural Education, Alexandria, VA.

    The Reinventing Agricultural Education for the Year 2020 initiative, a project conducted during 1996-1999 with a diverse group of more than 10,000 people from across the United States, resulted in this strategic plan designed to achieve the mission set by the initiative. That mission has a two-part focus: preparing students for career success in…

  15. Implementing Learning Communities in American Higher Education: A Meta-Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noga, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Using meta-ethnography as a research method, this study identified, organized, and synthesized efforts to implement learning communities at the 19 American colleges and universities that prepared written reports at the conclusion of the 1996-1999 National Learning Communities Dissemination Project (FIPSE). The researcher used 10 research questions…

  16. What's New in Chapter Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Glenowyn

    Listing 81 chapter books for children published between 1996-1999, this annotated bibliography gives interest level ratings, reading level ratings, a brief summary, and theme assignments. The 13 theme categories listed in alphabetical order include Adventure-Survival, Autobiography-Biography, Death, Divorce, Good Reading, Handicaps, Historical…

  17. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F.

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  18. [Provocative tests in the diagnosis of childhood onset growth hormone insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Jean-Pierre; Correia, Filipa; Cardoso, Helena; Borges, Teresa; Oliveira, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A incidência da deficiência de hormona do crescimento é de 1:4000 a 1:10000, sendo a principal indicação para tratamento com hormona do crescimento recombinante.Objectivos: Avaliar os resultados dos testes de estimulação da hormona do crescimento e identificar factores preditivos para o diagnóstico da deficiência de hormona do crescimento.Material e Métodos: Estudo observacional, analítico e transversal. Foram analisados dados clínicos e auxológicos e os resultados dos exames de diagnóstico de crianças e adolescentes submetidos a testes de estimulação farmacológica da hormona do crescimento (01/01/2008 a 31/05/2012). O diagnóstico definitivo de deficiência de hormona do crescimento foi efectuado mediante dois testes com estímulos farmacológicos diferentes negativos (pico máximo da hormona do crescimento < 7 ng/mL) ou um teste negativo associado à presença de alterações anatómicas da região hipotálamo-hipofisária, observadas na ressonância magnética cerebral. Para análise estatística, foram realizados o testes de t student, do qui- quadrado, correlação de Pearson e a regressão logística. Foi considerado como nível de significância estatística (p) um valor igual ou menor que 0,05.Resultados: Realizaram-se testes de estimulação em 89 doentes, com mediana de idade igual a 10 [3-17] anos, 67% do sexo masculino e 77% pré-púberes. Os fármacos utilizados no primeiro teste de estimulação foram a clonidina (n = 85) e a insulina (n = 4). Foram diagnosticados 22 casos de deficiência de hormona do crescimento. Nos casos submetidos a dois testes, os valores máximos de hormona do crescimento apresentaram uma correlação moderada entre si (r = 0,593, p = 0,01). Verificou-se que as variáveis estatura (z-score) e pico máximo de hormona do crescimento obtido no primeiro teste têm valor preditivo no diagnóstico de deficiência de hormona do crescimento.Discussão: A determinação do IGF-1 não demonstrou ser

  19. Prince Edward Island Heart Health Dissemination Research Project: establishing a sustainable community mobilization initiative.

    PubMed

    White, R; Mitchell, T; Gyorfi-Dyke, E; Sweet, L; Hebert, R; Moase, O; MacPhee, R; MacDonald, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Prince Edward Island Heart Health Program (PEIHHP) Dissemination Research Project. Prince Edward Island (PEI) is a small province in the Atlantic region of Canada with a population of 137,980. The Island's economy is dependent on the fishery, agriculture, and tourism industries. Although unemployment rates are high (14.4%), Prince Edward Island has the lowest poverty rate in the country at 15.2%, high levels of social support (86%), and the second lowest rate of high chronic stress (Report on the Health of Canadians, 1996, 1999).

  20. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Bar area of Montenegro (Yugoslavia).

    PubMed

    Ivović, V; Ivović, M; Miscević, Z

    2003-03-01

    The species and ecology of sandflies present in the coastal district of Bar, which lies in Montenegro, an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), were investigated in 1996-1999. A mean of 10 cases of VL and a greater number of viral infections (some of which are attributed to pathogens transmitted by sandflies) are diagnosed each year in this district. Phlebotomus papatasi, P. perfiliewi, P. tobbi, P. neglectus and Sergentomyia minuta were collected, P. perfiliewi being recorded for the first time in Montenegro. The ecology and distribution of each of these five species are described and their role, if any, in the transmission of Leishmania to humans is discussed.

  1. Notes and Discussion: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Granfors, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    White-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

  2. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) predation on grassland songbird nestlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Granfors, Diane A.

    2000-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were videotaped depredating four songbird nests in grassland habitats in southeastern and northcentral North Dakota, 1996-1999. Deer ate two Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), two grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), one clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), one red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) and three brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestlings. Deer removed nestlings quickly (5-19 sec/nest) at night (22:00 to 05:17 Central Daylight Time) and left no evidence of predation. Although probably opportunistic, deer predations clearly were deliberate and likely are more common than generally believed.

  3. Dwarf galaxies: quantity and varietyÂ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cellone, S. A.; Buzzoni, A.

    The structural properties and stellar populations of 79 low- and intermediate-luminosity galaxies in the NGC5044 Group are analized. The galaxies in the sample are re-classified into different morphological subgroups, with emphasis on the identification of objects showing a bulge+disk structure. The behaviour of their properties against their (projected) position within the group is addressed, looking for evidences for possible environmental effects. The observations were obtained at ESO (1999-2000) and CASLEO (1996-1999). Nearly 50% of the data presented here are new. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  4. First record of Megacydnus secundus J. A. Lis, 2002, a representative of Afrotropical endemic burrower bug genus from Uganda, and an annotated checklist of Ugandan Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    PubMed

    Lis, Jerzy A; Lis, Barbara

    2014-05-14

    The Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea) is a true bug family with almost 700 species distributed worldwide (Lis 1996, 1999, 2006). These bugs usually dig in the ground (e.g., sand, soil, litter) and, therefore, are commonly known as the burrower bugs or burrowing bugs. Digging in the ground is possible because of several morphological adaptations, including well-developed tibial combs (Lis and Schaefer 2005), coxal combs (Lis 2010), and strong hair-like and peg-like setae on the head margins in larval and adult stages (Lis and Pluot-Sigwalt 2002) (see: Fig. 1A).

  5. PREVALENCE OF AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS AND THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN HEALTHY ADULT MEXICANS WITH A SLIGHTLY EXCESSIVE IODINE INTAKE.

    PubMed

    Flores-Rebollar, Armando; Moreno-Castañeda, Lidia; Vega-Servín, Norman S; López-Carrasco, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Juvera, Aída

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de tiroiditis autoinmune y disfunción tiroidea en individuos sanos sin enfermedad tiroidea conocida, de un área urbana de la ciudad de México. Material y métodos: el estudio se realizó en voluntarios sin enfermedad tiroidea conocida. Se reclutaron 427 individuos entre personal médico y administrativo del hospital. A todos se les realizó ultrasonido (US) tiroideo, TSH, T4 libre (FT4), T3 total (TT3), anticuerpos anti-peroxidasa tiroidea (TPOAb) y anti tiroglobulina (TgAb). Dentro de la evaluación por US se incluyó la hipoecogenicidad y el volumen tiroideo. También se midió la excreción urinaria de yodo (UI). Resultados: la frecuencia de tiroiditis autoinmune fue de 8,4% (36/427), las mujeres fueron más afectadas que los hombres (11,6 vs. 4,3%, respectivamente, P = 0,008), cuando se sumó la tiroides atrófica, esta frecuencia se elevó al 15,7% (67/427) de los estudiados. El hipotiroidismo clínico fue detectado en el 1,2% (5/427) y el subclínico en el 5,6%. El hipertiroidismo clínico solo se observó en el 0,5% (2/427) y el subclínico en el 1,9%. El bocio se identificó en el 5,9% (25/427) de los voluntarios. La mediana de la UI fue de 267 μg/L, RIQ (161,3 – 482,5). Conclusiones: a pesar de las limitaciones de nuestro estudio, es clara la frecuencia incrementada de tiroiditis autoinmune en la población estudiada. Son necesarios más estudios que definan tanto la prevalencia de enfermedad tiroidea autoinmune como el estatus nutricional de yodo actual en nuestro país.

  6. A case study of carbon fluxes from land change in the southwest Brazilian Amazon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, K.; Rogan, J.; Eastman, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, land change is responsible for one-fifth of anthropogenic carbon emissions. In Brazil, three-quarters of carbon emissions originate from land change. This study represents a municipal-scale study of carbon fluxes from vegetation in Rio Branco, Brazil. Land-cover maps of pasture, forest, and secondary growth from 1993, 1996, 1999, and 2003 were produced using an unsupervised classification method (overall accuracy = 89%). Carbon fluxes from land change over the decade of imagery were estimated from transitions between land-cover categories for each time interval. This article presents new methods for estimating emissions reductions from carbon stored in the vegetation that replaces forests (e.g., pasture) and sequestration by new (>10-15 years) forests, which reduced gross emissions by 16, 15, and 22% for the period of 1993-1996, 1996-1999, and 1999-2003, respectively. The methods used in the analysis are broadly applicable and provide a comprehensive characterization of regional-scale carbon fluxes from land change.

  7. [Serum hormones that regulate the reproductive axis in men with testicular germ cell cancer and its impact on fertility].

    PubMed

    Tovar-Rodríguez, José María; Chávez-Zúñiga, Irma; Bañuelos-Ávila, Leticia; Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: los estudios epidemiológicos tratan al cáncer germinal de testículo como una sola patología, el comportamiento de los dos tipos histológicos: el seminoma y no seminoma tienen diferencias en la secreción de hormonas reproductivas y alteran la fertilidad de forma diferente. Objetivo: demostrar que la concentración sérica de las hormonas hipofisarias que intervienen en la fertilidad y espermatogénesis en el varón afectado es diferente en los dos tipos histológicos. Material y métodos: estudio clínico, prospectivo, transversal, comparativo de tres grupos de pacientes. Por medio de radioinmunoensayo o ensayo inmunorradiométrico se determinaron las concentraciones de: hormona luteinizante, hormona folículo estimulante, testosterona total, prolactina, estradiol, gonadotropina coriónica humana y alfa feto proteína en suero de 37 pacientes (15 seminoma, y 22 no seminoma) y 35 controles. Se analizó el semen de los pacientes y se les interrogó acerca de su satisfacción de paternidad antes del diagnóstico de cáncer. Resultados: los pacientes con cáncer tipo seminoma fueron de mayor edad, se encontró disminución de: hormona luteinizante, hormona folículo estimulante y testosterona; aumento de: estradiol y prolactina en cáncer no seminoma, en comparación con seminoma. En los pacientes con no seminoma 9 ya tenían hijos, 5 eran oligozoospérmicos, 3 azoospérmicos y 6 con concentración normal 8 no proporcionaron muestra; en el grupo de seminona, 8 ya tenían hijos, sólo 1 azoospérmico; 9 concentración normal, y 5 no proporcionaron muestra. Conclusiones: el comportamiento hormonal es diferente en los hombres con cáncer no seminoma en comparación con los de seminoma, por lo que la repercusión negativa en el eje reproductor y fertilidad es mayor en los casos de no seminoma.

  8. [Alterations of the thyroid function in patients with morbid obesity].

    PubMed

    Montoya-Morales, Danely Sabelia; de los Ángeles Tapia-González, María; Alamilla-Lugo, Lisndey; Sosa-Caballero, Alejandro; Muñoz-Solís, Andrés; Jiménez-Sánchez, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: La obesidad mórbida (IMC greater than or equal to 40 kg/m2) se asocia con disfunción del eje hipotálamo-hipófisis- tiroides, presentando elevación de tirotropina (TSH), de la triyodotironina (T3) total y libre, sospechando de una auténtica afección tiroidea. El objetivo fue describir las alteraciones en la función tiroidea en pacientes con obesidad mórbida, determinando niveles séricos de TSH, T3 total, T4 libre y anticuerpos antiperoxidasa (TPO).Métodos: estudio prospectivo, descriptivo, observacional y transversal, incluyó 52 pacientes con obesidad mórbida de la clínica de obesidad del departamento de Endocrinología, de enero del 2009 a julio del 2011. Se excluyeron pacientes con alteraciones tiroideas conocidas y/o bajo el uso de levotiroxina u otro medicamento que cause alteración en el perfil tiroideo. El análisis estadístico se realizó con medidas de tendencia central, frecuencias simples, porcentajes y se realizó correlación de Spearman.Resultados: la prevalencia de hipotiroidismo primario fue de 8 %, hipotiroidismo subclínico en 6 % y las alteraciones en el perfil tiroideo secundarias a obesidad del 23 % (elevación de TSH y/o T3 total con T4 libre normal y anticuerpos TPO negativos).Conclusiones: la mayoría de los pacientes con obesidad mórbida no presentan disfunción tiroidea autoinmune, las alteraciones en el perfil tiroideo son causadas por un efecto de homeostasis frente a la obesidad y pueden ser corregidas al disminuir de peso.

  9. [Programme review of somatropin deficit in pediatrics at the Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío].

    PubMed

    Lavaredas, A; de la Puerta, R; Álvarez del Vayo, C

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una revisión del programa de déficit de somatropina aplicado en pediatría en el Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, utilizando dos grupos de pacientes, los diagnosticados con déficit de esta hormona y los nacidos pequeños para edad gestacional, con la intención de evaluar su efectividad en el primer año de tratamiento. Método: Realización de un estudio retrospectivo de la cohorte de pacientes en tratamiento con la hormona del crecimiento bajo los diagnósticos mencionados, con metodología observacional y transversal, a los cuales se aplicó un análisis estadístico con el programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences®. Resultados: Tras inicio del tratamiento la velocidad de crecimiento y la talla aumentaron y la edad ósea se aproximó a la edad cronológica. En los dos grupos tratados, en el primer año de tratamiento fueron los pacientes del sexo femenino con edad comprendida entre los 0 a 12 años con déficit de la hormona del crecimiento que respondieron mejor a la terapéutica establecida. Conclusiones: Pudimos observar que el tratamiento instituido se presentó altamente efectivo en ambos grupos de pacientes, permitiendo obtener un aumento favorable de estatura.

  10. [Hypothyroidism incidence and thyrotropin serum levels in newborns].

    PubMed

    Topete-González, Luz Rosalba; Ramirez-Garcia, Sergio Alberto; Macías-López, Griselda Guadalupe; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Ramos-Ramírez, Irma Mirella; Elizondo-Rueda, María Elizabeth Margarita; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory; González-Gamez, Jaime Guillermo; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: el hipotiroidismo congénito ocupa el tercer lugar de las enfermedades hereditarias subclínicas en México. Los neonatos con hipofunción total o parcial de la glándula tiroides presentan concentraciones altas de la tirotropina, lo que permite identificar los casos probables con riesgo para desarrollar hipotiroidismo mediante las pruebas de tamiz. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la incidencia de hipotiroidismo congénito neonatal en los recién nacidos y establecer el valor de corte en el ensayo de la prueba de tamiz. Métodos: se procesaron 4049 muestras de sangre de cordón umbilical de recién nacidos. Se cuantificó la hormona estimulante de la tiroides mediante ELISA. A los niños con valores elevados se les realizó la prueba confirmatoria mediante ensayo inmunoenzimático de micropartículas. Resultados: se identificó una incidencia de hipotiroidismo de 1.2 por cada 1000 recién nacidos. El valor de corte para la hormona estimulante de la tiroides fue de 26.63 mUI/L en la prueba de tamiz. Conclusiones: los valores de la hormona estimulante de la tiroides mostraron una distribución diferente a los de otras investigaciones en población mexicana, así como una incidencia más elevada de hipotiroidismo.

  11. Survey of rotavirus infection in a Hungarian paediatric hospital. A short communication.

    PubMed

    Bányai, K; Sas, Yvette; Varga, L; Szucs, G

    2004-01-01

    In anticipation of a future vaccination program against rotavirus disease, a longitudinal survey has been set up to evaluate the epidemiologic features of rotavirus infections. In this report hospitalisation data and serotyping results are compiled from an epidemiologic survey conducted in Baranya County, Hungary. It was found that rotavirus-associated hospitalisation constituted a major part of infectious gastroenteritis cases (range, 14.9% to 28.5%). A higher proportion of rotavirus-positive cases was recorded when the serotype of predominant strains changed from G1 (1996-1999) to G4 (1999-2000), however, due to the short time period it was not possible to demonstrate a firm association between serotype prevalence and rotavirus-associated hospitalisation rate. In the future, such studies might help to understand if serotype-specific immunity against rotavirus infection plays an important role at the population level and if (re-)emerging rotavirus strains make an impact on the annual disease burden.

  12. An Overview of hydrogen production from KRW oxygen-blown gasification with carbon dioxide recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R. D.; Brockmeier, N. F.; Molburg, J. C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Chess, K. L.

    2000-08-31

    All the process elements are commercially available to operate coal gasification so that it can produce electricity, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide while delivering the same quantity of power as without H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} recovery. To assess the overall impact of such a scheme, a full-energy cycle must be investigated (Figure 1). Figure 2 is a process flow diagram for a KRW oxygen-blown integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant that produces electricity, H{sub 2}, and supercritical CO{sub 2}. This system was studied in a full-energy cycle analysis, extending from the coal mine to the final destination of the gaseous product streams [Doctor et al. 1996, 1999], on the basis of an earlier study [Gallaspy et al. 1990]. The authors report the results of updating these studies to use current turbine performance.

  13. Tropical Tropospheric Ozone: A Multi-Satellite View From TOMS and Other Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Hudson, Robert D.; Guo, Hua; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Kucsera, Tom L.; Seybold, Matthew G.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    New tropospheric ozone and aerosol products from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) satellite instrument can resolve episodic pollution events in the tropics and interannual and seasonal variability. Modified-residual (MR) Nimbus 7 tropical tropospheric ozone (TTO), two maps/month (1979-1992, 1-deg latitude by 2-deg longitude) within the region in which total ozone displays a tropical wave-one pattern (maximum 20S to 20N), are available in digital form at http://metosrv2.umd.edu/tropo. Also available are preliminary 1996-1999 MR-TTO maps based on real-time Earth-Probe (EP)/TOMS observations. Examples of applications are given.

  14. [Military medicine and medicine of accidents].

    PubMed

    Chizh, I M

    2010-09-01

    The article presents an observe of such parts of military medicine as intensive aid and operative treatment on the place of case, contestation against infectious diseases, preservation of psychic health, medical and social rehabilitation. Were lighted successful activity of military physicians during liquidation of Chernobyl accident (1986), earthquakes in Armenia (1988), railway accident in Bashkiria (1989) and other accidents. Experience of military medicine (particularly using medical units of special purposes) was used in proving of conception of medicine of accidents, and in organization of medical supply of troops in armed conflicts of restricted scale--in effectuating of antiterrorist operations in Northern Caucasus (1994-1996, 1999-2002), in effectuating of peacemaking operation in Kosovo (1999-2003), natural disasters.

  15. Final Technical Report, Grant DE-FG02-87ER13714, "Fundamental Studies of Metastable Liquids"

    SciTech Connect

    Pablo G. Debenedetti

    2009-03-09

    Grant DE-FG02-87ER13714 supported fundamental work on the physical properties of metastable liquids from 6/1/87 to 4/30/08. Renewal proposals were submitted every three years (1990, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005), and included, in every case, a detailed Final Technical Report on the previous three years. Accordingly, the bulk of this report covers the final 2-year period 5/1/06 to 4/30/08 of this grant, which is not covered in any of the previous Final Technical Reports. This is preceded by a brief overview of the main research objectives and principal accomplishments during these very fruitful and productive 21 years of DOE-funded research.

  16. Characterization of yield reduction in Ethiopia using a GIS-based crop water balance model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.

    2003-01-01

    In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, subsistence agriculture is characterized by significant fluctuations in yield and production due to variations in moisture availability to staple crops. Widespread drought can lead to crop failures, with associated deterioration in food security. Ground data collection networks are sparse, so methods using geospatial rainfall estimates derived from satellite and gauge observations, where available, have been developed to calculate seasonal crop water balances. Using conventional crop production data for 4 years in Ethiopia (1996-1999), it was found that water-limited and water-unlimited growing regions can be distinguished. Furthermore, maize growing conditions are also indicative of conditions for sorghum. However, another major staple, teff, was found to behave sufficiently differently from maize to warrant studies of its own.

  17. Occupational exposures of nuclear power plant workers in Finland.

    PubMed

    Alm-Lytz, K; Riihiluoma, V; Hyvönen, H

    2001-01-01

    In Finland, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) maintains a central dose register where all occupational doses of radiation workers are recorded. The computerised register enables easy control of personal doses, including annual, 5 year and lifetime doses. The type of radiation work is also recorded in the dose register. Finland was one of the first countries in the world to introduce dose limits based on the recommendations of ICRP 60. In this article, the radiation dose data of the Finnish nuclear power plant workers are analysed. The majority of the radiation doses are received during the maintenance outages. The trend of the 5 year doses and their distribution are presented. Doses received during different work assignments were averaged over the years 1996-1999 and they are also discussed in this article.

  18. Pacific and Atlantic Ocean influences on multidecadal drought frequency in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Palecki, M.A.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    More than half (52%) of the spatial and temporal variance in multidecadal drought frequency over the conterminous United States is attributable to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). An additional 22% of the variance in drought frequency is related to a complex spatial pattern of positive and negative trends in drought occurrence possibly related to increasing Northern Hemisphere temperatures or some other unidirectional climate trend. Recent droughts with broad impacts over the conterminous U.S. (1996, 1999-2002) were associated with North Atlantic warming (positive AMO) and north-eastern and tropical Pacific cooling (negative PDO). Much of the long-term predictability of drought frequency may reside in the multidecadal behavior of the North Atlantic Ocean. Should the current positive AMO (warm North Atlantic) conditions persist into the upcoming decade, we suggest two possible drought scenarios that resemble the continental-scale patterns of the 1930s (positive PDO) and 1950s (negative PDO) drought.

  19. Influence of contaminated drinking water on perfluoroalkyl acid levels in human serum--A case study from Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Berger, Urs; Sundström, Maria; McCleaf, Philip; Eurén, Karin; Eriksson, Sara; Ahlgren, Sven; Lignell, Sanna; Aune, Marie; Kotova, Natalia; Glynn, Anders

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 a contamination of drinking water with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was uncovered in the City of Uppsala, Sweden. The aim of the present study was to determine how these substances have been distributed from the contamination source through the groundwater to the drinking water and how the drinking water exposure has influenced the levels of PFAAs in humans over time. The results show that PFAA levels in groundwater measured 2012-2014 decreased downstream from the point source, although high ΣPFAA levels (>100ng/L) were still found several kilometers from the point source in the Uppsala aquifer. The usage of aqueous film forming fire-fighting foams (AFFF) at a military airport in the north of the city is probably an important contamination source. Computer simulation of the distribution of PFAA-contaminated drinking water throughout the City using a hydraulic model of the pipeline network suggested that consumers in the western and southern parts of Uppsala have received most of the contaminated drinking water. PFAA levels in blood serum from 297 young women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled during 1996-1999 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. Significantly higher concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found among women who lived in districts modeled to have received contaminated drinking water compared to unaffected districts both in 1996-1999 and 2008-2011, indicating that the contamination was already present in the late 1990s. Isomer-specific analysis of PFHxS in serum showed that women in districts with contaminated drinking water also had an increased percentage of branched isomers. Our results further indicate that exposure via contaminated drinking water was the driving factor behind the earlier reported increasing temporal trends of PFBS and PFHxS in blood serum from young women in Uppsala.

  20. Transient hyperthyroidism after total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Salazar Thieroldt, Eduardo; Boado Lama, Jorge; Molinero Abad, Sheila; Miján de la Torre, Alberto

    2014-10-24

    Introducción: La tiroitidis postquirúrgica es una complicación de la laringectomía total (TL) y pueden ser causada por manipulación de la glándula. Existen descripciones aisladas en la literatura referentes a hipertiroidismo transitorio (HT) en el postoperatorio de cirugía de cabeza y cuello. El objetivo del presente estudio es relacionar la frecuencia de HT tras TL y evaluar su relación con el procedimiento quirúrgico. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva. Se incluyeron 44 pacientes y se estratificaron en Grupo 1 (TL y faringectomía), y grupo 2 (TL y disección cervical). Se midió la función tiroidea postoperatoria a todos los pacientes. Los resultados fueron analizados con el test de chi cuadrado con corrección de Yates y OR (p.

  1. Calibration of remotely sensed, coarse resolution NDVI to CO2 fluxes in a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, B.K.; Johnson, D.A.; Laca, Emilio; Saliendra, Nicanor Z.; Gilmanov, T.G.; Reed, B.C.; Tieszen, L.L.; Worstell, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon flux can be partitioned into gross primary productivity (GPP) and respiration (R). The contribution of remote sensing and modeling holds the potential to predict these components and map them spatially and temporally. This has obvious utility to quantify carbon sink and source relationships and to identify improved land management strategies for optimizing carbon sequestration. The objective of our study was to evaluate prediction of 14-day average daytime CO2 fluxes (Fday) and nighttime CO2 fluxes (Rn) using remote sensing and other data. Fday and Rn were measured with a Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB) technique in a sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-steppe ecosystem in northeast Idaho, USA, during 1996-1999. Micrometeorological variables aggregated across 14-day periods and time-integrated Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (iNDVI) were determined during four growing seasons (1996-1999) and used to predict Fday and Rn. We found that iNDVI was a strong predictor of Fday (R2 = 0.79, n = 66, P < 0.0001). Inclusion of evapotranspiration in the predictive equation led to improved predictions of Fday (R2= 0.82, n = 66, P < 0.0001). Crossvalidation indicated that regression tree predictions of Fday were prone to overfitting and that linear regression models were more robust. Multiple regression and regression tree models predicted Rn quite well (R2 = 0.75-0.77, n = 66) with the regression tree model being slightly more robust in crossvalidation. Temporal mapping of Fday and Rn is possible with these techniques and would allow the assessment of NEE in sagebrush-steppe ecosystems. Simulations of periodic Fday measurements, as might be provided by a mobile flux tower, indicated that such measurements could be used in combination with iNDVI to accurately predict Fday. These periodic measurements could maximize the utility of expensive flux towers for evaluating various carbon

  2. Macro determinants of cause-specific injury mortality in the OECD countries: an exploration of the importance of GDP and unemployment.

    PubMed

    Muazzam, Sana; Nasrullah, Muazzam

    2011-08-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and unemployment has a strong documented impact on injury mortality. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship of GDP per capita and unemployment with gender- and cause-specific injury mortalities in the member nations of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Country-based data on injury mortality per 100,000 population, including males and females aged 1-74, for the 4 year period 1996-1999, were gathered from the World Health Organization's Statistical Information System. We selected fourteen cause-specific injury mortalities. Data on GDP, unemployment rate and population growth were taken from World Development Indicators. GDP and unemployment rate per 100 separately were regressed on total and cause-specific injury mortality rate per 100,000 for males and females. Overall in the OECD countries, GDP per capita increased 12.5% during 1996-1999 (P = 0.03) where as unemployment rate decreased by 12.3% (P = 0.05). Among males, most cause-specific injury mortality rates decreased with increasing GDP except motor vehicle traffic crashes (MTC) that increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.75; P < 0.001). Similar trend was found in females, except suicidal injury mortalities that also increased with increasing GDP (coefficient = 0.31; P = 0.04). When we modeled cause-specific injury mortality rates with unemployment, injuries due to firearm missiles (coefficient = 0.53; P < 0.001), homicide (coefficient = 0.36; P < 0.001), and other violence (coefficient = 0.41; P < 0.001) increased with increase in unemployment rate among males. However, among females only accidental falls (coefficient = 0.36; P = 0.01) were found significantly associated with increasing unemployment rate. GDP is more related to cause-specific injury mortality than unemployment. Injury mortality does not relate similarly to each diagnosis-specific cause among males and females. Further research on

  3. Survival of wood duck ducklings and broods in Mississippi and Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.B.; Cox, R.R.; Kaminski, R.M.; Leopold, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    Although North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa) are well-studied throughout their range, researchers know little about demographic and environmental factors influencing survival of ducklings and broods, which is necessary information for population management. We studied radiomarked female and duckling wood ducks that used nest boxes and palustrine wetlands at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge (NNWR) in Mississippi, USA, in 1996-1999, and riverine wetlands of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Rivers and Waterway (TTRW) system in Alabama in 1998-1999. We estimated survival of ducklings and broods and evaluated potentially important predictors of duckling survival, including age and body mass of brood-rearing females, hatch date of ducklings, duckling mass, brood size at nest departure, inter-day travel distance by ducklings, site and habitat use, and daily minimum air temperature and precipitation. At NNWR, survival of 300 radiomarked ducklings ranged from 0.15 (95% CI = 0.04-0.27) to 0.24 (95% CI = 0.13-0.38) and was 0.21 (95% CI = 0.15-0.28) for 1996-1999. Our overall estimate of brood survival was 0.64 (n = 91; 95% CI = 0.54-0.73). At TTRW, survival of 129 radiomarked ducklings was 0.29 in 1998 (95% CI = 0.20-0.41) and 1999 (95% CI = 0.13-0.45) and was 0.29 (95% CI = 0.20-0.40) for 1998-1999. Our overall estimate of brood survival was 0.71 (n = 38; 95% CI = 0.56-0.85). At NNWR, models that included all predictor variables best explained variation in duckling survival. Akaike weight (wi) for the best model was 0.81, suggesting it was superior to other models (<0.01 ??? wi ???0.18). We detected 4 competing models for duckling survival at TTRW. Inter-day distance traveled by ducklings was important as this variable appeared in all 4 models; duckling survival was positively related to this variable. Patterns of habitat-related survival were similar at both study areas. Ducklings in broods that used scrub-shrub habitats disjunct from wetlands containing aggregations of nest

  4. [Chronic hypocalcemia due to anti-calcium sensing receptor antibodies].

    PubMed

    Marques, Pedro; Santos, Rita; Cavaco, Branca; Leite, Valeriano

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O hipoparatiroidismo cursa com hipocalcemia e é mais frequentemente registado após cirurgia cervical. A etiologia autoimune é mais rara e difícil de diagnosticar. Caso clínico: Mulher, 52 anos, sem antecedentes pessoais, medicamentosos ou familiares relevantes, referenciada por hipocalcemia e calcificação dos núcleos da base, detetados no decurso de investigação de quadro de mialgias. Além de hipocalcemia (4,6 mg/dL), foi verificada hiperfosfatemia (8,7 mg/dL), hormona paratiroideia indetetável, calciúria, fosfatúria e magnesúria baixas. A análise molecular do gene CaSR excluiu mutações germinais. A pesquisa de anticorpos anti-receptor sensível do cálcio (anti-CaSR) foi positiva. Atualmente está assintomática e normocalcémica sob terapêutica com cálcio e vitamina D. Discussão: Embora rara, a hipocalcemia por hipoparatiroidismo autoimune deve ponderar-se em adultos sem antecedentes de cirurgia cervical, medicação hipocalcemiante, história familiar ou fenótipo sugestivo de doença genética. Hormona paratiroideia diminuída ou indetetável exclui pseudohipoparatiroidismo e a positividade para anti-CaSR confirma o diagnóstico.

  5. Genetic Analysis of Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka), 2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Joyce; Powell, Madison

    2003-12-01

    A total of 1720 Oncorhynchus nerka tissue samples from 40 populations were characterized using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms). Analysis of anadromous sockeye populations indicated the historical presence of four major maternal lineages. Thirty-five composite mitochondrial haplotypes were observed from the 40 populations of O. nerka sampled throughout the Pacific Northwest. Six of these composite haplotypes ranged in frequency from 7-26% overall and were commonly observed in most populations. The six haplotypes together comprised 90% of the sampled O. nerka. An average of 4.6 composite haplotypes were observed per population. Genetic markers used were satisfactory in separating Redfish Lake anadromous sockeye, residual sockeye and outmigrants from the sympatric kokanee population that spawns in the Fishhook Creek tributary. Outmigrants appear to be primarily composed of progeny from resident residual sockeye, and captively-reared progeny of the captive broodstock program. Thus, residual sockeye may be considered a suitable source of genetic variation to maintain genetic diversity among captive broodstocks of anadromous sockeye. Fishhook Creek kokanee are genetically diverse and during spawning, are temporally and spatially isolated from the residual sockeye population. Eleven composite haplotypes were observed in the kokanee population. The unusually high number of haplotypes is most likely a consequence of periodic stocking of Redfish Lake with kokanee from other sources. Genetic data from Redfish Lake creel samples taken during 1996-1999 putatively indicate the incidental take of a listed resident sockeye.

  6. Rhythmic oscillations in quantitative EEG measured during a continuous performance task.

    PubMed

    Arruda, James E; Zhang, Hongmei; Amoss, R Toby; Coburn, Kerry L; Aue, William R

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine if cyclic variations in human performance recorded during a 30 min continuous performance task would parallel cyclic variations in right-hemisphere beta-wave activity. A fast fourier transformation was performed on the quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) and the performance record of each participant (N = 62), producing an individual periodogram for each outcome measure. An average periodogram was then produced for both qEEG and performance by combining (averaging) the amplitudes associated with each periodicity in the 62 original periodograms. Periodicities ranging from 1.00 to 2.00 min and from 4.70 to 5.70 min with amplitudes greater than would be expected due to chance were retained (Smith et al. 2003). The results of the present investigation validate the existence of cyclic variations in human performance that have been identified previously (Smith et al. 2003) and extend those findings by implicating right-hemisphere mediated arousal in the process (Arruda et al. 1996, 1999, 2007). Significant cyclic variations in left-hemisphere beta-wave activity were not observed. Taken together, the findings of the present investigation support a model of sustained attention that predicts cyclic changes in human performance that are the result of cyclic changes in right-hemisphere arousal.

  7. GCIP Water and Energy Budget Synthesis (WEBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roads, J. O.

    2002-12-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP's) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) has been developed from the "best available" observations and models for the period 1996-1999. This WEBS includes a general description of the Mississippi River Basin climate, physiographic characteristics, available observations, representative types of models used for GCIP investigations, and a comparison of water and energy variables and budgets from models and observations. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is also available to the interested researcher. Observations cannot adequately "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are required for overall descriptions of the budgets. Models will also be needed for eventual predictions of these water and energy processes. Therefore, different classes of models have also been compared with available observations. The comparison includes a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model. There does appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin budgets. There also appears to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets.

  8. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, K.; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder Haar, T.; VöRöSmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-08-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 from the "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets.

  9. Applying downscaled global climate model data to a hydrodynamic surface-water and groundwater model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric; Stefanova, Lydia; Smith, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation data from Global Climate Models have been downscaled to smaller regions. Adapting this downscaled precipitation data to a coupled hydrodynamic surface-water/groundwater model of southern Florida allows an examination of future conditions and their effect on groundwater levels, inundation patterns, surface-water stage and flows, and salinity. The downscaled rainfall data include the 1996-2001 time series from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting ERA-40 simulation and both the 1996-1999 and 2038-2057 time series from two global climate models: the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL). Synthesized surface-water inflow datasets were developed for the 2038-2057 simulations. The resulting hydrologic simulations, with and without a 30-cm sea-level rise, were compared with each other and field data to analyze a range of projected conditions. Simulations predicted generally higher future stage and groundwater levels and surface-water flows, with sea-level rise inducing higher coastal salinities. A coincident rise in sea level, precipitation and surface-water flows resulted in a narrower inland saline/fresh transition zone. The inland areas were affected more by the rainfall difference than the sea-level rise, and the rainfall differences make little difference in coastal inundation, but a larger difference in coastal salinities.

  10. Directly observed short course therapy for tuberculosis--a preliminary report of a three-year experience in a teaching hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Erhabor, Gregory E.; Adewole, Olufemi; Adisa, Adewale O.; Olajolo, Olufadeke A.

    2003-01-01

    SETTING: The Chest Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, southwest Nigeria is a referral center for tuberculosis patients in the region. Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) has been in operation in the center since 1996. OBJECTIVE: To review the outcome of patients on DOTS with the aim of determining factors that may influence compliance. METHODS: Tuberculosis patients were placed on different treatment regimens according to the recommendation of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) and the Nigerian Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Program (NTBLCP). The results were recorded and evaluated periodically by the clinic staff under central supervision. The outcome of treatment over a three-year period (1996-1999) was reviewed. RESULTS: Five-hundred-seventy-one patients were treated during this period. Cure/treatment completed rate was 86.1%, and compliance rate was 93.8%. Age, sex category of treatment, and distance from hospital had no significant influence on drug compliance. CONCLUSION: DOTS is an effective means of administering anti-TB drugs. Efforts should be channeled towards developing strategies for implementing DOTS in a more efficient way. PMID:14651375

  11. Quality of dredged material in the River Seine basin (France). I. Physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; Moilleron, R; Beltran, C; Hervé, D; Thévenot, D

    2002-08-05

    In rivers, sediments are frequently accumulating persistent chemicals, especially for those that are more contaminated as a consequence of pressure related to environmental pollution and human activity. The Seine river basin (France) is heavily polluted from nearby industrial activities, and the urban expansion of Paris and its suburbs within the Ile de France region and the sediments present in the Seine river basin are contaminated. To ensure safe, navigable waters, rivers and waterways must be dredged. In this paper, the quality of the sediment dredged in 1996, 1999 and 2000 is discussed. Physico-chemical characteristics of the sediment itself and of the pore-water are presented. Seine basin sediments show very diverse compositions depending on the sampling site. Nevertheless, a geographic distribution study illustrated that the Paris impact is far from being the only explanation to this diversity, the quality of this sediment is also of great concern. The sediment once dredged is transported via barges to a wet disposal site, where the dredged material is mixed with Seine water in order to be pumped into the receiving site. This sort of dumping might be responsible for the potential release of contaminants to the overlying water from the significantly contaminated sediments.

  12. Deformations along the Caribbean - South American Plate Boundary From Nine Years Repeated GPS Observations in the CASA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, H.; Kaniuth, K.; Stuber, K.; Tremel, H.; Hernandez, J. N.; Hoyer, M.

    2002-05-01

    The first GPS observations along the Caribbean - South American plate boundary were carried out within the Central and South American Geodynamics Project (CASA UNO) in 1988. The precision of the results was quite poor due to the imperfect operation of the GPS system at that time. Since 1993 regular re-measurements of more than 20 stations in the eastern part of the network along the Bocono - El Pilar fault system in Venezuela have been performed. The paper presents the continuous deformations derived from the 1993, 1996, 1999 and 2002 complete network observations and some additional partial measurements. The long-term deformations in the order of one to two centimeters per year are now significantly confirmed and may be interpreted in the context of regional plate tectonics and geodynamics. The co-seismic displacements during the Cariaco (Sucre) 1997 earthquake are analyzed separately using detailed GPS observations in 1997. They are discussed as well as the local post-seismic deformations from 1997 to 2002.

  13. Challenges of Fusion Power Plant Licensing: Differences and Commonalities with Existing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    L. El-Guebaly; L. Cadwallader; W. Sowder

    2011-08-01

    At present, there are no regulatory guidelines to follow for US fusion power plant construction and operation. Thus far, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been regulating existing fusion experiments, following the 1996-1999 DOE Fusion Standards and using the spirit of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) code. Considering this reality, a few options emerged for licensing ARIES-type power plants and the like. Developing new fusion-specific regulations stands out as the most logical option, but requires well-coordinated effort between DOE, regulatory agencies, and the fusion community with considerable funding and long lead-time. Nevertheless, a few recent developments seem promising: (1) The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plans to assert regulatory jurisdiction over commercial fusion devices, and (2) the ongoing effort within ASME will develop rules for the construction of fusion-energy-related components. The most recent NRC, ASME and fusion licensing developments are reviewed in this paper. In addition, an interesting comparison with ITER was made to foresee how US fusion power plants could leverage from ITER.

  14. Resilience and stability of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass meadows over the last four decades in a Mediterranean lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Marie; Lafabrie, Céline; Torre, Franck; Fernandez, Catherine; Pasqualini, Vanina

    2013-09-01

    Understanding what controls the capacity of a coastal lagoon ecosystem to recover following climatic and anthropogenic perturbations and how these perturbations can alter this capacity is critical to efficient environmental management. The goal of this study was to examine the resilience and stability of Cymodocea nodosa-dominated seagrass meadows in Urbino lagoon (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) by characterizing the spatio-temporal dynamics of seagrass meadows over a 40-year period and comparing (anthropogenic and climatic) environmental fluctuations. The spatio-temporal evolution of seagrass meadows was investigated using previous maps (1973, 1979, 1990, 1994, 1996, 1999) and a 2011 map realized by aerial photography-remote sensing combined with GIS technology. Environmental fluctuation was investigated via physical-chemical parameters (rainfall, water temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen) and human-impact changes (aquaculture, artificial channel). The results showed a severe decline (estimated at -49%) in seagrass meadows between 1973 and 1994 followed by a period of strong recovery (estimated to +42%) between 1994 and 2011. Increased turbidity, induced either by rainfall events, dredging or phytoplankton growth, emerged as the most important driver of the spatio-temporal evolution of Cymodocea nodosa-dominated meadows in Urbino lagoon over the last four decades. Climate events associated to increased turbidity and reduced salinity and temperature could heavily impact seagrass dynamics. This study shows that Urbino lagoon, a system relatively untouched by human impact, shelters seagrass meadows that exhibit high resilience and stability.

  15. Effect of an exceptional rainfall event on the sea urchin ( Paracentrotus lividus) stock and seagrass distribution in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Catherine; Pasqualini, Vanina; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Johnson, Monique; Ferrat, Lila; Caltagirone, Angela; Mouillot, David

    2006-06-01

    A shallow Mediterranean brackish lagoon (Urbinu, Corsica), 700 ha in surface area, characterized by low freshwater input and permanent communication with the open sea, and therefore by relatively stable salinity (usually 30-38), was subject in late 1993 to an exceptional rainfall event occurring on an average once every 50 years: 450 mm in 48 h (compared to the average annual precipitation of 650 mm). The volume of freshwater that poured into the lagoon corresponds to 36% of its volume. As a result, salinity dramatically dropped while turbidity increased. The seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and other habitats were mapped before (1990) and after (1994, 1996, 1999) the rainfall event, and the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus stock was estimated together with its population structure. In 1994, after the rainfall event, the surface area of seagrass meadows moderately declined, but it cannot be ruled out that this loss may be within their usual inter-annual fluctuations. The sea urchin stock dropped by 50% (6-3 million individuals). Low salinity, turbidity and siltation were probably the reasons for the changes in sea urchin population in addition to variability of dynamic population parameters (e.g. recruitment, mortality). The recovery of sea urchin stock was completed within a few years (six years or less). The high population dynamics and the high recruitment potential of sea urchins may act as a mechanism to maintain sea urchin populations in this highly variable habitat. These results reflect the resilience and high adjustment stability of the system.

  16. Application of the Scenario Planning Process - a Case Study: The Technical Information Department at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, John A.

    2001-11-01

    When the field of modern publishing was on a collision course with telecommunications, publishing organizations had to come up to speed in fields that were, heretofore, completely foreign and technologically forbidding to them. For generations, the technology of publishing centered on offset lithography, typesetting, and photography--fields that saw evolutionary and incremental change from the time of Guttenberg. But publishing now includes making information available over the World Wide Web--Internet publishing--with its ever-accelerating rate of technological change and dependence on computers and networks. Clearly, we need a methodology to help anyone in the field of Internet publishing plan for the future, and there is a well-known, well-tested technique for just this purpose--Scenario Planning. Scenario Planning is an excellent tool to help organizations make better decisions in the present based on what they identify as possible and plausible scenarios of the future. Never was decision making more difficult or more crucial than during the years of this study, 1996-1999. This thesis takes the position that, by applying Scenario Planning, the Technical Information Department at LLNL, a large government laboratory (and organizations similar to it), could be confident that moving into the telecommunications business of Internet publishing stood a very good chance of success.

  17. Update on inflation of journal prices: Brandon/Hill list journals and the scientific, technical, and medical publishing market*

    PubMed Central

    Schlimgen, Joan B.; Kronenfeld, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The original study of journal prices, using the “Brandon/ Hill Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library,” was first published in 1980 and periodically updated. This research continues to measure price increases for these titles for the periods 1996 to 1999 and 1999 to 2002. Methodology: The 111 journal titles that have appeared in each published list from 1967 to 2001 were included in the study. Institutional subscription price data were gathered for each journal for the years 1996, 1999, and 2002 and were compared to the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for the same years. Results: The average journal price continues to rise significantly and is independent of the CPI. The study found that prices have jumped 51.9% from 1996 to 1999 and 32% from 1999 to 2002, which is consistent with nearly every recent journal price study. Conclusion: The unprecedented rise in journal prices negatively affects the purchasing power of medical libraries. This paper examines the economic and technological pressures on the science, technology, and medical journals market that contribute to high prices and identifies a number of initiatives in the biological and health sciences that utilize alternative models for disseminating scientific research. PMID:15243636

  18. Does human capital raise earnings for immigrants in the low-skill labor market?

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Farkas, George

    2008-08-01

    We use monthly Survey of Income and Program Participation data from 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 to estimate the determinants of differentiation in intercepts and slopes for age/earnings profiles of low-skill immigrant and native male workers. Our findings provide further depth of understanding to the "mixed"picture of earnings determination in the low-skill labor market that has been reported by others. On the positive side, many immigrants are employed in similar occupations and industries as natives. Both groups show substantial wage gains over time and generally receive similar returns to years of schooling completed. Immigrants also receive substantial returns to acculturation, measured as age at arrival and English language skill. These results cast doubt on the strong version of segmented labor market theory, in which low-skill immigrants are permanently consigned to dead-end jobs with no wage appreciation. On the negative side, immigrants earn approximately 24% less than natives and are less likely to occupy supervisory and managerial jobs. Latino immigrants receive lower returns to education than do white immigrants. Furthermore, age at arrival and language ability do not explain the lower returns to education experienced by Latino immigrants. These results suggest that Latino immigrants in particular may suffer from barriers to mobility and/or wage discrimination. Whether these negative labor market experiences occur primarily for illegal immigrants remains unknown.

  19. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension.

  20. Tendency for age-specific mortality with hypertension in the European Union from 1980 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Lichan; Pu, Cunying; Shen, Shutong; Fang, Hongyi; Wang, Xiuzhi; Xuan, Qinkao; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Tendency for mortality in hypertension has not been well-characterized in European Union (EU). Mortality data from 1980 to 2011 in EU were used to calculate age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR, per 100,000), annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC). The Joinpoint Regression Program was used to compare the changes in tendency. Mortality rates in the most recent year studied vary between different countries, with the highest rates observed in Slovakia men and Estonia women. A downward trend in ASMR was demonstrated over all age groups. Robust decreases in ASMR were observed for both men (1991-1994, APC = -13.54) and women (1996-1999, APC = -14.80) aged 55-65 years. The tendency of systolic blood pressure (SBP) from 1980 to 2009 was consistent with ASMR, and the largest decrease was observed among Belgium men and France women. In conclusion, SBP associated ASMR decreased significantly on an annual basis from 1980 to 2009 while a slight increase was observed after 2009. Discrepancies in ASMR from one country to another in EU are significant during last three decades. With a better understanding of the tendency of the prevalence of hypertension and its mortality, efforts will be made to improve awareness and help strict control of hypertension. PMID:25932090

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners as markers of toxic equivalents of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Glynn, A W; Atuma, S; Aune, M; Darnerud, P O; Cnattingius, S

    2001-07-01

    In breast milk, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), making PCB analyses less time-consuming and expensive. We searched for PCB "markers" of PCDD/DF concentrations, by studying associations between concentrations of PCB and PCDD/DFs (expressed as toxic equivalents, TEQs) in breast milk from 27 women (primiparas, 22-35 years). These women donated breast milk in 1996-1999 together with 183 other primiparas from Uppsala County, Sweden. Regression analyses showed that both dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like penta- to hepta-chlorinated PCBs could be used as markers of TEQ concentrations in this group of women, in some cases after age adjustment of the regressions. The strong positive association between concentrations of dioxin-like PCB/DD/DFs and non-dioxin-like PCBs will in future epidemiological studies make it difficult to separate Ah receptor-dependent effects from non-Ah receptor-dependent effects. With the use of regression equations and concentrations in breast milk samples collected in 1994, TEQ concentrations were estimated in the 1994 samples. Comparisons between estimated and measured concentrations indicated that associations between concentrations of marker substances and TEQs should be determined separately within each study population, in order to obtain reliable TEQ exposure assessments from PCB markers.

  2. Economic-environmental modeling of point source pollution in Jefferson County, Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Ellene; Schreiner, Dean F; Huluka, Gobena

    2002-05-01

    This paper uses an integrated economic-environmental model to assess the point source pollution from major industries in Jefferson County, Northern Alabama. Industrial expansion generates employment, income, and tax revenue for the public sector; however, it is also often associated with the discharge of chemical pollutants. Jefferson County is one of the largest industrial counties in Alabama that experienced smog warnings and ambient ozone concentration, 1996-1999. Past studies of chemical discharge from industries have used models to assess the pollution impact of individual plants. This study, however, uses an extended Input-Output (I-O) economic model with pollution emission coefficients to assess direct and indirect pollutant emission for several major industries in Jefferson County. The major findings of the study are: (a) the principal emission by the selected industries are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and these contribute to the ambient ozone concentration; (b) the direct and indirect emissions are significantly higher than the direct emission by some industries, indicating that an isolated analysis will underestimate the emission by an industry; (c) while low emission coefficient industries may suggest industry choice they may also emit the most hazardous chemicals. This study is limited by the assumptions made, and the data availability, however it provides a useful analytical tool for direct and cumulative emission estimation and generates insights on the complexity in choice of industries.

  3. Temporal and spatial variation of early mortality syndrome in salmonids from Lakes Michigan and Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolgamood, M.; Hnath, J.G.; Brown, S.B.; Moore, K.; Marcquenski, S.V.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the extent that early mortality syndrome (EMS) impacts different Pacific salmonid stocks and the association of EMS with thiamine, we collected eggs of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch from three Lake Michigan tributaries (Platte River, Thompson Creek, and Root River) in 1996-2001. We also obtained eggs of Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from Lake Michigan (Little Manistee River) and Lake Huron (Swan River) in 1998-2001. Unfertilized eggs from individual females were frozen for thiamine analysis, and the remainder were fertilized and reared until first feeding. We observed a high incidence of EMS in offspring when total egg thiamine levels were less than 1.7 nmol/g in both coho and Chinook salmon. In Lake Michigan strain coho salmon from the Platte River, EMS occurred in more than 70% of monitored families in 1996, 1999, 2000, and 2001, while 1997 and 1998 were years when EMS was low (70%) in 1999, 2000, and 2001. Chinook salmon from Lake Huron exhibited high (>70%) EMS in 2001, moderate (40-60%) EMS in 1999, and low (<25%) EMS in 1998. Our data suggest that the incidence of EMS in salmonids varies by species, location, and year. The data support the general contention that EMS in salmonids is associated with low egg thiamine content. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  4. Marked decline in malaria prevalence among pregnant women and their offspring from 1996 to 2010 on the south Kenyan Coast.

    PubMed

    Kalayjian, Benjamin C; Malhotra, Indu; Mungai, Peter; Holding, Penny; King, Christopher L

    2013-12-01

    Expanded malaria control in Kenya since the early 2000s has resulted in marked reduction in hospital admissions for malaria; however, no studies have reported changes in malaria infection rates in the same population over this period. Randomly selected archived blood samples from four cohorts of pregnant women and their children from 1996 to 2010 in Kwale District, Coast Province, Kenya, were examined for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), P. malariae, P. ovale, and Plasmodium vivax by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopy. Maternal delivery Pf prevalence by PCR declined from 40% in 2000-2005 to 1% in 2009-2010, concordant with increased bed net and malaria chemoprophylaxis use. Individual risk of Pf infection in children from birth to 3 years in serial longitudinal cohort studies declined from almost 100% in 1996-1999 to 15% in 2006-2010. Declines in P. malariae and P. ovale infections rates were also observed. These results show a profound reduction in malaria transmission in coastal Kenya.

  5. Ecotoxicological evaluation of wastewater treatment plant effluent discharges: a case study in Prato (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, E; Galli, S; Limberti, A; Giovannelli, L

    2004-01-01

    Textile wastewaters, which contain numerous chemicals such as dyes, surfactants, solvents, organic and inorganic salts, can cause severe pollution problems for the receiving freshwaters. The ecotoxicity of wastewaters in Prato, where there are about 14,000 textile and related factories, was investigated from 1996-1999 by means of bioassays. 147 samples of reclaimed wastewater were collected at the outlets of 4 centralized wastewater treatment plants. The acute and chronic toxicity of the effluents was measured with bioassays using three different target organisms: green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), crustaceans (Daphnia magna) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri). Toxicity was expressed as Effective Concentration 50 (EC50) and Toxic Units (TU). The results indicated that the effluents did not have significant acute toxicity: only 2.74% (EC50<100%, TU>1) of the 146 samples tested with crustaceans and 6.52% (EC50<50%, TU>2) of the 78 tested with bioluminescent bacteria showed toxic effects. With algae, slight chronic toxicity was found in 49.33% (mean EC50 value=86.56%, mean TU=1.16) of the 140 samples tested. The highest relative response was found with the algal assay using Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata: 49.33% of 140 samples showed chronic toxicity at 96 hours (EC50<100%).

  6. The potential impact of new diagnostic criteria on the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Claesson, Rickard; Ekelund, Magnus; Berntorp, Kerstin

    2013-10-01

    The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) has suggested new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. Many centers in Europe still use the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. In southern Sweden we use the 2-h threshold of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes criteria based on universal screening with a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. We have retrospectively scrutinized oral glucose tolerance tests in a subset of 174 women included in a previous study, diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus 1996-1999. A complete repeat oral glucose tolerance test was performed directly after diagnosis in 120 women. When applying the current Swedish criteria, and the IADPSG and the WHO criteria to the material, gestational diabetes mellitus was confirmed in 67% (80/120), 84% (101/120), and 80% (96/120), respectively. Hence, 26% (101/80) more women were identified by the IADPSG criteria and 20% (96/80) more women by the WHO criteria, compared with the criteria presently in use.

  7. Quality of dredged material in the river Seine basin (France). II. Micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, S; Moilleron, R; Beltran, C; Hervé, D; Thévenot, D

    2002-11-01

    Dredging rivers is needed to ensure safe navigable waters, rivers and waterways. To anticipate the management of dredged materials in the case of the river Seine basin, the quality of the sediments in the river is checked every 3 years before dredging operations. The river Seine Basin is heavily submitted to pollution pressure from nearby industrial activities and urban expansion of Paris and its region. Here, the micropollutant content of the sediment sampled in 1996, 1999 and 2000 before dredging is discussed compared to regulatory standards. The results indicate that most of the sediment samples from the river Seine basin are lightly to moderately contaminated with organic and inorganic micropollutants (heavy metals, PAH, PCB), which makes the management after dredging easier. This pollution is strongly correlated with the organic matter content and to the fine fraction (<50 microm) of the sediment. These results can lead to other management options than the ones already used in the river Seine basin: (1) dumping of lightly to moderately polluted sediments in quarries; and (2) physical treatment (sieving, hydrocycloning) of contaminated sediments issued from 'hot spots'.

  8. Population size, survival, and movements of white-cheeked pintails in Eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collazo, J.A.; Bonilla-Martinez, G.

    2001-01-01

    We estimated numbers and survival of White-cheeked Pintails (Anas bahamensis) in eastern Puerto Rico during 1996-1999. We also quantified their movements between Culebra Island and the Humacao Wildlife Refuge, Puerto Rico. Mark-resight population size estimates averaged 1020 pintails during nine, 3-month sampling periods from January 1997 to June 1999. On average, minimum regional counts were 38 % lower than mark-resight estimates (mean = 631). Adult survival was 0.51 ?? 0.09 (SE). This estimate is similar for other anatids of similar size but broader geographic distribution. The probability of pintails surviving and staying in Humacao was hiher (67 %) than for counterparts on Culebra (31 %). The probability of surviving and moving from Culebra to Humacao (41 %) was higher than from Humacao to Culebra (20 %). These findings, and available information on reproduction, indicate that the Humacao Wildlife Refuge refuge has an important role in the regional demography of pintails. Our findings on population numbers and regional survival are encouraging, given concerns about the species' status due to habitat loss and hunting. However, our outlook for the species is tempered by the remaining gaps in the population dynamics of pintails; for examples, survival estimates of broods and fledglings (age 0-1) are needed for a comprehensive status assessment. Until additional data are obtianed, White-cheeked Pintails should continue to be protectd from hunting in Puerto Rico.

  9. SWORD '99: surveillance of work-related and occupational respiratory disease in the UK.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J D; Holt, D L; Chen, Y; Cherry, N M; McDonald, J C

    2001-05-01

    Systematic reports from chest and occupational physicians under the SWORD and OPRA (Occupational Physicians Reporting Activity) surveillance schemes continue to provide a picture of the incidence of occupational respiratory disease in the UK. An estimated total of 4393 incident cases (comprising 4530 diagnoses) were reported during the 1999 calendar year, an increase of 1427 cases over the previous year. Benign pleural disease was the single most frequently reported condition (28% of all diagnoses reported). Occupational asthma cases (1168; 26%) remained high, as did mesothelioma (1032; 23%). Analysis of trends over the past 8 years shows an increase in mesothelioma cases, but little change in asthma. The annual incidence per 100,000 employed people, 1996-1999, for mesothelioma, lung cancer and pneumoconiosis was high amongst construction workers (28.7), miners and quarrymen (26.5), woodworkers (18.9) and gas, coal and chemical workers (15.2). Trends in mesothelioma incidence by birth cohort continue to show an increase in construction workers and a continuing decline in shipyard and insulation workers. The relative proportion of pneumoconiosis cases attributed to coal mining has fallen steadily in workers born since approximately 1920 and most cases are now in men who have been employed in quarrying and rock drilling.

  10. Learning dementia care in three contexts: practical training in day-care, group dwelling and nursing home.

    PubMed

    Skog, M; Negussie, B; Grafström, M

    2000-07-01

    During the period 1996-1999, 18 licensed practical nurses (LPNs) received specialized training to become caregivers and mentors in the field of dementia care at the Silvia Home Foundation in Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of the study was to illuminate how the trainees utilized their practical training to learn about dementia care. The trainees gained practical training within three care models for elderly persons with dementia. The three forms of care and the context for practical training included the school's integrated day-care, a group dwelling and a nursing home. The findings show that the trainees made use of each training context in a similar fashion but there were differences between the contexts. A perspective of human dignity characterized the day-care. This was an opportunity for the nursing philosophy taught by the programme to be put to practical use, and for reflection and experiences pertaining to the individual patient to be developed. In the group dwelling, the trainees encountered patients with different forms of dementia and studied how the care-giving could be adapted to the individual patient's symptoms - the disease perspective. In the nursing home, the trainees chose a staff perspective in which they focused on organization, management and working conditions as well as staff attitudes and the effects of these factors on patient care.

  11. Diet and gut morphology of male mallards during winter in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, R.E.; Cox, R.R.; Afton, A.D.; Ankney, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    A free-ranging Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) population was investigated during winter (December-January 1996-1999) below the Garrison Dam, North Dakota, USA, to relate diet to gut morphology variation in males. Four explanatory variables (fish consumption, male age, winter, and body size) were evaluated as to whether they influenced five response variables associated with gut characteristics of Mallards. Response variables were lower gastro-intestinal tract mass (LGIT), dry liver mass, dry gizzard mass, small intestine length, and ceca length. Diets of Mallards were comprised primarily of Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) and concomitantly variation in gizzard mass was small. LGIT mass of juveniles was larger than that of adults, greater for those that consumed fish, and greater during the coldest and snowiest winter. Liver mass and small intestine length of Mallards that consumed fish were greater than those that did not. Mallards may maintain lengthy intestines to increase digestive efficiency. Gut size variation was not entirely attributable to dietary composition but also influenced by body size and environmental conditions such that over-winter survival is maximized.

  12. Exposure to motor vehicle emissions: An intake fraction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Julian D.

    2002-05-22

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of population exposure to air pollution. Focusing on California's South Coast Air Basin as a case study, the author combines ambient monitoring station data with hourly time-activity patterns to determine the population intake of motor vehicle emissions during 1996-1999. Three microenvironments are considered wherein the exposure to motor vehicle emissions is higher than in ambient air: in and near vehicles, inside a building that is near a freeway, and inside a residence with an attached garage. Total motor vehicle emissions are taken from the EMFAC model. The 15 million people in the South Coast inhale 0.0048% of primary, nonreactive compounds emitted into the basin by motor vehicles. Intake of motor vehicle emissions is 46% higher than the average ambient concentration times the average breathing rate, because of microenvironments and because of temporal and spatial correlation among breathing rates, concentrations, and population densities. Intake fraction (iF) summarizes the emissions-to-intake relationship as the ratio of population intake to total emissions. iF is a population level exposure metric that incorporates spatial, temporal, and interindividual variability in exposures. iFs can facilitate the calculation of population exposures by distilling complex emissions-transport-receptor relationships. The author demonstrates this point by predicting the population intake of various primary gaseous emissions from motor vehicles, based on the intake fraction for benzene and carbon monoxide.

  13. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Comprehensive progress report, February 1, 1992--July 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1995-07-17

    This research continues the long term goals of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. This program fits into the nuclear medicine component of DOE`s mission, which is aimed at enhancing the beneficial applications of radiation, radionuclides, and stable isotopes in the diagnosis, study and treatment of human diseases. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology/Immunology; and Imaging Physics. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Section under the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 will be employed in the Pharmacology/Immunology component in the period 1996--1999. Imaging Physics resolves relevant imaging related physics issues that arise during the experimentation that results. In addition to the basic research mission, this project also provides a basis for training of research scientists in radiochemistry, immunology, bioengineering and imaging physics.

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J

    2010-01-01

    The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide.

  15. Scientific impact of studies published in temporarily available radiation oncology journals: a citation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nieder, Carsten; Geinitz, Hans; Andratschke, Nicolaus H; Grosu, Anca L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review all articles published in two temporarily available radiation oncology journals (Radiation Oncology Investigations, Journal of Radiosurgery) in order to evaluate their scientific impact. From several potential measures of impact and relevance of research, we selected article citation rate because landmark or practice-changing research is likely to be cited frequently. The citation database Scopus was used to analyse number of citations. During the time period 1996-1999 the journal Radiation Oncology Investigations published 205 articles, which achieved a median number of 6 citations (range 0-116). However, the most frequently cited article in the first 4 volumes achieved only 23 citations. The Journal of Radiosurgery published only 31 articles, all in the year 1999, which achieved a median number of 1 citation (range 0-11). No prospective randomized studies or phase I-II collaborative group trials were published in these journals. Apparently, the Journal of Radiosurgery acquired relatively few manuscripts that were interesting and important enough to impact clinical practice. Radiation Oncology Investigations' citation pattern was better and closer related to that reported in several previous studies focusing on the field of radiation oncology. The vast majority of articles published in temporarily available radiation oncology journals had limited clinical impact and achieved few citations. Highly influential research was unlikely to be submitted during the initial phase of establishing new radiation oncology journals.

  16. DOES EXPOSURE TO STRESSORS PREDICT CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSREGULATION?

    PubMed Central

    Glei, Dana A.; Goldman, Noreen; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Weinstein, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Background The allostatic load framework implies that cumulative exposure to stressors results in multi-system physiological dysregulation. Purpose To investigate the effect of stress burden on subsequent changes (2000-2006) in physiological dysregulation. Methods Data came from a population-based cohort study in Taiwan (n=521, aged 54+ in 2000, re-examined in 2006). Measures of stressful events and chronic strain were based on questions asked in 1996, 1999, and 2000. A measure of trauma was based on exposure to the 1999 earthquake. Dysregulation was based on 17 biomarkers (e.g., metabolic, inflammatory, neuroendocrine). Results There were some small effects among men: chronic strain was associated with subsequent increases in dysregulation (standardized β=0.08, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.20), particularly inflammation; life events were also associated with increased inflammation (β=0.10, CI = 0.01 to 0.26). There were no significant effects in women. Conclusions We found weak evidence that stress burden is associated with changes in dysregulation. PMID:23526059

  17. Seismic Reflection Image Under The Eastern Uplift Zone of Songliao Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Baojun; Liu, Cai

    Songliao Basin is the most important base of oil/gas industry in China. The basin includes 2 uplift zones: the northeastern and southeastern uplifts. In order to understand the formation's mechanism of the basin, 4 nearly vertical reflection profiles were required in these two uplifts during 1996-1999, 2 East-West reflecting profiles were undertaken in the northeastern uplift, and one East-West and another one nearly South-North profile were taken in the southeastern uplift. After seismic processing of thes e seismic data, we obtained the seismic reflection images of the crustal structure with two-way traveltime of 15s under these 4 profiles. There are two or three strong reflection events on these migrated sections. In the northeastern uplift, the two-way traveltime of Moho varies within the range of 9.6-11.3s for the northeastern uplift, and 9.7 -10.3s for the southeastern uplift. In this paper, we present the seismic features of these seismic profiles, and make some discussion about the crustal structure, geodynamic process in these uplifts of Songliao basin.

  18. Critical analysis of soil invertebrate biomarkers: a field case study in Avonmouth, UK.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Jason M; Spurgeon, David J; Svendsen, Claus; Hankard, Peter K; Kammenga, Jan E; Dallinger, Reinhard; Köhler, Heinz-R; Simonsen, Vibeke; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck

    2004-11-01

    During the period 1996-1999 a joint field research programme (BIOPRINT-II) funded by the European Union was undertaken. The main objective of this project was the deployment of biochemical fingerprint techniques of soil invertebrate biomarkers for assessing the exposure and effect of toxicants on soil invertebrates in the field. The aim was to apply these techniques in the field focusing on a a chronically polluted field near a lead and zinc smelter in Avonmouth (UK). Therefore six sites were selected from which organisms were either sampled or transplanted to or from the laboratory. The project has provided a unique opportunity to apply a series of biological test methodologies in order to determine the hazard posed to soil sustainability and by inference soil biodiversity and function. This work has attempted to understand the linkage between effects measured at the molecular or cellular level and relate these to changes at higher levels of biological organisation. Here we evaluated the links between biomarkers and soil function parameters. The paper aims to summarize and explore the necessary caveats that must be understood before soil biomarker test systems may be used to strengthen the risk assessment process.

  19. Is disease an important mortality factor for Pacific herring?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Marine pelagic forage fishes, including sardines, anchovies, and herring, undergo large oscillations in population abundance. Although over-fishing can have a dramatic impact in reducing population size, this anthropogenic perturbation cannot fully account for all population declines because natural oscillations in marine pelagic fish biomasses occurred prior to the onset of commercial fishing. Among the herring metapopulation in Puget Sound / Straight of Georgia, the mean estimated annual mortality, exclusive of commercial fishing, increased from 20% in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s to 64-87% during 1996-1999. This natural mortality affects primarily the older age cohorts and resulted in recent decreased median ages of adult herring from age 4-6 cohorts to age 2-3 cohorts that die prior to iteroparous spawning. Surveys of wild herring from the region indicate that the protozoan parasite Ichthyophonus sp., is currently ubiquitous among Pacific herring populations in Washington and British Columbia, and prevalence of infection increase directly with herring age, from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the underrepresented age 6+ cohorts. Ichthyophonus can be highly pathogenic to immunologically naïve Pacific herring, causing 80% mortality 2 mo. after exposure in the laboratory. Current laboratory-based studies are underway to determine whether natural Ichthyophonus infections are terminal for the host, and whether these infections account for the decreasing median age of wild Pacific herring populations in recent years.

  20. Mid-Pliocene Planktic Foraminifer Census Data and Alkenone Unsaturation Indices from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 677A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Marci; Caballero, Rocio; Pohlman, Emily; Herbert, Timothy; Peck, Victoria; Dowsett, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of mid-Pliocene climatic and oceanographic conditions. One of the key elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages in conjunction with other proxies to constrain estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST) and to identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses. Raw census data are made available as soon as possible after analysis through a series of reports that provide the basic data for future work. In this report we present raw census data (table 1) for planktic foraminifer assemblages in 14 samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 677A. We also present alkenone unsaturation index (UK'37) analyses for 89 samples from ODP Hole 677A (table 2). ODP Hole 677A is located in the Panama basin, due west of Ecuador at 1?12.138'N., 83?44.220'W., in 3461.2 meters of water (fig. 1). A variety of statistical methods have been developed to transform foraminiferal census data in Pliocene sequences into quantitative estimates of Pliocene SST. Details of statistical techniques, taxonomic groupings, and oceanographic interpretations are presented in more formal publications (Dowsett and Poore, 1990, 1991; Dowsett, 1991, 2007a,b; Dowsett and Robinson, 1998, 2007; Dowsett and others, 1996, 1999).

  1. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  2. Morphometric and genetics properties of pea crops grown in space greenhouse Lada"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M.; Sychev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Gostimsky, S.; Bingham, G.

    Results of the experiments with higher plants performed in greenhouse Svet aboard the MIR space station in 1996-1999 made it evident that the main biological characteristics of plants growth development reproduction and metabolism did not undergo modifications in consequence of microgravity It was shown that at least two ontogenetic cycles of plants could pass in the normal way in this environment However the initial experimental data was insufficient for fiducial conclusions on the delayed effects of cultivating a sequence of plant generations on the background of spaceflight factors Hence these investigations are given precedence in the space life sciences research programs In the period from March 2003 to April 2005 we fulfilled five experimental cultivations of genetically marked dwarf pea species in greenhouse Lada installed in the Russian segment of the International space station The purpose of this series of experiments was to make morphologic and genetic analysis of pea plants grown in successive generations According to our results pea growth and development over the full cycle of ontogenesis from seed to seed taking place in space greenhouse Lada were not different as compared with the ground control plants In addition four successive pea crops gathered in space flight did not loose their reproductive functions and formed viable seeds Genetic analysis of the plants grown from the space and ground seeds produced by the first to fourth successive crops was performed using the methods of

  3. Mid-Pliocene Planktic Foraminifer Census Data from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 847C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dowsett, Harry; Caballero, Rocio

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of mid-Pliocene climatic and oceanographic conditions. One of the key elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages in conjunction with other proxies to constrain estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST) and to identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses. Raw census data are made available as soon as possible after analysis through a series of reports that provide the basic data for future work. In this report we present raw census data (table 1) for planktic foraminifer assemblages in 25 samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 847C. Ocean Drilling Program Hole 847C is located at 0.19?N., 95.32?W., in 3334.3 meters of water (fig. 1). A variety of statistical methods have been developed to transform foraminiferal census data in Pliocene sequences into quantitative estimates of Pliocene SST. Details of statistical techniques, taxonomic groupings, and oceanographic interpretations are presented in more formal publications (Dowsett and Poore, 1990, 1991; Dowsett, 1991, 2007; Dowsett and Robinson, 1998, 2007; Dowsett and others, 1996, 1999).

  4. Mid-Pliocene Planktic Foraminifer Census Data from Ocean Drilling Program Hole 1237C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caballero, Rocio; Dowsett, Harry

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a long-term study of mid-Pliocene climatic and oceanographic conditions. One of the key elements of the study involves the use of quantitative composition of planktic foraminifer assemblages in conjunction with other proxies to constrain estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST) and to identify major oceanographic boundaries and water masses. Raw census data are made available as soon as possible after analysis through a series of reports that provide the basic data for future work. In this report we present raw census data (table 1) for planktic foraminifer assemblages in 19 samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1237C. ODP Hole 1237C is located on the Peruvian margin at 16? 0.4216'S., 76? 22.6854'W., in 3211.9 meters of water (fig. 1). A variety of statistical methods have been developed to transform foraminiferal census data in Pliocene sequences into quantitative estimates of Pliocene SST. Details of statistical techniques, taxonomic groupings, and oceanographic interpretations are presented in more formal publications (Dowsett and Poore, 1990, 1991; Dowsett, 1991, 2007; Dowsett and Robinson, 1998, 2007; Dowsett and others, 1996, 1999).

  5. Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adults in a Large Integrated Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Julia L; Baxter, Roger; Leyden, Wendy A; Muthulingam, Dharushana; Yee, Arnold; Horberg, Michael A; Klein, Daniel B; Towner, William J; Chao, Chun R; Quesenberry, Charles P; Silverberg, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV-infected and demographically matched HIV-uninfected adults within Kaiser Permanente Northern California during the period 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios (RRs) for incident IPD associated with HIV infection and other risk factors. Among 13,079 HIV-infected and 137,643 HIV-uninfected adults, the IPD rate per 100,000 person-years was 160 (n = 109 events) for HIV-infected and 8 (n = 75 events) for HIV-uninfected subjects, with an adjusted RR of 13.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-18.7]. For HIV-infected individuals, IPD incidence per 100,000 person-years decreased by 71% during study follow-up, from 305 in 1996-1999 to 88 in 2010-2011 (p < 0.001), with an adjusted RR of 6.6 (95% CI: 2.7-16.1) compared with HIV-uninfected subjects in 2010-2011. Risk factors for IPD among HIV-infected individuals included black compared with white race/ethnicity, smoking, cancer, and higher HIV RNA levels. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination was not associated with a reduced risk of IPD in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected individuals. Among HIV-infected IPD cases, the most common serotype was 19A (33%), and 59% of serotypes were covered by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Despite a dramatic decline in IPD incidence for HIV-infected adults since 1996, IPD rates were nearly sevenfold higher compared with HIV-uninfected adults in recent years, even after adjustment for risk factors. Timely antiretroviral therapy initiation, risk reduction strategies, and recent guidelines recommending PCV13 use may further reduce IPD incidence among HIV patients.

  6. Microwave Palaeointensity Experiments On Terrestrial and Martian Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J.; Hill, M.; Gratton, M.

    The microwave palaeointensity technique was developed in Liverpool University (Walton et al 1996) and has successfully been applied to archaeological ceramics and recent lavas (Shaw et al 1996, 1999.; Hill et al 1999,2000). These published results show that microwave analysis provides accurate palaeointensity determinations com- bined with a very high success rate. Most recently the technique has been successfully applied to Martian material (Shaw et al, 2001) to look for the existence of an internal Martian dynamo early in Martian history. New experiments have been carried out us- ing microwaves to demagnetise synthetic muti-component TRM's and new palaeoin- tensity experiments providing a comparison between microwave analysis of laboratory TRM's and conventional thermal Thellier analysis of microwave generated mTRM's. These experiments demonstrate the equivalence of microwave and thermally gener- ated TRM's. D. Walton, S Snape, T.C. Rolph, J. Shaw and J.A. Share, Application of ferromagnetic resonance heating to palaeointensity determinations.1996, Phys Earth Planet Int,94, 183-186. J. Shaw, D. Walton, S Yang, T.C.Rolph, and J.A. Share. Microwave Archaeointensities from Peruvian Ceramics. 1996, Geophys. J. Int,124,241-244 J. Shaw, S. Yang, T. C. Rolph, and F. Y. Sun. A comparison of archaeointensity results from Chinese ceramics using Microwave and conventional ThellierSs and ShawSs methods.,1999, G J Int.136, 714-718 M. Hill, and J. Shaw, 1999, Palaeointensity results for Historic Lavas from Mt. Etna using microwave demagnetisation/remagnetisation in a modified Thellier type exper- iment. G. J. Int, 139, 583-590 M. J. Hill, and J. Shaw, 2000. Magnetic field intensity study of the 1960 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii, using the microwave palaeointensity technique, Geophys. J. Int., 142, 487-504. J. Shaw, M. Hill, and S. J. Openshaw, 2001, Investigating the ancient Martian magnetic field using microwaves, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 190 (2001) 103-109

  7. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, Ken; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

  9. Naturally occurring radioactivity in some Swedish concretes and their constituents - Assessment by using I-index and dose-model.

    PubMed

    Döse, M; Silfwerbrand, J; Jelinek, C; Trägårdh, J; Isaksson, M

    2016-05-01

    The reference level for effective dose due to gamma radiation from building materials and construction products used for dwellings is set to 1 mSv per year (EC, 1996, 1999), (CE, 2014). Given the specific conditions presented by the EC in report 112 (1999) considering building and construction materials, an I-index of 1 may generate an effective dose of 1 mSv per year. This paper presents a comparison of the activity concentrations of (4)(0)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th of aggregates and when these aggregates constitute a part of concrete. The activity concentration assessment tool for building and construction materials, the I-index, introduced by the EC in 1996, is used in the comparison. A comparison of the I-indices values are also made with a recently presented dose model by Hoffman (2014), where density variations of the construction material and thickness of the construction walls within the building are considered. There was a ∼16-19% lower activity index in concretes than in the corresponding aggregates. The model by Hoffman further implies that the differences between the I-indices of aggregates and the concretes' final effective doses are even larger. The difference is due, mainly to a dilution effect of the added cement with low levels of natural radioisotopes, but also to a different and slightly higher subtracted background value (terrestrial value) used in the modeled calculation of the revised I-index by Hoffman (2014). Only very minimal contributions to the annual dose could be related to the water and additives used, due to their very low content of radionuclides reported.

  10. Working as a doctor when acutely ill: comments made by doctors responding to United Kingdom surveys

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives We undertook multi-purpose surveys of doctors who qualified in the United Kingdom between 1993 and 2012. Doctors were asked specific questions about their careers and were asked to comment about any aspect of their training or work. We report doctors’ comments about working whilst acutely ill. Design Self-completed questionnaire surveys. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Nine cohorts of doctors, comprising all United Kingdom medical qualifiers of 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2012. Main outcome measures Comments made by doctors about working when ill, in surveys one, five and 10 years after graduation. Results The response rate, overall, was 57.4% (38,613/67,224 doctors). Free-text comments were provided by 30.7% (11,859/38,613). Three-hundred and twenty one doctors (2.7% of those who wrote comments) wrote about working when feeling acutely ill. Working with Exhaustion/fatigue was the most frequent topic raised (195 doctors), followed by problems with Taking time off for illness (112), and general comments on Physical/mental health problems (66). Other topics raised included Support from others, Leaving or adapting/coping with the situation, Bullying, the Doctor’s ability to care for patients and Death/bereavement. Arrangements for cover due to illness were regarded as insufficient by some respondents; some wrote that doctors were expected to work harder and longer to cover for colleagues absent because of illness. Conclusions We recommend that employers ensure that it is not unduly difficult for doctors to take time off work when ill, and that employers review their strategies for covering ill doctors who are off work. PMID:27066264

  11. The effect of crop protection strategy on pest and beneficials incidence in protected crops.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, I; Rodrigues, S; Figueiredo, E; Godinho, M C; Marques, C; Amaro, F; Mexia, A

    2002-01-01

    This study took place in the Oeste region from 1996-1999 and it intended to analyse if the crop protection strategy followed by the farmer influenced the arthropod incidence and the natural control in protected vegetable crops under Mediterranean conditions. The observations were made fortnightly (Autumn/Winter) or weekly (Spring/Summer) in 30-60 plants/parcel (1 plant/35 m2) in order to evaluate incidences. Samples of pests and natural enemies were collected for systematic identification in two greenhouses for each protection strategy (traditional chemical control (TCC), integrated pest management (IPM) and pest control allowed in organic farming (OF)) in lettuce, tomato, green beans and cucumber. Data on incidence of mites, aphids, caterpillars, leafminers, whiteflies, thrips and respective natural enemies were registered as well as phytosanitary treatments performed (farmers' information and/or in loco traces). The leafminers were the pest whose incidence more often presented significant statistical differences between the studied protection strategies. In relation to this pest, the main results obtained were: a higher feeding punctures incidence in TCC than in IPM; higher incidence of adults, mines and feeding punctures in TCC than in OF; and a higher mines' incidence in IPM than in OF. Both in TCC and IPM high percentages of plants with mines were found although without an adult proportional presence. In the first case this was due to the repeatedly phytosanitary treatments applied; in the second case it was due to the natural control, since in IPM and OF greenhouses the collected larvae were mostly parasitized or dead. In spite of the fact these two strategies have as final result a similar mines and adults incidence, their production and environmental costs are quite different. Significant differences at the beneficials' population level between TCC greenhouses and IPM or OF greenhouses were found. As the farmers did no biological treatments these

  12. Factors associated with physicians' choice of a career in research: a retrospective report 15 years after medical school graduation.

    PubMed

    Krupat, Edward; Camargo, Carlos A; Strewler, Gordon J; Espinola, Janice A; Fleenor, Thomas J; Dienstag, Jules L

    2017-03-01

    Relatively little is known regarding factors associated with the choice of a research career among practicing physicians, and most investigations of this issue have been conducted in the absence of a theoretical/conceptual model. Therefore we designed a survey to identify the determinants of decisions to pursue a biomedical research career based upon the Theory of Planned Behavior and the concept of stereotype threat. From October 2012 through January 2014 electronic surveys were sent to four consecutive Harvard Medical School graduating classes, 1996-1999. Respondents provided demographic information, indicated their current research involvement, and provided retrospective reports of their experiences and attitudes when they were making career choices as they completed medical school. Multivariable ordinal regression was used to identify factors independently associated with current research involvement. Completed questionnaires were received from 358 respondents (response rate 65 %). In unadjusted analyses, variables associated with more extensive research involvement included non-minority status, male gender, lower debt at graduation, strong attitudes toward research at time of graduation, and greater social pressures to pursue research (all P < .001). These associations remained significant in multivariable regression analysis (all P < 0.01). However, an interaction between sex and prior research publications was also detected, indicating that more extensive research involvement during medical school doubled the likelihood of a research career for women (OR 2.53, 95 % CI 1.00-6.40; P = 0.05). Most of the factors predicting research career choice involve factors that are potentially modifiable, suggesting that appropriately designed behavioral interventions may help to expand the size and diversity of the biomedical research community.

  13. Distribution, population status and trends of kittlitz's murrelet brachyramphus brevirostris in lower cook inlet and kachemak bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuletz, K.J.; Speckman, S.G.; Piatt, J.F.; Labunski, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Lower Cook Inlet (LCI) in south-central Alaska is unusual among the breeding areas of Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris because of human impacts on the marine and terrestrial environments and because of the lack of tidewater glaciers. In LCI the Kittlitz's Murrelet co-exists with the more abundant Marbled Murrelet, which complicates abundance estimates because of the difficulty of species identification. We compared survey data for an area with overlapping coverage in LCI (Core area) in 1993 (June) and from 1996 to 1999 (July-early August). Within this LCI Core area, the surveys in 1996-1999 estimated ~1600 Kittlitz's Murrelets and ~17 000 Marbled Murrelets, including prorated unidentified murrelets. The Kittlitz's Murrelet population declined between 1993 and 1999 at 26% per annum (84% overall). Simultaneously, Marbled Murrelets declined by 12% per annum (56% overall), though the decline was not statistically significant. Declines were estimated conservatively because the 1993 survey was conducted in June, when both murrelet species are less abundant on the water. We also surveyed Kachemak Bay, a large embayment of LCI, during mid-summer (July) of 2005-2007 and estimated a population of 2047 Kittlitz's Murrelets (SD 1120, n = 3 years) residing primarily in the inner bay. Marbled Murrelets numbered 11 040 (SD 1306) and were found throughout the bay. On one transect set in inner Kachemak Bay, Kittlitz's Murrelet density in late summer (1-16 August) declined 7.5% per annum between 1988 and 2007 (n = 6 years), and Marbled Murrelet density increased 4.9% per annum. On two other transect sets in the inner bay, however, neither murrelet species showed a change in density between 1996 and 2007. Inner Kachemak Bay is a persistent hotspot for Kittlitz's Murrelet and may attract murrelets from LCI and beyond. We recommend monitoring murrelet populations in Kachemak Bay, although Kittlitz's Murrelets likely move between the main body of Cook Inlet and Kachemak

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of snow accumulation rate at East Antarctic ice sheet in 1993-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoyama, H.; Suzuki, K.; Yamanouchi, T.; Kawamura, K.

    2012-04-01

    Snow stakes along the traverse routes have been observed for long term monitoring program 'the variation of ice sheet surface mass balance' from the 1960's by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition in Shirase glacier drainage basin, East Antarctica. During the traverse route between coastal S16 point (69 02'S, 40 03'E, 580m a.s.l.) to inland Dome Fuji (77 22'S, 39 42'E, 3,810m a.s.l.), the snow stake observations every 2 km have been carried out from 1993. Latest stake heights were measured in January 2011 and February 2011. Yearly net snow accumulations from S16 to Dome Fuji were calculated. Heavy snow events were shown in 1998, 2004, 2005, 2008-2009 and 2010. Otherwise, in 1994, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2006, light snow events were observed. They were different in way accumulating spatial pattern depending on places. The yearly accumulation rates were compared with seasonal change of AAO-index (SAM). As a result, yearly accumulation rate and AAO-index showed the positive correlation. We would indicate the spatial distributions of air parcel origins. So we calculate air transport by using the NITRAM trajectory model (Tomikawa and Sato, 2005) and ERA-Interim meteorological data set in 1990-2009. The time duration is 5 days and we suppose the origin of air parcel is the point of trajectory at 5 days ago. The starting points are distributed on 1 deg. x 1 deg. grids over Antarctica and its altitude is 1,300m above the surface. We indicate the spatial distributions of air parcel origins to Antarctica. If there were high ratios of sea origin atmosphere in the inland, there was much snow. It is indicated that the humid air from the sea is the main origin of snowfall. But such relations were not seen on the coast. We try to understand the cause of heavy snow and light snow event.

  15. Transport of airborne pollen into the city of Thessaloniki: the effects of wind direction, speed and persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damialis, Athanasios; Gioulekas, Dimitrios; Lazopoulou, Chariklia; Balafoutis, Christos; Vokou, Despina

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of the wind vector analyzed into its three components (direction, speed and persistence), on the circulation of pollen from differe nt plant taxa prominent in the Thessaloniki area for a 4-year period (1996- 1999). These plant taxa were Ambrosia spp., Artemisia spp., Chenopodiaceae, spp., Cupressaceae, Olea europaea, Pinaceae, Platanus spp., Poaceae, Populus spp., Quercus spp., and Urticaceae. Airborne pollen of Cupressaceae, Urticaceae, Quercus spp. and O. europaea make up approximately 70% of the total average annual pollen counts. The set of data that we worked with represented days without precipitation and time intervals during which winds blew from the same direction for at least 4 consecutive hours. We did this in order to study the effect of the different wind components independently of precipitation, and to avoid secondary effects produced by pollen resuspension phenomena. Factorial regression analysis among the summed bi-hourly pollen counts for each taxon and the values of wind speed and persistence per wind direction gave significant results in 22 cases (combinations of plant taxa and wind directions). The pollen concentrations of all taxa correlated significantly with at least one of the three wind components. In seven out of the 22 taxon-wind direction combinations, the pollen counts correlated positively with wind persistence, whereas this was the case for only two of the taxon-wind speed combinations. In seven cases, pollen counts correlated with the interaction effect of wind speed and persistence. This shows the importance of wind persistence in pollen transport, particularly when weak winds prevail for a considerable part of the year, as is the case for Thessaloniki. Medium/long-distance pollen transport was evidenced for Olea (NW, SW directions), Corylus (NW, SW), Poaceae (SW) and Populus (NW).

  16. Carbon dioxide exchange in high arctic north-eastern Greenland related to recent climatic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soegaard, H.; Toudal, L.; Hansen, B. U.; Friborg, T.; Rennermalm, A.; Nordstroem, C.; Hinkler, J.

    2003-04-01

    Since 1996 continuous measurements of CO2-exchange have been conducted at Zackenberg research station in the North-Eastern Greenland (74.5N, 20.5W) covering the growing season from the beginning of June to the end of August. Two different ecosystems have been monitored: wetland (1996-1999) and heath (1997, 2000-2002). For both systems a considerable interannual variability in carbon sequestration has been observed. For the wetland the average three month net ecosystem exchange (NEE) calculated on the basis of the above mentioned periods has been -53 g C m-2 covering a range from -96 to -30 g C m-2 , whereas for the heath site the corresponding figures are average = -10 g C m-2 and range from -19 to -3 g C m-2. The sensitivity of the NEE with respect to climate is evaluated by use of a combined photosynthesis/soil respiration model. For both ecosystems the density and duration of the snow cover is found to be a key parameter for interpreting the year-to-year variation. The denser the snow pack the more CO2 is released during the early melting season whereas a delayed snowmelt shortens the length of the growing season and thereby the summertime CO2 uptake. With respect to soil water balance the two systems responds differently; where the wetland suffer from waterlogged soil in most of the growing season, the CO2 uptake at the drier heat lands may be reduced due to water stress. Finally, the impact of large scale climatic fluctuations is discussed. This is done with focus on the variation in extension and duration of sea ice along the north-eastern coast of Greenland and the higher temperatures observed in the growing season 2002.

  17. Nationwide trends in incidence, treatment and survival of colorectal cancer patients with synchronous metastases.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Lydia G M; Lam-Boer, Jorine't; Koopman, Miriam; Verhoef, Cees; Elferink, Marloes A G; de Wilt, Johannes H W

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence, treatment and survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with synchronous metastases (Stage IV) in the Netherlands. This nationwide population-based study included 160,278 patients diagnosed with CRC between 1996 and 2011. We evaluated changes in stage distribution, location of synchronous metastases and treatment in four consecutive periods, using Chi square tests for trend. Median survival in months was determined, using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The proportion of Stage IV CRC patients (n = 33,421) increased from 19 % (1996-1999) to 23 % (2008-2011, p < 0.001). This was predominantly due to a major increase in the incidence of lung metastases (1.7-5.0 % of all CRC patients). During the study period, the primary tumor was resected less often in Stage IV patients (65-46 %) and the use of systemic treatment has increased (29-60 %). Also an increase in metastasectomy was found in patients with one metastatic site, especially in patients with liver-only disease (5-18 %, p < 0.001). Median survival of all Stage IV CRC patients increased from 7 to 12 months. Especially in patients with metastases confined to the liver or lungs this improvement in survival was apparent (9-16 and 12-24 months respectively, both p < 0.001). In the last two decades, more lung metastases were detected and an increasing proportion of Stage IV CRC patients was treated with systemic therapy and/or metastasectomy. Survival of patients has significantly improved. However, the prognosis of Stage IV patients becomes increasingly diverse.

  18. Observational test of empirical magnetopause location models using geosynchronous satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eunsu; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Kangjin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we identify 123 geosynchronous magnetopause crossings using geosynchronous satellite observation data from 1996 to 2010 as well as make an observational test of magnetopause location models using the identified events. For this, we consider three models: Petrinec and Russell (1996), Shue et al. (1998), and Lin et al. (2010). To evaluate the models, we estimate a probability of detection (PoD) and a critical success index (CSI) as a function of year. To examine the effect of solar cycle phase, we consider three different time periods: (1) ascending phase (1996-1999), (2) maximum phase (2000-2002), and (3) descending phase (2003-2008). Major results from this study are as follows. First, the PoD values of all models range from 0.4 to 0.8 for the most of years. Second, the PoD values of Lin et al. (2010) are noticeably higher than those of the other models. Third, the CSI values of all models range from 0.1 to 0.3, and those of Shue et al. (1998) are slightly higher than those of the other models. Fourth, the predicted magnetopause radii based on Lin et al.(2010) well match the observed ones within 1 Earth radius, while those on Shue et al. (1998) overestimate the observed ones by about 2 Earth radii. Fifth, the PoD and critical success index (CSI) values of all the models are better for the solar maximum phase than those for the other phases, implying that the models are more optimized for the phase.

  19. Making clinical academic careers more attractive: views from questionnaire surveys of senior UK doctors

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To report on doctors’ reasons, as expressed to our research group, for choosing academic careers and on factors that would make a career in clinical academic medicine more attractive to them. Design Postal, email and web questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants A total of 6936 UK-trained doctors who graduated in 1996, 1999 and 2000. Main outcome measures Open-ended comments about a career in clinical academic medicine. Results Of doctors who provided reasons for pursuing a long-term career in clinical academic medicine, the main reasons were enjoyment of academic work and personal satisfaction, whether expressed directly in those terms, or in terms of intellectual stimulation, enjoyment of research, teaching and the advancement of medicine, and the job being more varied than and preferable to clinical work alone. Doctors’ suggestions for making clinical academic medicine more attractive included improved pay and job security, better funding of research, greater availability of academic posts, more dedicated time for research (and less service work) and more support and mentoring. Women were more likely than men to prioritise flexible working hours and part-time posts. Conclusions Medical schools could provide more information, as part of student teaching, about the opportunities for and realities of a career in clinical academic medicine. Women, in particular, commented that they lacked the role models and information which would encourage them to consider seriously an academic career. Employers could increase academic opportunities by allowing more time for teaching, research and study and should assess whether job plans make adequate allowance for academic work. PMID:26380103

  20. The third space: The use of self-study to examine the culture of a science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Dashia M.

    Science educators are in the position to create bridges between their students and the world of science (Aikenhead, 1996, 1999). This connection has often been described as the third space (Bhabha, 1994; Moje, Collazo, Carrillo, & Marx, 2001; Wallace, 2004), which is represented as a combination or a meeting of the students' world and the world of science. In this study, I examined my role in creating the third space through the use of self-study. Self-study is a form of research, educators use to understand their practice (Austin & Senese, 2004; Loughran, 2004; Northfield & Loughran, 1996). It is a means of describing, analyzing, and interpreting a teacher's actions within his or her classroom (Tidwell, 2002). The focal point of this self-study is to understand my actions found within my past and present teaching experiences and the underlying beliefs that are expressed through those actions. In this self-study, I collected data from my life history, classroom observations, and member check interview. My life history described my influences that shaped my philosophy of teaching and learning, while the classroom observations provided a means of understanding my interactions with the science curriculum and my English Language Learner (ELL) students. And finally, a member check focus group interview occurred to confirm the results occurring in the classroom observations. Once the data were collected, I used grounded theory methods to analyze my results and answer the research questions. This self-study became the means of exploring my philosophy of teaching and learning and my teaching practices as they occurred in an ELL science classroom. I examined my own practice through a comparison between my past experiences and my current teaching situation and through this exploration, I identified my actions and the beliefs associated with those actions as they informed my teaching practices.

  1. Interannual Variability In the Atmospheric CO2 Rectification Over Boreal Forests Based On A Coupled Ecosystem-Atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Chen, J. M.; Worthy, D.

    2004-05-01

    Ecosystem CO2 exchange and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The simulation of this atmospheric rectifier effect is important in understanding the global CO2 distribution pattern. A 12-year (1990-1996, 1999-2003), continuous CO2 measurement record from Fraserdale, Ontario (located ~150 km north of Timmons), along with a coupled Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS), is used to investigate the interannual variability in this effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. Simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effects, (including seasonal and diurnal), quantified as the variation in the mean CO2 concentration from the surface to the top of the PBL, varied from 2.8 to 4.1 ppm, even though the modeled seasonal variations in the PBL depth were similar throughout the 12-year period. The differences in the interannual rectifier effect primarily resulted from changes in the biospheric CO2 uptake and heterotrophic respiration. Correlations in the year-to year variations of the CO2 rectification were found with mean annual air temperatures, simulated gross primary productivity (GPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) (r2=0.5, 0.46, 0.42, respectively). A small increasing trend in the CO2 rectification was also observed. The year-to-year variation in the vertical distribution of the monthly mean CO2 mixing ratios (reflecting differences in the diurnal rectifier effect) was related to interannual climate variability, however, the seasonal rectifier effects were found to be more sensitive to climate variability than the diurnal rectifier effects.

  2. Interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 rectification over a boreal forest region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Worthy, Douglas E. J.

    2005-08-01

    Ecosystem CO2 exchange with the atmosphere and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The strength of this kind of covariation is quantified as the rectifier effect, and it affects the vertical gradient of CO2 and thus the global CO2 distribution pattern. An 11-year (1990-1996, 1999-2002), continuous CO2 record from Fraserdale, Ontario (49°52'29.9″N, 81°34'12.3″W), along with a coupled vertical diffusion scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), are used to investigate the interannual variability of the rectifier effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well (r2 = 0.70 and 0.87, at 40 m at hourly and daily time steps, respectively) in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. The simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effect varies from 3.99 to 5.52 ppm, while the diurnal rectifying effect accounted for about a quarter of the annual total (22.8˜28.9%).The atmospheric rectification of CO2 is not simply influenced by terrestrial source and sink strengths, but by seasonal and diurnal variations in the land CO2 flux and their interaction with PBL dynamics. Air temperature and moisture are found to be the dominant climatic factors controlling the rectifier effect. The annual rectifier effect is highly correlated with annual mean temperature (r2 = 0.84), while annual mean air relative humidity can explain 51% of the interannual variation in rectification. Seasonal rectifier effect is also found to be more sensitive to climate variability than diurnal rectifier effect.

  3. Who Enrolls Onto Clinical Oncology Trials? A Radiation Patterns of Care Study Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Movsas, Benjamin . E-mail: bmovsas1@hfhs.org; Moughan, Jennifer; Owen, Jean; Coia, Lawrence R.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Hanks, Gerald; Wilson, J. Frank

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To identify factors significantly influencing accrual to clinical protocols by analyzing radiation Patterns of Care Study (PCS) surveys of 3,047 randomly selected radiotherapy (RT) patients. Methods and Materials: Patterns of Care Study surveys from disease sites studied for the periods 1992-1994 and 1996-1999 (breast cancer, n = 1,080; prostate cancer, n = 1,149; esophageal cancer, n = 818) were analyzed. The PCS is a National Cancer Institute-funded national survey of randomly selected RT institutions in the United States. Patients with nonmetastatic disease who received RT as definitive or adjuvant therapy were randomly selected from eligible patients at each institution. To determine national estimates, individual patient records were weighted by the relative contribution of each institution and patients within each institution. Data regarding participation in clinical trials were recorded. The factors age, gender, race, type of insurance, and practice type of treating institution (academic or not) were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Overall, only 2.7% of all patients were accrued to clinical protocols. Of these, 57% were enrolled on institutional review board-approved institutional trials, and 43% on National Cancer Institute collaborative group studies. On multivariate analysis, patients treated at academic facilities (p = 0.0001) and white patients (vs. African Americans, p = 0.0002) were significantly more likely to participate in clinical oncology trials. Age, gender, type of cancer, and type of insurance were not predictive. Conclusions: Practice type and race significantly influence enrollment onto clinical oncology trials. This suggests that increased communication and education regarding protocols, particularly focusing on physicians in nonacademic settings and minority patients, will be essential to enhance accrual.

  4. Correlation between the Mayan calendar and ours: Astronomy helps to answer why the most popular correlation (GMT) is wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.; Böhm, V.; Böhm, B.; Vondrák, J.; Vítek, F.

    2008-05-01

    The Maya used their own very precise calendar. When transforming data from the Mayan calendar to ours, or vice versa, a surprisingly large uncertainty is found. The relationship between the two calendars has been investigated by many researchers during the last century and about 50 different values of the transformation coefficient, known as the correlation, have been deduced. They can differ by centuries, potentially yielding an incredibly large error in the relation of Mayan history to the history of other civilizations. The most frequently used correlation is the GMT one (of Goodman-Martínez-Thompson), based largely on historical evidence from colonial times. Astronomy (celestial mechanics) may resolve the problem of the correlation, provided that historians have correctly decoded the records of various astronomical phenomena discovered, namely, in one extremely important and rare Mayan book, the Dresden Codex (DC). This describes (among other matters) observations of various astronomical phenomena (eclipses, conjunctions, maximum elongations, heliacal aspects, etc), made by the Maya. Modern celestial mechanics enables us to compute exactly when the phenomena occurred in the sky for the given place on the Earth, even though far back in time. Here we check (by a completely independent method), confirming the value of the correlation obtained by Böhm & Böhm (1996, 1999). In view of these tests, we advocate rejecting the GMT correlation and replacing it by the Böhm's correlation. We also comment on the criticism of GMT by some investigators. The replacement of GMT by another correlation seems, however, unacceptable to many Mayanists, as they would need to rewrite the whole history of Mesoamerica. The history of the Maya would be - for example with Böhm's correlation - closer to our time by 104 years.

  5. Socioeconomic position predicts long-term depression trajectory: a 13-year follow-up of the GAZEL cohort study.

    PubMed

    Melchior, M; Chastang, J-F; Head, J; Goldberg, M; Zins, M; Nabi, H; Younès, N

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic position have high rates of depression; however, it is not clear whether this reflects higher incidence or longer persistence of disorder. Past research focused on high-risk samples, and risk factors of long-term depression in the population are less well known. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that socioeconomic position predicts depression trajectory over 13 years of follow-up in a community sample. We studied 12 650 individuals participating in the French GAZEL study. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale in 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. These five assessments served to estimate longitudinal depression trajectories (no depression, decreasing depression, intermediate/increasing depression, persistent depression). Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational grade. Covariates included year of birth, marital status, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, negative life events and preexisting psychological and non-psychological health problems. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression, separately in men and women. Overall, participants in intermediate and low occupational grades were significantly more likely than those in high grades to have an unfavorable depression trajectory and to experience persistent depression (age-adjusted ORs: respectively 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.70 and 2.65, 95% CI 2.04-3.45 in men, 2.48, 95% CI 1.36-4.54 and 4.53, 95% CI 2.38-8.63 in women). In multivariate models, the socioeconomic gradient in long-term depression decreased by 21-59% in men and women. Long-term depression trajectories appear to follow a socioeconomic gradient; therefore, efforts aiming to reduce the burden of depression should address the needs of the whole population rather than exclusively focus on high-risk groups.

  6. Interseismic strain accumulation in seismic gap of south central Chile from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudloff, A.; Vigny, C.; Ruegg, J. C.; Campos, J.

    2003-04-01

    Three campaigns of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements were carried out in the Concepcion-Constitucion seismic gap in South Central Chile in 1996, 1999, and 2002. We observed a network of about 40 sites, made of 2 east-west transects roughly perpendicular to the trench ranging from the coastal area to the Argentina border and 1 north-south profile along the coast. Data sets were processed with MIT's GAMIT/GLOBK package. Horizontal velocities have formal uncertainties around 1 to 2 mm/yr in average. Vertical velocities are also determined and have uncertainties around 2 to 5 mm/yr. We find that the convergence between Nazca and South-America plates better matches the pole previously estimated by (Larson et al, 1997) than the Nuvel-1A estimate. Our estimate predicts a convergence of 72 mm/yr at N70 to be compared with Nuvel-1A 80 mm/yr at N79. With respect to stable South America, horizontal velocities decrease from 35 mm/yr on the coast to 14 mm/yr in the Cordillera. Vertical velocities help constraint lithospheric flecture. Partionning of the slightly oblique convergence will be investigated. The gradient of convergent parallel velocities reflects aseismic elastic loading on a zone of about 400 km width. Interestingly enough, this gradient exhibit a linear pattern, marginally compatible with the expected arctangent shape. 70 mm/yr of motion accumulated since the last big event in this area (1835 Earthquake described by Darwin) represent more than 10 m of displacement. Therefore, this area is probably mature for a next large earthquake, the magnitude of which could reach 8.5.

  7. Doctors’ enjoyment of their work and satisfaction with time available for leisure: UK time trend questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Surman, Geraldine; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Doctors’ job satisfaction is important to the health service to ensure commitment, effective training, service provision and retention. Job satisfaction matters to doctors for their personal happiness, fulfilment, service to patients and duty to employers. Monitoring job satisfaction trends informs workforce planning. Materials and methods We surveyed UK-trained doctors up to 5 years after graduation for six graduation year cohorts: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2012. Doctors scored their job enjoyment (Enjoyment) and satisfaction with time outside work (Leisure) on a scale from 1 (lowest enjoyment/satisfaction) to 10 (highest). Results Overall, 47% had a high level of Enjoyment (scores 8–10) 1 year after graduation and 56% after 5 years. For Leisure, the corresponding figures were 19% and 37% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. For Leisure at 1 year, high scores were given by about 10% in the 1990s, rising to about 25% in the mid-2000s. Low scores (1–3) for Enjoyment were given by 15% of qualifiers of 1996, falling to 5% by 2008; corresponding figures for Leisure were 42% and 19%. At 5 years, the corresponding figures were 6% and 4%, and 23% and 17%. Enjoyment and Leisure were scored higher by general practitioners than doctors in other specialties. Both measures varied little by sex, ethnicity or medical school attended. Conclusions Scores for Enjoyment were generally high; those for Leisure were lower. Policy initiatives should address why this aspect of satisfaction is low, particularly in the first year after graduation but also among hospital doctors 5 years after graduation. PMID:26783328

  8. Insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3, growth hormone, and mammographic density in the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Rosner, Bernard A; Pollak, Michael N; Hankinson, Susan E; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2012-12-01

    Higher circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) levels have been associated with higher mammographic density among women in some, but not all studies. Also, few studies have examined the association between mammographic density and circulating growth hormone (GH) in premenopausal women. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 783 premenopausal women and 436 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990 (NHS) or in 1996-1999 (NHSII), and mammograms were obtained near the time of blood draw. Generalized linear models were used to assess the associations of IGF-1, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio, and GH with percent mammographic density, total dense area, and total non-dense area. Models were adjusted for potential confounders including age and body mass index (BMI), among others. We also assessed whether the associations varied by age or BMI. In both pre- and postmenopausal women, percent mammographic density was not associated with plasma levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio. In addition, GH was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in the NHSII. Similarly, total dense area and non-dense area were not significantly associated with any of these analytes. In postmenopausal women, IGF-1 was associated with higher percent mammographic density among women with BMI <25 kg/m(2), but not among overweight/obese women. Overall, plasma IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and GH levels were not associated with mammographic density in a sample of premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  9. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses' Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990 (NHS) or 1996-1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Among 1,124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p trends = 0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference = 3.01 percentage points, 95 % CI 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p trend = 0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXIV. Trends of in vitro antimalarial drug responses in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Basco, Leonardo K; Ringwald, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    In vitro response to chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin was assessed by the radioisotopic microtest in Yaoundé, Cameroon, during 2000-2004 and compared with our previous data obtained during 1996-1999. Based on the cut-off value of 100 nmol/L, 36.3% of isolates were chloroquine-susceptible (N = 175; geometric mean IC(50), 40.3 nmol/L) and 63.7% were chloroquine-resistant (N = 307; geometric mean IC(50), 211 nmol/L). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mean IC(50)s from 1996 to 2004, but a significant linear trend (P < 0.05) toward an increased proportion of chloroquine-resistant isolates was observed from 1996 (49%) to 2004 (69%). All chloroquine-susceptible isolates and most chloroquine-resistant isolates were susceptible to monodesethylamodiaquine (i.e., IC(50) < 60 nmol/L). Despite the positive correlation between chloroquine and monodesethylamodiaquine (r = 0.739, P < 0.05), the IC(50)s for monodesethylamodiaquine remained stable during 1997-2004, with no increase in the proportion of monodesethylamodiaquine-resistant isolates. Mefloquine, lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin were equally active against the chloroquine-susceptible and chloroquine-resistant parasites. The responses to these three drugs were positively correlated, and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the mean IC(50)s was observed during the study period compared with our earlier data in 1997-1999, probably because of their inverse relationship with chloroquine response. The in vitro results were in general agreement with the in vivo response to chloroquine and amodiaquine. In vitro drug susceptibility assay is a useful, complementary laboratory tool for determining the trend of response to drugs for which there is still no established molecular marker and may serve as an early warning system for emerging drug resistance.

  11. Enhancement of oceanic parameters associated with dust storms using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramesh P.; Prasad, Anup K.; Kayetha, Vinay K.; Kafatos, Menas

    2008-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play a vital role on the dynamics of climate processes through direct and indirect effects. Dust storms originating over the world's arid regions contribute a large fraction of aerosols in the atmosphere. Using remote sensing data, an anomalous enhancement in the biological productivity of sea was observed in the Gulf of Oman which was attributed only to cold sea surface temperature (SST) eddies (during November to early December months of 1996-1999), whereas recent study has shown that during dust storms (June-July-August and October-November-December months of 1997-2004), major nutrient supply is from atmospheric dust deposition. We have carried out a study of individual cases of major dust storms over the Arabian Sea during the entire year (December 2003-December 2006) to quantify role of dust storms and changes in ocean surface due to chlorophyll bloom. Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua, we have found that the deposition of dust along the passage of major dust storms (aerosol optical depth (AOD) ˜0.25-0.41) occuring over the Arabian Sea causes chlorophyll blooming (usually 10-22.43 mg/m3) within a period of 1-2 to up to 3-4 days. However, we have also found significant anomalous cooling of the ocean surface (SST) and relatively higher ocean wind speeds (QuikSCAT) during dust storms that may lead to favorable conditions for blooming. Exact nature and cause of chlorophyll bloom in the semienclosed northern Arabian Sea, surrounded by one of the world's major sources of dust storms (Africa, Middle East, Iran, and Afghanistan), are very important in understanding the productivity and the biogeochemical cycles of the marine ecosystem. The results have been validated using the Indian Remote Sensing Polar-4 Ocean Color Monitor (IRS P4 OCM) data.

  12. Impact of generic antiretroviral therapy (ART) and free ART programs on time to initiation of ART at a tertiary HIV care center in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Sunil S; Lucas, Gregory M; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Yepthomi, Tokugha; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Ganesh, Aylur K; Anand, Santhanam; Moore, Richard D; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H

    2013-08-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) access in the developing world has improved, but whether increased access has translated to more rapid treatment initiation among those who need it is unknown. We characterize time to ART initiation across three eras of ART availability in Chennai, India (1996-1999: pregeneric; 2000-2003: generic; 2004-2007: free rollout). Between 1996 and 2007, 11,171 patients registered for care at the YR Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education (YRGCARE), a tertiary HIV referral center in southern India. Of these, 5726 patients became eligible for ART during this period as per Indian guidelines for initiation of ART. Generalized gamma survival models were used to estimate relative times (RT) to ART initiation by calendar periods of eligibility. Time to initiation of ART among patients in Chennai, India was also compared to an HIV clinical cohort in Baltimore, USA. Median age of the YRGCARE patients was 34 years; 77% were male. The median CD4 at presentation was 140 cells/µl. After adjustment for demographics, CD4 and WHO stage, persons in the pregeneric era took 3.25 times longer (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53-4.17) to initiate ART versus the generic era and persons in the free rollout era initiated ART more rapidly than the generic era (RT: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.63-0.83). Adjusting for differences across centers, patients at YRGCARE took longer than patients in the Johns Hopkins Clinical Cohort (JHCC) to initiate ART in the pregeneric era (RT: 4.90; 95% CI: 3.37-7.13) but in the free rollout era, YRGCARE patients took only about a quarter of the time (RT: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.22-0.44). These data demonstrate the benefits of generic ART and government rollouts on time to initiation of ART in one developing country setting and suggests that access to ART may be comparable to developed country settings.

  13. Mortality due to respiratory diseases in the elderly after influenza vaccination campaigns in the Federal District, Brazil, 1996-2009 *

    PubMed Central

    Scoralick, Francisca Magalhães; Piazzolla, Luciana Paganini; Pires, Liana Laura; Neri, Cleudsom; de Paula, Wladimir Kummer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortality rates due to respiratory diseases among elderly individuals residing in the Federal District of Brasília, Brazil, prior to and after the implementation of a national influenza vaccination campaign. METHODS: This was an ecological time series analysis. Data regarding the population of individuals who were over 60 years of age between 1996 and 2009 were obtained from official databases. The variables of interest were the crude mortality rate (CMR), the mortality rate due to the respiratory disease (MRRD), and the proportional mortality ratio (PMR) for respiratory diseases. We performed a qualitative analysis of the data for the period prior to and after the implementation of the vaccination campaign (1996-1999 and 2000-2009, respectively). RESULTS: The CMR increased with advancing age. Over the course of the study period, we observed reductions in the CMR in all of the age brackets studied, particularly among those aged 80 years or older. Reductions in the MRRD were also found in all of the age groups, especially in those aged 80 years or older. In addition, there was a decrease in the PMR for respiratory diseases in all age groups throughout the study period. The most pronounced decrease in the PMR for respiratory diseases in the ≥ 70 year age bracket occurred in 2000 (immediately following the implementation of the national vaccination campaign); in 2001, that rate increased in all age groups, despite the greater adherence to the vaccination campaign in comparison with that recorded for 2000. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination appears to have a positive impact on the prevention of mortality due to respiratory diseases, particularly in the population aged 70 or over. PMID:23670505

  14. Disparity in smoking prevalence by education: can we reduce it?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu-Hong; Hebert, Kiandra; Wong, Shiushing; Cummins, Sharon; Gamst, Anthony

    2010-03-01

    Can an intervention program that is highly effective in reducing the prevalence of an unhealthy behavior in the general population also reduce the disparity among its subgroups? That depends on what measure of disparity is used. Using simple algebraic models, this study demonstrates that disparity measured in terms of relative difference between two groups tends to increase when the prevalence of the behavior is in decline. The study then shows an empirical example, by analyzing the effects of the California tobacco control program on smoking prevalence of two education groups, the lowest (less than 12 years) and the highest (16 years or more). It examines the data from four California Tobacco Surveys covering the years 1996, 1999, 2002, and 2005. The effects of three components of the tobacco control program known to be effective in decreasing prevalence (media, worksite policy, and price) on the two education groups are assessed. The smoking prevalence for the two groups is obtained from these four surveys and a regression line is computed for each education group from 1996 to 2005. Results show that the California program is effective with both low education and high education groups and that the rate of decline in smoking prevalence from 1996 to 2005 is no smaller for the low education group than for the high education group. The paper then discusses that an analysis of disparity based on relative difference, however, could result in misleading recommendations that an intervention like the California tobacco program needs to change from its current whole-population approach to one that focuses on targeting subgroups because it has not reduced disparity. It proposes that research should focus more on increasing the rate of change among less advantage groups and less on the relative disparity compared to some other group.

  15. Attachment Strategies and Neuroendocrine Biomarkers in Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Inês; Wilkinson, Simon; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Calhau, Conceição; Coelho, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Introdução: A qualidade da relação pais-filho influencia o desenvolvimento do sistema fisiológico de regulação do stress da criança. Exploraram-se eventuais associações entre estratégias de vinculação e o cortisol e a hormona estimulante da tiróide, respectivamente como possíveis mediador e variável interveniente na relação mãe-filho, na criança obesa. Material e Métodos: Foi recrutada na Consulta de Obesidade uma amostra de conveniência de 83 crianças obesas com 10,9 (1,8) anos de idade (46 rapazes). A obesidade foi definida pelo percentil do índice de massa corporal para idade e género e os biomarcadores neuroendócrinos foram medidos pelos métodos de rotina. As estratégias de vinculação foram avaliadas através dos questionários (IACA) para pais e crianças. O funcionamento familiar foi classificado através do preenchimento pelos pais do FACES-III. Foram analisados modelos multivariáveis de regressão linear. Resultados: As estratégias de vinculação insegura do tipo evitante (tipo A) apresentaram uma associação significativa positiva com os níveis de hormona estimulante da tiróide e negativa com os níveis de cortisol (R2 = 0,352). As estratégias de vinculação segura (tipo B) associaram-se positivamente ao hipotiroidismo e ao percentil de índice de massa corporal, ambas com significado estatístico (R2 = 0,541). As estratégias de vinculação insegura apresentaram alguma evidência de associação positiva com a hormona estimulante da tiróide (R2 = 0,250). Discussão: Estes achados sugerem a existência de factores comuns na regulação dos eixos hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal e hipotálamo-hipófise-tiróide. Os processos envolvidos no desenvolvimento das estratégias de vinculação do tipo A parecem associar-se aos mecanismos regulatórios do eixo HPA. Conclusão: Diferentes estratégias de vinculação estão associadas a diferentes padrões metabólicos em crianças obesas. Desconhece-se qual a sua contribui

  16. The evaluation of QT intervals during diagnosis and after follow-up in acromegaly patients.

    PubMed

    Baser, Husniye; Akar Bayram, Nihal; Polat, Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Ersoy, Reyhan; Bozkurt, Engin; Cakir, Bekir

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O estudo teve como objectivo a determinação do intervalo QT em doentes com acromegália e a análise da correlação entre o intervalo QT e a concentração de hormona do crescimento e de IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1). Material e Métodos: O estudo englobou 41 doentes com acromegália. O grupo de controlo englobou 41 indivíduos com características semelhantes no que se refere a comorbilidades, idade e género. A electrocardiografia de doentes com acromegália foi obtida no início do estudo e após o follow-up. Foi apenas obtido um electrocardiograma no grupo de controlo. Foram calculados o QT máximo, QT mínimo, dispersão do intervalo QT, QT máximo corrigido, QT mínimo corrigido e dispersão do intervalo QT corrigido. Resultados: Os valores do QT máximo basal, dispersão do intervalo QT, QT máximo corrigido e dispersão do QT corrigido foram significativamente mais prolongados no grupo de doentes com acromegália do que nos controlos. O QT máximo corrigido e a dispersão do QT corrigido foram significativamente mais curtos durante o seguimento clínico, quando comparados com os valores basais dos doentes. O QT máximo, dispersão do QT, QT máximo corrigido e dispersão do QT corrigido durante o seguimento clínico não foram estatisticamente diferentes dos valores obtidos nos controlos. Com excepção de uma correlação negativa entre os valores da hormona do crescimento e a dispersão do QT corrigido em doentes durante o seguimento clínico, nenhuma outra correlação foi assinalada entre os valores do intervalo QT e as concentrações de hormona do crescimento e de IGF-1. Concluiu-se que a dispersão do intervalo QT está correlacionada com a duração da doença nos doentes com acromegália. Discussão: Em doentes com acromegália, é importante a detecção de preditores clínicos de arritmia cardíaca. A dispersão do intervalo QT é considerada um preditor relevante de arritmias ventriculares. Os doentes com acromeg

  17. The effects of lauromacrogol on thyroid tissue in rabbits. Is this a safe option for the treatment of nodular thyroid disease?

    PubMed

    Idiz, Ufuk Oguz; Aysan, Erhan; Can, Ismail; Buyukpinarbasili, Nur; Yardimci, Erkan Yardimci; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Lo studio è finalizzato al rilevamento degli effetti del lauromacroglo, un agente sclerosante, sul tessuto tiroideo del coniglio, utilizzando 12 conigli divisi in due gruppi di sei ciascuno. Nel gruppo di studio è stato iniettato nel tessuto tiorideo 0,1 ml di lauromacrogolo, ed in quello di controllo lo stesso volume di soluzione fisiologica. Al controllo postoperatorio sono stati valutati il tasso di FT3, FT4, TSH, la presenza di aderenze e le differenze istopatologiche dei tessuti tiroidei. Non sono risultate differenza significative nel livelli di FT3, FT4, TSH (p>0,05) ma i livelli di , la presenza di aderenze e le differenze istopatologiche dei tessuti tiroidei. Ai controlli i valori di FT3, FT4 ed TSH non sono risultati significativamente differenti (p>0,05), mentre i livelli di FT3 sono stati significativamente differenti all’interno dei due gruppi (p=0,20). Non sono state riscontrate differenze macroscopicamente significative delle aderenze postoperatorie (p>0,05), ma flogosi e fibrosi sono risultate istologicamente più elevate nel gruppo di studio (p=0,003). Due sono i risultati importanti dello studio: la differenza non signifcativa dei test di funzione tiroidea tra i due gruppi, suggerendo che il lauromacrogol può essere usato con sicurezza senza rischi di ipo- o ipertiroidismo; la valutazione istopatologica su modello Erlich-Hunt ha dimostrato che flogosi e fibrosi sono significativamente accresciute nel gruppo di studio, indicando che il lauromacrogol più essere usato efficacemente e con sicurezza per il trattamento dei noduli tiroidei per provocare fibrosi, senza significative aderenze peritiroidee e differenze della funzione.

  18. Minimal effective dose of povidone-iodine in abdominal surgery Our clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Gozeneli, Orhan; Yucel, Yusuf; Akal, Ali; Terzi, Alpaslan; Ozgonul, Abdullah; Tatli, Faik; Ciftci, Resit; Gumer, Mehmet; Uzunkoy, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i test di funzione tiroidea per indagare se una soluzione di Povidone- Iodine (PI) al 10%, che usiamo nella diluizione 1/5 con 0,9% NaCl in area addominale durante interventi puliti- contaminati, contaminati e sporchi in caso di idatidosi in organi parenchimatosi, al fine di evitare la formazione di ascessi e la disseminazione, raggiunge la circolazione sistemica. In questo studio sono stati inclusi 7 uomini e 6 donne in maniera prospettica. L’età media era di 33,69 (± 13.49). Preoperatoriamente ed al terzo giorno postoperatorio sono stati dosati i livelli ormonali di TSH, T3 libero (FT3) e T4 libero (FT4). È stata presa nota della quantità di PI usata per ogni paziente. Dall’analisi statistica non sono risultati valori significativamente differenti tra il preoperatorio ed il postoperatorio relativamente al livello degli ormoni tiroidei (preTSH vs postTSH: p= 0.984; preFT3 vs postFT3: p= 0.101; preFT4 vs postFT4: p=0.146). Così si è dimostrato che la dose di PI usata è efficace e non entra, o quanto meno a livello piuttosto basso, nella circolazione sistemica. I pazienti in cui tale procedura è stata usata non sono andati incontro in questa nostra esperienza ad ascessi addominali o aderenze intestinali. Raccomnadiamo dunque l’uso di queste dosi suggerite di PI in caso di perforazioni intestinali o ascessi, o in caso di possibile rischio di disseminazione in area intraaddominale di cisti idatidee.

  19. Cruise report; RV Coastal Surveyor Cruise C1-99; multibeam mapping of the Long Beach, California continental shelf; April 12 through May 19, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.

    1999-01-01

    The greater Los Angeles area of California is home to more than 10 million people. This large population puts increased pressure on the adjacent offshore continental shelf and margin with activities such as ocean disposal for dredged spoils, explosive disposal, waste-water outfall, and commercial fishing. The increased utilization of the shelf and margin in this area has generated accelerated multi-disciplinary research efforts in all aspects of the environment of the coastal zone. Prior to 1996 there were no highly accurate base maps of the continental shelf and slope upon which the research activities could be located and monitored. In 1996, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project began to address this problem by mapping the Santa Monica shelf and margin (Fig. 1) using a state-of-the-art, high-resolution multibeam sonar system (Gardner, et al., 1996; 1999). Additional seafloor mapping in 1998 provided coverage of the continental margin from south of Newport to the proximal San Pedro Basin northwest of Palos Verdes Peninsula (Gardner, et al., 1998) (Fig. 1). The mapping of the seafloor in the greater Los Angeles continental shelf and margin was completed with a 30-day mapping of the Long Beach shelf in April and May 1999, the subject of this report. The objective of Cruise C-1-99-SC was to completely map the broad continental shelf from the eastern end of the Palos Verdes Peninsula to the narrow shelf south of Newport Beach, from the break in slope at about 120-m isobath to the inner shelf at about the 10-m isobath. Mapping the Long Beach shelf was jointly funded by the U.S. Geological Survey and the County of Orange (CA) Sanitation District and was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the Ocean Mapping Group from the University of New Brunswick (OMG/UNB). The OMG/UNB contracted with C&C Technologies, Inc. of Lafayette, LA for use of the RV Coastal Surveyor and the latest evolution of high-resolution multibeam sonars, a

  20. Analyzing spatial clustering and the spatiotemporal nature and trends of HIV/AIDS prevalence using GIS: the case of Malawi, 1994-2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although local spatiotemporal analysis can improve understanding of geographic variation of the HIV epidemic, its drivers, and the search for targeted interventions, it is limited in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite recent declines, Malawi’s estimated 10.0% HIV prevalence (2011) remained among the highest globally. Using data on pregnant women in Malawi, this study 1) examines spatiotemporal trends in HIV prevalence 1994-2010, and 2) for 2010, identifies and maps the spatial variation/clustering of factors associated with HIV prevalence at district level. Methods Inverse distance weighting was used within ArcGIS Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software to generate continuous surfaces of HIV prevalence from point data (1994, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2010) obtained from surveillance antenatal clinics. From the surfaces prevalence estimates were extracted at district level and the results mapped nationally. Spatial dependency (autocorrelation) and clustering of HIV prevalence were also analyzed. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with HIV prevalence for 2010 and their spatial variation/clustering mapped and compared to HIV clustering. Results Analysis revealed wide spatial variation in HIV prevalence at regional, urban/rural, district and sub-district levels. However, prevalence was spatially leveling out within and across ‘sub-epidemics’ while declining significantly after 1999. Prevalence exhibited statistically significant spatial dependence nationally following initial (1995-1999) localized, patchy low/high patterns as the epidemic spread rapidly. Locally, HIV “hotspots” clustered among eleven southern districts/cities while a “coldspot” captured configurations of six central region districts. Preliminary multiple regression of 2010 HIV prevalence produced a model with four significant explanatory factors (adjusted R2 = 0.688): mean distance to main roads, mean travel time

  1. Avoidable mortality measured by years of potential life lost (YPLL) aged 5 before 65 years in Kyrgyzstan, 1989-2003.

    PubMed

    Bozgunchievz, Maratbek; Ito, Katsuki

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable willingness in the entire medical society of Kyrgyzstan, which was directly involved in the reform process, to obtain reliable information about changes in population health that have occurred in the last decade, as well as about changes in mortality, which is the basic component of population health. The objective of this paper is to introduce the Year of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) in Kyrgyzstan caused by avoidable mortality in the population between 5 and 65 years of age during 1989-2003, and to provide a basis for setting the priorities for the reducing YPLL in the coming years. YPLL was calculated using data from the annual mortality tables according to causes of deaths and age for 1989, 1996, 1999 and 2003. YPLL is defined as the summation of the difference between 65 years of age and the age at death from the age of 5 and before 65. In 2003, the total number of YPLL due to avoidable mortality among those who died was 216,860, which represents a decline of 5.0% in comparison with 228,266 in 1989. During the study years, the largest proportion of YPLL in the population between 5 and 65 years of age resulted from injury and poisoning. In 2003, this proportion represented 41.5% of the total amount of YPLL due to all the causes studied here, followed by infections and parasitic diseases (12.0%), circulatory disturbance of the brain (11.5%), chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (11.4%), diseases of the respiratory system (9.2%), and malignant neoplasm of the upper airways and digestive tract (4.6%). The decline in avoidable mortality caused by injury and poisoning, infections disease, malignant neoplasm of the female breast and uterus has to be priority-driven direction for developing Health Policy in the coming years in Kyrgyzstan. Attention also has to be given to reducing of avoidable mortality caused by malignant neoplasm of the female breast by implementing screening programs.

  2. The seasonal cycle revisited: interannual variation and ecosystem consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Douglas F.; Mackas, David L.; McKinnell, Stewart M.

    The annual seasonal cycle accounts for much of the total temporal variability of mid- and high-latitude marine ecosystems. Although the general pattern of the seasons repeats each year, climatic variability of the atmosphere and the ocean produce detectable changes in intensity and onset timing. We use a combination of time series data from oceanographic, zooplankton and seabird breeding data to ask if and how these variations in the timing of the spring growing season affect marine populations. For the physical environment, we develop an annual index of spring timing by fitting a non-linear 2-parameter periodic function to the average weekly SST data observed in British Columbia from 1 January to the end of August each year. For each year, the phase parameter describes the timing of seasonal warming (the timing index) and the amplitude parameter describes the magnitude of the temperature increase between the fitted winter minimum and summer maximum. For the zooplankton, which have annual and strongly synchronous cycles of biomass, productivity, and developmental sequence, we use copepodite stage composition to index the timing of the annual maximum. For seabirds, we examine (1975-1999) the timing of hatching, nestling growth performance, and diet for four species of alcids at Triangle Island, British Columbia's largest seabird colony and the world's largest population of the planktivorous Cassin's auklet. Temperature, zooplankton, and seabirds have all shown recent decadal trends toward ‘earlier spring’, but the magnitudes of the timing perturbations have differed from variable to variable and from year to year. Recent (1996-1999) extreme interannual variation in spring timing and April SST helped to facilitate a mechanistic investigation of oceanographic features that affect the reproductive performance of seabirds. Our results demonstrate a significant negative relationship between the annual spring timing index (and April mean SST) and nestling growth rates

  3. Dust Activity during Winter Time in East Asia and Snowfall Obervations and Simulations in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, L.

    2013-12-01

    Taiwan has relatively frequent snowfall in mountain during winter among regions of the same latitude. The phenomenon is contributed by Taiwan's unique topography - high and steep mountains, and geographical location - sitting on the route the continental polar air mass travels from its birthplace to the ocean, contribute to this phenomenon. Snow occurence, in addition to the freezing-point temperature, when two requirements are met: sufficient vapor and the condensation nuclei in the air. This study pursues the causes of the snowfall activity in Taiwan, the relations between the East Asian dust aerosol and the snowfall activity in Taiwan, and the impacts the climate changes have on the snowfall activity in Taiwan. In this study, Yushan snowfall activity from 1995~2011 and related atmosphere circulations were examined using SYNOP data, NCEP/DOE reanalysis atmospheric data, the observations of the Central Weather Bureau's Yushan Weather Station and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network of the Environment Protect Administration, Executive Yuan. To provide a quantitative measure of snowfall events and dust activity, a snowfall activity index (SAI) and the DAI Index by Yu et al. (2010) were defined. The time series of yearly SAI and DAI show that East Asian dust storm activity and Taiwan snowfall marked interannual variations during 1995 ~ 2011. For active years such as 2008, 2010, and 2011, SAI was hundreds of times larger than that for inactive years such as 1996, 1999 and 2003; and DAI in active years such as 2001 and 2002 was several tens of times larger than that in inactive years such as 1997 and 2003. In active years when the EAT (East Asian Trough) was shifted eastward, the strength of WPH (West Pacific High) increased in the south and an anticyclone thus occurred. This anticyclone introduced anomalous southwesterly flows along the southeastern coast of mainland China and over Taiwan, resulting in a wetter-than-normal atmosphere in support of snowfall

  4. Interaction of lightning with power distribution lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mata, Carlos Tomas

    Triggered-lightning experiments were conducted in 1996, 1999, and 2000 to study the responses of overhead power distribution lines to lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. The lightning was artificially initiated (triggered) from natural thunderclouds using the rocket-and-wire technique, and its current was directed to a phase conductor at midspan or at a pole near the center of the line. Experimental results and associated EMTP modeling are presented in this dissertation for the following line configurations: (1)a two-conductor, 740-m overhead distribution line with 2 arrester stations in 1996; (2)a four- conductor, 245-m overhead distribution line with 2 arrester stations in 1999; and (3)a four-conductor, 829-m overhead distribution line with 6 arrester stations in 2000. The three-phase lines tested in 1999 and 2000 were standard designs of a major Florida power company. Lightning peak currents injected into the lines ranged from 7 to 57 kA. Voltages and currents were measured at various locations along the line. Video and photographic cameras were used to image lightning channels and detect line flashovers. The significant results of the research are (1)flashovers between conductors were observed, both accompanied and not accompanied by arrester failures, (2)an arrester failed on seven of eight direct lightning strikes to the line in 2000, (3)arcing between conductors may prevent failures of arresters connected to the struck phase, (4)the bulk of the lightning current flows from the struck phase to neutral through the arresters closest to the strike point, (5)the withstand energy of the arresters can be exceeded due to the contribution from multiple strokes and/or relatively low-level, long-lasting current components, (6)the distribution of charge transferred to ground among multiple neutral grounds, which is determined by low-frequency, low-current grounding resistances is different from the

  5. Temporal changes (1989-1999) in deep-sea metazoan meiofaunal assemblages on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeropoulou, V.; Bett, B. J.; Gooday, A. J.; Lampadariou, N.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Vanreusel, A.

    2010-08-01

    Trends among major metazoan meiofaunal taxa were investigated based on 56 deployments of a multicorer at 10 time points over a period of 11 years (1989-1999) at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory site (PAP-SO: 48°50'N 16°30'W, 4850 m depth). This area is characterised by a strong seasonality in the deposition of organic matter to the seafloor and by the massive increase in the density of holothurian species since 1996, the so-called ' Amperima event'. Total meiofaunal densities ranged from 346 to 1074 ind.×10 cm -2 and showed a significant increase with time when time was represented by cruises, years and the ' Amperima period' (1996-1999) vs. the pre- Amperima period (1989-1994). This pattern was driven mainly by the nematodes, which were the dominant taxon (˜90% of total abundance). The third most abundant group, the polychaetes, also increased significantly in abundance over the time series, while the ostracods showed a significant decrease. Most other taxa, including the second-ranked group, the copepods (harpacticoids and nauplii), did not exhibit significant temporal changes in abundance. Ordination of taxon composition showed a shift from the pre- Amperima to the Amperima periods, a trend supported by the significant correlation between the x-ordinate and time. The majority (52-75%) of meiofaunal animals inhabited the top 2 cm of the 5 cm sediment cores analysed. There were significant increases in the proportion of total meiofauna, nematodes and copepods (but not polychaetes) inhabiting the 0-1 cm layer over time (represented by cruises) and between the pre- Amperima and Amperima periods in the case of copepods and polychaetes. During the intensively sampled period (1996-1997), there were indications of seasonal changes in the vertical distribution patterns of total meiofauna and nematodes within the sediment. We discuss the potential link between temporal variations in organic matter flux to the seafloor and meiofaunal populations

  6. Interseismic strain accumulation measured by GPS in the seismic gap between Constitución and Concepción in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruegg, J. C.; Rudloff, A.; Vigny, C.; Madariaga, R.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Campos, J.; Kausel, E.; Barrientos, S.; Dimitrov, D.

    2009-06-01

    The Concepción-Constitución area [35-37°S] in South Central Chile is very likely a mature seismic gap, since no large subduction earthquake has occurred there since 1835. Three campaigns of global positioning system (GPS) measurements were carried out in this area in 1996, 1999 and 2002. We observed a network of about 40 sites, including two east-west transects ranging from the coastal area to the Argentina border and one north-south profile along the coast. Our measurements are consistent with the Nazca/South America relative angular velocity (55.9°N, 95.2°W, 0.610°/Ma) discussed by Vigny et al. (2008, this issue) which predicts a convergence of 68 mm/year oriented 79°N at the Chilean trench near 36°S. With respect to stable South America, horizontal velocities decrease from 45 mm/year on the coast to 10 mm/year in the Cordillera. Vertical velocities exhibit a coherent pattern with negative values of about 10 mm/year on the coast and slightly positive or near zero in the Central Valley or the Cordillera. Horizontal velocities have formal uncertainties in the range of 1-3 mm/year and vertical velocities around 3-6 mm/year. Surface deformation in this area of South Central Chile is consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading on the subduction interface at depth. The best fit to our data is obtained with a dip of 16 ± 3°, a locking depth of 55 ± 5 km and a dislocation corresponding to 67 mm/year oriented 78°N. However in the northern area of our network the fit is improved locally by using a lower dip around 13°. Finally a convergence motion of about 68 mm/year represents more than 10 m of displacement accumulated since the last big interplate subduction event in this area over 170 years ago (1835 earthquake described by Darwin). Therefore, in a worst case scenario, the area already has a potential for an earthquake of magnitude as large as 8-8.5, should it happen in the near future.

  7. Hierarchical sampling of multiple strata: an innovative technique in exposure characterization.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Jonathon E; Gonzalez, Elisabeth J

    2003-07-01

    Sampling of multiple strata, or hierarchical sampling of various exposure sources and activity areas, has been tested and is suggested as a method to sample (or to locate) areas with a high prevalence of elevated blood lead in children. Hierarchical sampling was devised to supplement traditional soil lead sampling of a single stratum, either residential or fixed point source, using a multistep strategy. Blood lead (n=1141) and soil lead (n=378) data collected under the USEPA/UCI Tijuana Lead Project (1996-1999) were analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of sampling soil lead from background sites, schools and parks, point sources, and residences. Results revealed that industrial emissions have been a contributing factor to soil lead contamination in Tijuana. At the regional level, point source soil lead was associated with mean blood lead levels and concurrent high background, and point source soil lead levels were predictive of a high percentage of subjects with blood lead equal to or greater than 10 micro g/dL (pe 10). Significant relationships were observed between mean blood lead level and fixed point source soil lead (r=0.93; P<0.05; R(2)=0.72 using a quadratic model) and between residential soil lead and fixed point source soil lead (r=0.90; P<0.05; R(2)=0.86 using a cubic model). This study suggests that point sources alone are not sufficient for predicting the relative risk of exposure to lead in the urban environment. These findings will be useful in defining regions for targeted or universal soil lead sampling by site type. Point sources have been observed to be predictive of mean blood lead at the regional level; however, this relationship alone was not sufficient to predict pe 10. It is concluded that when apparently undisturbed sites reveal high soil lead levels in addition to local point sources, dispersion of lead is widespread and will be associated with a high prevalence of elevated blood lead in children. Multiple strata sampling was shown to be

  8. Geomorphic Analysis Supporting Restoration of the Walker River, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, J. W.; Echterling, C.; Majerova, M.; Wilcock, P.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural water diversions have degraded the Walker River, Nevada, and have led to a reduction of water level at its terminus, Walker Lake. The geomorphic response of the river to water reallocation is an important issue associated with restoration of the system. To address this issue, we performed a geomorphic assessment of the portions of the river passing through the two main agricultural valleys in the watershed, Smith and Mason Valleys, Nevada. The project involved field data collection, analysis of remotely sensed data, and numerical modeling. Fieldwork focused primarily on characterizing bed and bank sediment grain size distributions and on delineating geomorphically similar reaches. The remote sensing analysis used LiDAR and air photograph mosaics from 1938, 1950, 1996, 1999, and 2006 to quantify historic changes in the active channel geometry and to identify banks that represent potential sediment sources or sinks. Polygons representing in-channel features (here defined as the scoured region between vegetation lines) were delineated by hand on each photograph. Channel centerlines were then derived from this data set and were used to identify locations of active channel movement by measuring either direct centerline offsets or local sinuosity increase rates. Both active bar area and channel migration were focused on reaches near the head of each agricultural valley, where slope decreases as the channel emerges from an upstream bedrock-controlled canyon. These same reaches also experienced large increases in width during the 1997 flood of record. The gage record shows that attenuation of this flood was most pronounced in the lower of the two agricultural valleys, Mason Valley. Surprisingly little attenuation occurred in the upstream Smith Valley, despite the relatively low relief of the valley floor, which consists primarily of Pleistocene lake deposits. The major difference between the two valleys is that the meander belt through Smith Valley is incised

  9. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a 5-year analysis of the wartime and postwar period in South-Western region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Vajdana; Petrović, Oleg; Petrov, Bozo; Bjelanović, Vedran; Naletilić, Mladenka

    2009-12-01

    Hypertensive disorders are among the most common complications in pregnancy and a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes of pregnancies in mothers with hypertensive disorders, as well as the adequacy of prenatal care during the wartime and postwar period in South-Western region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study included a total of 542 pregnancies with hypertensive disorders during 5-year study period (1995-1999) and 1559 randomly selected controls. Data on risk factors, adverse perinatal outcomes (for singleton pregnancies only) and prenatal care on pregnant women were extracted from the medical records and compared with controls. Chi-square test and crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used in statistical analysis. The average five-year incidence of hypertensive pregnancy disorders was 6.5% and it was significantly higher in 1995, the last year of the war, than in the postwar period (1996-1999) (p = 0.02). Factors significantly associated with hypertensive pregnancy disorders were maternal age > 34, nulliparity, multifetal gestation and male newborn (p < 0.001; except p = 0.002 for male newborn). Severe forms of hypertensive disorders were significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes: preterm birth (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.08-6.3), cesarean delivery (OR 9.2, 95% CI 5.4-15.6), fetal growth restriction (OR 63.8, 95% CI 34.8-117.0), and stillbirth (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.1-14.1). Women with hypertensive pregnancy disorders had significantly lower number of prenatal care visits than controls (p < 0.001). There was a high proportion of normally formed macerated stillbirths in the study (27 out of 30 or 90%) and in the control group (10 out of 12 or 83%). In conclusion, severity of the disorder and adequacy of prenatal care are strongly associated with adverse perinatal outcome related to hypertensive pregnancy disorders.

  10. Geomagnetic storms link to the mortality rate in the Smolyan region for the period 1988--2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Siyka G. 1; Georgieva, Radostina C. 2; Dimitrova, Boryana H. 2; Slavcheva, Radka G. 2; Kerimova, Bojena P. 2; Georgiev, Tsvetan B. 34

    We present correlations and trends of 10 parameters of annual mortality rate (1 to common mortality rate, 5 to cardiovascular reasons and 4 to "accidental" reasons (car accidents, suicides, infections)) with respect to 6 parameters of annual solar and geomagnetic activity (Wolf index, number of geomagnetic storms, duration of the storms, amplitude of the storms). During the period of observation, characterized by a 3-4-fold decrease of the mean geomagnetic activity (in terms of the number and the duration of the storms) and with a strong variations of the amplitude of the storms (about an almost constant mean values for the period), there is a 1.3-fold decrease in the urban population, a 1.5-fold increase of the common mortality rate, a 1.8-fold increase of the cardiovascular mortality rate and a 1.1-fold decrease of the "accidental" mortality rates. During the years 2003-2005 we observe about 2-fold temporary increase in the storm amplitudes. During the years 2007-2008, characterized by extremely low geomagnetic activity, we observe a surprising temporary increase of the common and the cardiovascular mortality rates 1.1 and 1.3-fold, respectively (Figures 1-4). We point out 3 main results. (1) The available data shows notable increase in the mortality rates while there is generally a decrease of the solar or geomagnetic activity during the studied period (Figures 5-9). We explain this anti-correlation with the domination of the increasing mortality rates as an effect of the advance in the mean age of the population (due to immigration of young people and decrease of new-borns), hiding an eventual display of the solar and geomagnetic influence on the mortality rates. Using this data we can not reveal influence of the long-time (10-20 years) change of the average solar and geomagnetic activity on the mortality rate. (2) Excluding the unusual years 2007 and 2008, we establish that with respect to the years with low geomagnetic activity (1993, 1995, 1996, 1999), in

  11. Land subsidence monitoring in central Taiwan by using PS-InSAR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.-C.; Tung, H.; Huang, M.-H.

    2009-04-01

    Ground subsidence induced by heavy withdrawal of underground water has resulted in environmental hazard and potential risk in Taiwan, particularly in the Choushui River alluvial fan where the Yunlin section of the Taiwan High Speed Rail had been constructed. The Yunlin County located in the southwestern coastal region of Taiwan is one of the most counties with serious land subsidence because of the agricultural needs. Yunlin County is one of the important agricultural production regions located in the southwestern coastal region of Taiwan where the irrigated area is up to 123,000 hectares and agricultural water consumption reaches approximate 90 percents of all available water resources in the Choshui River Basin. Moreover, since there is no sufficient surface water supplied, groundwater becomes a vital resource for every water consumption targets. Seasonal effects of land subsidence occurring in the study area had been estimated using a regression analysis of a series of weekly GPS height solutions. These results demonstrated the average rate of ground subsidence in this area over the period of 1995-2001 was 3 cm/yr. Based on data collected at the piezometer, the variation of land subsidence rate appears to be associated with an unstable underground water level, which drop gradually during winter and either remains constant or rises during summer time. Consequently, land subsidence rates vary considerably from 1.5 cm/yr for the summer time to 9.0 cm/yr for the winter time. In addition, anthropogenic ground subsidence due to massive pumping of groundwater is one of problems in Taiwan. In this study, we represented a both stacking D-InSAR and PS-InSAR results deduced from 1996-1999 time spans for monitoring of land subsidence in this area. Both D-InSAR and PS-InSAR results show the Baojhou, Tuku Township and northern Mailiao reveal a maximum subsidence rate of about 6 cm/yr along LOS and the Taishi Township located on the coastal area reveals a subsidence rate of 1

  12. The spectroscopic orbit of Capella revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Capella is among the few binary stars with two evolved giant components. The hotter component is a chromospherically active star within the Hertzsprung gap, while the cooler star is possibly helium-core burning. Aims: The known inclination of the orbital plane from astrometry in combination with precise radial velocities will allow very accurate masses to be determined for the individual Capella stars. This will constrain their evolutionary stage and possibly the role of the active star's magnetic field on the dynamical evolution of the binary system. Methods: We obtained a total of 438 high-resolution échelle spectra during the years 2007-2010 and used the measured velocities to recompute the orbital elements. Our double-lined orbital solution yields average residuals of 64 m s-1 for the cool component and 297 m s-1 for the more rapidly rotating hotter component. Results: The semi-amplitude of the cool component is smaller by 0.045 km s-1 than the orbit determination of Torres et al. from data taken during 1996-1999 but more precise by a factor of 5.5, while for the hotter component it is larger by 0.580 km s-1 and more precise by a factor of 3.6. This corresponds to masses of 2.573 ± 0.009 M⊙ and 2.488 ± 0.008 M⊙ for the cool and hot component, respectively. Their relative errors of 0.34% and 0.30% are about half of the values given in Torres et al. for a combined literature-data solution but with absolute values different by 4% and 2% for the two components, respectively. The mass ratio of the system is therefore q = MA/MB = 0.9673 ± 0.0020. Conclusions: Our orbit is the most precise and also likely to be the most accurate ever obtained for Capella. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A89

  13. Effect of age and season on semen quality parameters in Sahiwal bulls.

    PubMed

    Bhakat, Mukesh; Mohanty, T K; Raina, V S; Gupta, A K; Khan, H M; Mahapatra, R K; Sarkar, M

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of season, period, age, bull, and ejaculate on semen quality in Sahiwal bulls. Semen production records from 1996 to 2006 of 5,483 ejaculates from 46 Sahiwal bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Complex, NDRI, Karnal, India were analyzed using least square analysis of variance by LSML software package. The overall least squares means of ejaculate volume (VOL), total volume per day (VOLD), mass activity (MA), initial motility (IM), sperm concentration per ml (SPC), and sperm concentration per ejaculate (SPCE) were 3.79 ± 0.02 ml, 5.81 ± 0.06 ml, 2.32 ± 0.01, 55.47 ± 0.001%, 766.69 ± 5.50 × 10(6)/ml and 3023.25 ± 30.15 × 10(6), respectively. All semen traits (VOL, VOLD, MA, IM and SPCE) were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by age groups, season and period, whereas season had significant effect on VOL at 5% level. During hot-humid season, highest value of VOL, VOLD, MA, IM, SPC, and SPCE were observed followed by summer and cold season. Highest value of VOL, VOLD, IM, and SPCE were observed during period-3 (2004-2006), whereas highest value of MA and SPC were observed during period-1 (1996-1999). However, lowest magnitude of MA, IM, SPC, and SPCE during period-2 (2000-2003) was observed. Ejaculate characteristics like VOL, VOLD, and SPCE increased with the increasing age of bull up to 5 years and then decreased. Significant (P < 0.01) bull to bull variation was found in VOL, VOLD, MA, IM, SPC, and SPCE traits. First ejaculate had significantly (P < 0.01) higher MA, IM, SPC, and SPCE. Hence, it could be concluded that during rainy season and period-1 and period-3 the quality of semen is quantitatively and qualitatively good. Better quality semen was obtained up to 5 years of age in Sahiwal bulls.

  14. Compliance Sampling Applications in MEC Clean-Up at Military Training Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, J.; Gilbert, Richard O.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.

    2008-01-31

    Millions of acres of Department of Defense (DoD) closed, transferred and transferring ranges may contain munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) (General Accounting Office, 2001). It is usually necessary to conduct geophysical surveys to search for MEC at these ranges before they can be released from DoD control for other uses. The process of searching for and removing MEC should be carefully planned to follow a quality control process to achieve cleanup goals. After detected MEC have been removed, a confirmation survey of the cleaned areas may be conducted to increase confidence in the cleanup process. These confirmation surveys are the focus of this paper. One possible statistically-based approach for conducting a confirmation survey is to use “accept-on-zero” attribute compliance sampling (AOZ ACS) (Schilling 1978, 1982; Squeglia, 1994). This approach involves conducting an inspection or sampling of a random selection of n “units” from among the total number of units (N) for a site. For example, the site may be divided into N non-overlapping 200ft x 200ft land areas (grids), n of which are randomly selected and inspected for MEC (n < N). The number n is statistically determined by specifying N and the confidence required that no more than Y% of the 200ft x 200ft units contain MEC. An example is provided by Williams (2003) for a site near Denver, Colorado. He describes the use of process quality control and AOZ ACS as it is laid out in Military-Standard-1916 (DoD 1996, 1999). The purpose of this paper is to (i) provide the mathematical foundation of AOZ ACS and an equation that can be used to compute n, (ii) discuss the pros and cons of AOZ ACS when units are defined to be either individual transects or anomalies, and (iii) present the results of simulation studies conducted to investigate the performance of AOZ ACS when individual transects are not randomly selected and there is a non-random spatial pattern of MEC. Goals (ii) and (iii) are of

  15. Historical gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Pouliot, G.; Hogrefe, C.; Gan, C.-M.; Wei, C.

    2013-08-01

    An accurate description of emissions is crucial for model simulations to reproduce and interpret observed phenomena over extended time periods. In this study, we used an approach based on activity data to develop a consistent series of spatially resolved emissions in the United States from 1990 to 2010. The state-level anthropogenic emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), NH3, PM10 and PM2.5 for a total of 49 sectors were estimated based on several long-term databases containing information about activities and emission controls. Activity data for energy-related stationary sources were derived from the State Energy Data System. Corresponding emission factors reflecting implemented emission controls were calculated back from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) for seven years (i.e., 1990, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005), and constrained by the AP-42 (US EPA's Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors) dataset. Activity data for mobile sources including different types of highway vehicles and non-highway equipment were obtained from highway statistics reported by the Federal Highway Administration. The trends in emission factors for highway mobile source were informed by the 2011 National Transportation Statistics. Emissions for all non-energy-related sources were either scaled by the growth ratio of activity indicators or adjusted based on the NEI trends report. Because of the strengthened control efforts, particularly for the power sector and mobile sources, emissions of all pollutants except NH3 were reduced by half over the last two decades. The emission trends developed in this study are comparable with the NEI trend report and EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) data, but better constrained by trends in activity data. Reductions in SO2, NOx, CO and EC (speciation of PM2.5 by SMOKE, Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions) emissions agree well with the observed changes in ambient SO2, NO2

  16. Vitamin d deficiency is associated with insulin resistance independent of intracellular calcium, dietary calcium and serum levels of parathormone, calcitriol and calcium in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Rocha, Tatiana Martins; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Hay evidencias de que la deficiencia de vitamina D se asocia con mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. Sin embargo, no se sabe si esta asociación es independiente de calcio en la dieta, el calcio intracelular y los niveles séricos de hormona paratiroidea, calcitriol y calcio. Objetivos: investigar la relación independiente de la deficiencia de vitamina D con resistencia a la insulina, el perfil lipídico, el estado inflamatorio, la presión arterial y la función endotelial. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado con 73 mujeres pre menopáusicas sanas brasileñas con edad 18-50 años. Todos los participantes fueron evaluados para: niveles séricos de 25 hidroxivitamina D, parámetros antropométricos, la composición corporal, metabolismo del calcio, resistencia a la insulina, el perfil de lipoproteínas, estado inflamatorio, la presión arterial y la función endotelial. La función endotelial fue evaluada por el índice de hiperemia reactiva mediante el uso de Endo-PAT 2000®. Las mujeres fueron estratificados en dos grupos: con deficiencia de vitamina D (25 hidroxivitamina D.

  17. Thyroid nodules in acromegaly: The role of elastography.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, M; Scacchi, M; Carzaniga, C; Vitale, G; Moro, M; Poggi, L; Fatti, L M; Cavagnini, F

    2010-09-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: L’elastosonografia (US-E) è un utile strumento per la diagnosi del carcinoma tiroideo. Se nell’acromegalia lo struma multinodulare ha un’elevata prevalenza, ancora non vi è accordo sulla possibilità di un’aumentata prevalenza delle neoplasie maligne tiroidee. Obiettivi dello studio sono stati: a) valutare i noduli tiroidei nell’acromegalia con l’US-E; b) stabilire l’accuratezza di questa tecnica nel fornire informazioni sulla loro natura, usando l’esame citologico come parametro di riferimento. MATERIALI E METODI: L’US-E è stata eseguita in 25 pazienti acromegalici (7 guariti dalla chirurgia ipofisaria, 8 controllati dalla terapia medica, 10 con patologia attiva) che presentavano almeno un nodulo solido. Un totale di 90 noduli sono stati classificati secondo un punteggio elastosonografico (ES) in quattro classi di durezza: ES1 e ES2 per i noduli più elastici, ES3 e ES4 per quelli più duri. L’agoaspirato (FNAC) è stato effettuato nel 78.6% dei noduli ES 4 e nel 54,1% dei noduli ES 3. RISULTATI: Dei 90 noduli, 14 (15,5%) mostravano un ES 1, 25 (27,7%) un ES 2, 37 (41,3%) un ES 3 e 14 (15,5%) un ES 4. La prevalenza di noduli duri nei pazienti con acromegalia attiva (68,9%) era maggiore di quella osservata nei pazienti guariti (44,4%) e nei pazienti controllati (52,5%). Nell’intera popolazione di acromegalici la prevalenza di noduli duri (56,7%) era maggiore di quella riportata dalla letteratura nei pazienti non acromegalici con struma multinodulare (33,7%). Tutti i noduli sottoposti a FNAC sono risultati negativi per cellule tumorali maligne o per sospetta malignità. DISCUSSIONE: Questo studio ha dimostrato un’elevata prevalenza di noduli duri nell’acromegalia, soprattutto nei pazienti con patologia attiva. Tale prevalenza è maggiore di quella riportata in letteratura nei pazienti non acromegalici con patologia nodulare tiroidea. Questi noduli, tuttavia, non sono risultati maligni all’esame citologico e

  18. [Seroprevalence of antinuclear antibodies in blood donors in the Yaqui Valley].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Osuna, Ricardo; López-López, Rocío Milagro; Brito-Zurita, Olga Rosa; Sabag-Ruiz, Enrique; Pérez-Fernández, Héctor; Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: los anticuerpos antinucleares son inmunoglobulinas que reconocen componentes celulares nucleares y citoplasmáticos autólogos. En personas sanas no se relacionan con alguna enfermedad autoinmune; sin embargo, pueden estar vinculados con un fenotipo inmunológico de riesgo que no ha sido suficientemente estudiado. Objetivo: examinar la existencia de anticuerpos antinucleares en el suero de donadores de sangre. Material y métodos: estudio transversal y analítico en búsqueda de anticuerpos antinucleares en suero mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta en células HEp-2. La prevalencia y patrón de expresión se contrastaron con la edad, el género y los antecedentes de enfermedad reumática o tiroidea. Resultados: se estudiaron 379 donadores de sangre con límites de edad entre 18 y 65 años. La prevalencia de anticuerpos antinucleares en la población estudiada fue de 13%. La mayoría de los sujetos positivos tenía entre 21 y 40 años de edad. El género masculino expresó mayor proporción de positividad (11%) en comparación con las mujeres (2%). De la misma forma, 82% de los hombres tenía títulos bajos (1:80) y en 66% eran de tipo nucleolar (RM = 10.66 [1.83 a 62.18]; p = 0.007). Conclusiones: en individuos sanos, la existencia de anticuerpos antinucleares a títulos bajos puede no significar un estado de autoinmunidad; sin embargo, podría ser el reflejo de una exposición a factores ambientales que no han sido lo suficientemente estudiados. Es necesario realizar nuevos estudios en población sana que permitan explicar la asociación entre estos anticuerpos y los factores tóxicoambientales, así como sus efectos en la salud.

  19. [Epidemiologic features in patients with antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Borges, Mario; Tassinari, Stefano; Flores, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: en la actualidad, la información disponible acerca de las características particulares de los pacientes que padecen urticaria crónica espontánea resistente a tratamiento es muy limitada. Objetivo: investigar las características demográficas y clínicas de los pacientes con urticaria crónica espontánea resistente a tratamiento. Material y método: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, de la información clínica y demográfica de pacientes que consultaron en los servicios de Alergología de dos hospitales de Caracas, Venezuela, que padecían urticaria espontánea de más de seis semanas de evolución y que no habían respondido a por lo menos un curso de tratamiento con antihistamínicos. Resultados: la urticaria crónica espontánea resistente a tratamiento fue más frecuente en pacientes de sexo femenino, de edades entre 20 y 59 años, de raza caucásica americana, con predominio de síntomas moderados, duración de las lesiones individuales de menos de tres horas y diámetro de los habones entre 1 y 3 cm. El angioedema solo o asociado con urticaria afectó a 14% de los pacientes. Las enfermedades asociadas con mayor frecuencia fueron: asma, rinitis y rinosinusitis, enfermedades tiroideas e hipertensión arterial. Conclusión: la urticaria crónica espontánea resistente a tratamiento constituye un subgrupo muy frecuente de urticaria crónica y representa un importante desafío terapéutico. En este estudio no se demostraron características diferenciales en comparación con las de los pacientes con urticaria crónica espontánea que responden al tratamiento con antihistamínicos.

  20. Gender and the circadian pattern of body temperature in normoxia and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P

    2016-11-17

    Circadian patterns are at the core of many physiological processes, and their disruption can have short- and long-term consequences. This essay focuses on one of the best known patterns, the daily oscillation of body temperature (Tb), and the possibility of its difference between genders. From human and animal studies globally considered, the tentative conclusion is reached that differences in Tb circadian pattern between genders are very small and probably limited to the timing of the Rhythm, not to its amplitude. Such similarity between genders, despite the differences in hormona rhythm (small r) l systems, presumably testifies to the importance that the Tb circadian pattern plays in the economy of the organism and its survival against environmental challenges. The second part of the article presents some previously unpublished experimental data from behaving male and female rats during hypoxia in synchronized conditions. In adult rats hypoxia (10.5% O2 for three days) caused a profound drop of the Tb daily oscillations; by day 3 they were 55% (♀) and 22% (♂) of the normoxic amplitudes, with a statistically significant gender difference. In pre-puberty rats (26-day old) hypoxia caused a major disruption of the circadian pattern qualitatively similar to the adults but not different between genders. Hence, on the basis of this preliminary set of data, it seems that sex-hormones may be a factor in how the Tb daily pattern responds to hypoxia. The implications of the effects of hypoxia on the circadian patterns, and the possibility that such effects may differ between genders, are matters that could have biological and clinical implications and deserve further investigations.

  1. [Electrical status epilepticus during sleep: a retrospective multi-centre study of 29 cases].

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Ruiz, María; Miguel-Martin, Beatriz; García-Pérez, Asunción; Martínez-Granero, Miguel A; Aguilera-Albesa, Sergio; Yoldi-Petri, M Eugenia; Sánchez-Ruiz de Gordoa, Javier; Castro-De Castro, Pedro; Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío

    2015-02-01

    Introduccion. El estado epileptico electrico durante el sueño (ESES) es un sindrome epileptico caracterizado por la presencia de descargas epilepticas tipo punta-onda lenta de manera muy persistente durante el sueño no REM. En la actualidad, el manejo de esta patologia es heterogeneo y no hay estudios controlados con los tratamientos utilizados, ni se ha comprobado si estos mejoran la evolucion cognitiva de los pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Se revisan los pacientes diagnosticados de ESES durante 15 años en cuatro centros hospitalarios, se recoge la presentacion clinica, el manejo terapeutico y la evolucion clinica, y se compara con la bibliografia. Resultados. Se seleccionaron 29 pacientes con ESES, 20 de ellos idiopatico y 26 de ellos generalizado. Los farmacos con los que se consiguio mayor control de la actividad electrica fueron los corticoides/hormona adrenocorticotropa (ACTH), el clobazam y el levetiracetam. La mediana de duracion del ESES en los casos primarios fue de seis meses, y en los secundarios, el doble. El 45% de los pacientes mantuvo un cociente intelectual normal y un 40% presento en la evolucion discapacidad cognitiva de diferente grado. Conclusiones. El pronostico neuropsicologico evolutivo suele ser desfavorable y la evolucion cognitiva parece estar en relacion con la duracion del ESES y el area donde este concentrada la actividad epileptica, lo que sugiere que el mal pronostico, si se trata precozmente, se puede evitar. Los antiepilepticos mas frecuentemente utilizados son el acido valproico, la etosuximida y el levetiracetam, y en nuestra muestra tambien se utilizaron con frecuencia el clobazam y la lamotrigina. Los farmacos mas eficaces para el control del ESES fueron los corticoides/ACTH, el clobazam y el levetiracetam.

  2. NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT FOR FULMINANT HEPATITIS.

    PubMed

    Ramos Figueira, Estela Regina; Rocha Filho, Joel Avancini; Souto Nacif, Lucas; Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Luiz; Linetzky Waitzberg, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la hepatitis fulminante se asocia a un exacerbado hipercatabolismo, la hipoglicemia y la hiperamonemia están acompañadas por la liberación de citocinas proinflamatorias y hormonas catabólicas en la circulación sistémica, empeorando la condición clínica del paciente. El apoyo nutricional es un elemento crucial para la recuperación de estos pacientes. Objetivos: el objetivo de esta revisión es actualizar el apoyo nutricional para la hepatitis fulminante. Métodos: la revisión se llevó a cabo mediante la búsqueda electrónica en Medline-PubMed, utilizando malla de términos. Resultados y discusión: no hay muchos datos disponibles sobre el apoyo nutricional para lahepatitis fulminante o fallo hepático agudo. Las estrategias de intervención nutricional inicial se centran en el control de los trastornos metabólicos de la hepatitis fulminante descritos anteriormente, que deben ser individualizadas de acuerdo a la gravedad de la situación clínica del paciente. Energía y proteína se pueden proporcionar en cantidades de 25‑40 kcal / kg / día y 0,8-1,2 g / kg / día, respectivamente. La terapia nutricional enteral está indicada en pacientes con encefalopatía avanzada o para aquellos que no pueden ser adecuadamente alimentados por vía oral. Se debe obtener una euglicemia y la ingesta de proteínas puede estar basada en fórmulas de BCAA. Los lípidos se pueden administrar como suplemento energético con precaución. Una terapia nutricional adecuada puede potencialmente reducir la morbilidad y la mortalidad de los pacientes con hepatitis fulminante.

  3. Miocene lava flows and domes, cooling fractures, carapace breccia, and avalanche deposits near Goldstone, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesch, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping and petrography of volcanic rocks in western Fort Irwin (FI), California, provide insights into the cooling history of lava flows and domes and the formation of associated carapace breccia and avalanche deposits. The rocks formed on the eastern margin of the 19-16 Ma Eagle Crags volcanic field (Sabin and others, 1994). Lava compositions range from porphyritic olivine basalt to aphyric rhyolite. Basalt flows are 1-5 m thick and <1-2 km long, and sequences 5-50 m thick are traceable for >7 km. Andesite to rhyolite flows are 30-80 m thick and <1-3 km long, and domes have 100-300 m relief and radial length of 0.6-1.2 km. Cooling fractures, identified by occurrence of margins and geometry, are in all lava flows and domes. Similar to a 'rim' (Buesch and others, 1996 & 1999; Buesch, 2006), a 'margin' is a region along a fracture wall with a finer texture or different type of crystallinity or vesicularity compared to rock inward from the fracture. At FI, margins occur on many fractures and typically are 0.5-3 mm wide. They indicate that a fracture formed during initial cooling, before the bulk of the rock crystallized. Planarity and surface roughness are used to analyze fractures (Buesch and others, 1996). Typically at FI, cooling fractures are planar and smooth, and post-cooling fractures are slightly irregular and slightly rough. Typically, plan views of cooling fractures are 5-6 sided in olivine basalt, and 4-sided in andesite to rhyolite. Fracture sets are mostly perpendicular to the original surface of a flow, and some bend toward the interior. Many lava flows and domes have lateral and capping breccias referred to as carapace breccia. Similar breccia also cloaks individual lobes of composite domes. Carapace breccia can grade down into a non-brecciated interior, but in some cases, compositionally similar late-stage flow-banded lava was injected beneath the breccia, Breccia fragments are vitric or crystallized, and many have margins that do not match those of

  4. Constraints on the mechanism of long-term, steady subsidence at Medicine Lake volcano, northern California, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Burgmann, Roland; Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Masterlark, Timothy; Owen, Susan; Fink, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Leveling surveys across Medicine Lake volcano (MLV) have documented subsidence that is centered on the summit caldera and decays symmetrically on the flanks of the edifice. Possible mechanisms for this deformation include fluid withdrawal from a subsurface reservoir, cooling/crystallization of subsurface magma, loading by the volcano and dense intrusions, and crustal thinning due to tectonic extension (Dzurisin et al., 1991 [Dzurisin, D., Donnelly-Nolan, J.M., Evans, J.R., Walter, S.R., 1991. Crustal subsidence, seismicity, and structure near Medicine Lake Volcano, California. Journal of Geophysical Research 96, 16, 319-16, 333.]; Dzurisin et al., 2002 [Dzurisin, D., Poland, M.P., Bürgmann, R., 2002. Steady subsidence of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California, revealed by repeated leveling surveys. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 2372, doi:10.1029/2001JB000893.]). InSAR data that approximate vertical displacements are similar to the leveling results; however, vertical deformation data alone are not sufficient to distinguish between source mechanisms. Horizontal displacements from GPS were collected in the Mt. Shasta/MLV region in 1996, 1999, 2000, 2003, and 2004. These results suggest that the region is part of the western Oregon block that is rotating about an Euler pole in eastern Oregon. With this rotation removed, most sites in the network have negligible velocities except for those near MLV caldera. There, measured horizontal velocities are less than predicted from ∼10 km deep point and dislocation sources of volume loss based on the leveling data; therefore volumetric losses simulated by these sources are probably not causing the observed subsidence at MLV. This result demonstrates that elastic models of subsurface volume change can provide misleading results where additional geophysical and geological constraints are unavailable, or if only vertical deformation is known. The deformation source must be capable of causing broad vertical deformation

  5. How common problems with estimating surface radiative fluxes impact snow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapo, K. E.; Lundquist, J. D.; Hinkelman, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    temporal variability such as when using a daily cloud cover fraction. To understand the effect of these systematic errors, we simulated SWE at three study sites using snow models of varying complexity in the representation of snow pack internal energy. Artificial errors, representing the four scenarios above, were created and used to force the snow models in place of the original observations and compared to the original simulations. The models used were the Utah Energy Balance model, which has a skin temperature and a bulk temperature, and the Modular Snow Model, which is a multi-layer model. These models were chosen to demonstrate the interaction of model complexity with different error structures. This study was conducted at three sites with full energy balance observations: the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in Idaho operated by the USDA with a record 25 years long (1983-2008); Umpqua National Forest, Oregon, operated as part of the Demonstration for Ecosystem Management Options during the winters between 1996-1999, and Lake O'Hara, British Columbia, operated as part of the Improved Processes and Parameterization for Prediction in Cold Regions research network over the water year 2008. The results from this study highlight which errors have the most impact on snow modeling and thus where efforts should be concentrated for improving estimates of surface radiative fluxes.

  6. A bibliography of terrain modeling (geomorphometry), the quantitative representation of topography: supplement 4.0

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Terrain modeling, the practice of ground-surface quantification, is an amalgam of Earth science, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. The discipline is known variously as geomorphometry (or simply morphometry), terrain analysis, and quantitative geomorphology. It continues to grow through myriad applications to hydrology, geohazards mapping, tectonics, sea-floor and planetary exploration, and other fields. Dating nominally to the co-founders of academic geography, Alexander von Humboldt (1808, 1817) and Carl Ritter (1826, 1828), the field was revolutionized late in the 20th Century by the computer manipulation of spatial arrays of terrain heights, or digital elevation models (DEMs), which can quantify and portray ground-surface form over large areas (Maune, 2001). Morphometric procedures are implemented routinely by commercial geographic information systems (GIS) as well as specialized software (Harvey and Eash, 1996; Köthe and others, 1996; ESRI, 1997; Drzewiecki et al., 1999; Dikau and Saurer, 1999; Djokic and Maidment, 2000; Wilson and Gallant, 2000; Breuer, 2001; Guth, 2001; Eastman, 2002). The new Earth Surface edition of the Journal of Geophysical Research, specializing in surficial processes, is the latest of many publication venues for terrain modeling. This is the fourth update of a bibliography and introduction to terrain modeling (Pike, 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999) designed to collect the diverse, scattered literature on surface measurement as a resource for the research community. The use of DEMs in science and technology continues to accelerate and diversify (Pike, 2000a). New work appears so frequently that a sampling must suffice to represent the vast literature. This report adds 1636 entries to the 4374 in the four earlier publications1. Forty-eight additional entries correct dead Internet links and other errors found in the prior listings. Chronicling the history of terrain modeling, many entries in this report predate the 1999 supplement

  7. DETERMINATION OF CHOLESTEROL IN HUMAN MILK: AN ALTERNATIVE TO CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Sala, Andrea; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Barberá, Reyes; Lagarda, María Jesús

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la leche humana (HM) se considera el modo óptimo de alimentación en lactantes sanos. El colesterol (CHOL) es importante para el correcto desarrollo del sistema nervioso y la síntesis de hormonas y vitaminas en el crecimiento del lactante. Se ha constatado que la lactancia materna y la ingesta dietética de CHOL durante la infancia influye en los niveles de lípidos en sangre, así como en el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular en la edad adulta. La técnica más utilizada para determinar el CHOL en HM es la cromatografía de gases. Los métodos cromatográficos son específicos para la determinación del CHOL y otros esteroles presentes en la HM, pero el elevado tiempo consumido, los costes y la necesidad de una instrumentación específica hacen que no sea accesible para cualquier laboratorio. Objetivo: el presente estudio describe la optimización y validación de un método enzimático-espectrofotométrico para la determinación del CHOL en HM madura. Métodos: la determinación del CHOL requiere una extracción lipídica con cloroformo:metanol, saponificación en caliente y extracción del insaponificable con dietil éter. El CHOL fue determinado por un método enzimático en el que la concentración de lutidina formada es estequiométrica a la cantidad de CHOL, y se mide a 405 nm. Resultados: la cantidad de grasa (mg/mL) (27,5 ± 1,3) y de CHOL (0,113 ± 0,004) en la HM analizada se halla en el intervalo indicado por otros autores. Se evalúan parámetros analíticos del método propuesto: la precisión (expresada como desviación estándar relativa en %) fue de 3,5 y 6,7 para intra- e interdía, respectivamente. La exactitud, estimada mediante ensayos de recuperación, fue de 110 ± 1,6%. Conclusión: el método enzimático-espectrofotométrico validado para determinar el CHOL en HM constituye una alternativa para el análisis rápido y sencillo de CHOL empleando equipos accesibles para cualquier laboratorio.

  8. [VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH NORMAL NUTRITIONAL STATUS].

    PubMed

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Chueca Guindulain, María Jesús; Berrade-Zubiri, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: analizar la prevalencia de la deficiencia de vitamina D a lo largo de un año natural en una población pediátrica con un estado nutricional normal. Material y métodos: estudio transversal clínico y analítico (calcio, fósforo, fosfatasa alcalina, calcidiol y hormona paratiroidea) en 413 sujetos (entre 3,1 y 15,4 años): 227 escolares (96 varones y 131 mujeres) y 186 adolescentes (94 varones y 92 mujeres), de raza caucásica y estado nutricional normal, durante el año 2014. Para definir la deficiencia de vitamina D se han aplicado los criterios de la Sociedad Americana de Endocrinología. Resultados: los niveles de calcidiol eran más bajos en primavera (25,96 ± 6,64 ng/ml) y alcanzaban su máximo nivel en verano (35,33 ± 7,51 ng/ml); mientras que los de PTH eran más bajos en verano (27,13 ± 7,89 pg/ml) y alcanzaban su máximo nivel en otoño (34,73 ± 15,38 pg/ml). La prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina D era del 14,3% en verano y del 75,3% en primavera. En 8 casos (1,9%) existían cifras de PTH compatibles con hiperparatiroidismo secundario. Existía una correlación negativa entre calcidiol y PTH (p < 0,01). No existía correlación entre IMC y calcidiol. Conclusión: en la población pediátrica con una situacion nutricional normal existe una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina D en los meses de otoño e invierno y, especialmente, en primavera, y habría que considerar la necesidad de administrar suplementos vitamínicos y/o ingerir mayores cantidades de sus fuentes dietéticas naturales.

  9. [ASSOCIATION OF OLFACTORY SENSITIVITY WITH ENERGY INTAKE: ROLE IN DEVELOPMENT OF OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Valladares Vega, Macarena; Obregón Rivas, Ana Maria

    2015-12-01

    La obesidad se produce por un desequilibrio entre la energía consumida y el gasto de energía generado. Dentro de los factores que regulan la ingesta no homeostática se encuentra el sentido del olfato, que constituye una importante señal externa que induce la ingesta de alimentos. Los humanos lo utilizan para apreciar la palatabilidad de los alimentos y, en general, para seleccionar alimentos. Materiales y método: se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de artículos en las bases de datos de Pubmed y Scielo, donde se utilizaron las palabras claves: “olfato”, “ingesta energética” y “obesidad”; adicionalmente se sumaron los siguientes límites para restringir la exploración: “animales”, “humanos”, “ensayo clínico” y “metaanálisis”. Resultados: el estado de hambre individual esta modulado por la sensibilidad olfatoria, donde se observa que la sensibilidad del olfato aumenta frente a un estado de ayunas. Existen dos hormonas que han permitido relacionar el sentido del olfato con la ingesta energética: orexina, que aumenta la sensibilidad olfativa y la ingesta, y leptina, que disminuye la sensibilidad olfativa y la ingesta. Las personas obesas con IMC > 45 presentan baja sensibilidad olfativa, situación que no varía después de la cirugía bariátrica. Conclusiones: determinar la relación entre el olfato, la ingesta energética y la obesidad es un campo escasamente estudiado y que abre nuevos caminos para el tratamiento de patologías en las que existen trastornos alimentarios como la obesidad. A futuro es necesario la realización de ensayos clínicos que permitan determinar la causalidad entre ambas variables, así como estudios moleculares para comprender mejor las señales que relacionan el olfato con la ingesta energética.

  10. [Male hormonal profile in workers exposed to toluene in an industrial packaging plant].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Figueroa, Genezareth; Paz-Román, María del Pilar; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo; Basurto-Acevedo, Lourdes; Haro-García, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: identificar cambios en el perfil hormonal masculino (PHM), integrado por las hormonas luteinizante (LH), folículo-estimulante (FSH) y testosterona, de trabajadores expuestos a tolueno. Métodos: estudio transversal que incluyó a 42 trabajadores. Se constituyeron dos grupos: con exposición alta (EAT) y con exposición baja (EBT) a tolueno. Se midió la concentración sérica de FSH, LH y testosterona, así como el ácido hipúrico en orina. Resultados: ácido hipúrico en sujetos con EBT: 2.53 ± 1.20 g/g creatinina; con EAT: 6.31 ± 3.83 g/g creatinina (p = 0.02). Concentración sérica de FSH: 5.12 ± 0.77 y 3.55 ± 0.3 mU/mL (p = 0.02) en EBT y EAT, respectivamente; de LH: 2.66 ± 0.45 y 2.77 ± 0.21 (p = 0.81); y testosterona: 3.91 ± 0.34 y 4.86 ± 0.23 ng/mL (p = 0.04). Por análisis de regresión, el coeficiente de correlación de FSH con ácido hipúrico fue de r = -0.33 (p = 0.031), con coeficiente de determinación de 11%; el de LH: r = -0.037 (p = 0.88) y 0.05 % respectivamente, y el de testosterona: r = 0.61 (p = 0.0001) y 34 %. Conclusiones: en el grupo EAT, los niveles séricos de la FSH y LH disminuyeron; la testosterona muestra una respuesta contraria, lo cual quizás se explique por una diferente sensibilidad de gónadas masculinas a la exposición del tolueno.

  11. Effects of flaxseed flour on the lipid profile of rats submitted to prolonged androgen stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ilma Cely de Amorim; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Alves Pereira, Vivian; Teles Boaventura, Gilson; Alves Chagas, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: El uso crónico de hormonas esteroides puede causar alteraciones en el perfil lipídico como el aumento de las LDL y reducción de las HDL. Los efectos de la linaza en el perfil lipídico han sido extensivamente investigados. Objetivo: Evaluar el perfil lipídico de ratas Wistar machos adultos alimentados con piensos a base de linaza y sometidos a hiperestimulaciones androgénicas. Materiales y Métodos: Cuarenta ratas Wistar fueron divididos en 4 grupos de 10 animales: Grupo control (GC); Grupo de linaza (GL), alimentados con piensos a base de harina de linaza ; Grupo Inducido (GI); y Grupo Inducido (GIL) alimentados con piensos a base de harina de linaza. La inducción fue realizada utilizando pellets de silicona rellenados con propionato de testosterona (1 mg) cerrados con un adhesivo quirúrgico y sustituidos cada 4 semanas. Resultados: Los triglicéridos (GL: 71.16 ± 21.95; GI: 99.16 ± 26.00; GIL: 86.33 ± 27.16 mg/dL) y colesterol- HDL (GL: 23.05 ± 1.67; GI: 29.06 ± 7.24; GIL: 26.06 ± 3.56 mg/dL) estaban significativamente más bajos en los grupos experimentales. EL GL (41.16 ± 3.97 mg/dL) y GIL (49.66 ± 11.25 mg/dL) presentaron niveles menores de colesterol que los otros grupos (GC: 78,85 ± 11.58; GI: 70,83 ± 14.85 mg/dL) y el GI concentraciones significativamente mayores de LDL (21,93 ± 8,84 mg/dL) que los otros grupos (GC: 7,81 ± 5,37; GL: 3,88 ± 1,32; GIL: 6,66 ± 7,24 mg/dL). Conclusión: La linaza presenta efectos relevantes en el perfil lipídico de animales sometidos a hiperestimulaciones androgénicas.

  12. [Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: the best surgical option].

    PubMed

    Maestre-Maderuelo, Maria; Candel-Arenas, Marife; Terol-Garaulet, Emilio; González-Valverde, Francisco Miguel; Marín-Blazquez, Antonio Albarracin

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la vía de acceso laparoscópico es la técnica de elección en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la glándula suprarrenal, excepto del carcinoma suprarrenal. Objetivo: revisar nuestra experiencia en suprarrenalectomías laparoscópicas por vía lateral transperitoneal efectuadas entre los años 2005 y 2012. Material y método: estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo efectuado mediante la revisión de historias clínicas de 37 pacientes con diagnóstico, al alta, de tumor adrenal y a quienes se hizo adrenalectomía laparoscópica entre abril de 2005 y abril de 2012. Se consideraron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, lateralidad, indicación quirúrgica, resultados anatomopatológicos, tamaño de la lesión, estancia hospitalaria, tasa de conversión y complicaciones perioperatorias. Resultados: durante el periodo de estudio se intervinieron 37pacientes (19 varones y 18 mujeres) con edad media de 51.72 ± 14.42 años. Se realizaron 22adrenalectomías izquierdas (59.45%) y 15 derechas (40.54%). Las indicaciones de suprarrenalectomía fueron: incidentaloma mayor de 4 cm o con crecimiento rápido y tumores productores de hormonas. El diagnóstico se confirmó con tomografía computada, resonancia magnética, o ambas, y con gammagrafía metaiodobencilguanidina en el caso de sospecha de feocromocitoma y estudio hormonal completo en todos los pacientes. Conclusiones: la suprarrenalectomía laparoscópica sigue siendo la técnica de elección en el tratamiento de pacientes con afectación de la glándula suprarrenal porque ha demostrado ser segura y eficaz, como quedó confirmado en nuestra serie, que tuvo resultados similares a los de la bibliografía.

  13. [Treatment with urea as an alternative to tolvaptan for the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone].

    PubMed

    Gómez Valbuena, I; Alonso Pérez, L; Alioto, D; Cañamares Orbis, I; Ferrari Piquero, J M

    2014-07-01

    El síndrome de secreción inadecuada de la hormona antidiurética (SIADH) es una afectación que cursa con hiponatremia entre otros síntomas. Actualmente la familia de fármacos de elección para este síndrome son los vaptanes, entre ellos el tolvaptán, antagonistas de la vasopresina. La urea actúa como diurético osmótico produciendo la retención de sodio. Se presenta un caso en el que el cambio desde el tratamiento con tolvaptán a urea en el SIADH permitió mantener la respuesta, a un coste muy inferior. La paciente tenía 83 años, ingresó en nuestro Hospital al diagnosticarle una hiponatremia grave (108 mEq/L) durante una exploración por una caída en su casa. Durante el ingreso ante la sospecha de SIADH se le prescribió sucesivamente tres tipos de tratamientos: Restricción hídrica y suero salino, seguido de tolvaptán 15 mg y para finalizar se le prescribió 15 gr de urea cada 12 horas. Durante el primer tratamiento los niveles de sodio sérico no aumentaron lo suficiente, por lo que se cambió al tolvaptán, durante el cual los niveles de sodio sérico subieron a rangos normales. Al considerar que el tratamiento iba a ser de larga duración se decidió cambiar a la urea, durante el mismo los niveles de sodio sérico tuvo un ligero aumento. La paciente es dada de alta con la pauta de urea de forma indefinida. El coste diario del tratamiento de tolvaptán es de 66,91 euros; el de urea supone 0,30 euros. En casos como el descrito, el uso de urea preparada como fórmula magistral por el área de farmacotécnia del Servicio de Farmacia, es una alternativa al tolvaptán con un coste marcadamente inferior.

  14. THE ACTION OF AVOCADO OIL ON THE LIPIDOGRAM OF WISTAR RATS SUBMITTED TO PROLONGED ANDROGENIC STIMULUM.

    PubMed

    de Souza Abboud, Renato; Alves Pereira, Vivian; Soares da Costa, Carlos Alberto; Teles Boaventura, Gilson; Alves Chagas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: el uso abusivo de hormonas esteroides administradas crónicamente puede ocasionar cambios en el perfil lipídico, lo que lleva a un aumento de LDL y niveles reducidos de HDL. El promedio (53,44%) de la composición de lípidos de la pulpa de aguacate está compuesto por ácido oleico (que es un fitosterol), y el estudio del efecto hipolipemiante de estas sustancias se ha celebrado para la prevención y el control de la dislipemia. Objetivo: evaluar el potencial de reducción de lípidos del aceite de aguacate en ratones Wistar machos adultos sometidos a hiperestimulación androgénica prolongada. Material y métodos: veintiocho ratas se dividieron en 4 grupos de 7 animales: Grupo Control (GC); Grupo de Aceite de Aguacate (GOA), alimentado a base de aceite de aguacate; Grupo Inducido (GI) y el grupo alimentado con base de aceite de aguacate inducida por la dieta (GIOA). La indución fue hecha mediante perdigones de silicona subcutáneos, implantados por cirugía, llenos de 1 ml de propionato de testosterona, que fueron cambiados cada 4 semanas. Resultados: VLDL (GIOA: 28,14 ± 4,45; GI: 36,83 ± 5,56 mg/ml); triglicéridos (GIOA: 140.07 ± 22.66, GI 187: 2 ± 27 mg/ml); HDL (GIOA: 40,67 ± 1,2; GI: 35,09 ± 0,8; GOA: 32,31 ± 2,61 eGC: 32,36 ± 4,93 mg/ml); testosterona (GIOA: 1,42 ± 0,46; GI: 2,14 ± 0,88; GOA: 2,97 ± 1,34 eGC: 1,86 ± 0,79 ng/ml). Conclusión: El aceite de aguacate ha tenido un efecto regulador directo sobre el perfil lipídico, actuando eficazmente en los animales sometidos a estimulación de andrógenos durante períodos prolongados.

  15. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Implementation Plan and Schedule; 2005-2010, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Kootenai River white sturgeon have been declining for at least 50 years and extinction of the wild population is now imminent (Paragamian et al. 2005). Only 630 adults were estimated to remain in 2002 from a population ten times that size just 20 years ago. Significant recruitment of young sturgeon has not been observed since the early 1970s and consistent annual recruitment has not been seen since the 1950s. The remaining wild population consists of a cohort of large, old fish that is declining by about 9% per year as fish die naturally and are not replaced. At this rate, the wild population will disappear around the year 2040. Numbers have already reached critical low levels where genetic and demographic risks are acute. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was convened in 1994, provided a draft Recovery Plan in 1996 and the first complete Recovery Plan for Kootenai River white sturgeon in 1999 (USFWS 1996, 1999). The Plan outlined a four part strategy for recovery, including: (1) measures to restore natural recruitment, (2) use of conservation aquaculture to prevent extinction, (3) monitoring survival and recovery, and (4) updating and revising recovery plan criteria and objectives as new information becomes available. Sturgeon recovery efforts are occurring against a backdrop of a broader ecosystem protection and restoration program for the Kootenai River ecosystem. With abundance halving time of approximately 8 years, the Kootenai River white sturgeon population is rapidly dwindling, leaving managers little time to act. Decades of study consistently indicate that recruitment failure occurs between embryo and larval stages. This assertion is based on four key observations. First, almost no recruitment has occurred during the last 30 years. Second, thousands of naturally produced white sturgeon embryos, most viable, have been collected over the past decade, resulting from an estimated 9 to 20 spawning events each year. Third, Kootenai River white

  16. EDITORIAL: 50th anniversary issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddoe, Alun H.

    2006-07-01

    1972, firstly on behalf of the Hospital Physicists' Association and then on behalf of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). I wish to pay tribute to the staff at the IOP Publishing Office for the continuing excellent quality and short publication times for articles appearing in PMB. There can be no doubt that this contributes to the popularity with authors and readers alike. It almost goes without saying but I should also thank all the contributors, referees, Editorial Board members and International Advisory Board members who have, collectively, made PMB the success that it is. For historical interest I list below the 11 editors of PMB since its inception. Three of these editors have contributed papers to this issue. 1956-1961 Professor J E Roberts, Middlesex Hospital, London 1961-1972 Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London 1973-1978 Professor H A B Simons, Royal Free Hospital, London 1979-1982 Mr J Clifton, University College Hospital, London 1983-1985 Professor R P Parker, University of Leeds, Leeds 1986-1987 Dr M J Day, Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle 1988-1991 Professor S C Lillicrap, Royal United Hospital, Bath 1992-1995 Professor B L Diffey, Dryburn Hospital, Durham 1996-1999 Professor M O Leach, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London 2000-2005 Professor A H Beddoe, University Hospital, Birmingham 2006- Professor S Webb, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London Finally, apart from noting the usual caveat that the Guest Editor, Editor-in Chief, IOP and IPEM take no responsibility for opinions expressed by authors, I would like to conclude by wishing Professor Steve Webb and future editors every success. While I may not be around for the centenary issue in July 2056 I have every reason to believe that it will be a good one.

  17. [Diabetes mellitus and its influence on the success of endodontic treatment: a retrospective clinical study].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuel Marques; Carrilho, Eunice; Carrilho, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A diabetes mellitus é uma doença endócrina onde estão envolvidas as hormonas produzidas pelos ilhéus de Langerhans. A diabetes mellitus pode afetar várias funções do sistema imunitário do indivíduo, predispondo-o para a inflamação crónica, degradação progressiva dos tecidos e diminuição da reparação tecidular. Das alterações provocadas por esta doença ao nível da cavidade oralpode-se destacar a xerostomia, disgeusia, alterações periodontais, aumento da suscetibilidade à infeção e alterações tanto ao nível da polpa dentária como nos tecidos periapicais.Objetivos: O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a influência da diabetes mellitus ao nível dos tecidos periapicais e no sucesso dos tratamentos endodônticos nestes doentes.Material e Métodos: Foram analisados 737 casos clínicos tratados na consulta da Área de Medicina Dentária, a que foram feitos tratamentos endodônticos não cirúrgicos, entre os anos de 2003 e 2012. Destes foram selecionados os doentes com diabetes mellitus, num total de 32, dos quais 23 se dispuseram a vir à consulta e a participar neste estudo. Os dados recolhidos foram analisados no software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, versão 19, a um nível de significância de 5%.Resultados: Foram avaliados 37 dentes no grupo teste e 25 no grupo controlo. Para os parâmetros analisados relativos ao diagnóstico pulpar, mobilidade, presença de fístula, dor à percussão horizontal e vertical, avaliação da restauração definitiva e intervalo de tempo entre a consulta de obturação e a restauração definitiva e/ou a consulta de controlo, não foram verificadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p > 0,05). Em relação à avaliação do sucesso dos tratamentos endodônticos realizados, este foi de 62% nogrupo de teste e de 80% no grupo controlo (p > 0,05).Conclusões: Os resultados deste estudo não são conclusivos em relação ao aumento da prevalência da periodontite

  18. [REBOUND EFFECT OF INTERVENTION PROGRAMS TO REDUCE OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS; SYSTEMATIC REVIEW].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Ortegón Piñero, Alberto; Baena García, Laura; Noack Segovia, Jessica Pamela; Levet Hernández, María Cristina; Sánchez López, Antonio Manuel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: los estudios demuestran que el sobrepeso y la obesidad son el resultado de una compleja interacción entre factores genéticos y ambientales que comienza en la etapa prenatal. Dentro de la evidencia de esta relación se analiza el impacto potencial de la experiencia de la nutrición prenatal en el desarrollo de los sistemas endocrino y neuroendocrino que regulan el balance energético, con especial énfasis en el papel de la hormona derivada de los adipocitos, la leptina. Diferentes autores relacionan el riesgo de obesidad con el aumento rápido de peso en los primeros años de vida. Los niños con lactancia natural tienen un menor grado de adiposidad abdominal y, por ello, menor circunferencia de la cintura. Del mismo modo, se ha relacionado la lactancia materna exclusiva con un ritmo más lento de aumento de peso, del orden del 20%. En el estudio de la obesidad se considera efecto rebote cuando el niño recupera su peso de inicio al año de acabar la intervención. Esta problemática es frecuente, por lo que dicha intervención con la familia se hace imprescindible, ya que se trata de lograr la motivación del niño para que lleve una vida saludable. Para esta revisión se han seleccionado estudios que valoren las intervenciones a medio y largo plazo en la obesidad infantil, comprobando la adhesión al tratamiento y el efecto rebote, una vez finalizada la intervención. Objetivo: revisar los estudios que analizan el efecto rebote y la adhesión a los tratamientos de pérdida de peso de los niños y adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad. Método: la revisión sistemática fue elaborada siguiendo las directrices PRISMA. Se han seleccionado 19 estudios que analizan la temática planteada. Resultados: varios autores han establecido los efectos beneficiosos a corto y largo plazo de aquellas intervenciones que combinan dieta y actividad física entre niños obesos. Estos resultados muestran la importancia de los programas multidisciplinares para el