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Sample records for hormone receptor-mediated regulation

  1. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Nuclear Protein Complex Involved in Nuclear Hormone Receptor-mediated Gene Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Garapaty, Shivani; Xu, Chong-Feng; Trojer, Patrick; Mahajan, Muktar A.; Neubert, Thomas A.; Samuels, Herbert H.

    2009-01-01

    NRC/NCoA6 plays an important role in mediating the effects of ligand-bound nuclear hormone receptors as well as other transcription factors. NRC interacting factor 1 (NIF-1) was cloned as a novel factor that interacts in vivo with NRC. Although NIF-1 does not directly interact with nuclear hormone receptors, it enhances activation by nuclear hormone receptors presumably through its interaction with NRC. To further understand the cellular and biological function of NIF-1, we identified NIF-1-associated proteins by in-solution proteolysis followed by mass spectrometry. The identified components revealed factors involved in histone methylation and cell cycle control and include Ash2L, RbBP5, WDR5, HCF-1, DBC-1, and EMSY. Although the NIF-1 complex contains Ash2L, RbBP5, and WDR5, suggesting that the complex might methylate histone H3-Lys-4, we found that the complex contains a H3 methyltransferase activity that modifies a residue other than H3-Lys-4. The identified components form at least two distinctly sized NIF-1 complexes. DBC-1 and EMSY were identified as integral components of an NIF-1 complex of ∼1.5 MDa and were found to play an important role in the regulation of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription. Stimulation of the Sox9 and HoxA1 genes by retinoic acid receptor-α was found to require both DBC-1 and EMSY in addition to NIF-1 for maximal transcriptional activation. Interestingly, NRC was not identified as a component of the NIF-1 complex, suggesting that NIF-1 and NRC do not exist as stable in vitro purified complexes, although the separate NIF-1 and NRC complexes appear to functionally interact in the cell. PMID:19131338

  2. Identification and characterization of a novel nuclear protein complex involved in nuclear hormone receptor-mediated gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Garapaty, Shivani; Xu, Chong-Feng; Trojer, Patrick; Mahajan, Muktar A; Neubert, Thomas A; Samuels, Herbert H

    2009-03-20

    NRC/NCoA6 plays an important role in mediating the effects of ligand-bound nuclear hormone receptors as well as other transcription factors. NRC interacting factor 1 (NIF-1) was cloned as a novel factor that interacts in vivo with NRC. Although NIF-1 does not directly interact with nuclear hormone receptors, it enhances activation by nuclear hormone receptors presumably through its interaction with NRC. To further understand the cellular and biological function of NIF-1, we identified NIF-1-associated proteins by in-solution proteolysis followed by mass spectrometry. The identified components revealed factors involved in histone methylation and cell cycle control and include Ash2L, RbBP5, WDR5, HCF-1, DBC-1, and EMSY. Although the NIF-1 complex contains Ash2L, RbBP5, and WDR5, suggesting that the complex might methylate histone H3-Lys-4, we found that the complex contains a H3 methyltransferase activity that modifies a residue other than H3-Lys-4. The identified components form at least two distinctly sized NIF-1 complexes. DBC-1 and EMSY were identified as integral components of an NIF-1 complex of approximately 1.5 MDa and were found to play an important role in the regulation of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription. Stimulation of the Sox9 and HoxA1 genes by retinoic acid receptor-alpha was found to require both DBC-1 and EMSY in addition to NIF-1 for maximal transcriptional activation. Interestingly, NRC was not identified as a component of the NIF-1 complex, suggesting that NIF-1 and NRC do not exist as stable in vitro purified complexes, although the separate NIF-1 and NRC complexes appear to functionally interact in the cell.

  3. Arsenic as an endocrine disruptor: arsenic disrupts retinoic acid receptor-and thyroid hormone receptor-mediated gene regulation and thyroid hormone-mediated amphibian tail metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Davey, Jennifer C; Nomikos, Athena P; Wungjiranirun, Manida; Sherman, Jenna R; Ingram, Liam; Batki, Cavus; Lariviere, Jean P; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2008-02-01

    Chronic exposure to excess arsenic in drinking water has been strongly associated with increased risks of multiple cancers, diabetes, heart disease, and reproductive and developmental problems in humans. We previously demonstrated that As, a potent endocrine disruptor at low, environmentally relevant levels, alters steroid signaling at the level of receptor-mediated gene regulation for all five steroid receptors. The goal of this study was to determine whether As can also disrupt gene regulation via the retinoic acid (RA) receptor (RAR) and/or the thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) and whether these effects are similar to previously observed effects on steroid regulation. Human embryonic NT2 or rat pituitary GH3 cells were treated with 0.01-5 microM sodium arsenite for 24 hr, with or without RA or TH, respectively, to examine effects of As on receptor-mediated gene transcription. At low, noncytotoxic doses, As significantly altered RAR-dependent gene transcription of a transfected RAR response element-luciferase construct and the native RA-inducible cytochrome P450 CYP26A gene in NT2 cells. Likewise, low-dose As significantly altered expression of a transfected TR response element-luciferase construct and the endogenous TR-regulated type I deiodinase (DIO1) gene in a similar manner in GH3 cells. An amphibian ex vivo tail metamorphosis assay was used to examine whether endocrine disruption by low-dose As could have specific pathophysiologic consequences, because tail metamorphosis is tightly controlled by TH through TR. TH-dependent tail shrinkage was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by 0.1- 4.0 microM As. As had similar effects on RAR- and TR-mediated gene regulation as those previously observed for the steroid receptors, suggesting a common mechanism or action. Arsenic also profoundly affected a TR-dependent developmental process in a model animal system at very low concentrations. Because RAR and TH are critical for both normal human development and adult

  4. Adiponectin regulate growth hormone secretion via adiponectin receptor mediated Ca(2+) signalling in rat somatotrophs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Steyn, F J; Boehme, F; Vargas, E; Wang, K; Parkington, H C; Rao, J R; Chen, C

    2009-08-01

    Obesity is associated with reduced levels of growth hormone (GH) and the disruption of pulsatile GH secretion. This results in relative GH deficiency. It is likely that a regulatory relationship between GH secretion and adipose tissue exists as the secretion of GH recovers to normal levels after a reduction in body weight. This report characterise the expression and interaction of adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) and adiponectin, respectively, in regulating the activity of GH secreting cells. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of the GH3 cell line, rat anterior pituitary gland and isolated somatotroph cells from transgenic GFP expressing mice confirmed the expression of both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in GH secretory cells. Because GH cells expressed both receptors, it is likely that the measured increase in GH secretion, observed in primary cultured rat pituitary cells after 30 min of incubation with full-length murine adiponectin, was mediated by a direct receptor regulated process. Adiponectin induced an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) through both the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and the release of intracellular Ca(2+) stores resulting in the secretion of GH. Furthermore, results confirm that this increase in GH secretion depended mainly on an increase in Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels. It is concluded that adiponectin directly regulates GH secretion from somatotrophs by binding to either adiponectin receptor, and that this is mediated via a similar process observed after the stimulation of GH secretion by GH-releasing hormone.

  5. Insulin receptor-mediated nutritional signalling regulates juvenile hormone biosynthesis and vitellogenin production in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Abrisqueta, Marc; Süren-Castillo, Songül; Maestro, José L

    2014-06-01

    Female reproductive processes, which comprise, amongst others, the synthesis of yolk proteins and the endocrine mechanisms which regulate this synthesis, need a considerable amount of energy and resources. The role of communicating that the required nutritional status has been attained is carried out by nutritional signalling pathways and, in particular, by the insulin receptor (InR) pathway. In the present study, using the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, as a model, we analysed the role of InR in different processes, but mainly those related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and vitellogenin production. We first cloned the InR cDNA from B. germanica (BgInR) and then determined that its expression levels were constant in corpora allata and fat body during the first female gonadotrophic cycle. Results showed that the observed increase in BgInR mRNA in fat body from starved compared to fed females was abolished in those females treated with systemic RNAi in vivo against the transcription factor BgFoxO. RNAi-mediated BgInR knockdown during the final two nymphal stages produced significant delays in the moults, together with smaller adult females which could not spread the fore- and hindwings properly. In addition, BgInR knockdown led to a severe inhibition of juvenile hormone synthesis in adult female corpora allata, with a concomitant reduction of mRNA levels corresponding to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase-1, HMG-CoA synthase-2, HMG-CoA reductase and methyl farnesoate epoxidase. BgInR RNAi treatment also reduced fat body vitellogenin mRNA and oocyte growth. Our results show that BgInR knockdown produces similar phenotypes to those obtained in starved females in terms of corpora allata activity and vitellogenin synthesis, and indicate that the InR pathway mediates the activation of JH biosynthesis and vitellogenin production elicited by nutrition signalling.

  6. Hormone stimulation of androgen receptor mediates dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns at regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Vineet K.; Attwood, Kristopher; Campbell, Moray J.; Smiraglia, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that contributes to stable gene silencing by interfering with the ability of transcriptional regulators to bind to DNA. Recent findings have revealed that hormone stimulation of certain nuclear receptors induces rapid, dynamic changes in DNA methylation patterns alongside transcriptional responses at a subset of target loci, over time. However, the ability of androgen receptor (AR) to dynamically regulate gene transcription is relatively under-studied and its role in the regulation of DNA methylation patterns remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate in normal prostate cells that hormone stimulated AR activity results in dynamic changes in the transcription rate and DNA methylation patterns at the AR target genes, TIPARP and SGK1. Time-resolved chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on the SGK1 locus reveals dynamic recruitment of AR and RNA Polymerase II, as well as the recruitment of proteins involved in the DNA demethylation process, TET1 and TDG. Furthermore, the presence of DNA methylation at dynamic regions inhibits protein binding and transcriptional activity of SGK1. These findings establish AR activity as a contributing factor to the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation patterns at target genes in prostate biology and infer further complexity involved in nuclear receptor mediation of transcriptional regulation. PMID:26646795

  7. Ligand Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Growth in Plants.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Sussman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses. During the past two decades, the availability of genetic and genomic resources in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly helped in the discovery of plant hormone receptors and the components of signal transduction pathways and mechanisms used by these immobile but highly complex organisms. Recently, it has been shown that two of the most important plant hormones, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA), act through signaling pathways that have not yet been recognized in animals. For example, auxins stimulate cell elongation by bringing negatively acting transcriptional repressor proteins to the proteasome to be degraded, thus unleashing the gene expression program required for increasing cell size. The "dormancy" inducing hormone, ABA, binds to soluble receptor proteins and inhibits a specific class of protein phosphatases (PP2C), which activates phosphorylation signaling leading to transcriptional changes needed for the desiccation of the seeds prior to entering dormancy. While these two hormone receptors have no known animal counterparts, there are also many similarities between animal and plant signaling pathways. For example, in plants, the largest single gene family in the genome is the protein kinase

  8. Investigations of receptor-mediated phagocytosis by hormone-induced (imprinted) Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Kovács, P; Sundermann, C A; Csaba, G

    1996-08-15

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis by Tetrahvmena pyriformis was studied using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled concanavalin A (TRITC-Con A) with fluorescence and confocal microscopy. In the presence of insulin, or 24 h after insulin pretreatment (hormonal imprinting), the binding and uptake of TRITC-Con A increased when compared to controls, owing to the binding of TRITC-Con A to sugar oligomers of insulin receptors. Mannose inhibited the binding of Con A, thus demonstrating the specificity of binding. Histamine, a phagocytosis-promoting factor in mammals and Tetrahymena, and galactose, did not influence the uptake of TRITC-Con A.

  9. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor mediates glucocorticoid effects on hormone secretion induced by volume and osmotic changes.

    PubMed

    Ruginsk, S G; Uchoa, E T; Elias, L L K; Antunes-Rodrigues, J

    2012-02-01

    The present study provides the first in vivo evidence that the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor mediates the effects of dexamethasone on hormone release induced by changes in circulating volume and osmolality. Male adult rats were administered with the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant (10 mg/Kg, p.o.), followed or not in 1 hour by dexamethasone (1 mg/Kg, i.p.). Extracellular volume expansion (EVE, 2 mL/100 g of body weight, i.v.) was performed 2 hours after dexamethasone or vehicle treatment using either isotonic (I-EVE, 0.15 mol/L) or hypertonic (H-EVE, 0.30 mol/L) NaCl solution. Five minutes after EVE, animals were decapitated and trunk blood was collected for all plasma measurements. Rimonabant potentiated oxytocin (OT) secretion induced by H-EVE and completely reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone in response to the same stimulus. These data suggest that glucocorticoid modulation of OT release is mediated by the CB(1) receptor. Although dexamethasone did not affect vasopressin (AVP) secretion induced by H-EVE, the administration of rimonabant potentiated AVP release in response to the same stimulus, supporting the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor regulates AVP secretion independently of glucocorticoid-mediated signalling. Dexamethasone alone did not affect atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release stimulated by I-EVE or H-EVE. However, pretreatment with rimonabant potentiated ANP secretion induced by H-EVE, suggesting a possible role for the CB(1) receptor in the control of peripheral factors that modulate cardiovascular function. Rimonabant also reversed the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on H-EVE-induced corticosterone secretion, reinforcing the hypothesis that the CB(1) receptor may be involved in the negative feedback exerted by glucocorticoids on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that the CB(1) receptor modulates neurohypophyseal hormone secretion and

  10. Cell receptors: definition, mechanisms and regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Féger, J; Gil-Falgon, S; Lamaze, C

    1994-12-01

    Receptors allow the cells to recognize specific ligands and to receive extracellular messages. They can be classified into five families: 1) receptors for lipidic or lipophilic ligands; 2) the seven transmembrane receptors which mediate their messages by transduction through the activation of G-proteins, effectors and second messengers to amplify the response; 3) receptors which present an enzymatic activity on their transmembrane domains; 4) channel-receptors, transmembrane oligomeric molecules which let ions flow into the cell and 5) receptors which role is to internalize ligands, whatever their various functions. In parallel a concept of membrane plasticity was developed: vesicles are constantly formed from the plasma membrane, addressing complexes of ligand-receptors to specific intracellular compartments. This receptor-mediated endocytosis of ligand plays a critical role in regulating the number of a given receptor at the plasma membrane and in the cellular uptake of nutrients, growth factors and hormones. Many pathways exist for these transports but little is known about the signals which select the ligands or the receptors and direct them to their appropriate intracellular destination.

  11. NFAT regulates calcium-sensing receptor-mediated TNF production

    SciTech Connect

    abdullah, huda ismail; Pedraza, Paulina L.; Hao, Shoujin; Rodland, Karin D.; McGiff, John C.; Ferreri, Nicholas R.

    2006-05-01

    Because nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) has been implicated in TNF production as well as osmoregulation and salt and water homeostasis, we addressed whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaR)-mediated TNF production in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) cells was NFAT dependent. TNF production in response to addition of extracellular Ca2+ (1.2 mM) was abolished in mTAL cells transiently transfected with a dominant-negative CaR construct (R796W) or pretreated with the phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (PI-PLC) inhibitor U-73122. Cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of the serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin, and a peptide ligand, VIVIT, that selectively inhibits calcineurin-NFAT signaling, also prevented CaR-mediated TNF production. Increases in calcineurin activity in cells challenged with Ca2+ were inhibited after pretreatment with U-73122 and CsA, suggesting that CaR activation increases calcineurin activity in a PI-PLC-dependent manner. Moreover, U-73122, CsA, and VIVIT inhibited CaR-dependent activity of an NFAT construct that drives expression of firefly luciferase in transiently transfected mTAL cells. Collectively, these data verify the role of calcineurin and NFAT in CaR-mediated TNF production by mTAL cells. Activation of the CaR also increased the binding of NFAT to a consensus oligonucleotide, an effect that was blocked by U-73122 and CsA, suggesting that a calcineurin- and NFAT-dependent pathway increases TNF production in mTAL cells. This mechanism likely regulates TNF gene transcription as U-73122, CsA, and VIVIT blocked CaR-dependent activity of a TNF promoter construct. Elucidating CaR-mediated signaling pathways that regulate TNF production in the mTAL will be crucial to understanding mechanisms that regulate extracellular fluid volume and salt balance.

  12. NFAT regulates calcium-sensing receptor-mediated TNF production.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Huda Ismail; Pedraza, Paulina L; Hao, Shoujin; Rodland, Karin D; McGiff, John C; Ferreri, Nicholas R

    2006-05-01

    Because nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) has been implicated in TNF production as well as osmoregulation and salt and water homeostasis, we addressed whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaR)-mediated TNF production in medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL) cells was NFAT dependent. TNF production in response to addition of extracellular Ca(2+) (1.2 mM) was abolished in mTAL cells transiently transfected with a dominant-negative CaR construct (R796W) or pretreated with the phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (PI-PLC) inhibitor U-73122. Cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of the serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin, and a peptide ligand, VIVIT, that selectively inhibits calcineurin-NFAT signaling, also prevented CaR-mediated TNF production. Increases in calcineurin activity in cells challenged with Ca(2+) were inhibited after pretreatment with U-73122 and CsA, suggesting that CaR activation increases calcineurin activity in a PI-PLC-dependent manner. Moreover, U-73122, CsA, and VIVIT inhibited CaR-dependent activity of an NFAT construct that drives expression of firefly luciferase in transiently transfected mTAL cells. Collectively, these data verify the role of calcineurin and NFAT in CaR-mediated TNF production by mTAL cells. Activation of the CaR also increased the binding of NFAT to a consensus oligonucleotide, an effect that was blocked by U-73122 and CsA, suggesting that a calcineurin- and NFAT-dependent pathway increases TNF production in mTAL cells. This mechanism likely regulates TNF gene transcription as U-73122, CsA, and VIVIT blocked CaR-dependent activity of a TNF promoter construct. Elucidating CaR-mediated signaling pathways that regulate TNF production in the mTAL will be crucial to understanding mechanisms that regulate extracellular fluid volume and salt balance.

  13. Receptor-mediated regulation of neuropeptide gene expression in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J P; Nishiyama, N; Wilson, D; Taniwaki, T

    1994-06-01

    One of the functions of glial receptors is to regulate synthesis and release of a variety of neuropeptides and growth factor peptides, which in turn act on neurons or other glia. Because of the potential importance of these interactions in injured brain, we have examined the role of two different receptors in the regulation of astrocyte neuropeptide synthesis. Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors on type 1 astrocytes resulted in increased mRNA and protein for the proenkephalin (PE) and somatostatin genes. This receptor also increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The potential role of opiate receptors was examined in several ways. Treatment of newborn rats for 7 days with the opiate antagonist naltrexone, prior to preparation of astrocytes, had no effect on PE mRNA or met-enkephalin content but resulted in a significant increase in NGF content. However, treatment of astrocytes in culture with met-enkephalin, morphine, or naltrexone had no effect on any of these parameters. No opiate binding could be detected, using either etorphine or bremazocine, to membranes of astrocytes prepared from cortex, cerebellum, striatum, or hippocampus of 1-day, 7-day, or 14-day postnatal rats. Thus we conclude that type 1 astrocytes do not express opiate receptors and that the in vivo effects of naltrexone are mediated indirectly via some other cell type/receptor.

  14. Altered GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission disrupts the firing of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in male mice under conditions that mimic steroid abuse

    PubMed Central

    Penatti, Carlos A A; Davis, Matthew C; Porter, Donna M; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Gonadotropin–releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the central regulators of reproduction. GABAergic transmission plays a critical role in pubertal activation of pulsatile GnRH secretion. Self-administration of excessive doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) disrupts reproductive function and may have critical repercussions for pubertal onset in adolescent users. Here, we demonstrate that chronic treatment of adolescent male mice with the AAS, 17α-methyltestosterone (17αMT), significantly decreased action potential frequency in GnRH neurons, reduced the serum gonadotropin levels, and decreased testes mass. AAS treatment did not induce significant changes in GABAA receptor subunit mRNA levels or alter the amplitude or decay kinetics of GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSC) or tonic currents in GnRH neurons. However, AAS treatment significantly increased action potential frequency in neighboring medial preoptic area (mPOA) neurons and GABAA receptor-mediated sPSC frequency in GnRH neurons. In addition, physical isolation of the more lateral aspects of the mPOA from the medially-localized GnRH neurons abrogated the AAS-induced increase in GABAA receptor-mediated sPSC frequency and the decrease in action potential firing in the GnRH cells. Our results indicate that AAS act predominantly on steroid-sensitive presynaptic neurons within the mPOA to impart significant increases in GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory tone onto downstream GnRH neurons resulting in diminished activity of these pivotal mediators of reproductive function. These AAS-induced changes in central GABAergic circuits of the forebrain may significantly contribute to the disruptive actions of these drugs on pubertal maturation and the development of reproductive competence in male steroid abusers. PMID:20463213

  15. Evidence that the growth hormone receptor mediates differentiation and development of the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Feldman, M; Ruan, W; Cunningham, B C; Wells, J A; Kleinberg, D L

    1993-10-01

    We have shown that nonlactogenic rat (r) GH is far more potent than rPRL in inducing rat mammary development. To determine the relative roles of GH and PRL in mammary development and their mechanisms of action, we have compared the abilities of a group of native and mutant GHs, PRLs, and placental lactogens (PLs) to induce mammary development, bind to GH receptors, and activate lactogenic receptors. Mammary development was assessed histologically by counting terminal end buds and alveolar structures in glands from sexually immature, hypophysectomized, castrated, estradiol-treated rats. Hormones were implanted, in Elvax pellets, into the lumbar mammary gland. Significant increases in terminal end buds (P < 0.03) over internal control values were obtained with rGH, recombinant human GH (rhGH), rbGH, and one of two mutant rhGHs. These four hormones were also found to bind to GH receptors with high affinity. In contrast, little development occurred with hPRL, rPRL, rhPL, ovine PRL, mutant forms of rhPRL and rhPL, and a mutant of rhGH altered to reduce binding to GH and PRL receptors. All of these substances are more than 50-fold reduced in binding to the GH receptor, yet can bind and activate lactogenic receptors. Thus, only those natural or mutant pituitary or placental hormones with high binding affinity to GH receptors induce mammary development, suggesting that GH receptors play a central role in this process.

  16. In vivo transcription factor recruitment during thyroid hormone receptor-mediated activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, M K; Lee, J S; Chung, J H

    1999-08-31

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR) can act as both a transcriptional activator and a silencer. Optimal activation by TR requires synergism with activator(s) bound to the promoter (promoter proximal activator). It is thought that liganded TR either helps to recruit preinitiation complexes (PIC) to the promoter or activates the PIC already recruited. However, the studies analyzing the TR action on the PIC formation were done in vitro and, therefore, it is not clear how relevant they are to the in vivo TR action. For example, in vivo, the TR can act from distances equal to or greater than a kilobase from the promoter, but such distant effect is not reproducible in vitro. In this study, we used the PIN*POINT (ProteIN POsition Identification with Nuclease Tail) assay to define the molecular mechanism of TR action on transcription from the thymidine kinase promoter in the cellular context. We demonstrate that the recruitment of promoter-proximal activator Sp1, and the components of the basal transcription factors such as TBP, TFIIB, and Cdk7, is enhanced with thyroid hormone activation. Our results suggest that DNA forms a loop with TR-mediated activation to accommodate interactions between the liganded TR complex and the complex formed on the promoter. We also show that Sp1 bound to the promoter is essential for the DNA looping and recruitment of basal transcription factors such as TFIIB and Cdk7 but not for recruitment of TBP. On the basis of these findings, we present a model that illustrates the molecular mechanism of TR-mediated activation in vivo.

  17. Differential Regulation of Progesterone Receptor-Mediated Transcription by CDK2 and DNA-PK.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Lindsey S; Bolt, Michael J; Grimm, Sandra L; Edwards, Dean P; Mancini, Michael A; Weigel, Nancy L

    2016-02-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) function is altered by cell signaling, but the mechanisms of kinase-specific regulation are not well defined. To examine the role of cell signaling in the regulation of PR transcriptional activity, we have utilized a previously developed mammalian-based estrogen-response element promoter array cell model and automated cell imaging and analysis platform to visualize and quantify effects of specific kinases on different mechanistic steps of PR-mediated target gene activation. For these studies, we generated stable estrogen-response element array cell lines expressing inducible chimeric PR that contains a swap of the estrogen receptor-α DNA-binding domain for the DNA-binding domain of PR. We have focused on 2 kinases important for steroid receptor activity: cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and DNA-dependent protein kinase. Treatment with either a Cdk1/2 inhibitor (NU6102) or a DNA-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (NU7441) decreased hormone-mediated chromatin decondensation and transcriptional activity. Further, we observed a quantitative reduction in the hormone-mediated recruitment of select coregulator proteins with NU6102 that is not observed with NU7441. In parallel, we determined the effect of kinase inhibition on hormone-mediated induction of primary and mature transcripts of endogenous genes in T47D breast cancer cells. Treatment with NU6102 was much more effective than NU7441, in inhibiting induction of PR target genes that exhibit a rapid increase in primary transcript expression in response to hormone. Taken together, these results indicate that the 2 kinases regulate PR transcriptional activity by distinct mechanisms.

  18. The Impact of Hyperthermia on Receptor-Mediated Interleukin-6 Regulation in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Welc, Steven S.; Morse, Deborah A.; Mattingly, Alex J.; Laitano, Orlando; King, Michelle A.; Clanton, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    In inflammatory cells, hyperthermia inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene expression and protein secretion. Since hyperthermia alone stimulates IL-6 in skeletal muscle, we hypothesized that it would amplify responses to other receptor-mediated stimuli. IL-6 regulation was tested in C2C12 myotubes and in soleus during treatment with epinephrine (EPI) or LPS. In EPI-treated myotubes (100 ng/ml), 1 h exposure at 40.5°C-42°C transiently increased IL-6 mRNA compared to EPI treatment alone at 37°C. In LPS-treated myotubes (1 μg/ml), exposure to 41°C-42°C also increased IL-6 mRNA. In isolated mouse soleus, similar amplifications of IL-6 gene expression were observed in 41°C, during both low (1 ng/ml) and high dose (100 ng/ml) EPI, but only in high dose LPS (1 μg/ml). In myotubes, heat increased IL-6 secretion during EPI exposure but had no effect or inhibited secretion with LPS. In soleus there were no effects of heat on IL-6 secretion during either EPI or LPS treatment. Mechanisms for the effects of heat on IL-6 mRNA were explored using a luciferase-reporter in C2C12 myotubes. Overexpression of heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1) had no impact on IL-6 promoter activity during EPI stimulation, but elevated IL-6 promoter activity during LPS stimulation. In contrast, when the activator protein-1 (AP-1) element was mutated, responses to both LPS and EPI were suppressed in heat. Using siRNA against activating transcription factor-3 (ATF-3), a heat-stress-induced inhibitor of IL-6, no ATF-3-dependent effects were observed. The results demonstrate that, unlike inflammatory cells, hyperthermia in muscle fibers amplifies IL-6 gene expression to EPI and LPS. The effect appears to reflect differential engagement of HSF-1 and AP-1 sensitive elements on the IL-6 gene, with no evidence for involvement of ATF-3. The functional significance of increased IL-6 mRNA expression during heat may serve to overcome the well-known suppression of protein synthetic

  19. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubule cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Brunskill, N J; Stuart, J; Tobin, A B; Walls, J; Nahorski, S

    1998-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin is an important function of the kidney proximal tubule epithelium. We have measured endocytosis of [125I]-albumin in opossum kidney cells and examined the regulation of this process by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Albumin endocytosis was inhibited by both wortmannin (IC50 6.9 nM) and LY294002 (IC50 6.5 microM) at concentrations that suggested the involvement of PI 3-kinase in its regulation. Recycling rates were unaffected. We transfected OK cells with either a wild-type p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, or a dominant negative form of the p85 subunit (Deltap85) using the LacSwitch expression system. Transfects were screened by immunoblotting with anti-PI 3-kinase antibodies. Under basal conditions, transfects demonstrated no expression of p85 or Deltap85, but expression was briskly induced by treatment of the cells with IPTG (EC50 13.7 microM). Inhibition of PI 3-kinase activity by Deltap85 was confirmed by in vitro kinase assay of anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from transfected cells stimulated with insulin. Expression of Deltap85 resulted in marked inhibition of albumin endocytosis, predominantly as a result of reduction of the Vmax of the transport process. Expression of p85 had no significant effect on albumin uptake. The results demonstrate that PI 3-kinase regulates an early step in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubular cells. PMID:9593770

  20. Regulation and ontogeny of subtypes of muscarinic receptors and muscarinic receptor-mediated

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.

    1989-01-01

    The densities of total and M1 muscarinic receptors were measured using the muscarinic receptor antagonists {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine, respectively. Thus, the difference between the density of {sup 3}H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and {sup 3}H-pirenzepine binding sites represents the density of M2 sites. In addition, there is no observable change in either acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown (suggested to be an M1 receptor-mediated response) or in carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation (suggested to be an M2 receptor-mediated response) in slices of cortex+dorsal hippocampus following chronic atropine administration. In other experiments, it has been shown that the M1 and M2 receptors in rat cortex have different ontogenetic profiles. The M2 receptor is present at adult levels at birth, while the M1 receptor develops slowly from low levels at postnatal week 1 to adult levels at postnatal week 3. The expression of acetylcholine-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown parallels the development of M1 receptors, while the development of carbachol-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation occurs abruptly between weeks 2 and 3 postnatally.

  1. Gastrointestinal hormones regulating appetite

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhri, Owais; Small, Caroline; Bloom, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion have been well characterized. By altering the rate at which nutrients are delivered to compartments of the alimentary canal, the control of food intake arguably constitutes another point at which intervention may promote efficient digestion and nutrient uptake. In recent decades, gut hormones have come to occupy a central place in the complex neuroendocrine interactions that underlie the regulation of energy balance. Many gut peptides have been shown to influence energy intake. The most well studied in this regard are cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin and ghrelin. With the exception of ghrelin, these hormones act to increase satiety and decrease food intake. The mechanisms by which gut hormones modify feeding are the subject of ongoing investigation. Local effects such as the inhibition of gastric emptying might contribute to the decrease in energy intake. Activation of mechanoreceptors as a result of gastric distension may inhibit further food intake via neural reflex arcs. Circulating gut hormones have also been shown to act directly on neurons in hypothalamic and brainstem centres of appetite control. The median eminence and area postrema are characterized by a deficiency of the blood–brain barrier. Some investigators argue that this renders neighbouring structures, such as the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the brainstem, susceptible to influence by circulating factors. Extensive reciprocal connections exist between these areas and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and other energy-regulating centres of the

  2. GIPC interacts with the beta1-adrenergic receptor and regulates beta1-adrenergic receptor-mediated ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liaoyuan A; Chen, Wei; Martin, Negin P; Whalen, Erin J; Premont, Richard T; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2003-07-11

    Beta1-adrenergic receptors, expressed at high levels in the human heart, have a carboxyl-terminal ESKV motif that can directly interact with PDZ domain-containing proteins. Using the beta1-adrenergic receptor carboxyl terminus as bait, we identified the novel beta1-adrenergic receptor-binding partner GIPC in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart cDNA library. Here we demonstrate that the PDZ domain-containing protein, GIPC, co-immunoprecipitates with the beta1-adrenergic receptor in COS-7 cells. Essential for this interaction is the Ser residue of the beta1-adrenergic receptor carboxyl-terminal ESKV motif. Our data also demonstrate that beta1-adrenergic receptor stimulation activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase, ERK1/2. beta1-adrenergic receptor-mediated ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by pertussis toxin, implicating Gi, and was substantially decreased by the expression of GIPC. Expression of GIPC had no observable effect on beta1-adrenergic receptor sequestration or receptor-mediated cAMP accumulation. This GIPC effect was specific for the beta1-adrenergic receptor and was dependent on an intact PDZ binding motif. These data suggest that GIPC can regulate beta1-adrenergic receptor-stimulated, Gi-mediated, ERK activation while having no effect on receptor internalization or Gs-mediated cAMP signaling.

  3. 5-HT7 receptor-mediated fear conditioning and possible involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kotaro; Tsuji, Minoru; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2017-01-18

    Fear conditioning is a valuable behavioral paradigm for studying the neural basis of emotional learning and memory. The present study examined the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) signaling on the serotonin (5-HT)7 receptor-mediated fear conditioning. Conditioning was performed in a trial in which a tone was followed by an electrical foot-shock. Context- and tone-dependent fear were examined in tests conducted 24 and 48h after conditioning, respectively. The selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist 2a-[4-(4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridyl)butyl]-2a,3,4,-tetrahydrobenzo(c,d)indol-2-(1H)-one (DR4004) (5mg/kg), when administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) immediately after conditioning, caused a significant decrease in both context- and tone-dependent fear responses (freezing behavior). A significant increase in ERK activity was observed in the amygdala of mice that displayed context- or tone-dependent fear responses, and these changes were also inhibited by the administration of DR4004 (5mg/kg, i.p.) immediately after conditioning. In contrast, the increase in hippocampal ERK activity in mice that displayed context-dependent fear responses was further enhanced by the administration of DR4004 (5mg/kg, i.p.). These results suggest that 5-HT7 receptor-mediated ERK signaling may play a significant role in the processes of emotional learning and memory.

  4. Adenosine A2 receptor-mediated regulation of renal hemodynamics and glomerular filtration rate is abolished in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Persson, Patrik; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are one of the earliest indications of altered kidney function in diabetes. Adenosine regulates GFR through tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism acting on adenosine A1 receptor. In addition, adenosine can directly regulate vascular tone by acting on A1 and A2 receptors expressed in afferent and efferent arterioles. Opposite to A1 receptors, A2 receptors mediate vasorelaxation. This study investigates the involvement of adenosine A2 receptors in regulation of renal blood flow (RBF) and GFR in control and diabetic kidneys. GFR was measured by inulin clearance and RBF by a transonic flow probe placed around the renal artery. Measurements were performed in isoflurane-anesthetized normoglycemic and alloxan-diabetic C57BL/6 mice during baseline and after acute administration of 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX), a selective A2 receptor antagonist. GFR and RBF were lower in diabetic mice compared to control (258 ± 61 vs. 443 ± 33 μl min(-1) and 1,083 ± 51 vs. 1,405 ± 78 μl min(-1)). In control animals, DMPX decreased RBF by -6%, whereas GFR increased +44%. DMPX had no effects on GFR and RBF in diabetic mice. Sodium excretion increased in diabetic mice after A2 receptor blockade (+78%). In conclusion, adenosine acting on A2 receptors mediates an efferent arteriolar dilatation which reduces filtration fraction (FF) and maintains GFR within normal range in normoglycemic mice. However, this regulation is absent in diabetic mice, which may contribute to reduced oxygen availability in the diabetic kidney.

  5. Lipoprotein lipase regulates Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by macrophages maintained in glucose-deficient medium.

    PubMed Central

    Yin, B; Loike, J D; Kako, Y; Weinstock, P H; Breslow, J L; Silverstein, S C; Goldberg, I J

    1997-01-01

    During periods of intense activity such as phagocytosis, macrophages are thought to derive most of their energy from glucose metabolism under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To determine whether fatty acids released from lipoproteins by macrophage lipoprotein lipase (LPL) could substitute for glucose as a source of energy for phagocytosis, we cultured peritoneal macrophages from normal and LPL knockout (LPL-KO) mice that had been rescued from neonatal demise by expression of human LPL via the muscle creatine kinase promoter. Normal and LPL-KO macrophages were cultured in medium containing normal (5 mM) or low (1 mM) glucose, and were tested for their capacity to phagocytose IgG-opsonized sheep erythrocytes. LPL-KO macrophages maintained in 1 and 5 mM glucose phagocytosed 67 and 79% fewer IgG-opsonized erythrocytes, respectively, than macrophages from normal mice. Addition of VLDL to LPL-expressing macrophages maintained in 1 mM glucose enhanced the macrophages' phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes, but did not stimulate phagocytosis by LPL-KO macrophages. Inhibition of secreted LPL with a monoclonal anti-LPL antibody or with tetrahydrolipstatin blocked the ability of VLDL to enhance phagocytosis by LPL-expressing macrophages maintained in 1 mM glucose. Addition of oleic acid significantly enhanced phagocytosis by both LPL-expressing and LPL-KO macrophages maintained in 1 mM glucose. Moreover, oleic acid stimulated phagocytosis in cells cultured in non-glucose-containing medium, and increased the intracellular stores of creatine phosphate. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, but not of glycolysis, blocked the capacity of oleic acid to stimulate phagocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of acetyl LDL by macrophages from LPL-expressing and LPL-KO mice was similar whether the cells were maintained in 5 or 1 mM glucose, and was not augmented by VLDL. We postulate that fatty acids derived from macrophage LPL-catalyzed hydrolysis of triglycerides and

  6. Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated synaptic responses by adenosine receptors in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R A; Davies, C H

    1997-01-01

    '-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 0.5-1.0 microM) did not significantly affect the EPSPm. 4. The selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 0.2 microM) fully reversed the depressant effects of both adenosine (100 microM) and CADO (1 microM) on the EPSPm and the stimulus-evoked reductions in spike frequency adaptation. 5. DPCPX (0.2 microM) alone caused a small but variable mean increase in the EPSPm of 22 +/- 19% and enabled activation of an EPSPm by a previously subthreshold stimulus. In contrast, the selective adenosine kinase inhibitor 5-iodotubercidin (5-IT; 10 microM) inhibited the EPSPm by 74 +/- 10%, an effect that was reversed by DPCPX. 6. The concentration-response relationship for the depressant action of CADO on the EPSPm more closely paralleled that for its presynaptic depressant action on glutamate-mediated EPSPs than that for postsynaptic hyperpolarization. The respective mean IC50 and EC50 concentrations for these effects were 0.3, 0.8 and 3.0 microM. 7. CADO (1-5 microM) did not have a significant effect on the postsynaptic depolarization, increase in input resistance and reduction in spike frequency adaptation evoked by carbachol (0.5-3.0 microM). All these effects were abolished by atropine (1 microM). 8. These data provide good evidence for an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of mAChR-mediated synaptic responses in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurones. This inhibition is mediated predominantly presynaptically, is active tonically and can be enhanced when extracellular levels of endogenous adenosine are raised. PMID:9234198

  7. Glial regulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptor-mediated excitation of supraoptic nucleus neurones during dehydration.

    PubMed

    Joe, N; Scott, V; Brown, C H

    2014-01-01

    Magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) project to the posterior pituitary gland where they release the hormones, vasopressin and oxytocin into the circulation to maintain plasma osmolality. Hormone release is proportionate to SON MNC action potential (spike) firing rate. When activated by ambient extracellular glutamate, extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (eNMDARs) mediate a tonic (persistent) depolarisation to increase the probability of action potential firing. In the present study, in vivo single-unit electrophysiological recordings were made from urethane-anaesthetised female Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the impact of tonic eNMDAR activation on MNC activity. Water deprivation (for up to 48 h) caused an increase in the firing rate of SON MNCs that was associated with a general increase in post-spike excitability. To determine whether eNMDAR activation contributes to the increased MNC excitability during water deprivation, memantine, which preferentially blocks eNMDARs, was administered locally into the SON by microdialysis. Memantine significantly decreased the firing rate of MNCs recorded from 48-h water-deprived rats but had no effect on MNCs recorded from euhydrated rats. In the presence of the glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) blocker, dihydrokainate, memantine also reduced the MNC firing rate in euhydrated rats. Taken together, these observations suggest that GLT-1 clears extracellular glutamate to prevent the activation of eNDMARs under basal conditions and that, during dehydration, eNMDAR activation contributes to the increased firing rate of MNCs.

  8. A Structural View of Negative Regulation of the Toll-like Receptor-Mediated Inflammatory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-09-15

    Even though the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway is integral to inflammatory defense mechanisms, its excessive signaling may be devastating. Cells have acquired a cascade of strategies to regulate TLR signaling by targeting protein-protein interactions, or ubiquitin chains, but the details of the inhibition mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we provide the structural basis for the regulation of TLR signaling by constructing architectures of protein-protein interactions. Structural data suggest that 1) Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing regulators (BCAP, SIGIRR, and ST2) interfere with TIR domain signalosome formation; 2) major deubiquitinases such as A20, CYLD, and DUBA prevent association of TRAF6 and TRAF3 with their partners, in addition to removing K63-linked ubiquitin chains that serve as a docking platform for downstream effectors; 3) alternative downstream pathways of TLRs also restrict signaling by competing to bind common partners through shared binding sites. We also performed in silico mutagenesis analysis to characterize the effects of oncogenic mutations on the negative regulators and to observe the cellular outcome (whether there is/is not inflammation). Missense mutations that fall on interfaces and nonsense/frameshift mutations that result in truncated negative regulators disrupt the interactions with the targets, thereby enabling constitutive activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B, and contributing to chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and oncogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Structural View of Negative Regulation of the Toll-like Receptor-Mediated Inflammatory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guven-Maiorov, Emine; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Even though the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway is integral to inflammatory defense mechanisms, its excessive signaling may be devastating. Cells have acquired a cascade of strategies to regulate TLR signaling by targeting protein-protein interactions, or ubiquitin chains, but the details of the inhibition mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we provide the structural basis for the regulation of TLR signaling by constructing architectures of protein-protein interactions. Structural data suggest that 1) Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain-containing regulators (BCAP, SIGIRR, and ST2) interfere with TIR domain signalosome formation; 2) major deubiquitinases such as A20, CYLD, and DUBA prevent association of TRAF6 and TRAF3 with their partners, in addition to removing K63-linked ubiquitin chains that serve as a docking platform for downstream effectors; 3) alternative downstream pathways of TLRs also restrict signaling by competing to bind common partners through shared binding sites. We also performed in silico mutagenesis analysis to characterize the effects of oncogenic mutations on the negative regulators and to observe the cellular outcome (whether there is/is not inflammation). Missense mutations that fall on interfaces and nonsense/frameshift mutations that result in truncated negative regulators disrupt the interactions with the targets, thereby enabling constitutive activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B, and contributing to chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and oncogenesis. PMID:26276688

  10. Xenobiotic Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Intestinal Barrier Function and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ranhotra, Harmit S.; Flannigan, Kyle L.; Brave, Martina; Mukherjee, Subhajit; Lukin, Dana J.; Hirota, Simon A.; Mani, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis for the regulation of the intestinal barrier is a very fertile research area. A growing body of knowledge supports the targeting of various components of intestinal barrier function as means to treat a variety of diseases, including the inflammatory bowel diseases. Herein, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of key xenobiotic receptor regulators of barrier function, highlighting recent advances, such that the field and its future are succinctly reviewed. We posit that these receptors confer an additional dimension of host-microbe interaction in the gut, by sensing and responding to metabolites released from the symbiotic microbiota, in innate immunity and also in host drug metabolism. The scientific evidence for involvement of the receptors and its molecular basis for the control of barrier function and innate immunity regulation would serve as a rationale towards development of non-toxic probes and ligands as drugs. PMID:27942535

  11. Epigenetic and Glucocorticoid Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Glutathione Peroxidase 3 in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    An, Byung Chull; Jung, Nak-Kyun; Park, Chun Young; Oh, In-Jae; Choi, Yoo-Duk; Park, Jae-Il; Lee, Seung-won

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), an antioxidant enzyme, acts as a modulator of redox signaling, has immunomodulatory function, and catalyzes the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). GPx3 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. Although hyper-methylation of the GPx3 promoter has been shown to down-regulate its expression, other mechanisms by which GPx3 expression is regulated have not been reported. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the mechanisms of GPx3 regulation. GPx3 gene analysis predicted the presence of ten glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) on the GPx3 gene. This result prompted us to investigate whether GPx3 expression is regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is implicated in tumor response to chemotherapy. The corticosteroid dexamethasone (Dex) was used to examine the possible relationship between GR and GPx3 expression. Dex significantly induced GPx3 expression in H1299, H1650, and H1975 cell lines, which exhibit low levels of GPx3 expression under normal conditions. The results of EMSA and ChIP-PCR suggest that GR binds directly to GRE 6 and 7, both of which are located near the GPx3 promoter. Assessment of GPx3 transcription efficiency using a luciferase reporter system showed that blocking formation of the GR-GRE complexes reduced luciferase activity by 7–8-fold. Suppression of GR expression by siRNA transfection also induced down-regulation of GPx3. These data indicate that GPx3 expression can be regulated independently via epigenetic or GR-mediated mechanisms in lung cancer cells, and suggest that GPx3 could potentiate glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated anti-inflammatory signaling in lung cancer cells. PMID:27484907

  12. STAT1 Regulates the Homeostatic Component of Visual Cortical Plasticity via an AMPA Receptor-Mediated Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Van Wart, Audra; Petravicz, Jeremy; Tropea, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence points to a role for Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) immune signaling in neuronal function; however, its role in experience-dependent plasticity is unknown. Here we show that one of its components, STAT1, negatively regulates the homeostatic component of ocular dominance plasticity in visual cortex. After brief monocular deprivation (MD), STAT1 knock-out (KO) mice show an accelerated increase of open-eye responses, to a level comparable with open-eye responses after a longer duration of MD in wild-type (WT) mice. Therefore, this component of plasticity is abnormally enhanced in KO mice. Conversely, increasing STAT1 signaling by IFNγ treatment in WT mice reduces the homeostatic component of plasticity by impairing open-eye responses. Enhanced plasticity in KO mice is accompanied by sustained surface levels of GluA1 AMPA receptors and increased amplitude and frequency of AMPA receptor-mediated mEPSCs, which resemble changes in WT mice after a longer duration of MD. These results demonstrate a unique role for STAT1 during visual cortical plasticity in vivo through a mechanism that includes AMPA receptors. PMID:25080587

  13. Homocysteine-NMDA receptor mediated activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase leads to neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Paul, Surojit

    2009-01-01

    Hyper-homocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for stroke and neurological abnormalities. However the underlying cellular mechanisms by which elevated homocysteine can promote neuronal death is not clear. In the present study we have examined the role of NMDA receptor mediated activation of the extracellular-signal regulated mitogen activated protein (ERK MAP) kinase pathway in homocysteine-dependent neurotoxicity. The study demonstrates that in neurons L-homocysteine-induced cell death is mediated through activation of NMDA receptors. The study also shows that homocysteine-dependent NMDA receptor stimulation and resultant Ca2+ influx leads to rapid and sustained phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinase. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation attenuates homocysteine mediated neuronal cell death thereby demonstrating that activation of ERK MAP kinase signaling pathway is an intermediate step that couples homocysteine mediated NMDA receptor stimulation to neuronal death. The findings also show that cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB), a pro-survival transcription factor and a downstream target of ERK, is only transiently activated following homocysteine exposure. The sustained activation of ERK but a transient activation of CREB together suggest that exposure to homocysteine initiates a feedback loop that shuts off CREB signaling without affecting ERK phosphorylation and thereby facilitates homocysteine mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:19508427

  14. Protein kinase C regulates tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the hippocampus and thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is an important regulator of neuronal excitability. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) provides a key mode of regulation for synaptic GABAARs underlying phasic inhibition; however, less attention has been focused on the plasticity of tonic inhibition and whether this can also be modulated by receptor phosphorylation. To address this issue, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording in acute murine brain slices at both room and physiological temperatures to examine the effects of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on tonic inhibition. Recordings from dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus and dorsal lateral geniculate relay neurons in the thalamus demonstrated that PKC activation caused downregulation of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. Conversely, inhibition of PKC resulted in an increase in tonic GABAAR activity. These findings were corroborated by experiments on human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing recombinant α4β2δ GABAARs, which represent a key extrasynaptic GABAAR isoform in the hippocampus and thalamus. Using bath application of low GABA concentrations to mimic activation by ambient neurotransmitter, we demonstrated a similar inhibition of receptor function following PKC activation at physiological temperature. Live cell imaging revealed that this was correlated with a loss of cell surface GABAARs. The inhibitory effects of PKC activation on α4β2δ GABAAR activity appeared to be mediated by direct phosphorylation at a previously identified site on the β2 subunit, serine 410. These results indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation can be an important physiological regulator of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. PMID:24102973

  15. Prostaglandins produced during class A scavenger receptor-mediated macrophage adhesion differentially regulate cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Dejan M; Vadali, Shanthi; He, Beixiang; Ware, Jerry; Kelly, Thomas; Post, Steven R

    2015-05-01

    Inflammation is associated with modification of the extracellular environment, changes in cytokine expression, and the accumulation of immune cells. Such modifications create ligands that support SR-A-mediated macrophage adhesion and retention. This may be particularly important in settings, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, as modified lipoproteins and gluc-collagen are ligands for SR-A. SR-A-mediated adhesion requires the PLA2-dependent generation of AA and its metabolism by 12/15 LOX. In contrast, the inhibition of the COX-dependent conversion of AA to PG had no effect on SR-A-mediated adhesion. In this study, macrophages were isolated from SR-A(+/+) and SR-A(-/-) mice and plated on gluc-collagen to test the hypothesis that COX-derived PGs are produced during SR-A-mediated adhesion and regulate macrophage function. SR-A-mediated binding to gluc-collagen induced a rapid but transient increase in PG production, which required the activation of PLA2 and Src kinase but not PI3K. SR-A(+/+) macrophages cultured on gluc-collagen for 24 h secreted a similar amount of TNF-α and 2.5-fold more IL-10 than SR-A(-/-) macrophages. The inhibition of COX substantially increased TNF-α production but reduced IL-10 levels in SR-A(+/+) macrophages. These effects of COX inhibition were reversed by exogenous PGE2 and mimicked by specific antagonism of the EP4 receptor. Thus, in addition to the enhancement of macrophage adhesion, SR-A binding to gluc-collagen stimulates PG production, which in turn, differentially regulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  16. Astrocytes Regulate GLP-1 Receptor-Mediated Effects on Energy Balance.

    PubMed

    Reiner, David J; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; McGrath, Lauren E; Zimmer, Derek J; Bence, Kendra K; Sousa, Gregory L; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Krawczyk, Joanna; Burk, David H; Kanoski, Scott E; Hermann, Gerlinda E; Rogers, Richard C; Hayes, Matthew R

    2016-03-23

    Astrocytes are well established modulators of extracellular glutamate, but their direct influence on energy balance-relevant behaviors is largely understudied. As the anorectic effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are partly mediated by central modulation of glutamatergic signaling, we tested the hypothesis that astrocytic GLP-1R signaling regulates energy balance in rats. Central or peripheral administration of a fluorophore-labeled GLP-1R agonist, exendin-4, localizes within astrocytes and neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a hindbrain nucleus critical for energy balance control. This effect is mediated by GLP-1R, as the uptake of systemically administered fluorophore-tagged exendin-4 was blocked by central pretreatment with the competitive GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9-39). Ex vivo analyses show prolonged exendin-4-induced activation (live cell calcium signaling) of NTS astrocytes and neurons; these effects are also attenuated by exendin-(9-39), indicating mediation by the GLP-1R. In vitro analyses show that the application of GLP-1R agonists increases cAMP levels in astrocytes. Immunohistochemical analyses reveal that endogenous GLP-1 axons form close synaptic apposition with NTS astrocytes. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of NTS astrocytes attenuates the anorectic and body weight-suppressive effects of intra-NTS GLP-1R activation. Collectively, data demonstrate a role for NTS astrocytic GLP-1R signaling in energy balance control. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists reduce food intake and are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity, but the cellular mechanisms underlying the anorectic effects of GLP-1 require further investigation. Astrocytes represent a major cellular population in the CNS that regulates neurotransmission, yet the role of astrocytes in mediating energy balance is largely unstudied. The current data provide novel evidence that astrocytes within the NTS

  17. Calmodulin Regulates Ca2+-sensing Receptor-mediated Ca2+ Signaling and Its Cell Surface Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun; Zhou, Yubin; Wong, Hing-Cheung; Castiblanco, Adriana; Chen, Yanyi; Brown, Edward M.; Yang, Jenny J.

    2010-01-01

    The Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a member of family C of the GPCRs responsible for sensing extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o) levels, maintaining extracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and transducing Ca2+ signaling from the extracellular milieu to the intracellular environment. In the present study, we have demonstrated a Ca2+-dependent, stoichiometric interaction between CaM and a CaM-binding domain (CaMBD) located within the C terminus of CaSR (residues 871–898). Our studies suggest a wrapping around 1–14-like mode of interaction that involves global conformational changes in both lobes of CaM with concomitant formation of a helical structure in the CaMBD. More importantly, the Ca2+-dependent association between CaM and the C terminus of CaSR is critical for maintaining proper responsiveness of intracellular Ca2+ responses to changes in extracellular Ca2+ and regulating cell surface expression of the receptor. PMID:20826781

  18. Lysosomal trafficking regulator Lyst links membrane trafficking to toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Andreas; Cheng, Weijia; Yu, Jinbo; Grassl, Guntram; Krautkrämer, Martina; Holst, Otto; Föger, Niko; Lee, Kyeong-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization of receptor signaling is an emerging principle in innate immunity. However, the functional integration of receptor signaling pathways into membrane trafficking routes and its physiological relevance for immune responses is still largely unclear. In this study, using Lyst-mutant beige mice, we show that lysosomal trafficking regulator Lyst links endolysosomal organization to the selective control of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- and TLR4-mediated proinflammatory responses. Consequently, Lyst-mutant mice showed increased susceptibility to bacterial infection and were largely resistant to endotoxin-induced septic shock. Mechanistic analysis revealed that Lyst specifically controls TLR3- and TLR4-induced endosomal TRIF (TIR domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β) signaling pathways. Loss of functional Lyst leads to dysregulated phagosomal maturation, resulting in a failure to form an activation-induced Rab7(+) endosomal/phagosomal compartment. This specific Rab7(+) compartment was further demonstrated to serve as a major site for active TRIF signaling events, thus linking phagosomal maturation to specific TLR signaling pathways. The immunoregulatory role of Lyst on TLR signaling pathways was confirmed in human cells by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene inactivation. As mutations in LYST cause human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, a severe immunodeficiency, our findings also contribute to a better understanding of human disease mechanisms. © 2016 Westphal et al.

  19. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beningo, Karen A.; Wang, Yu-li

    2002-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an actin-based process used by macrophages to clear particles greater than 0.5 microm in diameter. In addition to its role in immunological responses, phagocytosis is also necessary for tissue remodeling and repair. To prevent catastrophic autoimmune reactions, phagocytosis must be tightly regulated. It is commonly assumed that the recognition/selection of phagocytic targets is based solely upon receptor-ligand binding. Here we report an important new criterion, that mechanical parameters of the target can dramatically affect the efficiency of phagocytosis. When presented with particles of identical chemical properties but different rigidity, macrophages showed a strong preference to engulf rigid objects. Furthermore, phagocytosis of soft particles can be stimulated with the microinjection of constitutively active Rac1 but not RhoA, and with lysophosphatidic acid, an agent known to activate the small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family. These data suggest a Rac1-dependent mechanosensory mechanism for phagocytosis, which probably plays an important role in a number of physiological and pathological processes from embryonic development to autoimmune diseases.

  20. Nicotinic and opioid receptor regulation of striatal dopamine D2-receptor mediated transmission

    PubMed Central

    Mamaligas, Aphroditi A.; Cai, Yuan; Ford, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to dopamine neuron firing, cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) regulate dopamine release in the striatum via presynaptic nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) on dopamine axon terminals. Synchronous activity of ChIs is necessary to evoke dopamine release through this pathway. The frequency-dependence of disynaptic nicotinic modulation has led to the hypothesis that nAChRs act as a high-pass filter in the dopaminergic microcircuit. Here, we used optogenetics to selectively stimulate either ChIs or dopamine terminals directly in the striatum. To measure the functional consequence of dopamine release, D2-receptor synaptic activity was assessed via virally overexpressed potassium channels (GIRK2) in medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We found that nicotinic-mediated dopamine release was blunted at higher frequencies because nAChRs exhibit prolonged desensitization after a single pulse of synchronous ChI activity. However, when dopamine neurons alone were stimulated, nAChRs had no effect at any frequency. We further assessed how opioid receptors modulate these two mechanisms of release. Bath application of the κ opioid receptor agonist U69593 decreased D2-receptor activation through both pathways, whereas the μ opioid receptor agonist DAMGO decreased D2-receptor activity only as a result of cholinergic-mediated dopamine release. Thus the release of dopamine can be independently modulated when driven by either dopamine neurons or cholinergic interneurons. PMID:27886263

  1. Rab20 regulates phagosome maturation in RAW264 macrophages during Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Egami, Youhei; Araki, Nobukazu

    2012-01-01

    Rab20, a member of the Rab GTPase family, is known to be involved in membrane trafficking, however its implication in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis is unclear. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of Rab20 during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es) in RAW264 macrophages. By the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused Rab20, it was shown that Rab20 was transiently associated with the phagosomal membranes. During the early stage of phagosome formation, Rab20 was not localized on the membranes of phagocytic cups, but was gradually recruited to the newly formed phagosomes. Although Rab20 was colocalized with Rab5 to some extent, the association of Rab20 with the phagosomes persisted even after the loss of Rab5 from the phagosomal membranes. Then, Rab20 was colocalized with Rab7 and Lamp1, late endosomal/lysosomal markers, on the internalized phagosomes. Moreover, our analysis of Rab20 mutant expression revealed that the maturation of phagosomes was significantly delayed in cells expressing the GDP-bound mutant Rab20-T19N. These data suggest that Rab20 is an important component of phagosome and regulates the phagosome maturation during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  2. Ouabain-induced perturbations in intracellular ionic homeostasis regulate death receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Franco, Rodrigo; Bortner, Carl D; Cidlowski, John A

    2010-07-01

    Apoptosis is defined by specific morphological and biochemical characteristics including cell shrinkage (termed apoptotic volume decrease), a process that results from the regulation of ion channels and plasma membrane transporter activity. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase is the predominant pump that controls cell volume and plasma membrane potential in cells and alterations in its function have been suggested to be associated with apoptosis. We report here that the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, potentiates apoptosis in the human lymphoma Jurkat cells exposed to Fas ligand (FasL) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) but not other apoptotic agents such as H(2)O(2), thapsigargin or UV-C implicating a role for the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in death receptor-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, ouabain also potentiated perturbations in cell Ca(2+) homeostasis only in conjunction with the apoptotic inducer FasL but not TRAIL. Ouabain did not affect alterations in the intracellular Ca(2+) levels in response to H(2)O(2), thapsigargin or UV-C. FasL-induced alterations in Ca(2+) were not abolished in Ca(2+)-free medium but incubation of cells with BAPTA-AM inhibited both Ca(2+) perturbations and the ouabain-induced potentiation of FasL-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that the impairment of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity during apoptosis is linked to perturbations in cell Ca(2+) homeostasis that modulate apoptosis induced by the activation of Fas by FasL.

  3. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis is regulated by mechanical properties of the target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beningo, Karen A.; Wang, Yu-li

    2002-01-01

    Phagocytosis is an actin-based process used by macrophages to clear particles greater than 0.5 microm in diameter. In addition to its role in immunological responses, phagocytosis is also necessary for tissue remodeling and repair. To prevent catastrophic autoimmune reactions, phagocytosis must be tightly regulated. It is commonly assumed that the recognition/selection of phagocytic targets is based solely upon receptor-ligand binding. Here we report an important new criterion, that mechanical parameters of the target can dramatically affect the efficiency of phagocytosis. When presented with particles of identical chemical properties but different rigidity, macrophages showed a strong preference to engulf rigid objects. Furthermore, phagocytosis of soft particles can be stimulated with the microinjection of constitutively active Rac1 but not RhoA, and with lysophosphatidic acid, an agent known to activate the small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family. These data suggest a Rac1-dependent mechanosensory mechanism for phagocytosis, which probably plays an important role in a number of physiological and pathological processes from embryonic development to autoimmune diseases.

  4. Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase regulates retinoic acid receptor-mediated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Le May, Nicolas; Iltis, Izarn; Amé, Jean-Christophe; Zhovmer, Alexander; Biard, Denis; Egly, Jean-Marc; Schreiber, Valérie; Coin, Frédéric

    2012-12-14

    Poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a catabolic enzyme that cleaves ADP-ribose polymers synthesized by poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Here, transcriptome profiling and differentiation assay revealed a requirement of PARG for retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-mediated transcription. Mechanistically, PARG accumulates early at promoters of RAR-responsive genes upon retinoic acid treatment to promote the formation of an appropriate chromatin environment suitable for transcription. Silencing of PARG or knockout of its enzymatic activity maintains the H3K9me2 mark at the promoter of the RAR-dependent genes, leading to the absence of preinitiation complex formation. In the absence of PARG, we found that the H3K9 demethylase KDM4D/JMJD2D became PARsylated. Mutation of two glutamic acids located in the Jumonji N domain of KDM4D inhibited PARsylation. PARG becomes dispensable for ligand-dependent transcription when either a PARP inhibitor or a non-PARsylable KDM4D/JMJD2D mutant is used. Our results define PARG as a coactivator regulating chromatin remodeling during RA-dependent gene expression.

  5. Ku proteins function as corepressors to regulate farnesoid X receptor-mediated gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Masae; Kunimoto, Masaaki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2009-12-18

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates the expression of genes involved in enterohepatic circulation and the metabolism of bile acids. Based on functional analyses, nuclear receptors are divided into regions A-F. To explore the cofactors interacting with FXR, we performed a pull-down assay using GST-fused to the N-terminal A/B region and the C region, which are required for the ligand-independent transactivation and DNA-binding, respectively, of FXR, and nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), Ku80, and Ku70 as FXR associated factors. These proteins are known to have an important role in DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. DNA-PKcs mainly interacted with the A/B region of FXR, whereas the Ku proteins interacted with the C region and with the D region (hinge region). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the Ku proteins associated with FXR on the bile salt export pump (BSEP) promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Ku proteins decreased the promoter activity and expression of BSEP gene mediated by FXR. These results suggest that the Ku proteins function as corepressors for FXR.

  6. NMDA receptors mediate leptin signaling and regulate potassium channel trafficking in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Fortin, Dale A; Cochrane, Veronica A; Chen, Pei-Chun; Shyng, Show-Ling

    2017-08-02

    NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are Ca2+-permeant, ligand-gated ion channels activated by the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and have well-characterized roles in the nervous system. The expression and function of NMDARs in pancreatic β cells, by contrast, are poorly understood. Here, we report a novel function of NMDARs in β-cells. Using a combination of biochemistry, electrophysiology, and imaging techniques we now show that NMDARs have a key role in mediating the effect of leptin to modulate β-cell electrical activity by promoting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent trafficking of KATP and Kv2.1 channels to the plasma membrane. Blocking NMDAR activity inhibited the ability of leptin to activate AMPK, induce KATP and Kv2.1 channel trafficking, and promote membrane hyperpolarization. Conversely, activation of NMDARs mimicked the effect of leptin, causing Ca2+ influx, AMPK activation, increased trafficking of KATP and Kv2.1 channels to the plasma membrane, and triggered membrane hyperpolarization. Moreover, leptin potentiated NMDAR currents and triggered NMDAR-dependent Ca2+ influx. Importantly, NMDAR-mediated signaling was observed in rat insulinoma 832/13 cells and in human β-cells indicating that this pathway is conserved across species. The ability of NMDARs to regulate potassium channel surface expression and thus, β-cell excitability provides mechanistic insight into the recently reported insulinotropic effects of NMDAR antagonists, and therefore highlights the therapeutic potential of these drugs in managing type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Ouabain-induced perturbations in intracellular ionic homeostasis regulate death receptor-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.; Franco, Rodrigo; Bortner, Carl D.; Cidlowski, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis is defined by specific morphological and biochemical characteristics including cell shrinkage (termed apoptotic volume decrease), a process that results from the regulation of ion channels and plasma membrane transporter activity. The Na+-K+-ATPase is the predominant pump that controls cell volume and plasma membrane potential in cells and alterations in its function have been suggested to be associated with apoptosis. We report here that the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, potentiates apoptosis in the human lymphoma Jurkat cells exposed to Fas ligand (FasL) or Tumor necrosis factor--related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) but not other apoptotic agents such as H2O2, thapsigargin or UV-C implicating a role for the Na+-K+-ATPase in death receptor-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, ouabain also potentiated perturbations in cell Ca2+ homeostasis only in conjunction with the apoptotic inducer FasL but not TRAIL. Ouabain did not affect alterations in the intracellular Ca2+ levels in response to H2O2, thapsigargin or UV-C. FasL-induced alterations in Ca2+ were not abolished in Ca2+-free medium but incubation of cells with BAPTA-AM inhibited both Ca2+ perturbations and the ouabain-induced potentiation of FasL-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that the impairment of the Na+-K+-ATPase activity during apoptosis is linked to perturbations in cell Ca2+ homeostasis that modulate apoptosis induced by the activation of Fas by FasL. PMID:20422450

  8. Identification of low density lipoprotein as a regulator of Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bigler, R D; Khoo, M; Lund-Katz, S; Scerbo, L; Esfahani, M

    1990-01-01

    Optimal expression of the high-affinity Fc receptor for IgG (FcRI) by the human monocyte cell line U-937 requires the presence of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and neither cholesterol nor high density lipoprotein can provide the component necessary for optimal FcRI expression. Here we show that FcR-mediated phagocytosis also requires LDL. U-937 cells were cultured in medium containing interferon gamma and either fetal calf serum (FCS) or delipidated FCS (DLFCS). The phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes was measured by a colorimetric assay. U-937 cells cultured in DLFCS medium had less than 16% of the phagocytic activity of cells cultured in normal FCS medium. Phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes could be inhibited 85% by the addition of murine IgG2a myeloma protein (5 micrograms/ml). U-937 cells cultured in DLFCS medium supplemented with pure cholesterol in ethanol (10 micrograms/ml) had only 30% of the phagocytic activity of cells grown in FCS medium. Addition of very low density lipoprotein (0.2 mg of protein per ml) to DLFCS medium also failed to increase phagocytosis. However, the addition of LDL (0.2 mg of protein per ml) to DLFCS medium restored 90% of the phagocytic activity. Since neither pure cholesterol nor very low density lipoprotein restored normal phagocytic function to U-937 cells despite a normalization of cellular cholesterol content, the restoration of phagocytosis observed with LDL replacement cannot be explained by mere delivery of cholesterol by LDL. Thus, LDL is required for the expression of FcRI and FcR-mediated phagocytosis by U-937 cells and may be an important regulator of phagocytic activity of monocytes and macrophages in vivo. PMID:2367519

  9. Caveolin-3 regulates compartmentation of cardiomyocyte beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter T.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; O’Hara, Thomas; Diakonov, Ivan; Bhargava, Anamika; Tokar, Sergiy; Schobesberger, Sophie; Shevchuk, Andrew I.; Sikkel, Markus B.; Wilkinson, Ross; Trayanova, Natalia A.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Harding, Sian E.; Gorelik, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether caveolin-3 (Cav3) regulates localization of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and its cAMP signaling in healthy or failing cardiomyocytes. We co-expressed wildtype Cav3 or its dominant-negative mutant (Cav3DN) together with the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac2-camps in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs). FRET and scanning ion conductance microscopy were used to locally stimulate β2AR and to measure cytosolic cAMP. Cav3 overexpression increased the number of caveolae and decreased the magnitude of β2AR-cAMP signal. Conversely, Cav3DN expression resulted in an increased β2AR-cAMP response without altering the whole-cell L-type calcium current. Following local stimulation of Cav3DN-expressing ARVMs, β2AR response could only be generated in T-tubules. However, the normally compartmentalized β2AR-cAMP signal became diffuse, similar to the situation observed in heart failure. Finally, overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes led to partial β2AR redistribution back into the T-tubules. In conclusion, Cav3 plays a crucial role for the localization of β2AR and compartmentation of β2AR-cAMP signaling to the T-tubules of healthy ARVMs, and overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes can partially restore the disrupted localization of these receptors. PMID:24345421

  10. Caveolin-3 regulates compartmentation of cardiomyocyte beta2-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peter T; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; O'Hara, Thomas; Diakonov, Ivan; Bhargava, Anamika; Tokar, Sergiy; Schobesberger, Sophie; Shevchuk, Andrew I; Sikkel, Markus B; Wilkinson, Ross; Trayanova, Natalia A; Lyon, Alexander R; Harding, Sian E; Gorelik, Julia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether caveolin-3 (Cav3) regulates localization of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and its cAMP signaling in healthy or failing cardiomyocytes. We co-expressed wildtype Cav3 or its dominant-negative mutant (Cav3DN) together with the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac2-camps in adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVMs). FRET and scanning ion conductance microscopy were used to locally stimulate β2AR and to measure cytosolic cAMP. Cav3 overexpression increased the number of caveolae and decreased the magnitude of β2AR-cAMP signal. Conversely, Cav3DN expression resulted in an increased β2AR-cAMP response without altering the whole-cell L-type calcium current. Following local stimulation of Cav3DN-expressing ARVMs, β2AR response could only be generated in T-tubules. However, the normally compartmentalized β2AR-cAMP signal became diffuse, similar to the situation observed in heart failure. Finally, overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes led to partial β2AR redistribution back into the T-tubules. In conclusion, Cav3 plays a crucial role for the localization of β2AR and compartmentation of β2AR-cAMP signaling to the T-tubules of healthy ARVMs, and overexpression of Cav3 in failing myocytes can partially restore the disrupted localization of these receptors.

  11. Differential regulation of nicotinic receptor-mediated neurotransmitter release following chronic (-)-nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Iris; Anderson, David J; Surowy, Carol S; Puttfarcken, Pamela S

    2002-10-01

    previous work has demonstrated that different nAChR subtypes display various sensitivities to chronic Nic exposure, we suggest that the subtypes of nAChRs involved in regulating [(3)H]-DA release may be different in the striatum and frontal cortex. These results support findings from earlier studies comparing the pharmacology of nAChR-evoked striatal versus cortical [(3)H]-DA release.

  12. A1 receptor mediated adenosinergic regulation of perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area neurons in freely behaving rats

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Seema; Kumar, Sunil; Alam, Md. Aftab; Szymusiak, Ronald; McGinty, Dennis; Alam, Md. Noor

    2010-01-01

    The perifornical-lateral hypothalamic area (PF-LHA) plays a central role in the regulation of behavioral arousal. The PF-LHA contains several neuronal types including wake-active hypocretin (HCRT) neurons that have been implicated in the promotion and/or maintenance of behavioral arousal. Adenosine is an endogenous sleep factor and recent evidence suggests that activation and blockade of adenosine A1 receptors within the PF-LHA promote and suppress sleep, respectively. Although, an in vitro study indicates that adenosine inhibits HCRT neurons via A1 receptor, the in vivo effects of A1 receptor mediated adenosinergic transmission on PF-LHA neurons including HCRT neurons are not known. First, we determined the effects of N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, on the sleep-wake discharge activity of the PF-LHA neurons recorded via microwires placed adjacent to the microdialysis probe used for its delivery. Second, we determined the effects of CPA and that of an A1 receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine (CPDX) into the PF-LHA on cFos-protein immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) in HCRT and non-HCRT neurons around the microdialysis probe used for their delivery. The effect of CPA was studied in rats that were kept awake during lights-off phase, whereas the effect of CPDX was examined in undisturbed rats during lights-on phase. CPA significantly suppressed the sleep-wake discharge activity of PF-LHA neurons. Doses of CPA (50μM) and CPDX (50μM) that suppressed and induced arousal, respectively, in our earlier study (Alam et al., 2009), significantly suppressed and increased Fos-IR in HCRT and non-HCRT neurons. These findings suggest that wake-promoting PF-LHA system is subject to increased endogenous adenosinergic inhibition and that adenosine acting via A1 receptors, in part, inhibits HCRT neurons to promote sleep. PMID:20109537

  13. Monoacylglycerol lipase promotes Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis in microglia but does not regulate LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kouchi, Zen

    2015-08-21

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is important for neuroinflammation. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying its expression and function remain unknown. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment post-translationally upregulated MAGL expression, whereas it downregulated MAGL transcription through a Stat6-mediated mechanism in microglia. Neither MAGL knockdown nor JZL-184, a selective MAGL inhibitor, suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in microglia. Moreover, exogenous expression of MAGL in BV-2 microglial cell line, which lacks endogenous MAGL, did not promote the induction of inflammatory cytokines by LPS treatment. Interestingly, MAGL knockdown reduced Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis in primary microglia, and introduction of MAGL into the BV-2 cells increased Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Collectively, these results suggest that MAGL regulates phagocytosis, but not LPS-mediated cytokine induction in microglia.

  14. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein is not involved in μ-opioid receptor-mediated regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    PubMed Central

    BIAN, JIA-MING; WU, NING; SU, RUI-BIN; LI, JIN

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the μ-opioid receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), however, the mechanism by which this occurs remains to be elucidated. Phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) has been reported to act as a negative regulator of the ERK cascade (Raf-MEK-ERK) by binding to Raf-1 kinase. In the present study, the role of PEBP in μ-opioid receptor-mediated ERK activation was investigated in Chinese hamster ovary/μ cells and SH-SY5Y cells, as well as in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing other types of G protein-coupled receptors. The acute activation of μ-opioid receptors by morphine or (D-Ala2, MePhe4, Gly5-ol) enkephalin induced a rapid activation of ERK. Prolonged morphine treatment did not affect the phosphorylation level of ERK compared with control cells, but the phosphorylation level of ERK decreased markedly when cells were precipitated with naloxone following chronic morphine treatment. For the phosphorylation of PEBP, no change was identified under the designated drug treatment and exposure duration. A total of two other types of G protein-coupled receptors, including Gs-coupled dopamine D1 receptors and Gq-coupled adrenergic α1A receptors were also investigated and only the activation of adrenergic α1A receptors induced an upregulated phosphorylation of PEBP, which was protein kinase C activity dependent. Thus, PEBP did not have a significant role in μ-opioid receptor-mediated regulation of ERK. PMID:25573435

  15. The Calcium-Sensing Receptor Mediates Bone Turnover Induced by Dietary Calcium and Parathyroid Hormone in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Lei; Ji, Ji; Zhu, Qi; Cao, Guofan; Karaplis, Andrew; Pollak, Martin R; Brown, Edward; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated, in neonates, whether the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mediates the effects of dietary calcium on bone turnover and/or modulates parathyroid hormone (PTH)–induced bone turnover. Wild-type (WT) pups and pups with targeted deletion of the Pth (Pth–/–) gene or of both Pth and CaR (Pth–/–CaR–/–) genes were nursed by dams on a normal or high-calcium diet. Pups nursed by dams on a normal diet received daily injections of vehicle or of PTH(1–34) (80 µg/kg) for 2 weeks starting from 1 week of age. In pups receiving vehicle and fed by dams on a normal diet, trabecular bone volume, osteoblast number, type 1 collagen–positive area, and mineral apposition rate, as well as the expression of bone-formation-related genes, all were reduced significantly in Pth–/– pups compared with WT pups and were decreased even more dramatically in Pth–/–CaR–/– pups. These parameters were increased in WT and Pth–/– pups but not in Pth–/–CaR–/– pups fed by dams on a high-calcium diet compared with pups fed by dams on a normal diet. These parameters also were increased in WT, Pth–/–, and Pth–/–CaR–/– pups following exogenous PTH treatment; however, the percentage increase was less in Pth–/–CaR–/– pups than in WT and Pth–/– pups. In vehicle-treated pups fed by dams on either the normal or high-calcium diet and in PTH-treated pups fed by dams on a normal diet, the number and surfaces of osteoclasts and the ratio of RANKL/OPG were reduced significantly in Pth–/– pups and less significantly in Pth–/–CaR–/– pups compared with WT pups. These parameters were further reduced significantly in WT and Pth–/– pups from dams fed a high-calcium diet but did not decrease significantly in similarly treated Pth–/–CaR–/– pups, and they increased significantly in PTH-treated pups compared with vehicle-treated, genotype-matched pups fed by dams on the normal diet. These results indicate that in neonates

  16. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor ERRγ Regulates Hepatic CB1 Receptor-Mediated Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Sun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Sung Jin; Jeong, Won-Il; Lee, Chul-Ho; Harris, Robert A; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a stress inducible hepatokine, is synthesized in the liver and plays important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism of hepatic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression is largely unknown. Activation of the hepatic CB1 receptor by arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 receptor selective agonist, significantly increased FGF21 gene expression. Overexpression of estrogen-related receptor (ERR) γ increased FGF21 gene expression and secretion both in hepatocytes and mice, whereas knockdown of ERRγ decreased ACEA-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Moreover, ERRγ, but not ERRα and ERRβ, induced FGF21 gene promoter activity. In addition, deletion and mutation analysis of the FGF21 promoter identified a putative ERRγ-binding motif (AGGTGC, a near-consensus response element). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of ERRγ to the FGF21 gene promoter. Finally, GSK5182, an ERRγ inverse agonist, significantly inhibited hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Based on our data, we conclude that ERRγ plays a key role in hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression and secretion.

  17. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor ERRγ Regulates Hepatic CB1 Receptor-Mediated Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Sun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Sung Jin; Jeong, Won-Il; Lee, Chul-Ho; Harris, Robert A.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a stress inducible hepatokine, is synthesized in the liver and plays important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism of hepatic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression is largely unknown. Results Activation of the hepatic CB1 receptor by arachidonyl-2’-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 receptor selective agonist, significantly increased FGF21 gene expression. Overexpression of estrogen-related receptor (ERR) γ increased FGF21 gene expression and secretion both in hepatocytes and mice, whereas knockdown of ERRγ decreased ACEA-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Moreover, ERRγ, but not ERRα and ERRβ, induced FGF21 gene promoter activity. In addition, deletion and mutation analysis of the FGF21 promoter identified a putative ERRγ-binding motif (AGGTGC, a near-consensus response element). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of ERRγ to the FGF21 gene promoter. Finally, GSK5182, an ERRγ inverse agonist, significantly inhibited hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Conclusion Based on our data, we conclude that ERRγ plays a key role in hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression and secretion. PMID:27455076

  18. γ-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor Mediated Inhibition of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons Is Suppressed by Kisspeptin-G Protein-Coupled Receptor 54 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunguang; Bosch, Martha A.; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the most important neurotransmitters that regulate the excitability of GnRH neurons. Numerous studies have shown that GABA activates Cl− currents in GnRH neurons, and these effects are antagonized by GABAA receptor antagonists. The GABAB receptor is a heterodimer composed of GABAB R1 and R2, and although both subunits have been localized in GnRH neurons, nothing is known about the cellular signaling of this Gαi,o-coupled receptor in GnRH neurons. Using whole-cell recordings from mouse enhanced green fluorescent protein-GnRH neurons, we found that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen hyperpolarized GnRH neurons through activation of an inwardly rectifying K+ current in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of baclofen were antagonized by the selective GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 52432 with a Ki (inhibitory constant) of 85 nm. Furthermore, in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin, GABA hyperpolarized GnRH neurons in a similar manner. Treatment with 17β-estradiol as compared with oil vehicle did not significantly alter either the EC50 for the baclofen-induced response (0.8 ± 0.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.1 μm, respectively) or the maximal outward current (10.8 ± 1.7 pA vs. 11.4 ± 0.6 pA, respectively) in GnRH neurons. However, the outward current (and membrane hyperpolarization) was abrogated by submaximal concentrations of the G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) agonist kisspeptin-10 in both groups, indicating that Gαq-coupled (GPR54) can desensitize the GABAB receptor-mediated response. Therefore, the activation of GABAB receptors in GnRH neurons may provide increased inhibitory tone during estrogen-negative feedback states that is attenuated by kisspeptin during positive feedback. PMID:19164470

  19. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  20. Cholera toxin and pertussis toxin regulate the Fc receptor-mediated phagocytic response of human neutrophils in a manner analogous to regulation by monoclonal antibody 1C2.

    PubMed

    Gresham, H D; Clement, L T; Volanakis, J E; Brown, E J

    1987-12-15

    Data presented in this paper indicate that polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis can be markedly augmented and that this augmentation is under regulatory control. Stimulation of PMN with either a low m.w., heat-labile cytokine(s) (the culture supernatant effluent from a YM-10 Centricon unit, YM-10E), phorbol esters (phorbol dibutyrate), or the polyene antibiotic, amphotericin B, enhances Fc-mediated ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. YM-10 effluent- and amphotericin B-stimulated ingestion is completely abrogated by treating the PMN with either pertussis toxin (PT), cholera toxin (CT), or a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 1C2. However, neither toxin nor mAb 1C2 affects nonstimulated ingestion or phagocytosis stimulated by phorbol esters or synthetic diacylglycerol. Increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels by stimulation with prostaglandin E1 and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, isobutylmethylxanthine, does not mimic the effect of either toxin or mAb 1C2. In addition, toxin-mediated inhibition is not due to loss of either the Fc receptor recognized by mAb 3G8 or the antigen recognized by mAb 1C2. These data indicate that both CT and PT regulate the phagocytic response of PMN, in a manner like mAb 1C2, probably by affecting a guanosine 5'-triphosphate-binding protein distinct from those that regulate adenylate cyclase. Since phorbol ester-stimulated ingestion is not inhibited by either PT, CT, or mAb 1C2 and phorbol esters activate protein kinase C directly, phagocytosis amplification regulated by PT, CT, and mAb 1C2 may involve protein kinase C activation.

  1. Thyroid Hormones as Renal Cell Cancer Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Damian; Bartnik, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary; Czarnecka, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cancer development and metastasis. What is more, changes across the genome, as well as alternative splicing, may affect the activity of the thyroid hormone receptors. Mechanism of action of the thyroid hormone is different in every cancer; therefore in this review thyroid hormone and its receptor are presented as a regulator of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27034829

  2. Developmentally regulated mannose 6-phosphate receptor-mediated transport of a lysosomal enzyme across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Urayama, Akihiko; Grubb, Jeffrey H; Sly, William S; Banks, William A

    2004-08-24

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII is a lysosomal storage disorder resulting from inherited deficiency of beta-glucuronidase (GUS). Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII is characterized by glycosaminoglycan storage in most tissues, including brain. In these disorders, enzyme delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main obstacle to correction of lysosomal storage in the CNS. Prior studies suggested mouse brain is accessible to GUS in the first 2 weeks of life but not later. To explore a possible role for the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor in GUS transport across the BBB in neonatal mice, we compared brain uptake of phosphorylated GUS (P-GUS) and nonphosphorylated GUS (NP-GUS) in newborn and adult mice. (131)I-P-GUS was transported across the BBB after i.v. injection in 2-day-old mice. The brain influx rate (K(in)) of (131)I-P-GUS in 2-day-old mice was 0.21 microl/g.min and decreased with age. By 7 weeks of age, transport of (131)I-P-GUS was not significant. Capillary depletion revealed that 62% of the (131)I-P-GUS in brain was in brain parenchyma in 2-day-old mice. In addition, uptake of (131)I-P-GUS into brain was significantly reduced by coinjection of unlabeled P-GUS or M6P in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the K(in) of (131)I-NP-GUS (0.04 microl/g.min) was significantly lower than (131)I-P-GUS in 2-day-old mice. Transcardiac brain perfusion confirmed that neither (131)I-P-GUS nor (131)I-NP-GUS crossed the BBB in adult mice. These results indicate that (131)I-P-GUS transport into brain parenchyma in early postnatal life is mediated by the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor. This receptor-mediated transport is not observed in adult mice.

  3. Hypothalamic kappa opioid receptor mediates both diet-induced and melanin concentrating hormone-induced liver damage through inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Imbernon, Monica; Sanchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Romero-Picó, Amparo; Kalló, Imre; Chee, Melissa J; Porteiro, Begoña; Al-Massadi, Omar; Contreras, Cristina; Fernø, Johan; Senra, Ana; Gallego, Rosalia; Folgueira, Cintia; Seoane, Luisa M; van Gestel, Margriet; Adan, Roger A; Liposits, Zsolt; Dieguez, Carlos; López, Miguel; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2016-10-01

    The opioid system is widely known to modulate the brain reward system and thus affect the behavior of humans and other animals, including feeding. We hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might also control energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. Mice lacking the kappa opioid receptor (κOR) and adenoviral vectors overexpressing or silencing κOR were stereotaxically delivered in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of rats. Vagal denervation was performed to assess its effect on liver metabolism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was inhibited by pharmacological (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) and genetic (overexpression of the chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa) approaches. The peripheral effects on lipid metabolism were assessed by histological techniques and western blot. We show that in the LHA κOR directly controls hepatic lipid metabolism through the parasympathetic nervous system, independent of changes in food intake and body weight. κOR colocalizes with melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH-R1) in the LHA, and genetic disruption of κOR reduced melanin concentrating hormone-induced liver steatosis. The functional relevance of these findings was given by the fact that silencing of κOR in the LHA attenuated both methionine choline-deficient, diet-induced and choline-deficient, high-fat diet-induced ER stress, inflammation, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis, whereas overexpression of κOR in this area promoted liver steatosis. Overexpression of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa in the liver abolished hypothalamic κOR-induced steatosis by reducing hepatic ER stress. This study reveals a novel hypothalamic-parasympathetic circuit modulating hepatic function through inflammation and ER stress independent of changes in food intake or body weight; these findings might have implications for the clinical use of opioid receptor antagonists. (Hepatology 2016;64:1086-1104). © 2016 The Authors. (Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on

  4. Hormonal regulation of fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, C; Le Bouc, Y

    2006-01-01

    Fetal growth is a complex process depending on the genetics of the fetus, the availability of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus, maternal nutrition and various growth factors and hormones of maternal, fetal and placental origin. Hormones play a central role in regulating fetal growth and development. They act as maturational and nutritional signals in utero and control tissue development and differentiation according to the prevailing environmental conditions in the fetus. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, and IGF-I and IGF-II in particular, plays a critical role in fetal and placental growth throughout gestation. Disruption of the IGF1, IGF2 or IGF1R gene retards fetal growth, whereas disruption of IGF2R or overexpression of IGF2 enhances fetal growth. IGF-I stimulates fetal growth when nutrients are available, thereby ensuring that fetal growth is appropriate for the nutrient supply. The production of IGF-I is particularly sensitive to undernutrition. IGF-II plays a key role in placental growth and nutrient transfer. Several key hormone genes involved in embryonic and fetal growth are imprinted. Disruption of this imprinting causes disorders involving growth defects, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, which is associated with fetal overgrowth, or Silver-Russell syndrome, which is associated with intrauterine growth retardation. Optimal fetal growth is essential for perinatal survival and has long-term consequences extending into adulthood. Given the high incidence of intrauterine growth retardation and the high risk of metabolic and cardiovascular complications in later life, further clinical and basic research is needed to develop accurate early diagnosis of aberrant fetal growth and novel therapeutic strategies.

  5. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  6. Thyroid hormones regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium status in mice.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Jens; Behrends, Thomas; Hoefig, Carolin S; Vennström, Björn; Schomburg, Lutz

    2010-09-22

    Impaired expression of selenium-containing proteins leads to perturbed thyroid hormone (TH) levels, indicating the central importance of selenium for TH homeostasis. Moreover, critically ill patients with declining serum selenium develop a syndrome of low circulating TH and a central downregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This prompted us to test the reciprocal effect, i.e., if TH status would also regulate selenoprotein expression and selenium levels. To investigate the TH dependency of selenium metabolism, we analyzed mice expressing a mutant TH receptor α1 (TRα1+m) that confers a receptor-mediated hypothyroidism. Serum selenium was reduced in these animals, which was a direct consequence of the mutant TRα1 and not related to their metabolic alterations. Accordingly, hyperthyroidism, genetically caused by the inactivation of TRβ or by oral TH treatment of adult mice, increased serum selenium levels in TRα1+m and controls, thus demonstrating a novel and specific role for TRα1 in selenium metabolism. Furthermore, TH affected the mRNA levels for several enzymes involved in selenoprotein biosynthesis as well as serum selenoprotein P concentrations and the expression of other antioxidative selenoproteins. Taken together, our results show that TH positively affects the serum selenium status and regulates the expression of several selenoproteins. This demonstrates that selenium and TH metabolism are interconnected through a feed-forward regulation, which can in part explain the rapid parallel downregulation of both systems in critical illness.

  7. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated expression of caldesmon regulates cell migration via the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Mayanagi, Taira; Morita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Fukumoto, Kentaro; Sobue, Kenji

    2008-11-07

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) play important roles in numerous cellular processes, including growth, development, homeostasis, inhibition of inflammation, and immunosuppression. Here we found that GC-treated human lung carcinoma A549 cells exhibited the enhanced formation of the thick stress fibers and focal adhesions, resulting in suppression of cell migration. In a screen for GC-responsive genes encoding actin-interacting proteins, we identified caldesmon (CaD), which is specifically up-regulated in response to GCs. CaD is a regulatory protein involved in actomyosin-based contraction and the stability of actin filaments. We further demonstrated that the up-regulation of CaD expression was controlled by glucocorticoid receptor (GR). An activated form of GR directly bound to the two glucocorticoid-response element-like sequences in the human CALD1 promoter and transactivated the CALD1 gene, thereby up-regulating the CaD protein. Forced expression of CaD, without GC treatment, also enhanced the formation of thick stress fibers and focal adhesions and suppressed cell migration. Conversely, depletion of CaD abrogated the GC-induced phenotypes. The results of this study suggest that the GR-dependent up-regulation of CaD plays a pivotal role in regulating cell migration via the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  8. Prostaglandin (PG) FP and EP1 receptors mediate PGF2alpha and PGE2 regulation of interleukin-1beta expression in Leydig cell progenitors.

    PubMed

    Walch, Laurence; Clavarino, Emanuela; Morris, Patricia L

    2003-04-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) mediate IL-1beta regulation of several interleukin mRNAs in progenitor Leydig cells. PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) potently reverse indomethacin (INDO; a cyclooxygenase inhibitor) inhibition of IL-1beta autoinduction. IL-1beta increases PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) production. To determine the PG receptors involved in this regulation, this study established by RT-PCR and Western analyses which specific receptors for PGE(2) (EP receptors) and PGF(2alpha) (FP receptors) are expressed in progenitors. Pharmacological characterization of receptors involved in PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) regulation of IL-1beta mRNA levels was ascertained using real-time PCR analyses. FP, EP(1), EP(2), and EP(4) receptor mRNAs and proteins, and an EP(3) receptor subtype were detected. IL-1beta treatment (24-h) significantly decreased EP(1) receptor levels; INDO abrogated this down-regulation. FP, EP(2), and EP(4) receptor levels increased after IL-1beta and IL-1beta + INDO. A selective FP agonist, cloprostenol (0.1 micro M), and PGF(2alpha) (10 micro M) had similar effects on IL-1beta mRNA levels in progenitors treated with IL-1beta + INDO. None of the EP(2)/EP(4) agonists [butaprost, misoprostol, or 11-deoxy PGE(1) (10 micro M)] affected IL-1beta mRNA levels. In contrast, EP(1)/EP(3) agonists (17-phenyl trinor PGE(2) and sulprostone) increased IL-1beta mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. EP(1) receptor subtype-selective antagonist, SC-51322, blocked IL-1beta-induced and [IL-1beta + INDO + 17-phenyl trinor PGE(2)]-induced increases in IL-1beta mRNAs. Taken together, our data demonstrate that FP and EP(1) receptors mediate PGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) induction of progenitor IL-1beta expression.

  9. GABAA Receptor- and Non-NMDA Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Actions of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Neurons.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong Hyu; Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Han, Seong Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various reproductive diseases. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the fundamental regulators of pulsatile release of gonadotropin required for fertility. In this study, an extract of KRG (KRGE) was applied to GnRH neurons to identify the receptors activated by KRGE. The brain slice patch clamp technique in whole cell and perforated patch was used to clarify the effect of KRGE on the membrane currents and membrane potentials of GnRH neurons. Application of KRGE (3 μg/μL) under whole cell patch induced remarkable inward currents (56.17±7.45 pA, n=25) and depolarization (12.91±3.80 mV, n=4) in GnRH neurons under high Cl(-) pipette solution condition. These inward currents were not only reproducible, but also concentration dependent. In addition, inward currents and depolarization induced by KRGE persisted in the presence of the voltage gated Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), suggesting that the responses by KRGE were postsynaptic events. Application of KRGE under the gramicidin perforated patch induced depolarization in the presence of TTX suggesting its physiological significance on GnRH response. Further, the KRGE-induced inward currents were partially blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, 10 μM) or picrotoxin (PIC; GABAA receptor antagonist, 50 μM), and almost blocked by PIC and CNQX mixture. Taken together, these results suggest that KRGE contains ingredients with possible GABA and non-NMDA glutamate receptor mimetic activity, and may play an important role in the endocrine function of reproductive physiology, via activation of GABAA and non-NMDA glutamate receptors in GnRH neurons.

  10. P2X7 receptor-mediated PARP1 activity regulates astroglial death in the rat hippocampus following status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yang; Ko, Ah-Reum; Kim, Ji-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) plays a regulatory role in apoptosis, necrosis, and other cellular processes after injury. Recently, we revealed that PARP1 regulates the differential neuronal/astroglial responses to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the distinct brain regions. In addition, P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, activation accelerates astroglial apoptosis, while it attenuates clasmatodendrosis (lysosome-derived autophagic astroglial death). Therefore, we investigated whether P2X7R regulates regional specific astroglial PARP1 expression/activation in response to SE. In the present study, P2X7R activation exacerbates SE-induced astroglial apoptosis, while P2X7R inhibition attenuates it accompanied by increasing PARP1 activity in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus following SE. In the CA1 region, however, P2X7R inhibition deteriorates SE-induced clasmatodendrosis via PARP1 activation following SE. Taken together, our findings suggest that P2X7R function may affect SE-induced astroglial death by regulating PARP1 activation/expression in regional-specific manner. Therefore, the selective modulation of P2X7R-mediated PARP1 functions may be a considerable strategy for controls in various types of cell deaths. PMID:26388738

  11. CK2 acts as a potent negative regulator of receptor-mediated insulin release in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Mario; Ruiz de Azua, Inigo; Barella, Luiz F.; Sakamoto, Wataru; Zhu, Lu; Cui, Yinghong; Lu, Huiyan; Rebholz, Heike; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Doliba, Nicolai M.; Butcher, Adrian J.; Tobin, Andrew B.; Wess, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate virtually all physiological functions including the release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. β-Cell M3 muscarinic receptors (M3Rs) are known to play an essential role in facilitating insulin release and maintaining proper whole-body glucose homeostasis. As is the case with other GPCRs, M3R activity is regulated by phosphorylation by various kinases, including GPCR kinases and casein kinase 2 (CK2). At present, it remains unknown which of these various kinases are physiologically relevant for the regulation of β-cell activity. In the present study, we demonstrate that inhibition of CK2 in pancreatic β-cells, knockdown of CK2α expression, or genetic deletion of CK2α in β-cells of mutant mice selectively augmented M3R-stimulated insulin release in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies showed that this effect was associated with an M3R-mediated increase in intracellular calcium levels. Treatment of mouse pancreatic islets with CX4945, a highly selective CK2 inhibitor, greatly reduced agonist-induced phosphorylation of β-cell M3Rs, indicative of CK2-mediated M3R phosphorylation. We also showed that inhibition of CK2 greatly enhanced M3R-stimulated insulin secretion in human islets. Finally, CX4945 treatment protected mice against diet-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in an M3R-dependent fashion. Our data demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the physiological relevance of CK2 phosphorylation of a GPCR and suggest the novel concept that kinases acting on β-cell GPCRs may represent novel therapeutic targets. PMID:26598688

  12. Sigma-1 receptor mediates cocaine-induced transcriptional regulation by recruiting chromatin-remodeling factors at the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shang-Yi A; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Shan; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Hung, Jan-Jong; Chang, Wen-Chang; Bonci, Antonello; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2015-11-24

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays important roles in cellular regulation. Here we found a new function of Sig-1R, in that it translocates from the ER to the nuclear envelope (NE) to recruit chromatin-remodeling molecules and regulate the gene transcription thereof. Sig-1Rs mainly reside at the ER-mitochondrion interface. However, on stimulation by agonists such as cocaine, Sig-1Rs translocate from ER to the NE, where Sig-1Rs bind NE protein emerin and recruit chromatin-remodeling molecules, including lamin A/C, barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), and histone deacetylase (HDAC), to form a complex with the gene repressor specific protein 3 (Sp3). Knockdown of Sig-1Rs attenuates the complex formation. Cocaine was found to suppress the gene expression of monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) in the brain of wild-type but not Sig-1R knockout mouse. A single dose of cocaine (20 mg/kg) in rats suppresses the level of MAOB at nuclear accumbens without affecting the level of dopamine transporter. Daily injections of cocaine in rats caused behavioral sensitization. Withdrawal from cocaine in cocaine-sensitized rats induced an apparent time-dependent rebound of the MAOB protein level to about 200% over control on day 14 after withdrawal. Treatment of cocaine-withdrawn rats with the MAOB inhibitor deprenyl completely alleviated the behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Our results demonstrate a role of Sig-1R in transcriptional regulation and suggest cocaine may work through this newly discovered genomic action to achieve its addictive action. Results also suggest the MAOB inhibitor deprenyl as a therapeutic agent to block certain actions of cocaine during withdrawal.

  13. Sigma-1 receptor mediates cocaine-induced transcriptional regulation by recruiting chromatin-remodeling factors at the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shang-Yi A.; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Shan; Wang, Xiao-fei; Hung, Jan-Jong; Chang, Wen-Chang; Bonci, Antonello; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays important roles in cellular regulation. Here we found a new function of Sig-1R, in that it translocates from the ER to the nuclear envelope (NE) to recruit chromatin-remodeling molecules and regulate the gene transcription thereof. Sig-1Rs mainly reside at the ER–mitochondrion interface. However, on stimulation by agonists such as cocaine, Sig-1Rs translocate from ER to the NE, where Sig-1Rs bind NE protein emerin and recruit chromatin-remodeling molecules, including lamin A/C, barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF), and histone deacetylase (HDAC), to form a complex with the gene repressor specific protein 3 (Sp3). Knockdown of Sig-1Rs attenuates the complex formation. Cocaine was found to suppress the gene expression of monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) in the brain of wild-type but not Sig-1R knockout mouse. A single dose of cocaine (20 mg/kg) in rats suppresses the level of MAOB at nuclear accumbens without affecting the level of dopamine transporter. Daily injections of cocaine in rats caused behavioral sensitization. Withdrawal from cocaine in cocaine-sensitized rats induced an apparent time-dependent rebound of the MAOB protein level to about 200% over control on day 14 after withdrawal. Treatment of cocaine-withdrawn rats with the MAOB inhibitor deprenyl completely alleviated the behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Our results demonstrate a role of Sig-1R in transcriptional regulation and suggest cocaine may work through this newly discovered genomic action to achieve its addictive action. Results also suggest the MAOB inhibitor deprenyl as a therapeutic agent to block certain actions of cocaine during withdrawal. PMID:26554014

  14. Btk Regulates B Cell Receptor-Mediated Antigen Processing and Presentation by Controlling Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics in B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shruti; Orlowski, Gregory; Song, Wenxia

    2010-01-01

    The high efficiency of Ag processing and presentation by B cells requires Ag-induced BCR signaling and actin cytoskeleton reorganization, although the underlying mechanism for such requirements remains elusive. In this study, we identify Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) as a linker connecting BCR signaling to actin dynamics and the Ag transport pathway. Using xid mice and a Btk inhibitor, we show that BCR engagement increases actin polymerization and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein activation in a Btk-dependent manner. Concurrently, we observe Btk-dependent increases in the levels of phosphatidylinositide-4,5-bisphosphate and phosphorylated Vav upon BCR engagement. The rate of BCR internalization, its movement to late endosomes, and efficiency of BCR-mediated Ag processing and presentation are significantly reduced in both xid and Btk inhibitor-treated B cells. Thus, Btk regulates actin dynamics and Ag transport by activating Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein via Vav and phosphatidylinositides. This represents a novel mechanism by which BCR-mediated signaling regulates BCR-mediated Ag processing and presentation. PMID:19109164

  15. Ligation of human Fc receptor like-2 by monoclonal antibodies down-regulates B-cell receptor-mediated signalling

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Mahdi; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Rabbani, Hodjatallah; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad; Ulivieri, Cristina; Amirghofran, Zahra; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; Shokri, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signalling and its regulation through negative and positive regulators are critical for balancing B-cell response and function. Human Fc receptor like-2 (FCRL2), a member of the newly identified FCRL family, could influence B-cell signalling due to possession of both immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation and inhibitory motifs (ITAM and ITIM). Since the natural ligand of FCRL2 has not been identified, we generated FCRL2-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and employed them to investigate the influence of FCRL2 stimulation on BCR signalling in an FCRL2-expressing B-cell line. Two anti-FCRL2 mAb-producing hybridoma clones (5A7-E7 and 3D8-G8) were selected. None of the mAbs displayed any cross-reactivity with the other members of the FCRL family including recombinant FCRL1, -3, -4 and -5, as tested by FACS and ELISA techniques. Engagement of the FCRL2 by these mAbs resulted in significant inhibition of BCR signalling mediators such as calcium mobilization and phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases Erk, p38 and Jnk. These findings indicate that the FCRL2 ITIM motifs are functional and the anti-FCRL2 mAbs may mimic the natural ligand of FCRL2 by induction of inhibitory signals in B cells. PMID:24797767

  16. Sex Differences Distinguish Intracortical Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Extracellular Dopamine Levels in the Prefrontal Cortex of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Locklear, M. N.; Cohen, A. B.; Jone, A.; Kritzer, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are sensitive to local dopamine (DA) levels. Although sex differences distinguish these functions and their dysfunction in disease, the basis for this is unknown. We asked whether sex differences might result from dimorphisms in the glutamatergic mechanisms that regulate PFC DA levels. Using antagonists selective for α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, we compared drug effects on in vivo microdialysis DA measurements in the PFC of adult male and female rats. We found that baseline DA levels were similar across sex, AMPA antagonism decreased PFC DA in both sexes, and NMDA antagonism increased DA in males but decreased DA in females. We also found that, at subseizure-producing drug levels, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A antagonism did not affect DA in either sex but that GABA-B antagonism transiently increased PFC DA in both sexes, albeit more so in females. Finally, when NMDA antagonism was coincident with GABA-B antagonism, PFC DA levels in males responded as if to GABA-B antagonism alone, whereas in females, DA effects mirrored those induced by NMDA antagonism. Taken together, these data suggest commonalities and fundamental differences in the intracortical amino acid transmitter mechanisms that regulate DA homeostasis in the male and female rat PFCs. PMID:25260707

  17. Dual regulation of mast cell degranulation through IgE receptor-mediated modulation of M₂-type pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Mei; Cho, Dong-Im; Le, Hang Thi; Cheon, Seung Hoon; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2014-01-01

    It was reported that mast cell degranulation is inversely related to the enzymatic activity of M₂-type pyruvate kinase (M₂PK). This study shows that activation of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) evokes a sequential dual regulation of M₂PK, i.e., an immediate decrement followed by slow phase increment of enzymatic activities. Changes in the activities of M₂PK and mast cell degranulation showed similar time course after antigenic stimulation of FcεRI. The immediate inhibition of M₂PK involved tyrosine phosphorylation, and subsequently led to a cellular accumulation of glycolytic intermediates, including fructose 1,6-biphosphate (FBP), a feedforward activator of M₂PK. As the cellular levels of FBP were increased, both the enzymatic acitivity of M₂PK and mast cell degranulation slowly returned to near basal levels. A-Raf, when exogenously introduced into RBL-2H3 cells, phosphorylated M₂PK on the serine residues, elevated enzyme activities of M₂PK, and resulted in the inhibition of degranulation. These results suggest that dual regulation of M₂PK which involves the phosphorylation of M₂PK and accumulation of a feedforward activator of M₂PK plays important roles in the control of mast cell degranulation.

  18. Grape seed extract regulates androgen receptor-mediated transcription in prostate cancer cells through potent anti-histone acetyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Yong; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Seong, Ah-Reum; Choi, Hyo-Kyoung; Lee, Ok-Hee; Hwang, Han-Joon; Yoon, Ho-Geun

    2011-01-01

    Histone acetylation, which is regulated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases, is an epigenetic mechanism that influences eukaryotic transcription. Significant changes in histone acetylation are associated with cancer; therefore, manipulating the acetylation status of key gene targets is likely crucial for effective cancer therapy. Grape seed extract (GSE) has a known protective effect against prostate cancer. Here, we showed that GSE significantly inhibited HAT activity by 30-80% in vitro (P < .05). Furthermore, we demonstrated significant repression of androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription by GSE in prostate cancer cells by measuring luciferase activity using a pGL3-PSA construct bearing the AR element in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (P < .05). GSE treatment also decreased the mRNA level of the AR-regulated genes PSA and NKX 3.1. Finally, GSE inhibited growth of LNCaP cells. These results indicate that GSE potently inhibits HAT, leading to decreased AR-mediated transcription and cancer cell growth, and implicate GSE as a novel candidate for therapeutic activity against prostate cancer.

  19. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  20. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  1. Glutamine attenuates obstructive cholestasis in rats via farnesoid X receptor-mediated regulation of Bsep and Mrp2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingli; Li, Yiming; Ji, Hong; Lu, Hongwei; Li, Hua; Shi, Yakun

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the protective effect of glutamine (Gln) against obstructive cholestasis in association with farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation, an obstructive cholestasis model was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats by bile duct ligation (BDL). Serum biomarkers and hematoxylin plus eosin staining were used to identify the degree of hepatic injury in the rats with obstructive cholestasis after Gln treatment. Immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, Western blot, cultured primary rat hepatocytes with FXR knockdown, and dual-luciferase reporter assay were performed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying Gln hepatoprotection. We found that Gln treatment protected against obstructive cholestasis induced by BDL through reducing hepatocyte injury. Upregulation of the hepatic efflux transporters small heterodimer partner (Shp), bile salt export pump (Bsep), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), and inhibition of the hepatic uptake transporter Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) and the bile acid synthesis enzyme cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression were observed in rats with BDL treated with Gln in vivo. Furthermore, the regulatory effect of Gln on Bsep and Mrp2 expression was abrogated after FXR knockdown in rat primary cultured hepatocytes. Luciferase assay HepG2 cells also illustrated FXR was a direct target for Gln treatment. In conclusion, the regulation of Bsep and Mrp2 expression mediated by FXR might be an important mechanism for Gln against obstructive cholestasis.

  2. Presynaptic Adenosine Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Diverse Thalamocortical Short-Term Plasticity in the Mouse Whisker Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ferrati, Giovanni; Martini, Francisco J.; Maravall, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) sets the sensitivity of a synapse to incoming activity and determines the temporal patterns that it best transmits. In “driver” thalamocortical (TC) synaptic populations, STP is dominated by depression during stimulation from rest. However, during ongoing stimulation, lemniscal TC connections onto layer 4 neurons in mouse barrel cortex express variable STP. Each synapse responds to input trains with a distinct pattern of depression or facilitation around its mean steady-state response. As a result, in common with other synaptic populations, lemniscal TC synapses express diverse rather than uniform dynamics, allowing for a rich representation of temporally varying stimuli. Here, we show that this STP diversity is regulated presynaptically. Presynaptic adenosine receptors of the A1R type, but not kainate receptors (KARs), modulate STP behavior. Blocking the receptors does not eliminate diversity, indicating that diversity is related to heterogeneous expression of multiple mechanisms in the pathway from presynaptic calcium influx to neurotransmitter release. PMID:26941610

  3. NR2B-NMDA receptor mediated modulation of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP regulates glutamate induced neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Ranjana; Deb, Ishani; Mukherjee, Saibal; Paul, Surojit

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the role of a neuron-specific tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) in excitotoxic cell death. Our findings demonstrate that p38 MAPK, a stress-activated kinase that is known to play a role in the etiology of excitotoxic cell death is a substrate of STEP. Glutamate-mediated NMDA receptor stimulation leads to rapid but transient activation of p38 MAPK, which is primarily dependent on NR2A-NMDA receptor activation. Conversely, activation of NR2B-NMDA receptors leads to dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of STEP, which in turn leads to inactivation of p38 MAPK. Thus during transient NMDA receptor stimulation, increases in STEP activity appears to limit the duration of activation of p38 MAPK and improves neuronal survival. However, if NR2B-NMDA receptor stimulation is sustained, protective effects of STEP activation are lost, as these stimuli cause significant degradation of active STEP, leading to secondary activation of p38 MAP kinase. Consistent with this observation, a cell transducible TAT-STEP peptide that constitutively binds to p38 MAPK attenuated neuronal cell death caused by sustained NMDA receptor stimulation. The findings imply that the activation and levels of STEP are dependent on the duration and magnitude of NR2B-NMDA receptor stimulation and STEP serves as a modulator of NMDA receptor dependent neuronal injury, through its regulation of p38 MAPK. PMID:21029094

  4. Network Identification of Hormonal Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vis, Daniel J.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; van der Greef, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment. PMID:24852517

  5. Hormonal Regulation of Leaf Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, William P.

    1968-01-01

    A review is given of the progress made during the last 6 years in elucidating the nature, locus of action, and transport properties of the endogenous hormones that control leaf abscission. PMID:16657014

  6. RhoA and Rac1 GTPases Differentially Regulate Agonist-Receptor Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Platelets.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Huzoor; Duan, Xin; Saleem, Saima; Davis, Ashley K; Zheng, Yi

    Agonist induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (NOX) enhances platelet aggregation and hence the risk of thrombosis. RhoA and Rac1 GTPases are involved in ROS generation by NOX in a variety of cells, but their roles in platelet ROS production remain unclear. In this study we used platelets from RhoA and Rac1 conditional knockout mice as well as human platelets treated with Rhosin and NSC23767, rationally designed small molecule inhibitors of RhoA and Rac GTPases, respectively, to better define the contributions of RhoA and Rac1 signaling to ROS generation and platelet activation. Treatment of platelets with Rhosin inhibited: (a) U46619 induced activation of RhoA; (b) phosphorylation of p47phox, a critical component of NOX; (c) U46619 or thrombin induced ROS generation; (d) phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC); (e) platelet shape change; (f) platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen; and (g) release of P-selectin, secretion of ATP and aggregation. Conditional deletion of RhoA or Rac1 gene inhibited thrombin induced ROS generation in platelets. Addition of Y27632, a RhoA inhibitor, NSC23766 or Phox-I, an inhibitor of Rac1-p67phox interaction, to human platelets blocked thrombin induced ROS generation. These data suggest that: (a) RhoA/ROCK/p47phox signaling axis promotes ROS production that, at least in part, contributes to platelet activation in conjunction with or independent of the RhoA/ROCK mediated phosphorylation of MLC; and (b) RhoA and Rac1 differentially regulate ROS generation by inhibiting phosphorylation of p47phox and Rac1-p67phox interaction, respectively.

  7. RhoA and Rac1 GTPases Differentially Regulate Agonist-Receptor Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Huzoor; Duan, Xin; Saleem, Saima; Davis, Ashley K.; Zheng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Agonist induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidases (NOX) enhances platelet aggregation and hence the risk of thrombosis. RhoA and Rac1 GTPases are involved in ROS generation by NOX in a variety of cells, but their roles in platelet ROS production remain unclear. In this study we used platelets from RhoA and Rac1 conditional knockout mice as well as human platelets treated with Rhosin and NSC23767, rationally designed small molecule inhibitors of RhoA and Rac GTPases, respectively, to better define the contributions of RhoA and Rac1 signaling to ROS generation and platelet activation. Treatment of platelets with Rhosin inhibited: (a) U46619 induced activation of RhoA; (b) phosphorylation of p47phox, a critical component of NOX; (c) U46619 or thrombin induced ROS generation; (d) phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC); (e) platelet shape change; (f) platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen; and (g) release of P-selectin, secretion of ATP and aggregation. Conditional deletion of RhoA or Rac1 gene inhibited thrombin induced ROS generation in platelets. Addition of Y27632, a RhoA inhibitor, NSC23766 or Phox-I, an inhibitor of Rac1-p67phox interaction, to human platelets blocked thrombin induced ROS generation. These data suggest that: (a) RhoA/ROCK/p47phox signaling axis promotes ROS production that, at least in part, contributes to platelet activation in conjunction with or independent of the RhoA/ROCK mediated phosphorylation of MLC; and (b) RhoA and Rac1 differentially regulate ROS generation by inhibiting phosphorylation of p47phox and Rac1-p67phox interaction, respectively. PMID:27681226

  8. Hormonal regulation of longevity in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Borg, Holly M.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple biological and environmental factors impact the life span of an organism. The endocrine system is a highly integrated physiological system in mammals that regulates metabolism, growth, reproduction, and response to stress, among other functions. As such, this pervasive entity has a major influence on aging and longevity. The growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin pathways have been at the forefront of hormonal control of aging research in the last few years. Other hormones, including those from the thyroid and reproductive system have also been studied in terms of life span regulation. The relevance of these hormones to human longevity remains to be established, however the evidence from other species including yeast, nematodes, and flies suggest that evolutionarily well-conserved mechanisms are at play and the endocrine system is a key determinant. PMID:17360245

  9. Type I collagen substrate increases calcitonin and parathyroid hormone receptor-mediated signal transduction in UMR 106-06 osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, K; Michelangeli, V P; Martin, T J; Findlay, D M

    1993-07-01

    Components of the extracellular matrices (ECM) exert pleiotropic effects in many cell systems, but little is known of the effect of ECM on hormone signal transduction. We have investigated the effect of ECM substrates on cell growth and signal transduction by calcitonin (CT) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) using the rat osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-06. Type I collagen (collagen[I]) and Matrigel changed the morphology of the cells and significantly inhibited cell growth by 37% or 23%, respectively, compared with control. None of laminin, fibronectin, or type IV collagen affected cell shape or proliferation. Cells cultured on collagen (I)-coated plates showed increased specific binding of labeled CT compared with cells on plastic plates. The effect was apparent by 24 h and persisted for at least 72 h. None of the other ECM affected CT binding. Scatchard analysis revealed that collagen(I) increased CT receptor numbers but not receptor affinity. Consistent with increased binding capacity, cells plated on collagen(I) had increased responses to each of CT and PTH in terms of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production compared to control cells. In addition, cAMP production by prostaglandin E2, cholera toxin, and forskolin was increased by 30-70% compared to control. These data suggest that collagen(I) had effects not only on membrane receptors but on guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding proteins (G proteins). The effect of collagen(I) on CT binding was no longer present when the cells were freed from the plates by enzymatic dispersion and binding measured in cell suspensions. In UMR 106-01 cells transiently transfected with the porcine CT receptor cDNA, binding was similarly induced by collagen(I). These data are the first demonstration that collagen(I) may play an important role in signal transduction, affecting both receptors and G proteins in UMR 106-06 cells. These results draw attention to the potential role of the ECM of bone in hormone-induced responses.

  10. Hormonal and systemic regulation of sclerostin.

    PubMed

    Drake, Matthew T; Khosla, Sundeep

    2017-03-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an essential role in osteoblast biology. Sclerostin is a soluble antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling secreted primarily by osteocytes. Current evidence indicates that sclerostin likely functions as a local/paracrine regulator of bone metabolism rather than as an endocrine hormone. Nonetheless, circulating sclerostin levels in humans often reflect changes in the bone microenvironment, although there may be exceptions to this observation. Using existing assays, circulating sclerostin levels have been shown to be altered in response to both hormonal stimuli and across a variety of normal physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In both rodents and humans, parathyroid hormone provided either intermittently or continuously suppresses sclerostin levels. Likewise, most evidence from both human and animal studies supports a suppressive effect of estrogen on sclerostin levels. Efforts to examine non-hormonal/systemic regulation of sclerostin have in general shown less consistent findings or have provided associations rather than direct interventional information, with the exception of mechanosensory studies which have consistently demonstrated increased sclerostin levels with skeletal unloading, and conversely decreases in sclerostin with enhanced skeletal loading. Herein, we will review the existent literature on both hormonal and non-hormonal/systemic factors which have been studied for their impact on sclerostin regulation.

  11. Receptor-mediated signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Grice, C. M.; Bertuzzi, M.; Bignell, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most pathogenic species among the Aspergilli, and the major fungal agent of human pulmonary infection. To prosper in diverse ecological niches, Aspergilli have evolved numerous mechanisms for adaptive gene regulation, some of which are also crucial for mammalian infection. Among the molecules which govern such responses, integral membrane receptors are thought to be the most amenable to therapeutic modulation. This is due to the localization of these molecular sensors at the periphery of the fungal cell, and to the prevalence of small molecules and licensed drugs which target receptor-mediated signaling in higher eukaryotic cells. In this review we highlight the progress made in characterizing receptor-mediated environmental adaptation in A. fumigatus and its relevance for pathogenicity in mammals. By presenting a first genomic survey of integral membrane proteins in this organism, we highlight an abundance of putative seven transmembrane domain (7TMD) receptors, the majority of which remain uncharacterized. Given the dependency of A. fumigatus upon stress adaptation for colonization and infection of mammalian hosts, and the merits of targeting receptor-mediated signaling as an antifungal strategy, a closer scrutiny of sensory perception and signal transduction in this organism is warranted. PMID:23430083

  12. Phosphorylation substrates for protein kinase C in intact pituitary cells: characterization of a receptor-mediated event using novel gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Strulovici, B.; Tahilramani, R.; Nestor, J.J. Jr.

    1987-09-22

    The involvement of protein kinase C in the signal transduction of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) action was investigated with a GnRH superagonist, partial agonists, and antagonists in intact rat pituitary cells. Exposure of /sup 32/P-labeled cells to GnRH or to the superagonist (D-Nal(2)/sup 6/)GnRH induced the enhanced phosphorylation of 42-, 34-, 11-, and 10-kDa proteins and the dephosphorylation of a 15-kDa protein as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography. This effect was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by potent GnRG antagonists. Downregulation of protein kinase C by prolonged incubation of the pituitary cells with high concentrations of active phorbol esters abolished protein kinase C activity and also prevented the phosphorylation induced by GnRN, or (D-Nal(2)/sup 6/)GnRH. The same effect was obtained by preincubating the cells with the protein kinase C inhibitor H-7. In this study the authors identify for the first time physiological substrates for protein kinase C in intact pituitary cells. They demonstrate a close quantitative correlation between the extent of translocation of protein kinase C, levels of phosphorylation of specific substrates in the intact cells, and the biological activity of the GnRH analogues with varying affinity for the GnRH receptor. These data strengthen the contention that the physiological effects of GnRH are primarily mediated via the phosphatidylinositol/Ca/sup 2 +/ signal transfer system and represent a first step toward defining the physiological substrates of protein kinase C and their role in the cascade of events that starts upon binding of GnRH to its receptor.

  13. Receptors mediating toxicity and their involvement in endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Rüegg, Joëlle; Penttinen-Damdimopoulou, Pauliina; Mäkelä, Sari; Pongratz, Ingemar; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2009-01-01

    Many toxic compounds exert their harmful effects by activating of certain receptors, which in turn leads to dysregulation of transcription. Some of these receptors are so called xenosensors. They are activated by external chemicals and evoke a cascade of events that lead to the elimination of the chemical from the system. Other receptors that are modulated by toxic substances are hormone receptors, particularly the ones of the nuclear receptor family. Some environmental chemicals resemble endogenous hormones and can falsely activate these receptors, leading to undesired activity in the cell. Furthermore, excessive activation of the xenosensors can lead to disturbances of the integrity of the system as well. In this chapter, the concepts of receptor-mediated toxicity and hormone disruption are introduced. We start by describing environmental chemicals that can bind to xenosensors and nuclear hormone receptors. We then describe the receptors most commonly targeted by environmental chemicals. Finally, the mechanisms by which receptor-mediated events can disrupt the system are depicted.

  14. Angiotensin type 1 receptor mediates thyroid hormone-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through the Akt/GSK-3beta/mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Carneiro-Ramos, Marcela Sorelli; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza Morais

    2009-11-01

    Several studies have implicated the renin angiotensin system in the cardiac hypertrophy induced by thyroid hormone. However, whether Angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) is critically required to the development of T3-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy as well as whether the intracellular mechanisms that are triggered by AT1R are able to contribute to this hypertrophy model is unknown. To address these questions, we employed a selective small interfering RNA (siRNA, 50 nM) or an AT1R blocker (Losartan, 1 microM) to evaluate the specific role of this receptor in primary cultures of neonatal cardiomyocytes submitted to T3 (10 nM) treatment. The cardiomyocytes transfected with the AT1R siRNA presented reduced mRNA (90%, P < 0.001) and protein (70%, P < 0.001) expression of AT1R. The AT1R silencing and the AT1R blockade totally prevented the T3-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, as evidenced by lower mRNA expression of atrial natriuretic factor (66%, P < 0.01) and skeletal alpha-actin (170%, P < 0.01) as well as by reduction in protein synthesis (85%, P < 0.001). The cardiomyocytes treated with T3 demonstrated a rapid activation of Akt/GSK-3beta/mTOR signaling pathway, which was completely inhibited by the use of PI3K inhibitors (LY294002, 10 microM and Wortmannin, 200 nM). In addition, we demonstrated that the AT1R mediated the T3-induced activation of Akt/GSK-3beta/mTOR signaling pathway, since the AT1R silencing and the AT1R blockade attenuated or totally prevented the activation of this signaling pathway. We also reported that local Angiotensin I/II (Ang I/II) levels (120%, P < 0.05) and the AT1R expression (180%, P < 0.05) were rapidly increased by T3 treatment. These data demonstrate for the first time that the AT1R is a critical mediator to the T3-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy as well as to the activation of Akt/GSK-3beta/mTOR signaling pathway. These results represent a new insight into the mechanism of T3-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, indicating that the

  15. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  16. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) depresses n-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated current in cultured rat hippocampal neurons via CRH receptor type 1.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Hui; Zhang, Yanmin; Sun, Jihu; Gao, Lu; Ma, Bei; Lu, Jianqiang; Ni, Xin

    2008-03-01

    CRH, the primary regulator of the neuroendocrine responses to stress, has been shown to modulate synaptic efficacy and the process of learning and memory in hippocampus. However, effects of CRH on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, the key receptor for synaptic plasticity, remain unclear. In primary cultured hippocampal neurons, using the technique of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that CRH (1 pmol/liter to 10 nmol/liter) inhibited NMDA-induced currents in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was reversed by the CRH receptor type 1 (CRHR1) antagonist antalarmin but not by the CRHR2 antagonist astressin-2B, suggesting that CRHR1 mediated the inhibitory effect of CRH. Investigations on the signaling pathways of CRH showed that CRH dose-dependently induced phosphorylated phospholipase C (PLC)-beta3 expression and increased intracellular cAMP content in these cells. Blocking PLC activity with U73122 prevented CRH-induced depression of NMDA current, whereas blocking protein kinase A (H89) and adenylate cyclase (SQ22536) failed to affect the CRH-induced depression of NMDA current. Application of inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) antagonist, Ca(2+) chelators or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors also mainly blocked CRH-induced depression of NMDA currents, suggesting involvement of PLC/IP(3)R/Ca(2+)and PLC/PKC signaling pathways in CRH down-regulation of NMDA receptors. Our results suggest that CRH may exert neuromodulatory actions on hippocampus through regulating NMDA receptor function.

  17. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Jayasena, Channa N.; Bloom, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight. PMID:21949903

  18. [Synthesis and regulation of growth hormone secretion].

    PubMed

    Miyachi, Y; Yakushiji, F; Terazono, T

    1993-10-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) is a single chain, 22 kd-protein with two intramolecular disulfide bonds. The hGH gene is located on chromosome 17 at band q22-q24 and has four introns separating five coding exons. The expression of hGH is restricted to the pituitary and regulated by GHF-1 which binds to the hGH promoter acting in concert with several other more ubiquitous DNA binding proteins. The secretion of hGH is regulated by GH releasing hormone (GRH) and somatostatin. GRH controls GH synthesis by stimulating transcription of GH mRNA while somatostatin determines the timing and amplitude of GH pulses. Pulsatile GH secretion is influenced by a number of neurogenic, metabolic and hormonal factors.

  19. Thyroid hormone and seasonal regulation of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    Organisms living outside the tropics use changes in photoperiod to adapt to seasonal changes in the environment. Several models have contributed to an understanding of this mechanism at the molecular and endocrine levels. Subtropical birds are excellent models for the study of these mechanisms because of their rapid and dramatic response to changes in photoperiod. Studies of birds have demonstrated that light is perceived by a deep brain photoreceptor and long day-induced thyrotropin (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary gland causes local thyroid hormone activation within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). The locally generated bioactive thyroid hormone, T₃, regulates seasonal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, and hence gonadotropin secretion. In mammals, the eyes are the only photoreceptor involved in photoperiodic time perception and nocturnal melatonin secretion provides an endocrine signal of photoperiod to the PT to regulate TSH. Here, I review the current understanding of the hypothalamic mechanisms controlling seasonal reproduction in mammals and birds.

  20. Hormonal regulation of energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F

    2000-06-01

    A loop system exists between hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peripheral adipose tissue leptin to maintain normal body homeostasis. When hypothalamic NPY levels are increased by fasting or by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion, food intake and body weight increase. NPY has genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It increases insulin and corticosterone secretion relative to controls. These hormonal changes, acting singly or combined, favor adipose tissue lipogenic activity, while producing muscle insulin resistance. They also promote leptin release from adipose tissue. When infused i.c.v. to normal rats to mimic its central effects, leptin decreases NPY levels, thus food intake and body weight. Leptin i.c.v. has also genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It decreases insulinemia and adipose tissue storage ability, enhancing glucose disposal. Leptin increases the expression of uncoupling proteins (UCP-1, -2, -3) and thus energy dissipation. Leptin-induced changes favor oxidation at the expense of storage. Circadian fluctuations of NPY and leptin levels maintain normal body homeostasis. In animal obesity, defective hypothalamic leptin receptor activation prevent leptin from acting, with resulting obesity, insulin and leptin resistance.

  1. Does cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor mediate suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in response to psychosocial stress?

    PubMed

    Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Pytiak, Andrew V; Tilbrook, Alan J; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Karsch, Fred J

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the importance of cortisol in mediating inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion in sheep exposed to a psychosocial stress. First, we developed an acute psychosocial stress model that involves sequential layering of novel stressors over 3-4 h. This layered-stress paradigm robustly activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and unambiguously inhibited pulsatile LH secretion. We next used this paradigm to test the hypothesis that cortisol, acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mediates stress-induced suppression of pulsatile LH secretion. Our approach was to determine whether an antagonist of the type II GR (RU486) reverses inhibition of LH pulsatility in response to the layered stress. We used two animal models to assess different aspects of LH pulse regulation. With the first model (ovariectomized ewe), LH pulse characteristics could vary as a function of both altered GnRH pulses and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. In this case, antagonism of the type II GR did not prevent stress-induced inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion. With the second model (pituitary-clamped ovariectomized ewe), pulsatile GnRH input to the pituitary was fixed to enable assessment of stress effects specifically at the pituitary level. In this case, the layered stress inhibited pituitary responsiveness to GnRH and antagonism of the type II GR reversed the effect. Collectively, these findings indicate acute psychosocial stress inhibits pulsatile LH secretion, at least in part, by reducing pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Cortisol, acting via the type II GR, is an obligatory mediator of this effect. However, under conditions in which GnRH input to the pituitary is not clamped, antagonism of the type II GR does not prevent stress-induced inhibition of LH pulsatility, implicating an additional pathway of suppression that is independent of cortisol acting via this receptor.

  2. Subcellular localisation of BAG-1 and its regulation of vitamin D receptor-mediated transactivation and involucrin expression in oral keratinocytes: Implications for oral carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, San San; Crabb, Simon J.; Janghra, Nari; Carlberg, Carsten; Williams, Ann C.; Cutress, Ramsey I.; Packham, Graham; Hague, Angela

    2007-09-10

    In oral cancers, cytoplasmic BAG-1 overexpression is a marker of poor prognosis. BAG-1 regulates cellular growth, differentiation and survival through interactions with diverse proteins, including the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a key regulator of keratinocyte growth and differentiation. BAG-1 is expressed ubiquitously in human cells as three major isoforms of 50 kDa (BAG-1L), 46 kDa (BAG-1M) and 36 kDa (BAG-1S) from a single mRNA. In oral keratinocytes BAG-1L, but not BAG-1M and BAG-1S, enhanced VDR transactivation in response to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3.} BAG-1L was nucleoplasmic and nucleolar, whereas BAG-1S and BAG-1M were cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic in localisation. Having identified the nucleolar localisation sequence in BAG-1L, we showed that mutation of this sequence did not prevent BAG-1L from potentiating VDR activity. BAG-1L also potentiated transactivation of known vitamin-D-responsive gene promoters, osteocalcin and 24-hydroxylase, and enhanced VDR-dependent transcription and protein expression of the keratinocyte differentiation marker, involucrin. These results demonstrate endogenous gene regulation by BAG-1L by potentiating nuclear hormone receptor function and suggest a role for BAG-1L in 24-hydroxylase regulation of vitamin D metabolism and the cellular response of oral keratinocytes to 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. By contrast to the cytoplasmic BAG-1 isoforms, BAG-1L may act to suppress tumorigenesis.

  3. Receptor-Mediated Tobacco Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Juan; Chernyavsky, Alexander I.; Marubio, Lisa M.; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Jolkovsky, David L.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Grando, Sergei A.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco is a known cause of oral disease but the mechanism remains elusive. Nicotine (Nic) is a likely culprit of pathobiological effects because it displaces the local cytotransmitter acetylcholine from the nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) expressed by oral keratinocytes (KCs). To gain a mechanistic insight into tobacco-induced morbidity in the oral cavity, we studied effects of exposures to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) versus equivalent concentration of pure Nic on human and murine KCs. Both ETS and Nic up-regulated expression of cell cycle and apoptosis regulators, differentiation marker filaggrin, and signal transduction factors at both the mRNA and protein levels. These changes could be abolished in cultured human oral KCs transfected with anti-α3 small interfering RNA or treated with the α3β2-preferring antagonist α-conotoxin MII. Functional inactivation of α3-mediated signaling in α3−/− mutant KCs prevented most of the ETS/Nic-dependent changes in gene expression. To determine relevance of the in vitro findings to the in vivo situation, we studied gene expression in oral mucosa of neonatal α3+/+ and α3−/− littermates delivered by heterozygous mice soon after their exposures to ETS or equivalent concentration of pure Nic in drinking water. In addition to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, the ETS/Nic-dependent alterations in gene expression were also detected by semiquantitative immunofluorescence assay directly in KCs comprising murine oral mucosa. Only wild-type mice consistently developed significant (P < 0.05) changes in the gene expression. These results identified α3β2 nAChR as a major receptor mediating effects of tobacco products on KC gene expression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that in all three model systems the common genes targeted by α3β2-mediated ETS/Nic toxicity were p21, Bcl-2, NF-κB, and STAT-1. The expression of the nAChR subunits α5 and β2 and the muscarinic

  4. Linker histones in hormonal gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Vicent, G P; Wright, R H G; Beato, M

    2016-03-01

    In the present review, we summarize advances in our knowledge on the role of the histone H1 family of proteins in breast cancer cells, focusing on their response to progestins. Histone H1 plays a dual role in gene regulation by hormones, both as a structural component of chromatin and as a dynamic modulator of transcription. It contributes to hormonal regulation of the MMTV promoter by stabilizing a homogeneous nucleosome positioning, which reduces basal transcription whereas at the same time promoting progesterone receptor binding and nucleosome remodeling. These combined effects enhance hormone dependent gene transcription, which eventually requires H1 phosphorylation and displacement. Various isoforms of histone H1 have specific functions in differentiated breast cancer cells and compact nucleosomal arrays to different extents in vitro. Genome-wide studies show that histone H1 has a key role in chromatin dynamics of hormone regulated genes. A complex sequence of enzymatic events, including phosphorylation by CDK2, PARylation by PARP1 and the ATP-dependent activity of NURF, are required for H1 displacement and gene de-repression, as a prerequisite for further nucleosome remodeling. Similarly, during hormone-dependent gene repression a dedicated enzymatic mechanism controls H1 deposition at promoters by a complex containing HP1γ, LSD1 and BRG1, the ATPase of the BAF complex. Thus, a broader vision of the histone code should include histone H1, as the linker histone variants actively participate in the regulation of the chromatin structure. How modifications of the core histones tails affect H1 modifications and vice versa is one of the many questions that remains to be addressed to provide a more comprehensive view of the histone cross-talk mechanisms.

  5. Melatonin as a negative mitogenic hormonal regulator of human prostate epithelial cell growth: potential mechanisms and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Tam, Chun W; Chan, Kwok W; Liu, Vincent W S; Pang, Bo; Yao, Kwok-Ming; Shiu, Stephen Y W

    2008-11-01

    Circannual variation in the human serum levels of prostate-specific antigen, a growth marker of the prostate gland, has been reported recently. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of the photoperiodic hormone melatonin (MLT) and its membrane receptors in the modulation of human prostate growth. Expression of MT(1) and MT(2) receptors was detected in benign human prostatic epithelial tissues and RWPE-1 cells. MLT and 2-iodomelatonin inhibited RWPE-1 cell proliferation and up-regulated p27(Kip1) gene and protein expression in the cells. The effects of MLT were blocked by the nonselective MT(1)/MT(2) receptor antagonist luzindole, but were not affected by the selective MT(2) receptor antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline. Of note, the antiproliferative action of MLT on benign prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells was effected via increased p27(Kip1) gene transcription through MT(1) receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) in parallel, a signaling process which has previously been demonstrated in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. Taken together, the demonstration of the MT(1)/PKA+PKC/p27(Kip1) antiproliferative pathway in benign and malignant prostate epithelial cell lines indicated the potential importance of this MLT receptor-mediated signaling mechanism in growth regulation of the human prostate gland in health and disease. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that MLT may function as a negative mitogenic hormonal regulator of human prostate epithelial cell growth.

  6. Dominant-Negative Mutants Identify a Role for Girk Channels in D3 Dopamine Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Spontaneous Secretory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.; Oxford, Gerry S.

    2000-01-01

    The human D3 dopamine receptor can activate G-protein–coupled inward rectifier potassium channels (GIRKs), inhibit P/Q-type calcium channels, and inhibit spontaneous secretory activity in AtT-20 neuroendocrine cells (Kuzhikandathil, E.V., W. Yu, and G.S. Oxford. 1998. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 12:390–402; Kuzhikandathil, E.V., and G.S. Oxford. 1999. J. Neurosci. 19:1698–1707). In this study, we evaluate the role of GIRKs in the D3 receptor-mediated inhibition of secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. The absence of selective blockers for GIRKs has precluded a direct test of the hypothesis that they play an important role in inhibiting secretory activity. However, the tetrameric structure of these channels provides a means of disrupting endogenous GIRK function using a dominant negative approach. To develop a dominant-negative GIRK mutant, the K+ selectivity amino acid sequence -GYG- in the putative pore domain of the human GIRK2 channels was mutated to -AAA-, -GLG-, or -GFG-. While the mutation of -GYG- to -GFG- did not affect channel function, both the -AAA- and -GLG- GIRK2 mutants were nonfunctional. This suggests that the aromatic ring of the tyrosine residue rather than its hydroxyl group is involved in maintaining the pore architecture of human GIRK2 channels. When expressed in AtT-20 cells, the nonfunctional AAA-GIRK2 and GLG-GIRK2 acted as effective dominant-negative mutants and significantly attenuated endogenous GIRK currents. Furthermore, these dominant-negative mutants interfered with the D3 receptor-mediated inhibition of secretion in AtT-20 cells, suggesting they are centrally involved in the signaling pathway of this secretory response. These results indicate that dominant-negative GIRK mutants are effective molecular tools to examine the role of GIRK channels in vivo. PMID:10828244

  7. Hormones in Synergy: Regulation of the Pituitary Gonadotropin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Thackray, Varykina G.; Mellon, Pamela L.; Coss, Djurdjica

    2009-01-01

    The precise interplay of hormonal influences that governs gonadotropin hormone production by the pituitary includes endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), activin and steroids. However, most studies of hormonal regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gonadotrope have been limited to analyses of the isolated actions of individual hormones. LHβ and FSHβ subunits have distinct patterns of expression during the menstrual/estrous cycle as a result of the integration of activin, GnRH, and steroid hormone action. In this review, we focus on studies that delineate the interplay among these hormones in the regulation of LHβ and FSHβ gene expression in gonadotrope cells and discuss how signaling cross-talk contributes to differential expression. We also discuss how recent technological advances will help identify additional factors involved in the differential hormonal regulation of LH and FSH. PMID:19747958

  8. Stress Hormones and their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    stimulation experiments, an animal’s hormonal and physiological response to a simulated stressor can be evaluated. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive...will determine baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluate the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin

  9. 5-HT1A receptor-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is modulated by regulator of G protein signaling protein 19.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Terauchi, Akiko; Yee, Christopher H; Umemori, Hisashi; Traynor, John R

    2014-09-01

    The 5-HT1A receptor is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that activates G proteins of the Gαi/o family. 5-HT1A receptors expressed in the raphe, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are implicated in the control of mood and are targets for anti-depressant drugs. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are members of a large family that play important roles in signal transduction downstream of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The main role of RGS proteins is to act as GTPase accelerating proteins (GAPs) to dampen or negatively regulate GPCR-mediated signaling. We have shown that a mouse expressing Gαi2 that is insensitive to all RGS protein GAP activity has an anti-depressant-like phenotype due to increased signaling of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, thus implicating the 5-HT1A receptor-Gαi2 complex as an important target. Here we confirm that RGS proteins act as GAPs to regulate signaling to adenylate cyclase and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of the 5-HT1A receptor, using RGS-insensitive Gαi2 protein expressed in C6 cells. We go on to use short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to show that RGS19 is responsible for the GAP activity in C6 cells and also that RGS19 acts as a GAP for 5-HT1A receptor signaling in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and primary hippocampal neurons. In addition, in both cell types the synergy between 5-HT1A receptor and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 in stimulating the MAPK pathway is enhanced following shRNA reduction of RGS19 expression. Thus RGS19 may be a viable new target for anti-depressant medications.

  10. Regulation of Toll-Like Receptors-Mediated Inflammation by Immunobiotics in Bovine Intestinal Epitheliocytes: Role of Signaling Pathways and Negative Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Villena, Julio; Aso, Hisashi; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) detect bacterial and viral associated molecular patterns via germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and are responsible for maintaining immune tolerance to the communities of resident commensal bacteria while being also capable to mount immune responses against pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a major class of PRRs expressed on IECs and immune cells, which are involved in the induction of both tolerance and inflammation. In the last decade, experimental and clinical evidence was generated to support the application of probiotics with immunoregulatory capacities (immunobiotics) for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders in which TLRs exert a significant role. The majority of these studies were performed in mouse and human cell lines, and despite the growing interest in the bovine immune system due to the economic importance of cattle as livestock, only few studies have been conducted on cattle. In this regard, our group has established a bovine intestinal epithelial (BIE) cell line originally derived from fetal bovine intestinal epitheliocytes and used this cell line to evaluate the impact of immunobiotics in TLR-mediated inflammation. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in the regulation of intestinal inflammation/infection in cattle. Especially, we discuss the role of TLRs and their negative regulators in both the inflammatory response and the beneficial effects of immunobiotics in bovine IECs. This review article emphasizes the cellular and molecular interactions of immunobiotics with BIE cells through TLRs and gives the scientific basis for the development of immunomodulatory feed for bovine healthy development. PMID:25228903

  11. THE BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA REGULATES ADAPTATION TO STRESS VIA β-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR-MEDIATED REDUCTIONS IN PHOSPHORYLATED EXTRACELLULAR SIGNAL-REGULATED KINASE

    PubMed Central

    Grissom, Nicola M.; Bhatnagar, Seema

    2011-01-01

    The reactivity of physiological systems and behavior to psychological stress is reduced with increasing familiarity with a repeated stressor. This reduced reactivity, termed habituation, is a crucial adaptation limiting negative health consequences of stress and can be disrupted in psychopathology. We hypothesized that the ability to habituate physiologically and behaviorally to previously experienced stressors depends on β-adrenergic receptor activation (β-AR) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a specific neural substrate important for the consolidation of multiple types of memories. We observed that administration of the β-AR antagonist propranolol into the BLA after each of 4 daily exposures to restraint stress prevented the normal development of neuroendocrine and behavioral habituation measured during the 5th restraint in adult male rats. In contrast, the β-AR agonist clenbuterol administered into the BLA after each restraint on days 1–4 enhanced neuroendocrine habituation at the lowest dose but attenuated behavioral habituation at high doses. We then explored intracellular signaling mechanisms in the BLA that might be a target of β–AR activation during stress. β–AR activation post restraint is necessary for the alteration in basal pERK levels, as daily post-stress β–AR blockade on days 1–4 prevented repeated stress from leading to decreased pERK in the BLA on day 5. Finally, we examined the effect of blocking ERK phosphorylation in the BLA after each restraint on days 1–4 with the MEK inhibitor U0126, and found that this was sufficient to both mimic neuroendocrine habituation in stress-naïve animals and to enhance it in repeatedly stressed animals during restraint on day 5. Together, the results suggest that an individual’s ability to habituate to repeated stress is regulated by activation of BLA β–AR, which may have these effects by transducing subsequent reductions in pERK. Individual variations in β–AR activation and

  12. Regulation of bone mass by growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Olney, Robert C

    2003-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone secreted from the pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. It has a many actions in the body, including regulating a number of metabolic pathways. Some, but not all, of its effects are mediated through insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Both GH and IGF-I play significant roles in the regulation of growth and bone metabolism and hence are regulators of bone mass. Bone mass increases steadily through childhood, peaking in the mid 20s. Subsequently, there is a slow decline that accelerates in late life. During childhood, the accumulation in bone mass is a combination of bone growth and bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is the process of new bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. GH directly and through IGF-I stimulates osteoblast proliferation and activity, promoting bone formation. It also stimulates osteoclast differentiation and activity, promoting bone resorption. The result is an increase in the overall rate of bone remodeling, with a net effect of bone accumulation. The absence of GH results in a reduced rate of bone remodeling and a gradual loss of bone mineral density. Bone growth primarily occurs at the epiphyseal growth plates and is the result of the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. GH has direct effects on these chondrocytes, but primarily regulates this function through IGF-I, which stimulates the proliferation of and matrix production by these cells. GH deficiency severely limits bone growth and hence the accumulation of bone mass. GH deficiency is not an uncommon complication in oncology and has long-term effects on bone health.

  13. The behavior of renal-regulating hormones during hypogravic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    The regulation of fluid and electrolyte behavior during space flight is believed to be under control, in large part, of a group of hormones which have their major effects on renal excretion. The hormones studied include renin-angitensin, aldosterone, and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The regulatory systems of these renal-regulating hormones as they act individually and in concert with each other are analyzed. The analysis is based on simulations of the mathematical model of Guyton. A generalized theory is described which accounts for both short-term and long-term behavior of this set of hormones.

  14. 1,2,5,6,9,10-αHexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) impairs thyroid hormone-induced dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells and suppresses thyroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Ibhazehiebo, Kingsley; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2011-03-01

    1,2,5,6,9,10-αHexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a nonaromatic, brominated cyclic alkane used as an additive flame retardant. It bioaccumulates, persists in the environment, and has been detected in humans and wildlife. Its developmental neurotoxicity is of great concern. We investigated the effect of HBCD on thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR)-mediated transcription using transient transfection-based reporter gene assays and found that a low-dose (10(-10) M) HBCD suppressed TR-mediated transcription. We further examined the effect of HBCD on interaction of TR with TH response element (TRE) and found a partial dissociation of TR from TRE. HBCD did not dissociate steroid receptor coactivator-1 from TR in the presence of TH; neither did it recruit corepressors (N-CoR and SMRT) to TR in the absence of TH. Furthermore, low-dose HBCD (10(-10) M) significantly suppressed TH-induced dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells in primary cerebellar culture derived from newborn rat. These results show that low-dose HBCD can potentially disrupt TR-mediated transactivation and impairs Purkinje cell dendritogenesis, suggesting that HBCD can interfere with TH action in target organs, including the developing brain.

  15. Homologous down-regulation of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Aleppo, G; Moskal, S F; De Grandis, P A; Kineman, R D; Frohman, L A

    1997-03-01

    adenylate cyclase. Forskolin (10 microM) significantly reduced GHRH-R mRNA concentrations (37 +/- 6% of control values) indicating that GHRH acts through the cAMP-second messenger system cascade to regulate GHRH-R mRNA. The somatostatin analogue, octreotide (10 nM), which has been previously reported to decrease adenylate cyclase activity, did not affect GHRH-R mRNA levels. Taken together, these results indicate that GHRH inhibits the production of its own receptor by a receptor-mediated, cAMP-dependent reduction of GHRH-R mRNA accumulation.

  16. Regulation of the Immune System by Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    AD-All? 395 REGULATION OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM DY HYPOTHALAMIC 1/1 RELEASING HORMONES (U) TEXAS UNIV MEDICAL BRANCH AT GALVESTON E M SMITH S1 NOV 6? fW...441F004 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) Regulation of the Immune System by Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Eric M. Smith...34Hypothalamic releasing hormones , stress, immune system,. L08 ACTH, endorphins, corticosteroids, monokines, neuroimmunomodulation *’" . - " - 19 ABSTRACT

  17. Inhibin-non-steroidal regulation of follicle stimulating hormone secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, H.G.; Findlay, J.K. ); de Kretser, D.M. ); Igarashi, M. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of inhibin non-steroidal regulation of follicle stimulating hormone secretion. Topics covered include: FSH regulation, Molecular biology, Radioimmunoassay, Physiology - Testocular inhibin, Physiology - ovarian inhibin, and local actions.

  18. Prostanoid EP1 receptors mediate up-regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 by cAMP-independent activation of protein kinase A, CREB and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Ji, R; Sanchez, CM; Chou, CL; Chen, XB; Woodward, DF; Regan, JW

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulation of the G protein-coupled prostanoid EP1 receptor was found to up-regulate the expression of Nur-related factor 1 (Nurr1) (NR4A2), a transcription factor in the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors. The present studies characterize the molecular mechanism of this up-regulation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The expression of Nurr1 was examined by immunoblot analysis, the polymerase chain reaction and reporter gene assays in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells stably expressing the recombinant EP1 receptor and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells expressing endogenous EP1 receptors. Signalling pathway inhibitors were used to examine the roles of Rho, PKA, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and NF-κB on the PGE2 stimulated up-regulation of Nurr1. CREB and NF-κB signalling were also examined by immunoblot analysis and reporter gene assays. KEY RESULTS The EP1 receptor mediated up-regulation of Nurr1 was blocked with inhibitors of Rho, PKA, NF-κB and CREB; but PGE2 failed to significantly stimulate intracellular cAMP formation. PGE2 stimulation of the EP1 receptor induced the phosphorylation and activation of CREB and NF-κB, which could be blocked by inhibition of PKA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS PGE2 stimulation of the human EP1 receptor up-regulates the expression of Nurr1 by a mechanism involving the sequential activation of the Rho, PKA, CREB and NF-κB signalling pathways. EP1 receptors are implicated in tumorigenesis and the up-regulation of Nurr1 may underlie the anti-apoptotic effects of PGE2. PMID:22188298

  19. Prostanoid EP₁ receptors mediate up-regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 by cAMP-independent activation of protein kinase A, CREB and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Ji, R; Sanchez, C M; Chou, C L; Chen, X B; Woodward, D F; Regan, J W

    2012-06-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) stimulation of the G protein-coupled prostanoid EP(1) receptor was found to up-regulate the expression of Nur-related factor 1 (Nurr1) (NR4A2), a transcription factor in the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors. The present studies characterize the molecular mechanism of this up-regulation. The expression of Nurr1 was examined by immunoblot analysis, the polymerase chain reaction and reporter gene assays in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells stably expressing the recombinant EP(1) receptor and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells expressing endogenous EP(1) receptors. Signalling pathway inhibitors were used to examine the roles of Rho, PKA, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and NF-κB on the PGE(2) stimulated up-regulation of Nurr1. CREB and NF-κB signalling were also examined by immunoblot analysis and reporter gene assays. The EP(1) receptor mediated up-regulation of Nurr1 was blocked with inhibitors of Rho, PKA, NF-κB and CREB; but PGE(2) failed to significantly stimulate intracellular cAMP formation. PGE(2) stimulation of the EP1 receptor induced the phosphorylation and activation of CREB and NF-κB, which could be blocked by inhibition of PKA. PGE(2) stimulation of the human EP(1) receptor up-regulates the expression of Nurr1 by a mechanism involving the sequential activation of the Rho, PKA, CREB and NF-κB signalling pathways. EP(1) receptors are implicated in tumorigenesis and the up-regulation of Nurr1 may underlie the anti-apoptotic effects of PGE(2) . © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. NEURONAL ACTIVITY AND STRESS DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATE HIPPOCAMPAL AND HYPOTHALAMIC CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE EXPRESSION IN THE IMMATURE RAT

    PubMed Central

    HATALSKI, C. G.; BRUNSON, K. L.; TANTAYANUBUTR, B.; CHEN, Y.; BARAM, T. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone, a major neuromodulator of the neuroendocrine stress response, is expressed in the immature hippocampus, where it enhances glutamate receptor-mediated excitation of principal cells. Since the peptide influences hippocampal synaptic efficacy, its secretion from peptidergic interneuronal terminals may augment hippocampal-mediated functions such as learning and memory. However, whereas information regarding the regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone’s abundance in CNS regions involved with the neuroendocrine responses to stress has been forthcoming, the mechanisms regulating the peptide’s levels in the hippocampus have not yet been determined. Here we tested the hypothesis that, in the immature rat hippocampus, neuronal stimulation, rather than neuroendocrine challenge, influences the peptide’s expression. Messenger RNA levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone in hippocampal CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus, as well as in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, were determined after cold, a physiological challenge that activates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system in immature rats, and after activation of hippocampal neurons by hyperthermia. These studies demonstrated that, while cold challenge enhanced corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger RNA levels in the hypothalamus, hippocampal expression of this neuropeptide was unchanged. Secondly, hyperthermia stimulated expression of hippocampal immediate-early genes, as well as of corticotropin-releasing hormone. Finally, the mechanism of hippocampal corticotropin-releasing hormone induction required neuronal stimulation and was abolished by barbiturate administration. Taken together, these results indicate that neuronal stimulation may regulate hippocampal corticotropin-releasing hormone expression in the immature rat, whereas the peptide’s expression in the hypothalamus is influenced by neuroendocrine challenges. PMID:11113306

  1. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on glycemic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Manuel E.; Alfaro, Andrea A.

    2014-01-01

    A number of side effects have been linked to the use of hormonal contraceptives, among others, alterations in glucose levels. Hence, the objective of this mini-review is to show the main effects of hormonal contraceptive intake on glycemic regulation. First, the most relevant studies on this topic are described, then the mechanisms that might be accountable for this glycemic regulation impairment as exerted by hormonal contraceptives are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss the ethical responsibility of health professionals to inform about the potential risks on glycemic homeostasis regarding hormonal contraceptive intake. PMID:25249703

  2. Juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Juvenile hormone (JH) has been demonstrated to control adult lifespan in a number of non-model insects where surgical removal of the corpora allata eliminates the hormone’s source. In contrast, little is known about how juvenile hormone affects adult Drosophila melanogaster. Previous work suggests that insulin signaling may modulate Drosophila aging in part through its impact on juvenile hormone titer, but no data yet address whether reduction of juvenile hormone is sufficient to control Drosophila life span. Here we adapt a genetic approach to knock out the corpora allata in adult Drosophila melanogaster and characterize adult life history phenotypes produced by reduction of juvenile hormone. With this system we test potential explanations for how juvenile hormone modulates aging. Results A tissue specific driver inducing an inhibitor of a protein phosphatase was used to ablate the corpora allata while permitting normal development of adult flies. Corpora allata knockout adults had greatly reduced fecundity, inhibited oogenesis, impaired adult fat body development and extended lifespan. Treating these adults with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene restored all traits toward wildtype. Knockout females remained relatively long-lived even when crossed into a genotype that blocked all egg production. Dietary restriction further extended the lifespan of knockout females. In an analysis of expression profiles of knockout females in fertile and sterile backgrounds, about 100 genes changed in response to loss of juvenile hormone independent of reproductive state. Conclusions Reduced juvenile hormone alone is sufficient to extend the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. Reduced juvenile hormone limits reproduction by inhibiting the production of yolked eggs, and this may arise because juvenile hormone is required for the post-eclosion development of the vitellogenin-producing adult fat body. Our data do not support a mechanism for juvenile hormone control

  3. Cross-talk between LPA1 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors Mediates Up-regulation of Sphingosine Kinase 1 to Promote Gastric Cancer Cell Motility and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Shida, Dai; Fang, Xianjun; Kordula, Tomasz; Takabe, Kazuaki; Lépine, Sandrine; Alvarez, Sergio E.; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are lysophospholipid mediators of diverse cellular processes important for cancer progression. S1P is produced by two sphingosine kinases, SphK1 and SphK2. Expression of SphK1 is elevated in many cancers. Here, we report that LPA markedly enhanced SphK1 mRNA and protein in gastric cancer MKN1 cells but had no effect on SphK2. LPA also up-regulated SphK1 expression in other human cancer cells that endogenously express the LPA1 receptor, such as DLD1 colon cancer cells and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, but not in HT29 colon cancer cells or MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells, which do not express the LPA1 receptor. An LPA1 receptor antagonist or down-regulation of its expression prevented SphK1 and S1P3 receptor up-regulation by LPA. LPA transactivated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in these cells, and the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 attenuated the increased SphK1 and S1P3 expression induced by LPA. Moreover, down-regulation of SphK1 attenuated LPA-stimulated migration and invasion of MNK1 cells yet had no effect on expression of neovascularizing factors, such as interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), or uPA receptor induced by LPA. Finally, down-regulation of S1P3, but not S1P1, also reduced LPA-stimulated migration and invasion of MKN1 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that SphK1 is a convergence point of multiple cell surface receptors for three different ligands, LPA, EGF, and S1P, which have all been implicated in regulation of motility and invasiveness of cancer cells. PMID:18701480

  4. The GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Exendin-4 and Diazepam Differentially Regulate GABAA Receptor-Mediated Tonic Currents in Rat Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Korol, Sergiy V.; Jin, Zhe; Birnir, Bryndis

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a metabolic hormone that is secreted in a glucose-dependent manner and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 receptors are also found in the brain where their signalling affects neuronal activity. We have previously shown that the GLP-1 receptor agonists, GLP-1 and exendin-4 enhanced GABA-activated synaptic and tonic currents in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. The hippocampus is the centre for memory and learning and is important for cognition. Here we examined if exendin-4 similarly enhanced the GABA-activated currents in the presence of the benzodiazepine diazepam. In whole-cell recordings in rat brain slices, diazepam (1 μM), an allosteric positive modulator of GABAA receptors, alone enhanced the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) amplitude and frequency by a factor of 1.3 and 1.6, respectively, and doubled the tonic GABAA current normally recorded in the CA3 pyramidal cells. Importantly, in the presence of exendin-4 (10 nM) plus diazepam (1 μM), only the tonic but not the sIPSC currents transiently increased as compared to currents recorded in the presence of diazepam alone. The results suggest that exendin-4 potentiates a subpopulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors in the CA3 pyramidal neurons. PMID:25927918

  5. Role of leptin signaling in hemato-vascular development and niche function: Leptin receptor-mediated signaling regulates LT-HSC homeostasis in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Homeostatic functioning of the cardiovascular and hematopoietic systems is known to be interdependent and strongly influenced by the microenvironment in which hemato-vascular cells develop and reside. The role of nutrition and metabolism as regulable and dynamic extracellular cues however, remains a...

  6. Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Its Own Inactivating Enzyme, 15-PGDH, by EP2 Receptor-Mediated Cervical Cell-Specific Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, A. Hari; Owens, David

    2014-01-01

    Context: Prostaglandins play important roles in parturition and have been used to induce cervical ripening and labor. Prior to cervical ripening at term, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is highly expressed in the cervix and metabolizes cyclooxygenase-2-mediated increases in active prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to inactive 15-keto PGE2. At term, 15-PGDH gene expression decreases and PGE2 accumulates, leading to cervical ripening and labor. Previously, we found that the cervical isoform of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF-CX) serves as a progestational transcription factor that represses IL-8 and hypoxia-mediated increases in cyclooxygenase-2. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that PGE2 regulates its own inactivation through MiTF-CX. Design: We used human cervical stromal cells to investigate the regulation of 15-PGDH. Setting: This was a laboratory-based study using cells from clinical tissue samples. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated the mechanisms by which PGE2 regulates 15-PGDH in human cervical stromal cells. Results: PGE2 repressed MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH, whereas ectopic overexpression of MiTF-CX induced 15-PGDH expression levels. Stabilization of HIF-1α by deferoxamine resulted in concomitant down-regulation of MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH. Ectopic overexpression of MiTF-CX abrogated PGE2- and deferoxamine-mediated loss of MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH. PGE2-induced loss of MiTF-CX and 15-PGDH was mediated through prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP2) receptors (PTGER2), but not cAMP. Conclusions: The 15-PGDH gene is a MiTF-CX target gene in cervical stromal cells and is down-regulated by PGE2 through EP2 receptors. The findings suggest that EP2 receptor-specific antagonists may be used as an adjunct to present clinical management for the prevention of preterm cervical ripening and preterm labor. PMID:24471568

  7. Regulation of Class A scavenger receptor-mediated cell adhesion and surface localization by PI3K: identification of a regulatory cytoplasmic motif

    PubMed Central

    Cholewa, Jill; Nikolic, Dejan; Post, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of cytoplasmic motifs in differentially regulating SR-A function was demonstrated by deleting the first 49 cytoplasmic aa (SR-AΔ1–49), which abolished SR-A-mediated ligand internalization without reducing cell adhesion. To identify additional cytoplasmic motifs within the first 49 aa that regulate SR-A function, the acidic residues in a conserved motif (EDAD) were changed to their amide derivatives (SR-AQNAN). The function and regulation of SR-AQNAN were compared with that of SR-AΔ1–49 and SR-A in transfected HEK-293 cells. Blocking PI3K activation inhibited SR-A, but not SR-AΔ1–49- or SR-AQNAN-mediated cell adhesion. Although deleting (SR-AΔ1–49) or mutating (SR-AQNAN) the EDAD motif abolished the PI3K sensitivity of SR-A-mediated cell adhesion, these mutations did not affect ligand internalization or PI3K activation during cell adhesion. To define the mechanism by which PI3K regulates SR-A-mediated cell adhesion, the cellular localization of wild-type and mutant SR-A was examined. PI3K inhibition reduced surface localization of SR-A but not of SR-AΔ1–49 or SR-AQNAN. The regulation of SR-A surface localization by PI3K was confirmed in peritoneal macrophages, which endogenously express SR-A. Together, these results suggest a pathway in which SR-A binding to an immobilized ligand activates PI3K to recruit more receptor to the plasma membrane and enhances cell adhesion. PMID:19952357

  8. A Pivotal Role of DELLAs in Regulating Multiple Hormone Signals.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Achard, Patrick

    2016-01-04

    Plant phenotypic plasticity is controlled by diverse hormone pathways, which integrate and convey information from multiple developmental and environmental signals. Moreover, in plants many processes such as growth, development, and defense are regulated in similar ways by multiple hormones. Among them, gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones with pleiotropic actions, regulating various growth processes throughout the plant life cycle. Previous work has revealed extensive interplay between GAs and other hormones, but the molecular mechanism became apparent only recently. Molecular and physiological studies have demonstrated that DELLA proteins, considered as master negative regulators of GA signaling, integrate multiple hormone signaling pathways through physical interactions with transcription factors or regulatory proteins from different families. In this review, we summarize the latest progress in GA signaling and its direct crosstalk with the main phytohormone signaling, emphasizing the multifaceted role of DELLA proteins with key components of major hormone signaling pathways.

  9. Cocaine-induced synaptic structural modification is differentially regulated by dopamine D1 and D3 receptors-mediated signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Huang, Lu; Lu, Kangrong; Liu, Yutong; Tu, Genghong; Zhu, Mengjuan; Ying, Li; Zhao, Jinlan; Liu, N; Guo, Fukun; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Lu

    2016-10-12

    Synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in cocaine addiction. The dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially regulate the cocaine-induced gene expression, structural remodeling and behavioral response. However, how these two receptors coordinately mediate the ultra-structural changes of synapses after cocaine exposure and whether these changes are behaviorally relevant are still not clear. Here, using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that D1 and D3 receptors have distinct roles in regulating cocaine-induced ultra-structural changes of synapses in the nucleus accumbens and caudoputamen. Pre-treatment of cocaine-treated mice with D3 receptor antagonist NGB2904 resulted in an increase in the ratio of total and asymmetric synapse to neuron and in the length of postsynaptic densities, compared with cocaine treatment alone. In contrast, pre-treatment of cocaine-treated mice with D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 caused a reduction in synapse-to-neuron ratio and in postsynaptic densities length. Similarly, NGB2904 and SCH23390 showed opposite/differential effects on cocaine-induced structural plasticity, conditioned place preference and locomotor activity and signaling activation, including the activation of ERK, CREB and NR1 and the expression of c-fos and Cdk5. Therefore, we provide direct electron microscopy evidence that dopamine D1 and D3 receptors reciprocally regulate the ultra-structural changes of synapses following chronic exposure to cocaine. In addition, our data suggest that D1 and D3 receptors may regulate cocaine-induced ultra-structural changes and behavior responses by impact on structural plasticity and signaling transduction. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors up-regulate LL-37 expression independent of toll-like receptor mediated signalling in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Liu, Juan; Roschmann, Kristina Irene Lisolette; van Egmond, Danielle; Golebski, Korneliusz; Fokkens, Wytske Johanna; Wang, Dehui; van Drunen, Cornelis Maria

    2013-04-11

    HDAC inhibitors have been proposed as anticancer agents. However, their roles in innate genes expression remain not well known. Cathelicidin LL-37 is one of the few human bactericidal peptides, but the regulation of histone acetylation on LL-37 expression in airway epithelium remains largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of two non-selective HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (SB), on the expression of the cathelicidin LL-37 in human airway epithelial cells. LL37 in human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells and the primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells(PNEC) in response to HDAC inhibitors with or without poly (I:C) stimulation was assessed using real-time PCR and western blot. In parallel, IL-6 expression was evaluated by ELISA. Our results showed that HDAC inhibitors up-regulated LL-37 gene expression independent of poly (I:C) stimulation in PNEC as well as in NCI-H292 cells. HDAC inhibitors increased LL37 protein expression in NCI-H292 cells but not in PNEC. In addition, HDAC inhibitors significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced IL-6 production in both of the epithelial cells. In conclusion, HDAC inhibitors directly up-regulated LL-37 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells.

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitors up-regulate LL-37 expression independent of toll-like receptor mediated signalling in airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors have been proposed as anticancer agents. However, their roles in innate genes expression remain not well known. Cathelicidin LL-37 is one of the few human bactericidal peptides, but the regulation of histone acetylation on LL-37 expression in airway epithelium remains largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of two non-selective HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (SB), on the expression of the cathelicidin LL-37 in human airway epithelial cells. LL37 in human NCI-H292 airway epithelial cells and the primary cultures of normal nasal epithelial cells(PNEC) in response to HDAC inhibitors with or without poly (I:C) stimulation was assessed using real-time PCR and western blot. In parallel, IL-6 expression was evaluated by ELISA. Our results showed that HDAC inhibitors up-regulated LL-37 gene expression independent of poly (I:C) stimulation in PNEC as well as in NCI-H292 cells. HDAC inhibitors increased LL37 protein expression in NCI-H292 cells but not in PNEC. In addition, HDAC inhibitors significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced IL-6 production in both of the epithelial cells. In conclusion, HDAC inhibitors directly up-regulated LL-37 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:23577829

  12. Increased a-series gangliosides positively regulate leptin/Ob receptor-mediated signals in hypothalamus of GD3 synthase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shuting; Tokizane, Kyohei; Ohkawa, Yuki; Ohmi, Yuhsuke; Banno, Ryoichi; Okajima, Tetsuya; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Koichi; Furukawa, Keiko

    2016-10-21

    Gangliosides are widely involved in the regulation of cells and organs. However, little is known about their roles in adipose tissues and hypothalamus. In GD3 synthase-knockout (GD3S KO) mice, deletion of b-series gangliosides resulted in the reduction of serum leptin due to disturbed secretion from adipocytes. To examine whether leptin signals altered, leptin/leptin receptor (ObR)-mediated signaling in hypothalamus was analyzed. Hypothalamus of GD3S KO mouse showed increased expression of GM1 and GD1a, and increased activation of ObR-mediated signals such as pSTAT3 and c-Fos. Leptin stimulation of hypothalamus-derived N-41 cells and their transfectants with GD3S cDNA showed that a-series gangliosides positively regulate leptin/ObR-mediated signals. Co-precipitation analysis revealed that ObR interacts with a-series gangliosides with increased association by leptin stimulation. In brown adipose tissues (BAT) of GD3S KO mice, their weights and adipocyte numbers were increased, and BAT markers such as PGC1α and UCP-1 were also up-regulated. These results suggested that leptin/ObRb-mediated signals were enhanced in hypothalamus of GD3S KO mice due to increased a-series gangliosides, leading to the apparently similar features of energy expenditure between the KO and wild type mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin ...understanding of how the stress response operates in marine mammals by evaluating markers of stress in a captive dolphin population. This research effort will...determine baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluate the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor mediated proliferation depends on increased lipid droplet density regulated via a negative regulatory loop with FOXO3/Sirtuin6

    SciTech Connect

    Penrose, Harrison; Heller, Sandra; Cable, Chloe; Makboul, Rania; Chadalawada, Gita; Chen, Ying; Crawford, Susan E.; Savkovic, Suzana D.

    2016-01-15

    The proliferation of colon cancer cells is mediated in part by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and requires sustained levels of cellular energy to meet its high metabolic needs. Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) are a source of energy used for various cellular functions and they are elevated in density in human cancer, yet their regulation and function are not well understood. Here, in human colon cancer cells, EGF stimulates increases in LD density, which depends on EGFR expression and activation as well as the individual cellular capacity for lipid synthesis. Increases in LDs are blockaded by inhibition of PI3K/mTOR and PGE2 synthesis, supporting their dependency on select upstream pathways. In colon cancer cells, silencing of the FOXO3 transcription factor leads to down regulation of SIRT6, a negative regulator of lipid synthesis, and consequent increases in the LD coat protein PLIN2, revealing that increases in LDs depend on loss of FOXO3/SIRT6. Moreover, EGF stimulates loss of FOXO3/SIRT6, which is blockaded by the inhibition of upstream pathways as well as lipid synthesis, revealing existence of a negative regulatory loop between LDs and FOXO3/SIRT6. Elevated LDs are utilized by EGF treatment and their depletion through the inhibition of lipid synthesis or silencing of PLIN2 significantly attenuates proliferation. This novel mechanism of proliferative EGFR signaling leading to elevated LD density in colon cancer cells could potentially be therapeutically targeted for the treatment of tumor progression. - Highlights: • In colon cancer cells, EGFR activation leads to increases in LD density. • EGFR signaling includes PI3K/mTOR and PGE2 leading to lipid synthesis. • Increases in LDs are controlled by a negative regulatory loop with FOXO3/SIRT6. • EGFR mediated colon cancer cell proliferation depends on increased LD density.

  15. Up-regulation and activation of the P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor mediate neurite extension in IL-1β-treated mouse primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Troy S; Thebeau, Christina N; Ajit, Deepa; Camden, Jean M; Woods, Lucas T; Wood, W Gibson; Petris, Michael J; Sun, Grace Y; Erb, Laurie; Weisman, Gary A

    2013-06-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), whose levels are elevated in the brain in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases, has been shown to have both detrimental and beneficial effects on disease progression. In this article, we demonstrate that incubation of mouse primary cortical neurons (mPCNs) with IL-1β increases the expression of the P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) and that activation of the up-regulated receptor with UTP, a relatively selective agonist of the P2Y2R, increases neurite outgrowth. Consistent with the accepted role of cofilin in the regulation of neurite extension, results indicate that incubation of IL-1β-treated mPCNs with UTP increases the phosphorylation of cofilin, a response absent in PCNs isolated from P2Y2R(-/-) mice. Other findings indicate that function-blocking anti-αv β3/5 integrin antibodies prevent UTP-induced cofilin activation in IL-1β-treated mPCNs, suggesting that established P2Y2R/αv β3/5 interactions that promote G12 -dependent Rho activation lead to cofilin phosphorylation involved in neurite extension. Cofilin phosphorylation induced by UTP in IL-1β-treated mPCNs is also decreased by inhibitors of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), suggesting a role for P2Y2R-mediated and Gq-dependent calcium mobilization in neurite outgrowth. Taken together, these studies indicate that up-regulation of P2Y2Rs in mPCNs under pro-inflammatory conditions can promote cofilin-dependent neurite outgrowth, a neuroprotective response that may be a novel pharmacological target in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  16. Enzyme action in the regulation of plant hormone responses.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Corey S; Muehler, Ashley M; Jez, Joseph M

    2013-07-05

    Plants synthesize a chemically diverse range of hormones that regulate growth, development, and responses to environmental stresses. The major classes of plant hormones are specialized metabolites with exquisitely tailored perception and signaling systems, but equally important are the enzymes that control the dose and exposure to the bioactive forms of these molecules. Here, we review new insights into the role of enzyme families, including the SABATH methyltransferases, the methylesterases, the GH3 acyl acid-amido synthetases, and the hormone peptidyl hydrolases, in controlling the biosynthesis and modifications of plant hormones and how these enzymes contribute to the network of chemical signals responsible for plant growth, development, and environmental adaptation.

  17. Activity-dependent bidirectional regulation of GABAA receptor channels by the 5-HT4 receptor-mediated signalling in rat prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiang; Flores-Hernandez, Jorge; Feng, Jian; Yan, Zhen

    2002-01-01

    Emerging evidence has implicated a potential role for 5-HT4 receptors in cognition and anxiolysis. One of the main target structures of 5-HT4 receptors on ‘cognitive and emotional’ pathways is the prefrontal cortex (PFC). As GABAergic signalling plays a key role in regulating PFC functions, we examined the effect of 5-HT4 receptors on GABAA receptor channels in PFC pyramidal neurons. Application of 5-HT4 receptor agonists produced either an enhancement or a reduction of GABA-evoked currents in PFC neurons, which are both mediated by anchored protein kinase A (PKA). Although PKA phosphorylation of GABAA receptor β3 or β1 subunits leads to current enhancement or reduction respectively in heterologous expression systems, we found that β3 and β1 subunits are co-expressed in PFC pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, altering PKA activation levels can change the direction of the dual effect, switching enhancement to reduction and vice versa. In addition, increased neuronal activity in PFC slices elevated the PKA activation level, changing the enhancing effect of 5-HT4 receptors on the amplitude of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) to a reduction. These results suggest that 5-HT4 receptors can modulate GABAergic signalling bidirectionally, depending on the basal PKA activation levels that are determined by neuronal activity. This modulation provides a unique and flexible mechanism for 5-HT4 receptors to dynamically regulate synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in the PFC network. PMID:11986365

  18. The Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase negatively regulates Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis through immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing phagocytic receptors.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Koji; Malykhin, Alexander; Coggeshall, K Mark

    2002-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms by which the Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP) negatively regulates phagocytosis in macrophages are unclear. We addressed the issue using bone marrow-derived macrophages from FcgammaR- or SHIP-deficient mice. Phagocytic activities of macrophages from FcgammaRII(b)(-/-) and SHIP(-/-) mice were enhanced to a similar extent, relative to those from wild type. However, calcium influx was only marginally affected in FcgammaRII(b)(-/-), but greatly enhanced in SHIP(-/-) macrophages. Furthermore, SHIP was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon FcgammaR aggregation even in macrophages from FcgammaRII(b)(-/-) mice or upon clustering of a chimeric receptor containing CD8 and the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing gamma-chain or human-restricted FcgammaRIIa. These findings indicate that, unlike B cells, SHIP is efficiently phosphorylated in the absence of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM)-bearing receptor. We further demonstrate that SHIP directly bound to phosphorylated peptides derived from FcgammaRIIa with a high affinity, comparable to that of FcgammaRII(b). Lastly, FcgammaRIIa-mediated phagocytosis was significantly enhanced in THP-1 cells overexpressing dominant-negative form of SHIP in the absence of FcgammaRII(b). These results indicate that SHIP negatively regulates FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis through all ITAM-containing IgG receptors using a molecular mechanism distinct from that in B cells.

  19. Integrin alpha1beta1 controls reactive oxygen species synthesis by negatively regulating epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated Rac activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiwu; Abair, Tristin D; Ibanez, Maria R; Su, Yan; Frey, Mark R; Dise, Rebecca S; Polk, D Brent; Singh, Amar B; Harris, Raymond C; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2007-05-01

    Integrins control many cell functions, including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulation of collagen synthesis. Mesangial cells, found in the glomerulus of the kidney, are able to produce large amounts of ROS via the NADPH oxidase. We previously demonstrated that integrin alpha1-null mice develop worse fibrosis than wild-type mice following glomerular injury and this is due, in part, to excessive ROS production by alpha1-null mesangial cells. In the present studies, we describe the mechanism whereby integrin alpha1-null mesangial cells produce excessive ROS. Integrin alpha1-null mesangial cells have constitutively increased basal levels of activated Rac1, which result in its increased translocation to the cell membrane, excessive ROS production, and consequent collagen IV deposition. Basal Rac1 activation is a direct consequence of ligand-independent increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation in alpha1-null mesangial cells. Thus, our study demonstrates that integrin alpha1beta1-EGFR cross talk is a key step in negatively regulating Rac1 activation, ROS production, and excessive collagen synthesis, which is a hallmark of diseases characterized by irreversible fibrosis.

  20. cAMP-mediated beta-adrenergic signaling negatively regulates Gq-coupled receptor-mediated fetal gene response in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Patrizio, Mario; Vago, Valerio; Musumeci, Marco; Fecchi, Katia; Sposi, Nadia Maria; Mattei, Elisabetta; Catalano, Liviana; Stati, Tonino; Marano, Giuseppe

    2008-12-01

    The treatment with beta-blockers causes an enhancement of the norepinephrine-induced fetal gene response in cultured cardiomyocytes. Here, we tested whether the activation of cAMP-mediated beta-adrenergic signaling antagonizes alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated fetal gene response. To address this question, the fetal gene program, of which atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the beta-isoform of myosin heavy chain are classical members, was induced by phenylephrine (PE), an alpha(1)-AR agonist. In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, we found that stimulation of beta-ARs with isoproterenol, a beta-AR agonist, inhibited the fetal gene expression induced by PE. Similar results were also observed when cardiomyocytes were treated with forskolin (FSK), a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase, or 8-CPT-6-Phe-cAMP, a selective activator of protein kinase A (PKA). Conversely, the PE-induced fetal gene expression was further upregulated by H89, a selective PKA inhibitor. To evaluate whether these results could be generalized to Gq-mediated signaling and not specifically to alpha(1)-ARs, cardiomyocytes were treated with prostaglandin F(2)alpha, another Gq-coupled receptor agonist, which is able to promote fetal gene expression. This treatment caused an increase of both ANP mRNA and protein levels, which was almost completely abolished by FSK treatment. The capability of beta-adrenergic signaling to regulate the fetal gene expression was also evaluated in vivo conditions by using beta1- and beta2-AR double knockout mice, in which the predominant cardiac beta-AR subtypes are lacking, or by administering isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-AR agonist, at a subpressor dose. A significant increase of the fetal gene expression was found in beta(1)- and beta(2)-AR gene deficient mice. Conversely, we found that ANP, beta-MHC and skACT mRNA levels were significantly decreased in ISO-treated hearts. Collectively, these data indicate that cAMP-mediated beta-adrenergic signaling

  1. Mechanistic insight into nuclear receptor-mediated regulation of bile acid metabolism and lipid homeostasis by grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE).

    PubMed

    Downing, Laura E; Edgar, Daniel; Ellison, Patricia A; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2017-01-01

    Dietary procyanidins have emerged as important bioactive components that regulate various metabolic pathways to maintain homeostasis. Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE), in particular, has demonstrated regulatory effects on bile acid and lipid metabolism in vivo. While numerous studies in rodent models have shown the potent hypolipidemic action of grape seed extracts, human studies have shown inconsistent results. This review will focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the hypolipidemic actions of GSPE identified to date, specifically highlighting the effects exerted via nuclear receptors. Such evidence may provide avenues for future research in human subjects with GSPE as a therapeutic treatment for the prevention and amelioration of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Egr-1 is a critical regulator of EGF-receptor-mediated expansion of subventricular zone neural stem cells and progenitors during recovery from hypoxia–hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, Dhivyaa; Balan, Murugabaskar; Jiang, Yuhui; Cohen, Rachel B.; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Levison, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    We recently established that the EGF-R (epidermal growth factor receptor) (EGF-R) is an essential regulator of the reactive expansion of SVZ (subventricular zone) NPs (neural precursors) that occurs during recovery from hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The purpose of the current studies was to identify the conditions and the transcription factor (s) responsible for inducing the EGF-R. Here, we show that the increase in EGF-R expression and the more rapid division of the NPs can be recapitulated in in vitro by exposing SVZ NPs to hypoxia and hypoglycemia simultaneously, but not separately. The EGF-R promoter has binding sites for multiple transcription factors that includes the zinc finger transcription factor, Egr-1. We show that Egr-1 expression increases in NPs, but not astrocytes, following hypoxia and hypoglycemia where it accumulates in the nucleus. To determine whether Egr-1 is necessary for EGF-R expression, we used SiRNAs (small interfering RNA) specific for Egr-1 to decrease Egr-1 expression. Knocking-down Egr-1 decreased basal levels of EGF-R and it abolished the stress-induced increase in EGF-R expression. By contrast, HIF-1 accumulation did not contribute to EGF-R expression and FGF-2 only modestly induced EGF-R. These studies establish a new role for Egr-1 in regulating the expression of the mitogenic EGF-R. They also provide new information into mechanisms that promote NP expansion and provide insights into strategies for amplifying the numbers of stem cells for CNS (central nervous system) regeneration. PMID:23763269

  3. Role of constitutive androstane receptor in Toll-like receptor-mediated regulation of gene expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pranav; Guo, Tao; Moore, David D; Ghose, Romi

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of drug disposition in the liver during inflammation has been attributed to downregulation of gene expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters. Inflammatory responses in the liver are primarily mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have recently shown that activation of TLR2 or TLR4 by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, leads to the downregulation of gene expression of DMEs/transporters. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this downregulation is not fully understood. The xenobiotic nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), regulate the expression of DMEs/transporter genes. Downregulation of DMEs/transporters by LTA or LPS was associated with reduced expression of PXR and CAR genes. To determine the role of CAR, we injected CAR(+/+) and CAR(-/-) mice with LTA or LPS, which significantly downregulated (~40%-60%) RNA levels of the DMEs, cytochrome P450 (Cyp)3a11, Cyp2a4, Cyp2b10, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1a1, amine N-sulfotransferase, and the transporter, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, in CAR(+/+) mice. Suppression of most of these genes was attenuated in LTA-treated CAR(-/-) mice. In contrast, LPS-mediated downregulation of these genes was not attenuated in CAR(-/-) mice. Induction of these genes by mouse CAR activator 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene was sustained in LTA- but not in LPS-treated mice. Similar observations were obtained in humanized CAR mice. We have replicated these results in primary hepatocytes as well. Thus, LPS can downregulate DME/transporter genes in the absence of CAR, whereas the effect of LTA on these genes is attenuated in the absence of CAR, indicating the potential involvement of CAR in LTA-mediated downregulation of DME/transporter genes.

  4. A Carma1/MALT1-dependent, Bcl10-independent, pathway regulates antigen receptor-mediated mTOR signaling in T cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Kristia S.; Phong, Binh; Corey, Catherine; Cheng, Jing; Gorentla, Balachandra; Zhong, Xiaoping; Shiva, Sruti; Kane, Lawrence P.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling to the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates diverse cellular processes, including protein translation, cellular proliferation, metabolism, and autophagy. These effects are mediated in part by the mTOR targets S6 kinase (S6K) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Most models place Akt upstream of the best-studied mTOR complex, mTORC1; however, studies have called into question whether Akt is necessary for this pathway, at least in T cells. We found that the adaptor protein Carma1 [caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing membrane-associated protein 1 (Carma1)] and at least one of its associated proteins, the paracaspase MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1), were required for optimal activation of mTOR in T cells in response to stimulation of the T cell receptor (TCR) and the coreceptor CD28. However, another common binding partner of Carma1 and MALT1, Bcl10, was not required for TCR-dependent activation of the mTOR pathway. Consistent with these findings, MALT1 activity was required for the proliferation of CD4+ T cells, but not early TCR-dependent activation events. Also consistent with an effect on mTOR, MALT1 activity was required for the increased metabolic flux in activated CD4+ T cells. Together, our data suggest that Carma1 and MALT1 play previously unappreciated roles in the activation of mTOR signaling in T cells after engagement of the TCR. PMID:24917592

  5. Human degenerative valve disease is associated with up-regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 receptor-mediated bone formation.

    PubMed

    Caira, Frank C; Stock, Stuart R; Gleason, Thomas G; McGee, Edwin C; Huang, Jie; Bonow, Robert O; Spelsberg, Thomas C; McCarthy, Patrick M; Rahimtoola, Shahbudin H; Rajamannan, Nalini M

    2006-04-18

    cartilage in the mitral valves and bone in the aortic valves. Up-regulation of the Lrp5 pathway may play a role in the mechanism for valvular heart disease.

  6. Role of Constitutive Androstane Receptor in Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Gene Expression of Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pranav; Guo, Tao; Moore, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of drug disposition in the liver during inflammation has been attributed to downregulation of gene expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters. Inflammatory responses in the liver are primarily mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have recently shown that activation of TLR2 or TLR4 by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, leads to the downregulation of gene expression of DMEs/transporters. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this downregulation is not fully understood. The xenobiotic nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), regulate the expression of DMEs/transporter genes. Downregulation of DMEs/transporters by LTA or LPS was associated with reduced expression of PXR and CAR genes. To determine the role of CAR, we injected CAR+/+ and CAR−/− mice with LTA or LPS, which significantly downregulated (∼40%–60%) RNA levels of the DMEs, cytochrome P450 (Cyp)3a11, Cyp2a4, Cyp2b10, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1a1, amine N-sulfotransferase, and the transporter, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, in CAR+/+ mice. Suppression of most of these genes was attenuated in LTA-treated CAR−/− mice. In contrast, LPS-mediated downregulation of these genes was not attenuated in CAR−/− mice. Induction of these genes by mouse CAR activator 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene was sustained in LTA- but not in LPS-treated mice. Similar observations were obtained in humanized CAR mice. We have replicated these results in primary hepatocytes as well. Thus, LPS can downregulate DME/transporter genes in the absence of CAR, whereas the effect of LTA on these genes is attenuated in the absence of CAR, indicating the potential involvement of CAR in LTA-mediated downregulation of DME/transporter genes. PMID:24194512

  7. P2Y2 Receptor-mediated Lymphotoxin-α Secretion Regulates Intercellular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Seye, Cheikh I.; Agca, Yuksel; Agca, Cansu; Derbigny, Wilbert

    2012-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine lymphotoxin-α (LTA) is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms that regulate its expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are poorly understood. The ability of exogenous nucleotides to stimulate LTA production was evaluated in VSMC by ELISA. The P2Y2 nucleotide receptor (P2Y2R) agonist UTP stimulates a strong and sustained release of LTA from WT but not P2Y2R−/− SMC. Assessment of LTA gene transcription by LTA promoter-luciferase construct indicated that LTA levels are controlled at the level of transcription. We show using RNAi techniques that knockdown of the actin-binding protein filamin-A (FLNa) severely impaired nucleotide-induced Rho activation and consequent Rho-mediated LTA secretion. Reintroduction of FLNa in FLNa RNAi SMC rescued UTP-induced LTA expression. In addition, we found that UTP-stimulated LTA secretion is not sensitive to brefeldin A, which blocks the formation of vesicles involved in protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that P2Y2R/filamin-mediated secretion of LTA is independent of the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi secretory vesicle route. Furthermore, UTP selectively induces ICAM-1 expression in WT but not SMC expressing a truncated P2Y2R deficient in LTA secretion. These data suggest that P2Y2R recruits FLNa to provide a cytoskeletal scaffold necessary for Rho signaling pathway upstream of LTA release and subsequent stimulation of ICAM-1 expression on vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:22298782

  8. P2Y2 receptor-mediated lymphotoxin-α secretion regulates intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Seye, Cheikh I; Agca, Yuksel; Agca, Cansu; Derbigny, Wilbert

    2012-03-23

    The proinflammatory cytokine lymphotoxin-α (LTA) is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms that regulate its expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are poorly understood. The ability of exogenous nucleotides to stimulate LTA production was evaluated in VSMC by ELISA. The P2Y(2) nucleotide receptor (P2Y(2)R) agonist UTP stimulates a strong and sustained release of LTA from WT but not P2Y(2)R(-/-) SMC. Assessment of LTA gene transcription by LTA promoter-luciferase construct indicated that LTA levels are controlled at the level of transcription. We show using RNAi techniques that knockdown of the actin-binding protein filamin-A (FLNa) severely impaired nucleotide-induced Rho activation and consequent Rho-mediated LTA secretion. Reintroduction of FLNa in FLNa RNAi SMC rescued UTP-induced LTA expression. In addition, we found that UTP-stimulated LTA secretion is not sensitive to brefeldin A, which blocks the formation of vesicles involved in protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus, suggesting that P2Y(2)R/filamin-mediated secretion of LTA is independent of the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi secretory vesicle route. Furthermore, UTP selectively induces ICAM-1 expression in WT but not SMC expressing a truncated P2Y(2)R deficient in LTA secretion. These data suggest that P2Y(2)R recruits FLNa to provide a cytoskeletal scaffold necessary for Rho signaling pathway upstream of LTA release and subsequent stimulation of ICAM-1 expression on vascular smooth muscle cells.

  9. Involvement of cAMP-PKA pathway in adenosine A1 and A2A receptor-mediated regulation of acetaldehyde-induced activation of HSCs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaru; Wang, He; Lv, Xiongwen; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Han; Yang, Feng; Yang, Yan; Li, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism by which adenosine receptors (ARs)-mediated the cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway regulates the activation of acetaldehyde-induced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Primary HSCs were isolated from SD rats, cultured in vitro, and activated with different concentrations of acetaldehyde at different time points. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to quantify both protein and mRNA levels of the four AR (A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R) in rat HSCs. Selective inhibitors of PDEs and the Gi/o protein pathway, general AR agonists, and AR subtype specific agents were used to study the AR signaling. The level of cAMP was measured by radio-immunoassay, and the expression of α-SMA, collagen type I and III, PKA and p-CREB were also detected by Western blotting. Acetaldehyde could significantly promote HSC proliferation, with a maximum stimulatory effect observed at 48 h after exposure to 200 μM acetaldehyde. All four AR subtypes could be present in rat HSCs, and the mRNA and protein expression levels for A2AR and A1R in much greater abundance than those for A2BR and A3R. The expression of A2AR and A1R was significantly increased in acetaldehyde-induced HSCs as compared with that of control group, whereas the expression of A2BR and A3R remained unaffected by the addition of acetaldehyde. Curiously, there is coupling of A2AR to the Gs-AC signaling, as well as coupling of A1R to the Gi/o-AC signaling pathway in acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Both the A2AR and A1R antagonists could suppress the activation of HSC, although they have opposing effects on cAMP signal transduction. These results suggested that a combination of cAMP/PKA/CREB signals via A2AR and A1R likely mediate the activation of acetaldehyde-induced HSCs, and A1R coupled to the Gi/o-AC signaling pathway may be masked by the more predominant A2AR that coupled to the Gs-AC signaling pathway.

  10. T-bet over-expression regulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated T helper type 17 differentiation through an interferon (IFN)γ-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, M; Kondo, Y; Tahara, M; Iizuka-Koga, M; Segawa, S; Kaneko, S; Tsuboi, H; Yoh, K; Takahashi, S; Matsumoto, I; Sumida, T

    2017-04-01

    Various transcription factors are also known to enhance or suppress T helper type 17 (Th17) differentiation. We have shown previously that the development of collagen-induced arthritis was suppressed in T-bet transgenic (T-bet Tg) mice, and T-bet seemed to suppress Th17 differentiation through an interferon (IFN)-γ-independent pathway, although the precise mechanism remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to investigate further the mechanisms involved in the regulation of Th17 differentiation by T-bet over-expression, and we found the new relationship between T-bet and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Both T-bet Tg mice and IFN-γ(-/-) -over-expressing T-bet (T-bet Tg/IFN-γ(-/-) ) mice showed inhibition of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt expression and IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells cultured under conditions that promote Th-17 differentiation, and decreased IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation in CD4(+) T cells. The mRNA expression of ahr and rorc were suppressed in CD4(+) T cells cultured under Th-17 conditions from T-bet Tg mice and T-bet Tg/IFN-γ(-/-) mice. CD4(+) T cells of wild-type (WT) and IFN-γ(-/-) mice transduced with T-bet-expressing retrovirus also showed inhibition of IL-17 production, whereas T-bet transduction had no effect on IL-6R expression and STAT-3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, the mRNA expression of ahr and rorc were suppressed in CD4(+) T cells with T-bet transduction cultured under Th17 conditions. The enhancement of interleukin (IL)-17 production from CD4(+) T cells by the addition of AHR ligand with Th17 conditions was cancelled by T-bet over-expression. Our findings suggest that T-bet over-expression-induced suppression of Th17 differentiation is mediated through IFN-γ-independent AHR suppression.

  11. Regulation of Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis by the Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormones are synthesized in response to signaling cascades initiated by the trophic peptide hormones derived from the anterior pituitary. The mechanisms by which these peptide hormones regulate steroid hormone production are multifaceted and include controlling the transcription of steroidogenic genes, regulating cholesterol (substrate) uptake and transport, modulating steroidogenic enzyme activity, and controlling electron availability. Cytoskeletal polymers such as microfilaments and microtubules have also been implicated in regulating steroidogenesis. Of note, steroidogenesis is a multi-step process that occurs in two organelles, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondrion. However, the precise mechanism by which substrates are delivered back and forth between these two organelles is unknown. In this review we will discuss the role of components of the cytoskeleton in conferring optimal steroidogenic potential. Finally, we present data that identifying a novel mechanism by which sphingosine-1-phosphate induces mitochondrial trafficking to promote steroidogenesis. PMID:18726632

  12. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by proteoliposomes and cultured rat sertoli cells: Evidence for involvement of voltage-activated and voltage-independent calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1989-12-01

    We have previously reported incorporation into liposomes of Triton X-100-solubilized FSH receptor-G-protein complexes derived from purified bovine calf testis membranes. In the present study we have used this model system to show that FSH induces flux of 45Ca2+ into such proteoliposomes in a hormone-specific concentration-dependent manner. FSH, inactivated by boiling, had no stimulatory effect on 45Ca2+ flux, nor did isolated alpha- or beta-subunits of FSH. Addition of GTP (or its analogs 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate and guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)) or sodium fluoride (in the presence or absence of GTP or its analogs) failed to induce 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes, suggesting that the uptake of 45Ca2+ was receptor, and not G-protein, related. Voltage-independent (ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride) and voltage-activated (methyoxyverapamil and nifedipine) calcium channel-blocking agents reduced FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes to control levels. FSH also induced uptake of 45Ca2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells. Ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake or estradiol secretion by cultured rat Sertoli cells, nor did methoxyverapamil or nifedipine. All four calcium channel blockers, however, were able to reduce FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake to basal levels and FSH-stimulated conversion of androstenedione to estradiol by up to 50%, indicating an involvement of Ca2+ in FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Our results suggest that the well documented changes in intracellular calcium levels consequent to FSH binding may be due, at least in part, to an influx of calcium through FSH receptor-regulated calcium channels.

  13. Receptor-Mediated Transport of Insulin across Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, George L.; Johnson, Sandra M.

    1985-03-01

    Hormones such as insulin are transported from the interior to the exterior of blood vessels. Whether endothelial cells, which line the inner walls of blood vessels have a role in this transport of hormones is not clear, but it is known that endothelial cells can internalize and release insulin rapidly with little degradation. The transport of iodine-125-labeled insulin was measured directly through the use of dual chambers separated by a horizontal monolayer of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. In this setting, endothelial cells took up and released the labeled insulin, thereby transporting it across the cells. The transport of insulin across the endothelial cells was temperature sensitive and was inhibited by unlabeled insulin and by antibody to insulin receptor in proportion to the ability of these substances to inhibit insulin binding to its receptor. More than 80 percent of the transported insulin was intact. These data suggest that insulin is rapidly transported across endothelial cells by a receptor-mediated process.

  14. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-04-15

    Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  15. Selected hormonal and neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating feed intake in sheep.

    PubMed

    Sartin, J L; Daniel, J A; Whitlock, B K; Wilborn, R R

    2010-11-01

    Appetite control is a major issue in normal growth and in suboptimal growth performance settings. A number of hormones, in particular leptin, activate or inhibit orexigenic or anorexigenic neurotransmitters within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where feed intake regulation is integrated. Examples of appetite regulatory neurotransmitters are the stimulatory neurotransmitters neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone and the inhibitory neurotransmitter, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Examination of messenger RNA (using in situ hybridization and real-time PCR) and proteins (using immunohistochemistry) for these neurotransmitters in ruminants has indicated that physiological regulation occurs in response to fasting for several of these critical genes and proteins, especially AgRP and NPY. Moreover, intracerebroventricular injection of each of the four stimulatory neurotransmitters can increase feed intake in sheep and may also regulate either growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, cortisol or other hormones. In contrast, both leptin and MSH are inhibitory to feed intake in ruminants. Interestingly, the natural melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonist, AgRP, as well as NPY can prevent the inhibition of feed intake after injection of endotoxin (to model disease suppression of appetite). Thus, knowledge of the mechanisms regulating feed intake in the hypothalamus may lead to mechanisms to increase feed intake in normal growing animals and prevent the wasting effects of severe disease in animals.

  16. The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates plant hormone signaling

    PubMed Central

    Santner, Aaron; Estelle, Mark

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Plants utilize the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to modulate nearly every aspect of growth and development. Ubiquitin is covalently attached to target proteins through the action of three enzymes known as E1, E2, and E3. The ultimate outcome of this post-translational modification depends on the nature of the ubiquitin linkage and the extent of polyubiquitination. In most cases, ubiquitination results in degradation of the target protein in the 26S proteasome. During the last 10 years it has become clear that the UPS plays a prominent regulatory role in hormone biology. E3 ubiquitin ligases in particular actively participate in hormone perception, de-repression of hormone signaling pathways, degradation of hormone specific transcription factors, and regulation of hormone biosynthesis. It is certain that additional functions will be discovered as more of the nearly 1200 potential E3s in plants are elucidated. PMID:20409276

  17. [Regulation of bone mineralization by parathyroid hormone].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Masaru; Tamura, Tatsuya

    2004-06-01

    In randomized clinical trials, parathyroid hormone (PTH) showed potent anabolic effects on the lumbar spine and decreased the risk of incident vertebral fractures dramatically. Although the anabolic effect of PTH on cortical bone in the femoral neck is still unclear, it should be demonstrated in further clinical studies. Concurrent or sequential therapies of PTH and anti-resorptive agents will be one of the major issues of treatment for osteoporosis in the future.

  18. Exercise and the Regulation of Endocrine Hormones.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system has profound regulatory effects within the human body and thus the ability to control and maintain appropriate function within many physiological systems (i.e., homeostasis). The hormones associated with the endocrine system utilize autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions on the cells of their target tissues within these physiologic systems to adjust homeostasis. The introduction of exercise as a stressor to disrupt homeostasis can greatly amplify and impact the actions of these hormones. To that end, the endocrine response to an acute exercise session occurs in a progression of phases with the magnitude of the response being relative to the exercise work intensity or volume. Various physiologic mechanisms are considered responsible for these responses, although not all are completely understood or elucidated. Chronic exercise training does not eliminate the acute exercise response but may attenuate the overall effect of the responsiveness as the body adapts in a positive fashion to the training stimulus. Regrettably, an excessive intensity and/or volume of training may lead to maladaptation and is associated with inappropriate endocrine hormonal responses. The mechanisms leading to a deleterious maladaptive state are not well understood and require additional research for elucidation.

  19. Breast Milk Hormones and Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Savino, Francesco; Liguori, Stefania Alfonsina; Sorrenti, Miriam; Fissore, Maria Francesca; Oggero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that a complex relationship exists between the central nervous system and peripheral organs involved in energy homeostasis. It consists in the balance between food intake and energy expenditure and includes the regulation of nutrient levels in storage organs, as well as in blood, in particular blood glucose. Therefore, food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis are strictly connected to each other. Several hormones, such as leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and ghrelin, are involved in this complex regulation. These hormones play a role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and are involved in the development of obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Recently, their presence in breast milk has been detected, suggesting that they may be involved in the regulation of growth in early infancy and could influence the programming of energy balance later in life. This paper focuses on hormones present in breast milk and their role in glucose homeostasis. PMID:21760816

  20. Hormonal regulation of hepatocyte tight junctional permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.J.; Miyai, K.; Steinbach, J.H.; Hardison, W.G.M. Univ. of California, San Diego )

    1988-10-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, ({sup 14}C)sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase the authors have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of ({sup 14}C)sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors (Sar{sup 1},Thr{sup 8})angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the ({sup 14}C)sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile.

  1. Down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and MAPK through estrogen receptor mediated cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer induced by gold nanoparticle tagged toxin protein NKCT1.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Gomes, Antony

    2017-04-25

    The aim of this study was to determine whether gold nanoparticles conjugated cytotoxic protein NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) acted through the estrogen receptor mediated pathway in MCF-7 cells and to establish the MAPK and PI3k/Akt signal transduction pathway. Apoptosis was done by flow cytometry. BrdU incorporation and nuclear proliferating antigen was measured by flow cytometry. Wound healing assay along with matrigel chamber invasion and migration was done. Expression of MMP9 was checked by flow cytometry and also by gelatin zymography. To analyze the regulation of signaling protein, western blot was done. MTT assay was done to evaluate the ligand receptor pathway using the estrogen receptor negative cell line (MDA-MB-231) for inhibitor effects. Treatment of GNP-NKCT1 (3.9 μg/ml) exhibited 38.04% early apoptosis and 4.29% late apoptotic cell. GNP-NKCT1 significantly inhibited both cell migration and invasion with suppressed expression of MMP9. In addition, treatment of cultured human breast cancer MCF7 cells with GNP-NKCT1 reversely suppressed the incorporation of BrdU, with reduced expression of Ki-67. The western blot analysis showed that GNP-NKCT1 arrested cell cycle progression through upregulation of the kinase inhibitor protein p21 and inactivation of G1-cylin dependent kinase (CDK4). GNP-NKCT1 suppressed nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and also abrogated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3k), Akt and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2). MTT assay indicated that GNP-NKCT1 reduced proliferation in the estrogen receptor induced ER negative breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). Addition of, ER inhibitor (tamoxifen) and PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) to cells resulted in reduced expression of Ki-67 and MMP-9. The data suggested that GNP-NKCT1 induced MCF7 cell inhibition may occur through estrogen receptor pathway via inactivation of CDK4 and inactivation of PI3K/Akt, ERK1

  2. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-04-15

    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  3. Growth hormone regulation of follicular growth.

    PubMed

    Lucy, Matthew C

    2011-01-01

    The somatotropic axis-consisting of growth hormone (GH), the insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2), GH binding protein (GHBP), IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1 to 6, and the cell-surface receptors for GH and the IGFs-has major effects on growth, lactation and reproduction. The primary target tissues for GH are involved in growth and metabolism. The functionality of the somatotropic axis depends in part on the expression of liver GH receptor (GHR), which determines the amount of IGF1 released from the liver in response to GH. The IGF1 acts as a pleiotropic growth factor and also serves as the endocrine negative feedback signal controlling pituitary GH secretion. Growth hormone and IGF1 undergo dynamic changes throughout the life cycle, particularly when animals are either growing, early post partum or lactating. Cells within the reproductive tract can respond directly to GH but to a lesser degree than the primary target tissues. The major impact that GH has on reproduction, therefore, may be secondary to its systemic effects on metabolism (including insulin sensitivity) or secondary to the capacity for GH to control IGF1 secretion. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and IGFBP are also synthesised within the ovary and this local synthesis is a component of the collective IGF1 action on the follicle. Future studies of GH should focus on its direct effects on the follicle as well as its indirect effects mediated by shifts in nutrient metabolism, insulin sensitivity, IGF1 and IGFBP.

  4. Mechanisms of nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kersten, S

    2001-04-01

    Fat build-up is determined by the balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis/fatty acid oxidation. In the past few years, our understanding of the nutritional, hormonal and particularly transcriptional regulation of lipogenesis has expanded greatly. Lipogenesis is stimulated by a high carbohydrate diet, whereas it is inhibited by polyunsaturated fatty acids and by fasting. These effects are partly mediated by hormones, which inhibit (growth hormone, leptin) or stimulate (insulin) lipogenesis. Recent research has established that sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 is a critical intermediate in the pro- or anti-lipogenic action of several hormones and nutrients. Another transcription factor implicated in lipogenesis is the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma. Both transcription factors are attractive targets for pharmaceutical intervention of disorders such as hypertriglyceridemia and obesity.

  5. Regulation of Seasonal Reproduction by Hypothalamic Activation of Thyroid Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Shinomiya, Ai; Shimmura, Tsuyoshi; Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Taeko; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Organisms living outside the tropics measure the changes in the length of the day to adapt to seasonal changes in the environment. Animals that breed during spring and summer are called long-day breeders, while those that breed during fall are called short-day breeders. Although the influence of thyroid hormone in the regulation of seasonal reproduction has been known for several decades, its precise mechanism remained unknown. Recent studies revealed that the activation of thyroid hormone within the mediobasal hypothalamus plays a key role in this phenomenon. This localized activation of the thyroid hormone is controlled by thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) secreted from the pars tuberalis of the pituitary gland. Although seasonal reproduction is a rate-limiting factor in animal production, genes involved in photoperiodic signal transduction pathway could emerge as potential targets to facilitate domestication. PMID:24600435

  6. Hormonal regulation of early follicle development in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, A J; McGee, E A; Hayashi, M; Hsu, S Y

    2000-05-25

    Although earlier studies focused on the hormonal regulation of antral and preovulatory follicles, recent studies indicate the importance of the hormonal control mechanism for preantral follicles. The endocrine hormone FSH is not only a survival factor for early antral follicles but also a potent growth and differentiation factor for preantral follicles. In addition, KGF secreted by theca cells and c-kit ligand secreted by granulosa cells play paracrine roles in the regulation of preantral follicle growth and development. Furthermore oocyte-derived GDF-9 promotes the growth and differentiation of early follicles by acting on somatic cells in the follicle. It is likely that the genetic makeup of an oocyte could determine the secretion of oocyte hormones which would, in turn, regulate the growth and differentiation of the surrounding somatic cells of that follicle. A better understanding of the hormonal mechanisms underlying early follicle development could provide a refined culture system for the in vitro maturation of fertilizable oocytes and future design of fertility and contraceptive agents.

  7. Light-Mediated Hormonal Regulation of Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Mieke; Galvão, Vinicius Costa; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-04-29

    Light is crucial for plant life, and perception of the light environment dictates plant growth, morphology, and developmental changes. Such adjustments in growth and development in response to light conditions are often established through changes in hormone levels and signaling. This review discusses examples of light-regulated processes throughout a plant's life cycle for which it is known how light signals lead to hormonal regulation. Light acts as an important developmental switch in germination, photomorphogenesis, and transition to flowering, and light cues are essential to ensure light capture through architectural changes during phototropism and the shade avoidance response. In describing well-established links between light perception and hormonal changes, we aim to give insight into the mechanisms that enable plants to thrive in variable light environments.

  8. The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor: Its Intracellular Signaling and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yue; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2014-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), also known as the ghrelin receptor, is involved in mediating a wide variety of biological effects of ghrelin, including: stimulation of growth hormone release, increase of food intake and body weight, modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of gastrointestinal motility and secretion, protection of neuronal and cardiovascular cells, and regulation of immune function. Dependent on the tissues and cells, activation of GHSR may trigger a diversity of signaling mechanisms and subsequent distinct physiological responses. Distinct regulation of GHSR occurs at levels of transcription, receptor interaction and internalization. Here we review the current understanding on the intracellular signaling pathways of GHSR and its modulation. An overview of the molecular structure of GHSR is presented first, followed by the discussion on its signaling mechanisms. Finally, potential mechanisms regulating GHSR are reviewed. PMID:24651458

  9. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  10. MULTIPLE STABLE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS IN A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  11. Hormonal regulation of total antioxidant capacity in seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Antonio; Festa, Roberto; Silvestrini, Andrea; Nicolotti, Nicola; Di Donna, Vincenzo; La Torre, Giuseppe; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Meucci, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    Infertility is associated with oxidative stress, normally counterbalanced by different antioxidant systems. In order to explore the hormonal control of seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) we evaluated TAC and hormone patterns in a group of unselected infertile patients and control subjects. One hundred and ten infertile patients (divided into 3 groups: inflammation, varicocele, and other etiologies) and 31 fertile men were examined, evaluating blood serum gonadotropins, testosterone, estradiol, free tri-iodothyronine, free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyrotropin, prolactin (PRL), seminal parameters, and TAC. TAC was measured using the H(2)O(2)-metmyoglobin system, which generates the spectroscopically detectable radical cation of the chromogenous compound 2,2(I)-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate). The "lag time" of its appearance is proportional to the antioxidant activity. Lag phase was significantly higher in varicocele vs controls, whereas it was lower in patients with inflammation vs varicocele or other kinds of infertility. The correlation analysis between hormones and seminal parameters showed an inverse correlation between PRL and sperm motility, and a direct correlation of TAC with PRL and FT4, but not with gonadotropins or gonadal steroids. Our data suggest that systemic hormones may play a role in regulating seminal antioxidant capacity. This is interesting also because some hormones, such as thyroid and pituitary hormones, are not usually tested in the first-level evaluation of male patients with fertility problems.

  12. Stress hormone regulation: biological role and translation into therapy.

    PubMed

    Holsboer, Florian; Ising, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Stress is defined as a state of perturbed homeostasis following endangerment that evokes manifold adaptive reactions, which are summarized as the stress response. In the case of mental stress, the adaptive response follows the perception of endangerment. Different peptides, steroids, and biogenic amines operate the stress response within the brain and also after they have been released into circulation. We focus in this review on the biological roles of corticosteroids, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), and arginine vasopressin (AVP), and we evaluate the effects of treatments directed against the actions of these hormones. CRH and AVP are the central drivers of the stress hormone system, but they also act as neuromodulators in the brain, affecting higher mental functions including emotion, cognition, and behavior. When released toward the pituitary, these central neuropeptides elicit corticotrophin into the periphery, which activates corticosteroid release from the adrenal cortex. These stress hormones are essential for the adequate adaptation to stress, but they can also evoke severe clinical conditions once persistently hypersecreted. Depression and anxiety disorders are prominent examples of stress-related disorders associated with an impaired regulation of stress hormones. We summarize the effects of drugs acting at specific targets of the stress hormone axis, and we discuss their potential use as next-generation antidepressant medications. Such treatments require the identification of patients that will optimally benefit from such specific interventions. These could be a first step into personalized medicine using treatments tailored to the specific pathology of the patients.

  13. Modulation at a cellular level of the thyroid hormone receptor-mediated gene expression by 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 4,4'-diiodobiphenyl (DIB), and nitrofen (NIP).

    PubMed

    Yamada-Okabe, Toshiko; Sakai, Haruya; Kashima, Yuji; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi

    2005-01-15

    Previously, we demonstrated that some endocrine disrupting chemicals affected thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-mediated gene expression in HeLaTR cells that stably expressed the human TRalpha1. To examine whether widely used brominated flame retardants and pesticides affect TR-mediated gene expression, those with organohalogen, which is also present in T3, were screened. To monitor the TR-mediated gene expression, HeLaTR cells were transfected with a luciferase gene that was linked to the thyroid hormone responsive element. Thus, transcription of the luciferase gene in HeLaTR cells is driven by TR. By screening 38 chemical agents, it was found that 4,4'-diiodobiphenyl (DIB), markedly, and 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and nitrofen (NIP), to a much lesser extent but significantly, enhanced the expression of the luciferase gene at concentrations that did not affect the growth of HeLaTR cells. DIB also augmented the E2-induced expression of the luciferase gene that was linked to the estrogen responsive element in MCF7 cells, whereas HBCD and NIP did not. These results indicate that DIB augments TR- and ER-mediated gene expression, but HBCD and NIP affect only TR-mediated gene expression. Thus, there is a potential risk that HBCD, DIB, and NIP act as endocrine disrupters in animals and human beings.

  14. Plant hormone-mediated regulation of stress responses.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Ravindran, Pratibha; Kumar, Prakash P

    2016-04-14

    Being sessile organisms, plants are often exposed to a wide array of abiotic and biotic stresses. Abiotic stress conditions include drought, heat, cold and salinity, whereas biotic stress arises mainly from bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes and insects. To adapt to such adverse situations, plants have evolved well-developed mechanisms that help to perceive the stress signal and enable optimal growth response. Phytohormones play critical roles in helping the plants to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. The elaborate hormone signaling networks and their ability to crosstalk make them ideal candidates for mediating defense responses. Recent research findings have helped to clarify the elaborate signaling networks and the sophisticated crosstalk occurring among the different hormone signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the roles of the major plant hormones in regulating abiotic and biotic stress responses with special focus on the significance of crosstalk between different hormones in generating a sophisticated and efficient stress response. We divided the discussion into the roles of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonates and ethylene separately at the start of the review. Subsequently, we have discussed the crosstalk among them, followed by crosstalk with growth promoting hormones (gibberellins, auxins and cytokinins). These have been illustrated with examples drawn from selected abiotic and biotic stress responses. The discussion on seed dormancy and germination serves to illustrate the fine balance that can be enforced by the two key hormones ABA and GA in regulating plant responses to environmental signals. The intricate web of crosstalk among the often redundant multitudes of signaling intermediates is just beginning to be understood. Future research employing genome-scale systems biology approaches to solve problems of such magnitude will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of plant development. Therefore, discovering additional crosstalk

  15. Somatostatin system: molecular mechanisms regulating anterior pituitary hormones.

    PubMed

    Eigler, Tamar; Ben-Shlomo, Anat

    2014-08-01

    The somatostatin (SRIF) system, which includes the SRIF ligand and receptors, regulates anterior pituitary gland function, mainly inhibiting hormone secretion and to some extent pituitary tumor cell growth. SRIF-14 via its cognate G-protein-coupled receptors (subtypes 1-5) activates multiple cellular signaling pathways including adenylate cyclase/cAMP, MAPK, ion channel-dependent pathways, and others. In addition, recent data have suggested SRIF-independent constitutive SRIF receptor activity responsible for GH and ACTH inhibition in vitro. This review summarizes current knowledge on ligand-dependent and independent SRIF receptor molecular and functional effects on hormone-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary gland.

  16. Hormonal regulation of hair follicles exhibits a biological paradox.

    PubMed

    Randall, Valerie Anne

    2007-04-01

    Hair's importance for insulation and camouflage or human communication means that hairs need to change with season, age or sexual development. Regular, regenerating hair follicle growth cycles produce new hairs which may differ in colour and/or size, e.g., beard development. Hormones of the pineal-hypothalamus-pituitary axis coordinate seasonal changes, while androgens regulate most sexual aspects with paradoxically different effects depending on body site; compare beard growth and balding! Hormones affect follicular mesenchymal-epithelial interactions altering growing time, dermal papilla size and dermal papilla cell, keratinocyte and melanocyte activity. Greater understanding of these mechanisms should improve treatments for poorly controlled hair disorders, alopecia and hirsutism.

  17. Receptor-mediated DNA-targeted photoimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lobachevsky, Pavel N; Leung, Brenda K Y; White, Jonathan M; Martin, Roger F

    2006-11-01

    We show the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy that combines the potency of a DNA-binding photosensitizer, UV(A)Sens, with the tumor-targeting potential of receptor-mediated endocytosis. The photosensitizer is an iodinated bibenzimidazole, which, when bound in the minor groove of DNA and excited by UV(A) irradiation, induces cytotoxic lesions attributed to a radical species resulting from photodehalogenation. Although reminiscent of photochemotherapy using psoralens and UV(A) irradiation, an established treatment modality in dermatology particularly for the treatment of psoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, a critical difference is the extreme photopotency of the iodinated bibenzimidazole, approximately 1,000-fold that of psoralens. This feature prompted consideration of combination with the specificity of receptor-mediated targeting. Using two in vitro model systems, we show the UV(A) cytotoxicity of iodo ligand/protein conjugates, implying binding of the conjugate to cell receptors, internalization, and degradation of the conjugate-receptor complex, with release and translocation of the ligand to nuclear DNA. For ligand-transferrin conjugates, phototoxicity was inhibited by coincubation with excess native transferrin. Receptor-mediated UV(A)-induced cytotoxicity was also shown with the iodo ligand conjugate of an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, exemplifying the potential application of the strategy to other cancer-specific targets to thus improve the specificity of phototherapy of superficial lesions and for extracorporeal treatments.

  18. Effects of chronic growth hormone overexpression on appetite-regulating brain gene expression in coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Leggatt, Rosalind A; Chan, Michelle; Volkoff, Hélène; Devlin, Robert H

    2015-09-15

    Organisms must carefully regulate energy intake and expenditure to balance growth and trade-offs with other physiological processes. This regulation is influenced by key pathways controlling appetite, feeding behaviour and energy homeostasis. Growth hormone (GH) transgenesis provides a model where food intake can be elevated, and is associated with dramatic modifications of growth, metabolism, and feeding behaviour, particularly in fish. RNA-Seq and qPCR analyses were used to compare the expression of multiple genes important in appetite regulation within brain regions and the pituitary gland (PIT) of GH transgenic (fed fully to satiation or restricted to a wild-type ration throughout their lifetime) and wild-type coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). RNA-Seq results showed that differences in both genotype and ration levels resulted in differentially expressed genes associated with appetite regulation in transgenic fish, including elevated Agrp1 in hypothalamus (HYP) and reduced Mch in PIT. Altered mRNA levels for Agrp1, Npy, Gh, Ghr, Igf1, Mch and Pomc were also assessed using qPCR analysis. Levels of mRNA for Agrp1, Gh, and Ghr were higher in transgenic than wild-type fish in HYP and in the preoptic area (POA), with Agrp1 more than 7-fold higher in POA and 12-fold higher in HYP of transgenic salmon compared to wild-type fish. These data are consistent with the known roles of orexigenic factors on foraging behaviour acting via GH and through MC4R receptor-mediated signalling. Igf1 mRNA was elevated in fully-fed transgenic fish in HYP and POA, but not in ration-restricted fish, yet both of these types of transgenic animals have very pronounced feeding behaviour relative to wild-type fish, suggesting IGF1 is not playing a direct role in appetite stimulation acting via paracrine or autocrine mechanisms. The present findings provide new insights on mechanisms ruling altered appetite regulation in response to chronically elevated GH, and on potential pathways by which

  19. Prothoracicotropic hormone regulates developmental timing and body size in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McBrayer, Zofeyah; Ono, Hajime; Shimell, MaryJane; Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Beckstead, Robert B.; Warren, James T.; Thummel, Carl S.; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal; Gilbert, Lawrence I.; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Summary In insects, control of body size is intimately linked to nutritional quality as well as environmental and genetic cues that regulate the timing of developmental transitions. Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) has been proposed to play an essential role in regulating the production and/or release of ecdysone, a steroid hormone that stimulates molting and metamorphosis. In this report we examine the consequences on Drosophila development of ablating the PTTH-producing neurons. Surprisingly, PTTH production is not essential for molting or metamorphosis. Instead, loss of PTTH results in delayed larval development and eclosion of larger flies with more cells. Prolonged feeding, without changing the rate of growth, causes the developmental delay and is a consequence of low ecdysteroid titers. These results indicate that final body size in insects is determined by a balance between growth rate regulators such as insulin and developmental timing cues such as PTTH that set the duration of the feeding interval. PMID:18061567

  20. Thyroid hormone regulated genes in cerebral cortex development.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juan

    2017-02-01

    The physiological and developmental effects of thyroid hormones are mainly due to the control of gene expression after interaction of T3 with the nuclear receptors. To understand the role of thyroid hormones on cerebral cortex development, knowledge of the genes regulated by T3 during specific stages of development is required. In our laboratory, we previously identified genes regulated by T3 in primary cerebrocortical cells in culture. By comparing these data with transcriptomics of purified cell types from the developing cortex, the cellular targets of T3 can be identified. In addition, many of the genes regulated transcriptionally by T3 have defined roles in cortex development, from which the role of T3 can be derived. This review analyzes the specific roles of T3-regulated genes in the different stages of cortex development within the physiological frame of the developmental changes of thyroid hormones and receptor concentrations in the human cerebral cortex during fetal development. These data indicate an increase in the sensitivity to T3 during the second trimester of fetal development. The main cellular targets of T3 appear to be the Cajal-Retzius and the subplate neurons. On the other hand, T3 regulates transcriptionally genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, involved in cell migration and the control of diverse signaling pathways.

  1. Genetic and hormonal regulation of cambial development.

    PubMed

    Ursache, Robertas; Nieminen, Kaisa; Helariutta, Ykä

    2013-01-01

    The stems and roots of most dicot plants increase in diameter by radial growth, due to the activity of secondary meristems. Two types of meristems function in secondary plant body formation: the vascular cambium, which gives rise to secondary xylem and phloem, and the cork cambium, which produces a bark layer that replaces the epidermis and protects the plant stem from mechanical damage and pathogens. Cambial development, the initiation and activity of the vascular cambium, leads to an accumulation of wood, the secondary xylem tissue. The thick, cellulose-rich cell walls of wood provide a source of cellulose and have the potential to be used as a raw material for sustainable and renewable energy production. In this review, we will discuss what is known about the mechanisms regulating the cambium and secondary tissue development.

  2. Thyroid hormone status regulates the expression of secretory phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pragya; Levesque, Tania; Boilard, Eric; Park, Edwards A

    2014-01-31

    Thyroid hormone (T3) stimulates various metabolic pathways and the hepatic actions of T3 are mediated primarily through the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). Hypothyroidism has been linked with low grade inflammation, elevated risk of hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. Secretory phospholipases (sPLA2) are associated with inflammation, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Due to potential linkage between thyroid hormone and sPLA2, we investigated the effect of thyroid hormone status on the regulation of secretory phospholipases in mice, rats and human liver. T3 suppressed the expression of the sPLA2 group IIa (PLA2g2a) gene in the liver of BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 transgenic mice expressing the human PLA2g2a. PLA2g2a was elevated with hypothyroidism and high fat diets which may contribute to the low grade inflammation associated with hypothyroidism and diet induced obesity. We also examined the effects of the TRβ agonist eprotirome on hepatic gene regulation. We observed that eprotirome inhibited the expression of selected sPLA2 genes and furthermore the cytokine mediated induction PLA2g2a was suppressed. In addition, eprotirome induced genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cholesterol clearance while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Our results indicate that in vivo thyroid hormone status regulates the abundance of sPLA2 and the inhibition of PLA2g2a by T3 is conserved across species. By regulating sPLA2 genes, T3 may impact processes associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation and TRβ agonists may ameliorate inflammation and hyperlipidemia.

  3. Thyroid hormone status regulates the expression of secretory phospholipases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pragya; Levesque, Tania; Boilard, Eric; Park, Edwards A.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T3) stimulates various metabolic pathways and the hepatic actions of T3 are mediated primarily through the thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). Hypothyroidism has been linked with low grade inflammation, elevated risk of hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. Secretory phospholipases (sPLA2) are associated with inflammation, hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Due to potential linkage between thyroid hormone and sPLA2, we investigated the effect of thyroid hormone status on the regulation of secretory phospholipases in mice, rats and human liver. T3 suppressed the expression of the sPLA2 group IIa (PLA2g2a) gene in the liver of BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 transgenic mice expressing the human PLA2g2a. PLA2g2a was elevated with hypothyroidism and high fat diets which may contribute to the low grade inflammation associated with hypothyroidism and diet induced obesity. We also examined the effects of the TRβ agonist eprotirome on hepatic gene regulation. We observed that eprotirome inhibited the expression of selected sPLA2 genes and furthermore the cytokine mediated induction PLA2g2a was suppressed. In addition, eprotirome induced genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and cholesterol clearance while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Our results indicate that in vivo thyroid hormone status regulates the abundance of sPLA2 and the inhibition of PLA2g2a by T3 is conserved across species. By regulating sPLA2 genes, T3 may impact processes associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation and TRβ agonists may ameliorate inflammation and hyperlipidemia. PMID:24440706

  4. Hormonal regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium.

    PubMed

    Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-10-15

    In addition to floral senescence and longevity, the control of leaf senescence is a major factor determining the quality of several cut flowers, including Lilium, in the commercial market. To better understand the physiological process underlying leaf senescence in this species, we evaluated: (i) endogenous variation in the levels of phytohormones during leaf senescence, (ii) the effects of leaf darkening in senescence and associated changes in phytohormones, and (iii) the effects of spray applications of abscisic acid (ABA) and pyrabactin on leaf senescence. Results showed that while gibberellin 4 (GA(4)) and salicylic acid (SA) contents decreased, that of ABA increased during the progression of leaf senescence. However, dark-induced senescence increased ABA levels, but did not affect GA(4) and SA levels, which appeared to correlate more with changes in air temperature and/or photoperiod than with the induction of leaf senescence. Furthermore, spray applications of pyrabactin delayed the progression of leaf senescence in cut flowers. Thus, we conclude that (i) ABA plays a major role in the regulation of leaf senescence in Lilium, (ii) darkness promotes leaf senescence and increases ABA levels, and (iii) exogenous applications of pyrabactin inhibit leaf senescence in Lilium, therefore suggesting that it acts as an antagonist of ABA in senescing leaves of cut lily flowers.

  5. Thyroid hormone is required for hypothalamic neurons regulating cardiovascular functions.

    PubMed

    Mittag, Jens; Lyons, David J; Sällström, Johan; Vujovic, Milica; Dudazy-Gralla, Susi; Warner, Amy; Wallis, Karin; Alkemade, Anneke; Nordström, Kristina; Monyer, Hannah; Broberger, Christian; Arner, Anders; Vennström, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone's central control of metabolism have been identified, its actions in the central cardiovascular control have remained enigmatic. Here, we describe a previously unknown population of parvalbuminergic neurons in the anterior hypothalamus that requires thyroid hormone receptor signaling for proper development. Specific stereotaxic ablation of these cells in the mouse resulted in hypertension and temperature-dependent tachycardia, indicating a role in the central autonomic control of blood pressure and heart rate. Moreover, the neurons exhibited intrinsic temperature sensitivity in patch-clamping experiments, providing a new connection between cardiovascular function and core temperature. Thus, the data identify what we believe to be a novel hypothalamic cell population potentially important for understanding hypertension and indicate developmental hypothyroidism as an epigenetic risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, the findings may be beneficial for treatment of the recently identified patients that have a mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1.

  6. Growth hormone-releasing hormone is produced by adipocytes and regulates lipolysis through growth hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pacheco, F; Gutierrez-Repiso, C; García-Serrano, S; Ho-Plagaro, A; Gómez-Zumaquero, J M; Valdes, S; Gonzalo, M; Rivas-Becerra, J; Montiel-Casado, C; Rojo-Martínez, G; García-Escobar, E; García-Fuentes, E

    2017-10-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has a crucial role in growth hormone (GH) secretion, but little is known about its production by adipocytes and its involvement in adipocyte metabolism. To determine whether GHRH and its receptor (GHRH-R) are present in human adipocytes and to study their levels in obesity. Also, to analyze the effects of GHRH on human adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis. GHRH/GHRH-R and GH/GH-R mRNA expression levels were analyzed in human mature adipocytes from non-obese and morbidly obese subjects. Human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSC) were differentiated to adipocytes with GHRH (10(-14)-10(-8) M). Adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and gene expression were measured and the effect of GH-R silencing was determined. Mature adipocytes from morbidly obese subjects showed a higher expression of GHRH and GH-R, and a lower expression of GHRH-R and GH than non-obese subjects (P<0.05). A total of 10(-14)-10(-10) M GHRH induced an inhibition of lipid accumulation and PPAR-γ expression (P<0.05), and an increase in glycerol release and HSL expression (P<0.05) in human differentiated adipocytes. A total of 10(-12)-10(-8) M GHRH decreased GHRH-R expression in human differentiated adipocytes (P<0.05). A total of 10(-10)-10(-8) M GHRH increased GH and GH-R expression in human differentiated adipocytes (P<0.05). The effects of GHRH at 10(-10) M on adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis were blocked when GH-R expression was silenced. GHRH and GHRH-R are expressed in human adipocytes and are negatively associated. GHRH at low doses may exert an anti-obesity effect by inhibiting HMSC differentiation in adipocytes and by increasing adipocyte lipolysis in an autocrine or paracrine pathway. These effects are mediated by GH and GH-R.

  7. Regulation of rat luteinizing hormone subunit messenger ribonucleic acids by gonadal steroid hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, S D; Bowers, S M; Need, L R; Chin, W W

    1986-01-01

    Little is known about the hormonal regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) biosynthesis. We have studied the regulation of LH messenger RNA (mRNA) levels by gonadal-steroid hormones in the rat. In one set of experiments, male and female rats were surgically gonadectomized (GDX) and killed 1, 3, 7, 14, 22, and 31 d postoperatively. In another set of experiments, male and female rats were surgically GDX and were injected subcutaneously with testosterone propionate (500 micrograms/100 g body wt per d) or 17 beta-estradiol 3-benzoate (10 micrograms/100 g body wt per d), respectively, beginning 3 wk postoperatively. Levels of serum LH were determined by radioimmunoassay and levels of LH subunit mRNAs in single pituitary glands were determined by blot hybridization analysis using labeled synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes that correspond to portions of the coding regions of the rat alpha- and LH beta-subunit mRNAs. 4 wk after gonadectomy, serum LH levels rose nine- and 20-fold, while alpha-subunit mRNA levels rose six- and 10-fold, and LH beta-subunit levels rose seven- and 14-fold, compared with controls in males and females, respectively. In gonadal-steroid hormone-treated male and female GDX rats, serum LH levels fell to 8 and 36% of control values, while alpha-subunit mRNA levels declined to 22 and 19%, and LH beta-subunit mRNA levels declined to 6 and 10% of control values, 48 h after injections were initiated, in males and females, respectively. We conclude that gonadal-steroid hormones negatively regulate the levels of both subunit mRNAs in GDX rats in a pattern that parallels the changes in serum LH values. These data suggest that gonadal-steroid hormone regulation of LH biosynthesis occurs, at least in part, at the level of LH subunit mRNAs due to effects at the transcriptional and/or RNA stability levels. Images PMID:2418065

  8. Current insights into hormonal regulation of microspore embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Żur, Iwona; Dubas, Ewa; Krzewska, Monika; Janowiak, Franciszek

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth regulator (PGR) crosstalk and interaction with the plant’s genotype and environmental factors play a crucial role in microspore embryogenesis (ME), controlling microspore-derived embryo differentiation and development as well as haploid/doubled haploid plant regeneration. The complexity of the PGR network which could exist at the level of biosynthesis, distribution, gene expression or signaling pathways, renders the creation of an integrated model of ME-control crosstalk impossible at present. However, the analysis of the published data together with the results received recently with the use of modern analytical techniques brings new insights into hormonal regulation of this process. This review presents a short historical overview of the most important milestones in the recognition of hormonal requirements for effective ME in the most important crop plant species and complements it with new concepts that evolved over the last decade of ME studies. PMID:26113852

  9. Circadian regulation of hormone signaling and plant physiology.

    PubMed

    Atamian, Hagop S; Harmer, Stacey L

    2016-08-01

    The survival and reproduction of plants depend on their ability to cope with a wide range of daily and seasonal environmental fluctuations during their life cycle. Phytohormones are plant growth regulators that are involved in almost every aspect of growth and development as well as plant adaptation to myriad abiotic and biotic conditions. The circadian clock, an endogenous and cell-autonomous biological timekeeper that produces rhythmic outputs with close to 24-h rhythms, provides an adaptive advantage by synchronizing plant physiological and metabolic processes to the external environment. The circadian clock regulates phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways to generate daily rhythms in hormone activity that fine-tune a range of plant processes, enhancing adaptation to local conditions. This review explores our current understanding of the interplay between the circadian clock and hormone signaling pathways.

  10. Human stanniocalcin: a possible hormonal regulator of mineral metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, H S; Cepeda, M A; Zhang, Q Q; Rosen, C A; Vozzolo, B L

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a human cDNA clone encoding the mammalian homolog of stanniocalcin (STC), a calcium- and phosphate-regulating hormone that was first described in fishes where it functions in preventing hypercalcemia. STC has a unique amino acid sequence and, until now, has remained one of the few polypeptide hormones never described in higher vertebrates. Human STC (hSTC) was found to be 247 amino acids long and to share 73% amino acid sequence similarity with fish STC. Polyclonal antibodies to recombinant hSTC localized to a distinct cell type in the nephron tubule, suggesting kidney as a possible site of synthesis. Recombinant hSTC inhibited the gill transport of calcium when administered to fish and stimulated renal phosphate reabsorption in the rat. The evidence suggests that mammalian STC, like its piscine counterpart, is a regulator of mineral homeostasis. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8700837

  11. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  12. The role of gut hormones in appetite regulation (review).

    PubMed

    Marić, G; Gazibara, T; Zaletel, I; Labudović Borović, M; Tomanović, N; Ćirić, M; Puškaš, Nela

    2014-12-01

    Eating process is an aggregate of complex and different forms of behavior. Its regulation is based on energy homeostasis and appetite control which includes two components: the homeostatic and the hedonistic control. Important signals in appetite regulation are gut-derived hormones. They are produced by enteroendocrine cells in response to nutrient and energy intake, and achieve their effects by influencing brain structures involved in food intake regulation. The key brain structure involved in this process is the hypothalamus. Gut hormones reach the hypothalamus from the circulation or by the vagal nerve via the nucleus of the solitary tract. Among gut peptides, ghrelin is the only orexigenic hormone, leading to an increase in food intake and body weight. All others, such as cholecystokinin, glucagon like peptide-1, oxyntomodulin, peptide tyrosine tyrosine or pancreatic polypeptide, are anorexigenic, leading to decrease in food intake. Also, gut-derived endocannabinoids exert orexigenic effect on appetite. Keeping in mind the growing problem of obesity, the crucial issue when considering gut derived peptides is to understand their mechanisms of acting because of potential role in clinical therapy, and discovering long-lasting gut peptides or their analogues, with no or minimal side effects.

  13. Thyroid hormone regulation of hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rohit A; Singh, Brijesh K; Yen, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) has important roles in regulating hepatic lipid, cholesterol, and glucose metabolism. Recent findings suggest that clinical conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are associated with dysregulated hepatic metabolism, may involve altered intracellular TH action. In addition, TH has key roles in lipophagy in lipid metabolism, mitochondrial quality control, and the regulation of metabolic genes. In this review, we discuss recent findings regarding the functions of TH in hepatic metabolism, the relationship between TH and metabolic disorders, and the potential therapeutic use of thyromimetics to treat metabolic dysfunction in the liver. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hormonal regulation of medullary bone metabolism in the laying hen

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new organ culture system for the study of bone formation has been developed using medullary bone, a non-structural, metabolically active form of bone which is found in the marrow cavities of egg-laying birds. In the presence of fetal calf serum, bone explants were viable in culture by morphological criteria, and retained large numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and non-collagen protein (NCP) was determined using purified bacterial collagenase. Collagen accounted for over 10% of the total protein labeled. The calcium-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into CDP. The effective dose range of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 0.1 nM to 100 nM, while that of PTH was 1.0 nM to 100 nM. The effect of both hormones was specific for collagen, since /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into NCP was unaffected. Hydroxyproline analysis of bone explants and culture medium revealed that both hormones decreased the total hydroxyroline content of the cultures, suggesting that the inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into DCP is due to inhibition of collagen synthesis.

  15. Thyroid hormone is required for hypothalamic neurons regulating cardiovascular functions

    PubMed Central

    Mittag, Jens; Lyons, David J.; Sällström, Johan; Vujovic, Milica; Dudazy-Gralla, Susi; Warner, Amy; Wallis, Karin; Alkemade, Anneke; Nordström, Kristina; Monyer, Hannah; Broberger, Christian; Arner, Anders; Vennström, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone’s central control of metabolism have been identified, its actions in the central cardiovascular control have remained enigmatic. Here, we describe a previously unknown population of parvalbuminergic neurons in the anterior hypothalamus that requires thyroid hormone receptor signaling for proper development. Specific stereotaxic ablation of these cells in the mouse resulted in hypertension and temperature-dependent tachycardia, indicating a role in the central autonomic control of blood pressure and heart rate. Moreover, the neurons exhibited intrinsic temperature sensitivity in patch-clamping experiments, providing a new connection between cardiovascular function and core temperature. Thus, the data identify what we believe to be a novel hypothalamic cell population potentially important for understanding hypertension and indicate developmental hypothyroidism as an epigenetic risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, the findings may be beneficial for treatment of the recently identified patients that have a mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1. PMID:23257356

  16. Tissue specific regulation of lipogenesis by thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Blennemann, B.; Freake, H. )

    1990-02-26

    Thyroid hormone stimulates long chain fatty acid synthesis in rat liver by increasing the amounts of key lipogenic enzymes. Sparse and conflicting data exist concerning its action on this pathway in other tissues. The authors recently showed that, in contrast to liver, hypothyroidism stimulates lipogenesis in brown adipose tissue and have now systematically examined the effects of thyroid state on fatty acid synthesis in other rat tissues. Lipogenesis was assessed by tritiated water incorporation. Euthyroid hepatic fatty acid synthesis (16.6um H/g/h) was reduced to 30% in hypothyroid rats and increased 3 fold in hyperthyroidism. Lipogenesis was detected in euthyroid kidney and heart and these levels were also stimulated by thyroid hormone treatment. Brown adipose tissue was unique in showing increased lipogenesis in the hypothyroid state. Hyperthyroid levels were not different from euthyroid. Effects in white adipose tissue were small and inconsistent. Brain, skin and lung were all lipogenically active, but did not respond to changes in thyroid state. Low but detectable levels of fatty acid synthesis were measured in muscle, which also were non-responsive. A wide spectrum of responses to thyroid hormone are seen in different rat tissues and thus the pathway of long chain fatty acid synthesis would appear to be an excellent model for examining the tissue specific regulation of gene expression by thyroid hormone.

  17. Expression of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms down-regulated by thyroid hormone in human medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Monden, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Yasuyo; Hashida, Tetsu; Ishii, Sumiyasu; Tomaru, Takuya; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Satoh, Teturou; Yamada, Masanobu; Mori, Masatomo; Kasai, Kikuo

    2006-04-01

    The role of thyroid hormone (T3) in the regulation of growth and development of the central nervous system including the cerebellum has been well established. However, the effects of thyroid hormone on malignant tumors derived from the cerebellum remain poorly understood. Our analysis mainly focused on expression levels of TR isoforms and the effects of thyroid hormone in human medulloblastoma HTB-185 cells. Northern blot analysis revealed TRalpha2 mRNA but not TRalpha1, beta1 or beta2 mRNA in the cell. The TRalpha1 and TRbeta1 mRNAs were detected only by RT-PCR method and TRbeta2 was not expressed. Incubation of T3 for 24 h decreased TRalpha1, TRalpha2 and TRbeta1 mRNA. Addition of actinomycin D caused an acute increase in the basal TR mRNA levels and the rate of decrease of all kinds of TR isoform mRNA was accelerated in the T3-treated groups compared to controls, indicating that the stability of TR mRNA was affected by T3. Incubation with cycloheximide also blocked a decrease in TR mRNA levels in the T3-treated HTB-185 cells suggesting that down-regulation of TR mRNA required the synthesis of new protein. Our data provide novel evidence for the expression of TRs down-regulated by T3 in HTB-185 cells, suggesting that TR expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by T3 at the level of RNA stability.

  18. Regulation of the in vitro antibody response by neuroendocrine hormones

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Howard M.; Smith, Eric M.; Torres, Barbara A.; Blalock, J. Edwin

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of lymphocytes with inducers of interferon α (IFN-α) results in the production of corticotropin (ACTH) and endorphin-like activities. The pro-opiomelanocortin-derived hormones ACTH and α-, β-, and γ-endorphin and the structurally related hormones [Leu]- and [Met]enkephalin were therefore tested for their effects on the in vitro antibody response of mouse spleen cells. ACTH and α-endorphin were potent inhibitors (≥80% suppression) of the antibody response to the T-cell-dependent antigen sheep erythrocytes at a concentration of 0.5 μM. [Met]- and [Leu]enkephalin were moderate inhibitors (approximately 60% suppression) at 0.2-2 μM, and β- and γ-endorphin were minimal inhibitors (approximately 20% suppression) at 5-6 μM. At higher concentrations ACTH also inhibited the antibody response to the T-cell-independent antigen dinitrophenyl-Ficoll, suggesting that T-cell function was more sensitive to blockage by these hormones than was B-cell function. ACTH and IFN had similar suppression properties; thus, the hormone-like activities associated with IFN-α may play a role in IFN-induced immunosuppression. α-Endorphin immunosuppression was blocked by naloxone, which suggested that α-endorphin exerted its effects through binding to opiate-like receptors on the spleen cells. The failure of β-endorphin to suppress the immune response significantly was not due to its failure to bind to the opiate-like receptors because it blocked α-endorphin-induced suppression. Direct evidence for both opiate and ACTH receptors on the spleen cells was obtained in binding studies with labeled enkephalin and ACTH. Such studies revealed the presence of both high- and low-affinity receptors. The data show that neuroendocrine polypeptide hormones can regulate the immune response. PMID:6287470

  19. Sex Hormones and Their Receptors Regulate Liver Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2015-01-01

    The liver is one of the most essential organs involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Hepatic steatosis, a major manifestation of metabolic syndrome, is associated with imbalance between lipid formation and breakdown, glucose production and catabolism, and cholesterol synthesis and secretion. Epidemiological studies show sex difference in the prevalence in fatty liver disease and suggest that sex hormones may play vital roles in regulating hepatic steatosis. In this review, we summarize current literature and discuss the role of estrogens and androgens and the mechanisms through which estrogen receptors and androgen receptors regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in the liver. In females, estradiol regulates liver metabolism via estrogen receptors by decreasing lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and fatty acid uptake, while enhancing lipolysis, cholesterol secretion, and glucose catabolism. In males, testosterone works via androgen receptors to increase insulin receptor expression and glycogen synthesis, decrease glucose uptake and lipogenesis, and promote cholesterol storage in the liver. These recent integrated concepts suggest that sex hormone receptors could be potential promising targets for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26491440

  20. VRS2 regulates hormone-mediated inflorescence patterning in barley.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Helmy M; Eggert, Kai; Koppolu, Ravi; Alqudah, Ahmad M; Poursarebani, Naser; Fazeli, Arash; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Rutten, Twan; Govind, Geetha; Lundqvist, Udda; Graner, Andreas; Komatsuda, Takao; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Plant architecture has clear agronomic and economic implications for crops such as wheat and barley, as it is a critical factor for determining grain yield. Despite this, only limited molecular information is available about how grain-bearing inflorescences, called spikes, are formed and maintain their regular, distichous pattern. Here we elucidate the molecular and hormonal role of Six-rowed spike 2 (Vrs2), which encodes a SHORT INTERNODES (SHI) transcriptional regulator during barley inflorescence and shoot development. We show that Vrs2 is specifically involved in floral organ patterning and phase duration by maintaining hormonal homeostasis and gradients during normal spike development and similarly influences plant stature traits. Furthermore, we establish a link between the SHI protein family and sucrose metabolism during organ growth and development that may have implications for deeper molecular insights into inflorescence and plant architecture in crops.

  1. Yeast-based reporter assays for the functional characterization of cochaperone interactions with steroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Balsiger, Heather A; Cox, Marc B

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptor-mediated reporter assays in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been an invaluable tool for the identification and functional characterization of steroid hormone receptor-associated chaperones and cochaperones. This chapter describes a hormone-inducible androgen receptor-mediated beta-galactosidase reporter assay in yeast. In addition, the immunophilin FKBP52 is used as a specific example of a receptor-associated cochaperone that acts as a positive regulator of receptor function. With the right combination of receptor and cochaperone expression plasmids, reporter plasmid, and ligand, the assay protocol described here could be used to functionally characterize a wide variety of nuclear receptor-cochaperone interactions. In addition to the functional characterization of receptor regulatory proteins, a modified version of this assay is currently being used to screen compound libraries for selective FKBP52 inhibitors that represent attractive therapeutic candidates for the treatment of steroid hormone receptor-associated diseases.

  2. Regulation of growth hormone secretion by the growth hormone releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6).

    PubMed

    Micic, D; Mallo, F; Peino, R; Cordido, F; Leal-Cerro, A; Garcia-Mayor, R V; Casanueva, F F

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is regulated by a complex system of central and peripheral signals. Recently, a new GH-releasing hexapeptide (His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) called GHRP-6 which specifically releases GH has been studied. In the present work the mechanism of action of GHRP-6 has been addressed in experimental animal models as well as in obese subjects. GHRP-6 releases GH independently of the hypothalamic factors GHRH and somatostatin and is a powerful GH releaser in obesity.

  3. Endostatin inhibits androgen-independent prostate cancer growth by suppressing nuclear receptor-mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Hyoung; Kang, Minsung; Wang, Hong; Naik, Gurudatta; Mobley, James A; Sonpavde, Guru; Garvey, W Timothy; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2017-04-01

    Androgen-deprivation therapy has been identified to induce oxidative stress in prostate cancer (PCa), leading to reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in a hormone-refractory manner. Thus, antioxidant therapies have gained attention as adjuvants for castration-resistant PCa. Here, we report for the first time that human endostatin (ES) prevents androgen-independent growth phenotype in PCa cells through its molecular targeting of AR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and downstream pro-oxidant signaling. This reversal after ES treatment significantly decreased PCa cell proliferation through down-regulation of GR and up-regulation of manganese superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione levels. Proteome and biochemical analyses of ES-treated PCa cells further indicated a significant up-regulation of enzymes in the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging machinery, including catalase, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, biliverdin reductase, and thioredoxin reductase, resulting in a concomitant reduction of intracellular ROS. ES further augmented the antioxidant system through up-regulation of glucose influx, the pentose phosphate pathway, and NAD salvaging pathways. This shift in cancer cell redox homeostasis by ES significantly decreased the effect of protumorigenic oxidative machinery on androgen-independent PCa growth, suggesting that ES can suppress GR-induced resistant phenotype upon AR antagonism and that the dual targeting action of ES on AR and GR can be further translated to PCa therapy.-Lee, J. H., Kang, M., Wang, H., Naik, G., Mobley, J. A., Sonpavde, G., Garvey, W. T., Darley-Usmar, V. M., Ponnazhagan, S. Endostatin inhibits androgen-independent prostate cancer growth by suppressing nuclear receptor-mediated oxidative stress.

  4. Molecular analysis of hormone-regulated petal regeneration in Petunia.

    PubMed

    Wu, X Q; Li, X G; Zhang, X S

    2008-07-01

    The petal is an important floral organ of higher plants. To study the mechanism of petal development, the in vitro regeneration system of petals was established in Petunia. High-frequency induction of petals occurred directly from explants on the media containing the combination of N6-benzyladenine (6-BA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Expression analysis of genes involved in flower development indicated that these genes were classified into three types. ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER (ALF) gene was induced during petal regeneration. Whereas, B-class and E-class genes, and genes involved in cell division were constitutively upregulated. In contrast, C-class and D-class genes were not expressed in explants and regenerated tissues. Further, in situ hybridization analysis showed that both ALF and GREEN PETAL (GP) expression were spatially regulated. The results suggest that differential regulation of gene expression occurs in the presence of hormones during petal regeneration, and hormone-regulated gene expression might be required for petal regeneration. This study provides the preliminary information to understand the mechanism of petal regeneration.

  5. Osteoblast hydraulic conductivity is regulated by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    It is our hypothesis that osteoblasts play a major role in regulating bone (re)modeling by regulating interstitial fluid (ISF) flow through individual bone compartments. We hypothesize that osteoblasts of the blood-bone membrane lining the bone surfaces are capable of regulating transosseous fluid flow. This regulatory function of the osteoblasts was tested in vitro by culturing a layer of rat calvarial osteoblasts on porous membranes. Such a layer of osteoblasts subjected to 7.3 mm Hg of hydrostatic pressure posed a significant resistance to fluid flow across the cell layer similar in magnitude to the resistance posed by endothelial monolayers in vitro. The hydraulic conductivity, the volumetric fluid flux per unit pressure drop, of the osteoblast layer was altered in response to certain hormones. Hydraulic conductivity decreased approximately 40% in response to 33 nM parathyroid hormone, while it exhibited biphasic behavior in response to calcitonin: increased 40% in response to 100 nM calcitonin and decreased 40% in response to 1000 nM calcitonin. Further, activation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin dramatically increased the hydraulic conductivity, while elevation of intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, by the calcium ionophore A23187 initially decreased the hydraulic conductivity at 5 minutes before increasing conductivity by 30 minutes. These results suggest that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and [Ca2+]i may mediate changes in the osteoblast hydraulic conductivity. The increase in hydraulic conductivity in response to 100 nM calcitonin and the decrease in response to PTH suggest that the stimulatory and inhibitory effects on bone formation of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone, respectively, may be due in part to alterations in bone fluid flow.

  6. Hormonal regulation of female nuptial coloration in a fish.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Amundsen, Trond; Svensson, Per Andreas; Mayer, Ian; Bjelvenmark, Jens; Forsgren, Elisabet

    2008-09-01

    Physiological color change in camouflage and mating is widespread among fishes, but little is known about the regulation of such temporal changes in nuptial coloration and particularly concerning female coloration. To better understand regulation of nuptial coloration we investigated physiological color change in female two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). Females of this species develop an orange belly that acts as an ornament. The orange color is caused by the color of the gonads combined with the chromathophore based pigmentation and transparency of the skin. Often during courtship and female-female competition, a rapid increase in orange coloration, in combination with lighter sides and back that increases skin and body transparency, gives the belly an intense 'glowing' appearance. To understand how this increased orange coloration can be regulated we analysed chromatic and transparency effects of neurohumoral agents on abdominal skin biopsies in vitro. We found prolactin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) to increase orange coloration of the skin. By contrast, melatonin and noradrenaline increased skin transparency, but had a negative effect on orange coloration. However, mixtures of melatonin and MSH, or melatonin and prolactin, increased both orange coloration and transparency. This effect mimics the chromatic 'glow' effect that commonly takes place during courtship and intra sexual aggression. Notably, not only epidermal chromatophores but also internal chromatophores lining the peritoneum responded to hormone treatments. There were no chromatic effects of the sex steroids 17beta-estradiol, testosterone or 11-ketotestosterone. We hypothesize that similar modulation of nuptial coloration by multiple hormones may be widespread in nature.

  7. Osteoblast hydraulic conductivity is regulated by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    It is our hypothesis that osteoblasts play a major role in regulating bone (re)modeling by regulating interstitial fluid (ISF) flow through individual bone compartments. We hypothesize that osteoblasts of the blood-bone membrane lining the bone surfaces are capable of regulating transosseous fluid flow. This regulatory function of the osteoblasts was tested in vitro by culturing a layer of rat calvarial osteoblasts on porous membranes. Such a layer of osteoblasts subjected to 7.3 mm Hg of hydrostatic pressure posed a significant resistance to fluid flow across the cell layer similar in magnitude to the resistance posed by endothelial monolayers in vitro. The hydraulic conductivity, the volumetric fluid flux per unit pressure drop, of the osteoblast layer was altered in response to certain hormones. Hydraulic conductivity decreased approximately 40% in response to 33 nM parathyroid hormone, while it exhibited biphasic behavior in response to calcitonin: increased 40% in response to 100 nM calcitonin and decreased 40% in response to 1000 nM calcitonin. Further, activation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin dramatically increased the hydraulic conductivity, while elevation of intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, by the calcium ionophore A23187 initially decreased the hydraulic conductivity at 5 minutes before increasing conductivity by 30 minutes. These results suggest that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and [Ca2+]i may mediate changes in the osteoblast hydraulic conductivity. The increase in hydraulic conductivity in response to 100 nM calcitonin and the decrease in response to PTH suggest that the stimulatory and inhibitory effects on bone formation of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone, respectively, may be due in part to alterations in bone fluid flow.

  8. Glucocorticoid hormone resistance during primate evolution: receptor-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Chrousos, G P; Renquist, D; Brandon, D; Eil, C; Pugeat, M; Vigersky, R; Cutler, G B; Loriaux, D L; Lipsett, M B

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of total and protein-unbound plasma cortisol of New World monkeys are higher than those of Old World primates and prosimians. The urinary free-cortisol excretion also is increased markedly. However, there is no physiologic evidence of increased cortisol effect. These findings suggest end-organ resistance to glucocorticoids. This was confirmed by showing that the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis is resistant to suppression by dexamethasone. To study this phenomenon, glucocorticoid receptors were examined in circulating mononuclear leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from both New and Old World species. The receptor content is the same in all species, but the New World monkeys have a markedly decreased binding affinity for dexamethasone. Thus, the resistance of these species to the action of cortisol is due to the decreased binding affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor. This presumed mutation must have occurred after the bifurcation of Old and New World primates (approximately 60 x 10(6) yr ago) and before the diversion of the New World primates from each other (approximately 15 x 10(6) yr ago). Images PMID:6952251

  9. Glucocorticoid hormone resistance during primate evolution: receptor-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chrousos, G P; Renquist, D; Brandon, D; Eil, C; Pugeat, M; Vigersky, R; Cutler, G B; Loriaux, D L; Lipsett, M B

    1982-03-01

    The concentrations of total and protein-unbound plasma cortisol of New World monkeys are higher than those of Old World primates and prosimians. The urinary free-cortisol excretion also is increased markedly. However, there is no physiologic evidence of increased cortisol effect. These findings suggest end-organ resistance to glucocorticoids. This was confirmed by showing that the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis is resistant to suppression by dexamethasone. To study this phenomenon, glucocorticoid receptors were examined in circulating mononuclear leukocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts from both New and Old World species. The receptor content is the same in all species, but the New World monkeys have a markedly decreased binding affinity for dexamethasone. Thus, the resistance of these species to the action of cortisol is due to the decreased binding affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor. This presumed mutation must have occurred after the bifurcation of Old and New World primates (approximately 60 x 10(6) yr ago) and before the diversion of the New World primates from each other (approximately 15 x 10(6) yr ago).

  10. Regulation of growth hormone secretion by (pro)renin receptor.

    PubMed

    Tani, Yuji; Yamada, Shozo; Inoshita, Naoko; Hirata, Yukio; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2015-06-03

    (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) has a single transmembrane domain that co-purifies with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). In addition to its role in cellular acidification, V-ATPase has been implicated in membrane fusion and exocytosis via its Vo domain. Results from the present study show that PRR is expressed in pituitary adenoma cells and regulates growth hormone (GH) release via V-ATPase-induced cellular acidification. Positive PRR immunoreactivity was detected more often in surgically resected, growth hormone-producing adenomas (GHomas) than in nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. GHomas strongly expressing PRR showed excess GH secretion, as evidenced by distinctly high plasma GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels, as well as an elevated nadir GH in response to the oral glucose tolerance test. Suppression of PRR expression in rat GHoma-derived GH3 cells using PRR siRNA resulted in reduced GH secretion and significantly enhanced intracellular GH accumulation. GH3 treatment with bafilomycin A1, a V-ATPase inhibitor, also blocked GH release, indicating mediation via impaired cellular acidification of V-ATPase. PRR knockdown decreased Atp6l, a subunit of the Vo domain that destabilizes V-ATPase assembly, increased intracellular GH, and decreased GH release. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating a pivotal role for PRR in a pituitary hormone release mechanism.

  11. Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

    PubMed

    Herman, W S; Tatar, M

    2001-12-22

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive development is arrested as a consequence of suppressed synthesis of juvenile hormone. Here, we describe survival in monarch butterflies as a function of the migrant syndrome. We show that migrant adults are longer lived than summer adults when each are maintained under standard laboratory conditions, that the longevity of migrant adults is curtailed by treatment with juvenile hormone and that the longevity of summer adults is increased by 100% when juvenile hormone synthesis is prevented by surgical removal of its source, the corpora allatum. Thus, monarch butterfly persistence through a long winter season is ensured in part by reduced ageing that is under endocrine regulation, as well as by the unique environmental properties of their winter roost sites. Phenotypic plasticity for ageing is an integral component of the monarch butterflies' migration-diapause syndrome.

  12. Female sex hormones, salt, and blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Burnier, Michel

    2004-10-01

    There are gender-associated differences in blood pressure (BP) in humans, with men having higher BP than age-matched pre-menopausal women and being at greater risk for cardiovascular and renal diseases. The mechanisms responsible for the gender differences in BP control and regulation are not clear, although there is some evidence that interactions between sex hormones and the kidneys could play a role. However, the response to salt in pre- and post-menopausal women, and in particular the influence of exogenous and endogenous female sex hormones on renal hemodynamics and tubular segmental sodium handling, have been poorly investigated. Recently we have shown that both endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones markedly influence the systemic and renal hemodynamic response to salt. We have found that BP in young normotensive women, regardless of oral contraceptive use, is rather insensitive to salt. However, the renal hemodynamic and the tubular responses to salt vary significantly during the normal menstrual cycle and with the administration of oral contraceptives. Furthermore, after the menopause, BP tends to become salt sensitive, a pattern that could be due to aging as well as to the modification of the sex hormone profile. These observations provide new insights pertaining to potential mechanisms explaining the lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and progression of renal disease in pre-menopausal women (which tend to disappear with the menopause); these observations also emphasize the importance of considering more carefully the phase of the menstrual cycle whenever conducting physiologic studies in women and enrolling women in clinical studies. Finally, increased salt sensitivity in menopausal women strongly encourages the use of diuretics.

  13. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  14. Site of action of the general anesthetic propofol in muscarinic M1 receptor-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Murasaki, Osamu; Kaibara, Muneshige; Nagase, Yoshihisa; Mitarai, Sayaka; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Sumikawa, Koji; Taniyama, Kohtaro

    2003-12-01

    Although a potential target site of general anesthetics is primarily the GABA A receptor, a chloride ion channel, a previous study suggested that the intravenous general anesthetic propofol attenuates the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 receptor)-mediated signal transduction. In the present study, we examined the target site of propofol in M1 receptor-mediated signal transduction. Two-electrode voltage-clamp method was used in Xenopus oocytes expressing both M1 receptors and associated G protein alpha subunits (Gqalpha). Propofol inhibited M1 receptor-mediated signal transduction in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 50 nM). Injection of guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS) into oocytes overexpressing Gqalpha was used to investigate direct effects of propofol on G protein coupled with the M1 receptor. Propofol did not affect activation of Gqalpha-mediated signal transduction with the intracellular injection of GTPgammaS. We also studied effects of propofol on l-[N-methyl-3H]scopolamine methyl chloride ([3H]NMS) binding and M1 receptor-mediated signal transduction in mammalian cells expressing M1 receptor. Propofol inhibited the M1 receptor-mediated signal transduction but did not inhibit binding of [3H]NMS. Effects of propofol on Gs- and Gi/o-coupled signal transduction were investigated, using oocytes expressing the beta2 adrenoceptor (beta2 receptor)/cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator or oocytes expressing the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor)/Kir3.1 (a member of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels). Neither beta2 receptor-mediated nor M2 receptor-mediated signal transduction was inhibited by a relatively high concentration of propofol (50 microM). These results indicate that propofol inhibits M1 receptor-mediated signal transduction by selectively disrupting interaction between the receptor and associated G protein.

  15. Endometriosis: hormone regulation and clinical consequences of chemotaxis and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Fernando M.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The recruitment of immune cells by chemokines and the regulation of endometrial cell apoptosis are critical aspects of endometriosis biology. Here, we review the local (paracrine) and systemic hormone (endocrine) modulation of these two specific, but highly related phenomena. METHODS We searched Pubmed for items published in English between September 1991 and September 2011 and selected the studies evaluating the effects of hormones on chemokines or apoptosis in normal human endometrium and endometriosis. RESULTS Estradiol has proinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects in endometrial cells, and these effects appear to be exacerbated in women with endometriosis. In these women, physiological estradiol concentrations are able to induce an enhanced inflammatory response mediated by local chemokine production and to reinforce mechanisms of cell survival mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases and Bcl-2. The main effect of progestogens is to inhibit interleukin-8 and other chemokines in stromal cells from both eutopic and ectopic endometrium. Progesterone is also effective in inducing apoptosis in endometrial and endometriotic cells through the inhibition of Bcl-2 and nuclear factor-κB. CONCLUSIONS Estrogens and progestogens modulate chemotaxis and apoptosis in human endometrium and endometriotic cells and tissues. These endocrine and paracrine pathways are perturbed in women with endometriosis, contributing to inflammatory responses, abnormal tissue remodeling, therapeutic refractoriness and disease persistence. Ultimately, they promote adhesion formation and the clinical symptoms of pelvic pain and infertility. A more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved will offer new opportunities for novel pharmacological strategies to diagnose and treat endometriosis. PMID:23539633

  16. Neurohypophysial Hormones Regulate Amphibious Behaviour in the Mudskipper Goby

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Nishiyama, Yudai; Ikeda, Aoi; Takahashi, Hideya; Hyodo, Susumu; Kagawa, Nao; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    The neurohypophysial hormones, arginine vasotocin and isotocin, regulate both hydromineral balance and social behaviors in fish. In the amphibious mudskipper, Periophthalmus modestus, we previously found arginine-vasotocin-specific regulation of aggressive behavior, including migration of the submissive subordinate into water. This migration also implies the need for adaptation to dehydration. Here, we examined the effects of arginine vasotocin and isotocin administration on the amphibious behavior of individual mudskippers in vivo. The mudskippers remained in the water for an increased period of time after 1–8 h of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with 500 pg/g arginine vasotocin or isotocin. The ‘frequency of migration’ was decreased after ICV injection of arginine vasotocin or isotocin, reflecting a tendency to remain in the water. ICV injections of isotocin receptor antagonist with arginine vasotocin or isotocin inhibited all of these hormonal effects. In animals kept out of water, mRNA expression of brain arginine vasotocin and isotocin precursors increased 3- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Given the relatively wide distribution of arginine vasotocin fibres throughout the mudskipper brain, induction of arginine vasotocin and isotocin under terrestrial conditions may be involved also in the preference for an aquatic habitat as ligands for brain isotocin receptors. PMID:26230718

  17. Fasting-induced hormonal regulation of lysosomal function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liqun; Wang, Ke; Long, Aijun; Jia, Liangjie; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Deng, Haiteng; Li, Yu; Han, Jinbo; Wang, Yiguo

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomes are centers for nutrient sensing and recycling that allow mammals to adapt to starvation. Regulation of lysosome dynamics by internal nutrient signaling is well described, but the mechanisms by which external cues modulate lysosomal function are unclear. Here, we describe an essential role of the fasting-induced hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in lysosome homeostasis in mice. Fgf21 deficiency impairs hepatic lysosomal function by blocking transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosome biogenesis and autophagy. FGF21 induces mobilization of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum, which activates the transcriptional repressor downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), and thereby inhibits expression of Mid1 (encoding the E3 ligase Midline-1). Protein phosphatase PP2A, a substrate of MID1, accumulates and dephosphorylates TFEB, thereby upregulating genes involved in lysosome biogenesis, autophagy and lipid metabolism. Thus, an FGF21-TFEB signaling axis links lysosome homeostasis with extracellular hormonal signaling to orchestrate lipid metabolism during fasting. PMID:28374748

  18. Regulation of Triglyceride Metabolism. IV. Hormonal regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Kathy; Sarkadi-Nagy, Eszter; Duncan, Robin E.; Ahmadian, Maryam; Sul, Hei Sook

    2010-01-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) stored in adipose tissue can be rapidly mobilized by the hydrolytic action of lipases, with the release of fatty acids (FA) that are used by other tissues during times of energy deprivation. Unlike synthesis of TAG, which occurs not only in adipose tissue but also in other tissues such as liver for very-low-density lipoprotein formation, hydrolysis of TAG, lipolysis, predominantly occurs in adipose tissue. Until recently, hormone-sensitive lipase was considered to be the key rate-limiting enzyme responsible for regulating TAG mobilization. However, recent studies on hormone-sensitive lipase-null mice have challenged such a concept. A novel lipase named desnutrin/ATGL has been recently discovered to play a key role in lipolysis in adipocytes. Lipolysis is under tight hormonal regulation. Although opposing regulation of lipolysis in adipose tissue by insulin and catecholamines is well understood, autocrine/paracrine factors may also participate in its regulation. Intricate cooperation of these endocrine and autocrine/paracrine factors leads to a fine regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes, needed for energy homeostasis. In this review, we summarize and discuss the recent progress made in the regulation of adipocyte lipolysis. PMID:17218471

  19. Thyroid hormone and estrogen regulate exercise-induced growth hormone release.

    PubMed

    Ignacio, Daniele Leão; da S Silvestre, Diego H; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Louzada, Ruy Andrade; Carvalho, Denise P; Werneck-de-Castro, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues were harvested immediately or 30 min after exercise. Non-exercised animals were used as controls. A significant increase in D1 activity occurred immediately after exercise (~60%) in sham-operated animals and GH was higher (~6-fold) 30 min after exercise. Estrogen deficient rats exhibited basal levels of GH and D1 activity comparable to those found in control rats. However, after exercise both D1 activity and serum GH levels were blunted compared to sedentary rats. To understand the potential cause-effect of D1 activation in exercise-induced GH release, we pharmacologically blocked D1 activity by propylthiouracil (PTU) injection into intact rats and submitted them to the acute exercise session. D1 inhibition blocked exercise-induced GH secretion, although basal levels were unaltered. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency impairs the induction of thyroid hormone activating enzyme D1 in the pituitary, and GH release by acute exercise. Also, acute D1 activation is essential for exercise-induced GH response.

  20. Thyroid Hormone and Estrogen Regulate Exercise-Induced Growth Hormone Release

    PubMed Central

    Ignacio, Daniele Leão; da S. Silvestre, Diego H.; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Louzada, Ruy Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues were harvested immediately or 30 min after exercise. Non-exercised animals were used as controls. A significant increase in D1 activity occurred immediately after exercise (~60%) in sham-operated animals and GH was higher (~6-fold) 30 min after exercise. Estrogen deficient rats exhibited basal levels of GH and D1 activity comparable to those found in control rats. However, after exercise both D1 activity and serum GH levels were blunted compared to sedentary rats. To understand the potential cause-effect of D1 activation in exercise-induced GH release, we pharmacologically blocked D1 activity by propylthiouracil (PTU) injection into intact rats and submitted them to the acute exercise session. D1 inhibition blocked exercise-induced GH secretion, although basal levels were unaltered. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency impairs the induction of thyroid hormone activating enzyme D1 in the pituitary, and GH release by acute exercise. Also, acute D1 activation is essential for exercise-induced GH response. PMID:25874614

  1. Melanin pigmentation in mammalian skin and its hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Tobin, Desmond J; Shibahara, Shigeki; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2004-10-01

    Cutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory control by multiple agents interacting via pathways activated by receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms, in hormonal, auto-, para-, or intracrine fashion. Because of the multidirectional nature and heterogeneous character of the melanogenesis modifying agents, its controlling factors are not organized into simple linear sequences, but they interphase instead in a multidimensional network, with extensive functional overlapping with connections arranged both in series and in parallel. The most important positive regulator of melanogenesis is the MC1 receptor with its ligands melanocortins and ACTH, whereas among the negative regulators agouti protein stands out, determining intensity of melanogenesis and also the type of melanin synthesized. Within the context of the skin as a stress organ, melanogenic activity serves as a unique molecular sensor and transducer of noxious signals and as regulator of local homeostasis. In keeping with these multiple roles, melanogenesis is controlled by a highly structured system, active since early embryogenesis and capable of superselective functional regulation that may reach down to the cellular level represented by single melanocytes. Indeed, the significance of melanogenesis extends beyond the mere assignment of a color trait.

  2. [Breast hormones--regulators of energy homeostasis: growth of infants].

    PubMed

    Kon', I Ia; Shilina, N M; Gmoshinskaia, M V; Ivanushkina, T A

    2011-01-01

    Studied the possible relationship between the growth rate of children who are breastfed, and the level of protein, fat, insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1), ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin in breast milk. Examined 71 pair--a mother and a healthy child, who is breastfed. All infants were divided into 3 groups: low, normal and high weight gain. Daily breast milk intake, the level of fat, protein and hormones proteins regulators of energy homeostasis (adiponectin, grelin, IGF-1 and leptin) in breast milk were measured at 1, 2 and 3 months of lactation. It was found that daily breast milk consumption was higher in the group of infants with high weight gain and the content of protein and fat in it did not differ in three groups. Total daily consumption of protein and fat with breast milk was higher in groups of infants with high weight gain. There was significantly higher IGF-1 level and the tendency to higher grelin level in breast milk of mothers of infants with higher weight gain. The possible link of breast milk hormones with growth velocity of breast-fed infants is discussed.

  3. Estrogens Regulate the Hepatic Effects of Growth Hormone, a Hormonal Interplay with Multiple Fates

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Guerra, Borja; Díaz-Chico, Juan C.; Flores-Morales, A.

    2013-01-01

    The liver responds to estrogens and growth hormone (GH) which are critical regulators of body growth, gender-related hepatic functions, and intermediate metabolism. The effects of estrogens on liver can be direct, through the direct actions of hepatic ER, or indirect, which include the crosstalk with endocrine, metabolic, and sex-differentiated functions of GH. Most previous studies have been focused on the influence of estrogens on pituitary GH secretion, which has a great impact on hepatic transcriptional regulation. However, there is strong evidence that estrogens can influence the GH-regulated endocrine and metabolic functions in the human liver by acting at the level of GHR-STAT5 signaling pathway. This crosstalk is relevant because the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. Therefore, GH or estrogen signaling deficiency as well as the influence of estrogens on GH biology can cause a dramatic impact in liver physiology during mammalian development and in adulthood. In this review, we will summarize the current status of the influence of estrogen on GH actions in liver. A better understanding of estrogen-GH interplay in liver will lead to improved therapy of children with growth disorders and of adults with GH deficiency. PMID:23761784

  4. Mechanics of receptor-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huajian; Shi, Wendong; Freund, Lambert B.

    2005-07-01

    Most viruses and bioparticles endocytosed by cells have characteristic sizes in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The process of viruses entering and leaving animal cells is mediated by the binding interaction between ligand molecules on the viral capid and their receptor molecules on the cell membrane. How does the size of a bioparticle affect receptor-mediated endocytosis? Here, we study how a cell membrane containing diffusive mobile receptors wraps around a ligand-coated cylindrical or spherical particle. It is shown that particles in the size range of tens to hundreds of nanometers can enter or exit cells via wrapping even in the absence of clathrin or caveolin coats, and an optimal particles size exists for the smallest wrapping time. This model can also be extended to include the effect of clathrin coat. The results seem to show broad agreement with experimental observations. Author contributions: H.G. and L.B.F. designed research; H.G., W.S., and L.B.F. performed research; and H.G., W.S., and L.B.F. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: CNT, carbon nanotube; SWNT, single-walled nanotube.

  5. Receptor-mediated signaling at plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) generate continuity between plant cells via the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane (PM), allowing movement of different classes of molecules between cells. Proteomic data indicates that the PD PM hosts many receptors and receptor kinases, as well as lipid raft and tetraspanin enriched microdomain associated proteins, suggesting the hypothesis that the PD PM is specialized with respect to both composition and function. PD-located receptor proteins and receptor kinases are responsible for perception of microbe associated molecular patterns at PD and initiate signaling that mediates changes to PD flux. In addition, developmentally relevant receptor kinases have different interactions dependent upon whether located at the PD PM or the cellular PM. The implications of these findings are that receptor-mediated signaling in PD membranes differs from that in the cellular PM and, in light the identification of PD-located proteins associated with membrane microdomains and the role of membrane microdomains in analogous signaling processes in animals, suggests that the PD PM contains specialized signaling platforms.

  6. Energy balance regulation by thyroid hormones at central level.

    PubMed

    López, Miguel; Alvarez, Clara V; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Classically, medical textbooks taught that most effects of thyroid hormones (THs) on energy homeostasis are directly exerted in peripheral tissues. However, current evidence is changing (and challenging) our perspective about the role of THs from a 'peripheral' to a 'central' vision, implying that they affect food intake, energy expenditure, and metabolism by acting, to a large extent, at the central level. Interestingly, effects of THs are interrelated with global energy sensors in the central nervous system (CNS), such as uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK; the 'AMPK-BAT axis'), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Here, we review what is currently known about THs and their regulation of energy balance and metabolism in both peripheral and central tissues.

  7. AKT Regulates BRCA1 Stability in Response to Hormone Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew C.; Lyons, Traci R.; Young, Christian D.; Hansen, Kirk C.; Anderson, Steven M.; Holt, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    BRCA1, with its binding partner BARD1, regulates the cellular response to DNA damage in multiple tissues, yet inherited mutations within BRCA1 result specifically in breast and ovarian cancers. This observation, along with several other lines of evidence, suggests a functional relationship may exist between hormone signaling and BRCA1 function. Our data demonstrates that AKT activation promotes the expression of BRCA1 in response to estrogen and IGF-1 receptor signaling. Further, we have identified a novel AKT phosphorylation site in BRCA1 at S694 which is responsive to activation of these signaling pathways. This rapid increase in BRCA1 protein levels appears to occur independently of new protein synthesis and treatment with the clinically utilized proteasome inhibitor bortezomib similarly leads to a rapid increase in BRCA1 protein levels. Together, these data suggest that AKT phosphorylation of BRCA1 increases total protein expression by preventing proteasomal degradation. AKT activation also appears to support nuclear localization of BRCA1, and co-expression of activated AKT with BRCA1 decreases radiation sensitivity, suggesting this interaction has functional consequences for BRCA1's role in DNA repair. We conclude that AKT regulates BRCA1 protein stability and function through direct phosphorylation of BRCA1. Further, the responsiveness of the AKT-BRCA1 regulatory pathway to hormone signaling may, in part, underlie the tissue specificity of BRCA1 mutant cancers. Pharmacological targets within this pathway could provide strategies for modulation of BRCA1 protein, which may prove therapeutically beneficial for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers. PMID:20085797

  8. Bisphenol A influences oestrogen- and thyroid hormone-regulated thyroid hormone receptor expression in rat cerebellar cell culture.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Virág; Horváth, Tamás L; Tóth, István; Bartha, Tibor; Frenyó, László Vilmos; Kiss, Dávid Sándor; Jócsák, Gergely; Kerti, Annamária; Naftolin, Frederick; Zsarnovszky, Attila

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) and oestrogens are crucial in the regulation of cerebellar development. TH receptors (TRs) mediate these hormone effects and are regulated by both hormone families. We reported earlier that THs and oestradiol (E2) determine TR levels in cerebellar cell culture. Here we demonstrate the effects of low concentrations (10(-10) M) of the endocrine disruptor (ED) bisphenol A (BPA) on the hormonal (THs, E2) regulation of TRα,β in rat cerebellar cell culture. Primary cerebellar cell cultures, glia-containing and glia-destroyed, were treated with BPA or a combination of BPA and E2 and/or THs. Oestrogen receptor and TH receptor mRNA and protein levels were determined by real-time qPCR and Western blot techniques. The results show that BPA alone decreases, while BPA in combination with THs and/or E2 increases TR mRNA expression. In contrast, BPA alone increased receptor protein expressions, but did not further increase them in combination with THs and/or E2. The modulatory effects of BPA were mediated by the glia; however, the degree of changes also depended on the specific hormone ligand used. The results signify the importance of the regulatory mechanisms interposed between transcription and translation and raise the possibility that BPA could act to influence nuclear hormone receptor levels independently of ligand-receptor interaction.

  9. Differential modulation of expression of nuclear receptor mediated genes by tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) on early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Yu, Yijun; Tang, Song; Liu, Hongling; Su, Guanyong; Xie, Yuwei; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Yu, Hongxia

    2015-12-01

    As one substitute for phased-out brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is frequently detected in aquatic organisms. However, knowledge about endocrine disrupting mechanisms associated with nuclear receptors caused by TBOEP remained restricted to results from in vitro studies with mammalian cells. In the study, results of which are presented here, embryos/larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0.02, 0.1 or 0.5μM TBOEP to investigate expression of genes under control of several nuclear hormone receptors (estrogen receptors (ERs), androgen receptor (AR), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and pregnane×receptor (P×R)) pathways at 120hpf. Exposure to 0.5μM TBOEP significantly (p<0.05, one-way analysis of variance) up-regulated expression of estrogen receptors (ERs, er1, er2a, and er2b) genes and ER-associated genes (vtg4, vtg5, pgr, ncor, and ncoa3), indicating TBOEP modulates the ER pathway. In contrast, expression of most genes (mr, 11βhsd, ube2i,and adrb2b) associated with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway were significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, in vitro mammalian cell-based (MDA-kb2 and H4IIE-luc) receptor transactivation assays, were also conducted to investigate possible agonistic or antagonistic effects on AR- and AhR-mediated pathways. In mammalian cells, none of these pathways were affected by TBOEP at the concentrations studied. Receptor-mediated responses (in vivo) and mammalian cell lines receptor binding assay (in vitro) combined with published information suggest that TBOEP can modulate receptor-mediated, endocrine process (in vivo/in vitro), particularly ER and MR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hormonal regulation of glycogen metabolism in neonatal rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan L.; Rall, Theodore W.

    1973-01-01

    1. The development of active and inactive phosphorylase was determined in rat liver during the perinatal period. No inactive form could be found in tissues from animals less than 19 days gestation or older than the fifth postnatal day. 2. The regulation of phosphorylase in organ cultures of foetal rat liver was examined. None of the agents examined [glucagon, insulin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (6-N,2′-O-dibutyryladenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate)] changed the amount of phosphorylase activity. 3. Glycogen concentration in these explants were nevertheless decreased more than twofold by 4h of incubation with glucagon or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Incubation with insulin for 4h increased the glycogen content twofold. 4. Glycogen synthetase activity was examined in these explants. I-form activity (without glucose 6-phosphate) was found to decrease by a factor of two after 4h of incubation with dibutyryl cyclic AMP, whereas I+D activity (with glucose 6-phosphate) remained nearly constant. Incubation for 4h with insulin increased I-form activity threefold, with only a slight increase in I+D activity. 5. When explants were incubated with insulin followed by addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, the effects of insulin on glycogen concentration and glycogen synthetase activity were reversed. 6. These results indicate that the regulation of glycogen synthesis may be the major factor in the hormonal control of glycogen metabolism in neonatal rat liver. PMID:4357717

  11. Hormonal regulation of physiological cell turnover and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Medh, Rheem D.; Thompson, E. Brad

    2009-01-01

    Physiological cell turnover plays an important role in maintaining normal tissue function and architecture. This is achieved by the dynamic balance of cellular regeneration and elimination, occurring periodically in tissues such as the uterus and mammary gland, or at constant rates in tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue. Apoptosis has been identified as the prevalent mode of physiological cell loss in most tissues. Cell turnover is precisely regulated by the interplay of various endocrine and paracrine factors, which modulate tissue and cell-specific responses on proliferation and apoptosis, either directly, or by altering expression and function of key cell proliferative and/or death genes. Although recent studies have provided significant information on specific tissue systems, a clearly defined pathway that mediates cell turnover has not yet emerged for any tissue. Several similarities exist among the various tissues with regard to the intermediates that regulate tissue homeostasis, enabling a better understanding of the general mechanisms involved in the process. Here we review the mechanisms by which hormonal and cytokine factors mediate cell turnover in various tissues, emphasizing common themes and tissue-specific differences. PMID:10928284

  12. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  13. Glutamate receptor-mediated toxicity in optic nerve oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Matute, Carlos; Sánchez-Gómez, M. Victoria; Martínez-Millán, Luis; Miledi, Ricardo

    1997-01-01

    In cultured oligodendrocytes isolated from perinatal rat optic nerves, we have analyzed the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits as well as the effect of the activation of these receptors on oligodendrocyte viability. Reverse transcription–PCR, in combination with immunocytochemistry, demonstrated that most oligodendrocytes differentiated in vitro express the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR3 and GluR4 and the kainate receptor subunits GluR6, GluR7, KA1 and KA2. Acute and chronic exposure to kainate caused extensive oligodendrocyte death in culture. This effect was partially prevented by the AMPA receptor antagonist GYKI 52466 and was completely abolished by the non-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), suggesting that both AMPA and kainate receptors mediate the observed kainate toxicity. Furthermore, chronic application of kainate to optic nerves in vivo resulted in massive oligodendrocyte death which, as in vitro, could be prevented by coinfusion of the toxin with CNQX. These findings suggest that excessive activation of the ionotropic glutamate receptors expressed by oligodendrocytes may act as a negative regulator of the size of this cell population. PMID:9238063

  14. Hemoglobin Uptake by Paracoccidioides spp. Is Receptor-Mediated

    PubMed Central

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pigosso, Laurine Lacerda; de Castro, Kelly Pacheco; Fonseca, Fernanda Lopes; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Báo, Sônia Nair; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G.; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for the proliferation of fungal pathogens during infection. The availability of iron is limited due to its association with host proteins. Fungal pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to acquire iron from host; however, little is known regarding how Paracoccidioides species incorporate and metabolize this ion. In this work, host iron sources that are used by Paracoccidioides spp. were investigated. Robust fungal growth in the presence of the iron-containing molecules hemin and hemoglobin was observed. Paracoccidioides spp. present hemolytic activity and have the ability to internalize a protoporphyrin ring. Using real-time PCR and nanoUPLC-MSE proteomic approaches, fungal growth in the presence of hemoglobin was shown to result in the positive regulation of transcripts that encode putative hemoglobin receptors, in addition to the induction of proteins that are required for amino acid metabolism and vacuolar protein degradation. In fact, one hemoglobin receptor ortholog, Rbt5, was identified as a surface GPI-anchored protein that recognized hemin, protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in vitro. Antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation were used to generate mitotically stable Pbrbt5 mutants. The knockdown strain had a lower survival inside macrophages and in mouse spleen when compared with the parental strain, which suggested that Rbt5 could act as a virulence factor. In summary, our data indicate that Paracoccidioides spp. can use hemoglobin as an iron source most likely through receptor-mediated pathways that might be relevant for pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:24831516

  15. Hemoglobin uptake by Paracoccidioides spp. is receptor-mediated.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Parente, Juliana Alves; Pigosso, Laurine Lacerda; de Castro, Kelly Pacheco; Fonseca, Fernanda Lopes; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Báo, Sônia Nair; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Rodrigues, Marcio L; Hernandez, Orville; McEwen, Juan G; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Iron is essential for the proliferation of fungal pathogens during infection. The availability of iron is limited due to its association with host proteins. Fungal pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to acquire iron from host; however, little is known regarding how Paracoccidioides species incorporate and metabolize this ion. In this work, host iron sources that are used by Paracoccidioides spp. were investigated. Robust fungal growth in the presence of the iron-containing molecules hemin and hemoglobin was observed. Paracoccidioides spp. present hemolytic activity and have the ability to internalize a protoporphyrin ring. Using real-time PCR and nanoUPLC-MSE proteomic approaches, fungal growth in the presence of hemoglobin was shown to result in the positive regulation of transcripts that encode putative hemoglobin receptors, in addition to the induction of proteins that are required for amino acid metabolism and vacuolar protein degradation. In fact, one hemoglobin receptor ortholog, Rbt5, was identified as a surface GPI-anchored protein that recognized hemin, protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in vitro. Antisense RNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation were used to generate mitotically stable Pbrbt5 mutants. The knockdown strain had a lower survival inside macrophages and in mouse spleen when compared with the parental strain, which suggested that Rbt5 could act as a virulence factor. In summary, our data indicate that Paracoccidioides spp. can use hemoglobin as an iron source most likely through receptor-mediated pathways that might be relevant for pathogenic mechanisms.

  16. Hormonal regulation of potassium currents in single myometrial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Toro, L; Stefani, E; Erulkar, S

    1990-01-01

    Three potassium currents (IK) were recorded from myometrial cells isolated from the uterus of rats at estrus and diestrus and kept in culture for 1-6 days. IK were differentiated by their modulation with norepinephrine and/or by their onset kinetics. At +50 mV the activation time constants were about 0.7 ms, 6 ms, and 15 ms for the fast, the intermediate, and the slow IK, respectively. Norepinephrine (1 microM) potentiated the fast IK and reduced the intermediate IK. In addition, differences were found with respect to cells from animals at estrus and diestrus. The fast IK was preferentially expressed in cultures from animals at estrus, whereas the intermediate IK was more frequent in cells from rats at diestrus. These results indicate that K+ channels from myometrial cells are multiregulated. Regulation may occur by short-term signals (neurotransmitters) and/or by preferentially expressing distinct types of channels depending on the hormonal status of the animal. PMID:2326254

  17. Thyroid hormones regulate skeletal muscle regeneration after acute injury.

    PubMed

    Leal, Anna Lúcia R C; Albuquerque, João Paulo C; Matos, Marina S; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Carvalho, Denise P; Rosenthal, Doris; da Costa, Vânia Maria Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroid statuses during the initial phase of skeletal muscle regeneration in rats. To induce hypo- or hyperthyroidism, adult male Wistar rats were treated with methimazole (0.03%) or T4 (10 μg/100 g), respectively, for 10 days. Three days before sacrifice, a crush injury was produced in the solear muscles of one half of the animals, while the other half remained intact. T3, T4, TSH, and leptin serum levels were not affected by the injury. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly increased in hyperthyroid and hyper-injury animals. Hypothyroidism was confirmed by the significant increase in serum TSH levels in hypothyroid and hypo-injury animals. Injury increased cell infiltration and macrophage accumulation especially in hyperthyroid animals. Both type 2 and type 3 deiodinases were induced by lesion, and the opposite occurred with the type 1 isoform, at least in the control and hyperthyroid groups. Injury increased both MyoD and myogenin expression in all the studied groups, but only MyoD expression was increased by thyroidal status only at the protein level. We conclude that thyroid hormones modulate skeletal muscle regeneration possibly by regulating the inflammatory process, as well as MyoD and myogenin expression in the injured tissue.

  18. Specificity of simple hormone response elements in androgen regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Marschke, K B; Tan, J A; Kupfer, S R; Wilson, E M; French, F S

    1995-11-01

    Androgen (AR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors recognize a family of 15 base pair partial palindromic hormone response elements (HRE). We have studied receptor interactions with several HREs from androgen regulated genes to determine their potential to mediate a selective androgen response. Synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to the elements were analysed for receptor binding and steroid dependent transcriptional enhancer activities. Each HRE contained the 3' half-site sequence (5'-TGTNCT-3') of the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) consensus sequence. HREs that countained the 5' half-site GRE consensus sequence (5'-A/GGNACA/G-3') had the strongest and-rogen response element (ARE) and GRE activities. In methylation interference assays, AR and GR interacted with identical base contact sites in the response elements. Two elements that deviated from the GRE consensus sequence by a single optimal base in the 5' half, had reduced ARE activity with no significant change in GRE activity and displayed lower binding of AR than GR in mobility shift assays using purified DNA binding domain peptides. Transfections with AR/GR and GR/AR chimeras containing the N-terminal domain of one receptor linked to the DNA-binding and C-terminal domains of the other suggested that N-terminal domain functions of GR also contributed to the greater GRE than ARE activities of the response elements.

  19. CREBZF expression and hormonal regulation in the mouse uterus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background CREBZF is a member of the mammalian ATF/CREB family of the basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. Two isoforms of CREBZF have been identified from the alternative usage of initiation codons, SMILE (long isoform of CREBZF) and Zhangfei (short isoform of CREBZF). Until recently, the physiological function of CREBZF in mammalian reproductions has not been reported. Methods Multiple techniques were performed to investigate the spatiotemporal expression and hormonal regulation of the CREBZF gene in the mouse uterus and its role in embryo implantation. Results Zhangfei was not detected in the mouse uterus. SMILE immunostaining was mainly expressed in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium, and the expression levels of both SMILE mRNA and protein gradually decreased from days 1–3 of pregnancy, peaked on day 4, and then declined again on day 6. On day 5 of pregnancy, SMILE protein expression was detected only in the luminal epithelium at implantation sites compared with the expression at inter-implantation sites. SMILE protein was not detected in decidual cells from days 6–8 of pregnancy or artificial decidualisation. Furthermore, SMILE protein was not detected in the mouse uterus on days 3–6 of pseudopregnancy, and SMILE expression was also induced in the delayed-implantation uterus, indicating that the presence of an active blastocyst was required for SMILE expression at the implantation site. Oestrogen significantly stimulated SMILE expression in the ovariectomised mouse uterus. In addition, in cycling mice, high levels of SMILE protein and mRNA expression were also observed in proestrus and oestrus uteri. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggested that SMILE expression was closely related to mouse implantation and up-regulated by oestrogen. PMID:24325733

  20. BACULOVIRUS REPLICATION ALTERS HORMONE-REGULATED HOST DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The baculovirus Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus interferes with insect larval development by altering the host's hormonal system. The level of haemolymph ecdysteroids, the insect moulting hormone, was found to be higher in virus-infected larvae than in uninfected cont...

  1. BACULOVIRUS REPLICATION ALTERS HORMONE-REGULATED HOST DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The baculovirus Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus interferes with insect larval development by altering the host's hormonal system. The level of haemolymph ecdysteroids, the insect moulting hormone, was found to be higher in virus-infected larvae than in uninfected cont...

  2. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  3. Roles of plant hormones in the regulation of host-virus interactions.

    PubMed

    Alazem, Mazen; Lin, Na-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Hormones are tuners of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. They are involved in various complicated networks, through which they modulate responses to different stimuli. Four hormones primarily regulate plant defence to pathogens: salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (Et) and abscisic acid (ABA). In susceptible plants, viral infections result in hormonal disruption, which manifests as the simultaneous induction of several antagonistic hormones. However, these antagonistic hormones may exhibit some sequential accumulation in resistant lines. Virus propagation is usually restricted by the activation of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) antiviral machinery and/or SA signalling pathway. Several studies have investigated these two systems, using different model viruses. However, the roles of hormones other than SA, especially those with antagonistic properties, such as ABA, have been neglected. Increasing evidence indicates that hormones control components of the small RNA system, which regulates many processes (including the siRNA antiviral machinery and the microRNA system) at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Consequently, cross-talk between the antagonistic SA and ABA pathways modulates plant responses at multiple levels. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the different roles of hormones in the regulation of plant-virus interactions, which are helping us to elucidate the fine tuning of viral and plant systems by hormones.

  4. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  5. Food intake regulation of circulating thyroid hormones in domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Harvey, S

    1985-11-01

    The relationship between food intake and thyroid function has been investigated in immature domestic fowl. Starvation delayed, but did not suppress, the triiodothyronine (T3) response to intravenously administered thyrotropin-releasing hormone (10 micrograms/kg). This probably resulted from a suppression of monodeiodinase activity, since the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to T3 in thyroidectomised birds following an intramuscular injection of T4 (10 micrograms/kg) was markedly reduced by starvation. Starvation, for 24 or 48 hr, lowered the circulating T3 level but increased the T4 concentration. When fasted birds were refed the T4 concentration was initially enhanced but subsequently declined as the T3 concentration progressively increased. The accompanying decline in the T4:T3 ratio in fasted-refed birds indicated that the rise in the T3 level resulted from the peripheral monodeiodination of T4. The increase in T3 concentration could be induced solely by carbohydrate; the intraperitoneal administration of glucose (2.0 g/kg) to fasted birds resulting in a slight, transient rise in the T3 concentration and a fall in the T4:T3 ratio. The generation of T3 was also energy dependent, in that the magnitude of the T3 response of fasted birds to refeeding was proportional to the amount of food consumed and to the metabolisable energy (ME) content of the diet. Moreover, when exogenous T4 (100 micrograms/kg) was intramuscularly administered to thyroidectomised birds fed a diet with a high ME content, the conversion of T4 to T4 was greater than that in birds fed a diet of lower ME content. These results demonstrate that nutritional stimuli are involved in the regulation of thyroid function in birds, particularly in the peripheral generation of T3.

  6. Mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery into antigen presenting dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Diebold, Sandra S; Plank, Christian; Cotten, Matt; Wagner, Ernst; Zenke, Martin

    2002-11-01

    Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells and are unique in their ability to prime naïve T cells. Gene modification of dendritic cells is of particular interest for immunotherapy of diseases where the immune system has failed or is aberrantly regulated, such as in cancer or autoimmune disease, respectively. Dendritic cells abundantly express mannose receptor and mannose receptor-related receptors, and receptor-mediated gene transfer via mannose receptor offers a versatile tool for targeted gene delivery into these cells. Accordingly, mannose polyethylenimine DNA transfer complexes were generated and used for gene delivery into dendritic cells. Mannose receptor belongs to the group of scavenger receptors that allow dendritic cells to take up pathogenic material, which is directed for degradation and MHC class II presentation. Therefore, a limiting step of transgene expression by mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery is endosomal degradation of DNA. Several strategies have been explored to overcome this limitation including the addition of endosomolytic components to DNA transfer complexes like adenovirus particles and influenza peptides. Here, we review the current understanding of mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery into dendritic cells and discuss strategies to identify appropriate endosomolytic agents to improve DNA transfer efficacy.

  7. Molecular Analysis of the Developmental and Hormonal Systems Regulating Fruit Ripening

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ripening and development of fleshy fruits is regulated by environmental, hormonal and developmental cues. Ethylene is the key ripening hormone of climacteric fruits and can influence ripening in many non-climacteric fruits. Our laboratory uses tomato as a model system to understand ripening re...

  8. Music increase altruism through regulating the secretion of steroid hormones and peptides.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-12-01

    Music is well known for its effect on human behavior especially of their bonding and empathy towards others. Music provokes one's emotion and activates mirror neurons and reward system. It also regulates social hormones such as steroid hormones or peptides, and increases empathy, pro-sociality and altruism. As a result, it improves one's reproductive success. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Receptor-Mediated Drug Delivery Systems Targeting to Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Ying; Li, Chengyi; Qian, Min; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-01-01

    Glioma has been considered to be the most frequent primary tumor within the central nervous system (CNS). The complexity of glioma, especially the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), makes the survival and prognosis of glioma remain poor even after a standard treatment based on surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This provides a rationale for the development of some novel therapeutic strategies. Among them, receptor-mediated drug delivery is a specific pattern taking advantage of differential expression of receptors between tumors and normal tissues. The strategy can actively transport drugs, such as small molecular drugs, gene medicines, and therapeutic proteins to glioma while minimizing adverse reactions. This review will summarize recent progress on receptor-mediated drug delivery systems targeting to glioma, and conclude the challenges and prospects of receptor-mediated glioma-targeted therapy for future applications.

  10. Jasmonate Hormone: Regulating Synthesis of Reduced Carbon Compounds in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Browse, John

    2016-05-13

    Our original interest in understanding the role of jasmonate (JA) in regulating the final stages of stamen and pollen development led to our discovery of the JAZ repressors, and the molecular mechanism of JA action is now a second important focus of our research. The specific goals for this grant period are to: 1. Investigate the generation and clearance of the hormone with emphasis on the regulation of the OPR3 enzyme and the hydrolysis of JA-Ile. 2. Use dominant-negative and overexpression constructs to explore the role of the MYC5 transcription factor in initiating and regulating JA responses. 3. Investigate specific JAZ protein interactions that will help us to recognize and understand the extended network of processes, such as sulfur nutrition, that interface with JA signaling. The COI1 F-Box protein is a JA-Ile coreceptor and coi1 mutant plants lack JA responses. We have tested the possibility that sites of JA action can be probed by using tissue-specific promoters to drive expression of a COI1-YFP fusion protein in coi1 mutant plants deficient in stamen and pollen function. When we expressed COI1 behind a filament-specific promoter (from the DAD1 gene), filament elongation was restored but not anther dehiscence or pollen function. Three tapetum specific promoters, all failed to restore any of these three functions but, unexpectedly, a promoter active in the stomium and epidermal cells, restored both pollen function and anther dehiscence. Most importantly, our results demonstrate the power of promoter::COI1-YFP constructs in revealing the primary sites of JA-regulated gene expression that control developmental and other responses in neighboring tissues. We now plan to use this new tool to test current hypotheses about JA action in other organs of the plant. The MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 proteins are the primary transcription factors initiating defense and root growth responses to JA signaling. However, transgenic plants overexpressing these proteins do not show

  11. Endogenous excitatory amino acid neurotransmission regulates thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone secretion in conscious freely moving male rats.

    PubMed

    Arufe, M C; Durán, R; Perez-Vences, D; Alfonso, M

    2002-04-01

    The role of neurotransmission of endogenous excitatory amino acid (EAA) on serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels was examined in conscious and freely moving adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were cannulated at the third ventricle 2 d before the experiments. Several glutamate receptor agonists, such as kainic acid and domoic acid, and antagonists, such as 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and dizocilpine (MK-801) were administered into the third ventricle. Serum TSH levels were assesed by radioimmunoassay, and serum thyroid hormone levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that the administration of CNQX and MK-801 produced a decrease in serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones. The administration of kainic acid and domoic acid increased TSH concentrations, whereas CNQX completely blocked the release of TSH induced by kainic acid and domoic acid. These results suggest the importance of endogenous EAA in the regulation of hormone secretion from the pituitary-thyroid axis, as well as the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors in the stimulatory effect of EAAs on the pituitary-thyroid axis.

  12. The reciprocal regulation of stress hormones and GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Mody, Istvan; Maguire, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Stress-derived steroid hormones regulate the expression and function of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs). Changes in GABA(A)R subunit expression have been demonstrated under conditions of altered steroid hormone levels, such as stress, as well as following exogenous steroid hormone administration. In addition to the effects of stress-derived steroid hormones on GABA(A)R subunit expression, stress hormones can also be metabolized to neuroactive derivatives which can alter the function of GABA(A)Rs. Neurosteroids allosterically modulate GABA(A)Rs at concentrations comparable to those during stress. In addition to the actions of stress-derived steroid hormones on GABA(A)Rs, GABA(A)Rs reciprocally regulate the production of stress hormones. The stress response is mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the activity of which is governed by corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. The activity of CRH neurons is largely controlled by robust GABAergic inhibition. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CRH neurons are regulated by neurosteroid-sensitive, GABA(A)R δ subunit-containing receptors representing a novel feedback mechanism onto the HPA axis. Further, it has been demonstrated that neurosteroidogenesis and neurosteroid actions on GABA(A)R δ subunit-containing receptors on CRH neurons are necessary to mount the physiological response to stress. Here we review the literature describing the effects of steroid hormones on GABA(A)Rs as well as the importance of GABA(A)Rs in regulating the production of steroid hormones. This review incorporates what we currently know about changes in GABA(A)Rs following stress and the role in HPA axis regulation.

  13. Hormonal Regulation of Extinction: Implication for Mechanisms of Gender Difference in PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    role of gonadal hormones in the regulation of Pavlovian fear conditioning and its extinction. Pavlovian fear conditioning and its extinction serve...learning in Pavlovian fear conditioning involves training with the presentation of an innocuous stimulus (the conditioned stimulus – CS) that is associated...GD, Schlinger BA, Fanselow MS (1998) Testicular hormones do not regulate sexually dimorphic Pavlovian fear conditioning or perforant- path long-term

  14. Hormonal Regulation of Extinction: Implications for Gender Differences in the Mechanisms of PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This project investigates the role of gonadal hormones in the regulation of Pavlovian fear conditioning ...and its extinction. Pavlovian fear conditioning and its extinction serve as an animal model for the development of pathological fear in humans that...gonadal hormones in the regulation of Pavlovian fear conditioning and its extinction. Pavlovian fear conditioning and its extinction serve as an animal

  15. Desire and ability: hormones and the regulation of female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Wallen, K

    1990-01-01

    The distinction between the ability to copulate and the desire to copulate is used to understand species differences in hormonal regulation of female sexual behavior. Evidence is presented demonstrating that ovarian hormones modulate female sexual motivation in both rodent and primate females. The thesis is developed that rodent females differ from primate females primarily in their dependence upon hormones for the ability to mate. Thus, apparent differences between the two groups of females in the extent to which hormones control copulatory behavior does not stem from differences in hormonal regulation of female sexual motivation but from the physical ability of primate, but not rodent, females to mate without hormonal stimulation. This emancipation of the ability to copulate from hormonal influence makes female sexual motivation the primary regulator of mating in primates. Dependence upon female sexual motivation means that the copulatory behavior of primate females is easily influenced by their physical and social environment. Because primate females can mate without hormonal input, female sexual initiation, not copulation, is argued to be the only valid indicator of female sexual motivation.

  16. The miR-199-dynamin regulatory axis controls receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan F; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Goedeke, Leigh; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that modulate many physiological processes; however, their role in regulating intracellular transport remains largely unknown. Intriguingly, we found that the dynamin (DNM) genes, a GTPase family of proteins responsible for endocytosis in eukaryotic cells, encode the conserved miR-199a and miR-199b family of miRNAs within their intronic sequences. Here, we demonstrate that miR-199a and miR-199b regulate endocytic transport by controlling the expression of important mediators of endocytosis such as clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), Rab5A, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Importantly, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p overexpression markedly inhibits CLTC, Rab5A, LDLR and Cav-1 expression, thus preventing receptor-mediated endocytosis in human cell lines (Huh7 and HeLa). Of note, miR-199a-5p inhibition increases target gene expression and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Taken together, our work identifies a new mechanism by which microRNAs regulate intracellular trafficking. In particular, we demonstrate that the DNM, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p genes act as a bifunctional locus that regulates endocytosis, thus adding an unexpected layer of complexity in the regulation of intracellular trafficking.

  17. The high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcepsilonRI) regulates mitochondrial calcium uptake and a dihydropyridine receptor-mediated calcium influx in mast cells: Role of the FcepsilonRIbeta chain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Yoshimaru, Tetsuro; Inoue, Toshio; Nunomura, Satoshi; Ra, Chisei

    2008-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that mitochondria take up calcium upon receptor (agonist) stimulation and that this contributes to the dynamics of spatiotemporal calcium signaling. We have previously shown that engagement of the high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (FcepsilonRI) stimulates mitochondrial calcium ([Ca2+]m) uptake in mast cells. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms and biological significance of FcepsilonRI regulation of [Ca2+]m. Antigen stimulated [Ca2+]m uptake in a dose-dependent manner with a minimal effective dose of 0.03-3 ng/ml. This [Ca2+]m uptake took place immediately, reaching its peak within minutes and was inhibited by the src family kinase inhibitor PP1 and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. Analyses using mast cells expressing the wild-type or the mutated type of the FcepsilonRIbeta immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in which all tyrosine residues were replaced by phenylalanine revealed that the FcepsilonRIbeta ITAM is essential for a sustained [Ca2+]m uptake. The FcepsilonRIbeta ITAM was essential for overall calcium response upon weak FcepsilonRI stimulation (at low antigen concentration), while upon strong stimulation (at high antigen concentration) it appeared necessary selectively to an immediate calcium response that was sensitive to the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) antagonist nifedipine and wortmannin but not to the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) antagonists such as 2-aminoethoxyphenyl borate and SK&F96365. These data demonstrate that the FcepsilonRIbeta regulates [Ca2+]m uptake in mast cells via the ITAM and suggest that this plays a key role in regulating calcium influx especially that induced via a DHPR-mediated calcium channel.

  18. Gene expression profiling of hormonal regulation related to the residual feed intake of Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y M; Yang, Z; Wu, F; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2015-09-11

    An accumulation of over a decade of research in cattle has shown that genetic selection for decreased residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, is a viable option for improving feed efficiency and reducing the feed requirements of herds, thereby improving the profitability of cattle producers. Hormonal regulation is one of the most important factors in feed intake. To determine the relationship between hormones and feed efficiency, we performed gene expression profiling of jugular vein serum on hormonal regulation of Chinese Holstein cattle with low and high RFI coefficients. 857 differential expression genes (from 24683 genes) were found. Among these, 415 genes were up-regulated and 442 genes were down-regulated in the low RFI group. The gene ontology (GO) search revealed 6 significant terms and 64 genes associated with hormonal regulation, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) selected the adipocytokine signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the study indicated that the molecular expression of genes associated with hormonal regulation differs in dairy cows, depending on their RFI coefficients, and that these differences may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin-NPY and insulin signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormones & growth regulators can be useful to foresters

    Treesearch

    Albert G., Jr. Snow

    1959-01-01

    Trees, like other plants, contain many natural chemicals of the sort that we call hormones. Research is gradually revealing that, in the behavior of a tree, these chemicals may be almost as important as the basic influences of heredity and environment.

  20. Characterization of the human liver vasopressin receptor. Profound differences between human and rat vasopressin-receptor-mediated responses suggest only a minor role for vasopressin in regulating human hepatic function.

    PubMed Central

    Howl, J; Ismail, T; Strain, A J; Kirk, C J; Anderson, D; Wheatley, M

    1991-01-01

    The [Arg8]vasopressin (AVP) receptor expressed by human hepatocytes was characterized, and compared with the rat hepatic V1a vasopressin receptor subtype. In addition to determining the pharmacological profile of the human receptor, the cellular responses to AVP were measured in human and rat hepatocytes by assaying glycogen phosphorylase alpha activity and DNA synthesis. Marked differences were observed between human and rat hepatocytes regarding vasopressin receptors and the intracellular consequences of stimulation by AVP. Data presented in this paper demonstrate the following, (i) Vasopressin V1a receptors are present in low abundance on human hepatocytes. (ii) Species differences exist between human and rat V1a receptors with respect to the affinity of some selective antagonists. (iii) AVP-stimulated glycogen phosphorylase a activation in human hepatocytes was approx. 5% of that observed in rat cells. (iv) In contrast with rat hepatocytes, DNA synthesis in human cells in culture was not stimulated by AVP. It is concluded that vasopressin plays only a minor role in the regulation of human hepatic function. Furthermore, conclusions drawn from observations made with AVP and its analogues on rat hepatic function cannot be directly extrapolated to the human situation. PMID:2039469

  1. The C-terminus of neuronal Kv2.1 channels is required for channel localization and targeting but not for NMDA-receptor mediated regulation of channel function

    PubMed Central

    Baver, Scott B.; O'Connell, Kristen M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.1 underlies a majority of the somatic K+ current in neurons and is particularly important for regulating intrinsic neuronal excitability. Various stimuli alter Kv2.1 channel gating as well as localization of the channel to cell-surface cluster domains. It has been postulated that specific domains within the C-terminus of Kv2.1 are critical for channel gating and sub-cellular localization; however, the distinct regions that govern these processes remain elusive. Here we show that the soluble C-terminal fragment of the closely related channel Kv2.2 displaces Kv2.1 from clusters in both rat hippocampal neurons and HEK293 cells, however neither steady-state activity nor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent modulation are altered in spite of this non-clustered localization. Further, we demonstrate that the C-terminus of Kv2.1 is not necessary for steady-state gating, sensitivity to intracellular phosphatase or NMDA-dependent modulation, though this region is required for localization of Kv2.1 to clusters. Thus, the molecular determinants of Kv2.1 localization and modulation are distinct regions of the channel that function independently. PMID:22554782

  2. Growth hormone-releasing hormone disruption extends lifespan and regulates response to caloric restriction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liou Y; Spong, Adam; Swindell, William R; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal; Huber, Joshua A; Boehm, Jacob D; Westbrook, Reyhan; Salvatori, Roberto; Bartke, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of targeted disruption of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in mice on longevity and the putative mechanisms of delayed aging. GHRH knockout mice are remarkably long-lived, exhibiting major shifts in the expression of genes related to xenobiotic detoxification, stress resistance, and insulin signaling. These mutant mice also have increased adiponectin levels and alterations in glucose homeostasis consistent with the removal of the counter-insulin effects of growth hormone. While these effects overlap with those of caloric restriction, we show that the effects of caloric restriction (CR) and the GHRH mutation are additive, with lifespan of GHRH-KO mutants further increased by CR. We conclude that GHRH-KO mice feature perturbations in a network of signaling pathways related to stress resistance, metabolic control and inflammation, and therefore provide a new model that can be used to explore links between GHRH repression, downregulation of the somatotropic axis, and extended longevity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01098.001 PMID:24175087

  3. Hormonal regulation of focal adhesions in bovine adrenocortical cells: induction of paxillin dephosphorylation by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Vilgrain, I; Chinn, A; Gaillard, I; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1998-01-01

    A study of bovine adrenocortical cell shape on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge showed that the cells round up and develop arborized processes. This effect was found to be (1) specific for ACTH because angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor have no effect; (2) mediated by a cAMP-dependent pathway because forskolin reproduces the effect of the hormone; (3) inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, but unchanged by okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor; and (4) correlated with a complete loss of focal adhesions. Biochemical studies of the focal-adhesion-associated proteins showed that pp125fak, vinculin (110 kDa) and paxillin (70 kDa) were detected in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction from adrenocortical cells. During cell adhesion on fibronectin as substratum, two major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of molecular masses 125 and 68 kDa were immunodetected in the same fraction. A dramatic decrease in the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was observed within 60 min after treatment with ACTH. No change in pp125fak tyrosine phosphorylation nor in Src activity was detected. In contrast, paxillin was found to be tyrosine-dephosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in ACTH-treated cells. Sodium orthovanadate completely prevented the effect of ACTH. These observations suggest a possible role for phosphotyrosine phosphatases in hormone-dependent cellular regulatory processes. PMID:9601084

  4. Hormonal regulation of focal adhesions in bovine adrenocortical cells: induction of paxillin dephosphorylation by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Vilgrain, I; Chinn, A; Gaillard, I; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1998-06-01

    A study of bovine adrenocortical cell shape on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge showed that the cells round up and develop arborized processes. This effect was found to be (1) specific for ACTH because angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor have no effect; (2) mediated by a cAMP-dependent pathway because forskolin reproduces the effect of the hormone; (3) inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, but unchanged by okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor; and (4) correlated with a complete loss of focal adhesions. Biochemical studies of the focal-adhesion-associated proteins showed that pp125fak, vinculin (110 kDa) and paxillin (70 kDa) were detected in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction from adrenocortical cells. During cell adhesion on fibronectin as substratum, two major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of molecular masses 125 and 68 kDa were immunodetected in the same fraction. A dramatic decrease in the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was observed within 60 min after treatment with ACTH. No change in pp125fak tyrosine phosphorylation nor in Src activity was detected. In contrast, paxillin was found to be tyrosine-dephosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in ACTH-treated cells. Sodium orthovanadate completely prevented the effect of ACTH. These observations suggest a possible role for phosphotyrosine phosphatases in hormone-dependent cellular regulatory processes.

  5. Cellular regulation of islet hormone secretion by the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1.

    PubMed

    Gromada, J; Holst, J J; Rorsman, P

    1998-04-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 is a gastrointestinally derived hormone with profound effects on nutrient-induced pancreatic hormone release. GLP-1 modulates insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion by binding to guanine nucleotide binding protein-coupled receptors resulting in the activation of adenylate cyclase and generation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). In the B-cell, cAMP, via activation of protein kinase A, interacts with a plethora of signal transduction processes including ion channel activity, intracellular Ca2+ handling and exocytosis of the insulin-containing granules. The stimulatory action of GLP-1 on insulin secretion, contrary to that of the currently used hypoglycaemic sulphonylureas, is glucose dependent and requires the presence of normal or elevated concentrations of the sugar. For this reason, GLP-1 attracts much interest as a possible novel principle for the treatment of human type-2 diabetes. Here we review the actions of GLP-1 on islet cell function and attempt to integrate current knowledge into a working model for the control of pancreatic hormone secretion.

  6. Hormone- and light-regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport in plants: current status.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yew; Lee, Hak-Soo; Lee, June-Seung; Kim, Seong-Ki; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    The gene regulation mechanisms underlying hormone- and light-induced signal transduction in plants rely not only on post-translational modification and protein degradation, but also on selective inclusion and exclusion of proteins from the nucleus. For example, plant cells treated with light or hormones actively transport many signalling regulatory proteins, transcription factors, and even photoreceptors and hormone receptors into the nucleus, while actively excluding other proteins. The nuclear envelope (NE) is the physical and functional barrier that mediates this selective partitioning, and nuclear transport regulators transduce hormone- or light-initiated signalling pathways across the membrane to mediate nuclear activities. Recent reports revealed that mutating the proteins regulating nuclear transport through the pores, such as nucleoporins, alters the plant's response to a stimulus. In this review, recent works are introduced that have revealed the importance of regulated nucleocytoplasmic partitioning. These important findings deepen our understanding about how co-ordinated plant hormone and light signal transduction pathways facilitate communication between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The roles of nucleoporin components within the nuclear pore complex (NPC) are also emphasized, as well as nuclear transport cargo, such as Ran/TC4 and its binding proteins (RanBPs), in this process. Recent findings concerning these proteins may provide a possible direction by which to characterize the regulatory potential of hormone- or light-triggered nuclear transport.

  7. Glucocorticoids and the regulation of growth hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Giustina, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Glucocorticoids modulate the secretion of growth hormone (GH) by various and competing effects on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The final effects of this modulation depend on hormone concentrations and the duration of exposure. The traditional hypothesis is that chronically raised levels of glucocorticoids suppress the secretion of GH. However, a functional impairment of the GH reserve might also be observed in patients with low levels of glucocorticoids, such as those with secondary hypoadrenalism, which is consistent with the model of biphasic dose-dependent effects of glucocorticoids on the somatotropic axis. This Review updates our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of glucocorticoids on the secretion of GH and the clinical implications of the dual action of glucocorticoids on the GH reserve in humans. This Review will also address the potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications of GH for patients with a deficiency or excess of glucocorticoids.

  8. Hormonal regulation of wheat growth during hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherell, Donald

    1988-01-01

    Hormonal control of root growth has been explored as one means to alleviate the crowding of plant root systems experienced in prototype hydroponic biomass production chambers being developed by the CELSS Breadboard Project. Four plant hormones, or their chemical analogs, which have been reported to selectively inhibit root growth, were tested by adding them to the nutrient solutions on day 10 of a 25 day growth test using spring wheat in hydroponic cultures. Growth and morphological changes is both shoot and root systems were evaluated. In no case was it possible to inhibit root growth without a comparable inhibition of shoot growth. It was concluded that this approach is unlikely to prove useful for wheat.

  9. Hormonal regulation of ion and water transport in anuran amphibians.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Minoru; Konno, Norifumi

    2006-05-15

    Amphibians occupy a wide variety of ecological habitats, and their adaptation is made possible through the specialization of the epithelia of their osmoregulatory organs, such as the skin, kidney, and urinary bladder, which control the hydromineral and acid-base balance of their internal medium. Amphibians can change drastically plasma Na+, Cl-, and urea levels and excretion rates in response to environmental stimuli such as acute desiccation and changes in external salinity. Several hormones and the autonomic nervous system act to control osmoregulation. Several ion channels including an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), a urea transporter (UT), and water channels (AQPs) are found in epithelial tissues of their osmoregulatory organs. This mini review examines the currents status of our knowledge about hormone receptors for arginine vasotocin, angiotensin II and aldosterone, and membrane ion channels and transporters, such as ENaC, UT, and AQPs in amphibians.

  10. Regulation of the Immune System by Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-14

    mechanisms of lymphokine induction. @• Depletion of macrophages from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) caused a marked decrease in...Harbour- McMenamin , D.V., E.M. Smith and J.E. Blalock. 1985. Endotoxin induction of leukocyte-derived proopiomelanocortin related peptides. Infect. immun...48:813-817. 3. Blalock, J.E., D.V. McMenamin , and E.M. Smith. 1985. Peptide hormones shared by the neuroendocrine and immune systems. J Immunol. 135

  11. Stress Hormones and their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    the 21st Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals (Dec 2015). HPT axis stimulations were completed in June of 2015 and the hormone assays...Dolphin Population Cory D Champagne & Dorian S. Houser National Marine Mammal Foundation 2240 Shelter Island Dr, Suite 200 San Diego, CA 92106 phone...of how markers of stress relate to marine mammal health. This information will inform Navy environmental stewardship efforts and will guide decision

  12. Hormonal regulation of the immune microenvironment in the mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Need, Eleanor F; Atashgaran, Vahid; Ingman, Wendy V; Dasari, Pallave

    2014-07-01

    It is well established that the development and homeostasis of the mammary gland are highly dependent upon the actions of ovarian hormones progesterone and estrogen, as well as the availability of prolactin for the pregnant and lactating gland. More recently it has become apparent that immune system cells and cytokines play essential roles in both mammary gland development as well as breast cancer. Here, we review hormonal effects on mammary gland biology during puberty, menstrual cycling, pregnancy, lactation and involution, and dissect how hormonal control of the immune system may contribute to mammary development at each stage via cytokine secretion and recruitment of macrophages, eosinophils, mast cells and lymphocytes. Collectively, these alterations may create an immunotolerant or inflammatory immune environment at specific developmental stages or phases of the menstrual cycle. Of particular interest for further research is investigation of the combinatorial actions of progesterone and estrogen during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and key developmental points where the immune system may play an active role both in mammary development as well as in the creation of an immunotolerant environment, thereby affecting breast cancer risk.

  13. Spatiotemporal aspect of cytokinin-auxin interaction in hormonal regulation of the root meristem

    PubMed Central

    Kuderová, Alena

    2009-01-01

    Hormonal regulation of root development is a long known phenomenon. In the past decades, the molecular mechanisms of individual hormonal pathways and their impact on root development have been studied. Recent genetic and molecular studies suggest importance of interactions of the individual hormonal pathways and their components. In our paper1 we show impact of endogenous cytokinin on the root architecture and its interaction with auxin in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this addendum we discuss our results in the light of significant recent papers that deal with cytokinin-auxin interactions and we point out spatiotemporal specificity of these interactions in the root development. PMID:19649199

  14. In Vivo Regulation of Steroid Hormones by the Chst10 Sulfotransferase in Mouse*

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Anekoji, Misa; Suzuki, Atsushi; Wu, Sz-Wei; Angata, Kiyohiko; Murai, Keith K.; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Akama, Tomoya O.; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Nakayama, Jun; Fukuda, Michiko N.; Fukuda, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Chst10 adds sulfate to glucuronic acid to form a carbohydrate antigen, HNK-1, in glycoproteins and glycolipids. To determine the role of Chst10 in vivo, we generated systemic Chst10-deficient mutant mice. Although Chst10−/− mice were born and grew to adulthood with no gross defects, they were subfertile. Uteri from Chst10−/− females at the pro-estrus stage were larger than those from wild-type females and exhibited a thick uterine endometrium. Serum estrogen levels in Chst10−/− females were higher than those from wild-type females, suggesting impaired down-regulation of estrogen. Because steroid hormones are often conjugated to glucuronic acid, we hypothesized that Chst10 sulfates glucuronidated steroid hormone to regulate steroid hormone in vivo. Enzymatic activity assays and structural analysis of Chst10 products by HPLC and mass spectrometry revealed that Chst10 indeed sulfates glucuronidated estrogen, testosterone, and other steroid hormones. We also identified an HPLC peak corresponding to sulfated and glucuronidated estradiol in serum from wild-type but not from Chst10 null female mice. Estrogen-response element reporter assays revealed that Chst10-modified estrogen likely did not bind to its receptor. These results suggest that subfertility exhibited by female mice following Chst10 loss results from dysregulation of estrogen. Given that Chst10 transfers sulfates to several steroid hormones, Chst10 likely functions in widespread regulation of steroid hormones in vivo. PMID:23269668

  15. Developmental changes in AMPA and kainate receptor-mediated quantal transmission at thalamocortical synapses in the barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Bannister, Neil J; Benke, Timothy A; Mellor, Jack; Scott, Helen; Gürdal, Esra; Crabtree, John W; Isaac, John T R

    2005-05-25

    During the first week of life, there is a shift from kainate to AMPA receptor-mediated thalamocortical transmission in layer IV barrel cortex. However, the mechanisms underlying this change and the differential properties of AMPA and kainate receptor-mediated transmission remain essentially unexplored. To investigate this, we studied the quantal properties of AMPA and kainate receptor-mediated transmission using strontium-evoked miniature EPSCs. AMPA and kainate receptor-mediated transmission exhibited very different quantal properties but were never coactivated by a single quantum of transmitter, indicating complete segregation to different synapses within the thalamocortical input. Nonstationary fluctuation analysis showed that synaptic AMPA receptors exhibited a range of single-channel conductance (gamma) and a strong negative correlation between gamma and functional channel number, indicating that these two parameters are reciprocally regulated at thalamocortical synapses. We obtained the first estimate of gamma for synaptic kainate receptors (<2 pS), and this primarily accounted for the small quantal size of kainate receptor-mediated transmission. Developmentally, the quantal contribution to transmission of AMPA receptors increased and that of kainate receptors decreased. No changes in AMPA or kainate quantal amplitude or in AMPA receptor gamma were observed, demonstrating that the developmental change was attributable to a decrease in the number of kainate synapses and an increase in the number of AMPA synapses contributing to transmission. Therefore, we demonstrate fundamental differences in the quantal properties for these two types of synapse. Thus, the developmental switch in transmission will dramatically alter information transfer at thalamocortical inputs to layer IV.

  16. Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is involved in the regulation of growth hormone in Cichlasoma dimerus (Cichlidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Pérez Sirkin, D I; Cánepa, M M; Fossati, M; Fernandino, J I; Delgadin, T; Canosa, L F; Somoza, G M; Vissio, P G

    2012-03-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the main pituitary hormone involved in somatic growth. In fish, the neuroendocrine control of GH is multifactorial due to the interaction of multiple inhibitors and stimulators. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic peptide involved in skin color regulation of fish. In addition, MCH has been related to the regulation of food intake in both mammals and fish. There is only one report presenting evidences on the GH release stimulation by MCH in mammals in experiments in vitro, but there are no data on non-mammals. In the present work, we report for the first time the sequence of MCH and GH cDNA in Cichlasoma dimerus, a freshwater South American cichlid fish. We detected contacts between MCH fibers and GH cells in the proximal pars distalis region of the pituitary gland by double label confocal immunofluorescence indicating a possible functional relationship. Besides, we found that MCH increased GH transcript levels and stimulated GH release in pituitary cultures. Additionally, C. dimerus exposed to a white background had a greater number of MCH neurons with a larger nuclear area and higher levels of MCH transcript than those fish exposed to a black background. Furthermore, fish reared for 3 months in a white background showed a greater body weight and total length compared to those from black background suggesting that MCH might be related to somatic growth in C. dimerus. Our results report for the first time, that MCH is involved in the regulation of the synthesis and release of GH in vitro in C. dimerus, and probably in the fish growth rate.

  17. URI Regulation of Androgen Receptor-Mediated Cell Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    2001). The development of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 1, 34-45. Li, B., Carey, M., and Workman , J.L. (2007). The role of...transcription in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 69, 3140-3147. Rowe, H.M., Jakobsson, J ., Mesnard, D., Rougemont, J ., Reynard, S., Aktas, T...Maillard, P.V., Layard-Liesching, H., Verp, S., Marquis, J ., et al. (2010). KAP1 controls endogenous retroviruses in embryonic stem cells. Nature 463

  18. NMDA Receptors Mediate Synaptic Competition in Culture

    PubMed Central

    She, Kevin; Craig, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background Activity through NMDA type glutamate receptors sculpts connectivity in the developing nervous system. This topic is typically studied in the visual system in vivo, where activity of inputs can be differentially regulated, but in which individual synapses are difficult to visualize and mechanisms governing synaptic competition can be difficult to ascertain. Here, we develop a model of NMDA-receptor dependent synaptic competition in dissociated cultured hippocampal neurons. Methodology/Principal Findings GluN1 -/- (KO) mouse hippocampal neurons lacking the essential NMDA receptor subunit were cultured alone or cultured in defined ratios with wild type (WT) neurons. The absence of functional NMDA receptors did not alter neuron survival. Synapse development was assessed by immunofluorescence for postsynaptic PSD-95 family scaffold and apposed presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter VGlut1. Synapse density was specifically enhanced onto minority wild type neurons co-cultured with a majority of GluN1 -/- neighbour neurons, both relative to the GluN1 -/- neighbours and relative to sister pure wild type cultures. This form of synaptic competition was dependent on NMDA receptor activity and not conferred by the mere physical presence of GluN1. In contrast to these results in 10% WT and 90% KO co-cultures, synapse density did not differ by genotype in 50% WT and 50% KO co-cultures or in 90% WT and 10% KO co-cultures. Conclusions/Significance The enhanced synaptic density onto NMDA receptor-competent neurons in minority coculture with GluN1 -/- neurons represents a cell culture paradigm for studying synaptic competition. Mechanisms involved may include a retrograde ‘reward’ signal generated by WT neurons, although in this paradigm there was no ‘punishment’ signal against GluN1 -/- neurons. Cell culture assays involving such defined circuits may help uncover the rules and mechanisms of activity-dependent synaptic competition in the developing nervous

  19. Comparative analyses of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Shoichi; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Kagawa, Nao; Katoh, Kazutaka

    2015-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator that activates G protein-coupled LPA receptors to exert fundamental cellular functions. Six LPA receptor genes have been identified in vertebrates and are classified into two subfamilies, the endothelial differentiation genes (edg) and the non-edg family. Studies using genetically engineered mice, frogs, and zebrafish have demonstrated that LPA receptor-mediated signaling has biological, developmental, and pathophysiological functions. Computational analyses have also identified several amino acids (aa) critical for LPA recognition by human LPA receptors. This review focuses on the evolutionary aspects of LPA receptor-mediated signaling by comparing the aa sequences of vertebrate LPA receptors and LPA-producing enzymes; it also summarizes the LPA receptor-dependent effects commonly observed in mouse, frog, and fish.

  20. Receptor-mediated Endocytosis in the Caenorhabditis elegans Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Barth; Hirsh, David

    1999-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans oocyte is a highly amenable system for forward and reverse genetic analysis of receptor-mediated endocytosis. We describe the use of transgenic strains expressing a vitellogenin::green fluorescent protein (YP170::GFP) fusion to monitor yolk endocytosis by the C. elegans oocyte in vivo. This YP170::GFP reporter was used to assay the functions of C. elegans predicted proteins homologous to vertebrate endocytosis factors using RNA-mediated interference. We show that the basic components and pathways of endocytic trafficking are conserved between C. elegans and vertebrates, and that this system can be used to test the endocytic functions of any new gene. We also used the YP170::GFP assay to identify rme (receptor-mediated endocytosis) mutants. We describe a new member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily, RME-2, identified in our screens for endocytosis defective mutants. We show that RME-2 is the C. elegans yolk receptor. PMID:10588660

  1. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Entry via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Virus infections are ubiquitous and remain major threats to human health worldwide. Viruses are intracellular parasites and must enter host cells to initiate infection. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the most common entry pathway taken by viruses, the whole process is highly complex and dictated by various events, such as virus motions, membrane deformations, receptor diffusion and ligand-receptor reactions, occurring at multiple length and time scales. We develop a multiscale model for virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of virus to cell surface is based on a mesoscale three dimensional stochastic adhesion model, the internalization (endocytosis) of virus and cellular membrane deformation is based on the discretization of Helfrich Hamiltonian in a curvilinear space using Monte Carlo method. The multiscale model is based on the combination of these two models. We will implement this model to study the herpes simplex virus entry into B78 cells and compare the model predictions with experimental measurements.

  2. Impact of Growth Hormone on Regulation of Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Troike, Katie M; Henry, Brooke E; Jensen, Elizabeth A; Young, Jonathan A; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2017-06-18

    Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output. We will provide an overview of GH structure and function and define several human conditions and cognate mouse lines with extremes in GH action that have helped shape our understanding of GH and AT. A detailed discussion of the GH/AT relationship will be included that addresses adipokine production, immune cell populations, lipid metabolism, senescence, differentiation, and fibrosis, as well as brown AT and beiging of white AT. A brief overview of how GH levels are altered in an obese state, and the efficacy of GH as a therapeutic option to manage obesity will be given. As we will reveal, the effects of GH on AT are numerous, dynamic and depot-dependent. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:819-840, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Sex hormone-binding globulin regulation of androgen bioactivity in vivo: validation of the free hormone hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Hammond, Geoffrey L.; Blokland, Marco; Jardí, Ferran; Antonio, Leen; Dubois, Vanessa; Khalil, Rougin; Sterk, Saskia S.; Gielen, Evelien; Decallonne, Brigitte; Carmeliet, Geert; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Fiers, Tom; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the high-affinity binding protein for androgens and estrogens. According to the free hormone hypothesis, SHBG modulates the bioactivity of sex steroids by limiting their diffusion into target tissues. Still, the in vivo physiological role of circulating SHBG remains unclear, especially since mice and rats lack circulating SHBG post-natally. To test the free hormone hypothesis in vivo, we examined total and free sex steroid concentrations and bioactivity on target organs in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene. SHBG increased total androgen and estrogen concentrations via hypothalamic-pituitary feedback regulation and prolonged ligand half-life. Despite markedly raised total sex steroid concentrations, free testosterone was unaffected while sex steroid bioactivity on male and female reproductive organs was attenuated. This occurred via a ligand-dependent, genotype-independent mechanism according to in vitro seminal vesicle organ cultures. These results provide compelling support for the determination of free or bioavailable sex steroid concentrations in medicine, and clarify important comparative differences between translational mouse models and human endocrinology. PMID:27748448

  4. Sex hormone-binding globulin regulation of androgen bioactivity in vivo: validation of the free hormone hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Michaël R; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Blokland, Marco; Jardí, Ferran; Antonio, Leen; Dubois, Vanessa; Khalil, Rougin; Sterk, Saskia S; Gielen, Evelien; Decallonne, Brigitte; Carmeliet, Geert; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Fiers, Tom; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-10-17

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the high-affinity binding protein for androgens and estrogens. According to the free hormone hypothesis, SHBG modulates the bioactivity of sex steroids by limiting their diffusion into target tissues. Still, the in vivo physiological role of circulating SHBG remains unclear, especially since mice and rats lack circulating SHBG post-natally. To test the free hormone hypothesis in vivo, we examined total and free sex steroid concentrations and bioactivity on target organs in mice expressing a human SHBG transgene. SHBG increased total androgen and estrogen concentrations via hypothalamic-pituitary feedback regulation and prolonged ligand half-life. Despite markedly raised total sex steroid concentrations, free testosterone was unaffected while sex steroid bioactivity on male and female reproductive organs was attenuated. This occurred via a ligand-dependent, genotype-independent mechanism according to in vitro seminal vesicle organ cultures. These results provide compelling support for the determination of free or bioavailable sex steroid concentrations in medicine, and clarify important comparative differences between translational mouse models and human endocrinology.

  5. Hormonally-regulated functions in crustaceans as biomarkers of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Fingerman, M; Jackson, N C; Nagabhushanam, R

    1998-10-01

    The effects of organic and inorganic contaminants on functions regulated by hormones in crustaceans are being investigated with increasing frequency because several of these phenomena show promise of being useful biomarkers of environmental contamination. Heavy metals and organic compounds have been found in studies with crustaceans to negatively affect hormonally-regulated functions, specifically reproduction, molting, blood glucose level, and pigmentary effectors. Neurotransmitters, including 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine, have been identified as being involved in stimulating or inhibiting release of specific crustacean neurohormones such as the pigment-dispersing and pigment-concentrating ones involved in color changes. The effects of pollutants on at least some of these hormonally-regulated processes appear due at least in part to impacting release of a neurohormone, possibly by affecting release of the neurotransmitter that normally stimulates release of that particular neurohormone.

  6. DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION OF THE BUMETANIDE-SENSITIVE COTRANSPORTER (NKCC2) BY OVARIAN HORMONES

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, Teddy M; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama ME

    2010-01-01

    The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) regulates sodium transport along the thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop and is important in control of sodium balance, renal concentrating ability and renin release. To determine if there are sex differences in NKCC2 abundance and/or distribution, and to evaluate the contribution of ovarian hormones to any such differences, we performed semiquantitative immunoblotting and immunoperoxidase immunohistochemistry for NKCC2 in the kidney of Sprague Dawley male, female and ovariectomized (OVX) rats with and without 17-β estradiol or progesterone supplementation. Intact females demonstrated greater NKCC2 protein in homogenates of whole kidney (334%±29), cortex (219%±20) and outer medulla (133%±9) compared to males. Ovarian hormone supplementation to OVX rats regulated NKCC2 in the outer medulla only, with NKCC2 protein abundance decreasing slightly in response to progesterone but increasing in response to 17-β estradiol. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent NKCC2 labeling in the apical membrane of thick ascending limb cells. Kidney section NKCC2 labeling confirmed regionalized regulation of NKCC2 by ovarian hormones. Localized regulation of NKCC2 by ovarian hormones may have importance in controlling sodium and water balance over the lifetime of women as the milieu of sex hormones varies. PMID:20580730

  7. A pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex modulates androgen receptor-mediated transcription and associates with components of the splicing machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Adegbola, Onikepe; Pasternack, Gary R. . E-mail: gpastern@jhmi.edu

    2005-08-26

    We have previously shown pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein interact. pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein are nuclear receptor transcriptional coregulators: the retinoblastoma protein is a coactivator for androgen receptor, the major regulator of prostate cancer growth, while pp32, which is highly expressed in prostate cancer, is a corepressor of the estrogen receptor. We now show pp32 increases androgen receptor-mediated transcription and the retinoblastoma protein modulates this activity. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we identify members of the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex as PSF and nonO/p54nrb, proteins implicated in coordinate regulation of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and splicing. We show that the pp32-retinoblastoma protein complex is modulated during TPA-induced K562 differentiation. Present evidence suggests that nuclear receptors assemble multiprotein complexes to coordinately regulate transcription and mRNA processing. Our results suggest that pp32 and the retinoblastoma protein may be part of a multiprotein complex that coordinately regulates nuclear receptor-mediated transcription and mRNA processing.

  8. Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) juvenile hormone esterase: hormonal regulation, developmental expression and cDNA cloning.

    PubMed

    Feng, Q L; Ladd, T R; Tomkins, B L; Sundaram, M; Sohi, S S; Retnakaran, A; Davey, K G; Palli, S R

    1999-02-25

    We have used the differential display of mRNAs technique to identify Choristoneura fumiferana genes that are induced by juvenile hormone I (JH I). Of the six PCR products identified, one bound to a 2.8-kb mRNA from CF-203 cells whose abundance increased when the cells were grown in the presence of JH I. The same 2.8-kb mRNA decreased to undetectable levels when the CF-203 cells were grown in the presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). The PCR fragment probe also detected a 2.8-kb mRNA in the C. fumiferana larval tissues. This 2.8-kb mRNA was present on the first day of the first, third, fourth, fifth and sixth larval and pupal stadia, but was conspicuously absent on the first day of the second larval stadium, as well as during the intermolt periods of the first to fifth instar larval stages. In the sixth instar larvae the 2.8-kb mRNA was detected in the fat body, epidermis and midgut during the intermolt period. The PCR fragment was used as a probe to screen a cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of this 2.8-kb cDNA clone showed similarity with the deduced amino acid sequences of Heliothis virescens juvenile hormone esterases (HvJHE). The deduced amino acid sequence of the cDNA clone contained all five functional motifs that are present in most of esterases, proteases and lipases. The cDNA clone was expressed in the baculovirus expression system, producing a protein that showed JHE activity.

  9. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF A DELAY-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory


    During the menstrual cycle, pituitary hormones stimulate the growth and development of ovarian follicles and the release of an ovum to be fertilized. The ovarian follicles secrete hormones during the cycle that regulate the production of the pituitary hormones creating positi...

  10. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF A DELAY-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory


    During the menstrual cycle, pituitary hormones stimulate the growth and development of ovarian follicles and the release of an ovum to be fertilized. The ovarian follicles secrete hormones during the cycle that regulate the production of the pituitary hormones creating positi...

  11. Chloride transporters and receptor-mediated endocytosis in the renal proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Devuyst, Olivier; Luciani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The epithelial cells lining the proximal tubules of the kidney reabsorb a large amount of filtered ions and solutes owing to receptor-mediated endocytosis and polarized transport systems that reflect final cell differentiation. Dedifferentiation of proximal tubule cells and dysfunction of receptor-mediated endocytosis characterize Dent’s disease, a rare disorder caused by inactivating mutations in the CLCN5 gene that encodes the endosomal chloride–proton exchanger, ClC-5. The disease is characterized by a massive urinary loss of solutes (renal Fanconi syndrome), with severe metabolic complications and progressive renal failure. Investigations of mutations affecting the gating of ClC-5 revealed that the proximal tubule dysfunction may occur despite normal endosomal acidification. In addition to defective endocytosis, proximal tubule cells lacking ClC-5 show a trafficking defect in apical receptors and transporters, as well as lysosomal dysfunction and typical features of dedifferentiation, proliferation and oxidative stress. A similar but milder defect is observed in mouse models with defective CFTR, a chloride channel that is also expressed in the endosomes of proximal tubule cells. These data suggest a major role for endosomal chloride transport in the maintenance of epithelial differentiation and reabsorption capacity of the renal proximal tubule. Key points The reabsorptive activity of renal proximal tubule cells is mediated by receptor-mediated endocytosis and polarized transport systems that reflect final cell differentiation. Loss-of-function mutations of the endosomal chloride–proton exchanger ClC-5 (Dent’s disease) cause a major trafficking defect in proximal tubule cells, associated with lysosomal dysfunction, oxidative stress and dedifferentiation/proliferation. A similar but milder defect is associated with mutations in CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). Vesicular chloride transport appears to be important for

  12. Thyroid hormone receptors regulate adipogenesis and carcinogenesis via crosstalk signaling with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Changxue; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. They are ligand-dependent transcription factors that interact with their cognate hormone response elements in the promoters to regulate respective target gene expression to modulate cellular functions. While the transcription activity of each is regulated by their respective ligands, recent studies indicate that via multiple mechanisms PPARs and TRs crosstalk to affect diverse biological functions. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and biological impact of crosstalk between these two important nuclear receptors, focusing on their roles in adipogenesis and carcinogenesis.

  13. Mini-review: regulation of the renal NaCl cotransporter by hormones.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Vega, Lorena; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The renal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter, NCC, is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. The activity of this cotransporter is critical for regulation of several physiological variables such as blood pressure, serum potassium, acid base metabolism, and urinary calcium excretion. Therefore, it is not surprising that numerous hormone-signaling pathways regulate NCC activity to maintain homeostasis. In this review, we will provide an overview of the most recent evidence on NCC modulation by aldosterone, angiotensin II, vasopressin, glucocorticoids, insulin, norepinephrine, estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and parathyroid hormone. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Thyroid hormone receptors regulate adipogenesis and carcinogenesis via crosstalk signaling with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. They are ligand-dependent transcription factors that interact with their cognate hormone response elements in the promoters to regulate respective target gene expression to modulate cellular functions. While the transcription activity of each is regulated by their respective ligands, recent studies indicate that via multiple mechanisms PPARs and TRs crosstalk to affect diverse biological functions. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and biological impact of crosstalk between these two important nuclear receptors, focusing on their roles in adipogenesis and carcinogenesis. PMID:19741045

  15. Hormonal regulation of H19 gene expression in prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Berteaux, N; Lottin, S; Adriaenssens, E; Van Coppenolle, F; Van Coppennolle, F; Leroy, X; Coll, J; Dugimont, T; Curgy, J-J

    2004-10-01

    The H19 gene is transcribed in an mRNA-like noncoding RNA. When tumors of various organs or cell types are considered, H19 oncogene or tumor-suppressor status remains controversial. To address the potential regulation of H19 gene expression by an androgen steroid hormone (DHT: dihydrotestosterone) or by a peptidic hormone (PRL: prolactin), we performed experiments in rats systemically treated with chemical mediators. This range of in vivo experiments demonstrated that chronic hyperprolactinemia upregulated the H19 expression in epithelial and stromal cells whereas DHT downregulated the gene. PRL and DHT appeared to be opposite mediators in the H19 RNA synthesis. We investigated these hormonal effects in three human prostate epithelial cell lines. In LNCaP cancer cells, the opposite effect of PRL and DHT was corroborated. However, in normal cells (PNT1A), H19 remained insensitive to the hormones in fetal calf serum (FCS) medium but became responsive in a serum-stripped medium. In the DU-145 cancer cell line, tested for its androgen-independence and aggressiveness, the hormones had no effect on H19 expression whatever the culture conditions. Finally, we demonstrated that PRL upregulated the H19 expression in LNCaP cells by the JAK2-STAT5 transduction pathway. We conclude that H19 expression is regulated by both a peptidic and a male steroid hormone.

  16. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    SciTech Connect

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via ..beta..-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents.

  17. Obesity in patients with Bardet-Biedl syndrome: influence of appetite-regulating hormones.

    PubMed

    Büscher, Anja K; Cetiner, Metin; Büscher, Rainer; Wingen, Anne-Margret; Hauffa, Berthold P; Hoyer, Peter F

    2012-11-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a genetic disorder with obesity as one of the major phenotypic criterion, which is proposed to be of neuroendocrine origin. Therefore, disturbances in appetite-regulating hormones have been considered as causative factors. Acyl ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone, whereas its desacylated form, obestatin, and leptin have the opposite functions. Ghrelin is negatively regulated in relation to nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of hormone alterations on obesity development in BBS patients. Total and acylated ghrelin, obestatin, leptin and adiponectin were measured in eight children with BBS. The results were analyzed in relation to auxological parameters [body mass index (BMI), height]. The mean BMI was significantly increased in BBS patients compared to the controls. Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, total ghrelin and obestatin were slightly elevated in BBS patients compared to controls, as was the acyl/total ghrelin ratio. Leptin levels were significantly elevated in BBS patients. BBS patients lack the negative regulatory mechanisms of appetite-regulating hormones with respect to nutritional status and exhibit resistance to anorexigenic leptin. This results in a shift towards the orexigenic effects of this self-regulating system. These alterations may in part be responsible for the disturbed appetite regulation in BBS patients.

  18. Regulation of voltage-gated sodium channel expression in cancer: hormones, growth factors and auto-regulation.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Scott P; Ozerlat-Gunduz, Iley; Brackenbury, William J; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M; Campbell, Thomas M; Coombes, R Charles; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2014-03-19

    Although ion channels are increasingly being discovered in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and shown to contribute to different aspects and stages of the cancer process, much less is known about the mechanisms controlling their expression. Here, we focus on voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) which are upregulated in many types of carcinomas where their activity potentiates cell behaviours integral to the metastatic cascade. Regulation of VGSCs occurs at a hierarchy of levels from transcription to post-translation. Importantly, mainstream cancer mechanisms, especially hormones and growth factors, play a significant role in the regulation. On the whole, in major hormone-sensitive cancers, such as breast and prostate cancer, there is a negative association between genomic steroid hormone sensitivity and functional VGSC expression. Activity-dependent regulation by positive feedback has been demonstrated in strongly metastatic cells whereby the VGSC is self-sustaining, with its activity promoting further functional channel expression. Such auto-regulation is unlike normal cells in which activity-dependent regulation occurs mostly via negative feedback. Throughout, we highlight the possible clinical implications of functional VGSC expression and regulation in cancer.

  19. Regulation of voltage-gated sodium channel expression in cancer: hormones, growth factors and auto-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Scott P.; Ozerlat-Gunduz, Iley; Brackenbury, William J.; Fitzgerald, Elizabeth M.; Campbell, Thomas M.; Coombes, R. Charles; Djamgoz, Mustafa B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Although ion channels are increasingly being discovered in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and shown to contribute to different aspects and stages of the cancer process, much less is known about the mechanisms controlling their expression. Here, we focus on voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) which are upregulated in many types of carcinomas where their activity potentiates cell behaviours integral to the metastatic cascade. Regulation of VGSCs occurs at a hierarchy of levels from transcription to post-translation. Importantly, mainstream cancer mechanisms, especially hormones and growth factors, play a significant role in the regulation. On the whole, in major hormone-sensitive cancers, such as breast and prostate cancer, there is a negative association between genomic steroid hormone sensitivity and functional VGSC expression. Activity-dependent regulation by positive feedback has been demonstrated in strongly metastatic cells whereby the VGSC is self-sustaining, with its activity promoting further functional channel expression. Such auto-regulation is unlike normal cells in which activity-dependent regulation occurs mostly via negative feedback. Throughout, we highlight the possible clinical implications of functional VGSC expression and regulation in cancer. PMID:24493753

  20. Current Concepts of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene Regulation1

    PubMed Central

    George, Jitu W.; Dille, Elizabeth A.; Heckert, Leslie L.

    2010-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a pituitary glycoprotein hormone, is an integral component of the endocrine axis that regulates gonadal function and fertility. To transmit its signal, FSH must bind to its receptor (FSHR) located on Sertoli cells of the testis and granulosa cells of the ovary. Thus, both the magnitude and the target of hormone response are controlled by mechanisms that determine FSHR levels and cell-specific expression, which are supported by transcription of its gene. The present review examines the status of FSHR/Fshr gene regulation, emphasizing the importance of distal sequences in FSHR/Fshr transcription, new insights gained from the influx of genomics data and bioinformatics, and emerging trends that offer direction in deciphering the FSHR/Fshr regulatory landscape. PMID:20739665

  1. Computer simulation analysis of the behavior of renal-regulating hormones during hypogravic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    A computer simulation of a mathematical circulation model is used to study the alterations of body fluids and their electrolyte composition that occur in weightlessness. The behavior of the renal-regulating hormones which control these alterations is compared in simulations of several one-g analogs of weightlessness and space flight. It is shown that the renal-regulating hormones represent a tightly coupled system that responds acutely to volume disturbances and chronically to electrolyte disturbances. During hypogravic conditions these responses lead to an initial suppression of hormone levels and a long-term effect which varies depending on metabolic factors that can alter the plasma electrolytes. In addition, it is found that if pressure effects normalize rapidly, a transition phase may exist which leads to a dynamic multiphasic endocrine response.

  2. Computer simulation analysis of the behavior of renal-regulating hormones during hypogravic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    A computer simulation of a mathematical circulation model is used to study the alterations of body fluids and their electrolyte composition that occur in weightlessness. The behavior of the renal-regulating hormones which control these alterations is compared in simulations of several one-g analogs of weightlessness and space flight. It is shown that the renal-regulating hormones represent a tightly coupled system that responds acutely to volume disturbances and chronically to electrolyte disturbances. During hypogravic conditions these responses lead to an initial suppression of hormone levels and a long-term effect which varies depending on metabolic factors that can alter the plasma electrolytes. In addition, it is found that if pressure effects normalize rapidly, a transition phase may exist which leads to a dynamic multiphasic endocrine response.

  3. Hormonal mechanisms for regulation of aggression in human coalitions.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Mark V; Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2012-03-01

    Coalitions and alliances are core aspects of human behavior. All societies recognize alliances among communities, usually based in part on kinship and marriage. Aggression between groups is ubiquitous, often deadly, fueled by revenge, and can have devastating effects on general human welfare. Given its significance, it is surprising how little we know about the neurobiological and hormonal mechanisms that underpin human coalitionary behavior. Here we first briefly review a model of human coalitionary behavior based on a process of runaway social selection. We then present several exploratory analyses of neuroendocrine responses to coalitionary social events in a rural Dominican community, with the objective of understanding differences between in-group and out-group competition in adult and adolescent males. Our analyses indicate: (1) adult and adolescent males do not elevate testosterone when they defeat their friends, but they do elevate testosterone when they defeat outsiders; (2) pre-competition testosterone and cortisol levels are negatively associated with strength of coalitionary ties; and (3) adult males usually elevate testosterone when interacting with adult women who are potential mates, but in a striking reversal, they have lower testosterone if the woman is a conjugal partner of a close friend. These naturalistic studies hint that reciprocity, dampening of aggression, and competition among friends and allies may be biologically embedded in unique ways among humans.

  4. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  5. The parathyroid hormone regulates skin tumour susceptibility in mice.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Kazuhiro; Saito, Megumi; Yoshizawa, Yasuhiro; Munakata, Haruka; Isogai, Eriko; Miura, Ikuo; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Midori; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Karaplis, Andrew C; Kominami, Ryo; Wakabayashi, Yuichi

    2017-09-11

    Using a forward genetics approach to map loci in a mouse skin cancer model, we previously identified a genetic locus, Skin tumour modifier of MSM 1 (Stmm1) on chromosome 7, conferring strong tumour resistance. Sub-congenic mapping localized Parathyroid hormone (Pth) in Stmm1b. Here, we report that serum intact-PTH (iPTH) and a genetic polymorphism in Pth are important for skin tumour resistance. We identified higher iPTH levels in sera from cancer-resistant MSM/Ms mice compared with susceptible FVB/NJ mice. Therefore, we performed skin carcinogenesis experiments with MSM-BAC transgenic mice (Pth (MSM)-Tg) and Pth knockout heterozygous mice (Pth (+/-)). As a result, the higher amounts of iPTH in sera conferred stronger resistance to skin tumours. Furthermore, we found that the coding SNP (rs51104087, Val28Met) localizes in the mouse Pro-PTH encoding region, which is linked to processing efficacy and increased PTH secretion. Finally, we report that PTH increases intracellular calcium in keratinocytes and promotes their terminal differentiation. Taken together, our data suggest that Pth is one of the genes responsible for Stmm1, and serum iPTH could serve as a prevention marker of skin cancer and a target for new therapies.

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases involved in lignin biosynthesis: in silico promoter analysis and hormonal regulation.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Joaquín; Esteban Carrasco, Alberto; Zapata, José Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Phytohormones such as auxins, cytokinins, and brassinosteroids, act by means of a signaling cascade of transcription factors of the families NAC, MYB, AP2 (APETALA2), MADS and class III HD (homeodomain) Zip, regulating secondary growth. When the hormonal regulation of Zinnia elegans peroxidase (ZePrx), an enzyme involved in lignin biosynthesis, was studied, it was found that this peroxidase is sensitive to a plethora of hormones which control xylem lignification. In a previous study we sought Arabidopsis thaliana homologues to ZePrx. Peroxidases 4, 52, 49 and 72 are the four peroxidases that fulfill the restrictive conditions that a peroxidase involved in lignification must have. In the present study, we focus our attention on hormonal regulation in order to establish the minimal structural and regulatory elements contained in the promoter region which an AtPrx involved in lignification must have. The results indicate that of the four peroxidases selected in our previous study, the one most likely to be homologous to ZePrx is AtPrx52. The results suggest that hormones such as auxins, cytokinins and BRs directly regulate AtPrx52, and that the AtPrx52 promoter may be the target of the set of transcription factors (NAC, MYB, AP2 and class I and III HD Zip) which are up-regulated by these hormones during secondary growth. In addition, the AtPrx52 promoter contains multiple copies of all the putative cis-elements (the ACGT box, the OCS box, the OPAQ box, the L1BX, the MYCL box and the W box) known to confer regulation by NO and H2O2.

  7. Integration of hormonal and nutrient signals that regulate leptin synthesis and secretion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Jeong; Fried, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the pre- and posttranscriptional mechanisms that regulate leptin production and secretion in adipocytes. Basal leptin production is proportional to the status of energy stores, i.e., fat cell size, and this is mainly regulated by alterations in leptin mRNA levels. Leptin mRNA levels are regulated by hormones, including glucocorticoids and catecholamines, but little is known about the transcriptional mechanisms involved. Leptin synthesis and secretion is also acutely modulated in response to hormones such as insulin and the availability of metabolic fuels. Acute variations in leptin production over a time course of minutes to hours are mediated at the levels of both translation and secretion. Increases in amino acids and insulin after a meal activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, leading to an increase in specific rates of leptin biosynthesis. Cross-talk among mTOR, PKA, and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways appears to integrate hormonal and nutrient signals that regulate leptin mRNA translation, at least in part through mechanisms involving its 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions. In addition, the rate of leptin secretion from preformed stores in response to hormonal cues is also regulated. Insulin stimulates, and adrenergic agonists inhibit, leptin secretion, and this likely contributes to variations in the magnitude of nutrition-related leptin excursions and oscillations. Overall, the study of leptin production has contributed to a deepening understanding of leptin biology and, more broadly, to our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the adipocyte integrates hormonal and nutrient signals to regulate adipokine production. PMID:19318513

  8. Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K; Schmale, Matt S; Copeland, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life

  9. APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Leona H. Clark1, Paul M. Schlosser2, and James F. Selgrade3. 1US Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2CIIT, Research Triangle Park, NC; 3North Carolina State Un...

  10. Physical activity and hormonal regulation of appetite: sex differences and weight control.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd A; Braun, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is an important contributor to regulation of energy balance and body composition. In this article, we separate the impact of exercise from the confounding influence of energy imbalance and highlight sex differences in hormonal and appetite responses to physical activity. The evolving story may influence our thinking regarding the use of physical activity to manage body composition.

  11. APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    APPLICATIONS OF A MODEL FOR THE HORMONAL REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Leona H. Clark1, Paul M. Schlosser2, and James F. Selgrade3. 1US Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2CIIT, Research Triangle Park, NC; 3North Carolina State Un...

  12. Adipose tissue hormones and appetite and body weight regulators in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Daniela Iv; Orbetzova, Maria M; Atanassova, Pepa K

    2013-01-01

    Impaired sensitivity to insulin (the so called insulin resistance, IR) occurs in a number of genetic and acquired conditions, including obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome (MS). In this review we discuss the correlation between IR, the adipose tissue hormones and appetite and body weight regulators. Leptin acts as a major adipostat: it suppresses food intake and activates catabolic pathways associated with increased energy production. It improves the peripheral insulin sensitivity and affects beta-cell function. Adiponectin is the only adipocytokine discovered so far that has anti-atherogenic properties. There is a reverse correlation between the serum adiponectin levels and the degree of obesity, IR, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Ghrelin stimulates food intake; of all circulating orexigenic hormones ghrelin is the most thoroughly studied. Ghrelin levels are decreased in MS and PCOS patients as this hormone is negatively correlated with body mass. Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissues; a growing body of evidence suggests that it might be implicated in the link between obesity and diabetes. It has been found that the hormone's levels are significantly higher in obese people than those in normal body mass people. The recently discovered adipose tissue hormones, vaspin, visfatin, omentin-1 and their effect on IR development, have been increasingly researched.

  13. Chromogranin A Promotes Peptide Hormone Sorting to Mobile Granules in Constitutively and Regulated Secreting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Hadjadje, Maité; Elias, Salah; Chevalier, Laurence; Benard, Magalie; Tanguy, Yannick; Turquier, Valérie; Galas, Ludovic; Yon, Laurent; Malagon, Maria M.; Driouich, Azeddine; Gasman, Stéphane; Anouar, Youssef

    2009-01-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) has been proposed to play a major role in the formation of dense-core secretory granules (DCGs) in neuroendocrine cells. Here, we took advantage of unique features of the frog CgA (fCgA) to assess the role of this granin and its potential functional determinants in hormone sorting during DCG biogenesis. Expression of fCgA in the constitutively secreting COS-7 cells induced the formation of mobile vesicular structures, which contained cotransfected peptide hormones. The fCgA and the hormones coexpressed in the newly formed vesicles could be released in a regulated manner. The N- and C-terminal regions of fCgA, which exhibit remarkable sequence conservation with their mammalian counterparts were found to be essential for the formation of the mobile DCG-like structures in COS-7 cells. Expression of fCgA in the corticotrope AtT20 cells increased pro-opiomelanocortin levels in DCGs, whereas the expression of N- and C-terminal deletion mutants provoked retention of the hormone in the Golgi area. Furthermore, fCgA, but not its truncated forms, promoted pro-opiomelanocortin sorting to the regulated secretory pathway. These data demonstrate that CgA has the intrinsic capacity to induce the formation of mobile secretory granules and to promote the sorting and release of peptide hormones. The conserved terminal peptides are instrumental for these activities of CgA. PMID:19179339

  14. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-01-01

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems PMID:27420076

  15. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2016-07-12

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems.

  16. Hormonal regulation of platypus Beta-lactoglobulin and monotreme lactation protein genes.

    PubMed

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R; Sharp, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    Endocrine regulation of milk protein gene expression in marsupials and eutherians is well studied. However, the evolution of this complex regulation that began with monotremes is unknown. Monotremes represent the oldest lineage of extant mammals and the endocrine regulation of lactation in these mammals has not been investigated. Here we characterised the proximal promoter and hormonal regulation of two platypus milk protein genes, Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a whey protein and monotreme lactation protein (MLP), a monotreme specific milk protein, using in vitro reporter assays and a bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1). Insulin and dexamethasone alone provided partial induction of MLP, while the combination of insulin, dexamethasone and prolactin was required for maximal induction. Partial induction of BLG was achieved by insulin, dexamethasone and prolactin alone, with maximal induction using all three hormones. Platypus MLP and BLG core promoter regions comprised transcription factor binding sites (e.g. STAT5, NF-1 and C/EBPα) that were conserved in marsupial and eutherian lineages that regulate caseins and whey protein gene expression. Our analysis suggests that insulin, dexamethasone and/or prolactin alone can regulate the platypus MLP and BLG gene expression, unlike those of therian lineage. The induction of platypus milk protein genes by lactogenic hormones suggests they originated before the divergence of marsupial and eutherians.

  17. Regulation of hormone metabolism in Arabidopsis seeds: phytochrome regulation of abscisic acid metabolism and abscisic acid regulation of gibberellin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mitsunori; Hanada, Atsushi; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Endo, Akira; Okamoto, Masanori; Yamauchi, Yukika; North, Helen; Marion-Poll, Annie; Sun, Tai-Ping; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Nambara, Eiji

    2006-11-01

    In a wide range of plant species, seed germination is regulated antagonistically by two plant hormones, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA). In the present study, we have revealed that ABA metabolism (both biosynthesis and inactivation) was phytochrome-regulated in an opposite fashion to GA metabolism during photoreversible seed germination in Arabidopsis. Endogenous ABA levels were decreased by irradiation with a red (R) light pulse in dark-imbibed seeds pre-treated with a far-red (FR) light pulse, and the reduction in ABA levels in response to R light was inhibited in a phytochrome B (PHYB)-deficient mutant. Expression of an ABA biosynthesis gene, AtNCED6, and the inactivation gene, CYP707A2, was regulated in a photoreversible manner, suggesting a key role for the genes in PHYB-mediated regulation of ABA metabolism. Abscisic acid-deficient mutants such as nced6-1, aba2-2 and aao3-4 exhibited an enhanced ability to germinate relative to wild type when imbibed in the dark after irradiation with an FR light pulse. In addition, the ability to synthesize GA was improved in the aba2-2 mutant compared with wild type during dark-imbibition after an FR light pulse. Activation of GA biosynthesis in the aba2-2 mutant was also observed during seed development. These data indicate that ABA is involved in the suppression of GA biosynthesis in both imbibed and developing seeds. Spatial expression patterns of the AtABA2 and AAO3 genes, responsible for last two steps of ABA biosynthesis, were distinct from that of the GA biosynthesis gene, AtGA3ox2, in both imbibed and developing seeds, suggesting that biosynthesis of ABA and GA in seeds occurs in different cell types.

  18. Parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide regulate osteosarcoma cell functions: Focus on the extracellular matrix (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Nikitovic, Dragana; Kavasi, Rafaela-Maria; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Papachristou, Dionysios J.; Tsiaoussis, John; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Tsatsakis, Aristides M.; Tzanakakis, George N.

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary bone tumor of mesenchymal origin mostly affecting children and adolescents. The OS extracellular matrix (ECM) is extensively altered as compared to physiological bone tissue. Indeed, the main characteristic of the most common osteoblastic subtype of OS is non-mineralized osteoid production. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the chief cells of the parathyroid glands. The PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) may be comprised of 139, 141 or 173 amino acids and exhibits considerate N-terminal amino acid sequence homology with PTH. The function of PTH/PTHrP is executed through the activation of the PTH receptor 1 (PTHR1) and respective downstream intracellular pathways which regulate skeletal development, bone turnover and mineral ion homeostasis. Both PTHR1 and its PTH/PTHrP ligands have been shown to be expressed in OS and to affect the functions of these tumor cells. This review aims to highlight the less well known aspects of PTH/PTHrP functions in the progression of OS by focusing on ECM-dependent signaling. PMID:27499459

  19. Hypothalamic carnitine metabolism integrates nutrient and hormonal feedback to regulate energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Stark, Romana; Reichenbach, Alex; Andrews, Zane B

    2015-12-15

    The maintenance of energy homeostasis requires the hypothalamic integration of nutrient feedback cues, such as glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and metabolic hormones such as insulin, leptin and ghrelin. Although hypothalamic neurons are critical to maintain energy homeostasis research efforts have focused on feedback mechanisms in isolation, such as glucose alone, fatty acids alone or single hormones. However this seems rather too simplistic considering the range of nutrient and endocrine changes associated with different metabolic states, such as starvation (negative energy balance) or diet-induced obesity (positive energy balance). In order to understand how neurons integrate multiple nutrient or hormonal signals, we need to identify and examine potential intracellular convergence points or common molecular targets that have the ability to sense glucose, fatty acids, amino acids and hormones. In this review, we focus on the role of carnitine metabolism in neurons regulating energy homeostasis. Hypothalamic carnitine metabolism represents a novel means for neurons to facilitate and control both nutrient and hormonal feedback. In terms of nutrient regulation, carnitine metabolism regulates hypothalamic fatty acid sensing through the actions of CPT1 and has an underappreciated role in glucose sensing since carnitine metabolism also buffers mitochondrial matrix levels of acetyl-CoA, an allosteric inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase and hence glucose metabolism. Studies also show that hypothalamic CPT1 activity also controls hormonal feedback. We hypothesis that hypothalamic carnitine metabolism represents a key molecular target that can concurrently integrate nutrient and hormonal information, which is critical to maintain energy homeostasis. We also suggest this is relevant to broader neuroendocrine research as it predicts that hormonal signaling in the brain varies depending on current nutrient status. Indeed, the metabolic action of ghrelin, leptin or insulin

  20. Thyroid hormone signalling genes are regulated by photoperiod in the hypothalamus of F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alexander W; Helfer, Gisela; Russell, Laura; Darras, Veerle M; Morgan, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal animals adapt their physiology and behaviour in anticipation of climate change to optimise survival of their offspring. Intra-hypothalamic thyroid hormone signalling plays an important role in seasonal responses in mammals and birds. In the F344 rat, photoperiod stimulates profound changes in food intake, body weight and reproductive status. Previous investigations of the F344 rat have suggested a role for thyroid hormone metabolism, but have only considered Dio2 expression, which was elevated in long day photoperiods. Microarray analysis was used to identify time-dependent changes in photoperiod responsive genes, which may underlie the photoperiod-dependent phenotypes of the juvenile F344 rat. The most significant changes are those related to thyroid hormone metabolism and transport. Using photoperiod manipulations and melatonin injections into long day photoperiod (LD) rats to mimic short day (SD), we show photoinduction and photosuppression gene expression profiles and melatonin responsiveness of genes by in situ hybridization; TSHβ, CGA, Dio2 and Oatp1c1 genes were all elevated in LD whilst in SD, Dio3 and MCT-8 mRNA were increased. NPY was elevated in SD whilst GALP increased in LD. The photoinduction and photosuppression profiles for GALP were compared to that of GHRH with GALP expression following GHRH temporally. We also reveal gene sets involved in photoperiodic responses, including retinoic acid and Wnt/ß-catenin signalling. This study extends our knowledge of hypothalamic regulation by photoperiod, by revealing large temporal changes in expression of thyroid hormone signalling genes following photoperiod switch. Surprisingly, large changes in hypothalamic thyroid hormone levels or TRH expression were not detected. Expression of NPY and GALP, two genes known to regulate GHRH, were also changed by photoperiod. Whether these genes could provide links between thyroid hormone signalling and the regulation of the growth axis remains to be

  1. Sex steroid hormones regulate constitutive expression of Cyp2e1 in female mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jie; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    CYP2E1 is of paramount toxicological significance because it metabolically activates a large number of low-molecular-weight toxicants and carcinogens. In this context, factors that interfere with Cyp2e1 regulation may critically affect xenobiotic toxicity and carcinogenicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of female steroid hormones in the regulation of CYP2E1, as estrogens and progesterone are the bases of contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy in menopausal women. Interestingly, a fluctuation in the hepatic expression pattern of Cyp2e1 was revealed in the different phases of the estrous cycle of female mice, with higher Cyp2e1 expression at estrus (E) and lower at methestrus (ME), highly correlated with that in plasma gonadal hormone levels. Depletion of sex steroids by ovariectomy repressed Cyp2e1 expression to levels similar to those detected in males and cyclic females at ME. Hormonal supplementation brought Cyp2e1 expression back to levels detected at E. The role of progesterone appeared to be more prominent than that of 17β-estradiol. Progesterone-induced Cyp2e1 upregulation could be attributed to inactivation of the insulin/PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 signaling pathway. Tamoxifen, an anti-estrogen, repressed Cyp2e1 expression potentially via activation of the PI3K/Akt/FOXO1 and GH/STAT5b-linked pathways. The sex steroid hormone-related changes in hepatic Cyp2e1 expression were highly correlated with those observed in Hnf-1α, β-catenin, and Srebp-1c. In conclusion, female steroid hormones are clearly involved in the regulation of CYP2E1, thus affecting the metabolism of a plethora of toxicants and carcinogenic agents, conditions that may trigger several pathologies or exacerbate the outcomes of various pathophysiological states. PMID:23548611

  2. Seedless Fruit Production by Hormonal Regulation of Fruit Set

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfini, Tiziana

    2009-01-01

    Seed and fruit development are intimately related processes controlled by internal signals and environmental cues. The absence of seeds is usually appreciated by consumers and producers because it increases fruit quality and fruit shelf-life. One method to produce seedless fruit is to develop plants able to produce fruits independently from pollination and fertilization of the ovules. The onset of fruit growth is under the control of phytohormones. Recent genomic studies have greatly contributed to elucidate the role of phytohormones in regulating fruit initiation, providing at the same time genetic methods for introducing seedlessness in horticultural plants. PMID:22253976

  3. Hormonal regulation of fluid and electrolyte metabolism during periods of headward fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Lanny C.; Severs, W. B.; Thrasher, T.; Ramsay, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    In the broadest sense, this project evaluates how spaceflight induced shifts of blood and interstitial fluids into the thorax affect regulation by the central nervous system (CNS) of fluid-electrolyte hormone secretion. Specifically, it focuses on the role of hormones related to salt/water balance and their potential function in the control of intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. Fluid-electrolyte status during spaceflight gradually equilibrates, with a reduction in all body fluid compartments. Related to this is the cardiovascular deconditioning of spaceflight which is manifested upon return to earth as orthostatic intolerance.

  4. Hormonal regulation of fluid and electrolyte metabolism in zero-g and bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, Joan

    1991-01-01

    The study of man in spaceflight has consistently indicated changes in fluid and electrolyte balance. Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), and Calcium (Ca) excretion are increased, accompanied by changes in the levels and responsiveness of adrenal hormones and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). These hormones and neurohumors are critical to the regulation of blood pressure, blood flow, and blood volume. The primary objectives of the research conducted under this task have been to use -6 deg head down bedrest (BR) as the analog to spaceflight, to determine the long term changes in these systems, their relationship to orthostatic tolerance, and to develop and test suitable countermeasures.

  5. Minireview: Mechanisms of Growth Hormone-Mediated Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    GH exerts a diverse array of physiological actions that include prominent roles in growth and metabolism, with a major contribution via stimulating IGF-1 synthesis. GH achieves its effects by influencing gene expression profiles, and Igf1 is a key transcriptional target of GH signaling in liver and other tissues. This review examines the mechanisms of GH-mediated gene regulation that begin with signal transduction pathways activated downstream of the GH receptor and continue with chromatin events at target genes and additionally encompasses the topics of negative regulation and cross talk with other cellular inputs. The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, is regarded as the major signaling pathway by which GH achieves its physiological effects, including in stimulating Igf1 gene transcription in liver. Recent studies exploring the mechanisms of how activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b accomplishes this are highlighted, which begin to characterize epigenetic features at regulatory domains of the Igf1 locus. Further research in this field offers promise to better understand the GH-IGF-1 axis in normal physiology and disease and to identify strategies to manipulate the axis to improve human health. PMID:24825400

  6. Minireview: mechanisms of growth hormone-mediated gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Chia, Dennis J

    2014-07-01

    GH exerts a diverse array of physiological actions that include prominent roles in growth and metabolism, with a major contribution via stimulating IGF-1 synthesis. GH achieves its effects by influencing gene expression profiles, and Igf1 is a key transcriptional target of GH signaling in liver and other tissues. This review examines the mechanisms of GH-mediated gene regulation that begin with signal transduction pathways activated downstream of the GH receptor and continue with chromatin events at target genes and additionally encompasses the topics of negative regulation and cross talk with other cellular inputs. The transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b, is regarded as the major signaling pathway by which GH achieves its physiological effects, including in stimulating Igf1 gene transcription in liver. Recent studies exploring the mechanisms of how activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b accomplishes this are highlighted, which begin to characterize epigenetic features at regulatory domains of the Igf1 locus. Further research in this field offers promise to better understand the GH-IGF-1 axis in normal physiology and disease and to identify strategies to manipulate the axis to improve human health.

  7. Hormonal regulation of colour change in eyes of a cryptic fish.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Yngsell, Daniel; Mubashishir, Muhmd; Wallin, Margareta

    2015-01-16

    Colour change of the skin in lower vertebrates such as fish has been a subject of great scientific and public interest. However, colour change also takes place in eyes of fish and while an increasing amount of data indicates its importance in behaviour, very little is known about its regulation. Here, we report that both eye and skin coloration change in response to white to black background adaptation in live sand goby Pomatoschistus minutes, a bentic marine fish. Through in vitro experiments, we show that noradrenaline and melanocyte concentrating hormone (MCH) treatments cause aggregation of pigment organelles in the eye chromatophores. Daylight had no aggregating effect. Combining forskolin to elevate intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) with MCH resulted in complete pigment dispersal and darkening of the eyes, whereas combining prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) with MCH resulted in more yellow and red eyes. ACTH and MSH also induced dispersal in the melanophores, resulting in overall darker eyes. By comparing analysis of eyes, skin and peritoneum, we conclude that the regulation pattern is similar between these different tissues in this species which is relevant for the cryptic life strategy of this species. With the exception of ACTH which resulted in most prominent melanophore pigment dispersal in the eyes, all other treatments provided similar results between tissue types. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has directly analysed hormonal regulation of physiological colour change in eyes of fish.

  8. Hormonal regulation of c-KIT receptor and its ligand: implications for human infertility?

    PubMed

    Figueira, Marília I; Cardoso, Henrique J; Correia, Sara; Maia, Cláudio J; Socorro, Sílvia

    2014-09-01

    The c-KIT, a tyrosine kinase receptor, and its ligand the stem cell factor (SCF) play an important role in the production of male and female gametes. The interaction of SCF with c-KIT is required for germ cell survival and growth, and abnormalities in the activity of the SCF/c-KIT system have been associated with human infertility. Recently, it was demonstrated that gonadotropic and sex steroid hormones, among others, regulate the expression of SCF and c-KIT in testicular and ovarian cells. Therefore, the hormonal (de)regulation of SCF/c-KIT system in the testis and ovary may be a cause underpinning infertility. In the present review, we will discuss the effects of hormones modulating the expression levels of SCF and c-KIT in the human gonads. In addition, the implications of hormonal regulation of SCF/c-KIT system for germ cell development and fertility will be highlighted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, estradiol, and inhibin regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone surges: implications for follicle emergence and selection in heifers.

    PubMed

    Haughian, James M; Ginther, O J; Diaz, Francisco J; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2013-06-01

    Mechanisms regulating gonadotropin surges and gonadotropin requirements for follicle emergence and selection were studied in heifers. Experiment 1 evaluated whether follicular inhibins regulate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) surges elicited by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection (Hour = 0) and the subsequent periovulatory FSH surge. Treatments included control (n = 6), steroid-depleted bovine follicular fluid (bFF) at Hour -4 (n = 6), and bFF at Hour 6 (n = 6). Gonadotropins in blood were assessed hourly from Hours -6 to 36, and follicle growth tracked by ultrasound. Consistent with inhibin independence, bFF at Hour -4 did not impact the GnRH-induced preovulatory FSH surge, whereas treatment at Hour 6 delayed onset of the periovulatory FSH surge and impeded growth of a new follicular wave. Experiment 2 examined GnRH and estradiol (E2) regulation of the periovulatory FSH surge. Treatment groups were control (n = 8), GnRH-receptor antagonist (GnRHr-ant, n = 8), and E2 + GnRHr-ant (n = 4). GnRHr-ant (acyline) did not reduce the concentrations of FSH during the periovulatory surge and early follicle development (<7.0 mm) was unaffected, although subsequent growth of a dominant follicle (>8.0 mm) was prevented by GnRHr-ant. Addition of E2 delayed both the onset of the periovulatory FSH surge and emergence of a follicular wave. Failure to select a dominant follicle in the GnRHr-ant group was associated with reduced concentrations of LH but not FSH. Maximum diameter of F1 in controls (13.3 ± 0.5 mm) was greater than in both GnRHr-ant (7.7 ± 0.3 mm) and E2 + GnRHr-ant (6.7 ± 0.8 mm) groups. Results indicated that the periovulatory FSH surge stems from removal of negative stimuli (follicular E2 and inhibin), but is independent of GnRH stimulation. Emergence and early growth of follicles (until about 8 mm) requires the periovulatory FSH surge but not LH pulses. However, follicular deviation and late-stage growth of

  10. Evidence of a bigenomic regulation of mitochondrial gene expression by thyroid hormone during rat brain development

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Pathak, Amrita; Mohan, Vishwa; Babu, Satish; Pal, Amit; Khare, Drirh; Godbole, Madan M.

    2010-07-02

    Hypothyroidism during early mammalian brain development is associated with decreased expression of various mitochondrial encoded genes along with evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, in-spite of the similarities between neurological disorders caused by perinatal hypothyroidism and those caused by various genetic mitochondrial defects we still do not know as to how thyroid hormone (TH) regulates mitochondrial transcription during development and whether this regulation by TH is nuclear mediated or through mitochondrial TH receptors? We here in rat cerebellum show that hypothyroidism causes reduction in expression of nuclear encoded genes controlling mitochondrial biogenesis like PGC-1{alpha}, NRF-1{alpha} and Tfam. Also, we for the first time demonstrate a mitochondrial localization of thyroid hormone receptor (mTR) isoform in developing brain capable of binding a TH response element (DR2) present in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. These results thus indicate an integrated nuclear-mitochondrial cross talk in regulation of mitochondrial transcription by TH during brain development.

  11. Mechanisms of hormonal regulation of sertoli cell development and proliferation: a key process for spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Escott, Gustavo M; da Rosa, Luciana A; Loss, Eloisa da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    In adulthood, the main function of the testes is the production of male gametes. In this process, Sertoli cells are essential for sustained spermatogenesis, providing the developing germ cells with the physical and nutritional support required. The total number of Sertoli cells in adulthood determines the daily gamete production, since Sertoli cells can support only a limited number of developing germ cells. Considering that Sertoli cell proliferation only occurs during the immature period, proper development and proliferation of the Sertoli cells during the proliferative phase are crucial to male reproductive health in adulthood. The proliferation process of the Sertoli cells is finely regulated by an assortment of hormonal and paracrine/autocrine factors, which regulate the rate and extent of proliferation. In the present review, we discuss the most important hormonal and paracrine factors involved in the regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation, as well as the signaling mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  12. Expression of neuropeptide W in rat stomach mucosa: regulation by nutritional status, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Caminos, Jorge E; Bravo, Susana B; García-Rendueles, María E R; Ruth González, C; Garcés, Maria F; Cepeda, Libia A; Lage, Ricardo; Suárez, Miguel A; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos

    2008-02-07

    Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7) and 8 (GPR8). In rodent brain, NPW mRNA is confined to specific nuclei in hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. Expression of NPW mRNA has also been confirmed in peripheral organs such as stomach. Several reports suggested that brain NPW is implicated in the regulation of energy and hormonal homeostasis, namely the adrenal and thyroid axes; however the precise physiological role and regulation of peripheral NPW remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of nutritional status on the regulation of NPW in stomach mucosa. Our results show that in this tissue, NPW mRNA and protein expression is negatively regulated by fasting and food restriction, in all the models we studied: males, females and pregnant females. Next, we examined the effect of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on NPW mRNA expression in the stomach mucosa. Our data showed that NPW expression is decreased in this tissue after glucocorticoid treatment or hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism induces a marked increase in the expression of NPW in rat stomach. Overall, these data indicate that stomach NPW is regulated by nutritional and hormonal status.

  13. Dietary regulation of adiponectin by direct and indirect lipid activators of nuclear hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Rühl, R; Landrier, J F

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipokine mainly secreted by adipocytes that presents antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic functions. Therefore, modulation of adiponectin expression represents a promising target for prevention or treatment of several diseases including insulin resistance and type II diabetes. Pharmacological agents such as the nuclear hormone receptor synthetic agonists like peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ agonists are of particular interest in therapeutic strategies due to their ability to increase the plasma adiponectin concentration. Nutritional approaches are also of particular interest, especially in primary prevention, since some active compounds of our diet (notably vitamins, carotenoids, or other essential nutrients) are direct or indirect lipid-activators of nuclear hormone receptors and are modifiers of adiponectin expression and secretion. The aim of the present review is to summarize current knowledge about the nutritional regulation of adiponectin by derivatives of active compounds naturally present in the diet acting as indirect or direct activators of nuclear hormone receptors.

  14. Integral control of plant gravitropism through the interplay of hormone signaling and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Blázquez, Miguel A

    2011-08-17

    The interplay between hormone signaling and gene regulatory networks is instrumental in promoting the development of living organisms. In particular, plants have evolved mechanisms to sense gravity and orient themselves accordingly. Here, we present a mathematical model that reproduces plant gravitropic responses based on known molecular genetic interactions for auxin signaling coupled with a physical description of plant reorientation. The model allows one to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the system, triggered by an auxin gradient that induces differential growth of the plant with respect to the gravity vector. Our model predicts two important features with strong biological implications: 1), robustness of the regulatory circuit as a consequence of integral control; and 2), a higher degree of plasticity generated by the molecular interplay between two classes of hormones. Our model also predicts the ability of gibberellins to modulate the tropic response and supports the integration of the hormonal role at the level of gene regulation.

  15. The microRNA biogenesis machinery: regulation by steroid hormones and alterations in cancer.

    PubMed

    González-Duarte, Ramiro José; Cázares-Ordoñez, Verna; Ávila-Chávez, Euclides

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The major proteins of the canonical microRNA biogenesis pathway in human are: Drosha, DGCR8, DDX5, DDX17, Exportin 5, Dicer and Argonaute 2. Recent studies suggest that gene expression of some canonical microRNA biogenesis components could be regulated by steroid hormones. Furthermore, various alterations in microRNA biogenesis have been associated with diseases like cancer. Due to the importance of microRNAs in cell physiology, the study of the factors that regulate or affect their biogenesis is critical.

  16. Dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A public workshop, organized by a Steering Committee of scientists from government, industry, universities, and research organizations, was held at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in September, 2010. The workshop explored the dose-response implications of toxicant modes of action (MOA) mediated by nuclear receptors. The dominant paradigm in human health risk assessment has been linear extrapolation without a threshold for cancer, and estimation of sub-threshold doses for non-cancer and (in appropriate cases) cancer endpoints. However, recent publications question the application of dose-response modeling approaches with a threshold. The growing body of molecular toxicology information and computational toxicology tools has allowed for exploration of the presence or absence of subthreshold doses for a number of receptor-mediated MOPs. The workshop explored the development of dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated liver cancer, within a MOA Human Relevance framework (HRF). Case studies addressed activation of the AHR; the CAR/PXR, and the PPARa. This paper describes the workshop process, key issues discussed, and conclusions. The value of an interactive workshop approach to apply current MOA/HRF frameworks was demonstrated. The results may help direct research on the MOA and dose-response of receptor-based toxicity, since there are commonalities for many receptors in the basic pathways involved for late steps in the

  17. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  18. Dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A public workshop, organized by a Steering Committee of scientists from government, industry, universities, and research organizations, was held at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) in September, 2010. The workshop explored the dose-response implications of toxicant modes of action (MOA) mediated by nuclear receptors. The dominant paradigm in human health risk assessment has been linear extrapolation without a threshold for cancer, and estimation of sub-threshold doses for non-cancer and (in appropriate cases) cancer endpoints. However, recent publications question the application of dose-response modeling approaches with a threshold. The growing body of molecular toxicology information and computational toxicology tools has allowed for exploration of the presence or absence of subthreshold doses for a number of receptor-mediated MOPs. The workshop explored the development of dose-response approaches for nuclear receptor-mediated liver cancer, within a MOA Human Relevance framework (HRF). Case studies addressed activation of the AHR; the CAR/PXR, and the PPARa. This paper describes the workshop process, key issues discussed, and conclusions. The value of an interactive workshop approach to apply current MOA/HRF frameworks was demonstrated. The results may help direct research on the MOA and dose-response of receptor-based toxicity, since there are commonalities for many receptors in the basic pathways involved for late steps in the

  19. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  20. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  1. Vagal Control of Satiety and Hormonal Regulation of Appetite

    PubMed Central

    Heldsinger, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The paradigm for the control of feeding behavior has changed significantly. In this review, we present evidence that the separation of function in which cholecystokinin (CCK) controls short-term food intake and leptin regulate long-term eating behavior and body weight become less clear. In addition to the hypothalamus, the vagus nerve is critically involved in the control of feeding by transmitting signals arising from the upper gut to the nucleus of the solitary tract. Among the peripheral mediators, CCK is the key peptide involved in generating the satiety signal via the vagus. Leptin receptors have also been identified in the vagus nerve. Studies in the rodents clearly indicate that leptin and CCK interact synergistically to induce short-term inhibition of food intake and long-term reduction of body weight. The synergistic interaction between vagal CCK-A receptor and leptin is mediated by the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription3 (STAT3), which in turn, activates closure of K+ channels, leading to membrane depolarization and neuronal firing. This involves the interaction between CCK/SRC/phosphoinositide 3-kinase cascades and leptin/Janus kinase-2/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/STAT3 signaling pathways. It is conceivable that malfunctioning of these signaling molecules may result in eating disorders. PMID:22148102

  2. The role of gut hormones in the regulation of body weight and energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Karra, Efthimia; Batterham, Rachel L

    2010-03-25

    Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century with 1.6 billion adults currently classified as being overweight and 400 million as obese. Obesity is causally associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnoea and certain forms of cancer and is now one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body producing hormones that have important sensing and signaling roles in regulating body weight and energy expenditure. The last decade has witnessed a marked increase in our understanding of the role of gut hormones in energy homeostasis. Consequently, strategies aimed at modulating circulating gut hormone concentrations or targeting their receptors are being developed as potential pharmacotherapies for obesity. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the mechanisms, sites of action and effects of the anorectic gut hormones peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), oxyntomodulin, and amylin and of the unique orexigenic hormone, ghrelin.

  3. The interaction between strigolactones and other plant hormones in the regulation of plant development.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormones are small molecules derived from various metabolic pathways and are important regulators of plant development. The most recently discovered phytohormone class comprises the carotenoid-derived strigolactones (SLs). For a long time these compounds were only known to be secreted into the rhizosphere where they act as signaling compounds, but now we know they are also active as endogenous plant hormones and they have been in the spotlight ever since. The initial discovery that SLs are involved in the inhibition of axillary bud outgrowth, initiated a multitude of other studies showing that SLs also play a role in defining root architecture, secondary growth, hypocotyl elongation, and seed germination, mostly in interaction with other hormones. Their coordinated action enables the plant to respond in an appropriate manner to environmental factors such as temperature, shading, day length, and nutrient availability. Here, we will review the current knowledge on the crosstalk between SLs and other plant hormones-such as auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), and gibberellins (GA)-during different physiological processes. We will furthermore take a bird's eye view of how this hormonal crosstalk enables plants to respond to their ever changing environments.

  4. Signal transduction pathways mediating parathyroid hormone regulation of osteoblastic gene expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Bloch, S. R.; Pearman, A. T.

    1994-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a central role in regulation of calcium metabolism. For example, excessive or inappropriate production of PTH or the related hormone, parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), accounts for the majority of the causes of hypercalcemia. Both hormones act through the same receptor on the osteoblast to elicit enhanced bone resorption by the osteoclast. Thus, the osteoblast mediates the effect of PTH in the resorption process. In this process, PTH causes a change in the function and phenotype of the osteoblast from a cell involved in bone formation to one directing the process of bone resorption. In response to PTH, the osteoblast decreases collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin expression and increases production of osteocalcin, cytokines, and neutral proteases. Many of these changes have been shown to be due to effects on mRNA abundance through either transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms. However, the signal transduction pathway for the hormone to cause these changes is not completely elucidated in any case. Binding of PTH and PTHrP to their common receptor has been shown to result in activation of protein kinases A and C and increases in intracellular calcium. The latter has not been implicated in any changes in mRNA of osteoblastic genes. On the other hand activation of PKA can mimic all the effects of PTH; protein kinase C may be involved in some responses. We will discuss possible mechanisms linking PKA and PKC activation to changes in gene expression, particularly at the nuclear level.

  5. Signal transduction pathways mediating parathyroid hormone regulation of osteoblastic gene expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, N. C.; Bloch, S. R.; Pearman, A. T.

    1994-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a central role in regulation of calcium metabolism. For example, excessive or inappropriate production of PTH or the related hormone, parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), accounts for the majority of the causes of hypercalcemia. Both hormones act through the same receptor on the osteoblast to elicit enhanced bone resorption by the osteoclast. Thus, the osteoblast mediates the effect of PTH in the resorption process. In this process, PTH causes a change in the function and phenotype of the osteoblast from a cell involved in bone formation to one directing the process of bone resorption. In response to PTH, the osteoblast decreases collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin expression and increases production of osteocalcin, cytokines, and neutral proteases. Many of these changes have been shown to be due to effects on mRNA abundance through either transcriptional or post-transcriptional mechanisms. However, the signal transduction pathway for the hormone to cause these changes is not completely elucidated in any case. Binding of PTH and PTHrP to their common receptor has been shown to result in activation of protein kinases A and C and increases in intracellular calcium. The latter has not been implicated in any changes in mRNA of osteoblastic genes. On the other hand activation of PKA can mimic all the effects of PTH; protein kinase C may be involved in some responses. We will discuss possible mechanisms linking PKA and PKC activation to changes in gene expression, particularly at the nuclear level.

  6. [Hormonal regulation of metabolism in the human body in microgravity and during simulation of its physiological effects].

    PubMed

    Larina, I M

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigations into the effects of space flight and simulation experiments of various length on the hormonal regulation of metabolism in the human body. Microgravity was shown to instigate shifts on different levels of the hormonal regulation and consequent adjustment of metabolism to this new environment. For instance, adaptation occurs on the level of basal secretory activity resulting in altered metabolism and formation of a pool of hormones. Metabolism readaptation to the Earth's gravity is dependent on polymorphic processes in the system of hormonal regulation developing in the course of time. Trends in the hormonal regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism during early adaptation point to inequality of contributions of the antidiuretic hormone, natriuretic peptide, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In the ground-based simulations responses of the hormonal regulation of water-electrolyte metabolism differ in intensity and types of hormones involved. Temperature variation can modify reactions of the comosis and volume regulating hormones at the beginning of adaptation. Physical-chemical regulation of calcium homeostasis in microgravity reveals itself by a rapid decline of the calcium-binding ability of blood buffers and, later on, degradation of the relative ability of extraplasmic structures to bind calcium. Qualitative and quantitative changes in the diurnal rhythm of the suprarenal steroidogenesis are indicative of modification of intensity of reactions of the main biosynthetic sequences. Countermeasures used by test-subjects in these investigations loosened significantly the aldosterone-secreting biosynthetic sequences but were favorable to the synthesis of testosterone and hydrocortisone. Some of the highly variable processes of hormonal regulation were mute to the diurnal rhythms in the pre-flight and preexperimental periods.

  7. Thyroid hormone and reproduction: regulation of estrogen receptors in goldfish gonads.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erik R; Allan, Euan R O; Pang, Flora Y; Habibi, Hamid R

    2010-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that thyroid hormones influence reproduction in vertebrates. However, little information is available on the mechanisms by which this happens. As a first step in determining these mechanisms, we test the hypothesis that the estrogen receptor subtypes (ERalpha, ERbeta-1, and ERbeta-2) are regulated by the thyroid hormone, (T(3)), in the gonads of goldfish. All three subtypes were down-regulated by T(3) in the testis or ovary. We also found evidence that T(3) decreased pituitary gonadotropin expression and decreased transcript for gonadal aromatase. Collectively, it appears that T(3) acts to diminish estrogen signaling by (1) decreasing pituitary LH expression and thus steroidogenesis, (2) down-regulating gonadal aromatase expression and thus decreasing estrogen synthesis from androgens, and (3) decreasing sensitivity to estrogen by down-regulating the ER subtypes. Goldfish are seasonal breeders, spawning once a year, and thus have two distinct periods of growth: somatic and reproductive. Circulating thyroid hormone levels have been found to increase just after spawning. Therefore, we propose that this may be an endocrine mechanism that goldfish use to switch their energy expenditure from reproductive to growth efforts in the goldfish. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Post-translational modifications of hormone-responsive transcription factors: the next level of regulation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kristine

    2015-08-01

    Plants exhibit a high level of developmental plasticity and growth is responsive to multiple developmental and environmental cues. Hormones are small endogenous signalling molecules which are fundamental to this phenotypic plasticity. Post-translational modifications of proteins are a central feature of the signal transduction pathways that regulate gene transcription in response to hormones. Modifications that affect the function of transcriptional regulators may also serve as a mechanism to incorporate multiple signals, mediate cross-talk, and modulate specific responses. This review discusses recent research that suggests hormone-responsive transcription factors are subject to multiple modifications which imply an additional level of regulation conferred by enzymes that mediate specific modifications, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation, and S-nitrosylation. These modifications can affect protein stability, sub-cellular localization, interactions with co-repressors and activators, and DNA binding. The focus here is on direct cross-talk involving transcription factors downstream of auxin, brassinosteroid, and gibberellin signalling. However, many of the concepts discussed are more broadly relevant to questions of how plants can modify their growth by regulating subsets of genes in response to multiple cues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Mod(mdg4) participates in hormonally regulated midgut programmed cell death during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2012-12-01

    The insect midgut undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) during metamorphosis, but the molecular basis for this phenomenon has not been demonstrated. We report a mod(mdg4) protein [designated as mod(mdg4)1A] that is involved in hormonally regulated insect midgut PCD, from the lepidopteran Helicoverpa armigera. Mod(mdg4)1A is localized in the larval midgut and is highly expressed during metamorphosis. Knockdown of mod(mdg4)1a by feeding dsRNA to the larvae suppressed midgut PCD and delayed metamorphosis. The mechanism is that mod(mdg4)1a knockdown decreased the transcript levels of genes involved in PCD and metamorphosis, but increased the transcript level of inhibitor of apoptosis survivin. The transcript level of mod(mdg4)1a is independently upregulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) or juvenile hormone (JH) analog methoprene. Overlapped 20E and methoprene counteractively regulate the transcript level of mod(mdg4)1a. 20E upregulates the mod(mdg4)1a transcript level not through its nuclear receptor EcRB1. Methoprene upregulates the mod(mdg4)1a transcript level through the juvenile hormone candidate receptor Met. These findings indicate that mod(mdg4)1a participates in midgut PCD and metamorphosis by regulating the transcript levels of a network of genes via different pathways under 20E and JH regulation.

  10. FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in hormonal regulation of gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jonathan C.; Fong, Ka-Wing; Jin, Hong-Jian; Yang, Yeqing A; Kim, Jung; Yu, Jindan

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal regulation of gene expression by androgen receptor (AR) is tightly controlled by many transcriptional cofactors, including pioneer factors FOXA1 and GATA2, which, however, exhibit distinct expression patterns and functional roles in prostate cancer. Here, we examined how FOXA1, GATA2, and AR crosstalk and regulate hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer cells. ChIP-seq analysis revealed that FOXA1 reprograms both AR and GATA2 cistrome by preferably recruiting them to FKHD-containing genomic sites. By contrast, GATA2 is unable to shift AR or FOXA1 to GATA motifs. Rather, GATA2 co-occupancy enhances AR and FOXA1 binding to nearby ARE and FKHD sites, respectively. Similarly, AR increases, but not re-programs, GATA2 and FOXA1 cistromes. Concordantly, GATA2 and AR strongly enhance the transcriptional program of each other, whereas FOXA1 regulates GATA2- and AR-mediated gene expression in a context-dependent manner due to its reprogramming effects. Taken together, our data delineated for the first time the distinct mechanisms by which GATA2 and FOXA1 regulate AR cistrome and suggest that FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in determining hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer. PMID:26751772

  11. FoxO1 deacetylation regulates thyroid hormone-induced transcription of key hepatic gluconeogenic genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Zhou, Jin; Xie, Sherwin Ying; You, Seo-Hee; Gauthier, Karine; Yen, Paul Michael

    2013-10-18

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is a concerted process that integrates transcriptional regulation with hormonal signals. A major regulator is thyroid hormone (TH), which acts through its nuclear receptor (TR) to induce the expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC). Forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 also is an important regulator of these genes; however, its functional interactions with TR are not known. Here, we report that TR-mediated transcriptional activation of PCK1 and G6PC in human hepatic cells and mouse liver was FoxO1-dependent and furthermore required FoxO1 deacetylation by the NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, SirT1. siRNA knockdown of FoxO1 decreased, whereas overexpression of FoxO1 increased, TH-dependent transcriptional activation of PCK1 and G6PC in cultured hepatic cells. FoxO1 siRNA knockdown also decreased TH-mediated transcription in vivo. Additionally, TH was unable to induce FoxO1 deacetylation or hepatic PCK1 gene expression in TH receptor β-null (TRβ(-/-)) mice. Moreover, TH stimulated FoxO1 recruitment to the PCK1 and G6PC gene promoters in a SirT1-dependent manner. In summary, our results show that TH-dependent deacetylation of a second metabolically regulated transcription factor represents a novel mechanism for transcriptional integration of nuclear hormone action with cellular energy status.

  12. FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in hormonal regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J C; Fong, K-W; Jin, H-J; Yang, Y A; Kim, J; Yu, J

    2016-08-18

    Hormonal regulation of gene expression by androgen receptor (AR) is tightly controlled by many transcriptional cofactors, including pioneer factors FOXA1 and GATA2, which, however, exhibit distinct expression patterns and functional roles in prostate cancer. Here, we examined how FOXA1, GATA2 and AR crosstalk and regulate hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis revealed that FOXA1 reprograms both AR and GATA2 cistrome by preferably recruiting them to FKHD-containing genomic sites. By contrast, GATA2 is unable to shift AR or FOXA1 to GATA motifs. Rather, GATA2 co-occupancy enhances AR and FOXA1 binding to nearby ARE and FKHD sites, respectively. Similarly, AR increases, but not reprograms, GATA2 and FOXA1 cistromes. Concordantly, GATA2 and AR strongly enhance the transcriptional program of each other, whereas FOXA1 regulates GATA2- and AR-mediated gene expression in a context-dependent manner due to its reprogramming effects. Taken together, our data delineated for the first time the distinct mechanisms by which GATA2 and FOXA1 regulate AR cistrome and suggest that FOXA1 acts upstream of GATA2 and AR in determining hormone-dependent gene expression in prostate cancer.

  13. Both cell substratum regulation and hormonal regulation of milk protein gene expression are exerted primarily at the posttranscriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, R.S.; Rosen, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    The mechanism by which individual peptide and steroid hormones and cell-substratum interactions regulate milk protein gene expression has been studied in the COMMA-D mammary epithelial cell line. In the presence of insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin, growth of COMMA-D cells on floating collagen gels in comparison with that on a plastic substratum resulted in a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in the relative rate of ..beta..-casein gene transcription but a 37-fold increase in ..beta..-casein mRNA accumulation. In contrast, whey acidic protein gene transcription was constitutive in COMMA-D cells grown on either substratum, but its mRNA was unstable and little intact mature mRNA was detected. Culturing COMMA-D cells on collagen also promoted increased expression of other genes expressed in differentiated mammary epithelial cells, including those encoding ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-casein, transferrin, malic enzyme, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase but decreased the expression of actin and histone genes. Using COMMA-D cells, the authors defined further the role of individual hormones in influencing ..beta..-casein gene transcription. With insulin alone, a basal level of ..beta..-casein gene transcription was detected in COMMA-D cells grown on floating collagen gels. Addition of prolactin but not hydrocortisone resulted in a 2.5- to 3.0-fold increase in ..beta..-casein gene transcription, but both hormones were required to elicit the maximal 73-fold induction in mRNA accumulation. The posttranscriptional effect of hormones on casein mRNA accummulation preceded any detectable changes in the relative rate of transcription. Thus, regulation by both hormones and cell substratum of casein gene expression is exerted primarily at the post transcriptional level.

  14. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process. PMID:26959229

  15. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Breitel, Dario A; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process.

  16. Diverse roles of G-protein coupled receptors in the regulation of neurohypophyseal hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Sladek, C D; Song, Z

    2012-04-01

    The magnocellular neurones in the supraoptic nucleus project to the neural lobe and release vasopressin and oxytocin into the peripheral circulation, where they act on the kidney to promote fluid retention or stimulate smooth muscles in the vasculature, uterus and mammary glands to support blood pressure, promote parturition or induce milk let-down, respectively. Hormone release is regulated by complex afferent pathways carrying information about plasma osmolality, blood pressure and volume, cervical stretch, and suckling. These afferent pathways utilise a broad array of neurotransmitters and peptides that activate both ligand-gated ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The ligand-gated ion channels induce rapid changes in membrane potential resulting in the generation of action potentials, initiation of exocytosis and the release of hormone into the periphery. By contrast, the GPCRs activate a host of diverse signalling cascades that modulate action potential firing and regulate other cellular functions required to support hormone release (e.g. hormone synthesis, processing, packaging and trafficking). The diversity of these actions is critical for integration of the distinct regulatory signals into a response appropriate for maintaining homeostasis. This review describes several diverse roles of GPCRs in magnocellular neurones, focusing primarily on adrenergic, purinergic and peptidergic (neurokinin and angiotensin) receptors.

  17. Ovarian hormones and fasting differentially regulate pituitary receptors for estrogen and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in rabbit female.

    PubMed

    Parillo, F; Zerani, M; Maranesi, M; Dall'Aglio, C; Galeati, G; Brecchia, G; Boiti, C; González-Mariscal, G

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects reproductive function in female rabbits, we measured, in animals intact or ovariectomized (OVX) estrogen-primed and fed ad libitum or fasted for 48 h, the adenohypophysial expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) and the dynamic secretion of LH following GnRH stimulation. Fasting increased the number of GnRHR-immunoreactive (-IR) cells in intact animals, whereas reduced the density of ESR1-IR cells in OVX rabbits. Estrogen priming decreased the number of ESR1-IR cells in fasted and OVX animals. Ovariectomy increased the number of ESR1-IR cells in fed rabbits, but caused an opposite effect in both fed and fasted animals treated with estrogen. Fasting down regulated the mRNA levels for ESR1 and GnRHR. Estrogen-priming reduced the abundance for ESR1 mRNA in both fed and fasted rabbits, and that for GnRHR in fasted rabbits. Ovariectomy halved ESR1 mRNA levels independently of treatment and feeding condition, whereas increased (P < 001) that for GnRHR in estrogen-primed rabbits. In all rabbits, an LH surge occurred 30 min after GnRH injection but the lowest levels were found in intact fasted rabbits and the highest in fasted, estrogen-primed animals. The LH profile was similar in intact and OVX rabbits and neither fasting nor estrogen priming modified it. In conclusion, fasting differentially modifies the ESR1 and GnRHR expression in the pituitary, depending on the presence of gonadal hormones, indicating complex interactions between metabolic signals and ovarian steroids. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hormone and receptor interplay in the regulation of mosquito lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueli; Hou, Yuan; Saha, Tusar T; Pei, Gaofeng; Raikhel, Alexander S; Zou, Zhen

    2017-03-28

    Mosquitoes transmit devastating human diseases because they need vertebrate blood for egg development. Metabolism in female mosquitoes is tightly coupled with blood meal-mediated reproduction, which requires an extremely high level of energy consumption. Functional analysis has shown that major genes encoding for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (LM) in the mosquito fat bodies are down-regulated at the end of the juvenile hormone (JH)-controlled posteclosion (PE) phase but exhibit significant elevation in their transcript levels during the post-blood meal phase (PBM), which is regulated mainly by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Reductions in the transcript levels of genes encoding triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism and β-oxidation enzymes were observed to correlate with a dramatic accumulation of lipids in the PE phase; in contrast, these transcripts were elevated significantly and lipid stores were diminished during the PBM phase. The RNAi depletion of Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and ecdysone receptor (EcR), receptors for JH and 20E, respectively, reversed the LM gene expression and the levels of lipid stores and metabolites, demonstrating the critical roles of these hormones in LM regulation. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) RNAi-silenced mosquitoes exhibited down-regulation of the gene transcripts encoding TAG catabolism and β-oxidation enzymes and an inability to use lipids effectively, as manifested by TAG accumulation. The luciferase reporter assay showed direct regulation of LM-related genes by HNF4. Moreover, HNF4 gene expression was down-regulated by Met and activated by EcR and Target of rapamycin, providing a link between nutritional and hormonal regulation of LM in female mosquitoes.

  19. The C-kit receptor-mediated signal transduction and tumor-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Wu, Yan-Ling; Chen, Bing-Jia; Zhang, Wen; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    As an important member of tyrosine kinase family, c-kit receptor causes specific expression of certain genes, regulates cell differentiation and proliferation, resists cell apoptosis, and plays a key role in tumor occurrence, development, migration and recurrence through activating the downstream signaling molecules following interaction with stem cell factor (SCF). The abnormality of SCF/c-kit signaling pathway is closely related to some certain tumors. The discovery of c-kit receptor-targeted drugs has promoted clinical-related cancer's diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we review recent research progress on c-kit receptor-mediated signal transduction and its potential therapeutic application as a target in tumor-related diseases.

  20. D2-like dopamine receptors mediate the response to amphetamine in a mouse model of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xueliang; Hess, Ellen J.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the effects of psychostimulants in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well understood, but indirect evidence implicates D2 dopamine receptors. Here we dissect the components of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the hyperactive mouse mutant coloboma to identify pre- and postsynaptic elements essential for the effects of amphetamine in these mice. Amphetamine treatment reduced locomotor activity in coloboma mice, but induced a robust increase in dopamine overflow suggesting that abnormal regulation of dopamine efflux does not account for the behavioral effect. However, the D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists haloperidol and raclopride, but not the D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, blocked the amphetamine-induced reduction in locomotor activity in coloboma mice, providing direct evidence that D2-like dopamine receptors mediate the effect of amphetamine in these mice. With the precedent established that it is possible to directly antagonize this response, this strategy should prove useful for identifying novel therapeutics in ADHD. PMID:17291774

  1. The C-Kit Receptor-Mediated Signal Transduction and Tumor-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Wu, Yan-Ling; Chen, Bing-Jia; Zhang, Wen; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    As an important member of tyrosine kinase family, c-kit receptor causes specific expression of certain genes, regulates cell differentiation and proliferation, resists cell apoptosis, and plays a key role in tumor occurrence, development, migration and recurrence through activating the downstream signaling molecules following interaction with stem cell factor (SCF). The abnormality of SCF/c-kit signaling pathway is closely related to some certain tumors. The discovery of c-kit receptor-targeted drugs has promoted clinical-related cancer's diagnosis and treatment. In this paper, we review recent research progress on c-kit receptor-mediated signal transduction and its potential therapeutic application as a target in tumor-related diseases. PMID:23678293

  2. Circadian and sleep-dependent regulation of hormone release in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, C. A.; Klerman, E. B.

    1999-01-01

    rhythm sleep disorders, including the dyssomnia of shift work and visual impairment. Yet to be fully investigated are the interactions of these factors with age and gender. Characterization of the factors governing hormone secretion is critical to understanding the temporal regulation of endocrine systems and presents many exciting areas for future research.

  3. [Participation of hormones and regulating factors in implantation and development of the fetoplacental unit].

    PubMed

    Pascoe Lira, D; Fonseca Yerena, E; Rivera Paredes, C; Hicks Gómez, J J

    1995-02-01

    Although the embryo has a genetic program of its own development in order that development and embryonic differentiation take place, as well as normal gestation, a series of coordinated interactions between embryo and the mother, should be established; which are mediated by chemical messengers, autocrine, paracrine and endocrine. In this study, hormonal participation and regulating factors of implantation, and the feto-placental unit development, are analyzed.

  4. Arabidopsis and Tobacco SUPERMAN regulate hormone signalling and mediate cell proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Nibau, Candida; Di Stilio, Verónica S.; Wu, Hen-ming; Cheung, Alice Y.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN (SUP) plays an important role during flower development by maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels in the inner two whorls. It was proposed that SUP maintains this boundary by regulating cell proliferation in both whorls, as loss-of-function superman mutants produce more stamens at the expense of carpels. However, the cellular mechanism that underlies SUP function remains unknown. Here Arabidopsis or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SUP was overexpressed in tobacco plants to substantiate SUP's role as a regulator of cell proliferation and boundary definition and provide evidence that its biological role may be mediated via hormonal changes. It was found that moderate levels of SUP stimulated cell growth and proliferation, whereas high levels were inhibitory. SUP stimulated auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes, and cells overexpressing SUP displayed reduced hormone dependency for proliferation and regeneration into plants. SUP also induced proliferation of female traits in the second and third flower whorls and promoted differentiation of petaloid properties in sepals, further supporting a role for SUP as a boundary regulator. Moreover, cytokinin suppressed stamen development and promoted differentiation of carpeloid tissues, suggesting that SUP may regulate male and female development via its effect on cytokinin signalling. Taken together, these observations suggest a model whereby the effect of SUP on cell growth and proliferation involves the modulation of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes. Furthermore, differential SUP expression or different sensitivities of different cell types to SUP may determine whether SUP stimulates or suppresses their proliferation. PMID:20980362

  5. Arabidopsis and Tobacco superman regulate hormone signalling and mediate cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nibau, Candida; Di Stilio, Verónica S; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana superman (SUP) plays an important role during flower development by maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels in the inner two whorls. It was proposed that SUP maintains this boundary by regulating cell proliferation in both whorls, as loss-of-function superman mutants produce more stamens at the expense of carpels. However, the cellular mechanism that underlies SUP function remains unknown. Here Arabidopsis or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SUP was overexpressed in tobacco plants to substantiate SUP's role as a regulator of cell proliferation and boundary definition and provide evidence that its biological role may be mediated via hormonal changes. It was found that moderate levels of SUP stimulated cell growth and proliferation, whereas high levels were inhibitory. SUP stimulated auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes, and cells overexpressing SUP displayed reduced hormone dependency for proliferation and regeneration into plants. SUP also induced proliferation of female traits in the second and third flower whorls and promoted differentiation of petaloid properties in sepals, further supporting a role for SUP as a boundary regulator. Moreover, cytokinin suppressed stamen development and promoted differentiation of carpeloid tissues, suggesting that SUP may regulate male and female development via its effect on cytokinin signalling. Taken together, these observations suggest a model whereby the effect of SUP on cell growth and proliferation involves the modulation of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes. Furthermore, differential SUP expression or different sensitivities of different cell types to SUP may determine whether SUP stimulates or suppresses their proliferation.

  6. Role of sleep in the regulation of the immune system and the pituitary hormones.

    PubMed

    Gómez-González, Beatriz; Domínguez-Salazar, Emilio; Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Esqueda-Leon, Enrique; Santana-Miranda, Rafael; Rojas-Zamorano, Jose Angel; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier

    2012-07-01

    Sleep is characterized by a reduced response to external stimuli and a particular form of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Sleep is divided into two stages: REM sleep, characterized by muscle atonia, rapid eye movements, and EEG activity similar to wakefulness, and non-REM sleep, characterized by slow EEG activity. Around 80% of total sleep time is non-REM. Although it has been intensely studied for decades, the function (or functions) of sleep remains elusive. Sleep is a highly regulated state; some brain regions and several hormones and cytokines participate in sleep regulation. This mini-review focuses on how pituitary hormones and cytokines regulate or affect sleep and how sleep modifies the plasma concentration of hormones as well as cytokines. Also, we review the effects of hypophysectomy and some autoimmune diseases on sleep pattern. Finally, we propose that one of the functions of sleep is to maintain the integrity of the neuro-immune-endocrine system. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Composite response elements mediate hormonal and developmental regulation of milk protein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J M; Zahnow, C; Kazansky, A; Raught, B

    1998-01-01

    Our laboratory has been studying the mechanisms by which hormones regulate the expression of differentiated function in the normal mammary gland and how these regulatory mechanisms have deviated in breast cancer. Two rat milk protein genes, encoding beta-casein and whey acidic protein, have been employed as molecular markers of mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Composite response elements containing multiple binding sites for several transcription factors mediate the hormonal and developmental regulation of milk protein gene expression. In the whey protein gene promoters, these include binding sites for nuclear factor (NF)-I, as well as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat5). In the casein promoters, these include binding sites for Stat5, Yin Yang 1 (YY1), GR and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP). The C/EBP family of DNA binding proteins may play a pivotal role in maintaining the balance between cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in mammary epithelial cells. During normal mammary gland development, expression of LIP (liver-enriched inhibitory protein, a dominant-negative isoform of C/EBP beta) is hormonally regulated and correlates with cell proliferation during pregnancy. LIP can form heterodimers with other C/EBP family members and suppress their transcriptional activity. In contrast, C/EBP alpha is predominantly expressed during lactation following terminal differentiation. Elevated LIP levels have been detected in mouse, rat and human breast tumours of different aetiologies. This provides a mechanism, therefore, to block terminal differentiation and facilitate continued proliferation.

  8. Hormonal regulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression in the endometrium.

    PubMed

    Chuderland, Dana; Ben-Ami, Ido; Friedler, Shevach; Hasky, Noa; Ninio-Many, Lihi; Goldberg, Keren; Bar-Joseph, Hadas; Grossman, Hadas; Shalgi, Ruth

    2014-06-05

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is highly expressed in the female reproductive system and is subjected to regulation by steroid hormones in the ovary. As the uterine endometrium exhibits morphological and functional changes in response to estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4), we aimed at characterizing the expression of PEDF in this component of the female reproductive tract and further at exploring the hormonal regulation of its expression. We found that PEDF is expressed in human and mouse endometrium. We further showed that this expression is subjected to regulation by steroid hormones, both in vivo and in vitro, as follows: E2 decreased PEDF expression and P4 increased its levels. In human endometrial samples, PEDF levels were dynamically altered along the menstrual cycle; they were low at the proliferative and early secretory phases and significantly higher at the late secretory phase. The expression levels of PEDF were inversely correlated to that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We also showed that PEDF receptor was expressed in the endometrium and that its stimulation reduced VEGF expression. Illustrating the pattern of PEDF expression during the menstrual cycle may contribute to our understanding of the endometrial complexity.

  9. The Insect Prothoracic Gland as a Model for Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis and Regulation.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qiuxiang; Zeng, Jie; Yamanaka, Naoki; Brakken-Thal, Christina; O'Connor, Michael B; King-Jones, Kirst

    2016-06-28

    Steroid hormones are ancient signaling molecules found in vertebrates and insects alike. Both taxa show intriguing parallels with respect to how steroids function and how their synthesis is regulated. As such, insects are excellent models for studying universal aspects of steroid physiology. Here, we present a comprehensive genomic and genetic analysis of the principal steroid hormone-producing organs in two popular insect models, Drosophila and Bombyx. We identified 173 genes with previously unknown specific expression in steroid-producing cells, 15 of which had critical roles in development. The insect neuropeptide PTTH and its vertebrate counterpart ACTH both regulate steroid production, but molecular targets of these pathways remain poorly characterized. Identification of PTTH-dependent gene sets identified the nuclear receptor HR4 as a highly conserved target in both Drosophila and Bombyx. We consider this study to be a critical step toward understanding how steroid hormone production and release are regulated in all animal models. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Barhl1 is directly regulated by thyroid hormone in the developing cerebellum of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Hongyan; Yauk, Carole L.; Wade, Michael G.

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thyroid hormone receptor binds to the promoter region of Barhl1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barhl1 expression in cerebellum is negatively regulated by thyroid hormone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Negative regulation of Barhl1 by thyroid hormone was confirmed in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thyroid hormone may play a role in normal brain development through transcriptional control of Barhl1. -- Abstract: Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the brain development. Despite considerable effort, few genes directly regulated by THs have been identified. In this study, we investigate the effects of THs on the regulation of Barhl1, a transcription factor that regulates sensorineural development. Using DNA microarray combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip), we identified a TR{beta} binding site in the promoter of Barhl1. The binding was further confirmed by ChIP-PCR. The site is located approximately 755 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Reporter vectors containing the binding site or mutated fragments were transfected into GH3 cells. T3 treatment decreased the transcriptional activity of the wild fragment but not the mutant. Two 28 bp oligonucleotides containing sequences that resemble known TH response elements (TREs) were derived from this binding site and DNA-protein interaction was performed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Binding analysis in a nuclear extract containing TR{beta} revealed that one of these fragments bound TR{beta}. This complex was shifted with the addition of anti-TR{beta} antibody. We investigated Barhl1 expression in animal models and TH-treated cultured cells. Both long term treatment with 6-propyl-2-thiouracil and short-term treatment with 0.05% methimazole/1% sodium perchlorate (both treatments render mice hypothyroid) resulted in up-regulation of Barhl1. TH supplementation of hypothyroid mice caused a decrease in the expression of Barhl1

  11. Juvenile Hormone Regulates the Expression of Drosophila Epac– a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for Rap1 Small GTPase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The juvenile hormones (JH) are a key group of insect hormones involved in regulating larval development and adult reproductive processes. Although well-studied from the physiological standpoint, the molecular actions of JH remain unclear. Using cDNA microchip array technology, we previously identifi...

  12. Receptor mediated cellular uptake of low molecular weight dendritic polyglycerols.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Marcelo; Reichert, Stephanie; Welker, Pia; Licha, Kai; Kratz, Felix; Haag, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective polymer-based nanocarriers which are able to target diseased tissues still remains a great challenge in current research. Dendritic polyglycerols have emerged as novel polymeric scaffolds that have demonstrated a great potential for diverse biomedical applications. These architectures have already proven their usefulness in therapeutic approaches related to multivalency, given by the synergy between the nanosized dimensions combined with the high density of functional groups. However, a continuous effort is necessary to modify and tailor polyglycerol architectures to fit the future demands of biomedical applications. The present work deals with the development of a general synthetic strategy that allows the linkage of low molecular weight dendritic polyglycerols to fluorescent dyes and cell targeting ligands. The receptor mediated cellular uptake of the polyglycerol conjugates highlight their potential to acts as new targeted nanocarriers that should be able to decrease non-specific cellular uptake.

  13. [Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone in regulation of reproduction and behavior in mammalians].

    PubMed

    Meng, Fansen; Chen, Xuequn; Du, Jizeng

    2013-03-01

    RF-amide related peptide (RFRP) is the orthologue of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in mammals. The bodies of RFRP cell are located in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) and the fibers project to preoptic area (POA) and median eminence of the hypothalamus. Its receptor mainly distributes in hypothalamus. RFRP fibers project to GnRH cells to regulate mammalian reproduction axis. This paper reviews the progress of current researches on RFRP in regulation of animal behaviors, including reproduction, food intake, anxiety and stress response.

  14. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 3; Plasma Analysis Hormone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Popova, I. A.; Grossman, E.; Rudolph, I.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma from space flight and tail suspended rats was analyzed for a number of constituents in order to evaluate their metabolic status and endocrine function. The data presented here cover plasma hormone measurements. Corticosterone, thyroxine, and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Prolactin and growth hormone were measured by double antibody immunoassays using hormones and antisera prepared in house. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance.

  15. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 3; Plasma Analysis Hormone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Popova, I. A.; Grossman, E.; Rudolph, I.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma from space flight and tail suspended rats was analyzed for a number of constituents in order to evaluate their metabolic status and endocrine function. The data presented here cover plasma hormone measurements. Corticosterone, thyroxine, and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Prolactin and growth hormone were measured by double antibody immunoassays using hormones and antisera prepared in house. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance.

  16. Tracking Progesterone Receptor-Mediated Actions in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Todd P.; Lange, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian steroid hormones contribute to breast cancer initiation and progression primarily through the actions of their nuclear transcription factors, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and progesterone receptors (PRs). These receptors are important drivers of the luminal A and B subtypes of breast cancer, where estrogen-blocking drugs have been effective endocrine therapies for patients with these tumors. However, many patients do not respond, or become resistant to treatment. When endocrine therapies fail, the luminal subtypes of breast cancer are more difficult to treat because these subtypes are among the most heterogeneous in terms of mutation diversity and gene expression profiles. Recent evidence suggests that progestin and PR actions may be important drivers of luminal breast cancers. Clinical trial data has demonstrated that hormone replacement therapy with progestins drives invasive breast cancer and results in greater mortality. PR transcriptional activity is dependent upon cross-talk with growth factor signaling pathways that alter PR phosphorylation, acetylation, or SUMOylation as mechanisms for regulating PR target gene selection required for increased cell proliferation and survival. Site-specific PR phosphorylation is the primary driver of gene-selective PR transcriptional activity. However, PR phosphorylation and heightened transcriptional activity is coupled to rapid PR protein degradation; the range of active PR detected in tumors is likely to be dynamic. Thus, PR target gene signatures may provide a more accurate means of tracking PR’s contribution to tumor progression rather than standard clinical protein-based (IHC) assays. Further development of antiprogestin therapies should be considered along side antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. PMID:24291072

  17. Menthol inhibits 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents.

    PubMed

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Shuba, Yaroslav; Al Kury, Lina; Sadek, Bassem; Howarth, Frank C; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-11-01

    The effects of alcohol monoterpene menthol, a major active ingredient of the peppermint plant, were tested on the function of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. 5-HT (1 μM)-evoked currents recorded by two-electrode voltage-clamp technique were reversibly inhibited by menthol in a concentration-dependent (IC50 = 163 μM) manner. The effects of menthol developed gradually, reaching a steady-state level within 10-15 minutes and did not involve G-proteins, since GTPγS activity remained unaltered and the effect of menthol was not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment. The actions of menthol were not stereoselective as (-), (+), and racemic menthol inhibited 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents to the same extent. Menthol inhibition was not altered by intracellular 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid injections and transmembrane potential changes. The maximum inhibition observed for menthol was not reversed by increasing concentrations of 5-HT. Furthermore, specific binding of the 5-HT3 antagonist [(3)H]GR65630 was not altered in the presence of menthol (up to 1 mM), indicating that menthol acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of the 5-HT3 receptor. Finally, 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents in acutely dissociated nodose ganglion neurons were also inhibited by menthol (100 μM). These data demonstrate that menthol, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, is an allosteric inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors.

  18. Minireview: Food for Thought: Regulation of Synaptic Function by Metabolic Hormones

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Gemma; Malekizadeh, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    The peripheral actions of the metabolic hormones, leptin and insulin, are well documented. However, the functions of these hormones are not restricted to the periphery because evidence is growing that both leptin and insulin can readily cross the blood-brain barrier and have widespread central actions. The hippocampus in particular expresses high levels of both insulin and leptin receptors as well as key components of their associated signaling cascades. Moreover, recent studies indicate that both hormones are potential cognitive enhancers. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that both leptin and insulin markedly influence key cellular events that underlie hippocampal learning and memory including activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and the trafficking of glutamate receptors to and away from hippocampal synapses. The hippocampal formation is also a prime site for the neurodegenerative processes that occur during Alzheimer's disease, and impairments in either leptin or insulin function have been linked to central nervous system-driven diseases like Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the capacity of the metabolic hormones, leptin and insulin, to regulate hippocampal synaptic function has significant implications for normal brain function and also central nervous system-driven disease. PMID:25470238

  19. The interaction between strigolactones and other plant hormones in the regulation of plant development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2013-01-01

    Plant hormones are small molecules derived from various metabolic pathways and are important regulators of plant development. The most recently discovered phytohormone class comprises the carotenoid-derived strigolactones (SLs). For a long time these compounds were only known to be secreted into the rhizosphere where they act as signaling compounds, but now we know they are also active as endogenous plant hormones and they have been in the spotlight ever since. The initial discovery that SLs are involved in the inhibition of axillary bud outgrowth, initiated a multitude of other studies showing that SLs also play a role in defining root architecture, secondary growth, hypocotyl elongation, and seed germination, mostly in interaction with other hormones. Their coordinated action enables the plant to respond in an appropriate manner to environmental factors such as temperature, shading, day length, and nutrient availability. Here, we will review the current knowledge on the crosstalk between SLs and other plant hormones—such as auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), and gibberellins (GA)—during different physiological processes. We will furthermore take a bird's eye view of how this hormonal crosstalk enables plants to respond to their ever changing environments. PMID:23785379

  20. Interplay between insulin signaling, juvenile hormone, and vitellogenin regulates maternal effects on polyphenism in ants

    PubMed Central

    Libbrecht, Romain; Corona, Miguel; Wende, Franziska; Azevedo, Dihego O.; Serrão, Jose E.; Keller, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenism is the phenomenon in which alternative phenotypes are produced by a single genotype in response to environmental cues. An extreme case is found in social insects, in which reproductive queens and sterile workers that greatly differ in morphology and behavior can arise from a single genotype. Experimental evidence for maternal effects on caste determination, the differential larval development toward the queen or worker caste, was recently documented in Pogonomyrmex seed harvester ants, in which only colonies with a hibernated queen produce new queens. However, the proximate mechanisms behind these intergenerational effects have remained elusive. We used a combination of artificial hibernation, hormonal treatments, gene expression analyses, hormone measurements, and vitellogenin quantification to investigate how the combined effect of environmental cues and hormonal signaling affects the process of caste determination in Pogonomyrmex rugosus. The results show that the interplay between insulin signaling, juvenile hormone, and vitellogenin regulates maternal effects on the production of alternative phenotypes and set vitellogenin as a likely key player in the intergenerational transmission of information. This study reveals how hibernation triggers the production of new queens in Pogonomyrmex ant colonies. More generally, it provides important information on maternal effects by showing how environmental cues experienced by one generation can translate into phenotypic variation in the next generation. PMID:23754378

  1. The heterochronic gene Lin28 regulates amphibian metamorphosis through disturbance of thyroid hormone function.

    PubMed

    Faunes, Fernando; Gundermann, Daniel G; Muñoz, Rosana; Bruno, Renzo; Larraín, Juan

    2017-05-15

    Metamorphosis is a classic example of developmental transition, which involves important morphological and physiological changes that prepare the organism for the adult life. It has been very well established that amphibian metamorphosis is mainly controlled by Thyroid Hormone (TH). Here, we show that the heterochronic gene Lin28 is downregulated during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. Lin28 overexpression before activation of TH signaling delays metamorphosis and inhibits the expression of TH target genes. The delay in metamorphosis is rescued by incubation with exogenous TH, indicating that Lin28 works upstream or parallel to TH. High-throughput analyses performed before any delay on metamorphosis or change in TH signaling showed that overexpression of Lin28 reduces transcript levels of several hormones secreted by the pituitary, including the Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH), and regulates the expression of proteins involved in TH transport, metabolism and signaling, showing that Lin28 disrupts TH function at different levels. Our data demonstrates that the role of Lin28 in controlling developmental transitions is evolutionary conserved and establishes a functional interaction between Lin28 and thyroid hormone function introducing a new regulatory step in perinatal development with implications for our understanding of endocrine disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel role for anti-Müllerian hormone in the regulation of GnRH neuron excitability and hormone secretion

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, Irene; Casoni, Filippo; Liu, Xinhuai; Messina, Andrea; Parkash, Jyoti; Jamin, Soazik P.; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Collier, Francis; Baroncini, Marc; Dewailly, Didier; Pigny, Pascal; Prescott, Mel; Campbell, Rebecca; Herbison, Allan E.; Prevot, Vincent; Giacobini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays crucial roles in sexual differentiation and gonadal functions. However, the possible extragonadal effects of AMH on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis remain unexplored. Here we demonstrate that a significant subset of GnRH neurons both in mice and humans express the AMH receptor, and that AMH potently activates the GnRH neuron firing in mice. Combining in vivo and in vitro experiments, we show that AMH increases GnRH-dependent LH pulsatility and secretion, supporting a central action of AMH on GnRH neurons. Increased LH pulsatility is an important pathophysiological feature in many cases of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of female infertility, in which circulating AMH levels are also often elevated. However, the origin of this dysregulation remains unknown. Our findings raise the intriguing hypothesis that AMH-dependent regulation of GnRH release could be involved in the pathophysiology of fertility and could hold therapeutic potential for treating PCOS. PMID:26753790

  3. Novel role for anti-Müllerian hormone in the regulation of GnRH neuron excitability and hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Irene; Casoni, Filippo; Liu, Xinhuai; Messina, Andrea; Parkash, Jyoti; Jamin, Soazik P; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Collier, Francis; Baroncini, Marc; Dewailly, Didier; Pigny, Pascal; Prescott, Mel; Campbell, Rebecca; Herbison, Allan E; Prevot, Vincent; Giacobini, Paolo

    2016-01-12

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays crucial roles in sexual differentiation and gonadal functions. However, the possible extragonadal effects of AMH on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis remain unexplored. Here we demonstrate that a significant subset of GnRH neurons both in mice and humans express the AMH receptor, and that AMH potently activates the GnRH neuron firing in mice. Combining in vivo and in vitro experiments, we show that AMH increases GnRH-dependent LH pulsatility and secretion, supporting a central action of AMH on GnRH neurons. Increased LH pulsatility is an important pathophysiological feature in many cases of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common cause of female infertility, in which circulating AMH levels are also often elevated. However, the origin of this dysregulation remains unknown. Our findings raise the intriguing hypothesis that AMH-dependent regulation of GnRH release could be involved in the pathophysiology of fertility and could hold therapeutic potential for treating PCOS.

  4. Direct Visualization of Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Transcription in Living Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Receptor-Mediated Transcription in Living Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paul M. Yen, M.D...reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of...Sep 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Direct Visualization of Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Transcription in Living Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  5. Regulation of synaptic functions in central nervous system by endocrine hormones and the maintenance of energy homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhiping P; Han, Weiping

    2012-10-01

    Energy homoeostasis, a co-ordinated balance of food intake and energy expenditure, is regulated by the CNS (central nervous system). The past decade has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of metabolic processes and brain circuitry which responds to a broad range of neural, nutrient and hormonal signals. Accumulating evidence demonstrates altered synaptic plasticity in the CNS in response to hormone signals. Moreover, emerging observations suggest that synaptic plasticity underlies all brain functions, including the physiological regulation of energy homoeostasis, and that impaired synaptic constellation and plasticity may lead to pathological development and conditions. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of postsynaptic receptors such as AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid), NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors, and the presynaptic components by hormone signals. A detailed understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms by which hormones regulate energy homoeostasis may lead to novel strategies in treating metabolic disorders.

  6. Phenol oxidase is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting which is regulated by molting hormone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-xian; Lu, Yan; Cai, Zi-zheng; Liang, Shuang; Niu, Yan-shan; Miao, Yun-gen

    2013-05-01

    Insect molting is an important developmental process of metamorphosis, which is initiated by molting hormone. The molting process includes the activation of dermal cells, epidermal cells separation, molting fluid secretion, the formation of new epidermis and old epidermis excoriation etc. Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), dopa decarboxylase and acetyltransferase are necessary enzymes for this process. Traditionally, the phenol oxidase was considered as an enzyme for epidermal layer's tanning and melanization. This work suggested that polyphenol oxidases are one set of the key enzymes in molting, which closely related with the role of ecdysone in regulation of molting processes. The data showed that the expression peak of phenol oxidase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting. The significant increase in the ecdysone levels of haemolymph was observed in the artificially fed silkworm larvae with ecdysone hormone. Consistently, the phenol oxidase expression was significantly elevated compared to the control. PPO1 RNAi induced phenol oxidase expression obviously declined in the silkworm larvae, and caused the pupae incomplete pupation. Overall, the results described that the phenol oxidase expression is regulated by the molting hormone, and is a necessary enzyme for the silkworm molting.

  7. Expression of Thyroid Hormone Responsive SPOT 14 Gene Is Regulated by Estrogen in Chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Ren, Junxiao; Xu, Naiyi; Zheng, Hang; Tian, Weihua; Li, Hong; Li, Zhuanjian; Wang, Yanbin; Tian, Yadong; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2017-08-31

    Thyroid hormone responsive spot 14 (THRSP) is a small nuclear protein that responds rapidly to thyroid hormone. It has been shown that THRSP is abundant in lipogenic tissues such as liver, fat and the mammary gland in mammals. The THRSP gene acts as a key lipogenic activator and can be activated by thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3), glucose, carbohydrate and insulin. Here we report that chicken THRSP is also abundant in lipogenic tissues including the liver and the abdominal fat, and its expression levels increased with sex maturation and reached the highest level at the peak of egg production. Structure analysis of the THRSP gene indicates that there is a conscious estrogen response element (ERE) located in the -2390 - -2402 range of the gene promoter region. Further studies by ChIP-qPCR proved that the ERα interacts with the putative ERE site. In addition, THRSP was significantly upregulated (P < 0.05) when chickens or chicken primary hepatocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol in both the in vivo and in vitro conditions. We therefore conclude that THRSP is directly regulated by estrogen and is involved in the estrogen regulation network in chicken.

  8. Making the gradient: Thyroid hormone regulates cone opsin expression in the developing mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Melanie R.; Srinivas, Maya; Forrest, Douglas; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Reh, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Most mammals have two types of cone photoreceptors, which contain either medium wavelength (M) or short wavelength (S) opsin. The number and spatial organization of cone types varies dramatically among species, presumably to fine-tune the retina for different visual environments. In the mouse, S- and M-opsin are expressed in an opposing dorsal–ventral gradient. We previously reported that cone opsin patterning requires thyroid hormone β2, a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates transcription in conjunction with its ligand, thyroid hormone (TH). Here we show that exogenous TH inhibits S-opsin expression, but activates M-opsin expression. Binding of endogenous TH to TRβ2 is required to inhibit S-opsin and to activate M-opsin. TH is symmetrically distributed in the retina at birth as S-opsin expression begins, but becomes elevated in the dorsal retina at the time of M-opsin onset (postnatal day 10). Our results show that TH is a critical regulator of both S-opsin and M-opsin, and suggest that a TH gradient may play a role in establishing the gradient of M-opsin. These results also suggest that the ratio and patterning of cone types may be determined by TH availability during retinal development. PMID:16606843

  9. Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Hormone-Regulated Differential Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, Joseph R.

    2005-09-15

    We have utilized the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to the plant hormone ethylene to identify new genes involved in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and differential cell growth. In building a genetic framework for the action of these genes, we have developed a molecular model that has facilitated our understanding of the molecular requirements of ethylene for cell elongation processes. The ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis appears to be primarily linear and is defined by the genes: ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, ERS2, EIN4, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, EIN5, EIN6, and EIN. Downstream branches identified by the HLS1, EIR1, and AUX1 genes involve interactions with other hormonal (auxin) signals in the process of differential cell elongation in the hypocotyl hook. Cloning and characterization of HLS1 (and three HLL genes) and ETO1 (and ETOL genes) in my laboratory has been supported under this award. HLS1 is required for differential elongation of cells in the hypocotyl and may act in the establishment of hormone gradients. Also during the previous period, we have identified and characterized a gene that genetically acts upstream of the ethylene receptors. ETO1 encodes negative regulators of ethylene biosynthesis.

  10. Molecular and Genetic Analysis of Hormone-Regulated Differential Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, Joseph R.

    2002-12-03

    The authors have utilized the response of Arabidopsis seedlings to the plant hormone ethylene to identify new genes involved in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and differential cell growth. In building a genetic framework for the action of these genes, they developed a molecular model that has facilitated the understanding of the molecular requirements of ethylene for cell elongation processes. The ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis appears to be primarily linear and is defined by the genes: ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, ERS2, EIN4, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, EIN5 EIN6, and EIN. Downstream branches identified by the HLS1, EIR1, and AUX1 genes involve interactions with other hormonal (auxin) signals in the process of differential cell elongation in the hypocotyl hook. Cloning and characterization of HLS1 and three HLS1-LIKE genes in the laboratory has been supported under this award. HLS1 is required for differential elongation of cells in the hypocotyl and may act in the establishment of hormone gradients. Also during the award period, they have identified and begun preliminary characterization of two genes that genetically act upstream of the ethylene receptors. ETO1 and RAN1 encode negative regulators of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling respectively. Progress on the analysis of these genes along with HOOKLESS1 is described.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of growth hormone gene expression in cultured rat pituitary cells by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Yaffe, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    In cultured GC cells, a rat pituitary tumor cell line, growth hormone (GH) is induced in a synergistic fashion by physiologic concentrations of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones. Abundant evidence indicates that these hormones mediate this response via their specific receptors. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the mechanisms by which these hormones affect GH production. When poly (A){sup +} RNA was isolated from cells grown both with and without hormones and translated in a cell-free wheat germ system, the preGH translation products were shown to be proportional to immunoassayable GH production under all combinations of hormonal milieux, indicating that changes in GH production is modulated at a pretranslational level. A cDNA library was constructed from poly (A){sup +}RNA and one clone containing GH cDNA sequences was isolated. This was used to confirm the above results by Northern dot blot analysis. This probe was also used to assess hormonal effects on GH mRNA half-life and synthetic rates as well as GH gene transcription rates in isolated nuclei. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cellular RNA was labeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)uridine, and quantitating ({sup 3}H)GHmRNA directly by hybridization to GH cDNA bound to nitrocellulose filters, GHmRNA was found to have a half-life of approximately 50 hours, and was not significantly altered by the presence of inducing hormones.

  12. REGULATION OF APPETITE, BODY COMPOSITION AND METABOLIC HORMONES BY VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE (VIP)

    PubMed Central

    Vu, John; Larauche, Muriel; Flores, Martin; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Oh, Suwan; Li-Jung, Liang; Waschek, James; Pisegna, Joseph; Germano, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68% homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of vertebrates such as goldfishes, chicken, and rodents. Additional studies are necessary to analyze the role of endogenous VIP on the regulation of appetite/satiety together with feeding behavior, metabolic hormone release, body mass composition and energy balance. Aims To elucidate the physiological pathways by which VIP regulates appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones and body mass composition. Methods VIP deficient (VIP −/−) and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates were weekly monitored from 5 to 22 weeks of age using a whole body composition EchoMRI analyzer. Food intake and feeding behavior were analyzed using the BioDAQ automated monitoring system. Plasma levels of metabolic hormones including active-ghrelin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), adiponectin, and insulin were measured in fasting as well as in postprandial conditions. Results The genetic lack of VIP led to a significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and to an increase of lean mass as the mice aged. Additionally, VIP−/− mice had a disrupted pattern of circadian feeding behavior resulting in an abolished regular nocturnal/diurnal feeding. These changes were associated with an altered secretion of adiponectin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY and insulin in VIP−/− mice. Our data demonstrates that endogenous VIP is involved in the control of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, body mass composition and in the secretion of six different key regulatory metabolic hormones. Conclusions Our data show that endogenous VIP is involved in the

  13. A Boolean Network Model of Nuclear Receptor Mediated Cell Cycle Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a broad range of cellular processes. Hormones, lipids and xenobiotics have been shown to activate NRs with a range of consequences on development, metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prolif...

  14. A Boolean Network Model of Nuclear Receptor Mediated Cell Cycle Progression (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a broad range of cellular processes. Hormones, lipids and xenobiotics have been shown to activate NRs with a range of consequences on development, metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prolif...

  15. A Boolean Network Model of Nuclear Receptor Mediated Cell Cycle Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a broad range of cellular processes. Hormones, lipids and xenobiotics have been shown to activate NRs with a range of consequences on development, metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prolif...

  16. A Boolean Network Model of Nuclear Receptor Mediated Cell Cycle Progression (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a broad range of cellular processes. Hormones, lipids and xenobiotics have been shown to activate NRs with a range of consequences on development, metabolism, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prolif...

  17. Sleep regulation and sex hormones exposure in men and women across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lord, C; Sekerovic, Z; Carrier, J

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to discuss how endogenous and exogenous testosterone exposures in men and estrogens/progesterone exposures in women interact with sleep regulation. In young men, testosterone secretion peaks during sleep and is linked to sleep architecture. Animal and human studies support the notion that sleep loss suppresses testosterone secretion. Testosterone levels decline slowly throughout the aging process, but relatively few studies investigate its impact on age-related sleep modifications. Results suggest that poorer sleep quality is associated with lower testosterone concentrations and that sleep loss may have a more prominent effect on testosterone levels in older individuals. In women, sex steroid levels are characterized by a marked monthly cycle and reproductive milestones such as pregnancy and menopause. Animal models indicate that estrogens and progesterone influence sleep. Most studies do not show any clear effects of the menstrual cycle on sleep, but sample sizes are too low, and research designs often inhibit definitive conclusions. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on sleep are currently unknown. Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with increased sleep disturbances, but their relation to the hormonal milieu still needs to be determined. Finally, studies suggest that menopausal transition and the hormonal changes associated with it are linked to lower subjective sleep quality, but results concerning objective sleep measures are less conclusive. More research is necessary to unravel the effects of vasomotor symptoms on sleep. Hormone therapy seems to induce positive effects on sleep, but key concerns are still unresolved, including the long-term effects and efficacy of different hormonal regimens. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. The prolactin family hormones regulate vascular tone through NO and prostacyclin production in isolated rat aortic rings

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Carmen; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Jurado-manzano, Brenda; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel Alejandro; Salazar-Garcia, Samuel; Martinez-Cuevas, Pedro Pablo; Velarde-salcedo, Aída Jimena; Morales-Loredo, Humberto; Espinosa-Tanguma, Ricardo; Ali, Syed F; Rubio, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Prolactin family hormones include growth hormone, placental lactogen and prolactin, which are able to regulate angiogenesis via NO and prostaglandins. However, their effects on vascular tone are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolactin family hormones on rat vascular tone in vitro. Methods: Aortic rings were prepared from adult male rats and precontracted with phenylephrine, then treated with the hormones and drugs. The tension was measured with isometric force displacement transducer connected to a polygraph. NO production and prostacyclin release in physiological solution was determined. Cultured rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were treated with the hormones and drugs, and the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 1177 was assessed using Western bolt analysis. Results: Administration of growth hormone or placental lactogen (0.01–100 nmol/L) induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Both the hormones significantly increased the phosphorylation of eNOS in RAECs and NO level in physiological solution. Preincubation with L-NAME blocked growth hormone- or placental lactogen-induced vasodilation and NO production. Preincubation with an antibody against growth hormone receptors blocked growth hormone- and placental lactogen-induced vasodilation. Addition of a single dose of prolactin (0.01 nmol/L) induced sustained vessel relaxation, whereas multiple doses of prolactin induced a biphasic contraction-relaxation effect. The vascular effects of prolactin depended on endothelium. Prolactin significantly increased the level of prostacyclin I2 in physiological solution. Preincubation with indomethacin or an antibody against prolactin receptors blocked prolactin-induced vasodilation. Conclusion: The prolactin family hormones regulate rat vascular tone, selectively promoting either relaxation or contraction of vascular smooth muscle via activation of either growth hormone receptors or prolactin receptors within the

  19. Regulation of NR4A by nutritional status, gender, postnatal development and hormonal deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sieira, S; López, M; Nogueiras, R; Tovar, S

    2014-03-03

    The NR4A is a subfamily of the orphan nuclear receptors (NR) superfamily constituted by three well characterized members: Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and Nor 1 (NR4A3). They are implicated in numerous biological processes as DNA repair, arteriosclerosis, cell apoptosis, carcinogenesis and metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the role of this subfamily on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. These studies have focused mainly in liver and skeletal muscle. However, its potential role in white adipose tissue (WAT), one of the most important tissues involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is not well-studied. The aim of this work was to elucidate the regulation of NR4A in WAT under different physiological and pathophysiological settings involved in energy balance such as fasting, postnatal development, gender, hormonal deficiency and pregnancy. We compared NR4A mRNA expression of Nur77, Nurr1 and Nor 1 and found a clear regulation by nutritional status, since the expression of the 3 isoforms is increased after fasting in a leptin-independent manner and sex steroid hormones also modulate NR4A expression in males and females. Our findings indicate that NR4A are regulated by different physiological and pathophysiological settings known to be associated with marked alterations in glucose metabolism and energy status.

  20. Regulation of NR4A by nutritional status, gender, postnatal development and hormonal deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sieira, S.; López, M.; Nogueiras, R.; Tovar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NR4A is a subfamily of the orphan nuclear receptors (NR) superfamily constituted by three well characterized members: Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and Nor 1 (NR4A3). They are implicated in numerous biological processes as DNA repair, arteriosclerosis, cell apoptosis, carcinogenesis and metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the role of this subfamily on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. These studies have focused mainly in liver and skeletal muscle. However, its potential role in white adipose tissue (WAT), one of the most important tissues involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is not well-studied. The aim of this work was to elucidate the regulation of NR4A in WAT under different physiological and pathophysiological settings involved in energy balance such as fasting, postnatal development, gender, hormonal deficiency and pregnancy. We compared NR4A mRNA expression of Nur77, Nurr1 and Nor 1 and found a clear regulation by nutritional status, since the expression of the 3 isoforms is increased after fasting in a leptin-independent manner and sex steroid hormones also modulate NR4A expression in males and females. Our findings indicate that NR4A are regulated by different physiological and pathophysiological settings known to be associated with marked alterations in glucose metabolism and energy status. PMID:24584059

  1. Pro-hormone secretogranin II regulates dense core secretory granule biogenesis in catecholaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Courel, Maïté; Soler-Jover, Alex; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Mahata, Sushil K; Elias, Salah; Montero-Hadjadje, Maïté; Anouar, Youssef; Giuly, Richard J; O'Connor, Daniel T; Taupenot, Laurent

    2010-03-26

    Processes underlying the formation of dense core secretory granules (DCGs) of neuroendocrine cells are poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that DCG biogenesis is dependent on the secretory protein secretogranin (Sg) II, a member of the granin family of pro-hormone cargo of DCGs in neuroendocrine cells. Depletion of SgII expression in PC12 cells leads to a decrease in both the number and size of DCGs and impairs DCG trafficking of other regulated hormones. Expression of SgII fusion proteins in a secretory-deficient PC12 variant rescues a regulated secretory pathway. SgII-containing dense core vesicles share morphological and physical properties with bona fide DCGs, are competent for regulated exocytosis, and maintain an acidic luminal pH through the V-type H(+)-translocating ATPase. The granulogenic activity of SgII requires a pH gradient along this secretory pathway. We conclude that SgII is a critical factor for the regulation of DCG biogenesis in neuroendocrine cells, mediating the formation of functional DCGs via its pH-dependent aggregation at the trans-Golgi network.

  2. Pro-hormone Secretogranin II Regulates Dense Core Secretory Granule Biogenesis in Catecholaminergic Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Courel, Maïté; Soler-Jover, Alex; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Mahata, Sushil K.; Elias, Salah; Montero-Hadjadje, Maïté; Anouar, Youssef; Giuly, Richard J.; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Taupenot, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Processes underlying the formation of dense core secretory granules (DCGs) of neuroendocrine cells are poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that DCG biogenesis is dependent on the secretory protein secretogranin (Sg) II, a member of the granin family of pro-hormone cargo of DCGs in neuroendocrine cells. Depletion of SgII expression in PC12 cells leads to a decrease in both the number and size of DCGs and impairs DCG trafficking of other regulated hormones. Expression of SgII fusion proteins in a secretory-deficient PC12 variant rescues a regulated secretory pathway. SgII-containing dense core vesicles share morphological and physical properties with bona fide DCGs, are competent for regulated exocytosis, and maintain an acidic luminal pH through the V-type H+-translocating ATPase. The granulogenic activity of SgII requires a pH gradient along this secretory pathway. We conclude that SgII is a critical factor for the regulation of DCG biogenesis in neuroendocrine cells, mediating the formation of functional DCGs via its pH-dependent aggregation at the trans-Golgi network. PMID:20061385

  3. Regulation of stress hormones jasmonates and ethylene by MAPK pathways in plants.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Alois; Meskiene, Irute

    2008-08-01

    Plant stress hormones, such as jasmonates (JAs) and ethylene (ET) are essential in plant defence against stress conditions. JAs are used in cosmetics and food flavouring, and the recently demonstrated anti-cancer activity of JAs highlights their potential in health protection. It reinforces the need for a better understanding of biosynthetic regulation of JAs. Which mechanisms are involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of JAs and ET? Production of stress hormones is induced in plants after wounding or herbivore attack. ET is a gaseous compound and plant JAs are oxylipins structurally similar to prostaglandins that are induced upon inflammation or injury in mammals. Wounding activates protein phosphorylation cascades involving mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). MAPKs regulate ET production. The induction of JA biosynthesis was suggested to require MAPK activation; however the defined roles of MAPKs in JA production remain unclear. Here we will highlight the most recent findings suggesting the regulation of JA biosynthesis and ethylene production by stress activated MAPKs and phosphatases that inactivate these MAPKs.

  4. Down regulation of gene related sex hormone synthesis pathway in mouse testes by miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Juengwatanatrakul, Thaweesak; Putalun, Waraporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2011-12-01

    Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol are phytoestrogens isolated from tuberous root of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica. Modulatory effects of miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol on enzymes involved in sex-hormone synthesis pathway in male C57BL/6 mice were investigated using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol suppressed the expressions of 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD1, and CYP17 while CYP19 mRNA expression was slightly decreased. In addition, the expression of 17β-HSD2 was induced in correlation with those did by estradiol. These observations supported that miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol could exhibit the same effect as estradiol regarding regulation of testicular gene related sex hormone synthesis pathway.

  5. LOX-1: a male hormone-regulated scavenger receptor for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Geng, Yong-Jian

    2013-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a unique scavenger receptor that mediates the binding and uptake of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) by vascular cells during the development of atherosclerosis. Exposure to ox-LDL induces LOX-1 expression and LOX-1-dependent biological activities, such as activation of NF-κB, a nuclear factor important for signal transduction in inflammation. Accumulating evidence indicates that male hormones may regulate expression of LOX-1 and NF-κB as well as atherogenesis. Deficiency or low levels of the male hormone testosterone promote LOX-1 expression and NF-κB activation, while testosterone replacement therapy reduces the expression of LOX-1 and the activation of NF-κB, thereby protecting the arterial wall against atherogenesis.

  6. Optimization of stress response through the nuclear receptor-mediated cortisol signalling network

    PubMed Central

    Kolodkin, Alexey; Sahin, Nilgun; Phillips, Anna; Hood, Steve R.; Bruggeman, Frank J.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Plant, Nick

    2013-01-01

    It is an accepted paradigm that extended stress predisposes an individual to pathophysiology. However, the biological adaptations to minimize this risk are poorly understood. Using a computational model based upon realistic kinetic parameters we are able to reproduce the interaction of the stress hormone cortisol with its two nuclear receptors, the high-affinity glucocorticoid receptor and the low-affinity pregnane X-receptor. We demonstrate that regulatory signals between these two nuclear receptors are necessary to optimize the body’s response to stress episodes, attenuating both the magnitude and duration of the biological response. In addition, we predict that the activation of pregnane X-receptor by multiple, low-affinity endobiotic ligands is necessary for the significant pregnane X-receptor-mediated transcriptional response observed following stress episodes. This integration allows responses mediated through both the high and low-affinity nuclear receptors, which we predict is an important strategy to minimize the risk of disease from chronic stress. PMID:23653204

  7. Thyroid-pituitary interaction: Feedback regulation of thyrotropin secretion by thyroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, P.R.; Bleich, H.L.; Moore, M.J.

    1982-01-07

    Thyroid-hormone regulation of TSH production involves a response to plasma concentrations of T4 and T3. A substantial fraction of intracellular T3 in the pituitary derives from the conversion of T4 to T3, and recent studies indicate that this process is physiologically regulated. Changes in pituitary conversion of T4 to T3 are often the opposite of those that occur in the liver and kidney under similar circumstances. The presence of this pathway for T3 production indicates that the pituitary can respond independently to changes in plasma levels of T4 and T3; in contrast, many tissues appear to be sensitive mainly to the plasma T3 concentration. Recent studies suggest that conversion of T4 to T3 in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum is also important in providing intracellular T3 to these particular tissues. Given these results, it is not suprising that a complete definition of thyroid status requires more than the measurement of the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. For some tissues, among them the brain and pituitary, the intracellular T3 concentrations may only partly reflect those in the serum. Recognition that the intracellular T3 concentration in each tissue may be subject to local regulation and an understanding of the importance of this process to the regulation of TSH production shoul permit a better appreciation of the limitations of radioimmunoassay serum thyroid hormone and TSH levels. These concepts also provide a physiologic rationale for the use of thyroxine for replacement in hypothyroid patients or for TSH suppression.

  8. Intrinsic and Regulated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene Transcription in Mammalian Pituitary Gonadotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.; Bjelobaba, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), acting via its receptors (GnRHRs) expressed in pituitary gonadotrophs, represents a critical molecule in control of reproductive functions in all vertebrate species. GnRH-activated receptors regulate synthesis of gonadotropins in a frequency-dependent manner. The number of GnRHRs on the plasma membrane determines the responsiveness of gonadotrophs to GnRH and varies in relation to age, sex, and physiological status. This is achieved by a complex control that operates at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. This review aims to overview the mechanisms of GnRHR gene (Gnrhr) transcription in mammalian gonadotrophs. In general, Gnrhr exhibits basal and regulated transcription activities. Basal Gnrhr transcription appears to be an intrinsic property of native and immortalized gonadotrophs that secures the presence of a sufficient number GnRHRs to preserve their functionality independently of the status of regulated transcription. On the other hand, regulated transcription modulates GnRHR expression during development, reproductive cycle, and aging. GnRH is crucial for regulated Gnrhr transcription in native gonadotrophs but is ineffective in immortalized gonadotrophs. In rat and mouse, both basal and GnRH-induced Gnrhr transcription rely primarily on the protein kinase C signaling pathway, with subsequent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Continuous GnRH application, after a transient stimulation, shuts off regulated but not basal transcription, suggesting that different branches of this signaling pathway control transcription. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, but not activins, contributes to the regulated transcription utilizing the protein kinase A signaling pathway, whereas a mechanisms by which steroid hormones modulate Gnrhr transcription has not been well characterized.

  9. Progressive effects of silver nanoparticles on hormonal regulation of reproduction in male rats.

    PubMed

    Dziendzikowska, K; Krawczyńska, A; Oczkowski, M; Królikowski, T; Brzóska, K; Lankoff, A; Dziendzikowski, M; Stępkowski, T; Kruszewski, M; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J

    2016-12-15

    The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in various applications, including consumer, agriculture and medicine products, has raised many concerns about the potential risks of nanoparticles (NPs) to human health and the environment. An increasing body of evidence suggests that AgNPs may have adverse effects of humans, thus the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AgNPs on the male reproductive system. Silver particles (20nm AgNPs (groups Ag I and Ag II) and 200nm Ag sub-micron particles (SPs) (group Ag III)) were administered intravenously to male Wistar rats at a dose of 5 (groups Ag I and Ag III) or 10 (group Ag II) mg/kg of body weight. The biological material was sampled 24h, 7days and 28days after injection. The obtained results revealed that the AgNPs had altered the luteinising hormone concentration in the plasma and the sex hormone concentration in the plasma and testes. Plasma and intratesticular levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were significantly decreased both 7 and 28days after treatment. No change in the prolactin and sex hormone-binding globulin concentration was observed. Exposure of the animals to AgNPs resulted in a considerable decrease in 5α-reductase type 1 and the aromatase protein level in the testis. Additionally, expression analysis of genes involved in steroidogenesis and the steroids metabolism revealed significant down-regulation of Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b3 and Srd5a1 mRNAs in AgNPs/AgSPs-exposed animals. The present study demonstrates the potential adverse effect on the hormonal regulation of the male reproductive function following AgNP/AgSP administration, in particular alterations of the sex steroid balance and expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis and the steroids metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptional Regulation of the Human P450 Oxidoreductase Gene: Hormonal Regulation and Influence of Promoter Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Damm, Izabella

    2011-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the flavoprotein that acts as the obligatory electron donor to all microsomal P450 enzymes, including those involved in hepatic drug metabolism as well as three steroidogenic P450 enzymes. The untranslated first exon of human POR was located recently, permitting analysis of human POR transcription. Expression of deletional mutants containing up to 3193 bp of the human POR promoter in human adrenal NCI-H295A and liver Hep-G2 cells located the proximal promoter at −325/−1 bp from the untranslated exon. Common human POR polymorphisms at −208 and −173 had little influence on transcription, but the polymorphism at −152 reduced transcription significantly in both cell lines. EMSA and supershift assays identified binding of Smad3/Smad4 between −249 and −261 and binding of thyroid hormone receptor-β (TRβ) at −240/−245. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Smad3, Smad4, TRα, TRβ, and estrogen receptor-α were bound between −374 and −149. Cotransfection of vectors for these transcription factors and POR promoter-reporter constructs into both cell types followed by hormonal treatment showed that T3 exerts major tropic effects via TRβ, with TRα, estrogen receptor-α, Smad3, and Smad4 exerting lesser, modulatory effects. T3 also increased POR mRNA in both cell lines. Thyroid hormone also is essential for rat liver POR expression but acts via different transcription factor complexes. These are the first data on human POR gene transcription, establishing roles for TRβ and Smad3/4 in its expression and indicating that the common polymorphism at −152 may play a role in genetic variation in steroid biosynthesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21393444

  11. Thyroid hormone-regulated mouse cerebral cortex genes are differentially dependent on the source of the hormone: a study in monocarboxylate transporter-8- and deiodinase-2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Morte, Beatriz; Ceballos, Ainhoa; Diez, Diego; Grijota-Martínez, Carmen; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M; Di Cosmo, Caterina; Galton, Valerie Anne; Refetoff, Samuel; Bernal, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Thyroid hormones influence brain development through the control of gene expression. The concentration of the active hormone T(3) in the brain depends on T(3) transport through the blood-brain barrier, mediated in part by the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (Mct8/MCT8) and the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2) generating T(3) from T(4). The relative roles of each of these pathways in the regulation of brain gene expression is not known. To shed light on this question, we analyzed thyroid hormone-dependent gene expression in the cerebral cortex of mice with inactivated Mct8 (Slc16a2) and Dio2 genes, alone or in combination. We used 34 target genes identified to be controlled by thyroid hormone in microarray comparisons of cerebral cortex from wild-type control and hypothyroid mice on postnatal d 21. Inactivation of the Mct8 gene (Mct8KO) was without effect on the expression of 31 of these genes. Normal gene expression in the absence of the transporter was mostly due to D2 activity because the combined disruption of Mct8 and Dio2 led to similar effects as hypothyroidism on the expression of 24 genes. Dio2 disruption alone did not affect the expression of positively regulated genes, but, as in hypothyroidism, it increased that of negatively regulated genes. We conclude that gene expression in the Mct8KO cerebral cortex is compensated in part by D2-dependent mechanisms. Intriguingly, positive or negative regulation of genes by thyroid hormone is sensitive to the source of T(3) because Dio2 inactivation selectively affects the expression of negatively regulated genes.

  12. The roles of juvenile hormone, insulin/target of rapamycin, and ecydsone signaling in regulating body size in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mirth, Christen Kerry; Shingleton, Alexander William

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how organisms regulate their body size has interested biologists for decades. Recent work has shown that both insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling and the steroid hormone ecdysone act to regulate rates of growth and the duration of the growth period in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Our recent work has uncovered a third level of interaction, whereby juvenile hormone (JH) regulates levels of both ecdysone and insulin/TOR signaling to control growth rates. These studies highlight a complex network of interactions involved in regulating body and organ size. PMID:26842847

  13. Regulation of object recognition and object placement by ovarian sex steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Tuscher, Jennifer J; Fortress, Ashley M; Kim, Jaekyoon; Frick, Karyn M

    2015-05-15

    The ovarian hormones 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are potent modulators of hippocampal memory formation. Both hormones have been demonstrated to enhance hippocampal memory by regulating the cellular and molecular mechanisms thought to underlie memory formation. Behavioral neuroendocrinologists have increasingly used the object recognition and object placement (object location) tasks to investigate the role of E2 and P4 in regulating hippocampal memory formation in rodents. These one-trial learning tasks are ideal for studying acute effects of hormone treatments on different phases of memory because they can be administered during acquisition (pre-training), consolidation (post-training), or retrieval (pre-testing). This review synthesizes the rodent literature testing the effects of E2 and P4 on object recognition (OR) and object placement (OP), and the molecular mechanisms in the hippocampus supporting memory formation in these tasks. Some general trends emerge from the data. Among gonadally intact females, object memory tends to be best when E2 and P4 levels are elevated during the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and in middle age. In ovariectomized females, E2 given before or immediately after testing generally enhances OR and OP in young and middle-aged rats and mice, although effects are mixed in aged rodents. Effects of E2 treatment on OR and OP memory consolidation can be mediated by both classical estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), and depend on glutamate receptors (NMDA, mGluR1) and activation of numerous cell signaling cascades (e.g., ERK, PI3K/Akt, mTOR) and epigenetic processes (e.g., histone acetylation, DNA methylation). Acute P4 treatment given immediately after training also enhances OR and OP in young and middle-aged ovariectomized females by activating similar cell signaling pathways as E2 (e.g., ERK, mTOR). The few studies that have administered both hormones in combination suggest that treatment can enhance OR and OP, but that effects

  14. Regulation of object recognition and object placement by ovarian sex steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian hormones 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) are potent modulators of hippocampal memory formation. Both hormones have been demonstrated to enhance hippocampal memory by regulating the cellular and molecular mechanisms thought to underlie memory formation. Behavioral neuroendocrinologists have increasingly used the object recognition and object placement (object location) tasks to investigate the role of E2 and P4 in regulating hippocampal memory formation in rodents. These one-trial learning tasks are ideal for studying acute effects of hormone treatments on different phases of memory because they can be administered during acquisition (pre-training), consolidation (post-training), or retrieval (pre-testing). This review synthesizes the rodent literature testing the effects of E2 and P4 on object recognition (OR) and object placement (OP), and the molecular mechanisms in the hippocampus supporting memory formation in these tasks. Some general trends emerge from the data. Among gonadally intact females, object memory tends to be best when E2 and P4 levels are elevated during the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and in middle age. In ovariectomized females, E2 given before or immediately after testing generally enhances OR and OP in young and middle-aged rats and mice, although effects are mixed in aged rodents. Effects of E2 treatment on OR 7and OP memory consolidation can be mediated by both classical estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), and depend on glutamate receptors (NMDA, mGluR1) and activation of numerous cell signaling cascades (e.g., ERK, PI3K/Akt, mTOR) and epigenetic processes (e.g., histone H3 acetylation, DNA methylation). Acute P4 treatment given immediately after training also enhances OR and OP in young and middle-aged ovariectomized females by activating similar cell signaling pathways as E2 (e.g., ERK, mTOR). The few studies that have administered both hormones in combination suggest that treatment can enhance OR and OP, but that

  15. The "love hormone" oxytocin regulates the loss and gain of the fat-bone relationship.

    PubMed

    Colaianni, Graziana; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone; Zallone, Alberta

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of oxytocin (OT) in bone metabolism is an interesting area of research that recently achieved remarkable results. Moreover, several lines of evidence have largely demonstrated that OT also participates in the regulation of energy metabolism. Hence, it has recently been determined that the posterior pituitary hormone OT directly regulates bone mass: mice lacking OT or OT receptor display severe osteopenia, caused by impaired bone formation. OT administration normalizes ovariectomy-induced osteopenia, bone marrow adiposity, body weight, and intra-abdominal fat depots in mice. This effect is mediated through inhibition of adipocyte precursor differentiation and reduction of adipocyte size. The exquisite role of OT in regulating the bone-fat connection adds another milestone to the biological evidence supporting the existence of a tight relationship between the adipose tissue and the skeleton.

  16. Cubilin dysfunction causes abnormal metabolism of the steroid hormone 25(OH) vitamin D(3).

    PubMed

    Nykjaer, A; Fyfe, J C; Kozyraki, R; Leheste, J R; Jacobsen, C; Nielsen, M S; Verroust, P J; Aminoff, M; de la Chapelle, A; Moestrup, S K; Ray, R; Gliemann, J; Willnow, T E; Christensen, E I

    2001-11-20

    Steroid hormones are central regulators of a variety of biological processes. According to the free hormone hypothesis, steroids enter target cells by passive diffusion. However, recently we demonstrated that 25(OH) vitamin D(3) complexed to its plasma carrier, the vitamin D-binding protein, enters renal proximal tubules by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Knockout mice lacking the endocytic receptor megalin lose 25(OH) vitamin D(3) in the urine and develop bone disease. Here, we report that cubilin, a membrane-associated protein colocalizing with megalin, facilitates the endocytic process by sequestering steroid-carrier complexes on the cellular surface before megalin-mediated internalization of the cubilin-bound ligand. Dogs with an inherited disorder affecting cubilin biosynthesis exhibit abnormal vitamin D metabolism. Similarly, human patients with mutations causing cubilin dysfunction exhibit urinary excretion of 25(OH) vitamin D(3). This observation identifies spontaneous mutations in an endocytic receptor pathway affecting cellular uptake and metabolism of a steroid hormone.

  17. Thyroid Hormone Regulates Hepatic Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in a PPARα-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Andrew C.; Astapova, Inna; Fisher, ffolliott M.; Badman, Michael K.; Kurgansky, Katherine E.; Flier, Jeffrey S.; Hollenberg, Anthony N.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormone has profound and diverse effects on liver metabolism. Here we show that tri-iodothyronine (T3) treatment in mice acutely and specifically induces hepatic expression of the metabolic regulator fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Mice treated with T3 showed a dose-dependent increase in hepatic FGF21 expression with significant induction at doses as low as 100 μg/kg. Time course studies determined that induction is seen as early as 4 h after treatment with a further increase in expression at 6 h after injection. As FGF21 expression is downstream of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), we treated PPARα knock-out mice with T3 and found no increase in expression, indicating that hepatic regulation of FGF21 by T3 in liver is via a PPARα-dependent mechanism. In contrast, in white adipose tissue, FGF21 expression was suppressed by T3 treatment, with other T3 targets unaffected. In cell culture studies with an FGF21 reporter construct, we determined that three transcription factors are required for induction of FGF21 expression: thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ), retinoid X receptor (RXR), and PPARα. These findings indicate a novel regulatory pathway whereby T3 positively regulates hepatic FGF21 expression, presenting a novel therapeutic target for diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:20236931

  18. Juvenile hormone regulation of female reproduction in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes. Feeding and mating working through Vg, Met, SRC, EcR, and GATAa regulate oocyte development. Knockdown of the expression of Met, SRC, EcR, USP, BR-C (Broad-Complex), TOR (target of rapamycin), and GATAa in female adults resulted in a reduction in the number eggs laid by them. Interestingly, Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) knockdown in the adult females did not reduce their fecundity but affected the development of embryos in the eggs laid by females injected with Kr-h1 double-stranded RNA. These data suggest that JH functioning through Met and SRC regulate both vitellogenesis and oogenesis in C. lectularius. However, JH does not work through Kr-h1 but may work through transcription factors not yet identified. PMID:27762340

  19. Apis mellifera ultraspiracle: cDNA sequence and rapid up-regulation by juvenile hormone.

    PubMed

    Barchuk, A R; Maleszka, R; Simões, Z L P

    2004-10-01

    Two hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) are key regulators of insect development including the differentiation of the alternative caste phenotypes of social insects. In addition, JH plays a different role in adult honey bees, acting as a 'behavioural pacemaker'. The functional receptor for 20E is a heterodimer consisting of the ecdysone receptor and ultraspiracle (USP) whereas the identity of the JH receptor remains unknown. We have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding Apis mellifera ultraspiracle (AMUSP) and examined its responses to JH. A rapid, but transient up-regulation of the AMUSP messenger is observed in the fat bodies of both queens and workers. AMusp appears to be a single copy gene that produces two transcripts ( approximately 4 and approximately 5 kb) that are differentially expressed in the animal's body. The predicted AMUSP protein shows greater sequence similarity to its orthologues from the vertebrate-crab-tick-locust group than to the dipteran-lepidopteran group. These characteristics and the rapid up-regulation by JH suggest that some of the USP functions in the honey bee may depend on ligand binding.

  20. Juvenile hormone regulation of female reproduction in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-10-20

    To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes. Feeding and mating working through Vg, Met, SRC, EcR, and GATAa regulate oocyte development. Knockdown of the expression of Met, SRC, EcR, USP, BR-C (Broad-Complex), TOR (target of rapamycin), and GATAa in female adults resulted in a reduction in the number eggs laid by them. Interestingly, Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) knockdown in the adult females did not reduce their fecundity but affected the development of embryos in the eggs laid by females injected with Kr-h1 double-stranded RNA. These data suggest that JH functioning through Met and SRC regulate both vitellogenesis and oogenesis in C. lectularius. However, JH does not work through Kr-h1 but may work through transcription factors not yet identified.

  1. Peptide hormones regulate the physiological functions of reproductive organs in Tenebrio molitor males.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Paweł; Urbański, Arkadiusz; Kudlewska, Milena; Szymczak, Monika; Rosiński, Grzegorz

    2016-06-25

    In insects, the majority of studies have been conducted on the hormonal regulation of female reproduction. Thus far, little is known about the regulation of male reproductive physiology, especially by peptide hormones. We report here, for the first time in insects, the effects of three peptides, Neb-colloostatin (SIVPLGLPVPIGPIVVGPR), Neb-TMOF (NPTNLH) and Lepde-NPF-I (ARGPQLRLRFa), on various aspects of reproduction in male Tenebrio molitor beetles. All three tested peptides increased the soluble protein concentration in the testes and the dry mass of the beetle's testes. They also significantly changed the protein profiles of the testes. Injection of these peptides also significantly changed the number of sperm cells in the testes. However, the observed effects were age specific. The most prominent changes were observed in 4-day-old males. Neb-colloostatin and Neb-TMOF decreased the number of sperm cells, whereas Lepde-NPF-I increased the number of spermatocytes. Moreover, in vitro experiments revealed that Neb-TMOF and Lepde-NPF-I increased the contractility of the ejaculatory duct of T. molitor males. The results obtained suggest that different reproductive processes in males might be regulated by complex mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene Regulation by the AGL15 Transcription Factor Reveals Hormone Interactions in Somatic Embryogenesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiaolin; Zheng, Yumei; Ji, Huihua; Burnie, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    The MADS box transcription factor Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AGAMOUS-LIKE15 (AGL15) and a putative ortholog from soybean (Glycine max), GmAGL15, are able to promote somatic embryogenesis (SE) in these plants when ectopically expressed. SE is an important means of plant regeneration, but many plants, or even particular cultivars, are recalcitrant for this process. Understanding how (Gm)AGL15 promotes SE by identifying and characterizing direct and indirect downstream regulated genes can provide means to improve regeneration by SE for crop improvement and to perform molecular tests of genes. Conserved transcription factors and the genes they regulate in common between species may provide the most promising avenue to identify targets for SE improvement. We show that (Gm)AGL15 negatively regulates auxin signaling in both Arabidopsis and soybean at many levels of the pathway, including the repression of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR6 (ARF6) and ARF8 and TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1 as well as the indirect control of components via direct expression of a microRNA-encoding gene. We demonstrate interaction between auxin and gibberellic acid in the promotion of SE and document an inverse correlation between bioactive gibberellic acid and SE in soybean, a difficult crop to transform. Finally, we relate hormone accumulation to transcript accumulation of important soybean embryo regulatory factors such as ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 and FUSCA3 and provide a working model of hormone and transcription factor interaction in the control of SE. PMID:27794101

  3. Two Faces of One Seed: Hormonal Regulation of Dormancy and Germination.

    PubMed

    Shu, Kai; Liu, Xiao-dong; Xie, Qi; He, Zu-hua

    2016-01-04

    Seed plants have evolved to maintain the dormancy of freshly matured seeds until the appropriate time for germination. Seed dormancy and germination are distinct physiological processes, and the transition from dormancy to germination is not only a critical developmental step in the life cycle of plants but is also important for agricultural production. These processes are precisely regulated by diverse endogenous hormones and environmental cues. Although ABA (abscisic acid) and GAs (gibberellins) are known to be the primary phytohormones that antagonistically regulate seed dormancy, recent findings demonstrate that another phytohormone, auxin, is also critical for inducing and maintaining seed dormancy, and therefore might act as a key protector of seed dormancy. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the sophisticated molecular networks involving the critical roles of phytohormones in regulating seed dormancy and germination, in which AP2-domain-containing transcription factors play key roles. We also discuss the interactions (crosstalk) of diverse hormonal signals in seed dormancy and germination, focusing on the ABA/GA balance that constitutes the central node.

  4. Specific regulation of thermosensitive lipid droplet fusion by a nuclear hormone receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiwei; Li, Qi; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shuang; Cui, Qingpo; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Shaobing O

    2017-08-15

    Nuclear receptors play important roles in regulating fat metabolism and energy production in humans. The regulatory functions and endogenous ligands of many nuclear receptors are still unidentified, however. Here, we report that CYP-37A1 (ortholog of human cytochrome P450 CYP4V2), EMB-8 (ortholog of human P450 oxidoreductase POR), and DAF-12 (homolog of human nuclear receptors VDR/LXR) constitute a hormone synthesis and nuclear receptor pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans This pathway specifically regulates the thermosensitive fusion of fat-storing lipid droplets. CYP-37A1, together with EMB-8, synthesizes a lipophilic hormone not identical to Δ7-dafachronic acid, which represses the fusion-promoting function of DAF-12. CYP-37A1 also negatively regulates thermotolerance and lifespan at high temperature in a DAF-12-dependent manner. Human CYP4V2 can substitute for CYP-37A1 in C. elegans This finding suggests the existence of a conserved CYP4V2-POR-nuclear receptor pathway that functions in converting multilocular lipid droplets to unilocular ones in human cells; misregulation of this pathway may lead to pathogenic fat storage.

  5. DuOx2 Promoter Regulation by Hormones, Transcriptional Factors and the Coactivator TAZ.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Weide, L C; Cardoso-Penha, R C; Costa, M W; Ferreira, A C F; Carvalho, D P; Santisteban, P S

    2015-03-01

    The production of H2O2, which is essential to thyroid hormone synthesis, involves two NADPH oxidases: dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DuOx1 and DuOx2). A functional study with human DuOx genes and their 5'-flanking regions showed that DuOx1 and -2 promoters are different from thyroid-specific gene promoters. Furthermore, their transcriptional activities are not restricted to thyroid cells. While regulation of Tg (thyroglobulin) and TPO (thyroperoxidase) expression have been extensively studied, DuOx2 promoter regulation by hormones and transcriptional factors need to be more explored. Herein we investigated the role of TSH, insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), as well as the cAMP effect on DuOx2 promoter (ptx41) activity in transfected rat thyroid cell lines (PCCL3). We also assessed DuOx2 promoter activity in the presence of transcriptional factors crucial to thyroid development such as TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1), PAX8, CREB, DREAM, Nkx2.5 and the coactivator TAZ in HeLa and HEK 293T-transfected cells. Our results show that TSH and forskolin, which increase cAMP in thyroid cells, stimulated DuOx2 promoter activity. IGF-1 led to pronounced stimulation, while insulin induction was not statistically different from DuOx2 promoter basal activity. All transcriptional factors selected for this work and coactivator TAZ, except DREAM, stimulated DuOx2 promoter activity. Moreover, Nkx2.5 and TAZ synergistically increased DuOx2 promoter activity. In conclusion, we show that DuOx2 expression is regulated by hormones and transcription factors involved in thyroid organogenesis and carcinogenesis, reinforcing the importance of the control of H2O2 generation in the thyroid.

  6. DuOx2 Promoter Regulation by Hormones, Transcriptional Factors and the Coactivator TAZ

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Weide, L.C.; Cardoso-Penha, R.C.; Costa, M.W.; Ferreira, A.C.F.; Carvalho, D.P.; Santisteban, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    The production of H2O2, which is essential to thyroid hormone synthesis, involves two NADPH oxidases: dual oxidases 1 and 2 (DuOx1 and DuOx2). A functional study with human DuOx genes and their 5′-flanking regions showed that DuOx1 and −2 promoters are different from thyroid-specific gene promoters. Furthermore, their transcriptional activities are not restricted to thyroid cells. While regulation of Tg (thyroglobulin) and TPO (thyroperoxidase) expression have been extensively studied, DuOx2 promoter regulation by hormones and transcriptional factors need to be more explored. Herein we investigated the role of TSH, insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), as well as the cAMP effect on DuOx2 promoter (ptx41) activity in transfected rat thyroid cell lines (PCCL3). We also assessed DuOx2 promoter activity in the presence of transcriptional factors crucial to thyroid development such as TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor 1), PAX8, CREB, DREAM, Nkx2.5 and the coactivator TAZ in HeLa and HEK 293T-transfected cells. Our results show that TSH and forskolin, which increase cAMP in thyroid cells, stimulated DuOx2 promoter activity. IGF-1 led to pronounced stimulation, while insulin induction was not statistically different from DuOx2 promoter basal activity. All transcriptional factors selected for this work and coactivator TAZ, except DREAM, stimulated DuOx2 promoter activity. Moreover, Nkx2.5 and TAZ synergistically increased DuOx2 promoter activity. In conclusion, we show that DuOx2 expression is regulated by hormones and transcription factors involved in thyroid organogenesis and carcinogenesis, reinforcing the importance of the control of H2O2 generation in the thyroid. PMID:25960956

  7. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD)

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yasunobu; Maeno, Emi; Shimizu, Takahiro; Dezaki, Katsuya; Wang, Jun; Morishima, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl− channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl− channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl− conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNFα receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma × rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be

  8. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD).

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Maeno, E; Shimizu, T; Dezaki, K; Wang, J; Morishima, S

    2001-04-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl- channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl- conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNF receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be abolished by

  9. [Hormonal regulation of calcium metabolism after space flights of different duration].

    PubMed

    Pozharskaia, L G; Noskov, V B

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of examinations of 19 cosmonauts, 12 of whom made 7-day flights and 7 took part in space flights of 150, 211 or 237 days. In plasma, parathyrin, calcitonin and gastrin concentrations were measured. A complex mosaic of hormonal regulation of bone metabolism reflects multifactorial and flexible patterns of calcium homeostasis, with individual variations included. It is probable that the specific weight of different components of the system maintaining calcium homeostasis varies depending on the exposure time and activity of related regulatory systems.

  10. Regulation of Appetite, Body Composition, and Metabolic Hormones by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP).

    PubMed

    Vu, John P; Larauche, Muriel; Flores, Martin; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Oh, Suwan; Liang, Li-Jung; Waschek, James; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2015-06-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68 % homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of vertebrates such as goldfishes, chicken and rodents. Additional studies are necessary to analyze the role of endogenous VIP on the regulation of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, body mass composition and energy balance. The aim of the study was to elucidate the physiological pathways by which VIP regulates appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, and body mass composition. VIP deficient (VIP -/-) and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates were weekly monitored from 5 to 22 weeks of age using a whole body composition EchoMRI analyzer. Food intake and feeding behavior were analyzed using the BioDAQ automated monitoring system. Plasma levels of metabolic hormones including active-ghrelin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), adiponectin, and insulin were measured in fasting as well as in postprandial conditions. The genetic lack of VIP led to a significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and to an increase of lean mass as the mice aged. Additionally, VIP-/- mice had a disrupted pattern of circadian feeding behavior resulting in an abolished regular nocturnal/diurnal feeding. These changes were associated with an altered secretion of adiponectin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY and insulin in VIP-/- mice. Our data demonstrates that endogenous VIP is involved in the control of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, body mass composition and in the secretion of six different key regulatory metabolic hormones. VIP plays a key role in the regulation of body phenotype by significantly enhancing body weight and fat

  11. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is coupled to hormonally regulated release of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, L L; Lin, A Y; Knopf, J L

    1992-01-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) binds to natural membrane vesicles in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, resulting in the selective release of arachidonic acid, thus implicating cPLA2 in the hormonally regulated production of eicosanoids. Here we report that the treatment of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing cPLA2 with ATP or thrombin resulted in an increased release of arachidonic acid as compared with parental CHO cells, demonstrating the hormonal coupling of cPLA2. In contrast, CHO cells overexpressing a secreted form of mammalian PLA2 (sPLA2-II) failed to show any increased hormonal responsiveness. Interestingly, we have noted that the activation of cPLA2 with a wide variety of agents stimulates the phosphorylation of cPLA2 on serine residues. Pretreatment of cells with staurosporin blocked the ATP-mediated phosphorylation of cPLA2 and strongly inhibited the activation of the enzyme. Increased cPLA2 activity was also observed in lysates prepared from ATP-treated cells and was sensitive to phosphatase treatment. These results suggest that in addition to Ca2+, the phosphorylation of cPLA2 plays an important role in the agonist-induced activation of cPLA2. Images PMID:1631101

  12. Regulation of pancreatic islet beta-cell mass by growth factor and hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao; Chang, Yongchang

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction and destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells is a hallmark of diabetes. Better understanding of cellular signals in beta cells will allow development of therapeutic strategies for diabetes, such as preservation and expansion of beta-cell mass and improvement of beta-cell function. During the past several decades, the number of studies analyzing the molecular mechanisms, including growth factor/hormone signaling pathways that impact islet beta-cell mass and function, has increased exponentially. Notably, somatolactogenic hormones including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their receptors (GHR, PRLR, and IGF-1R) are critically involved in beta-cell growth, survival, differentiation, and insulin secretion. In this chapter, we focus more narrowly on GH, PRL, and IGF-1 signaling, and GH-IGF-1 cross talk. We also discuss how these signaling aspects contribute to the regulation of beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. In particular, our novel findings of GH-induced formation of GHR-JAK2-IGF-1R protein complex and synergistic effects of GH and IGF-1 on beta-cell signaling, proliferation, and antiapoptosis lead to a new concept that IGF-1R may serve as a proximal component of GH/GHR signaling.

  13. Kouksundo, a traditional Korean mind-body practice, regulates oxidative stress profiles and stress hormones.

    PubMed

    Im, Hwi-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Hyo-Seon; Son, Chang-Gue

    2015-03-15

    Kouksundo is a traditional Korean mind-body practice that has been practiced for thousands of years. We investigated the effects of Kouksundo on oxidative stress-related biomarkers and stress hormones. A single-arm observational study was conducted on 57 Kouksundo trainees (34 males and 23 females). Blood samples were collected 30 min before and after Kouksundo practice (25 min for warm-up, 45 min for breathing meditation, and 20 min for cool-down). Kouksundo significantly reduced serum levels of oxidant markers, including reactive oxygen species (p<0.01), nitric oxide (p<0.01), and malondialdehyde (p<0.05), induced elevation of superoxide dismutase (p<0.01), and reduction of catalase (p<0.001). No significant changes were observed in total antioxidant capacity or total glutathione content levels (p>0.05). Kouksundo practice also significantly reduced the serum level of cortisol (p<0.001), norepinephrine (p<0.001), and dopamine (p<0.05), and significantly increased serum epinephrine concentrations (p<0.05). The traditional Korean mind-body practice Kouksundo provided health benefits by regulating oxidative stress and levels of stress hormones. This study is the first investigation of the changes in oxidative stress and stress hormones induced by mind-body therapy, producing reference data for mechanistic studies on these practices. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The structure and regulation of expression of the mouse growth hormone receptor and binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Talamantes, F.

    1994-12-31

    The mouse growth hormone receptor (mGHR) and the mouse growth hormone-binding protein (mGHBP) are products of a single gene which are generated alternative splicing. The factors that regulate the expression of mGHR and mGHBP mRNA and protein during pregnancy in the mouse are incompletely understood. During pregnancy in the mouse, there are parallel increases in circulating mouse growth hormone (mGH), liver mGHR, and serum mGHBP. The increase in both hepatic mGHR and serum mGHBP begins on Day 9 of gestation and by late gestation the hepatic mGHR content has increased 8-fold and serum mGHBP has increased 30-fold compared with values in nonpregnant controls. A parallel increase occurs in the steady state levels of liver GHR and GHBP encoding mRNAs. The increase in both messages begins on Day 9 of gestation; however, the GHR mRNA reaches maximum levels by Day 13, while the GHBP mRNA continues to increase until the end of pregnancy. The magnitude of the increase in the GHR-encoding message is 15- to 20-fold between nonpregnant and late pregnant mice, and the magnitude of the increase in the GHBP-encoding message is 30- to 50-fold. Both pituitary mGH and the number of conceptuses influence the receptors and binding protein for mGH during pregnancy. 22 refs.

  15. Growth Hormone-Regulated mRNAs and miRNAs in Chicken Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huijuan; Shao, Fang; Yu, JianFeng; Jiang, Honglin; Han, Yaoping; Gong, Daoqing; Gu, Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a key regulatory factor in animal growth, development and metabolism. Based on the expression level of the GH receptor, the chicken liver is a major target organ of GH, but the biological effects of GH on the chicken liver are not fully understood. In this work we identified mRNAs and miRNAs that are regulated by GH in primary hepatocytes from female chickens through RNA-seq, and analyzed the functional relevance of these mRNAs and miRNAs through GO enrichment analysis and miRNA target prediction. A total of 164 mRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between GH-treated and control chicken hepatocytes, of which 112 were up-regulated and 52 were down-regulated by GH. A total of 225 chicken miRNAs were identified by the RNA-Seq analysis. Among these miRNAs 16 were up-regulated and 1 miRNA was down-regulated by GH. The GH-regulated mRNAs were mainly involved in growth and metabolism. Most of the GH-upregulated or GH-downregulated miRNAs were predicted to target the GH-downregulated or GH-upregulated mRNAs, respectively, involved in lipid metabolism. This study reveals that GH regulates the expression of many mRNAs involved in metabolism in female chicken hepatocytes, which suggests that GH plays an important role in regulating liver metabolism in female chickens. The results of this study also support the hypothesis that GH regulates lipid metabolism in chicken liver in part by regulating the expression of miRNAs that target the mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:25386791

  16. Receptor-mediated toxicity of pahutoxin, a marine trunkfish surfactant.

    PubMed

    Kalmanzon, Eliahu; Rahamim, Yocheved; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Carmeli, Shmuel; Zlotkin, Eliahu

    2003-07-01

    Pahutoxin (PHN, choline chloride ester of 3-acetoxypalmitic acid) is a natural fish-killing (ichthyotoxic) agent derived from the defensive secretions of trunkfish. In spite of its obvious structural resemblance to synthetic cationic long-chain quaternary ammonium detergents, we show that PHN's action does not rely on its surfactant properties and is in fact, receptor-mediated. The above conclusion is supported by the following data: 1. Ichthyotoxicity is not related to its detergency or surfactivity, as indicated by the fact that the lethal concentration is about 1.5 orders of magnitude below its critical micelle concentration value (69 microM) and its liposomal/seawater partition coefficient is low (62-85); 2. The trunkfish is tolerant to its own pahutoxin; 3. Ichthyotoxicity occurs only upon application to the surrounding water, suggesting the existence of externally located receptors; 4. The receptor hypothesis was supported by the aid of equilibrium saturation binding assays revealing the presence of specific binding sites to PHN on the fish gill membranes; 5. The PHN tolerant trunkfish was shown to be devoid of PHN-binding sites. Some chemo-ecological, and environmental implications are discussed.

  17. Asialoglycoprotein receptor mediated hepatocyte targeting - strategies and applications.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Anisha A; Devarajan, Padma V

    2015-04-10

    Hepatocyte resident afflictions continue to affect the human population unabated. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is primarily expressed on hepatocytes and minimally on extra-hepatic cells. This makes it specifically attractive for receptor-mediated drug delivery with minimum concerns of toxicity. ASGPR facilitates internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and exhibits high affinity for carbohydrates specifically galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and glucose. Isomeric forms of sugar, galactose density and branching, spatial geometry and galactose linkages are key factors influencing ligand-receptor binding. Popular ligands for ASGPR mediated targeting are carbohydrate polymers, arabinogalactan and pullulan. Other ligands include galactose-bearing glycoproteins, glycopeptides and galactose modified polymers and lipids. Drug-ligand conjugates provide a viable strategy; nevertheless ligand-anchored nanocarriers provide an attractive option for ASGPR targeted delivery and are widely explored. The present review details various ligands and nanocarriers exploited for ASGPR mediated delivery of drugs to hepatocytes. Nanocarrier properties affecting ASGPR mediated uptake are discussed at length. The review also highlights the clinical relevance of ASGPR mediated targeting and applications in diagnostics. ASGPR mediated hepatocyte targeting provides great promise for improved therapy of hepatic afflictions.

  18. Visualization of Receptor-mediated Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Jon; Konopka, James; Singer-Kruger, Birgit; Zerial, Marino; Botstein, David

    1999-01-01

    We studied the ligand-induced endocytosis of the yeast α-factor receptor Ste2p by immuno-electron microscopy. We observed and quantitated time-dependent loss of Ste2p from the plasma membrane of cells exposed to α-factor. This ligand-induced internalization of Ste2p was blocked in the well-characterized endocytosis-deficient mutant sac6Δ. We provide evidence that implicates furrow-like invaginations of the plasma membrane as the site of receptor internalization. These invaginations are distinct from the finger-like plasma membrane invaginations within actin cortical patches. Consistent with this, we show that Ste2p is not located within the cortical actin patch before and during receptor-mediated endocytosis. In wild-type cells exposed to α-factor we also observed and quantitated a time-dependent accumulation of Ste2p in intracellular, membrane-bound compartments. These compartments have a characteristic electron density but variable shape and size and are often located adjacent to the vacuole. In immuno-electron microscopy experiments these compartments labeled with antibodies directed against the rab5 homologue Ypt51p (Vps21p), the resident vacuolar protease carboxypeptidase Y, and the vacuolar H+-ATPase Vph1p. Using a new double-labeling technique we have colocalized antibodies against Ste2p and carboxypeptidase Y to this compartment, thereby identifying these compartments as prevacuolar late endosomes. PMID:10069819

  19. Purine receptor mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling of human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Nanna; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Langevin, Helene; Nedergaard, Maiken; Takano, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that activation of adenosine A1 receptors on peripheral pain fibers contributes to acupuncture-induced suppression of painful input. In addition to adenosine, acupuncture triggers the release of other purines, including ATP and ADP that may bind to purine receptors on nearby fibroblasts. We here show that purine agonists trigger increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ signaling in a cultured human fibroblasts cell line. The profile of agonist-induced Ca2+ increases indicates that the cells express functional P2yR2 and P2yR4 receptors, as well as P2yR1 and P2xR7 receptors. Unexpectedly, purine-induced Ca2+ signaling was associated with a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. ATP induced a transient loss in F-actin stress fiber. The changes of actin cytoskeleton occurred slowly and peaked at 10 min after agonist exposure. Inhibition of ATP-induced increases in Ca2+ by cyclopiazonic acid blocked receptor-mediated cytoskeleton remodeling. The Ca2+ ionophore failed to induce cytoskeletal remodeling despite triggering robust increases in cytosolic Ca2+. These observations indicate that purine signaling induces transient changes in fibroblast cytoarchitecture that could be related to the beneficial effects of acupuncture. PMID:23462235

  20. SPHINGOSINE-1-PHOSPHATE RECEPTORS MEDIATE NEUROMODULATORY FUNCTIONS IN THE CNS

    PubMed Central

    Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Goforth, Paulette B.; Mba, Mba U.; Macdonald, Timothy L.; Lynch, Kevin R.; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah; Satin, Leslie S.; Welch, Sandra P.; Selley, Dana E.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate is a ubiquitous, lipophilic cellular mediator that acts in part by activation of G-protein-coupled receptors. Modulation of S1P signaling is an emerging pharmacotherapeutic target for immunomodulatory drugs. Although multiple S1P receptor types exist in the CNS, little is known about their function. Here we report that S1P stimulated G- protein activity in the CNS, and results from [35S]GTPγS autoradiography using the S1P1-selective agonist SEW2871 and the S1P1/3-selective antagonist VPC44116 show that in several regions a majority of this activity is mediated by S1P1 receptors. S1P receptor activation inhibited glutamatergic neurotransmission as determined by electrophysiological recordings in cortical neurons in vitro, and this effect was mimicked by SEW2871 and inhibited by VPC44116. Moreover, central administration of S1P produced in vivo effects resembling the actions of cannabinoids, including thermal antinociception, hypothermia, catalepsy and hypolocomotion, but these actions were independent of CB1 receptors. At least one of the central effects of S1P, thermal antinociception, is also at least partly S1P1 receptor mediated because it was produced by SEW2871 and attenuated by VPC44116. These results indicate that CNS S1P receptors are part of a physiologically relevant and widespread neuromodulatory system, and that the S1P1 receptor contributes to S1P-mediated antinociception. PMID:19493165

  1. Biologically bounded risk assessment for receptor-mediated nongenotoxic carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Gastel, J A; Sutter, T R

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a biologically bounded marginal effect model for use in risk assessment of human exposure to receptor-mediated nongenotoxic carcinogens. Schematically this model can be reduced to four components: CI, the absence of an observable biological response; CII, observable biochemical responses but no observable pathology; CIII, observable pathology; and CIV, both observable pathology and lethality. The inflection point in the marginal response curve between CI and CII is defined as the biologically evaluated scientifically tested no observable effect level (BESTNOEL). We demonstrate the utility of this approach by applying it to the well-studied nongenotoxic carcinogen 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Using a well-developed mechanistic understanding of the initial interactions of TCDD with the cell, we justify the selection of the minimal effective dose for CYP1A1 mRNA induction as the BESTNOEL. With allowance for variation in human sensitivity to TCDD, the BESTNOEL is assigned a human liver tissue burden of approximately 0.25-25 ppt and an allowable daily intake level in the range of 15-1500 fg/kg/day. In the future, the BESTNOEL can help establish a lower boundary for acceptable extrapolation when using either statistical or biologically based attributable risk models.

  2. Cellular mechanisms of the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guseva, Daria; Wirth, Alexander; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the most recently described members of the 5-HT receptor family. Functionally, 5-HT7 receptor is associated with a number of physiological and pathological responses, including serotonin-induced phase shifting of the circadian rhythm, control of memory as well as locomotor and exploratory activity. A large body of evidence indicates involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor in anxiety and depression, and recent studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptor can be highly relevant for the treatment of major depressive disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to the stimulatory Gs-protein, and receptor stimulation results in activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) leading to a rise of cAMP concentration. In addition, this receptor is coupled to the G12-protein to activate small GTPases of the Rho family. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms responsible for the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling. We provide detailed overview of signaling cascades controlled and regulated by the 5-HT7 receptor and discuss the functional impact of 5-HT7 receptor for the regulation of different cellular and subcellular processes. PMID:25324743

  3. Cellular mechanisms of the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Guseva, Daria; Wirth, Alexander; Ponimaskin, Evgeni

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the most recently described members of the 5-HT receptor family. Functionally, 5-HT7 receptor is associated with a number of physiological and pathological responses, including serotonin-induced phase shifting of the circadian rhythm, control of memory as well as locomotor and exploratory activity. A large body of evidence indicates involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor in anxiety and depression, and recent studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptor can be highly relevant for the treatment of major depressive disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to the stimulatory Gs-protein, and receptor stimulation results in activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) leading to a rise of cAMP concentration. In addition, this receptor is coupled to the G12-protein to activate small GTPases of the Rho family. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms responsible for the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling. We provide detailed overview of signaling cascades controlled and regulated by the 5-HT7 receptor and discuss the functional impact of 5-HT7 receptor for the regulation of different cellular and subcellular processes.

  4. Parathyroid hormone-dependent signaling pathways regulating genes in bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swarthout, John T.; D'Alonzo, Richard C.; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an 84-amino-acid polypeptide hormone functioning as a major mediator of bone remodeling and as an essential regulator of calcium homeostasis. PTH and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) indirectly activate osteoclasts resulting in increased bone resorption. During this process, PTH changes the phenotype of the osteoblast from a cell involved in bone formation to one directing bone resorption. In addition to these catabolic effects, PTH has been demonstrated to be an anabolic factor in skeletal tissue and in vitro. As a result, PTH has potential medical application to the treatment of osteoporosis, since intermittent administration of PTH stimulates bone formation. Activation of osteoblasts by PTH results in expression of genes important for the degradation of the extracellular matrix, production of growth factors, and stimulation and recruitment of osteoclasts. The ability of PTH to drive changes in gene expression is dependent upon activation of transcription factors such as the activator protein-1 family, RUNX2, and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Much of the regulation of these processes by PTH is protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent. However, while PKA is linked to many of the changes in gene expression directed by PTH, PKA activation has been shown to inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and proliferation of osteoblasts. It is now known that stimulation of MAPK and proliferation by PTH at low concentrations is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent in both osteoblastic and kidney cells. Furthermore, PTH has been demonstrated to regulate components of the cell cycle. However, whether this regulation requires PKC and/or extracellular signal-regulated kinases or whether PTH is able to stimulate other components of the cell cycle is unknown. It is possible that stimulation of this signaling pathway by PTH mediates a unique pattern of gene expression resulting in proliferation in osteoblastic and kidney cells; however, specific

  5. Parathyroid hormone-dependent signaling pathways regulating genes in bone cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swarthout, John T.; D'Alonzo, Richard C.; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Partridge, Nicola C.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an 84-amino-acid polypeptide hormone functioning as a major mediator of bone remodeling and as an essential regulator of calcium homeostasis. PTH and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) indirectly activate osteoclasts resulting in increased bone resorption. During this process, PTH changes the phenotype of the osteoblast from a cell involved in bone formation to one directing bone resorption. In addition to these catabolic effects, PTH has been demonstrated to be an anabolic factor in skeletal tissue and in vitro. As a result, PTH has potential medical application to the treatment of osteoporosis, since intermittent administration of PTH stimulates bone formation. Activation of osteoblasts by PTH results in expression of genes important for the degradation of the extracellular matrix, production of growth factors, and stimulation and recruitment of osteoclasts. The ability of PTH to drive changes in gene expression is dependent upon activation of transcription factors such as the activator protein-1 family, RUNX2, and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Much of the regulation of these processes by PTH is protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent. However, while PKA is linked to many of the changes in gene expression directed by PTH, PKA activation has been shown to inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and proliferation of osteoblasts. It is now known that stimulation of MAPK and proliferation by PTH at low concentrations is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent in both osteoblastic and kidney cells. Furthermore, PTH has been demonstrated to regulate components of the cell cycle. However, whether this regulation requires PKC and/or extracellular signal-regulated kinases or whether PTH is able to stimulate other components of the cell cycle is unknown. It is possible that stimulation of this signaling pathway by PTH mediates a unique pattern of gene expression resulting in proliferation in osteoblastic and kidney cells; however, specific

  6. Hormonal Regulation and Distinct Functions of Semaphorin-3B and Semaphorin-3F in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Doina; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Syed, Viqar

    2009-01-01

    Semaphorins comprise a family of molecules that influence neuronal growth and guidance. Class-3 semaphorins, semaphorin-3B (SEMA3B) and semaphorin-3F (SEMA3F) illustrate their effects by forming a complex with neuropilins (NP-1 or NP-2) and plexins. We examined the status and regulation of semaphorins and their receptors in human ovarian cancer cells. A significantly reduced expression of SEMA3B (83 kD), SEMA3F (90 kD), and plexin-A3 was observed in ovarian cancer (OVCA) cell lines when compared to normal human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells. The expression of NP-1, NP-2 and plexin-A1 was not altered in HOSE and OVCA cells. The decreased expression of SEMA3B, SEMA3F, and plexin-A3 was confirmed in stage 3 ovarian tumors. Treatment of OVCA cells with luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estrogen induced a significant upregulation of SEMA3B, whereas SEMA3F was upregulated only by estrogen. Co-treatment of cell lines with a hormone and its specific antagonist blocked the effect of the hormone. Ectopic expression of SEMA3B or SEMA3F reduced soft-agar colony formation, adhesion, and cell invasion of OVCA cell cultures. Forced expression of SEMA3B, but not SEMA3F, inhibited viability of OVCA cells. Overexpression of SEMA3B and SEMA3F reduced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 expression in OVCA cells. Forced expression of SEMA3F, but not SEMA3B in OVCA cells, significantly inhibited endothelial cell tube formation. Collectively, our results suggest loss of SEMA3 expression could be a hallmark of cancer progression. Furthermore, gonadotropin- and/or estrogen-mediated maintenance of SEMA3 expression could control ovarian cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:20124444

  7. Coordinate Regulation of Lymphocyte-Endothelial Interactions by Pregnancy-Associated Hormones1

    PubMed Central

    Chantakru, Sirirak; Wang, Wan-Chao; van den Heuvel, Marianne; Bashar, Siamak; Simpson, Amanda; Chen, Qing; Croy, B. Anne; Evans, Sharon S.

    2010-01-01

    Precursors of uterine Natural Killer (uNK) cells home to the uterus during early pregnancy from multiple lymphohematopoietic sources. In mouse uterine tissue, pregnancy markedly up-regulates both L-selectin and α4-integrin-dependent adhesion pathways for circulating human CD56brightcells, the phenotype of human uNK cells. Based on roles for these adhesion molecules in lymphocyte homing, we examined effects of pregnancy or the steroid hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4), on lymphocyte-endothelial interactions in secondary lymphoid tissues and in uterus. From pre-implantation gestation day (gd) 3, specialized high endothelial venules (HEV) in PLN and PP supported elevated L-selectin and α4β7 integrin-dependent lymphocyte adhesion under shear throughout pregnancy, as compared with HEV of virgin or postpartum donors. Squamous endothelium from non-lymphoid tissue was not affected. Pregnancy-equivalent endothelial responses were observed in LN and PP from ovariectomized (Ovx) mice receiving E2 and/or P4 replacement therapy. Adhesion of human CD56bright cells to uteri from pregnant or hormone-treated Ovx mice was enhanced through L-selectin and α4 integrin-dependent mechanisms and involved multiple vascular adhesion molecules including MAdCAM-1, VCAM-1, and PNAd. Analysis of Tie2-GFP transgenic mice demonstrated that CD56bright cells adhered primarily to vascular endothelium within the decidua basalis. Microdomain localization of adhesion involving large clusters of lymphocytes was induced on uteri from natural matings, but not pseudopregnancy. Steroid hormones also had independent effects on L-selectin function in splenic lymphocytes that mimicked physiological stimulation induced by pregnancy or fever-range temperatures. These results provide the first evidence for coordinated, organ-specific, steroid hormone induced changes in lymphocyte homing mechanisms that could contribute to local and systemic immune responses during pregnancy. PMID:14530321

  8. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is cytochrome P450 3A4 regulated by menstrual cycle hormones in control endometrium and endometriosis?

    PubMed

    Piccinato, Carla A; Neme, Rosa M; Torres, Natália; Silvério, Renata; Pazzini, Vanessa Bitencourt; Rosa E Silva, Júlio C; Ferriani, Rui A

    2017-03-01

    The estrogen-metabolizing activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have been implicated in endometriosis. However, their regulation in various sources of endometrial tissue under different hormonal conditions has not been clarified. Our objective was to study the hormone regulation of a specific CYP enzyme, namely CYP3A4, in control (n = 15) and endometriosis patients (n = 42). To this end, we evaluated mRNA expression (using real-time PCR) of CYP3A4 in tissue samples classified according to the phase of menstrual cycle at which they were obtained as confirmed by the related circulating hormone levels. Protein expression was also evaluated by Western Blot. In order to further investigate the hormonal regulation of CYP3A4, stromal cells from ovarian endometriotic lesions were cultured with the prevailing hormones of the distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. We observed that all control and endometriosis tissues express CYP3A4. Nevertheless, changes in CYP3A4 gene expression related to cycle phase were only seen in the control eutopic endometrium and not in samples from endometriosis patients, with an increase in the luteal phase. Stromal cells isolated from ovarian endometriotic lesions expressed CYP3A4 and their exposure to luteal phase-mimicking hormones (estradiol + progesterone) reduced CYP3A4 mRNA in parallel with a diminished expression of the corresponding receptors, estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor. Our findings suggest that steroid hormones are able to regulate CYP3A4 mRNA expression, although the circulating levels of these hormones can only regulate control endometrium and not endometriosis tissues, probably because of dysregulated local steroid concentration in these latter samples.

  10. Corticotropin-releasing factor neurogenesis during midlife development in salmon: genetic, environmental and thyroid hormone regulation.

    PubMed

    Ebbesson, L O E; Nilsen, T O; Helvik, J V; Tronci, V; Stefansson, S O

    2011-08-01

    Salmon parr-smolt transformation (smoltification) is a mid-life transitional stage between life in freshwater and seawater that entails a wide range of neural, endocrine and physiological modifications. In salmon, the neuroendocrine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system regulates pituitary adrenocorticotrophic hormone and thyrotrophin release. Four experimental groups of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, were used to investigated CRF neurogenesis and its regulation during smoltification. We compared: (i) developmental stages (parr and early-smolt) in anadromous controls; (ii) a developmentally arrested model: anadromous reared under continuous light (LL) with anadromous controls; (iii) a natural hypoendocrine/incomplete smolt development salmon model (landlocked) with anadromous controls; and (iv) landlocked treated with thyroxine to anadromous control smolt levels. CRF neurogenesis between groups was studied with bromodeoxyuradine (BrdU) incorporation followed by double-labelling CRF and BrdU immunhistochemistry. The rate of CRF neurogenesis in the preoptic area (POA) increased from parr to early-smolts in anadromous salmon. By contrast, neurogenesis was inhibited in the LL group and reduced in the landlocked salmon. The administration of thyroxine in landlocked salmon to match anadromous levels increased the rate of CRF neurogenesis to anadromous levels. In conclusion, newly-formed CRF cells in the POA during smoltification are associated with increased retinal innervation to the POA and endocrine responsiveness to increased photoperiod. Both genetic and environmental factors influence the degree of salmon brain development. Thyroid hormones increase CRF neurogenesis during this critical period of development in salmon. We hypothesise that a positive-feedback of thyroid hormones on CRF neurogenesis may be an important event in reaching the developmental climax during critical periods.

  11. A branched-chain aminotransferase may regulate hormone levels by affecting KNOX genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Chunzheng; Wei, Chunhong; Li, Yi

    2009-09-01

    Branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCATs) play a crucial role in the metabolic pathway of leucine, isoleucine and valine by catalyzing the last step of synthesis and/or the initial step of degradation of these amino acids. In this study, we characterized a new BCAT from Nicotiana benthamiana (NbBCAT, GeneBank accession No. EU194916), the deduced amino acid sequence of which exhibits a very high percentage of identity to the homologous enzymes from Solanum tuberosum (StBCAT-2, 91.5%) and Arabidopsis thaliana (AtBCAT1-6, 56.4-68.6%). Complementation experiment using a Deltabat1/Deltabat2 double knockout yeast strain system demonstrated enzymatic activities for NbBCAT. Ectopically expressed NbBCAT::green fluorescence fusion protein was targeted predominantly to the chloroplasts in tobacco protoplasts. The highest levels of NbBCAT transcripts were found in open flowers as well as in young leaves. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbBCAT resulted in abnormal leaf development and loss of apical dominance. In NbBCAT-silenced plants, two KNOTTED1-type genes, NTH15 and NTH23, were upregulated. This was accompanied by various hormone changes, as a result of transcriptional regulation of gibberellin 20-oxidase (Ntc12) and adenosine phosphate isopentenyltransferase. The transcript levels of NbBCAT could also be repressed by hormone treatment. These results suggest that NbBCAT, an enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid metabolic pathway, may be involved in the regulation of endogenous hormones by its effect on KNOX genes.

  12. Tissue-specific thyroid hormone regulation of gene transcripts encoding iodothyronine deiodinases and thyroid hormone receptors in striped parrotfish (Scarus iseri).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kaitlin M; Lema, Sean C

    2011-07-01

    In fish as in other vertebrates, the diverse functions of thyroid hormones are mediated at the peripheral tissue level through iodothyronine deiodinase (dio) enzymes and thyroid hormone receptor (tr) proteins. In this study, we examined thyroid hormone regulation of mRNAs encoding the three deiodinases dio1, dio2 and dio3 - as well as three thyroid hormone receptors trαA, trαB and trβ - in initial phase striped parrotfish (Scarus iseri). Parrotfish were treated with dissolved phase T(3) (20 nM) or methimazole (3 mM) for 3 days. Treatment with exogenous T(3) elevated circulating T(3), while the methimazole treatment depressed plasma T(4). Experimentally-induced hyperthyroidism increased the relative abundance of transcripts encoding trαA and trβ in the liver and brain, but did not affect trαB mRNA levels in either tissue. In both sexes, methimazole-treated fish exhibited elevated dio2 transcripts in the liver and brain, suggesting enhanced outer-ring deiodination activity in these tissues. Accordingly, systemic hyperthyroidism elevated relative dio3 transcript levels in these same tissues. In the gonad, however, patterns of transcript regulation were distinctly different with elevated T(3) increasing mRNAs encoding dio2 in testicular and ovarian tissues and dio3, trαA and trαB in the testes only. Thyroid hormone status did not affect dio1 transcript abundance in the liver, brain or gonads. Taken as a whole, these results demonstrate that thyroidal status influences relative transcript abundance for dio2 and dio3 in the liver, provide new evidence for similar patterns of dio2 and dio3 mRNA regulation in the brain, and make evident that fish exhibit tr subtype-specific transcript abundance changes to altered thyroid status.

  13. Hypothalamic roles of mTOR complex I: Integration of nutrient and hormone signals to regulate energy homeostasis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) senses nutrient, energy, and hormone signals to regulate metabolism and energy homeostasis. mTOR activity in the hypothalamus, which is associated with changes in energy status, plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake and body weight...

  14. Role of ACTH and Other Hormones in the Regulation of Aldosterone Production in Primary Aldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    El Ghorayeb, Nada; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2016-01-01

    The major physiological regulators of aldosterone production from the adrenal zona glomerulosa are potassium and angiotensin II; other acute regulators include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and serotonin. Their interactions with G-protein coupled hormone receptors activate cAMP/PKA pathway thereby regulating intracellular calcium flux and CYP11B2 transcription, which is the specific steroidogenic enzyme of aldosterone synthesis. In primary aldosteronism (PA), the increased production of aldosterone and resultant relative hypervolemia inhibits the renin and angiotensin system; aldosterone secretion is mostly independent from the suppressed renin–angiotensin system, but is not autonomous, as it is regulated by a diversity of other ligands of various eutopic or ectopic receptors, in addition to activation of calcium flux resulting from mutations of various ion channels. Among the abnormalities in various hormone receptors, an overexpression of the melanocortin type 2 receptor (MC2R) could be responsible for aldosterone hypersecretion in aldosteronomas. An exaggerated increase in plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) is found in patients with PA secondary either to unilateral aldosteronomas or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH) following acute ACTH administration compared to normal individuals. A diurnal increase in PAC in early morning and its suppression by dexamethasone confirms the increased role of endogenous ACTH as an important aldosterone secretagogue in PA. Screening using a combination of dexamethasone and fludrocortisone test reveals a higher prevalence of PA in hypertensive populations compared to the aldosterone to renin ratio. The variable level of MC2R overexpression in each aldosteronomas or in the adjacent zona glomerulosa hyperplasia may explain the inconsistent results of adrenal vein sampling between basal levels and post ACTH administration in the determination of source of aldosterone excess. In the rare cases of glucocorticoid remediable

  15. Current trends in targeting the hormonal regulation of appetite and energy balance to treat obesity

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Michael A; Colon-Gonzalez, Francheska; Lin, Jieru E; Waldman, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    With the eruption of the obesity pandemic over the past few decades, much research has been devoted to understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the human body regulates energy balance. These studies have revealed several mediators, including gut/pancreatic/adipose hormones and neuropeptides that control both short- and long-term energy balance by regulating appetite and/or metabolism. These endogenous mediators of energy balance have been the focus of many anti-obesity drug-development programs aimed at either amplifying endogenous anorexigenic/lipolytic signaling or blocking endogenous orexigenic/lipogenic signaling. Here, we discuss the efficacy and safety of targeting these pathways for the pharmacologic treatment of obesity. PMID:21297878

  16. Hormonal regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel: from amphibians to mammals.

    PubMed

    Shane, Michael Anne; Nofziger, Charity; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L

    2006-05-15

    High-resistance epithelia derived from amphibian sources such as frog skin, toad urinary bladder, and the A6 Xenopus laevis kidney cell line have been widely used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the regulation of vectorial ion transport. More recently, the isolation of high-resistance mammalian cell lines has provided model systems in which to study differences and similarities between the regulation of ion transporter function in amphibian and mammalian renal epithelia. In the present study, we have compared the natriferic (Na+ retaining) responses to aldosterone, insulin, and vasotocin/vasopressin in the A6 and mpkCCDcl4 (mouse principal cells of the kidney cortical collecting duct) cell lines. The functional responses of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) to hormonal stimulation were remarkably similar in both the amphibian and mammalian lines. In addition, insulin- and aldosterone-stimulated, reabsorptive Na+ transport in both cell lines requires the presence of functional PI3-kinase.

  17. Growth hormone regulation of rat liver gene expression assessed by SSH and microarray.

    PubMed

    Gardmo, Cissi; Swerdlow, Harold; Mode, Agneta

    2002-04-25

    The sexually dimorphic secretion of growth hormone (GH) that prevails in the rat leads to a sex-differentiated expression of GH target genes, particularly in the liver. We have used subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH) to search for new target genes induced by the female-characteristic, near continuous, pattern of GH secretion. Microarrays and dot-blot hybridizations were used in an attempt to confirm differential ratios of expression of obtained SSH clones. Out of 173 unique SSH clones, 41 could be verified as differentially expressed. Among these, we identified 17 known genes not previously recognized as differentially regulated by the sex-specific GH pattern. Additional SSH clones may also represent genes subjected to sex-specific GH regulation since only transcripts abundantly expressed could be verified. Optimized analyses, specific for each gene, are required to fully characterize the degree of differential expression.

  18. [The Integration and Regulation of Hormone-Sensitive Lipase in Reproductive System].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-yi; Xu, Guo-Heng

    2015-02-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) has long been considered as a classical rate-limiting enzyme during lipolysis since it was first described in 1960s. HSL is regulated mainly by catecholamine, including adrenalin. Studies in recent years indicated that the substrates for HSL are not only triglycerides, but also diacylglycerol with the catalytic activity is ten times that of triglycerides, glycerol esters and cholesterol esters, which overthrow the opinion that HSL is specific to triglyceride. The scientists have generated HSL gene knockout mice and confirmed HSL is widely located in the reproductive system, which indicates that HSL may play an important role in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological process in the reproductive system. Here, we will focus on the features of the HSL gene, mRNA and its protein, and summarize the HSL functions in the reproductive system.

  19. Skeletal muscle afferent regulation of bioassayable growth hormone in the rat pituitary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselink, K. L.; Grindeland, R. E.; Roy, R. R.; Zhong, H.; Bigbee, A. J.; Grossman, E. J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1998-01-01

    There are forms of growth hormone (GH) in the plasma and pituitary of the rat and in the plasma of humans that are undetected by presently available immunoassays (iGH) but can be measured by bioassay (bGH). Although the regulation of iGH release is well documented, the mechanism(s) of bGH release is unclear. On the basis of changes in bGH and iGH secretion in rats that had been exposed to microgravity conditions, we hypothesized that neural afferents play a role in regulating the release of these hormones. To examine whether bGH secretion can be modulated by afferent input from skeletal muscle, the proximal or distal ends of severed hindlimb fast muscle nerves were stimulated ( approximately 2 times threshold) in anesthetized rats. Plasma bGH increased approximately 250%, and pituitary bGH decreased approximately 60% after proximal nerve trunk stimulation. The bGH response was independent of muscle mass or whether the muscles were flexors or extensors. Distal nerve stimulation had little or no effect on plasma or pituitary bGH. Plasma iGH concentrations were unchanged after proximal nerve stimulation. Although there may be multiple regulatory mechanisms of bGH, the present results demonstrate that the activation of low-threshold afferents from fast skeletal muscles can play a regulatory role in the release of bGH, but not iGH, from the pituitary in anesthetized rats.

  20. Developmental, hormonal, and nutritional regulation of porcine adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL).

    PubMed

    Deiuliis, Jeffrey A; Shin, Jonghyun; Bae, Dongryeoul; Azain, Michael J; Barb, Richard; Lee, Kichoon

    2008-03-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is a newly identified lipase. We report for the first time the porcine ATGL sequence and characterize ATGL gene and protein expression in vitro and in vivo. Adult pig tissue expresses ATGL at high levels in the white adipose and muscle tissue relative to other tested tissues. We show that within the white adipose tissue ATGL is expressed at higher levels in the adipocyte than in the stromal-vascular fraction. Additionally, ATGL express