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Sample records for hormone-nuclear receptor genes

  1. Effect of acute exposure to cadmium on the expression of heat-shock and hormone-nuclear receptor genes in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius.

    PubMed

    Planelló, R; Martínez-Guitarte, J L; Morcillo, G

    2010-03-01

    Cadmium is a widespread and highly toxic pollutant of particular ecotoxicological relevance for aquatic ecosystems where it accumulates. To identify biomarkers for ecotoxicity monitoring, the effect of cadmium on the expression of different genes related to the stress response as well as to the ecdysone hormone-signalling pathway was studied in the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae), a standard test organism in aquatic toxicology testing. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the effects of acute and short-term cadmium exposures (10mM CdCl(2), 12h and 24h) on the expression of hsp70, hsc70, hsp90 and hsp40 genes, as well as on that of the ecdysone hormonal-receptor genes (EcR and usp). A significant 3-fold increase in the level of hsp70 gene transcripts was induced by the treatment, whereas neither the other stress genes tested (hsp90 and hsp40) nor the constitutive form of hsp70, hsc70, was affected in the larvae exposed to cadmium. These results show that hsp70 is differentially activated to other environmentally regulated heat-shock genes, and constitutes a biomarker of exposure to this toxic metal. In addition, we also found that cadmium is able to alter the expression of the ecdysone receptor gene (EcR), whose mRNA level is significantly increased whereas usp levels remained unaltered. This finding, evidenced for the first time in invertebrates, supports the view that cadmium has the ability to mimic the effect of the hormone by the activation of the ecdysone nuclear receptor, which may partly explain the endocrine disruption capability that has been previously suggested for this toxic metal. Our research adds to the growing evidence implicating heavy metals, and cadmium in particular, as potential endocrine disruptive agents and may have significant implications for ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting compounds in invertebrates.

  2. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone associated with a mutation in the ligand-binding domain of the human thyroid hormone receptor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, A.; Takeda, K.; Ain, K.; Ceccarelli, P.; Nakai, A.; Seino, S.; Bell, G.I.; Refetoff, S.; DeGroot, L.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The syndrome of generalized resistance to thyroid hormone is characterized by elevated circulating levels of thyroid hormone in the presence of an overall eumetabolic state and failure to respond normally to triiodothyronine. The authors have evaluated a family with inherited generalized resistance to thyroid hormone for abnormalities in the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors. A single guanine {yields} cytosine replacement in the codon for amino acid 340 resulted in a glycine {yields} arginine substitution in the hormone-binding domain of one of two alleles of the patient's thyroid hormone nuclear receptor {beta} gene. In vitro translation products of this mutant human thyroid hormone nuclear receptor {beta} gene did not bind triiodothyronine. Thus, generalized resistance to thyroid hormone can result from expression of an abnormal thyroid hormone nuclear receptor molecule.

  3. Alteration of the MT1 melatonin receptor gene and its expression in primary human breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ling; Yuan, Lin; Cheng, Qi; Dong, Chunmin; Mao, Lulu; Hill, Steven Marc

    2009-11-01

    The MT1 melatonin receptor is bound and activated by the pineal hormone melatonin. This G protein-coupled melatonin receptor is expressed in human breast tumor cell lines, and when activated, mediates the growth-suppressive and steroid hormone/nuclear receptor modulatory actions of melatonin on breast tumor cells. In the current studies, we have examined the expression of the MT1 receptor in breast cancer cell lines and primary human breast tumors and correlated MT1 receptor expression with the deletion, rearrangement and amplification of the MT1 gene and established markers of breast cancer such as tumor size, stage, estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression. Theses studies suggest amplification of the MT1 gene in some breast tumors and an inverse correlation with ERalpha, PR and MT1 protein expression. Furthermore, these approaches employing immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent/confocal microscopic studies demonstrate that the MT1 receptor is localized to the caveoli and that MT1 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells can be repressed by estradiol and melatonin.

  4. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M N; Hughes, I A; Gottlieb, B; Pinsky, L

    1994-09-01

    The androgen receptor gene mutations database is a comprehensive listing of mutations published in journals and meetings proceedings. The majority of mutations are point mutations identified in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Information is included regarding the phenotype, the nature and location of the mutations, as well as the effects of the mutations on the androgen binding activity of the receptor. The current version of the database contains 149 entries, of which 114 are unique mutations. The database is available from EMBL (NetServ@EMBL-Heidelberg.DE) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (mc33001@musica.mcgill.ca).

  5. Social regulation of cortisol receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Korzan, Wayne J.; Grone, Brian P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    In many social species, individuals influence the reproductive capacity of conspecifics. In a well-studied African cichlid fish species, Astatotilapia burtoni, males are either dominant (D) and reproductively competent or non-dominant (ND) and reproductively suppressed as evidenced by reduced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH1) release, regressed gonads, lower levels of androgens and elevated levels of cortisol. Here, we asked whether androgen and cortisol levels might regulate this reproductive suppression. Astatotilapia burtoni has four glucocorticoid receptors (GR1a, GR1b, GR2 and MR), encoded by three genes, and two androgen receptors (ARα and ARβ), encoded by two genes. We previously showed that ARα and ARβ are expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the preoptic area (POA), which regulates reproduction, and that the mRNA levels of these receptors are regulated by social status. Here, we show that GR1, GR2 and MR mRNAs are also expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the POA, revealing potential mechanisms for both androgens and cortisol to influence reproductive capacity. We measured AR, MR and GR mRNA expression levels in a microdissected region of the POA containing GnRH1 neurons, comparing D and ND males. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we found D males had higher mRNA levels of ARα, MR, total GR1a and GR2 in the POA compared with ND males. In contrast, ND males had significantly higher levels of GR1b mRNA, a receptor subtype with a reduced transcriptional response to cortisol. Through this novel regulation of receptor type, neurons in the POA of an ND male will be less affected by the higher levels of cortisol typical of low status, suggesting GR receptor type change as a potential adaptive mechanism to mediate high cortisol levels during social suppression. PMID:25013108

  6. The Evolution of Mammalian Olfactory Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Issel-Tarver, L.; Rine, J.

    1997-01-01

    We performed a comparative study of four subfamilies of olfactory receptor genes first identified in the dog to assess changes in the gene family during mammalian evolution, and to begin linking the dog genetic map to that of humans. The human subfamilies were localized to chromosomes 7, 11, and 19. The two subfamilies that were tightly linked in the dog genome were also tightly linked in the human genome. The four subfamilies were compared in human (primate), horse (perissodactyl), and a variety of artiodactyls and carnivores. Some changes in gene number were detected, but overall subfamily size appeared to have been established before the divergence of these mammals 60-100 million years ago. PMID:9017400

  7. Engineering AAV receptor footprints for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Victoria J; Asokan, Aravind

    2016-06-01

    Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are currently at the forefront of human gene therapy clinical trials as recombinant vectors. Significant progress has been made in elucidating the structure, biology and tropisms of different naturally occurring AAV isolates in the past decade. In particular, a spectrum of AAV capsid interactions with host receptors have been identified and characterized. These studies have enabled a better understanding of key determinants of AAV cell recognition and entry in different hosts. This knowledge is now being applied toward engineering new, lab-derived AAV capsids with favorable transduction profiles. The current review conveys a structural perspective of capsid-glycan interactions and provides a roadmap for generating synthetic strains by engineering AAV receptor footprints.

  8. The Androgen Receptor Gene Mutations Database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Lehvaslaiho, H; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1998-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 272 to 309 in the past year. We have expanded the database: (i) by giving each entry an accession number; (ii) by adding information on the length of polymorphic polyglutamine (polyGln) and polyglycine (polyGly) tracts in exon 1; (iii) by adding information on large gene deletions; (iv) by providing a direct link with a completely searchable database (courtesy EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute). The addition of the exon 1 polymorphisms is discussed in light of their possible relevance as markers for predisposition to prostate or breast cancer. The database is also available on the internet (http://www.mcgill. ca/androgendb/ ), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp. ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen ), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  9. Identification of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, T.I.; Buckley, N.J.; Young, A.C.; Brann, M.R.

    1987-07-31

    Complementary DNAs for three different muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were isolated from a rat cerebral cortex library, and the cloned receptors were expressed in mammalian cells. Analysis of human and rat genomic clones indicates that there are at least four functional muscarinic receptor genes and that these genes lack introns in the coding sequence. This gene family provides a new basis for evaluating the diversity of muscarinic mechanisms in the nervous system.

  10. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Degl’Innocenti, Andrea; D’Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron–one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus. Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes. PMID:28270833

  11. Regulatory Features for Odorant Receptor Genes in the Mouse Genome.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Andrea; D'Errico, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron-one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters. A number of studies identified transcription factor binding sites on odorant receptor promoter sequences. Similar binding sites were also found on a number of enhancers that regulate in cis their transcription, but have been proposed to form interchromosomal networks. Odorant receptor gene choice seems to occur via the local removal of strongly repressive epigenetic markings, put in place during the maturation of the sensory neuron on each odorant receptor locus. Here we review the fast-changing state of art for the study of regulatory features for odorant receptor genes.

  12. Analysis of antigen receptor genes in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Angel, C A; Pringle, J H; Naylor, J; West, K P; Lauder, I

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To analyse the configuration of the antigen receptor genes in Hodgkin's disease. METHODS--DNA extracted from 45 samples of Hodgkin's disease was analysed using Southern blotting and DNA hybridisation, using probes to the joining region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene, the constant region of kappa immunoglobulin light chain gene, and the constant region of the beta chain of the T cell receptor gene. RESULTS--A single case of nodular sclerosing disease showed clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes, all other samples having germline immunoglobulin genes. The nature of the clonal population in the diseased tissue is uncertain, because the intensity of the rearranged bands did not correlate with the percentage of Reed-Sternberg cells present. The T cell receptor genes were in germline configuration in all the samples. CONCLUSIONS--Antigen receptor gene rearrangement is a rare finding in unselected cases of Hodgkin's disease. Images PMID:8388407

  13. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Vasiliou, D M; Pinsky, L

    1996-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. We have added (if available) data on the androgen binding phenotype of the mutant AR, the clinical phenotype of the affected persons, the family history and whether the pathogenicity of a mutation has been proven. Exonic mutations are now listed in 5'-->3' sequence regardless of type and single base pair changes are presented in codon context. Splice site and intronic mutations are listed separately. The database has allowed us to substantiate and amplify the observation of mutational hot spots within exons encoding the AR androgen binding domain. The database is available from EML (ftp://www.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  14. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Trifiro, M; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 212 to 272. We have expanded the database: (i) by adding a large amount of new data on somatic mutations in prostatic cancer tissue; (ii) by defining a new constitutional phenotype, mild androgen insensitivity (MAI); (iii) by placing additional relevant information on an internet site (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/ ). The database has allowed us to examine the contribution of CpG sites to the multiplicity of reports of the same mutation in different families. The database is also available from EMBL (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen) or as a Macintosh Filemaker Pro or Word file (MC33@musica,mcgill.ca)

  15. Gene Transfer and Molecular Cloning of the Human NGF Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Moses V.; Bothwell, Mark A.; Ross, Alonzo H.; Koprowski, Hilary; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Buck, C. Randall; Sehgal, Amita

    1986-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptor are important in the development of cells derived from the neural crest. Mouse L cell transformants have been generated that stably express the human NGF receptor gene transfer with total human DNA. Affinity cross-linking, metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, and equilibrium binding with 125I-labeled NGF revealed that this NGF receptor had the same size and binding characteristics as the receptor from human melanoma cells and rat PC12 cells. The sequences encoding the NGF receptor were molecularly cloned using the human Alu repetitive sequence as a probe. A cosmid clone that contained the human NGF receptor gene allowed efficient transfection and expression of the receptor.

  16. Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Honkakoski, P; Negishi, M

    2000-01-01

    Members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily mediate crucial physiological functions by regulating the synthesis of their target genes. Nuclear receptors are usually activated by ligand binding. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms often catalyse both formation and degradation of these ligands. CYPs also metabolize many exogenous compounds, some of which may act as activators of nuclear receptors and disruptors of endocrine and cellular homoeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings that indicate that major classes of CYP genes are selectively regulated by certain ligand-activated nuclear receptors, thus creating tightly controlled networks. PMID:10749660

  17. Dopamine receptor genes: new tools for molecular psychiatry.

    PubMed Central

    Niznik, H B; Van Tol, H H

    1992-01-01

    For over a decade it has been generally assumed that all the pharmacological and biochemical actions of dopamine within the central nervous system and periphery were mediated by two distinct dopamine receptors. These receptors, termed D1 and D2, were defined as those coupled to the stimulation or inhibition of adenylate cyclase, respectively, and by their selectivity and avidity for various drugs and compounds. The concept that two dopamine receptors were sufficient to account for all the effects mediated by dopamine was an oversimplification. Recent molecular biological studies have identified five distinct genes which encode at least eight functional dopamine receptors. The members of the expanded dopamine receptor family, however, can still be codifed by way of the original D1 and D2 receptor dichotomy. These include two genes encoding dopamine D1-like receptors (D1 [D1A]/D5 [D1B]) and three genes encoding D2-like receptors (D2/D3/D4). We review here our recent work on the cloning and characterization of some of the members of the dopamine receptor gene family (D1, D2, D4, D5), their relationship to neuropsychiatric disorders and their potential role in antipsychotic drug action. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1450188

  18. Adenovirus receptors and their implications in gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Li, Xiaoxin; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2010-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have gained popularity as gene delivery vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Ad entry into host cells involves specific interactions between cell surface receptors and viral capsid proteins. Several cell surface molecules have been identified as receptors for Ad attachment and entry. Tissue tropism of Ad vectors is greatly influenced by their receptor usage. A variety of strategies have been investigated to modify Ad vector tropism by manipulating the receptor-interacting moieties. Many such strategies are aimed at targeting and/or detargeting of Ad vectors. In this review, we discuss the various cell surface molecules that are implicated as receptors for virus attachment and internalization. Special emphasis is given to Ad types that are utilized as gene delivery vectors. Various strategies to modify Ad tropism using the knowledge of Ad receptors are also discussed. PMID:19647886

  19. Impact of estrogen receptor α gene and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Armeni, Anastasia K; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Dimitra; Koika, Vassiliki; Michaelidou, Euthychia; Mourtzi, Niki; Iconomou, Gregoris; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20-25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28-35 days), were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype) of rs2234693 (PvuII) polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic) of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII) and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphisms (T + A group) was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences.

  20. Impact of estrogen receptor α gene and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Armeni, Anastasia K; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Dimitra; Koika, Vassiliki; Michaelidou, Euthychia; Mourtzi, Niki; Iconomou, Gregoris

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, research attention has increasingly been paid to the neurobiological component of sexual behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation of estrogen receptor α (ERA) gene polymorphism (rs2234693-PvuII) (T→C substitution) and oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) (G→A substitution) with sexuality parameters of young, healthy women. One hundred thirty-three Greek heterosexual women, students in higher education institutions, 20–25 years of age, sexually active, with normal menstrual cycles (28–35 days), were recruited in the study. Exclusion criteria were chronic and/or major psychiatric diseases, use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid diseases as well as drugs that are implicated in hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis. T allele (wildtype) of rs2234693 (PvuII) polymorphism of ERA gene was correlated with increased levels of arousal and lubrication, whereas A allele (polymorphic) of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphism was correlated with increased arousal levels. The simultaneous presence of both T allele of rs2234693 (PvuII) and A allele of rs53576 (OXTR) polymorphisms (T + A group) was correlated with increased arousal, orgasm levels as well as female sexual function index full score. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the interaction between ERA and OXTR with regard to sexual function in women. Female sexuality is a complex behavioral trait that encompasses both biological and psychological components. It seems that variability in female sexual response stems from genetic variability that characterizes endocrine, neurotransmitter and central nervous system influences. PMID:28069897

  1. Estrogen increases renal oxytocin receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, N L; Young, W S; Lolait, S J

    1995-04-01

    Estrogens have been implicated in the sodium and fluid imbalances associated with the menstrual cycle and late pregnancy. An estrogen-dependent role for renal oxytocin receptors in fluid homeostasis is suggested by the present findings which demonstrate that estradiol benzoate treatment increases the expression of the oxytocin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and 125I-OTA binding to oxytocin receptors in the renal cortex and medullary collecting ducts of ovariectomized female rats. Moreover, estradiol induced high levels of oxytocin receptor expression in outer stripe proximal tubules of ovariectomized female and adrenalectomized male rats. Proximal tubule induction was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the antiestrogen tamoxifen, but cortical expression of oxytocin receptors in macula densa cells was unaffected by tamoxifen. These data demonstrate cell-specific regulation of oxytocin receptor expression in macula densa and proximal tubule cells, and suggest a important role for these receptors in mediating estrogen-induced alterations in renal fluid dynamics by possibly affecting glomerular filtration and water and solute reabsorption during high estrogen states.

  2. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Prolactin receptor and signal transduction to milk protein genes

    SciTech Connect

    Djiane, J.; Daniel, N.; Bignon, C.

    1994-06-01

    After cloning of the mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptor cDNA, a functional assay was established using co-transfection of PRL receptor cDNA together with a milk protein promoter/chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) construct in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Different mutants of the PRL receptor were tested in this CAT assay to delimit the domains in the receptor necessary for signal transduction to milk protein genes. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, high numbers of PRL receptor are expressed. By metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, expressed PRL receptor was identified as a single species of 100 kDa. Using these cells, we analyzed the effects of PRL on intracellular free Ca{sup ++} concentration. PRL stimulates Ca{sup ++} entry and induces secondary Ca{sup ++} mobilization. The entry of Ca{sup ++} is a result of an increase in K{sup +} conductance that hyperpolarizes the membranes. We have also analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation induced by PRL. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, PRL induced a very rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of a 100-kDa protein which is most probably the PRL receptor. The same finding was obtained in mammary membranes after PRL injection to lactating rabbits. Whereas tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and lavendustin were without effect, PRL stimulation of milk protein gene promoters was partially inhibited by 2 {mu}M herbimycin in CHO cells co-transfected with PRL receptor cDNA and the {Beta} lactoglobulin CAT construct. Taken together these observations indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of the PRL receptor interacts with one or several tyrosine kinases, which may represent early postreceptor events necessary for PRL signal transduction to milk protein genes. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Structure of the human histamine H1 receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    De Backer, M D; Loonen, I; Verhasselt, P; Neefs, J M; Luyten, W H

    1998-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor expression has been reported to change in disorders such as allergic rhinitis, autoimmune myocarditis, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. Here we report the isolation and characterization of genomic clones containing the 5' flanking (regulatory) region of the human histamine H1 receptor gene. An intron of approx. 5.8 kb was identified in the 5' untranslated region, which suggests that an entire subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors may contain an intron immediately upstream of the start codon. The transcription initiation site was mapped by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends to a region 6.2 kb upstream of the start codon. Immediately upstream of the transcription start site a fragment of 1.85 kb was identified that showed promoter activity when placed upstream of a luciferase reporter gene and transiently transfected into cells expressing the histamine H1 receptor. The promoter sequence shares a number of characteristics with the promoter sequences of other G-protein-coupled receptor encoding genes, including binding sites for several transcription factors, and the absence of TATA and CAAT sequences at the appropriate locations. The promoter sequence described here differs from that reported previously [Fukui, Fujimoto, Mizuguchi, Sakamoto, Horio, Takai, Yamada and Ito (1994) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 201, 894-901] because the reported genomic clone was chimaeric. Furthermore our study provides evidence that the 3' untranslated region of the H1 receptor mRNA is much longer than previously accepted. Together, these findings provide a complete view of the structure of the human histamine H1 receptor gene. Both the coding region of the H1 receptor gene and its promoter region were independently mapped to chromosome 3p25. PMID:9794809

  5. Androgen receptor gene mutation, rearrangement, polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Eisermann, Kurtis; Wang, Dan; Jing, Yifeng; Pascal, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic aberrations of the androgen receptor (AR) caused by mutations, rearrangements, and polymorphisms result in a mutant receptor that has varied functions compared to wild type AR. To date, over 1,000 mutations have been reported in the AR with most of these being associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). While mutations of AR associated with prostate cancer occur less often in early stage localized disease, mutations in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with anti-androgens occur more frequently with 10-30% of these patients having some form of mutation in the AR. Resistance to anti-androgen therapy usually results from gain-of-function mutations in the LBD such as is seen with bicalutamide and more recently with enzalutamide (MDV3100). Thus, it is crucial to investigate these new AR mutations arising from drug resistance to anti-androgens and other small molecule pharmacological agents. PMID:25045626

  6. Mouse T-cell receptor variable gene segment families

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Clark, S.P.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    All mouse T-cell receptor {alpha}/{delta}, {beta}, and {gamma} variable (Tcra/d-, b-, and g-V) gene segments were aligned to compare the sequences with one another, to group them into subfamilies, and to derive a name which complies with the standard nomenclature. it was necessary to change the names of some V gene segments because they conflicted with those of other segments. The traditional classification into subfamilies was re-evaluated using a much larger pool of sequences. In the mouse, most V gene segments can be grouped into subfamilies of closely related genes with significantly less similarity between different subfamilies. 118 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well.

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well. PMID:20936127

  9. Allelic association of the D2 dopamine receptor gene with receptor-binding characteristics in alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, E.P.; Blum, K.; Ritchie, T.; Montgomery, A.; Sheridan, P.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The allelic association of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene with the binding characteristics of the D2 dopamine receptor was determined in 66 brains of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects. In a blinded experiment, DNA from the cerebral cortex was treated with the restriction endonuclease Taql and probed with a 1.5-kilobase (kb) digest of a clone (lambda hD2G1) of the human D2 dopamine receptor gene. The binding characteristics (Kd (binding affinity) and Bmax (number of binding sites)) of the D2 dopamine receptor were determined in the caudate nuclei of these brains using tritiated spiperone as the ligand. The adjusted Kd was significantly lower in alcoholic than in nonalcoholic subjects. In subjects with the A1 allele, in whom a high association with alcoholism was found, the Bmax was significantly reduced compared with the Bmax of subjects with the A2 allele. Moreover, a progressively reduced Bmax was found in subjects with A2/A2, A1/A2, and A1/A1 alleles, with subjects with A2/A2 having the highest mean values, and subjects with A1/A1, the lowest. The polymorphic pattern of the D2 dopamine receptor gene and its differential expression of receptors suggests the involvement of the dopaminergic system in conferring susceptibility to at least one subtype of severe alcoholism.

  10. Evolution of an expanded mannose receptor gene family.

    PubMed

    Staines, Karen; Hunt, Lawrence G; Young, John R; Butter, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. Transcripts of all five genes were detected in RNA from a macrophage cell line and other RNAs, whose sequences allowed the precise definition of spliced exons, confirming or correcting existing bioinformatic annotation. The confirmed gene structures were used to locate orthologues of all five genes in the genomes of two other avian species and of the painted turtle, all with intact coding sequences. The lizard genome had only three genes, one orthologue of MRC1L-A and two orthologues of the MRC1L-B antigen gene resulting from a recent duplication. The Xenopus genome, like that of most mammals, had only a single MRC1-like gene at the corresponding locus. MRC1L-A and MRC1L-B genes had similar cytoplasmic regions that may be indicative of similar subcellular migration and functions. Cytoplasmic regions of the other three genes were very divergent, possibly indicating the evolution of a new functional repertoire for this family of molecules, which might include novel interactions with pathogens.

  11. Selection for Genes Encoding Secreted Proteins and Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Robert D.; Gu, Qimin; Goddard, Audrey; Rosenthal, Arnon

    1996-07-01

    Extracellular proteins play an essential role in the formation, differentiation, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Despite that, the systematic identification of genes encoding these proteins has not been possible. We describe here a highly efficient method to isolate genes encoding secreted and membrane-bound proteins by using a single-step selection in yeast. Application of this method, termed signal peptide selection, to various tissues yielded 559 clones that appear to encode known or novel extracellular proteins. These include members of the transforming growth factor and epidermal growth factor protein families, endocrine hormones, tyrosine kinase receptors, serine/threonine kinase receptors, seven transmembrane receptors, cell adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix proteins, plasma proteins, and ion channels. The eventual identification of most, or all, extracellular signaling molecules will advance our understanding of fundamental biological processes and our ability to intervene in disease states.

  12. Characterization of the "CCR5" Chemokine Receptor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The life cycle of retroviruses is an essential topic of modern cell biology instruction. Furthermore, the process of HIV viral entry into the cell is a question of great interest in basic and clinical biology. This paper describes how students can easily recover their own DNA, amplify a portion of the "CCR5" chemokine receptor gene, characterize…

  13. Receptor-like kinases from Arabidopsis form a monophyletic gene family related to animal receptor kinases

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, Shin-Han; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2001-01-01

    Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are proteins with a predicted signal sequence, single transmembrane region, and cytoplasmic kinase domain. Receptor-like kinases belong to a large gene family with at least 610 members that represent nearly 2.5% of Arabidopsis protein coding genes. We have categorized members of this family into subfamilies based on both the identity of the extracellular domains and the phylogenetic relationships between the kinase domains of subfamily members. Surprisingly, this structurally defined group of genes is monophyletic with respect to kinase domains when compared with the other eukaryotic kinase families. In an extended analysis, animal receptor kinases, Raf kinases, plant RLKs, and animal receptor tyrosine kinases form a well supported group sharing a common origin within the superfamily of serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases. Among animal kinase sequences, Drosophila Pelle and related cytoplasmic kinases fall within the plant RLK clade, which we now define as the RLK/Pelle family. A survey of expressed sequence tag records for land plants reveals that mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants have similar percentages of expressed sequence tags representing RLK/Pelle homologs, suggesting that the size of this gene family may have been close to the present-day level before the diversification of land plant lineages. The distribution pattern of four RLK subfamilies on Arabidopsis chromosomes indicates that the expansion of this gene family is partly a consequence of duplication and reshuffling of the Arabidopsis genome and of the generation of tandem repeats. PMID:11526204

  14. Interspecies variations in Bordetella catecholamine receptor gene regulation and function.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Timothy J; Suhadolc, Ryan J; Armstrong, Sandra K

    2015-12-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica can use catecholamines to obtain iron from transferrin and lactoferrin via uptake pathways involving the BfrA, BfrD, and BfrE outer membrane receptor proteins, and although Bordetella pertussis has the bfrD and bfrE genes, the role of these genes in iron uptake has not been demonstrated. In this study, the bfrD and bfrE genes of B. pertussis were shown to be functional in B. bronchiseptica, but neither B. bronchiseptica bfrD nor bfrE imparted catecholamine utilization to B. pertussis. Gene fusion analyses found that expression of B. bronchiseptica bfrA was increased during iron starvation, as is common for iron receptor genes, but that expression of the bfrD and bfrE genes of both species was decreased during iron limitation. As shown previously for B. pertussis, bfrD expression in B. bronchiseptica was also dependent on the BvgAS virulence regulatory system; however, in contrast to the case in B. pertussis, the known modulators nicotinic acid and sulfate, which silence Bvg-activated genes, did not silence expression of bfrD in B. bronchiseptica. Further studies using a B. bronchiseptica bvgAS mutant expressing the B. pertussis bvgAS genes revealed that the interspecies differences in bfrD modulation are partly due to BvgAS differences. Mouse respiratory infection experiments determined that catecholamine utilization contributes to the in vivo fitness of B. bronchiseptica and B. pertussis. Additional evidence of the in vivo importance of the B. pertussis receptors was obtained from serologic studies demonstrating pertussis patient serum reactivity with the B. pertussis BfrD and BfrE proteins.

  15. Interspecies Variations in Bordetella Catecholamine Receptor Gene Regulation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Timothy J.; Suhadolc, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica can use catecholamines to obtain iron from transferrin and lactoferrin via uptake pathways involving the BfrA, BfrD, and BfrE outer membrane receptor proteins, and although Bordetella pertussis has the bfrD and bfrE genes, the role of these genes in iron uptake has not been demonstrated. In this study, the bfrD and bfrE genes of B. pertussis were shown to be functional in B. bronchiseptica, but neither B. bronchiseptica bfrD nor bfrE imparted catecholamine utilization to B. pertussis. Gene fusion analyses found that expression of B. bronchiseptica bfrA was increased during iron starvation, as is common for iron receptor genes, but that expression of the bfrD and bfrE genes of both species was decreased during iron limitation. As shown previously for B. pertussis, bfrD expression in B. bronchiseptica was also dependent on the BvgAS virulence regulatory system; however, in contrast to the case in B. pertussis, the known modulators nicotinic acid and sulfate, which silence Bvg-activated genes, did not silence expression of bfrD in B. bronchiseptica. Further studies using a B. bronchiseptica bvgAS mutant expressing the B. pertussis bvgAS genes revealed that the interspecies differences in bfrD modulation are partly due to BvgAS differences. Mouse respiratory infection experiments determined that catecholamine utilization contributes to the in vivo fitness of B. bronchiseptica and B. pertussis. Additional evidence of the in vivo importance of the B. pertussis receptors was obtained from serologic studies demonstrating pertussis patient serum reactivity with the B. pertussis BfrD and BfrE proteins. PMID:26371128

  16. Folate receptor gene variants and neural tube defect occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Finnell, R.; Greer, K.; Lammer, E.

    1994-09-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence shows that periconceptional use of folic acid supplements may prevent 40-50% of neural tube defects (NTDs). The FDA has subsequently recommended folic acid supplementation of all women of childbearing potential, even though the mechanism by which folic acid prevents NTDs is unknown. We investigated genetic variation of a candidate gene, the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF) receptor, that may mediate this preventive effect. The receptor concentrates folate within cells and we have localized its mRNA to neuroepithelial cells during neurulation. Our hypothesis is that dysfunctional 5-MeTHF receptors inadequately concentrate folate intracellularly, predisposing infants to NTDs. We have completed SSCP analysis on 3 of the 4 coding exons of the 5-MeTHF receptor gene of 474 infants participating in a large population-based epidemiological case-control study of NTDs in California; genotyping of another 500 infants is ongoing. Genomic DNA was extracted from residual blood spots from newborn screening samples of cases and controls. Genotyping was done blinded to case status. Polymorphisms have been detected for exons 4 and 5; fourteen percent of the infants have exon 5 polymorphisms. Data will be presented on the prevalence of 5-MeTHF receptor polymorphisms among cases and controls. Relationships among the polymorphisms and NTD occurrence may shed light on how folic acid supplementation prevents NTDs.

  17. CRDB: Database of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Families in Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors (CR) are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously uncharacterized species, such as the guinea pig, giant panda and elephant, etc. Consistent with previous findings, we found that the numbers of CR genes vary extensively among different species, suggesting an extreme form of ‘birth-and-death’ evolution. For the purpose of facilitating CR gene analysis, we constructed a database with the goals to provide a resource for CR genes annotation and a web tool for exploring their evolutionary patterns. Besides a search engine for the gene extraction from a specific chromosome region, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of CR genes. Our work can provide a rigorous platform for further study on the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates. PMID:22393364

  18. Olfactory receptor gene expression in tiger salamander olfactory epithelium.

    PubMed

    Marchand, James E; Yang, Xinhai; Chikaraishi, Dona; Krieger, Jurgen; Breer, Heinz; Kauer, John S

    2004-06-28

    Physiological studies of odor-elicited responses from the olfactory epithelium and bulb in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, have elucidated a number of features of olfactory coding that appear to be conserved across several vertebrate species. This animal model has provided an accessible in vivo system for observing individual and ensemble olfactory responses to odorant stimulation using biochemical, neurophysiological, and behavioral assays. In this paper we have complemented these studies by characterizing 35 candidate odorant receptor genes. These receptor sequences are similar to those of the large families of olfactory receptors found in mammals and fish. In situ hybridization, using RNA probes to 20 of these sequences, demonstrates differential distributions of labeled cells across the extent and within the depth of the olfactory epithelium. The distributions of cells labeled with probes to different receptors show spatially restricted patterns that are generally localized to different degrees in medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions. The patterns of receptor expression in the ventral olfactory epithelium (OE) are mirrored in the dorsal OE. We present a hypothesis as to how the sensory neuron populations expressing different receptor types responding to a particular odorant may relate to the distribution patterns of epithelial and bulbar responses previously characterized using single-unit and voltage-sensitive dye recording methods.

  19. Parallel evolution of domesticated Caenorhabditis species targets pheromone receptor genes.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Patrick T; Xu, Yifan; Ailion, Michael; Garrison, Jennifer L; Butcher, Rebecca A; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2011-08-17

    Evolution can follow predictable genetic trajectories, indicating that discrete environmental shifts can select for reproducible genetic changes. Conspecific individuals are an important feature of an animal's environment, and a potential source of selective pressures. Here we show that adaptation of two Caenorhabditis species to growth at high density, a feature common to domestic environments, occurs by reproducible genetic changes to pheromone receptor genes. Chemical communication through pheromones that accumulate during high-density growth causes young nematode larvae to enter the long-lived but non-reproductive dauer stage. Two strains of Caenorhabditis elegans grown at high density have independently acquired multigenic resistance to pheromone-induced dauer formation. In each strain, resistance to the pheromone ascaroside C3 results from a deletion that disrupts the adjacent chemoreceptor genes serpentine receptor class g (srg)-36 and -37. Through misexpression experiments, we show that these genes encode redundant G-protein-coupled receptors for ascaroside C3. Multigenic resistance to dauer formation has also arisen in high-density cultures of a different nematode species, Caenorhabditis briggsae, resulting in part from deletion of an srg gene paralogous to srg-36 and srg-37. These results demonstrate rapid remodelling of the chemoreceptor repertoire as an adaptation to specific environments, and indicate that parallel changes to a common genetic substrate can affect life-history traits across species.

  20. Identification of novel androgen receptor target genes in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jariwala, Unnati; Prescott, Jennifer; Jia, Li; Barski, Artem; Pregizer, Steve; Cogan, Jon P; Arasheben, Armin; Tilley, Wayne D; Scher, Howard I; Gerald, William L; Buchanan, Grant; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Frenkel, Baruch

    2007-01-01

    Background The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in both androgen-dependent and castrate-resistant prostate cancer (PCa). However, little is known about AR target genes that mediate the receptor's roles in disease progression. Results Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Display, we discovered 19 novel loci occupied by the AR in castrate resistant C4-2B PCa cells. Only four of the 19 AR-occupied regions were within 10-kb 5'-flanking regulatory sequences. Three were located up to 4-kb 3' of the nearest gene, eight were intragenic and four were in gene deserts. Whereas the AR occupied the same loci in C4-2B (castrate resistant) and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) PCa cells, differences between the two cell lines were observed in the response of nearby genes to androgens. Among the genes strongly stimulated by DHT in C4-2B cells – D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), Protein kinase C delta (PRKCD), Glutathione S- transferase theta 2 (GSTT2), Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 3 (TRPV3), and Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1 (PYCR1) – most were less strongly or hardly stimulated in LNCaP cells. Another AR target gene, ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), was AR-stimulated in a ligand-independent manner, since it was repressed by AR siRNA knockdown, but not stimulated by DHT. We also present evidence for in vivo AR-mediated regulation of several genes identified by ChIP Display. For example, PRKCD and PYCR1, which may contribute to PCa cell growth and survival, are expressed in PCa biopsies from primary tumors before and after ablation and in metastatic lesions in a manner consistent with AR-mediated stimulation. Conclusion AR genomic occupancy is similar between LNCaP and C4-2B cells and is not biased towards 5' gene flanking sequences. The AR transcriptionally regulates less than half the genes nearby AR-occupied regions, usually but not always, in a ligand-dependent manner. Most are stimulated and a few are repressed. In general

  1. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Genes in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Maj, Carlo; Minelli, Alessandra; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Sacchetti, Emilio; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies revealed two main components in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia, one constituted by common variants determining a distributed polygenic effect and one represented by a large number of heterogeneous rare and highly disruptive mutations. These gene modifications often affect neural transmission and different studies proved an involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors in schizophrenia phenotype. Through the combination of literature information with genomic data from public repositories, we analyzed the current knowledge on the involvement of genetic variations of the human metabotropic glutamate receptors in schizophrenia and related endophenotypes. Despite the analysis did not reveal a definitive connection, different suggestive associations have been identified and in particular a relevant role has emerged for GRM3 in affecting specific schizophrenia endophenotypes. This supports the hypothesis that these receptors are directly involved in schizophrenia disorder. PMID:27296644

  2. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Genes in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maj, Carlo; Minelli, Alessandra; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Sacchetti, Emilio; Gennarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Genomic studies revealed two main components in the genetic architecture of schizophrenia, one constituted by common variants determining a distributed polygenic effect and one represented by a large number of heterogeneous rare and highly disruptive mutations. These gene modifications often affect neural transmission and different studies proved an involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors in schizophrenia phenotype. Through the combination of literature information with genomic data from public repositories, we analyzed the current knowledge on the involvement of genetic variations of the human metabotropic glutamate receptors in schizophrenia and related endophenotypes. Despite the analysis did not reveal a definitive connection, different suggestive associations have been identified and in particular a relevant role has emerged for GRM3 in affecting specific schizophrenia endophenotypes. This supports the hypothesis that these receptors are directly involved in schizophrenia disorder.

  3. Replicated Risk Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Genes for Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Garcia-Milian, Rolando; Guo, Xiaoyun; Zhong, Chunlong; Tan, Yunlong; Wang, Zhiren; Wang, Jijun; Wang, Xiaoping; Kang, Longli; Lu, Lu; Chen, Xiangning; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play important roles in nicotine dependence (ND) and influence the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in smokers. We compiled the associations between nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNs) and ND/CPD that were replicated across different studies, reviewed the expression of these risk genes in human/mouse brains, and verified their expression using independent samples of both human and mouse brains. The potential functions of the replicated risk variants were examined using cis-eQTL analysis or predicted using a series of bioinformatics analyses. We found replicated and significant associations for ND/CPD at 19 SNPs in six genes in three genomic regions (CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4 and CHRNA4). These six risk genes are expressed in at least 18 distinct areas of the human/mouse brain, with verification in our independent human and mouse brain samples. The risk variants might influence the transcription, expression and splicing of the risk genes, alter RNA secondary or protein structure. We conclude that the replicated associations between CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4, CHRNA4 and ND/CPD are very robust. More research is needed to examine how these genetic variants contribute to the risk for ND/CPD. PMID:27827986

  4. Replicated Risk Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Genes for Nicotine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lingjun; Garcia-Milian, Rolando; Guo, Xiaoyun; Zhong, Chunlong; Tan, Yunlong; Wang, Zhiren; Wang, Jijun; Wang, Xiaoping; Kang, Longli; Lu, Lu; Chen, Xiangning; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-11-07

    It has been hypothesized that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play important roles in nicotine dependence (ND) and influence the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in smokers. We compiled the associations between nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNs) and ND/CPD that were replicated across different studies, reviewed the expression of these risk genes in human/mouse brains, and verified their expression using independent samples of both human and mouse brains. The potential functions of the replicated risk variants were examined using cis-eQTL analysis or predicted using a series of bioinformatics analyses. We found replicated and significant associations for ND/CPD at 19 SNPs in six genes in three genomic regions (CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4 and CHRNA4). These six risk genes are expressed in at least 18 distinct areas of the human/mouse brain, with verification in our independent human and mouse brain samples. The risk variants might influence the transcription, expression and splicing of the risk genes, alter RNA secondary or protein structure. We conclude that the replicated associations between CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4,CHRNA4 and ND/CPD are very robust. More research is needed to examine how these genetic variants contribute to the risk for ND/CPD.

  5. Mechanisms of oestrogen receptor (ER) gene regulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Most breast cancers are driven by a transcription factor called oestrogen receptor (ER). Understanding the mechanisms of ER activity in breast cancer has been a major research interest and recent genomic advances have revealed extraordinary insights into how ER mediates gene transcription and what occurs during endocrine resistance. This review discusses our current understanding on ER activity, with an emphasis on several evolving, but important areas of ER biology. PMID:26884552

  6. Complete structural characterisation of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, P; Ramsden, D B; Williams, A C

    1996-01-01

    Aims—To clone and characterise the complete structural gene for the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). This gene, located on chromosome 7, encodes a cytosolic receptor protein which, upon activation by various xenobiotic ligands, translocates to the nucleus, where it acts as a specific transcription factor. Methods—Primers, based on the AhR cDNA sequence, were used in conjunction with recently developed long range PCR techniques to amplify contiguous sections of the cognate gene. The amplicons produced were then cloned and characterised. A cDNA probe was also used to screen a human P1 library. Results—Using the cDNA primers, DNA fragments which mapped the entire coding region of the gene were amplified and cloned. All but one of these fragments were amplified directly from human genomic DNA. The remaining fragment was amplified using DNA prepared from a P1 clone as the PCR template. This P1 clone, obtained by screening a human P1 library, also contained the entire Ah locus. Characterisation of amplified and cloned DNA fragments provided sufficient information for the construction of a complete structural map of the gene. This also included 150 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data at all intronic termini. Conclusions—These data indicate that the human AhR gene is about 50 kilobases long and contains 11 exons. The overall intron/exon structure of the human gene is homologous to that of the previously characterised mouse gene; however, it is probably some 20 kilobases larger. These results demonstrate the need for further characterisation and provide the data to facilitate this. Images PMID:16696038

  7. Constitutive androstane receptor activation evokes the expression of glycolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Yarushkin, Andrei A; Kazantseva, Yuliya A; Prokopyeva, Elena A; Markova, Diana N; Pustylnyak, Yuliya A; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O

    2016-09-23

    It is well-known that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) increases the liver-to-body weight ratio. CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of the pleiotropic transcription factor cMyc, which stimulates cell cycle regulatory genes and drives proliferating cells into S phase. Because glycolysis supports cell proliferation and cMyc is essential for the activation of glycolytic genes, we hypothesized that CAR-mediated up-regulation of cMyc in mouse livers might play a role in inducing the expression of glycolytic genes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of long-term CAR activation on glycolytic genes in a mouse model not subjected to metabolic stress. We demonstrated that long-term CAR activation by TCPOBOP increases expression of cMyc, which was correlated with reduced expression of gluconeogenic genes and up-regulation of glucose transporter, glycolytic and mitochondrial pyruvate metabolising genes. These changes in gene expression after TCPOBOP treatment were strongly correlated with changes in levels of glycolytic intermediates in mouse livers. Moreover, we demonstrated a significant positive regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on both mRNA and protein levels of Pkm2, a master regulator of glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, our findings provide evidence to support the conclusion that CAR activation initiates a transcriptional program that facilitates the coordinated metabolic activities required for cell proliferation.

  8. Dopamine Receptor Genes Modulate Associative Memory in Old Age.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Becker, Nina; Ferencz, Beata; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Laukka, Erika J; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Previous research shows that associative memory declines more than item memory in aging. Although the underlying mechanisms of this selective impairment remain poorly understood, animal and human data suggest that dopaminergic modulation may be particularly relevant for associative binding. We investigated the influence of dopamine (DA) receptor genes on item and associative memory in a population-based sample of older adults (n = 525, aged 60 years), assessed with a face-scene item associative memory task. The effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of DA D1 (DRD1; rs4532), D2 (DRD2/ANKK1/Taq1A; rs1800497), and D3 (DRD3/Ser9Gly; rs6280) receptor genes were examined and combined into a single genetic score. Individuals carrying more beneficial alleles, presumably associated with higher DA receptor efficacy (DRD1 C allele; DRD2 A2 allele; DRD3 T allele), performed better on associative memory than persons with less beneficial genotypes. There were no effects of these genes on item memory or other cognitive measures, such as working memory, executive functioning, fluency, and perceptual speed, indicating a selective association between DA genes and associative memory. By contrast, genetic risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) was associated with worse item and associative memory, indicating adverse effects of APOE ε4 and a genetic risk score for AD (PICALM, BIN1, CLU) on episodic memory in general. Taken together, our results suggest that DA may be particularly important for associative memory, whereas AD-related genetic variations may influence overall episodic memory in older adults without dementia.

  9. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  10. Carbon dioxide receptor genes in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Anderson, Alisha

    2015-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in insect ecology, eliciting a range of behaviours across different species. Interestingly, the numbers of CO2 gustatory receptors (GRs) vary among insect species. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, two GRs (DmelGR21a and DmelGR63a) have been shown to detect CO2. In the butterfly, moth, beetle and mosquito species studied so far, three CO2 GR genes have been identified, while in tsetse flies, four CO2 GR genes have been identified. In other species including honeybees, pea aphids, ants, locusts and wasps, no CO2 GR genes have been identified from the genome. These genomic differences may suggest different mechanisms for CO2 detection exist in different insects but, with the exception of Drosophila and mosquitoes, limited attention has been paid to the CO2 GRs in insects. Here, we cloned three putative CO2 GR genes from the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera and performed phylogenetic and expression analysis. All three H. armigera CO2 GRs (HarmGR1, HarmGR2 and HarmGR3) are specifically expressed in labial palps, the CO2-sensing tissue of this moth. HarmGR3 is significantly activated by NaHCO3 when expressed in insect Sf9 cells but HarmGR1 and HarmGR2 are not. This is the first report characterizing the function of lepidopteran CO2 receptors, which contributes to our general understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insect CO2 gustatory receptors.

  11. Prospects and limitations of T cell receptor gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, Annelies; Schotte, Remko; Coccoris, Miriam; de Witte, Moniek A; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2011-08-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells is an attractive means to provide cancer patients with immune cells of a desired specificity and the efficacy of such adoptive transfers has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. Because the T cell receptor is the single specificity-determining molecule in T cell function, adoptive transfer of TCR genes into patient T cells may be used as an alternative approach for the transfer of tumor-specific T cell immunity. On theoretical grounds, TCR gene therapy has two substantial advantages over conventional cellular transfer. First, it circumvents the demanding process of in vitro generation of large numbers of specific immune cells. Second, it allows the use of a set of particularly effective TCR genes in large patient groups. Conversely, TCR gene therapy may be associated with a number of specific problems that are not confronted during classical cellular therapy. Here we review our current understanding of the potential and possible problems of TCR gene therapy, as based on in vitro experiments, mouse model systems and phase I clinical trials. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects of widespread clinical application of this gene therapy approach for the treatment of human cancer.

  12. Perilipin, a critical regulator of fat storage and breakdown, is a target gene of estrogen receptor-related receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Akter, Mst. Hasina; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Hirose, Fumiko; Osumi, Takashi

    2008-04-11

    Perilipin is a protein localized on lipid droplet surfaces in adipocytes and steroidogenic cells, playing a central role in regulated lipolysis. Expression of the perilipin gene is markedly induced during adipogenesis. We found that transcription from the perilipin gene promoter is activated by an orphan nuclear receptor, estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR){alpha}. A response element to this receptor was identified in the promoter region by a gene reporter assay, the electrophoretic-gel mobility-shift assay and the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} enhanced, whereas small heterodimer partner (SHP) repressed, the transactivating function of ERR{alpha} on the promoter. Thus, the perilipin gene expression is regulated by a transcriptional network controlling energy metabolism, substantiating the functional importance of perilipin in the maintenance of body energy balance.

  13. Dissecting the regulation of yeast genes by the osmotin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kupchak, Brian R.; Villa, Nancy Y.; Kulemina, Lidia; Lyons, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The Izh2p protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a receptor for the plant antifungal protein, osmotin. Since Izh2p is conserved in fungi, understanding its biochemical function could inspire novel strategies for the prevention of fungal growth. However, it has been difficult to determine the exact role of Izh2p because it has pleiotropic effects on cellular biochemistry. Herein, we demonstrate that Izh2p negatively regulates functionally divergent genes through a CCCTC promoter motif. Moreover, we show that Izh2p-dependent promoters containing this motif are regulated by the Nrg1p/Nrg2p and Msn2p/Msn4p transcription factors. The fact that Izh2p can regulate gene expression through this widely dispersed element presents a reasonable explanation of its pleiotropy. The involvement of Nrg1p/Nrgp2 in Izh2p-dependent gene regulation also suggests a role for this receptor in regulating fungal differentiation in response to stimuli produced by plants. PMID:18625204

  14. Functional characterization of ecdysone receptor gene switches in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Panguluri, Siva K; Kumar, Prasanna; Palli, Subba R

    2006-12-01

    Regulated expression of transgene is essential in basic research as well as for many therapeutic applications. The main purpose of the present study is to understand the functioning of the ecdysone receptor (EcR)-based gene switch in mammalian cells and to develop improved versions of EcR gene switches. We utilized EcR mutants to develop new EcR gene switches that showed higher ligand sensitivity and higher magnitude of induction of reporter gene expression in the presence of ligand. We also developed monopartite versions of EcR gene switches with reduced size of the components that are accommodated into viral vectors. Ligand binding assays revealed that EcR alone could not bind to the nonsteroidal ligand, RH-2485. The EcR's heterodimeric partner, ultraspiracle, is required for efficient binding of EcR to the ligand. The essential role of retinoid X receptor (RXR) or its insect homolog, ultraspiracle, in EcR function is shown by RXR knockdown experiments using RNAi. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that VP16 (activation domain, AD):GAL4(DNA binding domain, DBD):EcR(ligand binding domain, LBD) or GAL4(DBD):EcR(LBD) fusion proteins can bind to GAL4 response elements in the absence of ligand. The VP16(AD) fusion protein of a chimera between human and locust RXR could heterodimerize with GAL4(DBD):EcR(LBD) in the absence of ligand but the VP16(AD) fusion protein of Homo sapiens RXR requires ligand for its heterodimerization with GAL4(DBD):EcR(LBD).

  15. Nuclear Receptor Corepressor Recruitment by Unliganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor in Gene Repression during Xenopus laevis Development

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Laurent M.; Jones, Peter L.; Havis, Emmanuelle; Rouse, Nicole; Demeneix, Barbara A.; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) act as activators of transcription in the presence of the thyroid hormone (T3) and as repressors in its absence. While many in vitro approaches have been used to study the molecular mechanisms of TR action, their physiological relevance has not been addressed. Here we investigate how TR regulates gene expression during vertebrate postembryonic development by using T3-dependent amphibian metamorphosis as a model. Earlier studies suggest that TR acts as a repressor during premetamorphosis when T3 is absent. We hypothesize that corepressor complexes containing the nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) are key factors in this TR-dependent gene repression, which is important for premetamorphic tadpole growth. To test this hypothesis, we isolated Xenopus laevis N-CoR (xN-CoR) and showed that it was present in pre- and metamorphic tadpoles. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that xN-CoR was recruited to the promoters of T3 response genes during premetamorphosis and released upon T3 treatment, accompanied by a local increase in histone acetylation. Furthermore, overexpression of a dominant-negative N-CoR in tadpole tail muscle led to increased transcription from a T3-dependent promoter. Our data indicate that N-CoR is recruited by unliganded TR to repress target gene expression during premetamorphic animal growth, an important process that prepares the tadpole for metamorphosis. PMID:12446772

  16. Human T-cell receptor variable gene segment families

    SciTech Connect

    Arden, B.; Kabelitz, D.; Clark, S.P.; Mak, T.W.

    1995-10-01

    Multiple DNA and protein sequence alignments have been constructed for the human T-cell receptor {alpha}/{delta}, {beta}, and {gamma} (TCRA/D, B, and G) variable (V) gene segments. The traditional classification into subfamilies was confirmed using a much larger pool of sequences. For each sequence, a name was derived which complies with the standard nomenclature. The traditional numbering of V gene segments in the order of their discovery was continued and changed when in conflict with names of other segments. By discriminating between alleles at the same locus versus genes from different loci, we were able to reduce the number of more than 150 different TCRBV sequences in the database to a repertoire of only 47 functional TCRBV gene segments. An extension of this analysis to the over 100 TCRAV sequences results in a predicted repertoire of 42 functional TCRAV gene segments. Our alignment revealed two residues that distinguish between the highly homologous V{delta} and V{alpha}, one at a site that in V{sub H} contacts the constant region, the other at the interface between immunoglobulin V{sub H} and V{sub L}. This site may be responsible for restricted pairing between certain V{delta} and V{gamma} chains. On the other hand, V{beta} and V{gamma} appear to be related by the fact that their CDR2 length is increased by four residues as compared with that of V{alpha}/{delta} peptides. 150 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Cardiac gene expression data and in silico analysis provide novel insights into human and mouse taste receptor gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Foster, Simon R; Porrello, Enzo R; Stefani, Maurizio; Smith, Nicola J; Molenaar, Peter; dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Thomas, Walter G; Ramialison, Mirana

    2015-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are the principal mediators of the sweet, umami, bitter, and fat taste qualities in mammals. Intriguingly, the taste receptors are also expressed outside of the oral cavity, including in the gut, airways, brain, and heart, where they have additional functions and contribute to disease. However, there is little known about the mechanisms governing the transcriptional regulation of taste receptor genes. Following our recent delineation of taste receptors in the heart, we investigated the genomic loci encoding for taste receptors to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms that drive their expression in the heart. Gene expression analyses of healthy and diseased human and mouse hearts showed coordinated expression for a subset of chromosomally clustered taste receptors. This chromosomal clustering mirrored the cardiac expression profile, suggesting that a common gene regulatory block may control the taste receptor locus. We identified unique domains with strong regulatory potential in the vicinity of taste receptor genes. We also performed de novo motif enrichment in the proximal promoter regions and found several overrepresented DNA motifs in cardiac taste receptor gene promoters corresponding to ubiquitous and cardiac-specific transcription factor binding sites. Thus, combining cardiac gene expression data with bioinformatic analyses, this study has provided insights into the noncoding regulatory landscape for taste GPCRs. These findings also have broader relevance for the study of taste GPCRs outside of the classical gustatory system, where understanding the mechanisms controlling the expression of these receptors may have implications for future therapeutic development.

  18. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor ERRγ Regulates Hepatic CB1 Receptor-Mediated Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Sun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Sung Jin; Jeong, Won-Il; Lee, Chul-Ho; Harris, Robert A.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a stress inducible hepatokine, is synthesized in the liver and plays important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism of hepatic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression is largely unknown. Results Activation of the hepatic CB1 receptor by arachidonyl-2’-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 receptor selective agonist, significantly increased FGF21 gene expression. Overexpression of estrogen-related receptor (ERR) γ increased FGF21 gene expression and secretion both in hepatocytes and mice, whereas knockdown of ERRγ decreased ACEA-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Moreover, ERRγ, but not ERRα and ERRβ, induced FGF21 gene promoter activity. In addition, deletion and mutation analysis of the FGF21 promoter identified a putative ERRγ-binding motif (AGGTGC, a near-consensus response element). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of ERRγ to the FGF21 gene promoter. Finally, GSK5182, an ERRγ inverse agonist, significantly inhibited hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Conclusion Based on our data, we conclude that ERRγ plays a key role in hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression and secretion. PMID:27455076

  19. A reference gene set for chemosensory receptor genes of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Christopher; Hirsh, Ariana; Bucks, Sascha; Klinner, Christian; Vogel, Heiko; Shukla, Aditi; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Morton, Brian; Hansson, Bill S; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald

    2015-11-01

    The order of Lepidoptera has historically been crucial for chemosensory research, with many important advances coming from the analysis of species like Bombyx mori or the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Specifically M. sexta has long been a major model species in the field, especially regarding the importance of olfaction in an ecological context, mainly the interaction with its host plants. In recent years transcriptomic data has led to the discovery of members of all major chemosensory receptor families in the species, but the data was fragmentary and incomplete. Here we present the analysis of the newly available high-quality genome data for the species, supplemented by additional transcriptome data to generate a high quality reference gene set for the three major chemosensory receptor gene families, the gustatory (GR), olfactory (OR) and antennal ionotropic receptors (IR). Coupled with gene expression analysis our approach allows association of specific receptor types and behaviors, like pheromone and host detection. The dataset will provide valuable support for future analysis of these essential chemosensory modalities in this species and in Lepidoptera in general.

  20. Update of the androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, B; Beitel, L K; Lumbroso, R; Pinsky, L; Trifiro, M

    1999-01-01

    The current version of the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations database is described. The total number of reported mutations has risen from 309 to 374 during the past year. We have expanded the database by adding information on AR-interacting proteins; and we have improved the database by identifying those mutation entries that have been updated. Mutations of unknown significance have now been reported in both the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the AR gene, and in individuals who are somatic mosaics constitutionally. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms, including silent mutations, have been discovered in normal individuals and in individuals with male infertility. A mutation hotspot associated with prostatic cancer has been identified in exon 5. The database is available on the internet (http://www.mcgill.ca/androgendb/), from EMBL-European Bioinformatics Institute (ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/androgen), or as a Macintosh FilemakerPro or Word file (MC33@musica.mcgill.ca).

  1. Evolution of dopamine receptor genes of the D1 class in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kei; Mirabeau, Olivier; Bureau, Charlotte; Blin, Maryline; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Demarque, Michaël; Vernier, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The receptors of the dopamine neurotransmitter belong to two unrelated classes named D1 and D2. For the D1 receptor class, only two subtypes are found in mammals, the D1A and D1B, receptors, whereas additional subtypes, named D1C, D1D, and D1X, have been found in other vertebrate species. Here, we analyzed molecular phylogeny, gene synteny, and gene expression pattern of the D1 receptor subtypes in a large range of vertebrate species, which leads us to propose a new view of the evolution of D1 dopamine receptor genes. First, we show that D1C and D1D receptor sequences are encoded by orthologous genes. Second, the previously identified Cypriniform D1X sequence is a teleost-specific paralog of the D1B sequences found in all groups of jawed vertebrates. Third, zebrafish and several sauropsid species possess an additional D1-like gene, which is likely to form another orthology group of vertebrate ancestral genes, which we propose to name D1E. Ancestral jawed vertebrates are thus likely to have possessed four classes of D1 receptor genes-D1A, D1B(X), D1C(D), and D1E-which arose from large-scale gene duplications. The D1C receptor gene would have been secondarily lost in the mammalian lineage, whereas the D1E receptor gene would have been lost independently in several lineages of modern vertebrates. The D1A receptors are well conserved throughout jawed vertebrates, whereas sauropsid D1C receptors have rapidly diverged, to the point that they were misidentified as D1D. The functional significance of the D1C receptor loss is not known. It is possible that the function may have been substituted with D1A or D1B receptors in mammals, following the disappearance of D1C receptors in these species.

  2. Thyrotropin receptor gene alterations in thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, D.; Arturi, F.; Filetti, S.

    1996-04-01

    Forty-four thyroid autonomously hyperfunctioning adenomas were analyzed to assess the frequency of mutations occurring in the TSH receptor (TSHR). PCR-amplified fragments encompassing the entire exon 10 of the TSHR gene were obtained from the genomic DNA extracted from the tumors and their adjacent normal tissues and were examined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Point mutations were found in 9 of 44 adenomas examined (20%). One mutation occurred in codon 619 (Asp to Gly), four in codon 623 (three were Ala to Ser, one Ala to substitution), two in codon 632 (both Thr to Ile), and two in codon 633 (Asp to Tyr or His). All the alterations were located in a part of the gene coding for an area including the third intracellular loop and the sixth transmembrane domain of the TSH receptor. All mutations were somatic and heterozygotic, and none was simultaneous with alterations of ras or gsp oncogenes. Thus, our data show that in our series of 44 hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, a somatic mutation of the TSHR, responsible for the constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway, occurs in 20% of the tumors. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Variability of the Transferrin Receptor 2 Gene in AMD

    PubMed Central

    Blasiak, Janusz; Dorecka, Mariola; Kowalska, Marta; Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Iron may catalyze the Fenton reaction resulting in overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Transferrin receptor 2 plays a critical role in iron homeostasis and variability in its gene may influence oxidative stress and AMD occurrence. To verify this hypothesis we assessed the association between polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene and AMD. A total of 493 AMD patients and 171 matched controls were genotyped for the two polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene: c.1892C>T (rs2075674) and c.−258+123T>C (rs4434553). We also assessed the modulation of some AMD risk factors by these polymorphisms. The CC and TT genotypes of the c.1892C>T were associated with AMD occurrence but the latter only in obese patients. The other polymorphism was not associated with AMD occurrence, but the CC genotype was correlated with an increasing AMD frequency in subjects with BMI < 26. The TT genotype and the T allele of this polymorphism decreased AMD occurrence in subjects above 72 years, whereas the TC genotype and the C allele increased occurrence of AMD in this group. The c.1892C>T and c.−258+123T>C polymorphisms of the TRF2 gene may be associated with AMD occurrence, either directly or by modulation of risk factors. PMID:24648608

  4. Variability of the transferrin receptor 2 gene in AMD.

    PubMed

    Wysokinski, Daniel; Blasiak, Janusz; Dorecka, Mariola; Kowalska, Marta; Robaszkiewicz, Jacek; Pawlowska, Elzbieta; Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Iron may catalyze the Fenton reaction resulting in overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Transferrin receptor 2 plays a critical role in iron homeostasis and variability in its gene may influence oxidative stress and AMD occurrence. To verify this hypothesis we assessed the association between polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene and AMD. A total of 493 AMD patients and 171 matched controls were genotyped for the two polymorphisms of the TFR2 gene: c.1892C>T (rs2075674) and c.-258+123T>C (rs4434553). We also assessed the modulation of some AMD risk factors by these polymorphisms. The CC and TT genotypes of the c.1892C>T were associated with AMD occurrence but the latter only in obese patients. The other polymorphism was not associated with AMD occurrence, but the CC genotype was correlated with an increasing AMD frequency in subjects with BMI < 26. The TT genotype and the T allele of this polymorphism decreased AMD occurrence in subjects above 72 years, whereas the TC genotype and the C allele increased occurrence of AMD in this group. The c.1892C>T and c.-258+123T>C polymorphisms of the TRF2 gene may be associated with AMD occurrence, either directly or by modulation of risk factors.

  5. Evolution of Dopamine Receptor Genes of the D1 Class in Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Mirabeau, Olivier; Bureau, Charlotte; Blin, Maryline; Michon-Coudouel, Sophie; Demarque, Michaël; Vernier, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The receptors of the dopamine neurotransmitter belong to two unrelated classes named D1 and D2. For the D1 receptor class, only two subtypes are found in mammals, the D1A and D1B, receptors, whereas additional subtypes, named D1C, D1D, and D1X, have been found in other vertebrate species. Here, we analyzed molecular phylogeny, gene synteny, and gene expression pattern of the D1 receptor subtypes in a large range of vertebrate species, which leads us to propose a new view of the evolution of D1 dopamine receptor genes. First, we show that D1C and D1D receptor sequences are encoded by orthologous genes. Second, the previously identified Cypriniform D1X sequence is a teleost-specific paralog of the D1B sequences found in all groups of jawed vertebrates. Third, zebrafish and several sauropsid species possess an additional D1-like gene, which is likely to form another orthology group of vertebrate ancestral genes, which we propose to name D1E. Ancestral jawed vertebrates are thus likely to have possessed four classes of D1 receptor genes—D1A, D1B(X), D1C(D), and D1E—which arose from large-scale gene duplications. The D1C receptor gene would have been secondarily lost in the mammalian lineage, whereas the D1E receptor gene would have been lost independently in several lineages of modern vertebrates. The D1A receptors are well conserved throughout jawed vertebrates, whereas sauropsid D1C receptors have rapidly diverged, to the point that they were misidentified as D1D. The functional significance of the D1C receptor loss is not known. It is possible that the function may have been substituted with D1A or D1B receptors in mammals, following the disappearance of D1C receptors in these species. PMID:23197594

  6. Anxious behavior induces elevated hippocampal Cb2 receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Robertson, James M; Achua, Justin K; Smith, Justin P; Prince, Melissa A; Staton, Clarissa D; Ronan, Patrick J; Summers, Tangi R; Summers, Cliff H

    2017-04-07

    Anxiety is differentially expressed across a continuum of stressful/fearful intensity, influenced endocannabinoid systems and receptors. The hippocampus plays important roles in the regulation of affective behavior, emotion, and anxiety, as well as memory. Location of Cb1/Cb2 receptor action could be important in determining emotional valence, because while the dorsal hippocampus is involved in spatial memory and cognition, the ventral hippocampus has projections to the PFC, BNST, amygdala, and HPA axis, and is important for emotional responses to stress. During repeated social defeat in a Stress-Alternatives Model arena (SAM; an oval open field with escape portals only large enough for smaller mice), smaller C57BL6/N mice are subject to fear conditioning (tone=CS), and attacked by novel larger aggressive CD1 mice (US) over four daily (5min) trials. Each SAM trial presents an opportunity for escape or submission, with stable behavioral responses established by the second day of interaction. Additional groups had access to a running wheel. Social aggression plus fear conditioning stimulates enhanced Cb2 receptor gene expression in the dorsal CA1, dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus subregions in animals displaying a submissive behavioral phenotype. Escape behavior is associated with reduced Cb2 expression in the dorsal CA1 region, with freezing and escape latency correlated with mRNA levels. Escaping and submitting animals with access to running wheels had increased Cb2 mRNA in dorsal DG/CA1. These results suggest that the Cb2 receptor system is rapidly induced during anxiogenic social interactions plus fear conditioning or exercise; with responses potentially adaptive for coping mechanisms.

  7. Fc-receptor and M-protein genes of group A streptococci are products of gene duplication.

    PubMed Central

    Heath, D G; Cleary, P P

    1989-01-01

    The partial nucleotide sequence for an Fc-receptor gene from an M-type 76 group A streptococcus was determined. DNA sequence analysis revealed considerable sequence similarity between the Fc-receptor and M-protein genes in their proposed promoter regions, signal sequences, and 3' termini. Additional analysis indicated that the deduced Fc-receptor protein contains a proline-rich region and membrane anchor region highly similar to that of M protein. In view of these results, we postulated that Fc-receptor and M-protein genes of group A streptococci are the products of gene duplication from a common ancestral gene. It is proposed that DNA sequence similarity between these two genes may allow for extragenic homologous recombination as a means of generating antigenic diversity in these two surface proteins. PMID:2660147

  8. Decreased glucocorticoid receptor activity following glucocorticoid receptor antisense RNA gene fragment transfection.

    PubMed Central

    Pepin, M C; Barden, N

    1991-01-01

    Depression is often characterized by increased cortisol secretion caused by hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and by nonsuppression of cortisol secretion following dexamethasone administration. This hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis could result from a reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity in neurons involved in its control. To investigate the effect of reduced neuronal GR levels, we have blocked cellular GR mRNA processing and/or translation by introduction of a complementary GR antisense RNA strand. Two cell lines were transfected with a reporter plasmid carrying the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter). This gene construction permitted assay of the sensitivity of the cells to glucocorticoid hormones. Cells were also cotransfected with a plasmid containing 1,815 bp of GR cDNA inserted in the reverse orientation downstream from either a neurofilament gene promoter element or the Rous sarcoma virus promoter element. Northern (RNA) blot analysis demonstrated formation of GR antisense RNA strands. Measurement of the sensitivity of CAT activity to exogeneous dexamethasone showed that although dexamethasone increased CAT activity by as much as 13-fold in control incubations, expression of GR antisense RNA caused a 2- to 4-fold decrease in the CAT response to dexamethasone. Stable transfectants bearing the GR antisense gene fragment construction demonstrated a 50 to 70% decrease of functional GR levels compared with normal cells, as evidenced by a ligand-binding assay with the type II glucocorticoid receptor-specific ligand [3H]RU 28362. These results validate the use of antisense RNA to GR to decrease cellular response to glucocorticoids. Images PMID:1996114

  9. Transcriptional Characterization of Porcine Leptin and Leptin Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Montarelo, Dafne; Fernández, Almudena; Barragán, Carmen; Noguera, Jose L.; Folch, Josep M.; Rodríguez, M. Carmen; Óvilo, Cristina; Silió, Luis; Fernández, Ana I.

    2013-01-01

    The leptin (LEP) and its receptor (LEPR) regulate food intake and energy balance through hypothalamic signaling. However, the LEP-LEPR axis seems to be more complex and its expression regulation has not been well described. In pigs, LEP and LEPR genes have been widely studied due to their relevance. Previous studies reported significant effects of SNPs located in both genes on growth and fatness traits. The aim of this study was to determine the expression profiles of LEP and LEPR across hypothalamic, adipose, hepatic and muscle tissues in Iberian x Landrace backcrossed pigs and to analyze the effects of gene variants on transcript abundance. To our knowledge, non porcine LEPR isoforms have been described rather than LEPRb. A short porcine LEPR isoform (LEPRa), that encodes a protein lacking the intracellular residues responsible of signal transduction, has been identified for the first time. The LEPRb isoform was only quantifiable in hypothalamus while LEPRa appeared widely expressed across tissues, but at higher levels in liver, suggesting that both isoforms would develop different roles. The unique LEP transcript showed expression in backfat and muscle. The effects of gene variants on transcript expression revealed interesting results. The LEPRc.1987C>T polymorphism showed opposite effects on LEPRb and LEPRa hypothalamic expression. In addition, one out of the 16 polymorphisms identified in the LEPR promoter region revealed high differential expression in hepatic LEPRa. These results suggest a LEPR isoform-specific regulation at tissue level. Conversely, non-differential expression of LEP conditional on the analyzed polymorphisms could be detected, indicating that its regulation is likely affected by other mechanisms rather than gene sequence variants. The present study has allowed a transcriptional characterization of LEP and LEPR isoforms on a range of tissues. Their expression patterns seem to indicate that both molecules develop peripheral roles apart from

  10. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Gene: Regulation of Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hendy, Geoffrey N.; Canaff, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    The human calcium-sensing receptor gene (CASR) has 8 exons, and localizes to chromosome 3q. Exons 1A and 1B encode alternative 5′-untranslated regions (UTRs) that splice to exon 2 encoding the AUG initiation codon. Exons 2–7 encode the CaSR protein of 1078 amino acids. Promoter P1 has TATA and CCAAT boxes upstream of exon 1A, and promoter P2 has Sp1/3 motifs at the start site of exon 1B. Exon 1A transcripts from the P1 promoter are reduced in parathyroid tumors and colon carcinomas. Studies of colon carcinomas and neuroblastomas have emphasized the importance of epigenetic changes—promoter methylation of the GC-rich P2 promoter, histone acetylation—as well as involvement of microRNAs in bringing about CASR gene silencing and reduced CaSR expression. Functional cis-elements in the CASR promoters responsive to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], proinflammatory cytokines, and the transcription factor glial cells missing-2 (GCM2) have been characterized. Reduced levels of CaSR and reduced responsiveness to active vitamin D in parathyroid neoplasia and colon carcinoma may blunt the “tumor suppressor” activity of the CaSR. The hypocalcemia of critically ill patients with burn injury or sepsis is associated with CASR gene upregulation by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta via kappaB elements, and by IL-6 via Stat1/3 and Sp1/3 elements in the CASR gene promoters, respectively. The CASR is transactivated by GCM2—the expression of which is essential for parathyroid gland development. Hyperactive forms of GCM2 may contribute to later parathyroid hyperactivity or tumorigenesis. The expression of the CaSR—the calciostat—is regulated physiologically and pathophysiologically at the gene level. PMID:27679579

  11. Receptor protein kinase gene encoded at the self-incompatibility locus

    DOEpatents

    Nasrallah, June B.; Nasrallah, Mikhail E.; Stein, Joshua

    1996-01-01

    Described herein is a S receptor kinase gene (SRK), derived from the S locus in Brassica oleracea, having a extracellular domain highly similar to the secreted product of the S-locus glycoprotein gene.

  12. Toll-like receptors and microbial exposure: gene-gene and gene-environment interaction in the development of atopy.

    PubMed

    Reijmerink, N E; Kerkhof, M; Bottema, R W B; Gerritsen, J; Stelma, F F; Thijs, C; van Schayck, C P; Smit, H A; Brunekreef, B; Postma, D S; Koppelman, G H

    2011-10-01

    Environmental and genetic factors contribute to atopy development. High microbial exposure may confer a protective effect on atopy. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) bind microbial products and are important in activating the immune system. To assess whether interactions between microbial exposures and genes encoding TLRs (and related genes) result in atopy, genes, environmental factors and gene-environment interactions of 66 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 12 genes (TLR 1-6, 9 and 10, CD14, MD2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and Dectin-1), and six proxy parameters of microbial exposure (sibship size, pets (three different parameters), day-care and intrauterine and childhood tobacco smoke exposure) were analysed for association with atopic phenotypes in 3,062 Dutch children (the Allergenic study). The presence of two or more older siblings increased the risk of developing high total immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels at different ages. This risk increased further in children aged 1-2 yrs carrying the minor allele of TLR6 SNP rs1039559. Furthermore, novel two- and three-factor gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were found (e.g. between sibship size, day-care and LBP SNP rs2232596). Larger sibship size is associated with increased total IgE levels. Furthermore, complex two- and three-factor interactions exist between genes and the environment. The TLRs and related genes interact with proxy parameters of high microbial exposure in atopy development.

  13. Variants in the vitamin D receptor gene and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wjst, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Background Early lifetime exposure to dietary or supplementary vitamin D has been predicted to be a risk factor for later allergy. Twin studies suggest that response to vitamin D exposure might be influenced by genetic factors. As these effects are primarily mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), single base variants in this gene may be risk factors for asthma or allergy. Results 951 individuals from 224 pedigrees with at least 2 asthmatic children were analyzed for 13 SNPs in the VDR. There was no preferential transmission to children with asthma. In their unaffected sibs, however, one allele in the 5' region was 0.5-fold undertransmitted (p = 0.049), while two other alleles in the 3' terminal region were 2-fold over-transmitted (p = 0.013 and 0.018). An association was also seen with bronchial hyperreactivity against methacholine and with specific immunoglobulin E serum levels. Conclusion The transmission disequilibrium in unaffected sibs of otherwise multiple-affected families seem to be a powerful statistical test. A preferential transmission of vitamin D receptor variants to children with asthma could not be confirmed but raises the possibility of a protective effect for unaffected children. PMID:15651992

  14. Transcriptional regulation of the bovine oxytocin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Telgmann, Ralph; Bathgate, Ross A D; Jaeger, Stefanie; Tillmann, Gina; Ivell, Richard

    2003-03-01

    The oxytocin receptor (OTR) is expressed in the cow uterus at high levels at estrus and at term of pregnancy. This expression appears to be controlled mostly at the transcriptional level and correlates with increasing estrogen concentration and progesterone withdrawal. Approximately 3200 base pairs of the upstream region of the bovine OTR gene were cloned and analyzed using a combination of bioinformatic, electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA), and transfection analyses. Using nuclear proteins from high- and low-expressing tissues, EMSA indicated no significant quantitative or qualitative changes in specific DNA-protein binding, suggesting that transcription is probably controlled by signalling systems targeting constitutive factors. Using various cell types, including primary and immortalized ruminant endometrial epithelial cells, as hosts for transfection of promoter-reporter constructs showed that endogenous activity resided only in the longest, i.e., 3.2-kb, construct but not in those shorter than 1.0 kb. While estrogen appears to be important in vivo, no effect of estradiol was found on any construct directly; only when the longest 3.2-kb construct was used in combination with some cotransfected steroid receptor cofactors, e.g., SRC1e, was an estradiol-dependent effect observed. A putative interferon-responsive element (IRE) was found at approximately -2,400 from the transcription start site. This element was shown to bind mouse IRF1 and IRF2 as well as similar proteins from bovine endometrial and myometrial nuclear extracts. This element also responded to these factors when cotransfected into various cell types. The bovine equivalents to IRF1 and IRF2 were molecularly cloned from endometrial tissue and shown to be expressed in a temporal fashion, supporting the role of interferon-tau in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Of many factors tested or analyzed, these components of the IFN system are the only ones found to significantly influence the transcription

  15. Optimizing T-cell receptor gene therapy for hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Emma C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genetic engineering have enabled the delivery of clinical trials using patient T cells redirected to recognize tumor-associated antigens. The most dramatic results have been seen with T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for CD19, a differentiation antigen expressed in B cells and B lineage malignancies. We propose that antigen expression in nonmalignant cells may contribute to the efficacy of T-cell therapy by maintaining effector function and promoting memory. Although CAR recognition is limited to cell surface structures, T-cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize intracellular proteins. This not only expands the range of tumor-associated self-antigens that are amenable for T-cell therapy, but also allows TCR targeting of the cancer mutagenome. We will highlight biological bottlenecks that potentially limit mutation-specific T-cell therapy and may require high-avidity TCRs that are capable of activating effector function when the concentrations of mutant peptides are low. Unexpectedly, modified TCRs with artificially high affinities function poorly in response to low concentration of cognate peptide but pose an increased safety risk as they may respond optimally to cross-reactive peptides. Recent gene-editing tools, such as transcription activator–like effector nucleases and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, provide a platform to delete endogenous TCR and HLA genes, which removes alloreactivity and decreases immunogenicity of third-party T cells. This represents an important step toward generic off-the-shelf T-cell products that may be used in the future for the treatment of large numbers of patients. PMID:27207802

  16. Liver X Receptor Genes Variants Modulate ALS Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mouzat, Kevin; Molinari, Nicolas; Kantar, Jovana; Polge, Anne; Corcia, Philippe; Couratier, Philippe; Clavelou, Pierre; Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Lobaccaro, Jean -Marc A; Raoul, Cedric; Lumbroso, Serge; Camu, William

    2017-02-27

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is one of the most severe motor neuron (MN) disorders in adults. Phenotype of ALS patients is highly variable and may be influenced by modulators of energy metabolism. Recent works have implicated the liver X receptors α and β (LXRs), either in the propagation process of ALS or in the maintenance of MN survival. LXRs are nuclear receptors activated by oxysterols, modulating cholesterol levels, a suspected modulator of ALS severity. In a cohort of 438 ALS patients and 330 healthy controls, the influence of LXR genes on ALS risk and phenotype was studied using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The two LXRα SNPs rs2279238 and rs7120118 were shown to be associated with age at onset in ALS patients. Consistently, homozygotes were twice more correlated than were heterozygotes to delayed onset. The onset was thus delayed by 3.9 years for rs2279238 C/T carriers and 7.8 years for T/T carriers. Similar results were obtained for rs7120118 (+2.1 years and +6.7 years for T/C and C/C genotypes, respectively). The LXRβ SNP rs2695121 was also shown to be associated with a 30% increase of ALS duration (p = 0.0055, FDR = 0.044). The tested genotypes were not associated with ALS risk. These findings add further evidence to the suspected implication of LXR genes in the disease process of ALS and might open new perspectives in ALS therapeutics.

  17. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  18. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kesha; Lee, Nicole K L; Zajac, Jeffrey D; MacLean, Helen E

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR)-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (AR(ΔZF2)) versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR(∆ZF2) muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57(Kip2), Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR(∆ZF2) muscle, and the expression of all but p57(Kip2) was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  19. Melanocortin-4 receptor gene mutations in obese Slovak children.

    PubMed

    Stanikova, D; Surova, M; Ticha, L; Petrasova, M; Virgova, D; Huckova, M; Skopkova, M; Lobotkova, D; Valentinova, L; Mokan, M; Stanik, J; Klimes, I; Gasperikova, D

    2015-01-01

    The most common etiology of non-syndromic monogenic obesity are mutations in gene for the Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC485) with variable prevalence in different countries (1.2-6.3 % of obese children). The aim of our study was 1) to search for MC4R mutations in obese children in Slovakia and compare their prevalence with other European countries, and 2) to describe the phenotype of the mutation carriers. DNA analysis by direct Sanger sequencing of the coding exons and intron/exon boundaries of the MC4R gene was performed in 268 unrelated Slovak children and adolescents with body mass index above the 97(th) percentile for age and sex and obesity onset up to 11 years (mean 4.3+/-2.8 years). Two different previously described heterozygous loss of function MC4R variants (i.e. p.Ser19Alafs*34, p.Ser127Leu) were identified in two obese probands, and one obese (p.Ser19Alafs*34), and one lean (p.Ser127Leu) adult family relatives. No loss of function variants were found in lean controls. The prevalence of loss-of-function MC4R variants in obese Slovak children was 0.7 %, what is one of the lowest frequencies in Europe.

  20. Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Therapy for Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Martin J.; Chiuchiolo, Maria J.; Ballon, Douglas; Dyke, Jonathan P.; Aronowitz, Eric; Funato, Kosuke; Tabar, Viviane; Havlicek, David; Fan, Fan; Sondhi, Dolan; Kaminsky, Stephen M.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary intracranial brain tumor in adults with a mean survival of 14 to 15 months. Aberrant activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a significant role in GBM progression, with amplification or overexpression of EGFR in 60% of GBM tumors. To target EGFR expressed by GBM, we have developed a strategy to deliver the coding sequence for cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, directly to the CNS using an adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 gene transfer vector. The data demonstrates that single, local delivery of an anti-EGFR antibody by an AAVrh.10 vector coding for cetuximab (AAVrh.10Cetmab) reduces GBM tumor growth and increases survival in xenograft mouse models of a human GBM EGFR-expressing cell line and patient-derived GBM. AAVrh10.CetMab-treated mice displayed a reduction in cachexia, a significant decrease in tumor volume and a prolonged survival following therapy. Adeno-associated-directed delivery of a gene encoding a therapeutic anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody may be an effective strategy to treat GBM. PMID:27711187

  1. Mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery into antigen presenting dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Diebold, Sandra S; Plank, Christian; Cotten, Matt; Wagner, Ernst; Zenke, Martin

    2002-11-01

    Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells and are unique in their ability to prime naïve T cells. Gene modification of dendritic cells is of particular interest for immunotherapy of diseases where the immune system has failed or is aberrantly regulated, such as in cancer or autoimmune disease, respectively. Dendritic cells abundantly express mannose receptor and mannose receptor-related receptors, and receptor-mediated gene transfer via mannose receptor offers a versatile tool for targeted gene delivery into these cells. Accordingly, mannose polyethylenimine DNA transfer complexes were generated and used for gene delivery into dendritic cells. Mannose receptor belongs to the group of scavenger receptors that allow dendritic cells to take up pathogenic material, which is directed for degradation and MHC class II presentation. Therefore, a limiting step of transgene expression by mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery is endosomal degradation of DNA. Several strategies have been explored to overcome this limitation including the addition of endosomolytic components to DNA transfer complexes like adenovirus particles and influenza peptides. Here, we review the current understanding of mannose receptor-mediated gene delivery into dendritic cells and discuss strategies to identify appropriate endosomolytic agents to improve DNA transfer efficacy.

  2. Androgen Activation of the Folate Receptor α Gene through Partial Tethering of the Androgen Receptor by C/EBPα○

    PubMed Central

    Sivakumaran, Suneethi; Zhang, Juan; Kelley, Karen M.M.; Gonit, Mesfin; Hao, Hong; Ratnam, Manohar

    2010-01-01

    The folate receptor α (FRα) is critical for normal embryonic and fetal development. The receptor has a relatively narrow tissue specificity which includes the visceral endoderm and the placenta and mediates delivery of folate, inadequacy of which results in termination of pregnancy or developmental defects. We have previously reported that the FRα gene is negatively and directly regulated by estrogen and positively but indirectly by progesterone and glucocorticoid. To further investigate hormonal control of this gene and in view of the growing evidence for the importance of the androgen receptor (AR) in endometrial and placental functions, we examined the response of the FRα gene to androgen. Here we demonstrate that the FRα gene is directly activated by androgen. The P4 promoter of the FRα gene is the target of hormone-dependent activation by the androgen receptor (AR) in a manner that is co-activator-dependent. The site of functional association of AR in the FRα gene maps to a 35bp region occurring ~1500bp upstream of the target promoter. The functional elements within this region are an androgen response element (ARE) half-site and a non-canonical C/EBP element that cooperate to recruit AR in a manner that is dependent on the DNA-bound C/EBPα. Since the placenta is rich in C/EBPα, the findings underscore the multiplicity of mechanisms by which the FRα gene is under the exquisite control of steroid hormones. PMID:20817090

  3. Characterization of the hormone responsive element involved in the regulation of the progesterone receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Savouret, J F; Bailly, A; Misrahi, M; Rauch, C; Redeuilh, G; Chauchereau, A; Milgrom, E

    1991-01-01

    The transcription of the progesterone receptor gene is induced by estrogens and decreased by progestins. Studies were performed to define the regions of the gene and the molecular mechanisms involved. No hormonal regulation could be observed using 5' flanking regions of the gene up to -2762 in front of a heterologous gene. Estrogen and progestin regulation could be observed only when using fragments of the gene extending down to +788. Progressive deletions from the 5' and 3' ends, site-directed mutagenesis and DNase protection experiments with purified estrogen receptor suggested that the biologically active estrogen responsive element (ERE) is present at +698/+723, overlapping the initiation of translation. An oligonucleotide was synthesized bearing this ERE and shown to impart estrogen inducibility to a heterologous gene. Its regulation by anti-estrogens corresponded to that of the in situ progesterone receptor gene since tamoxifen was a partial agonist whereas ICI 164384 was a full antagonist. This ERE also mediated down-regulation by progestins in the presence of the progesterone receptor, even though it has no progesterone receptor binding ability. DNase footprinting showed that this effect was not due to a decrease of estrogen receptor affinity for the ERE in the presence of progesterone receptor. Finally, use of deletion mutants of the progesterone receptor showed that the steroid binding and the DNA binding domains were necessary for down-regulation whereas deletions of various parts of the N-terminal domain were without effect. Images PMID:2050123

  4. Olfactory Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Nonallergic Vasomotor Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Ge; Jin, Li; Abbott, Carol; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    We sought a genotype-phenotype association: between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in olfactory receptor (OR) genes from the two largest OR gene clusters and odor-triggered nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis (nVMR). In the initial pedigree screen, using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis, six SNPs showed “significant” p-values between 0.0449 and 0.0043. In a second case-control population, the previously identified six SNPs did not re-emerge, whereas four new SNPs showed p-values between 0.0490 and 0.0001. Combining both studies, none of the SNPs in the TDT analysis survived the Bonferroni correction. In the population study, one SNP showed an empirical p-value of 0.0066 by shuffling cases and controls with 105 replicates; however, the p-value for this SNP was 0.83 in the pedigree study. This study emphasizes that underpowered studies having p-values between <0.05 and 0.0001 should be regarded as inconclusive and require further replication before concluding the study is “informative.” However, we believe that our hypothesis that an association between OR genotypes and the nVMR phenotype remains feasible. Future studies using either a genomewide association study of all OR gene-pseudogene regions throughout the genome—at the current recommended density of 2.5 to 5 kb per tag SNP—or studies incorporating microarray analyses of the entire “OR genome” in well-characterized nVMR patients are required. PMID:18446592

  5. Estrogen receptor genes in gastropods: phylogenetic divergence and gene expression responses to a synthetic estrogen.

    PubMed

    Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Hansson, Maria C

    2016-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have the potential to affect development and reproduction in gastropods. However, one is today lacking basic understanding of the Molluscan endocrine system and one can therefore not fully explain these EDC-induced affects. Furthermore, only a few genes that potentially may be connected to the endocrine system have been sequenced in gastropods. An example is the estrogen receptor gene (er) that have been identified in a restricted number of freshwater and marine gastropods. Here, we have identified a new partial coding sequence of an estrogen receptor gene (er) in the European common heterobranch Radix balthica. The following phylogenetic analysis divided the ers of heterobranchs and ceanogastropods in two branches. Furthermore, exposure to the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) showed that exposure could significantly affect er expression level in the heterobranch R. balthica. This paper is the first that phylogenetically compares gastropods' er, basal er expression profiles, and transcriptional estrogenic responses in gastropods from two different evolutionary groups.

  6. Olfactory receptor accessory proteins play crucial roles in receptor function and gene choice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ruchira; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Davison, Ian; Ikegami, Kentaro; Chien, Ming-Shan; You, Helena; Chi, Quiyi; Kubota, Momoka; Yohda, Masafumi; Ehlers, Michael; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Each of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) chooses to express a single G protein-coupled olfactory receptor (OR) from a pool of hundreds. Here, we show the receptor transporting protein (RTP) family members play a dual role in both normal OR trafficking and determining OR gene choice probabilities. Rtp1 and Rtp2 double knockout mice (RTP1,2DKO) show OR trafficking defects and decreased OSN activation. Surprisingly, we discovered a small subset of the ORs are expressed in larger numbers of OSNs despite the presence of fewer total OSNs in RTP1,2DKO. Unlike typical ORs, some overrepresented ORs show robust cell surface expression in heterologous cells without the co-expression of RTPs. We present a model in which developing OSNs exhibit unstable OR expression until they choose to express an OR that exits the ER or undergo cell death. Our study sheds light on the new link between OR protein trafficking and OR transcriptional regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21895.001 PMID:28262096

  7. Functional Characterization of Soybean Glyma04g39610 as a Brassinosteroid Receptor Gene and Evolutionary Analysis of Soybean Brassinosteroid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Suna; Tao, Ping; Xu, Feng; Wu, Aiping; Huo, Weige; Wang, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BR) play important roles in plant growth and development. Although BR receptors have been intensively studied in Arabidopsis, the BR receptors in soybean remain largely unknown. Here, in addition to the known receptor gene Glyma06g15270 (GmBRI1a), we identified five putative BR receptor genes in the soybean genome: GmBRI1b, GmBRL1a, GmBRL1b, GmBRL2a, and GmBRL2b. Analysis of their expression patterns by quantitative real-time PCR showed that they are ubiquitously expressed in primary roots, lateral roots, stems, leaves, and hypocotyls. We used rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to clone GmBRI1b (Glyma04g39160), and found that the predicted amino acid sequence of GmBRI1b showed high similarity to those of AtBRI1 and pea PsBRI1. Structural modeling of the ectodomain also demonstrated similarities between the BR receptors of soybean and Arabidopsis. GFP-fusion experiments verified that GmBRI1b localizes to the cell membrane. We also explored GmBRI1b function in Arabidopsis through complementation experiments. Ectopic over-expression of GmBRI1b in Arabidopsis BR receptor loss-of-function mutant (bri1-5 bak1-1D) restored hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings; increased the growth of stems, leaves, and siliques in light; and rescued the developmental defects in leaves of the bri1-6 mutant, and complemented the responses of BR biosynthesis-related genes in the bri1-5 bak1-D mutant grown in light. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the six BR receptor genes in soybean resulted from three gene duplication events during evolution. Phylogenetic analysis classified the BR receptors in dicots and monocots into three subclades. Estimation of the synonymous (Ks) and the nonsynonymous substitution rate (Ka) and selection pressure (Ka/Ks) revealed that the Ka/Ks of BR receptor genes from dicots and monocots were less than 1.0, indicating that BR receptor genes in plants experienced purifying selection during evolution. PMID:27338344

  8. Ghrelin axis genes, peptides and receptors: recent findings and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Seim, Inge; Josh, Peter; Cunningham, Peter; Herington, Adrian; Chopin, Lisa

    2011-06-20

    The ghrelin axis consists of the gene products of the ghrelin gene (GHRL), and their receptors, including the classical ghrelin receptor GHSR. While it is well-known that the ghrelin gene encodes the 28 amino acid ghrelin peptide hormone, it is now also clear that the locus encodes a range of other bioactive molecules, including novel peptides and non-coding RNAs. For many of these molecules, the physiological functions and cognate receptor(s) remain to be determined. Emerging research techniques, including proteogenomics, are likely to reveal further ghrelin axis-derived molecules. Studies of the role of ghrelin axis genes, peptides and receptors, therefore, promises to be a fruitful area of basic and clinical research in years to come.

  9. Classification of Dopamine Receptor Genes in Vertebrates: Nine Subtypes in Osteichthyes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kei; Fontaine, Romain; Pasqualini, Catherine; Vernier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission regulates various brain functions, and its regulatory roles are mediated by two families of G protein-coupled receptors: the D1 and D2 receptor families. In mammals, the D1 family comprises two receptor subtypes (D1 and D5), while the D2 family comprises three receptor subtypes (D2, D3 and D4). Phylogenetic analyses of dopamine receptor genes strongly suggest that the common ancestor of Osteichthyes (bony jawed vertebrates) possessed four subtypes in the D1 family and five subtypes in the D2 family. Mammals have secondarily lost almost half of the ancestral dopamine receptor genes, whereas nonmammalian species kept many of them. Although the mammalian situation is an exception among Osteichthyes, the current classification and characterization of dopamine receptors are based on mammalian features, which have led to confusion in the identification of dopamine receptor subtypes in nonmammalian species. Here we begin by reviewing the history of the discovery of dopamine receptors in vertebrates. The recent genome sequencing of coelacanth, gar and elephant shark led to the proposal of a refined scenario of evolution of dopamine receptor genes. We also discuss a current problem of nomenclature of dopamine receptors. Following the official nomenclature of mammalian dopamine receptors from D1 to D5, we propose to name newly identified receptor subtypes from D6 to D9 in order to facilitate the use of an identical name for orthologous genes among different species. To promote a nomenclature change which allows distinguishing the two dopamine receptor families, a nomenclature consortium is needed. This comparative perspective is crucial to correctly interpret data obtained in animal studies on dopamine-related brain disorders, and more fundamentally, to understand the characteristics of dopamine neurotransmission in vertebrates.

  10. Allelic association of human dopamine D sub 2 receptor gene in alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, K.; Sheridan, P.J.; Montgomery, A.; Jagadeeswaran, P.; Nogami, H.; Briggs, A.H. ); Noble, E.P.; Ritchie, T.; Cohn, J.B. )

    1990-04-18

    In a blinded experiment, the authors report the first allelic association of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene in alcoholism. From 70 brain samples of alcoholics and nonalcoholics, DNA was digested with restriction endonucleases and probed with a clone that contained the entire 3{prime} coding exon, the polyadenylation signal, and approximately 16.4 kilobases of noncoding 3{prime} sequence of the human dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene ({lambda}hD2G1). In the present samples, the presence of A1 allele of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor gene correctly classified 77% of alcoholics, and its absence classified 72% of nonalcoholics. The polymorphic pattern of this receptor gene suggests that a gene that confers susceptibility to at least one form of alcoholism is located on the q22-q23 region of chromosome 11.

  11. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents inc...

  12. Association study of dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.L.; Billett, E.A.; Macciardi, F.M.

    1995-12-18

    Several groups have reported an association between schizophrenia and the MscI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3). We studied this polymorphism using a North American sample (117 patients plus 188 controls) and an Italian sample (97 patients plus 64 controls). In the first part of the study, we compared allele frequencies of schizophrenia patients and unmatched controls and observed a significant difference in the total sample (P = 0.01). The second part of the study involved a case control approach in which each schizophrenia patient was matched to a control of the same sex, and of similar age and ethnic background. The DRD3 allele frequencies of patients and controls revealed no significant difference between the two groups in the Italian (N = 53) or the North American (N = 54) matched populations; however, when these two matched samples were combined, a significant difference was observed (P = 0.026). Our results suggest that the MscI polymorphism may be associated with schizophrenia in the populations studied. 32 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Penguins reduced olfactory receptor genes common to other waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qin; Wang, Kai; Lei, Fumin; Yu, Dan; Zhao, Huabin

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell, or olfaction, is fundamental in the life of animals. However, penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) possess relatively small olfactory bulbs compared with most other waterbirds such as Procellariiformes and Gaviiformes. To test whether penguins have a reduced reliance on olfaction, we analyzed the draft genome sequences of the two penguins, which diverged at the origin of the order Sphenisciformes; we also examined six closely related species with available genomes, and identified 29 one-to-one orthologous olfactory receptor genes (i.e. ORs) that are putatively functionally conserved and important across the eight birds. To survey the 29 one-to-one orthologous ORs in penguins and their relatives, we newly generated 34 sequences that are missing from the draft genomes. Through the analysis of totaling 378 OR sequences, we found that, of these functionally important ORs common to other waterbirds, penguins have a significantly greater percentage of OR pseudogenes than other waterbirds, suggesting a reduction of olfactory capability. The penguin-specific reduction of olfactory capability arose in the common ancestor of penguins between 23 and 60 Ma, which may have resulted from the aquatic specializations for underwater vision. Our study provides genetic evidence for a possible reduction of reliance on olfaction in penguins. PMID:27527385

  14. Identification of Androgen Receptor and Beta-Catenin Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Transdisciplinary Research in Epigenetics and Cancer Journal Clubs and Transdisciplinary Science Meetings, biweekly and monthly 3. To gain expertise...Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Lamb CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Washington University...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Identification of Androgen Receptor and Beta-Catenin Target Genes in Prostate and Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genes in

  15. Positive association between a DNA sequence variant in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Inayama, Y.; Yoneda, H.; Sakai, T.

    1996-02-16

    Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia and 96 normal controls were investigated for genetic association with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the serotonin receptor genes. A positive association between the serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) and schizophrenia was found, but not between schizophrenia and the serotonin 1A receptor gene. The positive association we report here would suggest that the DNA region with susceptibility to schizophrenia lies in the HTR2A on the long arm of chromosome 13. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. From "junk" to gene: curriculum vitae of a primate receptor isoform gene.

    PubMed

    Singer, Silke S; Männel, Daniela N; Hehlgans, Thomas; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2004-08-20

    Exonization of Alu retroposons awakens public opinion, particularly when causing genetic diseases. However, often neglected, alternative "Alu-exons" also carry the potential to greatly enhance genetic diversity by increasing the transcriptome of primates chiefly via alternative splicing.Here, we report a 5' exon generated from one of the two alternative transcripts in human tumor necrosis factor receptor gene type 2 (p75TNFR) that contains an ancient Alu-SINE, which provides an alternative N-terminal protein-coding domain. We follow the primate evolution over the past 63 million years to reconstruct the key events that gave rise to a novel receptor isoform. The Alu integration and start codon formation occurred between 58 and 40 million years ago (MYA) in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Yet a functional gene product could not be generated until a novel splice site and an open reading frame were introduced between 40 and 25 MYA on the catarrhine lineage (Old World monkeys including apes).

  17. Isolation of Drosophila genes encoding G protein-coupled receptor kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Cassill, J A; Whitney, M; Joazeiro, C A; Becker, A; Zuker, C S

    1991-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are regulated via phosphorylation by a variety of protein kinases. Recently, termination of the active state of two such receptors, the beta-adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin, has been shown to be mediated by agonist- or light-dependent phosphorylation of the receptor by members of a family of protein-serine/threonine kinases (here referred to as G protein-coupled receptor kinases). We now report the isolation of a family of genes encoding a set of Drosophila protein kinases that appear to code for G protein-coupled receptor kinases. These proteins share a high degree of sequence homology with the bovine beta-adrenergic receptor kinase. The presence of a conserved family of G protein-coupled receptor kinases in vertebrates and invertebrates points to the central role of these kinases in signal transduction cascades. Images PMID:1662381

  18. Epigenetic regulation of olfactory receptor gene expression by the Myb–MuvB/dREAM complex

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Choon Kiat; Perry, Sarah; Tharadra, Sana Khalid; Lipsick, Joseph S.; Ray, Anandasankar

    2012-01-01

    In both mammals and insects, an olfactory neuron will usually select a single olfactory receptor and repress remaining members of large receptor families. Here we show that a conserved multiprotein complex, Myb–MuvB (MMB)/dREAM, plays an important role in mediating neuron-specific expression of the carbon dioxide (CO2) receptor genes (Gr63a/Gr21a) in Drosophila. Activity of Myb in the complex is required for expression of Gr63a/Gr21a and acts in opposition to the histone methyltransferase Su(var)3-9. Consistent with this, we observed repressive dimethylated H3K9 modifications at the receptor gene loci, suggesting a mechanism for silencing receptor gene expression. Conversely, other complex members, Mip120 (Myb-interacting protein 120) and E2F2, are required for repression of Gr63a in inappropriate neurons. Misexpression in mutants is accompanied by an increase in the H3K4me3 mark of active chromatin at the receptor gene locus. Nuclei of CO2 receptor-expressing neurons contain reduced levels of the repressive subunit Mip120 compared with surrounding neurons and increased levels of Myb, suggesting that activity of the complex can be regulated in a cell-specific manner. Our evidence suggests a model in which olfactory receptors are regulated epigenetically and the MMB/dREAM complex plays a critical role in specifying, maintaining, and modulating the receptor-to-neuron map. PMID:23105004

  19. Profiling of Olfactory Receptor Gene Expression in Whole Human Olfactory Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Tarabichi, Maxime; Gregoire, Françoise; Dumont, Jacques E.; Chatelain, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory perception is mediated by a large array of olfactory receptor genes. The human genome contains 851 olfactory receptor gene loci. More than 50% of the loci are annotated as nonfunctional due to frame-disrupting mutations. Furthermore haplotypic missense alleles can be nonfunctional resulting from substitution of key amino acids governing protein folding or interactions with signal transduction components. Beyond their role in odor recognition, functional olfactory receptors are also required for a proper targeting of olfactory neuron axons to their corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. Therefore, we anticipate that profiling of olfactory receptor gene expression in whole human olfactory mucosa and analysis in the human population of their expression should provide an opportunity to select the frequently expressed and potentially functional olfactory receptors in view of a systematic deorphanization. To address this issue, we designed a TaqMan Low Density Array (Applied Biosystems), containing probes for 356 predicted human olfactory receptor loci to investigate their expression in whole human olfactory mucosa tissues from 26 individuals (13 women, 13 men; aged from 39 to 81 years, with an average of 67±11 years for women and 63±12 years for men). Total RNA isolation, DNase treatment, RNA integrity evaluation and reverse transcription were performed for these 26 samples. Then 384 targeted genes (including endogenous control genes and reference genes specifically expressed in olfactory epithelium for normalization purpose) were analyzed using the same real-time reverse transcription PCR platform. On average, the expression of 273 human olfactory receptor genes was observed in the 26 selected whole human olfactory mucosa analyzed, of which 90 were expressed in all 26 individuals. Most of the olfactory receptors deorphanized to date on the basis of sensitivity to known odorant molecules, which are described in the literature, were found in the

  20. Family structure and phylogenetic analysis of odorant receptor genes in the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemosensory receptors, which are all G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), come in four types: odorant receptors (ORs), vomeronasal receptors, trace-amine associated receptors and formyl peptide receptor-like proteins. The ORs are the most important receptors for detecting a wide range of environmental chemicals in daily life. Most fish OR genes have been identified from genome databases following the completion of the genome sequencing projects of many fishes. However, it remains unclear whether these OR genes from the genome databases are actually expressed in the fish olfactory epithelium. Thus, it is necessary to clone the OR mRNAs directly from the olfactory epithelium and to examine their expression status. Results Eighty-nine full-length and 22 partial OR cDNA sequences were isolated from the olfactory epithelium of the large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis classified the vertebrate OR genes into two types, with several clades within each type, and showed that the L. crocea OR genes of each type are more closely related to those of fugu, pufferfish and stickleback than they are to those of medaka, zebrafish and frog. The reconciled tree showed 178 duplications and 129 losses. The evolutionary relationships among OR genes in these fishes accords with their evolutionary history. The fish OR genes have experienced functional divergence, and the different clades of OR genes have evolved different functions. The result of real-time PCR shows that different clades of ORs have distinct expression levels. Conclusion We have shown about 100 OR genes to be expressed in the olfactory epithelial tissues of L. crocea. The OR genes of modern fishes duplicated from their common ancestor, and were expanded over evolutionary time. The OR genes of L. crocea are closely related to those of fugu, pufferfish and stickleback, which is consistent with its evolutionary position. The different expression levels of OR genes of large

  1. Quinoline derivatives: candidate drugs for a Class B G-protein coupled receptor, the Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, a cause of migraines

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Hira; Ahmad, Iqra; Gan, Siew Hua; Shaik, Munvar Miya; Iftikhar, Naveed; Nawaz, Muhammad Sulaman; Greig, Nigel H.; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Class B G-protein coupled receptors are involved in a wide variety of diseases and are a major focus in drug design. Migraines are a common problem, and one of their major causative agents is class B G-protein coupled receptor, Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor, a target for competitive drug discovery. The calcitonin receptor-like receptor generates complexes with a receptor activity-modifying protein, which determines the type of receptor protein formed. The CGRP receptor comprises a complex formed from the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 1. In this study, an in silico docking approach was used to target calcitonin receptor-like receptor in the bound form with receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (CGRP receptor), as well as in the unbound form. In both cases, the resulting inhibitors bound to the same cavity of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor. The twelve evaluated compounds were competitive inhibitors and showed efficient inhibitory activity against the CGRP receptor and Calcitonin receptor-like receptor. The two studied quinoline derivatives demonstrated potentially ideal inhibitory activity in terms of binding interactions and low range nano-molar inhibition constants. These compounds could prove helpful in designing drugs for the effective treatment of migraines. We propose that quinoline derivatives possess inhibitory activity by disturbing CGRP binding in the trigeminovascular system and may be considered for further preclinical appraisal for the treatment of migraines. PMID:25230231

  2. A nonsense mutation in the LDL receptor gene leads to familial hypercholesterolemia in the Druze sect

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, D.; Meiner, V.; Reshef, A.; Leitersdorf, E. ); Levy, Yishai ); Westhytzen, D.R. van der; Coetzee, G.A. )

    1992-02-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Here the authors characterize and LDL receptor mutation that is associated with a distinct haplotype and causes FH in the Druze, a small Middle Eastern Islamic sect with a high degree of inbreeding. The mutation was found in FH families from two distinct Druze villages from the Golan Heights (northern Israel). It was not found either in another Druze FH family residing in a different geographical area nor in eight Arab and four Jewish FH heterozygote index cases whose hypercholesterolemia cosegregates with an identical LDL receptor gene haplotype. The mutation, a single-base substitution, results in a termination codon in exon 4 of the LDL receptor gene that encodes for the fourth repeat of the binding domain of the mature receptor. It can be diagnosed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization of PCR-amplified DNA from FH patients.

  3. Differential regulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) expression in schizophrenic smokers.

    PubMed

    Mexal, Sharon; Berger, Ralph; Logel, Judy; Ross, Randal G; Freedman, Robert; Leonard, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    The alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by genetic and pharmacological studies. Expression of the alpha7* receptor, as measured by [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin autoradiography, is decreased in postmortem brain of schizophrenic subjects compared to non-mentally ill controls. Most schizophrenic patients are heavy smokers, with high levels of serum cotinine. Smoking changes the expression of multiple genes and differentially regulates gene expression in schizophrenic hippocampus. We examined the effects of smoking on CHRNA7 expression in the same tissue and find that smoking differentially regulates expression of both mRNA and protein for this gene. CHRNA7 mRNA and protein levels are significantly lower in schizophrenic nonsmokers compared to control nonsmokers and are brought to control levels in schizophrenic smokers. Sufficient protein but low surface expression of the alpha7* receptor, seen in the autoradiographic studies, suggests aberrant assembly or trafficking of the receptor.

  4. Histamine H1 Receptor Gene Expression and Drug Action of Antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hisao; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2016-11-25

    The upregulation mechanism of histamine H1 receptor through the activation of protein kinase C-δ (PKCδ) and the receptor gene expression was discovered. Levels of histamine H1 receptor mRNA and IL-4 mRNA in nasal mucosa were elevated by the provocation of nasal hypersensitivity model rats. Pretreatment with antihistamines suppressed the elevation of mRNA levels. Scores of nasal symptoms were correlatively alleviated to the suppression level of mRNAs above. A correlation between scores of nasal symptoms and levels of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa was observed in patients with pollinosis. Both scores of nasal symptoms and the level of histamine H1 receptor mRNA were improved by prophylactic treatment of antihistamines. Similar to the antihistamines, pretreatment with antiallergic natural medicines showed alleviation of nasal symptoms with correlative suppression of gene expression in nasal hypersensitivity model rats through the suppression of PKCδ. Similar effects of antihistamines and antiallergic natural medicines support that histamine H1 receptor-mediated activation of histamine H1 receptor gene expression is an important signaling pathway for the symptoms of allergic diseases. Antihistamines with inverse agonist activity showed the suppression of constitutive histamine H1 receptor gene expression, suggesting the advantage of therapeutic effect.

  5. Farnesoid X receptor represses hepatic human APOA gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Chennamsetty, Indumathi; Claudel, Thierry; Kostner, Karam M.; Baghdasaryan, Anna; Kratky, Dagmar; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Frank, Sasa; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Trauner, Michael; Kostner, Gert M.

    2011-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a), which is encoded by the APOA gene] increase an individual’s risk of developing diseases, such as coronary artery diseases, restenosis, and stroke. Unfortunately, increased Lp(a) levels are minimally influenced by dietary changes or drug treatment. Further, the development of Lp(a)-specific medications has been hampered by limited knowledge of Lp(a) metabolism. In this study, we identified patients suffering from biliary obstructions with very low plasma Lp(a) concentrations that rise substantially after surgical intervention. Consistent with this, common bile duct ligation in mice transgenic for human APOA (tg-APOA mice) lowered plasma concentrations and hepatic expression of APOA. To test whether farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is activated by bile acids, was responsible for the low plasma Lp(a) levels in cholestatic patients and mice, we treated tg-APOA and tg-APOA/Fxr–/– mice with cholic acid. FXR activation markedly reduced plasma concentrations and hepatic expression of human APOA in tg-APOA mice but not in tg-APOA/Fxr–/– mice. Incubation of primary hepatocytes from tg-APOA mice with bile acids dose dependently downregulated APOA expression. Further analysis determined that the direct repeat 1 element between nucleotides –826 and –814 of the APOA promoter functioned as a negative FXR response element. This motif is also bound by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α), which promotes APOA transcription, and FXR was shown to compete with HNF4α for binding to this motif. These findings may have important implications in the development of Lp(a)-lowering medications. PMID:21804189

  6. Molecular Pathways: Breaking the Epithelial Cancer Barrier for Chimeric Antigen Receptor and T-cell Receptor Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Christian S

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered to express a tumor-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T-cell receptor (TCR) can mediate cancer regression in some patients. CARs are synthetic single-chain proteins that use antibody domains to target cell surface antigens. TCRs are natural heterodimeric proteins that can target intracellular antigens through recognition of peptides bound to human leukocyte antigens. CARs have shown promise in B-cell malignancies and TCRs in melanoma, but neither approach has achieved clear success in an epithelial cancer. Treatment of epithelial cancers may be particularly challenging because of a paucity of target antigens expressed by carcinomas and not by important healthy tissues. In addition, epithelial cancers may be protected by inhibitory ligands and soluble factors in the tumor microenvironment. One strategy to overcome these negative regulators is to modulate expression of T-cell genes to enhance intrinsic T-cell function. Programmable nucleases, which can suppress inhibitory genes, and inducible gene expression systems, which can enhance stimulatory genes, are entering clinical testing. Other work is delineating whether control of genes for immune checkpoint receptors (e.g.,PDCD1, CTLA4) and cytokine and TCR signaling regulators (e.g.,CBLB, CISH, IL12, IL15) can increase the antitumor activity of therapeutic T cells.

  7. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human antidiuretic hormone receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Seibold, A.; Brabet, P.; Rosenthal, W.; Birnbaumer, M. )

    1992-11-01

    Applying a genomic DNA-expression approach, the authors cloned the gene and cDNA coding for the human antidiuretic hormone receptor, also called vasopressin V2 receptor' (V2R). The nucleotide sequence of both cloned DNAs provided the information to elucidate the structure of the isolated transcriptional unit. The structure of this gene is unusual in that it is the first G protein-coupled receptor gene that contains two very small intervening sequences, the second of which separates the region encoding the seventh transmembrane region from the rest of the open reading frame. The sequence information was used to synthesize appropriate oligonucleotides to be used as primers in the PCR. The V2R gene was localized by PCR using DNA from hybrid cells as template. The gene was found to reside in the q28-qter portion of the human X chromosome, a region identified as the locus for congential nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Novel androgen receptor gene mutation in patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ye; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Huixing; Lu, Jianqi; Li, Zheng

    2012-07-01

    To present a rare case of a patient probably with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and studied its potential genetic cause. A 24-year-old woman with a normal-appearing vulva and vagina presented to us because of primary amenorrhea. Imaging studies showed no uterus or ovary development but inguinal cryptorchism. Histopathologic examination revealed normal testicular structures. Sequencing the CAIS-associated androgen receptor gene revealed a novel missense mutation of T to G (F698L). A novel androgen receptor gene mutation in the ligand binding domain was detected in the present patient with CAIS, supporting the important role of an androgen receptor defect in the etiology of CAIS.

  9. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-IL; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y.L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ -binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  10. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-Il; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y L; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ-binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism.

  11. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory.

  12. Scavenger receptor A gene regulatory elements target gene expression to macrophages and to foam cells of atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Horvai, A; Palinski, W; Wu, H; Moulton, K S; Kalla, K; Glass, C K

    1995-01-01

    Transcription of the macrophage scavenger receptor A gene is markedly upregulated during monocyte to macrophage differentiation. In these studies, we demonstrate that 291 bp of the proximal scavenger receptor promoter, in concert with a 400-bp upstream enhancer element, is sufficient to direct macrophage-specific expression of a human growth hormone reporter in transgenic mice. These regulatory elements, which contain binding sites for PU.1, AP-1, and cooperating ets-domain transcription factors, are also sufficient to mediate regulation of transgene expression during the in vitro differentiation of bone marrow progenitor cells in response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Mutation of the PU.1 binding site within the scavenger receptor promoter severely impairs transgene expression, consistent with a crucial role of PU.1 in regulating the expression of the scavenger receptor gene. The ability of the scavenger receptor promoter and enhancer to target gene expression to macrophages in vivo, including foam cells of atherosclerotic lesions, suggests that these regulatory elements will be of general utility in the study of macrophage differentiation and function by permitting specific modifications of macrophage gene expression. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7777517

  13. Evolution of a symbiotic receptor through gene duplications in the legume-rhizobium mutualism.

    PubMed

    De Mita, Stéphane; Streng, Arend; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, René

    2014-02-01

    The symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia co-opted pre-existing endomycorrhizal features. In particular, both symbionts release lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) that are recognized by LysM-type receptor kinases. We investigated the evolutionary history of rhizobial LCO receptor genes MtLYK3-LjNFR1 to gain insight into the evolutionary origin of the rhizobial symbiosis. We performed a phylogenetic analysis integrating gene copies from nonlegumes and legumes, including the non-nodulating, phylogenetically basal legume Cercis chinensis. Signatures of differentiation between copies were investigated through patterns of molecular evolution. We show that two rounds of duplication preceded the evolution of the rhizobial symbiosis in legumes. Molecular evolution patterns indicate that the resulting three paralogous gene copies experienced different selective constraints. In particular, one copy maintained the ancestral function, and another specialized into perception of rhizobial LCOs. It has been suggested that legume LCO receptors evolved from a putative ancestral defense-related chitin receptor through the acquisition of two kinase motifs. However, the phylogenetic analysis shows that these domains are actually ancestral, suggesting that this scenario is unlikely. Our study underlines the evolutionary significance of gene duplication and subsequent neofunctionalization in MtLYK3-LjNFR1 genes. We hypothesize that their ancestor was more likely a mycorrhizal LCO receptor, than a defense-related receptor kinase.

  14. CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 gene polymorphism and cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yang; Zhang, Chun; Xu, Weizhang; Zhang, Jianzhong; Zheng, Yuxiao; Lu, Zipeng; Liu, Dongfang; Jiang, Kuirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous epidemiological studies have reported the relationship between CXC motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) synonymous polymorphism (rs2228014), and risk of cancer, but the results remained conflicting and controversial. Therefore, this study was devised to evaluate the genetic effects of the rs2228014 polymorphism on cancer risk in a large meta-analysis. Methods: The computer-based databases (EMBASE, Web of Science, and PubMed) were searched for all relevant studies evaluating rs2228014 and susceptibility to cancer. In the analysis, pooled odds ratios (ORs) with its corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in 5 genetic models to assess the genetic risk. Egger regression and Begg funnel plots test were conducted to appraise the publication bias. Results: Data on rs2228014 polymorphism and overall cancer risk were available for 3684 cancer patients and 5114 healthy controls participating in 11 studies. Overall, a significantly increased risk of cancer was associated with rs2228014 polymorphism in homozygote model (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22–3.33) and in recessive model (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.23–3.16). When stratified by ethnicity, the results were positive only in Asian populations (heterozygote model: OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.13–1.65; homozygote model: OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.21–4.91; dominant model: OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13–1.90; recessive model: OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.13–4.48; and allele model: OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.10–1.99). Besides, in the subgroup analysis by source of control, the result was significant only in population-based control (homozygote model: OR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.06–5.40; recessive model: pooled OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.02–4.96). Conclusion: In general, our results first indicated that the rs2228014 polymorphism in CXCR4 gene is correlated with an increased risk of cancer, especially among Asian ethnicity. Large, well-designed epidemiological studies are required to verify the current findings. PMID

  15. A common polymorphism in the LDL receptor gene has multiple effects on LDL receptor function.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Ihn, Hansel E; Medina, Marisa W; Krauss, Ronald M

    2013-04-01

    A common synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 12 of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene, rs688, has been associated with increased plasma total and LDL cholesterol in several populations. Using immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines from a healthy study population, we confirmed an earlier report that the minor allele of rs688 is associated with increased exon 12 alternative splicing (P < 0.05) and showed that this triggered nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of the alternatively spliced LDLR mRNA. However, since synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms may influence structure and function of the encoded proteins by co-translational effects, we sought to test whether rs688 was also functional in the full-length mRNA. In HepG2 cells expressing LDLR cDNA constructs engineered to contain the major or minor allele of rs688, the latter was associated with a smaller amount of LDLR protein at the cell surface (-21.8 ± 0.6%, P = 0.012), a higher amount in the lysosome fraction (+25.7 ± 0.3%, P = 0.037) and reduced uptake of fluorescently labeled LDL (-24.3 ± 0.7%, P < 0.01). Moreover, in the presence of exogenous proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a protein that reduces cellular LDL uptake by promoting lysosomal degradation of LDLR, the minor allele resulted in reduced capacity of a PCSK9 monoclonal antibody to increase LDL uptake. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that rs688, which is located in the β-propeller region of LDLR, has effects on LDLR activity beyond its role in alternative splicing due to impairment of LDLR endosomal recycling and/or PCSK9 binding, processes in which the β-propeller is critically involved.

  16. Adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in endocrine-related cancers: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hay, Debbie L; Walker, Christopher S; Poyner, David R

    2011-02-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM), adrenomedullin 2 (AM2/intermedin) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are members of the calcitonin family of peptides. They can act as growth or survival factors for a number of tumours, including those that are endocrine-related. One mechanism through which this occurs is stimulating angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. AM is expressed by numerous tumour types and for some cancers, plasma AM levels can be correlated with the severity of the disease. In cancer models, lowering AM content or blocking AM receptors can reduce tumour mass. AM receptors are complexes formed between a seven transmembrane protein, calcitonin receptor-like receptor and one of the two accessory proteins, receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) 2 or 3 to give the AM1 and AM2 receptors respectively. AM also has affinity at the CGRP receptor, which uses RAMP1. Unfortunately, due to a lack of selective pharmacological tools or antibodies to distinguish AM and CGRP receptors, the precise receptors and signal transduction pathways used by the peptides are often uncertain. Two other membrane proteins, RDC1 and L1/G10D (the 'ADMR'), are not currently considered to be genuine CGRP or AM receptors. In order to properly evaluate whether AM or CGRP receptor inhibition has a role in cancer therapy, it is important to identify which receptors mediate the effects of these peptides. To effectively distinguish AM1 and AM2 receptors, selective receptor antagonists need to be developed. The development of specific CGRP receptor antagonists suggests that this is now feasible.

  17. Identification of a null mutation in the human dopamine D4 receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Noethen, M.M.; Cichon, S.; Hebebrand, J.

    1994-09-01

    Dopamine receptors belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors. Five different dopamine receptor genes have thus far been identified. These receptors are classified into two main subfamilies: D1, which includes the D1 and D5 receptors, and D2, which includes the D2, D3, and D4 receptors. The dopamine D4 receptor is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology in light of the fact that it binds the antipsychotic medication clozapine with higher affinity than does any other dopamine receptor. In addition, among the dopamine receptors, the D4 receptor shows a uniquely high degree of genetic variation in the human population. We identified a new 13 bp deletion in exon 1 of the D4 gene. This frameshift creates a terminator codon at amino acid position 98. mRNA isolated from brain tissue of two heterozygous persons showed both alleles to be expressed. The deletion occurs with a frequency of 2% in the German population. One person was identified to be homozygous for the deletion. Interestingly, he has a normal intelligence and did not exhibit a major psychiatric disorder as defined by DSM III-R. The 13 bp deletion is the first mutation resulting in premature translation termination reported for a dopamine receptor gene so far. This mutation is a good candidate to test for potential effects on disease and/or individual response to pharmacotherapy. Association studies in patients with various psychiatric illnesses and differences in response to clozapine are underway.

  18. Multimodality Imaging of Gene Transfer with a Receptor-Based Reporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ron; Parry, Jesse J.; Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; El Naqa, Issam M.; Achilefu, Samuel; Edwards, W. Barry; Rogers, Buck E.

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy trials have traditionally used tumor and tissue biopsies for assessing the efficacy of gene transfer. Non-invasive imaging techniques offer a distinct advantage over tissue biopsies in that the magnitude and duration of gene transfer can be monitored repeatedly. Human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) has been used for the nuclear imaging of gene transfer. To extend this concept, we have developed a somatostatin receptor–enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion construct (SSTR2-EGFP) for nuclear and fluorescent multimodality imaging. Methods An adenovirus containing SSTR2-EGFP (AdSSTR2-EGFP) was constructed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. SCC-9 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were infected with AdEGFP, AdSSTR2, or AdSSTR2-EGFP for in vitro evaluation by saturation binding, internalization, and fluorescence spectroscopy assays. In vivo biodistribution and nano-SPECT imaging studies were conducted with mice bearing SCC-9 tumor xenografts directly injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP or AdSSTR2 to determine the tumor localization of 111In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-Tyr3-octreotate. Fluorescence imaging was conducted in vivo with mice receiving intratumoral injections of AdSSTR2, AdSSTR2-EGFP, or AdEGFP as well as ex vivo with tissues extracted from mice. Results The similarity between AdSSTR2-EGFP and wild-type AdSSTR2 was demonstrated in vitro by the saturation binding and internalization assays, and the fluorescence emission spectra of cells infected with AdSSTR2-EGFP was almost identical to the spectra of cells infected with wild-type AdEGFP. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that the tumor uptake of 111In-DTPA-Tyr3-octreotate was not significantly different (P > 0.05) when tumors (n = 5) were injected with AdSSTR2 or AdSSTR2-EGFP but was significantly greater than the uptake in control tumors. Fluorescence was observed in tumors injected with AdSSTR2-EGFP and AdEGFP in vivo and ex vivo but not in tumors injected with AdSSTR2

  19. The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family: a cellular Swiss army knife?

    PubMed

    Nykjaer, Anders; Willnow, Thomas E

    2002-06-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family is an evolutionarily conserved group of cell-surface receptors produced by mammals and other organisms. Initially thought to be endocytic receptors that mediate the uptake of lipoproteins, recent findings have shown that these receptors have other roles in a range of cellular processes. Among other activities, members of this family act as signal transducers in neuronal migration processes, regulate synaptic plasticity or control vitamin homeostasis. Such multifunctionality is achieved by interaction with diverse cell-surface proteins including glycolipid-anchored receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channels. Here, we review the molecular interactions of this protein family with other cell-surface proteins that provide specificity and versatility - a versatility that may be reminiscent of a cellular Swiss army knife.

  20. Identification of Gene Markers for Activation of the Nuclear Receptor Pregnane X Receptor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmentally-relevant chemicals and drugs activate the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR). Activation of PXR in the mouse liver can lead to increases in liver weight in part through increased hepatocyte replication similar to chemicals that activate other nuclear ...

  1. Gene expression profiles of estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancers are detectable in histologically normal breast epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kelly; Ge, Xijin; de las Morenas, Antonio; Tripathi, Anusri; Rosenberg, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Previously, we found that gene expression in histologically normal breast epithelium (NlEpi) from women at high breast cancer risk can resemble gene expression in NlEpi from cancer-containing breasts. Therefore, we hypothesized that gene expression characteristic of a cancer subtype might be seen in NlEpi of breasts containing that subtype. Experimental Design We examined gene expression in 46 cases of microdissected NlEpi from untreated women undergoing breast cancer surgery. From 30 age-matched cases (15 estrogen receptor (ER)+, 15 ER-) we used Affymetryix U133A arrays. From 16 independent cases (9 ER+, 7 ER-), we validated selected genes using qPCR. We then compared gene expression between NlEpi and invasive breast cancer using 4 publicly available datasets. Results We identified 198 genes that are differentially expressed between NlEpi from breasts with ER+ (NlEpiER+) compared to ER- cancers (NlEpiER-). These include genes characteristic of ER+ and ER- cancers (e.g., ESR1, GATA3, and CX3CL1, FABP7). QPCR validated the microarray results in both the 30 original cases and the 16 independent cases. Gene expression in NlEpiER+ and NlEpiER- resembled gene expression in ER+ and ER- cancers, respectively: 25-53% of the genes or probes examined in 4 external datasets overlapped between NlEpi and the corresponding cancer subtype. Conclusions Gene expression differs in NlEpi of breasts containing ER+ compared to ER- breast cancers. These differences echo differences in ER+ and ER- invasive cancers. NlEpi gene expression may help elucidate subtype-specific risk signatures, identify early genomic events in cancer development and locate targets for prevention and therapy. PMID:21059815

  2. Evidence for association between polymorphisms in the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CNR1) gene and cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Wetherill, Leah; Dick, Danielle M.; Xuei, Xiaoling; Hinrichs, Anthony; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I.; Schuckit, Marc; Bierut, Laura J.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    Genomic studies of cannabis use disorders have been limited. The cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) on chromosome 6q14–15 is an excellent candidate gene for cannabis dependence due to the important role of the G-protein coupled receptor encoded by this gene in the rewarding effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Previous studies have found equivocal evidence for an association between SNPs in CNR1 and a general vulnerability to substance use disorders. We investigate the association between 9 SNPs spanning CNR1 and cannabis dependence in 1,923 individuals. Two SNPs that were previously associated with cannabis dependence in other studies were also significant with this phenotype in our analyses [rs806368 (p = 0.05) and rs806380 (p = 0.009)]. Haplotype analyses revealed the association to be largely driven by the SNP rs806380. These results suggest a role for the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene in cannabis dependence. PMID:19016476

  3. PET/CT imaging of human somatostatin receptor 2 (hsstr2) as reporter gene for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Gazdhar, A.; Weitzel, T.; Schmid, R.; Krause, T.

    2006-12-01

    Localized information on region-selective gene expression in small animals is widely obtained by use of reporter genes inducing light emission. Using these reporter genes for imaging deep inside the human body fluorescent probes are hindered by attenuation, scattering and possible fluorescence quenching. This can be overcome by use of radio-peptide receptors as reporter genes. Therefore, the feasibility of the somatostatin receptor 2 expression vector system for expression imaging was checked against a control vector containing luciferase gene. For in vivo transduction of vector DNA into the rat forelimb muscles the in vivo electroporation technique was chosen because of its high regio-selectivity. The gene expression was imaged by high-sensitive CCD camera (luciferase activity) and by PET/CT using a Ga-68-DOTATOC as radio peptide probe. The relative sstr2 expression was enhanced by gene transduction at maximum to a factor of 15. The PET/CT images could be fully quantified. The above demonstrated feasibility of radio-peptide PET/CT reporter gene imaging may serve in the future as a tool for full quantitative understanding of regional gene expression, especially in large animals and humans.

  4. 5-HT2 Receptor Regulation of Mitochondrial Genes: Unexpected Pharmacological Effects of Agonists and Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Jennifer L; Wills, Lauren P; McOmish, Caitlin E; Demireva, Elena Y; Gingrich, Jay A; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-04-01

    In acute organ injuries, mitochondria are often dysfunctional, and recent research has revealed that recovery of mitochondrial and renal functions is accelerated by induction of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). We previously reported that the nonselective 5-HT2 receptor agonist DOI [1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine] induced MB in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs). The goal of this study was to determine the role of 5-HT2 receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in the kidney. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP-809,101 [2-[(3-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-6-(1-piperazinyl)pyrazine] and antagonist SB-242,084 [6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide dihydrochloride] were used to examine the induction of renal mitochondrial genes and oxidative metabolism in RPTCs and in mouse kidneys in the presence and absence of the 5-HT2C receptor. Unexpectedly, both CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased RPTC respiration and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expression in RPTCs at 1-10 nM. In addition, CP-809,101 and SB-242,084 increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and the mitochondrial proteins NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) β subcomplex 8 in mice. These compounds increased mitochondrial genes in RPTCs in which the 5-HT2C receptor was downregulated with small interfering RNA and in the renal cortex of mice lacking the 5-HT2C receptor. By contrast, the ability of these compounds to increase PGC-1α mRNA and respiration was blocked in RPTCs treated with 5-HT2A receptor small interfering RNA or the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist eplivanserin. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor agonist NBOH-2C-CN [4-[2-[[(2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]-2,5-dimethoxybenzonitrile] increased RPTC respiration at 1-100 nM. These results suggest that agonism of the 5-HT2A receptor induces MB and that the classic 5-HT2C receptor agonist CP

  5. The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor contribute to the impact of fipronil on hepatic gene expression linked to thyroid hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Roques, Béatrice B; Leghait, Julien; Lacroix, Marlène Z; Lasserre, Frédéric; Pineau, Thierry; Viguié, Catherine; Martin, Pascal G P

    2013-10-01

    Fipronil is described as a thyroid disruptor in rat. Based on the hypothesis that this results from a perturbation of hepatic thyroid hormone metabolism, our goal was to investigate the pathways involved in fipronil-induced liver gene expression regulations. First, we performed a microarray screening in the liver of rats treated with fipronil or vehicle. Fipronil treatment led to the upregulation of several genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, including the cytochrome P450 Cyp2b1, Cyp2b2 and Cyp3a1, the carboxylesterases Ces2 and Ces6, the phase II enzymes Ugt1a1, Sult1b1 and Gsta2, and the membrane transporters Abcc2, Abcc3, Abcg5, Abcg8, Slco1a1 and Slco1a4. Based on a large overlap with the target genes of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), we postulated that these two nuclear receptors are involved in mediating the effects of fipronil on liver gene expression in rodents. We controlled that liver gene expression changes induced by fipronil were generally reproduced in mice, and then studied the effects of fipronil in wild-type, CAR- and PXR-deficient mice. For most of the genes studied, the gene expression modulations were abolished in the liver of PXR-deficient mice and were reduced in the liver of CAR-deficient mice. However, CAR and PXR activation in mouse liver was not associated with a marked increase of thyroid hormone clearance, as observed in rat. Nevertheless, our data clearly indicate that PXR and CAR are key modulators of the hepatic gene expression profile following fipronil treatment which, in rats, may contribute to increase thyroid hormone clearance.

  6. Molecular characterization of the Aphis gossypii olfactory receptor gene families.

    PubMed

    Cao, Depan; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous pest that inflicts great damage to cotton yields worldwide. Antennal olfaction, which is extremely important for insect survival, mediates key behaviors such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim is to identify chemosensory receptors in the cotton aphid genome, as a means to uncover olfactory encoding of the polyphagous feeding habits as well as to aid the discovery of new targets for behavioral interference. We identified a total of 45 candidate ORs and 14 IRs in the cotton aphid genome. Among the candidate AgoORs, 9 are apparent pseudogenes, while 19 can be clustered with ORs from the pea aphid, forming 16 AgoOR/ApOR orthologous subgroups. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a; no AgoIR retain the complete glutamic acid binding domain, suggesting that putative AgoIRs bind different ligands. Our results provide the necessary information for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of A. gossypii, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals-based control of this pest insect.

  7. Genomic organization of the mouse T-cell receptor beta-chain gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, E; Barth, R K; Hood, L

    1987-01-01

    We have combined three different methods, deletion mapping of T-cell lines, field-inversion gel electrophoresis, and the restriction mapping of a cosmid clone, to construct a physical map of the murine T-cell receptor beta-chain gene family. We have mapped 19 variable (V beta) gene segments and the two clusters of diversity (D beta) and joining (J beta) gene segments and constant (C beta) genes. These members of the beta-chain gene family span approximately equal to 450 kilobases of DNA, excluding one potential gap in the DNA fragment alignments. Images PMID:3035555

  8. Steroid hormone receptor gene expression in human breast cancer cells: inverse relationship between oestrogen and glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA levels.

    PubMed

    Hall, R E; Lee, C S; Alexander, I E; Shine, J; Clarke, C L; Sutherland, R L

    1990-12-15

    The relative expression in human breast cancer cells of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA) encoding different steroid hormone receptors is unknown. Accordingly, mRNA levels in total RNA extracted from 13 human breast cancer cell lines were measured by Northern analysis employing complementary DNA probes for the human oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), androgen (AR), vitamin D3 (VDR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR). The 7 ER+ lines expressed a single 6.4 kilobases (kb) ER mRNA. Interestingly, low concentrations of ER mRNA were detected in the ER- cell lines, MDA-MB-330 and BT 20. PR mRNA, predominantly a 13.5 kb species, was expressed in the 6 lines known to be ER+, PR+ by radioligand binding; however, one ER+ cell line, MDA-MB-134, failed to express PR mRNA. A 10.5 kb AR mRNA was expressed at significantly higher levels in ER+ than ER- cell lines. All cell lines expressed a single 4.6 kb mRNA for VDR and a single 7.4 kb mRNA for GR. ER and PR mRNA levels were positively correlated (p = 0.011) and each was positively correlated with androgen receptor (AR) mRNA levels (p less than or equal to 0.009). ER, PR and AR mRNAs were negatively associated with GR levels (p less than or equal to 0.012), while ER and AR mRNA levels were negatively correlated with mRNA for the epidermal growth factor receptor. In contrast, levels of VDR mRNA were unrelated to the concentration of any other steroid receptor mRNA. Our data demonstrate the coordinate expression of ER, PR and AR genes, and an inverse relationship between sex steroid hormone receptor and GR gene expression in human breast cancer cell lines.

  9. Endogenous hepatic glucocorticoid receptor signaling coordinates sex-biased inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matthew A; Cidlowski, John A

    2016-02-01

    An individual's sex affects gene expression and many inflammatory diseases present in a sex-biased manner. Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are regulators of inflammatory genes, but their role in sex-specific responses is unclear. Our goal was to evaluate whether GR differentially regulates inflammatory gene expression in male and female mouse liver. Twenty-five percent of the 251 genes assayed by nanostring analysis were influenced by sex. Of these baseline sexually dimorphic inflammatory genes, 82% was expressed higher in female liver. Pathway analyses defined pattern-recognition receptors as the most sexually dimorphic pathway. We next exposed male and female mice to the proinflammatory stimulus LPS. Female mice had 177 genes regulated by treatment with LPS, whereas males had 149, with only 66% of LPS-regulated genes common between the sexes. To determine the contribution of GR to sexually dimorphic inflammatory genes we performed nanostring analysis on liver-specific GR knockout (LGRKO) mice in the presence or absence of LPS. Comparing LGRKO to GR(flox/flox) revealed that 36 genes required GR for sexually dimorphic expression, whereas 24 genes became sexually dimorphic in LGRKO. Fifteen percent of LPS-regulated genes in GR(flox/flox) were not regulated in male and female LGRKO mice treated with LPS. Thus, GR action is influenced by sex to regulate inflammatory gene expression.

  10. Massive Losses of Taste Receptor Genes in Toothed and Baleen Whales

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

  11. Massive losses of taste receptor genes in toothed and baleen whales.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-05-06

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor.

  12. T cell receptor genes in an alloreactive CTL clone: implications for rearrangement and germline diversity of variable gene segments.

    PubMed Central

    Chou, H S; Behlke, M A; Godambe, S A; Russell, J H; Brooks, C G; Loh, D Y

    1986-01-01

    Both cDNA and genomic clones of the T cell receptor (TCR) alpha- and beta-chain genes of the alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone F3 were examined. Two distinct rearrangement events, one functional and one non-functional, were found for both the alpha and beta loci. Thus only a single functional TCR alpha beta heterodimer could be defined, consistent with allelic exclusion in the TCR genes. The V alpha gene employed by F3 is part of a six-member V alpha subfamily. Genomic clones containing each member of this subfamily were isolated and the V alpha nucleotide sequences determined. Five of these six genes are functional; these genes differ from each other by 7-14% at the amino acid level. A single dominant hypervariable region was defined within this subfamily, in contrast to the pattern of variability seen between V alpha genes in general. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3490968

  13. Natural Killer Cell Receptor Genes in the Family Equidae: Not only Ly49

    PubMed Central

    Futas, Jan; Horin, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of

  14. Natural killer cell receptor genes in the family Equidae: not only Ly49.

    PubMed

    Futas, Jan; Horin, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in immunity. NK recognition in mammals can be mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and/or killer cell lectin-like Ly49 receptors. Genes encoding highly variable NK cell receptors (NKR) represent rapidly evolving genomic regions. No single conservative model of NKR genes was observed in mammals. Single-copy low polymorphic NKR genes present in one mammalian species may expand into highly polymorphic multigene families in other species. In contrast to other non-rodent mammals, multiple Ly49-like genes appear to exist in the horse, while no functional KIR genes were observed in this species. In this study, Ly49 and KIR were sought and their evolution was characterized in the entire family Equidae. Genomic sequences retrieved showed the presence of at least five highly conserved polymorphic Ly49 genes in horses, asses and zebras. These findings confirmed that the expansion of Ly49 occurred in the entire family. Several KIR-like sequences were also identified in the genome of Equids. Besides a previously identified non-functional KIR-Immunoglobulin-like transcript fusion gene (KIR-ILTA) and two putative pseudogenes, a KIR3DL-like sequence was analyzed. In contrast to previous observations made in the horse, the KIR3DL sequence, genomic organization and mRNA expression suggest that all Equids might produce a functional KIR receptor protein molecule with a single non-mutated immune tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) domain. No evidence for positive selection in the KIR3DL gene was found. Phylogenetic analysis including rhinoceros and tapir genomic DNA and deduced amino acid KIR-related sequences showed differences between families and even between species within the order Perissodactyla. The results suggest that the order Perissodactyla and its family Equidae with expanded Ly49 genes and with a potentially functional KIR gene may represent an interesting model for evolutionary biology of

  15. Sulfotransferase genes: Regulation by nuclear receptors in response to xeno/endo-biotics

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Susumu; Negishi, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR), members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are two major xeno-sensing transcription factors. They can be activated by a broad range of lipophilic xenobiotics including therapeutics drugs. In addition to xenobiotics, endogenous compounds such as steroid hormones and bile acids can also activate PXR and/or CAR. These nuclear receptors regulate genes that encode enzymes and transporters that metabolize and excrete both xenobiotics and endobiotics. Sulfotransferases (SULTs) are a group of these enzymes and sulfate xenobiotics for detoxification. In general, inactivation by sulfation constitutes the mechanism to maintain homeostasis of endobiotics. Thus, deciphering the molecular mechanism by which PXR and CAR regulate SULT genes is critical for understanding the roles of SULTs in the alterations of physiological and pathophysiological processes caused by drug treatment or environmental exposures. PMID:24025090

  16. Increase of AMPA receptor glutamate receptor 1 subunit and B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 gene expression in hippocampus of fatigued mice.

    PubMed

    Kamakura, Masaki; Tamaki, Keisuke; Sakaki, Toshiyuki; Yoneda, Yukio

    2005-10-14

    Central fatigue is an indispensable biosignal for maintaining life, but the neuronal and molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we searched for genes differentially expressed in the hippocampus of fatigued mice to elucidate the mechanisms underlying fatigue. Mice were forced to swim in an adjustable-current water pool, and the maximum swimming time (endurance) until fatigue was measured thrice. Fatigued and nonfatigued mice with equal swimming capacity and body weight were compared. We found that the genes of GluR1 and B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31), which acts as a transport molecule in the secretory pathway or as a mediator of apoptosis, were upregulated in the hippocampus of fatigued mice, and increases of GluR1 and Bap31 were confirmed by Northern blotting and real-time PCR. No change of gene expression of AMPA receptor subunits other than GluR1 was observed. These results suggest that a compositional change of AMPA receptor (increase of GluR1) and upregulation of the Bap31 gene may be implicated in fatigue in mice.

  17. Selective Gene Regulation by Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Pharmacol, 2008. 8(4): p. 440-8. 6. Claessens, F., P. Alen , A. Devos, B. Peeters, G...Chem, 1996. 271(32): p. 19013-6. 7. Schoenmakers, E., P. Alen , G. Verrijdt, B. Peeters, G. Verhoeven, W. Rombauts, and F. Claessens, Differential DNA

  18. Ecdysone Receptor-Based Gene Switches for Applications in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of circumstances in which it is advantageous to use an inducible gene regulation system, the most obvious being when introducing transgenes whose constitutive expression is detrimental or even lethal to the host plants. The selective induction of gene expression is typically accom...

  19. T-cell receptor variable region gene usage in T-cell populations.

    PubMed Central

    Garman, R D; Ko, J L; Vulpe, C D; Raulet, D H

    1986-01-01

    We have examined T-cell receptor alpha- and beta-chain variable (V) region gene usage in T-cell populations predicted to have different major histocompatibility complex-restriction specificities. Using a sensitive ribonuclease protection assay to measure T-cell receptor mRNA levels, we found no striking differences in the usage of three V alpha genes and three V beta genes in T-cell populations from three congeneic H-2-disparate strains of mice and between the mutually exclusive Ly2+ L3T4- and Ly2- L3T4+ T-cell subpopulations. These results suggest that major histocompatibility complex restriction cannot be explained by the differential usage of nonoverlapping V alpha or V beta gene pools. In contrast, striking but unpredictable differences were seen in V gene usage in populations of T cells selected by activation with particular alloantigens. Images PMID:3487085

  20. Functional characterization of insulin receptor gene mutations contributing to Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome - phenotypic heterogeneity of insulin receptor gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Fang, Qichen; Zhang, Feng; Wan, Hui; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Congrong; Bao, Yuqian; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Gao, Fei; Xiang, Kunsan; Jia, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome (RMS) is a rare disorder that presents as severe insulin resistance as a result of mutations present in the insulin receptor (INSR). A Chinese girl with RMS presented with profound diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, acanthosis nigricans, hirsutism, and abnormalities of teeth and nails. Direct sequencing of the patient's INSR detected heterozygote mutations at Arg83Gln (R83Q) and Ala1028Val (A1028V), with the former representing a novel mutation. Functional studies of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with wild-type (WT) and mutant forms of INSR were performed to evaluate the effects of these mutations on receptor expression and activation. Receptor expression, insulin binding activity, and phosphorylation of the R83Q variant were comparable to WT. In contrast, expression of the A1028V receptor was much lower than that of WT INSR, and impairment of insulin binding and autophosphorylation were nearly commensurate with the decrease in expression detected. Reductions in the phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt, and Erk1/2 (60%, 40%, and 50% of WT, respectively) indicate that the A1028V receptor contributes to impaired signal transduction. In conclusion, INSR mutations associated with RMS were identified. Moreover, the A1028V mutation associated with a decrease in expression of INSR potentially accounts for loss of function of the INSR.

  1. The DAF-7 TGF-β signaling pathway regulates chemosensory receptor gene expression in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Katherine M.; Sarafi-Reinach, Trina R.; Horne, Jennifer G.; Saffer, Adam M.; Sengupta, Piali

    2002-01-01

    Regulation of chemoreceptor gene expression in response to environmental or developmental cues provides a mechanism by which animals can alter their sensory responses. Here we demonstrate a role for the daf-7 TGF-β pathway in the regulation of expression of a subset of chemoreceptor genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. We describe a novel role of this pathway in maintaining receptor gene expression in the adult and show that the DAF-4 type II TGF-β receptor functions cell-autonomously to modulate chemoreceptor expression. We also find that the alteration of receptor gene expression in the ASI chemosensory neurons by environmental signals, such as levels of a constitutively produced pheromone, may be mediated via a DAF-7-independent pathway. Receptor gene expression in the ASI and ASH sensory neurons appears to be regulated via distinct mechanisms. Our results suggest that the expression of individual chemoreceptor genes in C. elegans is subject to multiple modes of regulation, thereby ensuring that animals exhibit the responses most appropriate for their developmental stage and environmental conditions. PMID:12464635

  2. Vitamin D Receptor Gene as a Candidate Gene for Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    BUTLER, MEGAN W.; BURT, AMBER; EDWARDS, TODD L.; ZUCHNER, STEPHAN; SCOTT, WILLIAM K.; MARTIN, EDEN R.; VANCE, JEFFERY M.; WANG, LIYONG

    2010-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been postulated as environmental and genetic factors in neurodegeneration disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer disease (AD), and recently Parkinson disease (PD). Given the sparse data on PD and VDR, we conducted a two-stage study to evaluate the genetic effects of VDR in PD. In the discovery stage, 30 tagSNPs in VDR were tested for association with PD risk as a discrete trait and age-at-onset of PD as a quantitative trait in 770 Caucasian PD families. In the validation stage, 18 VDR SNPs were tested in an independent Caucasian cohort (267 cases and 267 controls) constructed from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In the discovery dataset, SNPs in the 5′ end of VDR were associated with both risk and age-at-onset with more significant evidence of association with age-at-onset (nominal p=0.0008 for the most significant SNPs). These SNPs were also associated with AD in a recent GWAS. In the validation dataset, SNPs in the 3′ end of VDR were associated with age-at-onset (nominal p=0.003 for the most significant SNPs but not risk. The most significant 3′end SNP has been be associated with both MS and AD. Our findings suggest VDR as a potential susceptibility gene and support an essential role of vitamin D in PD. PMID:21309754

  3. Cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes implicated in a nicotine dependence association study targeting 348 candidate genes with 3713 SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Scott F.; Hinrichs, Anthony L.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Chase, Gary A.; Konvicka, Karel; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Breslau, Naomi; Johnson, Eric O.; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Pomerleau, Ovide; Swan, Gary E.; Goate, Alison M.; Rutter, Joni; Bertelsen, Sarah; Fox, Louis; Fugman, Douglas; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wang, Jen C.; Ballinger, Dennis G.; Rice, John P.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is one of the world’s leading causes of preventable death. To discover genetic variants that influence risk for nicotine dependence, we targeted over 300 candidate genes and analyzed 3713 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1050 cases and 879 controls. The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) was used to assess dependence, in which cases were required to have an FTND of 4 or more. The control criterion was strict: control subjects must have smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetimes and had an FTND of 0 during the heaviest period of smoking. After correcting for multiple testing by controlling the false discovery rate, several cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes dominated the top signals. The strongest association was from an SNP representing CHRNB3, the β3 nicotinic receptor subunit gene (P = 9.4 × 10−5). Biologically, the most compelling evidence for a risk variant came from a non-synonymous SNP in the α5 nicotinic receptor subunit gene CHRNA5 (P = 6.4 × 10−4). This SNP exhibited evidence of a recessive mode of inheritance, resulting in individuals having a 2-fold increase in risk of developing nicotine dependence once exposed to cigarette smoking. Other genes among the top signals were KCNJ6 and GABRA4. This study represents one of the most powerful and extensive studies of nicotine dependence to date and has found novel risk loci that require confirmation by replication studies. PMID:17135278

  4. Hormone Receptor and ERBB2 Status in Gene Expression Profiles of Human Breast Tumor Samples

    PubMed Central

    Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Hassell, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of large publically available repositories of human breast tumor gene expression profiles provides an important resource to discover new breast cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. For example, knowledge of the expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors (ER and PR), and that of the ERBB2 in breast tumor samples enables choice of therapies for the breast cancer patients that express these proteins. Identifying new biomarkers and therapeutic agents affecting the activity of signaling pathways regulated by the hormone receptors or ERBB2 might be accelerated by knowledge of their expression levels in large gene expression profiling data sets. Unfortunately, the status of these receptors is not invariably reported in public databases of breast tumor gene expression profiles. Attempts have been made to employ a single probe set to identify ER, PR and ERBB2 status, but the specificity or sensitivity of their prediction is low. We enquired whether estimation of ER, PR and ERBB2 status of profiled tumor samples could be improved by using multiple probe sets representing these three genes and others with related expression. We used 8 independent datasets of human breast tumor samples to define gene expression signatures comprising 24, 51 and 14 genes predictive of ER, PR and ERBB2 status respectively. These signatures, as demonstrated by sensitivity and specificity measures, reliably identified hormone receptor and ERBB2 expression in breast tumors that had been previously determined using protein and DNA based assays. Our findings demonstrate that gene signatures can be identified which reliably predict the expression status of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and that of ERBB2 in publically available gene expression profiles of breast tumor samples. Using these signatures to query transcript profiles of breast tumor specimens may enable discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for particular subtypes of

  5. Oxytocin, vasopressin and estrogen receptor gene expression in relation to social recognition in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Clipperton-Allen, Amy E.; Lee, Anna W.; Reyes, Anny; Devidze, Nino; Phan, Anna; Pfaff, Donald W.; Choleris, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Inter- and intra-species differences in social behavior and recognition-related hormones and receptors suggest that different distribution and/or expression patterns may relate to social recognition. We used qRT-PCR to investigate naturally occurring differences in expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), ER-beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), oxytocin (OT) and receptor, and vasopressin (AVP) and receptors in proestrous female mice. Following four 5 min exposures to the same two conspecifics, one was replaced with a novel mouse in the final trial (T5). Gene expression was examined in mice showing high (85–100%) and low (40–60%) social recognition scores (i.e., preferential novel mouse investigation in T5) in eight socially-relevant brain regions. Results supported OT and AVP involvement in social recognition, and suggest that in the medial preoptic area, increased OT and AVP mRNA, together with ERα and ERβ gene activation, relate to improved social recognition. Initial social investigation correlated with ERs, PR and OTR in the dorsolateral septum, suggesting that these receptors may modulate social interest without affecting social recognition. Finally, increased lateral amygdala gene activation in the LR mice may be associated with general learning impairments, while decreased lateral amygdala activity may indicate more efficient cognitive mechanisms in the HR mice. PMID:22079582

  6. Molecular cloning of a gene encoding the histamine H2 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gantz, I.; Schaeffer, M.; DelValle, J.; Logsdon, C.; Campbell, V.; Uhler, M.; Yamada, Tadataka )

    1991-01-15

    The H2 subclass of histamine receptors mediates gastric acid secretion, and antagonists for this receptor have proven to be effective therapy for acid peptic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The physiological action of histamine has been shown to be mediated via a guanine nucleotide-binding protein linked to adenylate cyclase activation and cellular cAMP generation. The authors capitalized on the technique of polymerase chain reaction, using degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the known homology between cellular receptors linked to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins to obtain a partial-length clone from canine gastric parietal cell cDNA. This clone was used to obtain a full-length receptor gene from a canine genomic library. Histamine increased in a dose-dependent manner cellular cAMP content in L cells permanently transfected with this gene, and preincubation of the cells with the H2-selective antagonist cimetidine shifted the dose-response curve to the right. Cimetidine inhibited the binding of the radiolabeled H2 receptor-selective ligand (methyl-{sup 3}H)tiotidine to the transfected cells in a dose-dependent fashion, but the H1-selective antagonist diphenhydramine did not. These data indicate that they have cloned a gene that encodes the H2 subclass of histamine receptors.

  7. Domain-dependent effects of insulin and IGF-1 receptors on signalling and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weikang; Sakaguchi, Masaji; Kleinridders, Andre; Gonzalez-Del Pino, Gonzalo; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; O'Neill, Brian T.; Ramirez, Alfred K.; Pan, Hui; Winnay, Jonathon N.; Boucher, Jeremie; Eck, Michael J.; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Despite a high degree of homology, insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) mediate distinct cellular and physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate how domain differences between IR and IGF1R contribute to the distinct functions of these receptors using chimeric and site-mutated receptors. Receptors with the intracellular domain of IGF1R show increased activation of Shc and Gab-1 and more potent regulation of genes involved in proliferation, corresponding to their higher mitogenic activity. Conversely, receptors with the intracellular domain of IR display higher IRS-1 phosphorylation, stronger regulation of genes in metabolic pathways and more dramatic glycolytic responses to hormonal stimulation. Strikingly, replacement of leucine973 in the juxtamembrane region of IR to phenylalanine, which is present in IGF1R, mimics many of these signalling and gene expression responses. Overall, we show that the distinct activities of the closely related IR and IGF1R are mediated by their intracellular juxtamembrane region and substrate binding to this region. PMID:28345670

  8. 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms in Croatian subjects with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Babic, Marina; Smurinic, Maja; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Jernej, Branimir

    2010-08-15

    Disturbances in the expression/function of the 5-HT2A receptor are implicated in autism. The association of the 5-HT2A receptor gene with autism was studied in the Croatian population. Distribution frequencies for alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of -1438 A/G and His452Tyr polymorphisms were compared in samples of 103 autistic and 214 control subjects. Significant overrepresentation of the G allele and the GG genotype of the -1438 A/G polymorphism was observed in group of autistic subjects, supporting the possible involvement of the 5-HT2A receptor in the development of autism.

  9. [Histamine H₁ receptor gene as an allergic diseases-sensitive gene and its impact on therapeutics for allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Yuto; Kuroda, Wakana; Yoshida, Haruka; Miyamoto, Yuko; Hattori, Masashi; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutics targeting disease-sensitive genes are required for the therapy of multifactorial diseases. There is no clinical report on therapeutics for allergic disease-sensitive genes. We are focusing on the histamine H₁ receptor (H1R) as a sensitive gene. H1R mediates allergy histamine signals. H1R is a rate-limiting molecule of the H1R signal because the signal is increased with elevated receptor expression level. We discovered that the stimulation of H1R induced H1R gene expression through PKCδ activation, resulting in receptor upregulation. The mechanism of H1R gene expression was revealed to play a key role in the receptor expression level in studies using cultured HeLa cells and allergic rhinitis model rats. Preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines is recommended for the therapy of pollinosis. However, the mechanism of the therapy remains to be elucidated. We demonstrated that repeated pretreatment treatment with antihistamines in the allergic rhinitis model rats resulted not only in improvement of symptoms but also in suppressed elevation of H1R mRNA levels in the nasal mucosa. A clinical trial was then initiated. When symptoms and H1R mRNA levels in the nasal mucosa of pollinosis patients with or without preseasonal prophylactic treatment with antihistamines were examined, both symptoms and high levels of H1R mRNA were significantly improved in treated compared with untreated patients. These results strongly suggest that H1R is an allergic disease-sensitive gene.

  10. Estrogen receptor-alpha gene expression in the cortex: sex differences during development and in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Melinda E; Westberry, Jenne M; Trout, Amanda L

    2011-03-01

    17β-estradiol is a hormone with far-reaching organizational, activational and protective actions in both male and female brains. The organizational effects of early estrogen exposure are essential for long-lasting behavioral and cognitive functions. Estradiol mediates many of its effects through the intracellular receptors, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ). In the rodent cerebral cortex, estrogen receptor expression is high early in postnatal life and declines dramatically as the animal approaches puberty. This decline is accompanied by decreased expression of ERα mRNA. This change in expression is the same in both males and females in the developing isocortex and hippocampus. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene expression is critical for understanding the developmental, as well as changes in postpubertal expression of the estrogen receptor. One mechanism of suppressing gene expression is by the epigenetic modification of the promoter regions by DNA methylation that results in gene silencing. The decrease in ERα mRNA expression during development is accompanied by an increase in promoter methylation. Another example of regulation of ERα gene expression in the adult cortex is the changes that occur following neuronal injury. Many animal studies have demonstrated that the endogenous estrogen, 17β-estradiol, is neuroprotective. Specifically, low levels of estradiol protect the cortex from neuronal death following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In females, this protection is mediated through an ERα-dependent mechanism. ERα expression is rapidly increased following MCAO in females, but not in males. This increase is accompanied by a decrease in methylation of the promoter suggesting a return to the developmental program of gene expression within neurons. Taken together, during development and in adulthood, regulation of ERα gene expression in the

  11. Reciprocal activation of Xenobiotic response genes by nuclear receptors SXR/PXR and CAR

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen; Barwick, Joyce L.; Simon, Cynthia M.; Pierce, Alexis M.; Safe, Stephen; Blumberg, Bruce; Guzelian, Philip S.; Evans, Ronald M.

    2000-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene products such as CYP3A and CYP2B are essential for the metabolism of steroid hormones and xenochemicals including prescription drugs. Nuclear receptor SXR/PXR (steroid and xenobiotic receptor/pregnenolone X receptor) has been shown both biochemically and genetically to activate CYP3A genes, while similar studies have established constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) as a CYP2B regulator. The response elements in these genes are also distinct, furthering the concept of independent regulation. Unexpectedly, we found that SXR can regulate CYP2B, both in cultured cells and in transgenic mice via adaptive recognition of the phenobarbital response element (PBRE). In a type of functional symmetry, orphan receptor CAR was also found to activate CYP3A through previously defined SXR/PXR response elements. These observations not only provide a rational explanation for the activation of multiple CYP gene classes by certain xenobiotics, but also reveal the existence of a metabolic safety net that confers a second layer of protection to the harmful effects of toxic compounds and at the same time increases the propensity for drug–drug interactions. PMID:11114890

  12. Sequence variation in the androgen receptor gene is not a common determinant of male sexual orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Macke, J.P.; Nathans, J.; King, V.L. ); Hu, N.; Hu, S.; Hamer, D.; Bailey, M. ); Brown, T. )

    1993-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that DNA sequence variation in the androgen receptor gene plays a causal role in the development of male sexual orientation, the authors have (1) measured the degree of concordance of androgen receptor alleles in 36 pairs of homosexual brothers, (2) compared the lengths of polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the amino-terminal domain of the androgen receptor in a sample of 197 homosexual males and 213 unselected subjects, and (3) screened the entire androgen receptor coding region for sequence variation by PCR and denaturing gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and/or single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis in 20 homosexual males with homosexual or bisexual brothers and one homosexual male with no homosexual brothers, and screened the amino-terminal domain of the receptor for sequence variation in an additional 44 homosexual males, 37 of whom had one or more first- or second-degree male relatives who were either homosexual or bisexual. These analyses show that (1) homosexual brothers are as likely to be discordant as concordant for androgen receptor alleles; (2) there are no large-scale differences between the distributions of polyglycine or polyglutamine tract lengths in the homosexual and control groups; and (3) coding region sequence variation is not commonly found within the androgen receptor gene of homosexual men. The DGGE screen identified two rare amino acid substitutions, ser[sup 205] -to-arg and glu[sup 793]-to-asp, the biological significance of which is unknown. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Enhanced antinociceptive effects of morphine in histamine H2 receptor gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Mobarakeh, Jalal Izadi; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Sakurada, Shinobu; Kuramasu, Atsuo; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2006-09-01

    We have previously shown that antinociceptive effects of morphine are enhanced in histamine H1 receptor gene knockout mice. In the present study, involvement of supraspinal histamine H2 receptor in antinociception by morphine was examined using histamine H2 receptor gene knockout (H2KO) mice and histamine H2 receptor antagonists. Antinociception was evaluated by assays for thermal (hot-plate, tail-flick and paw-withdrawal tests), mechanical (tail-pressure test) and chemical (formalin and capsaicin tests) stimuli. Thresholds for pain perception in H2KO mice were higher than wild-type mice. Antinociceptive effects of intracerebroventricularly administered morphine were enhanced in the H2KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Intracerebroventricular co-administration of morphine and cimetidine produced significant antinociceptive effects in the wild-type mice when compared to morphine or cimetidine alone. Furthermore, zolantidine, a selective and hydrophobic H2 receptor antagonist, enhanced the effects of morphine in all nociceptive assays examined. These results suggest that histamine exerts inhibitory effects on morphine-induced antinociception through H2 receptors at the supraspinal level. Our present and previous studies suggest that H1 and H2 receptors cooperatively function to modulate pain perception in the central nervous system.

  14. The evolution of drug-activated nuclear receptors: one ancestral gene diverged into two xenosensor genes in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Handschin, Christoph; Blättler, Sharon; Roth, Adrian; Looser, Renate; Oscarson, Mikael; Kaufmann, Michel R; Podvinec, Michael; Gnerre, Carmela; Meyer, Urs A

    2004-01-01

    Background Drugs and other xenobiotics alter gene expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP) by activating the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in mammals. In non-mammalian species, only one xenosensor gene has been found. Using chicken as a model organism, the aim of our study was to elucidate whether non-mammalian species only have one or two xenosensors like mammals. Results To explore the evolutionary aspect of this divergence, we tried to identify additional xenobiotic sensing nuclear receptors in chicken using various experimental approaches. However, none of those revealed novel candidates. Ablation of chicken xenobiotic receptor (CXR) function by RNAi or dominant-negative alleles drastically reduced drug-induction in a chicken hepatoma cell line. Subsequently, we functionally and structurally characterized CXR and compared our results to PXR and CAR. Despite the high similarity in their amino acid sequence, PXR and CAR have very distinct modes of activation. Some aspects of CXR function, e.g. direct ligand activation and high promiscuity are very reminiscent of PXR. On the other hand, cellular localization studies revealed common characteristics of CXR and CAR in terms of cytoplasmic-nuclear distribution. Finally, CXR has unique properties regarding its regulation in comparison to PXR and CAR. Conclusion Our finding thus strongly suggest that CXR constitutes an ancestral gene which has evolved into PXR and CAR in mammals. Future studies should elucidate the reason for this divergence in mammalian versus non-mammalian species. PMID:15479477

  15. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Complex and the Control of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Beischlag, Timothy V.; Morales, J. Luis; Hollingshead, Brett D.; Perdew, Gary H.

    2008-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls the expression of a diverse set of genes. The toxicity of the potent AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is almost exclusively mediated through this receptor. However, the key alterations in gene expression that mediate toxicity are poorly understood. It has been established through characterization of AhR-null mice that the AhR has a required physiological function, yet how endogenous mediators regulate this orphan receptor remains to be established. A picture as to how the AhR/ARNT heterodimer actually mediates gene transcription is starting to emerge. The AhR/ARNT complex can alter transcription both by binding to its cognate response element and through tethering to other transcription factors. In addition, many of the coregulatory proteins necessary for AhR-mediated transcription have been identified. Cross talk between the estrogen receptor and the AhR at the promoter of target genes appears to be an important mode of regulation. Inflammatory signaling pathways and the AhR also appear to be another important site of cross talk at the level of transcription. A major focus of this review is to highlight experimental efforts to characterize nonclassical mechanisms of AhR-mediated modulation of gene transcription. PMID:18540824

  16. Control of transcriptional repression of the vitellogenin receptor gene in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by select estrogen receptors isotypes.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Gustavo A; Bisesi, Joseph H; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2014-10-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (Vtgr) plays an important role in fish reproduction. This receptor functions to incorporate vitellogenin (Vtg), a macromolecule synthesized and released from the liver in the bloodstream, into oocytes where it is processed into yolk. Although studies have focused on the functional role of Vtgr in fish, the mechanistic control of this gene is still unexplored. Here we report the identification and analysis of the first piscine 5' regulatory region of the vtgr gene which was cloned from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Using this putative promoter sequence, we investigated a role for hormones, including insulin and 17β-estradiol (E2), in transcriptional regulation through cell-based reporter assays. No effect of insulin was observed, however, E2 was able to repress transcriptional activity of the vtgr promoter through select estrogen receptor subtypes, Esr1 and Esr2a but not Esr2b. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Esr1 likely interacts with the vtgr promoter region through half ERE and/or SP1 sites, in part. Finally we also show that ethinylestradiol (EE2), but not bisphenol-A (BPA), represses promoter activity similarly to E2. These results reveal for the first time that the Esr1 isoform may play an inhibitory role in the expression of LMB vtgr mRNA under the influence of E2, and potent estrogens such as EE2. In addition, this new evidence suggests that vtgr may be a target of select endocrine disrupting compounds through environmental exposures.

  17. Selective prostacyclin receptor agonism augments glucocorticoid-induced gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sylvia M; Shen, Pamela; Rider, Christopher F; Traves, Suzanne L; Proud, David; Newton, Robert; Giembycz, Mark A

    2009-11-15

    Prostacyclin receptor (IP-receptor) agonists display anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity in cell-based assays and in preclinical models of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we have extended these observations by demonstrating that IP-receptor activation also can enhance the ability of glucocorticoids to induce genes with anti-inflammatory activity. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells stably transfected with a glucocorticoid response element (GRE) luciferase reporter were activated in a concentration-dependent manner by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. An IP-receptor agonist, taprostene, increased cAMP in these cells and augmented luciferase expression at all concentrations of dexamethasone examined. Analysis of the concentration-response relationship that described this effect showed that taprostene increased the magnitude of transcription without affecting the potency of dexamethasone and was, thus, steroid-sparing in this simple system. RO3244794, an IP-receptor antagonist, and oligonucleotides that selectively silenced the IP-receptor gene, PTGIR, abolished these effects of taprostene. Infection of BEAS-2B GRE reporter cells with an adenovirus vector encoding a highly selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also prevented taprostene from enhancing GRE-dependent transcription. In BEAS-2B cells and primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells, taprostene and dexamethasone interacted either additively or cooperatively in the expression of three glucocorticoid-inducible genes (GILZ, MKP-1, and p57(kip2)) that have anti-inflammatory potential. Collectively, these data show that IP-receptor agonists can augment the ability of glucocorticoids to induce anti-inflammatory genes in human airway epithelial cells by activating a cAMP/PKA-dependent mechanism. This observation may have clinical relevance in the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases that are either refractory or respond suboptimally to

  18. The chromosomal localization of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene (FSHR) on 2p21-p16 ls similar to that of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau-Merck, M.F.; Berger, R.; Atger, M.; Loosfelt, H.; Milgrom, E. )

    1993-01-01

    Two cDNA probes (5[prime]and 3[prime]region) corresponding to the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene (FSHR) were used for chromosomal localization by in situ hybridization. The localization obtained on chromosome 2p21-p16 is similar to that of the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin (LH/CG) receptor gene. 24 refs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. The Medicago truncatula lysin [corrected] motif-receptor-like kinase gene family includes NFP and new nodule-expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Barre, Annick; Ben Amor, Besma; Bersoult, Anne; Soriano, Lidia Campos; Mirabella, Rossana; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Ghérardi, Michèle; Huguet, Thierry; Geurts, René; Dénarié, Jean; Rougé, Pierre; Gough, Clare

    2006-09-01

    Rhizobial Nod factors are key symbiotic signals responsible for starting the nodulation process in host legume plants. Of the six Medicago truncatula genes controlling a Nod factor signaling pathway, Nod Factor Perception (NFP) was reported as a candidate Nod factor receptor gene. Here, we provide further evidence for this by showing that NFP is a lysin [corrected] motif (LysM)-receptor-like kinase (RLK). NFP was shown both to be expressed in association with infection thread development and to be involved in the infection process. Consistent with deviations from conserved kinase domain sequences, NFP did not show autophosphorylation activity, suggesting that NFP needs to associate with an active kinase or has unusual functional characteristics different from classical kinases. Identification of nine new M. truncatula LysM-RLK genes revealed a larger family than in the nonlegumes Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) or rice (Oryza sativa) of at least 17 members that can be divided into three subfamilies. Three LysM domains could be structurally predicted for all M. truncatula LysM-RLK proteins, whereas one subfamily, which includes NFP, was characterized by deviations from conserved kinase sequences. Most of the newly identified genes were found to be expressed in roots and nodules, suggesting this class of receptors may be more extensively involved in nodulation than was previously known.

  20. [Roles of histamine receptors in pain perception: a study using receptors gene knockout mice].

    PubMed

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Mobarakeh, Jalal Izadi; Kuramasu, Atsuo; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2003-11-01

    To study the participation of histamine H1- and H2-receptors in pain perception, H1 and H2 receptor knockout (KO) mice were examined for pain threshold by means of three kinds of nociceptive tasks. These included assays for thermal, mechanical, and chemical nociception. H1KO mice showed significantly fewer nociceptive responses to the hot-plate, tail-flick, tail-pressure, paw-withdrawal, formalin, capsaicin, and abdominal constriction tests. Sensitivity to noxious stimuli in H1KO mice was significantly decreased when compared to wild-type mice. The antinociceptive phenotypes of H2KO were relatively less prominent when compared to H1KO mice. We also examined the antinociceptive effects of intrathecally-, intracerebroventricularly-, and subcutaneously-administered morphine in H1KO and H2KO mice. In these nociceptive assays, the antinociceptive effects produced by morphine were more enhanced in both H1KO and H2KO mice. The effects of histamine H1- and H2-receptor antagonists on morphine-induced antinociception were studied in ICR mice. The intrathecal, intracerebroventricular and subcutaneous co-administrations of d-chlorpheniramine enhanced the effects of morphine in all nociceptive assays examined. In addition, intrathecal co-administrations of cimetidine enhanced the antinociception of morphine in the hot plate tests. These results suggest that existing H1 and H2 receptors play an inhibitory role in morphine-induced antinociception in the spinal and supra-spinal levels.

  1. Linkage analysis of schizophrenia with five dopamine receptor genes in nine pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, H.; Byerley, W.; Holik, J.; Hoff, M.; Myles-Worsley, M.; Plaetke, R. ); Lannfelt, L. ); Sokoloff, P.; Schwartz, J.C. ); Waldo, M.; Freedman, R. )

    1993-02-01

    Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia for nearly 2 decades. Recently, the genes for five dopamine receptors have been cloned and characterized, and genetic and physical map information has become available. Using these five loci as candidate genes, the authors have tested for genetic linkage to schizophrenia in nine multigenerational families which include multiple affected individuals. In addition to testing conservative disease models, the have used a neurophysiological indicator variable, the P50 auditory evoked response. Deficits in gating of the P50 response have been shown to segregate with schizophrenia in this sample and may identify carriers of gene(s) predisposing for schizophrenia. Linkage results were consistently negative, indicating that a defect at any of the actual receptor sites is unlikely to be a major contributor to schizophrenia in the nine families studied. 47 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Gene expression profiles linked to AT1 angiotensin receptors in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Makhanova, Natalia A.; Crowley, Steven D.; Griffiths, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize gene expression networks linked to AT1 angiotensin receptors in the kidney, we carried out genome-wide transcriptional analysis of RNA from kidneys of wild-type (WT) and AT1A receptor-deficient mice (KOs) at baseline and after 2 days of angiotensin II infusion (1,000 ng·kg−1·min−1). At baseline, 405 genes were differentially expressed (>1.5×) between WT and KO kidneys. Of these, >80% were upregulated in the KO group including genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell proliferation. After 2 days of angiotensin II infusion in WT mice, expression of ≈805 genes was altered (18% upregulated, 82% repressed). Genes in metabolism and ion transport pathways were upregulated while there was attenuated expression of genes protective against oxidative stress including glutathione synthetase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2. Angiotensin II infusion had little effect on blood pressure in KOs. Nonetheless, expression of >250 genes was altered in kidneys from KO mice during angiotensin II infusion; 14% were upregulated, while 86% were repressed including genes involved in immune responses, angiogenesis, and glutathione metabolism. Between WT and KO kidneys during angiotensin II infusion, 728 genes were differentially expressed; 10% were increased and 90% were decreased in the WT group. Differentially regulated pathways included those involved in ion transport, immune responses, metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, and oxidative stress. This genome-wide assessment should facilitate identification of critical distal pathways linked to blood pressure regulation. PMID:20807774

  3. Glucocorticoids regulate arrestin gene expression and redirect the signaling profile of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Robert H; Revollo, Javier; Cidlowski, John A

    2012-10-23

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) compose the largest family of cell surface receptors and are the most common target of therapeutic drugs. The nonvisual arrestins, β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2, are multifunctional scaffolding proteins that play critical roles in GPCR signaling. On binding of activated GPCRs at the plasma membrane, β-arrestins terminate G protein-dependent responses (desensitization) and stimulate β-arrestin-dependent signaling pathways. Alterations in the cellular complement of β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 occur in many human diseases, and their genetic ablation in mice has severe consequences. Surprisingly, however, the factors that control β-arrestin gene expression are poorly understood. We demonstrate that glucocorticoids differentially regulate β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2 gene expression in multiple cell types. Glucocorticoids act via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to induce the synthesis of β-arrestin-1 and repress the expression of β-arrestin-2. Glucocorticoid-dependent regulation involves the recruitment of ligand-activated glucocorticoid receptors to conserved and functional glucocorticoid response elements in intron-1 of the β-arrestin-1 gene and intron-11 of the β-arrestin-2 gene. In human lung adenocarcinoma cells, the increased expression of β-arrestin-1 after glucocorticoid treatment impairs G protein-dependent activation of inositol phosphate signaling while enhancing β-arrestin-1-dependent stimulation of the MAPK pathway by protease activated receptor 1. These studies demonstrate that glucocorticoids redirect the signaling profile of GPCRs via alterations in β-arrestin gene expression, revealing a paradigm for cross-talk between nuclear and cell surface receptors and a mechanism by which glucocorticoids alter the clinical efficacy of GPCR-based drugs.

  4. Oxytocin and Vasopressin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms: Role in Social and Psychiatric Traits

    PubMed Central

    Aspé-Sánchez, Mauricio; Moreno, Macarena; Rivera, Maria Ignacia; Rossi, Alejandra; Ewer, John

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two phylogenetically conserved neuropeptides that have been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors. Although a large body of research, ranging from rodents to humans, has reported on the effects of OXT and AVP administration on affiliative and trust behaviors, and has highlighted the genetic contributions of OXT and AVP receptor polymorphisms to both social behaviors and to diseases related to social deficits, the consequences of peptide administration on psychiatric symptoms, and the impact of receptor polymorphisms on receptor function, are still unclear. Despite the exciting advances that these reports have brought to social neuroscience, they remain preliminary and suffer from the problems that are inherent to monogenetic linkage and association studies. As an alternative, some studies are using polygenic approaches, and consider the contributions of other genes and pathways, including those involving DA, 5-HT, and reelin, in addition to OXT and AVP; a handful of report are also using genome-wide association studies. This review summarizes findings on the associations between OXT and AVP receptor polymorphism, social behavior, and psychiatric diseases. In addition, we discuss reports on the interactions of OXT and AVP receptor genes and genes involved in other pathways (such as those of dopamine, serotonin, and reelin), as well as research that has shed some light on the impact of gene polymorphisms on the volume, connectivity, and activation of specific neural structures, differential receptor expression, and plasma levels of the OXT and AVP peptides. We hope that this effort will be helpful for understanding the studies performed so far, and for encouraging the inclusion of other candidate genes not explored to date. PMID:26858594

  5. A comparison of reptilian and avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: Species-specific expansion of group γ genes in birds

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Silke S; Kuryshev, Vladimir Y; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Kempenaers, Bart; Mueller, Jakob C

    2009-01-01

    Background The detection of odorants is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs). ORs are G-protein coupled receptors that form a remarkably large protein superfamily in vertebrate genomes. We used data that became available through recent sequencing efforts of reptilian and avian genomes to identify the complete OR gene repertoires in a lizard, the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), and in two birds, the chicken (Gallus gallus) and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Results We identified 156 green anole OR genes, including 42 pseudogenes. The OR gene repertoire of the two bird species was substantially larger with 479 and 553 OR gene homologs in the chicken and zebra finch, respectively (including 111 and 221 pseudogenes, respectively). We show that the green anole has a higher fraction of intact OR genes (~72%) compared with the chicken (~66%) and the zebra finch (~38%). We identified a larger number and a substantially higher proportion of intact OR gene homologs in the chicken genome than previously reported (214 versus 82 genes and 66% versus 15%, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis showed that lizard and bird OR gene repertoires consist of group α, θ and γ genes. Interestingly, the vast majority of the avian OR genes are confined to a large expansion of a single branch (the so called γ-c clade). An analysis of the selective pressure on the paralogous genes of each γ-c clade revealed that they have been subjected to adaptive evolution. This expansion appears to be bird-specific and not sauropsid-specific, as it is lacking from the lizard genome. The γ-c expansions of the two birds do not intermix, i.e., they are lineage-specific. Almost all (group γ-c) OR genes mapped to the unknown chromosome. The remaining OR genes mapped to six homologous chromosomes plus three to four additional chromosomes in the zebra finch and chicken. Conclusion We identified a surprisingly large number of potentially functional avian OR genes. Our data supports recent

  6. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene coding for the human platelet. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kobilka, B.K.; Matsui, H.; Kobilka, T.S.; Yang-Feng, T.L.; Francke, U.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Regan, J.W.

    1987-10-30

    The gene for the human platelet ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor has been cloned with oligonucleotides corresponding to the partial amino acid sequence of the purified receptor. The identity of this gene has been confirmed by the binding of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic ligands to the cloned receptor expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The deduced amino acid sequence is most similar to the recently cloned human ..beta../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors; however, similarities to the muscarinic cholinergic receptors are also evident. Two related genes have been identified by low stringency Southern blot analysis. These genes may represent additional ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtypes.

  7. The ERBB3 receptor in cancer and cancer gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sithanandam, G; Anderson, LM

    2009-01-01

    ERBB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, is unique in that its tyrosine kinase domain is functionally defective. It is activated by neuregulins, by other ERBB and nonERBB receptors as well as by other kinases, and by novel mechanisms. Downstream it interacts prominently with the phosphoinositol 3-kinase/AKT survival/mitogenic pathway, but also with GRB, SHC, SRC, ABL, rasGAP, SYK and the transcription regulator EBP1. There are likely important but poorly understood roles for nuclear localization and for secreted isoforms. Studies of ERBB3 expression in primary cancers and of its mechanistic contributions in cultured cells have implicated it, with varying degrees of certainty, with causation or sustenance of cancers of the breast, ovary, prostate, certain brain cells, retina, melanocytes, colon, pancreas, stomach, oral cavity and lung. Recent results link high ERBB3 activity with escape from therapy targeting other ERBBs in lung and breast cancers. Thus a wide and centrally important role for ERBB3 in cancer is becoming increasingly apparent. Several approaches for targeting ERBB3 in cancers have been tested or proposed. Small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) to ERBB3 or AKT is showing promise as a therapeutic approach to treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:18404164

  8. Improvement of a Monopartite Ecdysone Receptor Gene Switch and Demonstration of its Utility in Regulation of Transgene Expression in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical inducible gene regulation systems provide essential tools for the precise regulation of transgene expression in plants and animals. We have recent developed a two-hybrid ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene regulation system that works in conjunction with the retinoid X receptor of Locusta migrato...

  9. Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

  10. Sequence and diversity of rabbit T-cell receptor gamma chain genes

    SciTech Connect

    Isono, T.; Kim, C.J.; Seto, A.

    1995-03-01

    The nucleotide sequences of one constant (C), six variable (V), and two joining (J) gene segments coding for the rabbit T-cell receptor gamma chain (Tcrg) were determined by directly sequencing fragments amplified by the cassette-ligation mediated polymerase chain reaction. The Tcrg-C gene segment did not encode a cysteine residue for connection to the Tcr delta chain in the connecting region, and two variant forms of the Tcrg-C gene segment were generated by alternative splicing, like the human Tcrg-C2 gene. Five of six rabbit Tcrg-V gene segments belonged to the same family and displayed similarity to five productive human Tcrg-V1 family genes as well as the mouse Tcrg-V5 gene. The remaining rabbit Tcrg-V gene segment displayed similarity to the human Tcrg-V3 gene. Both rabbit Tcrg-J gene segments displayed similarity to the human Tcrg-J2.1 and 2.3, respectively. These findings suggested that the genomic organization of rabbit Tcrg genes is more similar to that of human than of mouse Tcrg genes. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Pseudogenization of a sweet-receptor gene accounts for cats' indifference toward sugar.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Li, Weihua; Wang, Hong; Cao, Jie; Maehashi, Kenji; Huang, Liquan; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Reed, Danielle R; Legrand-Defretin, Véronique; Beauchamp, Gary K; Brand, Joseph G

    2005-07-01

    Although domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) possess an otherwise functional sense of taste, they, unlike most mammals, do not prefer and may be unable to detect the sweetness of sugars. One possible explanation for this behavior is that cats lack the sensory system to taste sugars and therefore are indifferent to them. Drawing on work in mice, demonstrating that alleles of sweet-receptor genes predict low sugar intake, we examined the possibility that genes involved in the initial transduction of sweet perception might account for the indifference to sweet-tasting foods by cats. We characterized the sweet-receptor genes of domestic cats as well as those of other members of the Felidae family of obligate carnivores, tiger and cheetah. Because the mammalian sweet-taste receptor is formed by the dimerization of two proteins (T1R2 and T1R3; gene symbols Tas1r2 and Tas1r3), we identified and sequenced both genes in the cat by screening a feline genomic BAC library and by performing PCR with degenerate primers on cat genomic DNA. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR of taste tissue, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. The cat Tas1r3 gene shows high sequence similarity with functional Tas1r3 genes of other species. Message from Tas1r3 was detected by RT-PCR of taste tissue. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that Tas1r3 is expressed, as expected, in taste buds. However, the cat Tas1r2 gene shows a 247-base pair microdeletion in exon 3 and stop codons in exons 4 and 6. There was no evidence of detectable mRNA from cat Tas1r2 by RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, and no evidence of protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Tas1r2 in tiger and cheetah and in six healthy adult domestic cats all show the similar deletion and stop codons. We conclude that cat Tas1r3 is an apparently functional and expressed receptor but that cat Tas1r2 is an unexpressed pseudogene. A functional sweet-taste receptor heteromer cannot form, and

  12. Novel Mutation of Interferon-γ Receptor 1 Gene Presenting as Early Life Mycobacterial Bronchial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Maria J.; Kalra, Neelu; Horwitz, Alexandra; Nino, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) are a spectrum of inherited disorders characterized by localized or disseminated infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) deficiency was the first identified genetic disorder recognized as MSMD. Mutations in the genes encoding IFNGR1 can be recessive or dominant and cause complete or partial receptor deficiency. We present the case of a 2½-year-old boy with a history of recurrent wheezing, diagnosed with endobronchial mycobacterial infection. Immunological workup revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the IFNGR1 gene, a novel mutation predicted in silico to cause complete IFNGR1 deficiency. This case demonstrates that (a) Interferon-γ receptor deficiency can present resembling common disorders of the lung; (b) mycobacterial infections should be suspected when parenchymal lung disease, hilar lymphadenopathy, and endobronchial disease are present; and (c) high index of suspicion for immunodeficiency should be maintained in patients with disseminated nontubercular mycobacterial infection. PMID:27868075

  13. Novel Mutation of Interferon-γ Receptor 1 Gene Presenting as Early Life Mycobacterial Bronchial Disease.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Maria J; Kalra, Neelu; Horwitz, Alexandra; Nino, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) are a spectrum of inherited disorders characterized by localized or disseminated infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) deficiency was the first identified genetic disorder recognized as MSMD. Mutations in the genes encoding IFNGR1 can be recessive or dominant and cause complete or partial receptor deficiency. We present the case of a 2½-year-old boy with a history of recurrent wheezing, diagnosed with endobronchial mycobacterial infection. Immunological workup revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in the IFNGR1 gene, a novel mutation predicted in silico to cause complete IFNGR1 deficiency. This case demonstrates that (a) Interferon-γ receptor deficiency can present resembling common disorders of the lung; (b) mycobacterial infections should be suspected when parenchymal lung disease, hilar lymphadenopathy, and endobronchial disease are present; and (c) high index of suspicion for immunodeficiency should be maintained in patients with disseminated nontubercular mycobacterial infection.

  14. Sensory experience and sensory activity regulate chemosensory receptor gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Peckol, Erin L.; Troemel, Emily R.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the environment cause both short-term and long-term changes in an animal's behavior. Here we show that specific sensory experiences cause changes in chemosensory receptor gene expression that may alter sensory perception in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Three predicted chemosensory receptor genes expressed in the ASI chemosensory neurons, srd-1, str-2, and str-3, are repressed by exposure to the dauer pheromone, a signal of crowding. Repression occurs at pheromone concentrations below those that induce formation of the alternative dauer larva stage, suggesting that exposure to pheromones can alter the chemosensory behaviors of non-dauer animals. In addition, ASI expression of srd-1, but not str-2 and str-3, is induced by sensory activity of the ASI neurons. Expression of two receptor genes is regulated by developmental entry into the dauer larva stage. srd-1 expression in ASI neurons is repressed in dauer larvae. str-2 expression in dauer animals is induced in the ASI neurons, but repressed in the AWC neurons. The ASI and AWC neurons remodel in the dauer stage, and these results suggest that their sensory specificity changes as well. We suggest that experience-dependent changes in chemosensory receptor gene expression may modify olfactory behaviors. PMID:11572964

  15. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, "NR3C1," which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of "NR3C1" to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in…

  16. Comparative study of leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in different swine breeds.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, S E; Manea, M A; Dinescu, S; Costache, M

    2014-02-14

    Leptin is an important regulator of appetite, energy metabolism, and reproduction and is mainly synthesized in the adipocytes and then secreted into the bloodstream. The leptin receptor was classified as type I cytokine receptor due to its structural homology with IL-6 receptors and the signaling pathways in which they are both involved. The aim of our study is to comparatively assess the gene expression levels of leptin (lep) and leptin receptor (lepr) in different swine breeds specialized either in meat production (Duroc, Belgian Landrace, Large White, Synthetic Lines LS-345, and LSP-2000) or fat production (Mangalitsa) in order to correlate them with morphological and productivity characteristics. Additionally, lepr pattern of expression was evaluated comparatively between different tissue types in the Mangalitsa breed. Our results revealed high expression of the lep gene in Mangalitsa compared to those of all the other breeds, while for the lepr gene, average/medium levels were registered in Mangalitsa and increased pattern of expression was found in the synthetic lines LS-345 and LSP-2000. Regarding the comparative analysis of lepr gene expression in various tissues in the Mangalitsa breed, elevated levels were found in the liver and kidney, while the lowest expression was identified in the brain and muscles. Our results suggest that the Mangalitsa population exhibits leptin resistance, which might be correlated with atypical morpho-productive characteristics for this breed, such as below-average prolificacy and a strong tendency to accumulate fat.

  17. An evolutionarily mobile antigen receptor variable region gene: doubly rearranging NAR-TcR genes in sharks.

    PubMed

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Saltis, Mark; Flajnik, Martin F

    2006-03-28

    Distinctive Ig and T cell receptor (TcR) chains define the two major lineages of vertebrate lymphocyte yet similarly recognize antigen with a single, membrane-distal variable (V) domain. Here we describe the first antigen receptor chain that employs two V domains, which are generated by separate VDJ gene rearrangement events. These molecules have specialized "supportive" TcRdeltaV domains membrane-proximal to domains with most similarity to IgNAR V. The ancestral NAR V gene encoding this domain is hypothesized to have recombined with the TRD locus in a cartilaginous fish ancestor >200 million years ago and encodes the first V domain shown to be used in both Igs and TcRs. Furthermore, these data support the view that gamma/delta TcRs have for long used structural conformations recognizing free antigen.

  18. Mapping toll-like receptor signaling pathway genes of Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) with FISH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bosong; Zhao, Liang; Liao, Huan; Cheng, Jie; Lian, Shanshan; Li, Xuan; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in the innate immune system. Studies on TLR signaling pathway genes in Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) have mainly focused on sequence analysis and expression profiling, no research has been carried out on their localization. The chromosomal position of TLR signaling pathway genes can be valuable for assemblying scallop genome and analysizing gene regulatory networks. In the present study, five key TLR signaling pathway genes ( CfTLR, CfMyd88, CfTRAF6, CfNFκB, and CfIκB) containing bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were isolated and physically mapped through fluorescence in situ hybridization on five non-homologous chromosome pairs, showing a similar distribution to another five model species. The isolation and mapping of these key immune genes of C. farreri will aid to the research on innate immunity, assignment of interested genes to chromosomes, and integration of physical, linkage and cytogenetic maps of this species.

  19. Lethal graft-versus-host disease in mouse models of T cell receptor gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Bendle, Gavin M; Linnemann, Carsten; Hooijkaas, Anna I; Bies, Laura; de Witte, Moniek A; Jorritsma, Annelies; Kaiser, Andrew D M; Pouw, Nadine; Debets, Reno; Kieback, Elisa; Uckert, Wolfgang; Song, Ji-Ying; Haanen, John B A G; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2010-05-01

    The transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to induce immune reactivity toward defined antigens to which endogenous T cells are insufficiently reactive. This approach, which is called TCR gene therapy, is being developed to target tumors and pathogens, and its clinical testing has commenced in patients with cancer. In this study we show that lethal cytokine-driven autoimmune pathology can occur in mouse models of TCR gene therapy under conditions that closely mimic the clinical setting. We show that the pairing of introduced and endogenous TCR chains in TCR gene-modified T cells leads to the formation of self-reactive TCRs that are responsible for the observed autoimmunity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that adjustments in the design of gene therapy vectors and target T cell populations can be used to reduce the risk of TCR gene therapy-induced autoimmune pathology.

  20. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana M.; Marques, Andreia T.; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S.; Almeida, André M.

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  1. The human insulin receptor substrate-1 gene (IRS1) is localized on 2q36

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Masaki; Matsufuji, Senya; Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Furusaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Teruji ); Inazawa, J.; Nakamura, Yusuke ); Ariyama, Takeshi ); Wands, J.R. )

    1994-03-01

    The chromosomal localization of some of the genes participating in the insulin signaling pathway is known. The insulin and insulin receptor genes have been mapped to chromosomes 11 and 19, respectively. To identify the chromosomal localization of the human IRS1 gene, the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique was employed with Genomic Clone B-10. A total of 50 metaphase cells exhibiting either single or double spots of hybridization signals were examined. Among them, 32 showed the specific signals on 2q36. Therefore, the authors assigned the human IRS1 gene to 2q36. The genes for homeobox sequence (HOX4), fibronectin 1, alkaline phosphatase (intestinal), transition protein 1, villin 1, collagen (type IV), Waardenburg syndrome (type 1), alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, and glucagon have been localized in the vicinity of the IRS1 gene.

  2. Gene correction in the evolution of the T cell receptor beta chain

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Mutational mechanisms operating at the T cell receptor beta chain locus have been examined by comparison of the CT beta 1 and CT beta 2 gene sequences from Mus pahari, believed to be the oldest living species in the genus Mus, with those of inbred mice. Results indicate that a gene correction event independent of that suggested to have occurred in inbred mice has homogenized the M. pahari CT beta exon 1 sequences, minimizing diversity in this region of the molecule. These observations suggest that correction events such as gene conversion may occur frequently, even in pauci-gene families with as few as two members, and therefore play a significant role in gene diversification or homogenization of small as well as large gene families. PMID:3783089

  3. Somatic and germline mutations of the TSH receptor gene in thyroid diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Van Sande, J.; Parma, J.; Tonacchera, M.

    1995-09-01

    Under physiological circumstances, thyrotropin (TSH) is the primary hormone that controls thyroid function and growth. TSH acts by binding to its receptor at the basolateral membrane of thyroid follicular cells. The TSH receptor is a member of the large family of G protein-coupled receptors, which share a similar structural pattern: seven transmembrane segments connected by three extra and three intracellular loops. Together with the receptors for other glycoprotein hormones LH/CG and FSH, the TSH receptor has a long aminoterminal domain that has been shown to encode the specificity for hormone recognition and binding. The G protein-coupled receptors share a common mode of intracellular signalling: They control the on/off state of a variety of trimeric G proteins (G{alpha}{beta}{gamma}) by stimulating the exchange of GDP for GTP on the {alpha} subunit (G{alpha}). The result is that G{alpha} or G{beta}{gamma}, after dissociation of the trimer, will interact with downstream effectors of the receptor. In the case of the TSH receptor, the main G protein involved is Gs, which activates adenylyl cyclase via Gs{alpha}. In some species, including man, the TSH receptor is also capable of activating phospholipase C (via Gq), thus stimulating the production of diacylglycerol and inositolphosphate (IP{sub 3}). However, higher concentrations of TSH are required to activate phospholipase C, compared with adenylyl cyclase. As a consequence, the main second messenger of TSH effects on the human thyroid is cyclic AMP. The present review will summarize recent findings identifying mutations of the TSH receptor gene as a cause for thyroid diseases. 59 refs., 4 figs.

  4. The daf-4 gene encodes a bone morphogenetic protein receptor controlling C. elegans dauer larva development.

    PubMed

    Estevez, M; Attisano, L; Wrana, J L; Albert, P S; Massagué, J; Riddle, D L

    1993-10-14

    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family is a conserved group of signalling molecules within the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. This group, including the Drosophila decapentaplegic (dpp) protein and the mammalian BMPs, mediates cellular interactions and tissue differentiation during development. Here we show that a homologue of human BMPs controls a developmental switch in the life cycle of the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Starvation and overcrowding induce C. elegans to form a developmentally arrested, third-stage dauer larva. The daf-4 gene, which acts to inhibit dauer larva formation and promote growth, encodes a receptor protein kinase similar to the daf-1, activin and TGF-beta receptor serine/threonine kinases. When expressed in monkey COS cells, the daf-4 receptor binds human BMP-2 and BMP-4. The daf-4 receptor is the first to be identified for any growth factor in the BMP family.

  5. Phenotypic characterization of a patient homozygous for the D558N LDL receptor gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, H K; Jensen, L G; Heath, F; Melsen, F; Hansen, P S; Meinertz, H; Bolund, L; Gregersen, N; Faergeman, O

    1996-11-01

    We describe the clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of a patient with true homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia due to the D558N low-density lipoprotein receptor gene mutation, previously designated FH Cincinnati-4. Functional flow-cytometric analysis of the LDL receptorR protein on upregulated EBV-transformed lymphocytes indicated reduction of the number of receptors on the cell surface by 87% and reduction of receptor activity by 89% compared to control cells. With drugs and a portacaval shunt operation, performed when the patient was 15 years old, serum cholesterol was reduced from about 28 to about 15 mmol/l. He died at the age of 32 of a myocardial infarction. The autopsy showed generalized atherosclerosis, especially in the coronary arteries, which were severely stenosed proximally. A rare finding was a large intracranial xanthoma that apparently had been asymptomatic.

  6. Isolation and characterization of alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene, Sigmar1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ling; Pasternak, David A.; Xu, Jin; Xu, Mingming; Lu, Zhigang; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2017-01-01

    The sigma1 receptor acts as a chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum, associates with multiple proteins in various cellular systems, and involves in a number of diseases, such as addiction, pain, cancer and psychiatric disorders. The sigma1 receptor is encoded by the single copy SIGMAR1 gene. The current study identifies five alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene using a polymerase chain reaction cloning approach. All the splice variants are generated by exon skipping or alternative 3’ or 5’ splicing, producing the truncated sigma1 receptor. Similar alternative splicing has been observed in the human SIGMAR1 gene based on the molecular cloning or genome sequence prediction, suggesting conservation of alternative splicing of SIGMAR1 gene. Using quantitative polymerase chain reactions, we demonstrate differential expression of several splice variants in mouse tissues and brain regions. When expressed in HEK293 cells, all the splice variants fail to bind sigma ligands, implicating that each truncated region in these splice variants is important for ligand binding. However, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) study in HEK293 cells co-transfected with tagged constructs reveals that all the splice variants maintain their ability to physically associate with a mu opioid receptor (mMOR-1), providing useful information to correlate the motifs/sequences necessary for their physical association. Furthermore, a competition Co-IP study showed that all the variants can disrupt in a dose-dependent manner the dimerization of the original sigma1 receptor with mMOR-1, suggesting a potential dominant negative function and providing significant insights into their function. PMID:28350844

  7. Meiotic recombination generates rich diversity in NK cell receptor genes, alleles, and haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Paul J.; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Gendzekhadze, Ketevan; Hammond, John A.; Moesta, Achim K.; Sharma, Deepti; Graef, Thorsten; McQueen, Karina L.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Carrington, Christine V.F.; Chandanayingyong, Dasdayanee; Chang, Yih-Hsin; Crespí, Catalina; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher; Hameed, Kamran; Kamkamidze, Giorgi; Koram, Kwadwo A.; Layrisse, Zulay; Matamoros, Nuria; Milà, Joan; Park, Myoung Hee; Pitchappan, Ramasamy M.; Ramdath, D. Dan; Shiau, Ming-Yuh; Stephens, Henry A.F.; Struik, Siske; Tyan, Dolly; Verity, David H.; Vaughan, Robert W.; Davis, Ronald W.; Fraser, Patricia A.; Riley, Eleanor M.; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Parham, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the essential functions of innate immunity and reproduction. Various genes encode NK cell receptors that recognize the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I molecules expressed by other cells. For primate NK cells, the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are a variable and rapidly evolving family of MHC Class I receptors. Studied here is KIR3DL1/S1, which encodes receptors for highly polymorphic human HLA-A and -B and comprises three ancient allelic lineages that have been preserved by balancing selection throughout human evolution. While the 3DS1 lineage of activating receptors has been conserved, the two 3DL1 lineages of inhibitory receptors were diversified through inter-lineage recombination with each other and with 3DS1. Prominent targets for recombination were D0-domain polymorphisms, which modulate enhancer function, and dimorphism at position 283 in the D2 domain, which influences inhibitory function. In African populations, unequal crossing over between the 3DL1 and 3DL2 genes produced a deleted KIR haplotype in which the telomeric “half” was reduced to a single fusion gene with functional properties distinct from its 3DL1 and 3DL2 parents. Conversely, in Eurasian populations, duplication of the KIR3DL1/S1 locus by unequal crossing over has enabled individuals to carry and express alleles of all three KIR3DL1/S1 lineages. These results demonstrate how meiotic recombination combines with an ancient, preserved diversity to create new KIR phenotypes upon which natural selection acts. A consequence of such recombination is to blur the distinction between alleles and loci in the rapidly evolving human KIR gene family. PMID:19411600

  8. Structure and variation of three canine genes involved in serotonin binding and transport: the serotonin receptor 1A gene (htr1A), serotonin receptor 2A gene (htr2A), and serotonin transporter gene (slc6A4).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, L; Kwant, L; Hestand, M S; van Oost, B A; Leegwater, P A J

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the most frequently encountered behavioral problem in dogs. Abnormalities in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs. We studied canine serotonergic genes to investigate genetic factors underlying canine aggression. Here, we describe the characterization of three genes of the canine serotonergic system: the serotonin receptor 1A and 2A gene (htr1A and htr2A) and the serotonin transporter gene (slc6A4). We isolated canine bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing these genes and designed oligonucleotides for genomic sequencing of coding regions and intron-exon boundaries. Golden retrievers were analyzed for DNA sequence variations. We found two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of htr1A; one SNP close to a splice site in htr2A; and two SNPs in slc6A4, one in the coding sequence and one close to a splice site. In addition, we identified a polymorphic microsatellite marker for each gene. Htr1A is a strong candidate for involvement in the domestication of the dog. We genotyped the htr1A SNPs in 41 dogs of seven breeds with diverse behavioral characteristics. At least three SNP haplotypes were found. Our results do not support involvement of the gene in domestication.

  9. Polo-like kinase 2 gene expression is regulated by the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERR{gamma})

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yun-Yong; Kim, Seok-Ho; Kim, Yong Joo; Kim, Sun Yee; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Seung Bum; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2007-10-12

    Estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERR{gamma}) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcriptional activators. To date, the target genes and physiological functions of ERR{gamma} are not well understood. In the current study, we identify that Plk2 is a novel target of ERR{gamma}. Northern blot analysis showed that overexpression of ERR{gamma} induced Plk2 expression in cancer cell lines. ERR{gamma} activated the Plk2 gene promoter, and deletion and mutational analysis of the Plk2 promoter revealed that the ERR{gamma}-response region is located between nucleotides (nt) -2327 and -2229 and -441 and -432 (relative to the transcriptional start site at +1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrated that ERR{gamma} binds directly to the Plk2 promoter. Overexpression of ERR{gamma} in the presence of the mitotic inhibitor nocodazole significantly decreased apoptosis, and induced S-phase cell cycle progression through the induction of Plk2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Plk2 is a novel target of ERR{gamma}, and suggest that this interaction is crucial for cancer cell proliferation.

  10. Self administration of oxycodone by adolescent and adult mice affects striatal neurotransmitter receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Blackwell, B; Schlussman, S D; Butelman, E R; Ho, A; Ott, J; Kreek, M J; Zhang, Y

    2014-01-31

    Illicit use of prescription opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone) in adolescence is a pressing public health issue. Our goal was to determine whether oxycodone self administration differentially affects striatal neurotransmitter receptor gene expression in the dorsal striatum of adolescent compared to adult C57BL/6J mice. Groups of adolescent mice (4 weeks old, n=12) and of adult mice (11 weeks old, n=11) underwent surgery during which a catheter was implanted into their jugular veins. After recovering from surgery, mice self administered oxycodone (0.25 mg/kg/infusion) 2 h/day for 14 consecutive days or served as yoked saline controls. Mice were sacrificed within 1h after the last self-administration session and the dorsal striatum was isolated for mRNA analysis. Gene expression was analyzed with real time PCR using a commercially available neurotransmitter receptor PCR array containing 84 genes. We found that adolescent mice self administered less oxycodone than adult mice over the 14 days. Monoamine oxidase A (Maoa) and neuropeptide Y receptor 5 mRNA levels were lower in adolescent mice than in adult mice without oxycodone exposure. Oxycodone self administration increased Maoa mRNA levels compared to controls in both age groups. There was a positive correlation of the amount of oxycodone self administered in the last session or across 14 sessions with Maoa mRNA levels. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mRNA showed a significant Drug × Age interaction, with point-wise significance. More genes in the dorsal striatum of adolescents (19) changed in response to oxycodone self administration compared to controls than in adult (4) mice. Overall, this study demonstrates that repeated oxycodone self administration alters neurotransmitter receptors gene expression in the dorsal striatum of adolescent and adult mice.

  11. Androgen Receptor Structure, Function and Biology: From Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Rachel A; Grossmann, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    The actions of androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor and member of the steroid hormone nuclear receptor family. Given its widespread expression in many cells and tissues, the AR has a diverse range of biological actions including important roles in the development and maintenance of the reproductive, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, immune, neural and haemopoietic systems. AR signalling may also be involved in the development of tumours in the prostate, bladder, liver, kidney and lung. Androgens can exert their actions via the AR in a DNA binding-dependent manner to regulate target gene transcription, or in a non-DNA binding-dependent manner to initiate rapid, cellular events such as the phosphorylation of 2nd messenger signalling cascades. More recently, ligand-independent actions of the AR have also been identified. Given the large volume of studies relating to androgens and the AR, this review is not intended as an extensive review of all studies investigating the AR, but rather as an overview of the structure, function, signalling pathways and biology of the AR as well as its important role in clinical medicine, with emphasis on recent developments in this field. PMID:27057074

  12. Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with differences in moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Regan M; Chaponis, Jonathan; Siburian, Richie; Gallagher, Patience; Ransohoff, Katherine; Wikler, Daniel; Perlis, Roy H; Greene, Joshua D

    2016-12-01

    Moral judgments are produced through the coordinated interaction of multiple neural systems, each of which relies on a characteristic set of neurotransmitters. Genes that produce or regulate these neurotransmitters may have distinctive influences on moral judgment. Two studies examined potential genetic influences on moral judgment using dilemmas that reliably elicit competing automatic and controlled responses, generated by dissociable neural systems. Study 1 (N = 228) examined 49 common variants (SNPs) within 10 candidate genes and identified a nominal association between a polymorphism (rs237889) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and variation in deontological vs utilitarian moral judgment (that is, judgments favoring individual rights vs the greater good). An association was likewise observed for rs1042615 of the arginine vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A). Study 2 (N = 322) aimed to replicate these findings using the aforementioned dilemmas as well as a new set of structurally similar medical dilemmas. Study 2 failed to replicate the association with AVPR1A, but replicated the OXTR finding using both the original and new dilemmas. Together, these findings suggest that moral judgment is influenced by variation in the oxytocin receptor gene and, more generally, that single genetic polymorphisms can have a detectable effect on complex decision processes.

  13. Identification and evolution of two insulin receptor genes involved in Tribolium castaneum development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ming; Li, Chengjun; Wu, Wei; Li, Bin

    2016-07-10

    The insulin and insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway exists in a wide range of organisms from mammals to invertebrates and regulates several vital physiological functions. A phylogenetic analysis have indicated that insulin receptors have been duplicated at least twice among vertebrates, whereas only one duplication occurred in insects before the differentiation of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera. Thus, we cloned two putative insulin receptor genes, T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2, from T. castaneum and determined that T.cas-ir1 is most strongly expressed during the late adult and early pupal stages, whereas T.cas-ir2 is most strongly expressed during the late larval stage. We found that larval RNAi against T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2 causes 100% and 42.0% insect death, respectively, and that parental RNAi against T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2 leads to 100% and 33.3% reductions in beetle fecundity, respectively. The hatching rate of ds-ir2 insects was 66.2%. Moreover, RNAi against these two genes increased the expression of the pkc, foxo, jnk, cdc42, ikk, and mekk genes but decreased erk gene expression. Despite these similarities, these two genes act via distinct regulatory pathways. These results indicate that these two receptors have functionally diverged with respect to the development and reproduction of T. castaneum, even though they retain some common regulatory signaling pathways.

  14. Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with differences in moral judgment

    PubMed Central

    Chaponis, Jonathan; Siburian, Richie; Gallagher, Patience; Ransohoff, Katherine; Wikler, Daniel; Perlis, Roy H.; Greene, Joshua D.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgments are produced through the coordinated interaction of multiple neural systems, each of which relies on a characteristic set of neurotransmitters. Genes that produce or regulate these neurotransmitters may have distinctive influences on moral judgment. Two studies examined potential genetic influences on moral judgment using dilemmas that reliably elicit competing automatic and controlled responses, generated by dissociable neural systems. Study 1 (N = 228) examined 49 common variants (SNPs) within 10 candidate genes and identified a nominal association between a polymorphism (rs237889) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and variation in deontological vs utilitarian moral judgment (that is, judgments favoring individual rights vs the greater good). An association was likewise observed for rs1042615 of the arginine vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A). Study 2 (N = 322) aimed to replicate these findings using the aforementioned dilemmas as well as a new set of structurally similar medical dilemmas. Study 2 failed to replicate the association with AVPR1A, but replicated the OXTR finding using both the original and new dilemmas. Together, these findings suggest that moral judgment is influenced by variation in the oxytocin receptor gene and, more generally, that single genetic polymorphisms can have a detectable effect on complex decision processes. PMID:27497314

  15. Mutation analysis of the transferrin receptor-2 gene in patients with iron overload.

    PubMed

    Lee, P L; Halloran, C; West, C; Beutler, E

    2001-01-01

    Three mutations in the transferrin receptor-2 gene have recently been identified in four Sicilian families with iron overload who had a normal hemochromatosis gene, HFE (C. Camaschella, personal communication). To determine the extent to which mutations in the transferrin receptor-2 gene occur in other populations with iron overload, we have completely sequenced this gene in 17 whites, 10 Asians, and 8 African Americans with iron overload and a C282C/C282C HFE genotype, as well as 4 subjects without iron overload and homozygous for the mutant HFE C282Y genotype, 5 patients with iron overload and homozygous for the mutant HFE C282Y genotype, and 5 normal individuals. None of the individuals exhibited the Sicilian mutations, Y250X in exon 6, M172K in exon 4, and E60X in exon 2. One iron-overloaded individual of Asian descent exhibited a I238M mutation which was subsequently found to be a polymorphism present in the Asian population at a frequency of 0.0192. The presence of the I238M mutation was not associated with an increase in ferritin or transferrin saturation levels. Three silent polymorphisms were also identified, nt 1770 (D590D) and nt 1851 (A617A) and a polymorphism at nt 2255 in the 3' UTR. Thus, mutations in the transferrin receptor-2 gene were not responsible for the iron overload seen in our subjects.

  16. Distinct, genome-wide, gene-specific selectivity patterns of four glucocorticoid receptor coregulators.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Ou, Chen-Yin; Chodankar, Rajas; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Stallcup, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that bind to and activate the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which then positively or negatively regulates transcription of many genes that govern multiple important physiological pathways such as inflammation and metabolism of glucose, fat and bone. The remodeling of chromatin and regulated assembly or disassembly of active transcription complexes by GR and other DNA-binding transcription factors is mediated and modulated by several hundred transcriptional coregulator proteins. Previous studies focusing on single coregulators demonstrated that each coregulator is required for regulation of only a subset of all the genes regulated by a steroid hormone. We hypothesized that the gene-specific patterns of coregulators may correspond to specific physiological pathways such that different coregulators modulate the pathway-specificity of hormone action, thereby providing a mechanism for fine tuning of the hormone response. We tested this by direct comparison of multiple coregulators, using siRNA to deplete the products of four steroid hormone receptor coregulator genes (CCAR1, CCAR2, CALCOCO1 and ZNF282). Global analysis of glucocorticoid-regulated gene expression after siRNA mediated depletion of coregulators confirmed that each coregulator acted in a selective and gene-specific manner and demonstrated both positive and negative effects on glucocorticoid-regulated expression of different genes. We identified several classes of hormone-regulated genes based on the effects of coregulator depletion. Each coregulator supported hormonal regulation of some genes and opposed hormonal regulation of other genes (coregulator-modulated genes), blocked hormonal regulation of a second class of genes (coregulator-blocked genes), and had no effect on hormonal regulation of a third gene class (coregulator-independent genes). In spite of previously demonstrated physical and functional interactions among these four coregulators, the majority

  17. NMDA receptor gene variations as modifiers in Huntington disease: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Saft, Carsten; Epplen, Jörg T; Wieczorek, Stefan; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Roos, Raymund A C; de Yebenes, Justo Garcia; Dose, Matthias; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Craufurd, David; Arning, Larissa

    2011-10-04

    Several candidate modifier genes which, in addition to the pathogenic CAG repeat expansion, influence the age at onset (AO) in Huntington disease (HD) have already been described. The aim of this study was to replicate association of variations in the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes GRIN2A and GRIN2B in the "REGISTRY" cohort from the European Huntington Disease Network (EHDN). The analyses did replicate the association reported between the GRIN2A rs2650427 variation and AO in the entire cohort. Yet, when subjects were stratified by AO subtypes, we found nominally significant evidence for an association of the GRIN2A rs1969060 variation and the GRIN2B rs1806201 variation. These findings further implicate the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype genes as loci containing variation associated with AO in HD.

  18. The role of the nuclear receptor CAR as a coordinate regulator of hepatic gene expression in defense against chemical toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yukio; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Negishi, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear receptor CAR (constitutive active receptor) mediates the induction of transcription of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by phenobarbital (PB) and PB-type inducers. A recent study using CAR-null mice has shown that CAR regulates not only the CYP genes but also other genes encoding various drug/steroid-metabolizing enzymes. In addition to coordinating these enzymes, CAR plays other roles in hepatic gene expression: CAR represses various genes including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in response to PB, and the receptor regulates the constitutive expression of genes such as squalene epoxidase. On the other hand, induction of certain genes such as amino levulinate synthase 1 by PB is not regulated by CAR. Here we describe diverse roles of CAR in hepatic gene expression with a particular focus on endogenous substances such as cholesterol, bilirubin, and steroid hormones.

  19. Smallest bitter taste receptor (T2Rs) gene repertoire in carnivores.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling-Ling; Shi, Peng

    2013-06-01

    Bitter taste reception is presumably associated with dietary selection, preventing animals from ingesting potentially harmful compounds. Accordingly, carnivores, who encounter these toxic substances less often, should have fewer genes associated with bitter taste reception compared with herbivores and omnivores. To investigate the genetic basis of bitter taste reception, we confirmed bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes previously found in the genome sequences of two herbivores (cow and horse), two omnivores (mouse and rat) and one carnivore (dog). We also identified, for the first time, the T2R repertoire from the genome of other four carnivore species (ferret, giant panda, polar bear and cat) and detected 17-20 bitter receptor genes from the five carnivore genomes, including 12-16 intact genes, 0-1 partial but putatively functional genes, and 3-8 pseudogenes. Both the intact T2R genes and the total T2R gene number among carnivores were the smallest among the tested species, supporting earlier speculations that carnivores have fewer T2R genes, herbivores an intermediate number, and omnivores the largest T2R gene repertoire. To further explain the genetic basis for this disparity, we constructed a phylogenetic tree, which showed most of the T2R genes from the five carnivores were one-to-one orthologs across the tree, suggesting that carnivore T2Rs were conserved among mammals. Similarly, the small carnivore T2R family size was likely due to rare duplication events. Collectively, these results strengthen arguments for the connection between T2R gene family size, diet and habit.

  20. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of the MHC class I-like Fc receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kandil, Eman; Ishibashi, Teruo; Kasahara, Masanori

    1995-06-01

    The intestinal epithelium of neonatal mice and rats expresses an Fc receptor that mediates selective uptake of IgG in mothers`milk. This receptor (FcRn), which helps newborn animals to acquire passive immunity, is an MHC class I-like heterodimer made up of a heavy chain and {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin. In the present study, we determined the genomic structure of a mouse gene (FcRn) encoding the heavy of FcRn. The overall exon-intron organization of the Fcrn gene was similar to that of the Fcrn gene, thus providing structural evidence that Fcrn os a bona fide class I gene. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the Fcrn gene contained the binding motifs for two cytokine-inducible transcription factors, NF-IL6 and NF1. However, regulatory elements found in MHC class I genes (enhancer A, enhancer B, and the IFN response element) were absent. Phylogenetic tree analysis suggested that, like the MICA, AZGP1, and CD1 genes, the Fcrn gene diverged form MHC class I genes after the emergence of amphibians but before the split of placental and marsupial mammals. Consistent with this result, Southern blot analysis with a mouse Fcrn cDNA probe detected cross-hybridizing bands in various mammalian species and chickens. Sequence analysis of the Fcrn gene isolated from eight mouse strains showed that the membrane-distal domain of FcRn has at least three amino acid variants. The fact that Fcrn is a single copy gene indicates that it is expressed in both the neonatal intestine and the fetal yolk sac. 74 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Glucocorticoid receptor represses proinflammatory genes at distinct steps of the transcription cycle.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Rebecca; Muse, Ginger W; Chinenov, Yurii; Adelman, Karen; Rogatsky, Inez

    2013-09-03

    Widespread anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoid hormones are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily. In conjunction with its corepressor GR-interacting protein-1 (GRIP1), GR tethers to the DNA-bound activator protein-1 and NF-κB and represses transcription of their target proinflammatory cytokine genes. However, these target genes fall into distinct classes depending on the step of the transcription cycle that is rate-limiting for their activation: Some are controlled through RNA polymerase II (PolII) recruitment and initiation, whereas others undergo signal-induced release of paused elongation complexes into productive RNA synthesis. Whether these genes are differentially regulated by GR is unknown. Here we report that, at the initiation-controlled inflammatory genes in primary macrophages, GR inhibited LPS-induced PolII occupancy. In contrast, at the elongation-controlled genes, GR did not affect PolII recruitment or transcription initiation but promoted, in a GRIP1-dependent manner, the accumulation of the pause-inducing negative elongation factor. Consistently, GR-dependent repression of elongation-controlled genes was abolished specifically in negative elongation factor-deficient macrophages. Thus, GR:GRIP1 use distinct mechanisms to repress inflammatory genes at different stages of the transcription cycle.

  2. The regulation of oxytocin receptor gene expression during adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yi, K J; So, K H; Hata, Y; Suzuki, Y; Kato, D; Watanabe, K; Aso, H; Kasahara, Y; Nishimori, K; Chen, C; Katoh, K; Roh, S G

    2015-05-01

    Although it has been reported that oxytocin stimulates lipolysis in adipocytes, changes in the expression of oxytocin receptor (OTR) mRNA in adipogenesis are still unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of OTR mRNA during adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in adipocytes. OTR mRNA was highly expressed in adipocytes prepared from mouse adipose tissues compared to stromal-vascular cells. OTR mRNA expression was increased during the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. OTR expression levels were higher in subcutaneous and epididymal adipose tissues of 14-week-old male mice compared to 7-week-old male mice. Levels of OTR mRNA expression were higher in adipose tissues at four different sites of mice fed a high-fat diet than in those of mice fed a normal diet. The OTR expression level was also increased by refeeding for 4 h after fasting for 16 h. Oxytocin significantly induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, a new regulatory mechanism is demonstrated for oxytocin to control the differentiation and fat accumulation in adipocytes via activation of OTR as a part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adipose axis.

  3. High-throughput mapping of the promoters of the mouse olfactory receptor genes reveals a new type of mammalian promoter and provides insight into olfactory receptor gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Clowney, E. Josephine; Magklara, Angeliki; Colquitt, Bradley M.; Pathak, Nidhi; Lane, Robert P.; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2011-01-01

    The olfactory receptor (OR) genes are the largest mammalian gene family and are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion in olfactory neurons. Using a high-throughput approach, we mapped the transcription start sites of 1085 of the 1400 murine OR genes and performed computational analysis that revealed potential transcription factor binding sites shared by the majority of these promoters. Our analysis produced a hierarchical model for OR promoter recognition in which unusually high AT content, a unique epigenetic signature, and a stereotypically positioned O/E site distinguish OR promoters from the rest of the murine promoters. Our computations revealed an intriguing correlation between promoter AT content and evolutionary plasticity, as the most AT-rich promoters regulate rapidly evolving gene families. Within the AT-rich promoter category the position of the TATA-box does not correlate with the transcription start site. Instead, a spike in GC composition might define the exact location of the TSS, introducing the concept of “genomic contrast” in transcriptional regulation. Finally, our experiments show that genomic neighborhood rather than promoter sequence correlates with the probability of different OR genes to be expressed in the same olfactory cell. PMID:21705439

  4. Identification and functional analysis of pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 mating locus of Pleurotus eryngii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Young Min; Im, Chak Han; Ali, Asjad; Kim, Sun Young; Je, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Min-Keun; Rho, Hyun Su; Lee, Hyun Sook; Kong, Won-Sik; Ryu, Jae-San

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus eryngii has recently become a major cultivated mushroom; it uses tetrapolar heterothallism as a part of its reproductive process. Sexual development progresses only when the A and B mating types are compatible. Such mating incompatibility occasionally limits the efficiency of breeding programs in which crossing within loci-shared strains or backcrossing strategies are employed. Therefore, understanding the mating system in edible mushroom fungi will help provide a short cut in the development of new strains. We isolated and identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and performed a functional analysis of the genes in the mating process by transformation. A genomic DNA library was constructed to map the entire mating-type locus. The B3 locus was found to contain four pheromone precursor genes and four receptor genes. Remarkably, receptor PESTE3.3.1 has just 34 amino acid residues in its C-terminal cytoplasmic region; therefore, it seems likely to be a receptor-like gene. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) revealed that most pheromone and receptor genes showed significantly higher expression in monokaryotic cells than dikaryotic cells. The pheromone genes PEphb3.1 and PEphb3.3 and the receptor gene PESTE3.3.1 were transformed into P5 (A3B4). The transformants were mated with a tester strain (A4B4), and the progeny showed clamp connections and a normal fruiting body, which indicates the proposed role of these genes in mating and fruiting processes. This result also confirms that PESTE3.3.1 is a receptor gene. In this study, we identified pheromone and receptor genes in the B3 locus of P. eryngii and found that some of those genes appear to play a role in the mating and fruiting processes. These results might help elucidate the mechanism of fruiting differentiation and improve breeding efficiency.

  5. Ecdysone Receptor Gene Switch Technology for Inducible Gene Expression in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inducible gene regulation systems based on specific chemicals have many potential applications in agriculture and in the basic understanding of gene function. As a result several gene switches have been developed. However, the properties of the chemicals used in most of these switches make their use...

  6. High-throughput chemiluminometric genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms of histamine, serotonin, and adrenergic receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Toubanaki, Dimitra K; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Ioannou, Penelope C; Flordellis, Christodoulos S

    2009-02-01

    Several pharmacogenetic studies are focused on the investigation of the relation between the efficacy of various antipsychotic agents (e.g., clozapine) and the genetic profile of the patient with an emphasis on genes that code for neurotransmitter receptors such as histamine, serotonin, and adrenergic receptors. We report a high-throughput method for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of histamine H2 receptor (HRH2), serotonin receptor (HTR2A1 and HTR2A2), and beta(3) adrenergic receptor (ADRB3). The method combines the high specificity of allele discrimination by oligonucleotide ligation reaction (OLR) and the superior sensitivity and simplicity of chemiluminometric detection in a microtiter well assay configuration. The genomic region that spans the locus of interest is first amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequently, an oligonucleotide ligation reaction is performed using a biotinylated common probe and two allele-specific probes that are labeled at the 3' end with digoxigenin and fluorescein. The ligation products are immobilized in polystyrene wells via biotin-streptavidin interaction, and the hybrids are denatured. Detection is accomplished by the addition of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-digoxigenin or anti-fluorescein antibodies in combination with a chemiluminogenic substrate. The ratio of the luminescence signals obtained from digoxigenin and fluorescein indicates the genotype of the sample. The method was applied successfully to the genotyping of 23 blood samples for all four SNPs. The results were in concordance with both PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing.

  7. Zearalenone activates pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and corresponding phase I target genes mRNA in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ayed-Boussema, Imen; Pascussi, Jean Marc; Maurel, Patrick; Bacha, Hassen; Hassen, Wafa

    2011-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is found worldwide as a contaminant in cereals and grains. ZEN subchronic and chronic toxicities are dominated by reproductive disorders in different mammalian species which have made ZEN established mammalian endocrine disrupter. Over the last 30 years of ZEN biotransformation study, the toxin was thought to undergo reductive metabolism only, with the generation in several species of α- and β-isomers of zearalenol. However, recent investigations have noticed that the mycoestrogen is prone to oxidative metabolism leading to hydroxylation of ZEN though the involvement of different cytochromes P450 (CYPs) isoforms. The aim of the present study was to further explore the effect of ZEN on regulation of some CYPs using primary cultures of human hepatocytes. For this aim, using real time RT-PCR, we monitored in a first time, the effect of ZEN on mRNA levels of pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), nuclear receptors known to be involved in the regulation of some CYPs. In a second time, we looked for ZEN effect on expression of PXR, CAR and AhR corresponding phase I target genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2). Finally, we realised the luciferase assay in HepG2 treated with the toxin and transiently transfected with p-CYP3A4-Luc in the presence of a hPXR vector or transfected with p-CYPA1-Luc.Our results clearly showed that ZEN activated human PXR, CAR and AhR mRNA levels in addition to some of their phase I target genes mainly CYP3A4, CYP2B6 and CYP1A1 and at lesser extent CYP3A5 and CYP2C9 at ZEN concentrations as low as 0.1 μM.

  8. Developmental regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shoba, L; An, M R; Frank, S J; Lowe, W L

    1999-06-25

    During development, the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene is expressed in a tissue specific manner; however, the molecular mechanisms governing its developmental regulation remain poorly defined. To examine the hypothesis that expression of the growth hormone (GH) receptor accounts, in part, for the tissue specific expression of the IGF-I gene during development, the developmental regulation of IGF-I and GH receptor gene expression in rat tissues was examined. The level of IGF-I and GH receptor mRNA was quantified in RNA prepared from rats between day 17 of gestation (E17) and 17 months of age (17M) using an RNase protection assay. Developmental regulation of IGF-I gene expression was tissue specific with four different patterns of expression seen. In liver, IGF-I mRNA levels increased markedly between E17 and postnatal day 45 (P45) and declined thereafter. In contrast, in brain, skeletal muscle and testis, IGF-I mRNA levels decreased between P5 and 4M but were relatively unchanged thereafter. In heart and kidney, a small increase in IGF-I mRNA levels was observed between the early postnatal period and 4 months, whereas in lung, minimal changes were observed during development. The changes in GH receptor mRNA levels were, in general, coordinate with the changes in IGF-I mRNA levels, except in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, quantification of GH receptor levels by Western blot analysis in skeletal muscle demonstrated changes coordinate with IGF-I mRNA levels. The levels of the proteins which mediate GH receptor signaling (STAT1, -3, and -5, and JAK2) were quantified by Western blot analysis. These proteins also are expressed in a tissue specific manner during development. In some cases, the pattern of expression was coordinate with IGF-I gene expression, whereas in others it was discordant. To further define molecular mechanisms for the developmental regulation of IGF-I gene expression, protein binding to IGFI-FP1, a protein binding site that is in the major

  9. Biocomputational analysis of evolutionary relationship between toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors genes

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Rabia; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Shekhar; Deka, Dipak; Verma, Ramneek; Dubey, P. P.; Arora, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The active domains (TIR and NACHT) of the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs: Toll-like receptors [TLRs] and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain [NOD]-like receptors [NLR], respectively) are the major hotspots of evolution as natural selection has crafted their final structure by substitution of residues over time. This paper addresses the evolutionary perspectives of the TLR and NLR genes with respect to the active domains in terms of their chronological fruition, functional diversification, and species-specific stipulation. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 full-length cds (and corresponding peptide) of the domains were selected as representatives of each type of PRRs, belonging to divergent animal species, for the biocomputational analyses. The secondary and tertiary structure of the taurine TIR and NACHT domains was predicted to compare the relatedness among the domains under study. Results: Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results indicated that these host-specific PRRs formed entirely different clusters, with active domains of NLRs (NACHT) evolved earlier as compared to the active domains of TLRs (TIR). Each type of TLR or NLR shows comparatively less variation among the animal species due to the specificity of action against the type of microbes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that there has been no positive selection acting on the domains associated with disease resistance which is a fitness trait indicating the extent of purifying pressure on the domains. Gene duplication could be a possible reason of genesis of similar kinds of TLRs (virus or bacteria specific). PMID:27956772

  10. Largest vertebrate vomeronasal type 1 receptor gene repertoire in the semiaquatic platypus.

    PubMed

    Grus, Wendy E; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2007-10-01

    Vertebrate vomeronasal chemoreception plays important roles in many aspects of an organism's daily life, such as mating, territoriality, and foraging. Vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), 2 large families of G protein-coupled receptors, serve as vomeronasal receptors to bind to various pheromones and odorants. Contrary to the previous observations of reduced olfaction in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, we here report the surprising finding that the platypus, a semiaquatic monotreme, has the largest V1R repertoire and nearly largest combined repertoire of V1Rs and V2Rs of all vertebrates surveyed, with 270 intact genes and 579 pseudogenes in the V1R family and 15 intact genes, 55 potentially intact genes, and 57 pseudogenes in the V2R family. Phylogenetic analysis shows a remarkable expansion of the V1R repertoire and a moderate expansion of the V2R repertoire in platypus since the separation of monotremes from placentals and marsupials. Our results challenge the view that olfaction is unimportant to aquatic mammals and call for further study into the role of vomeronasal reception in platypus physiology and behavior.

  11. Exchange factors directly activated by cAMP mediate melanocortin 4 receptor-induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Glas, Evi; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Gs protein-coupled receptors regulate many vital body functions by activation of cAMP response elements (CRE) via cAMP-dependent kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of the CRE binding protein (CREB). Melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are prototypical Gs-coupled receptors that orchestrate the hypothalamic control of food-intake and metabolism. Remarkably, the significance of PKA for MC4R-induced CRE-dependent transcription in hypothalamic cells has not been rigorously interrogated yet. In two hypothalamic cell lines, we observed that blocking PKA activity had only weak or no effects on reporter gene expression. In contrast, inhibitors of exchange factors directly activated by cAMP-1/2 (EPAC-1/2) mitigated MC4R-induced CRE reporter activation and mRNA induction of the CREB-dependent genes c-fos and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Furthermore, we provide first evidence that extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activated by EPACs and not PKA are the elusive CREB kinases responsible for MC4R-induced CREB/CRE activation in hypothalamic cells. Overall, these data emphasize the pivotal role of EPACs rather than PKA in hypothalamic gene expression elicited by a prototypical Gs-coupled receptor. PMID:27612207

  12. Methuselah/Methuselah-like G protein-coupled receptors constitute an ancient metazoan gene family

    PubMed Central

    de Mendoza, Alexandre; Jones, Jeffery W.; Friedrich, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistent conclusions have been drawn regarding the phylogenetic age of the Methuselah/Methuselah-like (Mth/Mthl) gene family of G protein-coupled receptors, the founding member of which regulates development and lifespan in Drosophila. Here we report the results from a targeted homolog search of 39 holozoan genomes and phylogenetic analysis of the conserved seven transmembrane domain. Our findings reveal that the Mth/Mthl gene family is ancient, has experienced numerous extinction and expansion events during metazoan evolution, and acquired the current definition of the Methuselah ectodomain during its exceptional expansion in arthropods. In addition, our findings identify Mthl1, Mthl5, Mthl14, and Mthl15 as the oldest Mth/Mthl gene family paralogs in Drosophila. Future studies of these genes have the potential to define ancestral functions of the Mth/Mthl gene family. PMID:26915348

  13. Lack of imprinting of the human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Propping, P.; Wolf, H.K.

    1996-04-09

    The term genomic imprinting has been used to refer to the differential expression of genetic material depending on whether it has come from the male or female parent. In humans, the chromosomal region 11p15.5 has been shown to contain 2 imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2). The gene for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), which is of great interest for research into neuropsychiatric disorders and psychopharmacology, is also located in this area. In the present study, we have examined the imprinting status of the DRD4 gene in brain tissue of an epileptic patient who was heterozygous for a 12 bp repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the DRD4 gene. We show that both alleles are expressed in equivalent amounts. We therefore conclude that the DRD4 gene is not imprinted in the human brain. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Diet Shapes the Evolution of the Vertebrate Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Li, Diyan; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate Tas2r taste receptors bind to bitter compounds, which are typically poisonous, to elicit bitter sensation to prevent the ingestion of toxins. Previous studies noted a marked variation in the number of Tas2r genes among species, but the underlying cause is unclear. To address this question, we compile the Tas2r gene repertoires from 41 mammals, 4 birds, 2 reptiles, 1 amphibian, and 6 fishes. The number of intact Tas2r genes varies from 0 in the bottlenose dolphin to 51 in the Western clawed frog, with numerous expansions and contractions of the gene family throughout vertebrates, especially among tetrapods. The Tas2r gene number in a species correlates with the fraction of plants in its diet. Because plant tissues contain more toxic compounds than animal tissues do, our observation supports the hypothesis that dietary toxins are a major selective force shaping the diversity of the Tas2r repertoire. PMID:24202612

  15. Genes expressed in the brain define three distinct neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Nef, P; Oneyser, C; Alliod, C; Couturier, S; Ballivet, M

    1988-01-01

    Four genes encode the related protein subunits that assemble to form the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) at the motor endplate of vertebrates. We have isolated from the chicken genome four additional members of the same gene family whose protein products, termed alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4 and n alpha (non-alpha) probably define three distinct neuronal nAChR subtypes. The neuronal nAChR genes have identical structures consisting of six protein-coding exons and specify proteins that are best aligned with the chicken endplate alpha subunit, whose gene we have also characterized. mRNA transcripts encoding alpha 4 and n alpha are abundant in embryonic and in adult avian brain, whereas alpha 2 and alpha 3 transcripts are much scarcer. The same set of neuronal genes probably exists in all vertebrates since their counterparts have also been identified in the rat genome. Images PMID:3267226

  16. Transforming growth factor-beta receptor requirements for the induction of the endothelin-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Castañares, Cristina; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; Magan-Marchal, Noemi; Lamas, Santiago; Rodriguez-Pascual, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    Expression of the endothelin (ET)-1 gene is subject to complex regulation by numerous factors, among which the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is one of the most important. TGF-beta action is based on the activation of the Smad signaling pathway. Smad proteins activate transcription of the gene by cooperation with activator protein-1 (AP-1) at specific sites on the ET-1 promoter. Smad signaling pathway is initiated by binding of the cytokine to a heteromeric complex of type I and type II receptors. Signal is then propagated to the nucleus by specific members of the Smad family. Most cell types contain a type I receptor known as ALK5. However, endothelial cells are unique because they coexpress an additional type I receptor named ALK1. These forms do not constitute redundant receptors with the same function, but they actually activate different Smad-mediated expression programs that lead to specific endothelial phenotypes. TGF-beta/ALK5/Smad3 pathway is associated to a mature endothelium because it leads to inhibition of cell migration/proliferation. Conversely, TGF-beta/ALK1/Smad5 activates both processes and is more related to the angiogenic state. We have analyzed the TGF-beta receptor subtype requirements for the activation of the ET-1 gene. For that purpose, we have overexpressed type I receptor and Smad isoforms in endothelial cells and analyzed the effect on ET-1 expression. Our experiments indicate that TGF-beta induces ET-1 expression preferentially through the activation of the ALK5/Smad3 pathway and, therefore, the expression of the vaso-constrictor may be associated to a quiescent and mature endothelial phenotype.

  17. The effects of spiritual intervention and changes in dopamine receptor gene expression in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohammad Esmael; Kashani, Farah Lotfi; Ahangari, Ghasem; Pornour, Majid; Hejazi, Hessam; Nooshinfar, Elah; Kabiri, Mohsen; Hosseini, Leili

    2016-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females in Iran and in most of the developed countries. Studies have shown that having chronic stress in individuals predisposes several types of cancer including breast cancer. Research results showed that spiritual factors correlate with indices of physical consequences such as heart disease, cancer, and death, so do psychiatric conditions and changes in receptor gene expression in depression, anxiety, and social dysfunction. Different studies demonstrated the role of neurotransmitters in occurrence and progression of cancers. They affected cells by their various types of receptors. An effective gene in mental and physical conditions is Dopamine receptor. Accordingly, the study was conducted to evaluate effects of psychotherapy (spiritual intervention) on changes in Dopamine receptor gene expressions in breast cancer patients. 90 female volunteers, including 30 healthy individuals and 60 diagnosed with breast cancer, considering exclusion criteria, were selected for the purpose of the study. The breast cancer patients were further categorized into experimental and control groups of 30 each. Blood samples were collected both prior to and following the spiritual intervention to analyze changes in their dopamine gene receptor expressions. We observed that DRD2-DRD4 in the control group (breast cancer patients) PBMC increased compared to healthy individuals. Also, DRD2-DRD4 in intervention group PBMC decreased compared to the control group and to even lower than those of healthy individuals. The findings were of great significance in management and treatment of cancer because they revealed the possibility of using alternative treatments (e.g., spiritual interventions) apart from conventional medical treatments.

  18. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism.

  19. Gene expression of muscarinic, tachykinin, and purinergic receptors in porcine bladder: comparison with cultured cells

    PubMed Central

    Bahadory, Forough; Moore, Kate H.; Liu, Lu; Burcher, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Urothelial cells, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells are important cell types contributing to bladder function. Multiple receptors including muscarinic (M3/M5), tachykinin (NK1/NK2), and purinergic (P2X1/P2Y6) receptors are involved in bladder motor and sensory actions. Using female pig bladder, our aim was to differentiate between various cell types in bladder by genetic markers. We compared the molecular expression pattern between the fresh tissue layers and their cultured cell counterparts. We also examined responses to agonists for these receptors in cultured cells. Urothelial, suburothelial (myofibroblasts), and smooth muscle cells isolated from pig bladder were cultured (10–14 days) and identified by marker antibodies. Gene (mRNA) expression level was demonstrated by real-time PCR. The receptor expression pattern was very similar between suburothelium and detrusor, and higher than urothelium. The gene expression of all receptors decreased in culture compared with the fresh tissue, although the reduction in cultured urothelial cells appeared less significant compared to suburothelial and detrusor cells. Cultured myofibroblasts and detrusor cells did not contract in response to the agonists acetylcholine, neurokinin A, and β,γ-MeATP, up to concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM. The significant reduction of M3, NK2, and P2X1 receptors under culture conditions may be associated with the unresponsiveness of cultured suburothelial and detrusor cells to their respective agonists. These results suggest that under culture conditions, bladder cells lose the receptors that are involved in contraction, as this function is no longer required. The study provides further evidence that cultured cells do not necessarily mimic the actions exerted by intact tissues. PMID:24348420

  20. Concerted Gene Expression of Hippocampal Steroid Receptors during Spatial Learning in Male Wistar Rats: A Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lubec, Gert; Korz, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal and gonadal steroid receptor activities are significantly involved and interact in the regulation of learning, memory and stress. Thus, a coordinated expression of steroid receptor genes during a learning task can be expected. Although coexpression of steroid receptors in response to behavioral tasks has been reported the correlative connection is unclear. According to the inverted U-shape model of the impact of stress upon learning and memory we hypothesized that glucocorticoid (GR) receptor expression should be correlated to corticosterone levels in a linear or higher order manner. Other cognition modulating steroid receptors like estrogen receptors (ER) should be correlated to GR receptors in a quadratic manner, which describes a parabola and thus a U-shaped connection. Therefore, we performed a correlational meta-analyis of data of a previous study (Meyer and Korz, 2013a) of steroid receptor gene expressions during spatial learning, which provides a sufficient data basis in order to perform such correlational connections. In that study male rats of different ages were trained in a spatial holeboard or remained untrained and the hippocampal gene expression of different steroid receptors as well as serum corticosterone levels were measured. Expressions of mineralocorticoid (MR) and GR receptors were positively and linearly correlated with blood serum corticosterone levels in spatially trained but not in untrained animals. Training induced a cubic (best fit) relationship between mRNA levels of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and androgen receptor (AR) with MR mRNA. GR gene expression was linearly correlated with MR expression under both conditions. ERα m RNA levels were negatively and linearily and MR and GR gene expressions were cubicely correlated with reference memory errors (RME). Due to only three age classes correlations with age could not be performed. The findings support the U-shape theory of steroid receptor interaction, however the cubic fit

  1. Expression of growth arrest-specific gene 6 and its receptors in dysfunctional human renal allografts.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian L; Hambly, Brett D; Bao, Shi S; Painter, Dorothy; Bishop, G Alex; Eris, Josette M

    2003-09-01

    Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and its receptors Rse, Axl and Mer have recently been found to be involved in a rat model of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Thus, in this study we investigated the function of Gas6 and its receptors in human renal allograft dysfunction. Expression of Gas6 and its receptors was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Gas6 and its receptors were widely expressed in glomeruli, tubules and vessels of renal allografts. Gas6 expression was detected in normal-functioning allografts and was increased in acute rejection ( P<0.05), acute tubular necrosis ( P<0.05) and CAN ( P<0.01). Gas6 receptors were not upregulated in any of the allograft groups, except for the Axl receptor, which increased only in acute tubular necrosis ( P<0.01). Gas6 expression was also found to correspond with the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, a general marker of CAN ( r(2)=0.21, P<0.01). These findings suggest that Gas6, acting as a growth factor, is increased in the process of kidney allograft dysfunction and in CAN.

  2. Association of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4 genes polymorphisms with periapical pathosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Özan, Ülkü; Ocak, Zeynep; Özan, Fatih; Oktay, Elif-Aybala; Şahman, Halil; Yikilgan, İhsan; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Er, Kürşat

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gene variations of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 3, and 4 on genetic susceptibility to periapical pathosis. Material and Methods One hundred patients were included in the study and divided into two groups as follows; Control Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and no periapical lesion, Patient Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and periapical lesion. TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR3 (c.1377C/T) and TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP. Genotypical analysis of control and patient groups were investigated to disclose whether there is any association between periapical lesions and gene variations. Results There are no significant statistical differences between control and patient groups according to TLR 2 and 4 gene sequence. On the contrary, CC allele detected 74% for TLR 3 in patient group, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.005). Conclusions According to these results, it can be suggested that patients with Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms could be susceptible to periapical pathosis. Key words:Toll-like receptors, periapical pathosis, endodontics. PMID:27031066

  3. Polymorphism and genetic mapping of the human oxytocin receptor gene on chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Michelini, S.; Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    Centrally administered oxytocin has been reported to facilitate affiliative and social behaviors, in functional harmony with its well-known peripheral effects on uterine contraction and milk ejection. The biological effects of oxytocin could be perturbed by mutations occurring in the sequence of the oxytocin receptor gene, and it would be of interest to establish the position of this gene on the human linkage map. Therefore we identified a polymorphism at the human oxytocin receptor gene. A portion of the 3{prime} untranslated region containing a 30 bp CA repeat was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), revealing a polymorphism with two alleles occurring with frequencies of 0.77 and 0.23 in a sample of Caucasian CEPH parents (n = 70). The CA repeat polymorphism we detected was used to map the human oxytocin receptor to chromosome 3p25-3p26, in a region which contains several important genes, including loci for Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) and renal cell carcinoma. 53 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche. PMID:21414996

  5. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  6. Estrogen-related receptor alpha modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERRalpha in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERRalpha and ERRalpha-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and PGC-1beta, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERRalpha-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPARgamma, and PGC-1alpha in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERRalpha and PGC-1beta mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERRalpha in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERRalpha may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  7. Lack of association between dopamine D4 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Kameda, K.; Ihda, S.

    1995-12-18

    An intriguing property of the dopamine D4 receptor gene is a hypervariable segment in the coding region characterized by a varying number of direct imperfect 48 bp repeats (2-8 or 10 repeats) in the third exon of the gene. The authors analyzed 70 unrelated schizophrenics and 70 normal controls to determine the allele and genotype frequencies created by length polymorphism of dopamine D4 receptor gene. All patients and controls were unrelated and from the Japanese population. Patients were divided into three groups with regard to age at onset, familial loading, and severity of symptoms assessed strictly with Manchester scale. There were no statistically significant differences if the distributions of alleles and genotypes were analyzed in consideration of those clinical subtypes. Lichter and colleagues [1993] have reported that at least 25 haplotypes exist for this polymorphic region of the dopamine receptor D4 gene. In this study only the alleles created by length polymorphism were analyzed, and further investigation to determine the haplotypes of patients and controls on using a much larger sample size will be required. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Association study between schizophrenia and dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Takahashi, Makoto; Maeda, Masaya

    1996-07-26

    Crocq et al. reported the existence of an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity of a BalI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene. In response to this report, further studies were conducted; however, these studies yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we examined 100 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 100 normal controls to determine any association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia. Results suggest that neither allele nor genotype frequencies of the DRD3 gene in the schizophrenics as a whole are significantly different from those of the controls. Further, we found no association between any allele or genotype and any clinical subtype based on family history of schizophrenia and age-at-onset. A significantly high frequency of homozygosity of a dopamine D3 receptor gene allele was not observed in the schizophrenics as a whole, or in clinical subtypes. Our results suggest that an association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  10. Nucleotide sequence and structural organization of the human vasopressin pituitary receptor (V3) gene.

    PubMed

    René, P; Lenne, F; Ventura, M A; Bertagna, X; de Keyzer, Y

    2000-01-04

    In the pituitary, vasopressin triggers ACTH release through a specific receptor subtype, termed V3 or V1b. We cloned the V3 cDNA and showed that its expression was almost exclusive to pituitary corticotrophs and some corticotroph tumors. To study the determinants of this tissue specificity, we have now cloned the gene for the human (h) V3 receptor and characterized its structure. It is composed of two exons, spanning 10kb, with the coding region interrupted between transmembrane domains 6 and 7. We established that the transcription initiation site is located 498 nucleotides upstream of the initiator codon and showed that two polyadenylation sites may be used, while the most frequent is the most downstream. Sequence analysis of the promoter region showed no TATA box but identified consensus binding motifs for Sp1, CREB, and half sites of the estrogen receptor binding site. However comparison with another corticotroph-specific gene, proopiomelanocortin, did not identify common regulatory elements in the two promoters except for a short GC-rich region. Unexpectedly, hV3 gene analysis revealed that a formerly cloned 'artifactual' hV3 cDNA indeed corresponded to a spliced antisense transcript, overlapping the 5' part of the coding sequence in exon 1 and the promoter region. This transcript, hV3rev, was detected in normal pituitary and in many corticotroph tumors expressing hV3 sense mRNA and may therefore play a role in hV3 gene expression.

  11. Repurposed transcriptomic data facilitate discovery of innate immunity toll-like receptor (TLR) Genes across Lophotrochozoa.

    PubMed

    Halanych, Kenneth M; Kocot, Kevin M

    2014-10-01

    The growing volume of genomic data from across life represents opportunities for deriving valuable biological information from data that were initially collected for another purpose. Here, we use transcriptomes collected for phylogenomic studies to search for toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in poorly sampled lophotrochozoan clades (Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida, and Entoprocta) and one ecdysozoan clade (Priapulida). TLR genes are involved in innate immunity across animals by recognizing potential microbial infection. They have an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain connected to a transmembrane domain and an intracellular toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Consequently, these genes are important in initiating a signaling pathway to trigger defense. We found at least one TLR ortholog in all but two taxa examined, suggesting that a broad array of lophotrochozoans may have innate immune systems similar to those observed in vertebrates and arthropods. Comparison to the SMART database confirmed the presence of both the LRR and the TIR protein motifs characteristic of TLR genes. Because we looked at only one transcriptome per species, discovery of TLR genes was limited for most taxa. However, several TRL-like genes that vary in the number and placement of LRR domains were found in phoronids. Additionally, several contigs contained LRR domains but lacked TIR domains, suggesting they were not TLRs. Many of these LRR-containing contigs had other domains (e.g., immunoglobin) and are likely involved in innate immunity.

  12. Prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) genes and their role in poultry production traits.

    PubMed

    Wilkanowska, Anna; Mazurowski, Artur; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Kokoszyński, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL), secreted from the anterior pituitary, plays extensive roles in osmoregulation, corpus luteum formation, mammogenesis, lactogenesis, lactopoiesis, and production of crop milk. In birds, prolactin (PRL) is generally accepted as crucial to the onset and maintenance of broodiness. All the actions of prolactin (PRL) hormone are mediated by its receptor (PRLR), which plays an important role in the PRL signal transduction cascade. It has been well established that the PRL gene is closely associated to the onset and maintenance of broody behavior, and could be a genetic marker in breeding against broodiness in chickens. Meanwhile, the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene is regarded as a candidate genetic marker for reproductive traits. PRLR is also an important regulator gene for cell growth and differentiation. The identified polymorphism of this gene is mainly viewed in terms of egg production traits. Due to different biological activities attributed to PRL and PRLR, they can be used as major candidate genes in molecular animal breeding programs. Characterization of PRL and PRLR genes helps to elucidate their roles in birds and provides insights into the regulatory mechanisms of PRL and PRLR expression conserved in birds and mammals.

  13. An altered repertoire of T cell receptor V gene expression by rheumatoid synovial fluid T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, C; Marguerie, C; So, A K

    1992-01-01

    The pattern of T cell receptor V gene expression by lymphocytes from rheumatoid synovial fluid and paired peripheral blood samples was compared using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Eight rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who had varying durations of disease (from 2 to 20 years) were studied. In all patients there was evidence of a different pattern of V gene expression between the two compartments. Significantly increased expression of at least one V alpha or V beta gene family by synovial fluid T cells was observed in all the patients studied. Three different V alpha (V alpha 10, 15 and 18) and three V beta (V beta 4, 5 and 13) families were commonly elevated. Sequencing of synovial V beta transcripts demonstrated that the basis of increased expression of selected V gene families in the synovial fluid was due to the presence of dominant clonotypes within those families, which constituted up to 53% of the sequences isolated from one particular synovial V gene family. There were considerable differences in the NDJ sequences found in synovial and peripheral blood T cell receptor (TCR) transcripts of the same V beta gene family. These data suggest that the TCR repertoire in the two compartments differs, and that antigen-driven expansion of particular synovial T cell populations is a component of rheumatoid synovitis, and is present in all stages of the disease. PMID:1458680

  14. Effects of retinoic acid on growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression and growth hormone secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in embryonic development and adult tissue. The actions of RA are mediated by the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), which regulate gene expression. RAR and RXR are widely expressed in the anterior pituitary gland. RA was reported to stimulate growth hormone (GH) gene expression in the anterior pituitary cells. However, current evidence is unclear on the role of RA in gene expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (Ghrh-r), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-r) and somatostatin receptors (Sst-rs). Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effects of RA on gene expression of these receptors and GH release. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10(-6) M) for 24 h increased gene expression levels of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r; however, expressions of Sst-r2 and Sst-r5 were unchanged. Combination treatment with the RAR-agonist Am80 and RXR-agonist PA024 mimicked the effects of ATRA on Ghrh-r and Ghs-r gene expressions. Exposure of isolated pituitary cells to ATRA had no effect on basal GH release. In contrast, ATRA increased growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-stimulated GH release from cultured anterior pituitary cells. Our results suggest that expressions of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r are regulated by RA through the RAR-RXR receptor complex and that RA enhances the effects of GHRH and ghrelin on GH release from the anterior pituitary gland.

  15. Association of polymorphisms in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit gene (CHRNA4), mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), and ethanol-metabolizing enzyme genes with alcoholism in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Ae; Kim, Jong-Woo; Song, Ji-Young; Park, Sunny; Lee, Hee Jae; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2004-01-01

    Findings obtained from several studies indicate that ethanol enhances the activity of alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and support the possibility that a polymorphism of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha4 subunit gene (CHRNA4) modulates enhancement of nicotinic receptor function by ethanol. To identify the association between the CfoI polymorphism of the CHRNA4 and alcoholism, we examined distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies in Korean patients diagnosed with alcoholism (n = 127) and Korean control subjects without alcoholism (n = 185) with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. We were able to detect the association between the CfoI polymorphism of the CHRNA4 and alcoholism in Korean patients (genotype P = .023; allele frequency P = .047). The genotypes and allele frequencies of known polymorphisms in other alcoholism candidate genes, such as alcohol metabolism-related genes [alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)] and mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), were studied. The polymorphisms of ADH2, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 were significantly different in Korean patients with alcoholism and Korean control subjects without alcoholism, but ADH3 and OPRM1 did not differ between the two groups.

  16. Pituitary and Brain Dopamine D2 Receptors Regulate Liver Gene Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria Cecilia; Ornstein, Ana Maria; Luque, Guillermina Maria; Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Garcia-Tornadu, Isabel; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Liver sexual gene dimorphism, which depends mainly on specific patterns of GH secretion, may underlie differential susceptibility to some liver diseases. Because GH and prolactin secretion are regulated by dopaminergic pathways, we studied the participation of brain and lactotrope dopamine 2 receptors (D2Rs) on liver gene sexual dimorphism, to explore a link between the brain and liver gene expression. We used global D2R knockout mice (Drd2−/−) and conducted a functional dissection strategy based on cell-specific Drd2 inactivation in neurons (neuroDrd2KO) or pituitary lactotropes. Disruption of neuronal D2Rs (which impaired the GH axis) decreased most of male or female-predominant class I liver genes and increased female–predominant class II genes in males, consistent with the positive (class I) or negative (class II) regulation of these genes by GH. Notably, sexual dimorphism was lost for class I and II genes in neuroDrd2KO mice. Disruption of lactotrope D2Rs did not modify class I or II genes in either sex, because GH axis was preserved. But surprisingly, 1 class II gene (Prlr) and female-predominant class I genes were markedly up-regulated in lacDrd2KO females, pointing to direct or indirect effects of prolactin in the regulation of selected female-predominant liver genes. This suggestion was strengthened in the hyperprolactinemic Drd2−/− female mouse, in which increased expression of the same 4 liver genes was observed, despite a decreased GH axis. We hereby demonstrate endocrine-mediated D2R actions on sexual dimorphic liver gene expression, which may be relevant during chronic dopaminergic medications in psychiatric disease. PMID:25545383

  17. Genomic architecture of MHC-linked odorant receptor gene repertoires among 16 vertebrate species.

    PubMed

    Santos, Pablo Sandro Carvalho; Kellermann, Thomas; Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Ziegler, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The recent sequencing and assembly of the genomes of different organisms have shown that almost all vertebrates studied in detail so far have one or more clusters of genes encoding odorant receptors (OR) in close physical linkage to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). It has been postulated that MHC-linked OR genes could be involved in MHC-influenced mate choice, comprising both pre- as well as post-copulatory mechanisms. We have therefore carried out a systematic comparison of protein sequences of these receptors from the genomes of man, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, mouse, rat, dog, cat, cow, pig, horse, elephant, opossum, frog and zebra fish (amounting to a total of 559 protein sequences) in order to identify OR families exhibiting evolutionarily conserved MHC linkage. In addition, we compared the genomic structure of this region within these 16 species, accounting for presence or absence of OR gene families, gene order, transcriptional orientation and linkage to the MHC or framework genes. The results are presented in the form of gene maps and phylogenetic analyses that reveal largely concordant repertoires of gene families, at least among tetrapods, although each of the eight taxa studied (primates, rodents, ungulates, carnivores, proboscids, marsupials, amphibians and teleosts) exhibits a typical architecture of MHC (or MHC framework loci)-linked OR genes. Furthermore, the comparison of the genomic organization of this region has implications for phylogenetic relationships between closely related taxa, especially in disputed cases such as the evolutionary history of even- and odd-toed ungulates and carnivores. Finally, the largely conserved linkage between distinct OR genes and the MHC supports the concept that particular alleles within a given haplotype function in a concerted fashion during self-/non-self-discrimination processes in reproduction.

  18. Canakinumab reverses overexpression of inflammatory response genes in tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Torene, Rebecca; Nirmala, Nanguneri; Obici, Laura; Cattalini, Marco; Tormey, Vincent; Caorsi, Roberta; Starck-Schwertz, Sandrine; Letzkus, Martin; Hartmann, Nicole; Abrams, Ken; Lachmann, Helen; Gattorno, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore whether gene expression profiling can identify a molecular mechanism for the clinical benefit of canakinumab treatment in patents with tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). Methods Blood samples were collected from 20 patients with active TRAPS who received canakinumab 150 mg every 4 weeks for 4 months in an open-label proof-of-concept phase II study, and from 20 aged-matched healthy volunteers. Gene expression levels were evaluated in whole blood samples by microarray analysis for arrays passing quality control checks. Results Patients with TRAPS exhibited a gene expression signature in blood that differed from that in healthy volunteers. Upon treatment with canakinumab, many genes relevant to disease pathogenesis moved towards levels seen in the healthy volunteers. Canakinumab downregulated the TRAPS-causing gene (TNF super family receptor 1A (TNFRSF1A)), the drug-target gene (interleukin (IL)-1B) and other inflammation-related genes (eg, MAPK14). In addition, several inflammation-related pathways were evident among the differentially expressed genes. Canakinumab treatment reduced neutrophil counts, but the observed expression differences remained after correction for this. Conclusions These gene expression data support a model in which canakinumab produces clinical benefit in TRAPS by increasing neutrophil apoptosis and reducing pro-inflammatory signals resulting from the inhibition of IL-1β. Notably, treatment normalised the overexpression of TNFRSF1A, suggesting that canakinumab has a direct impact on the main pathogenic mechanism in TRAPS. Trial registration number NCT01242813. PMID:27474763

  19. Molecular characterisation of the STRUBBELIG-RECEPTOR FAMILY of genes encoding putative leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Eyüboglu, Banu; Pfister, Karen; Haberer, Georg; Chevalier, David; Fuchs, Angelika; Mayer, Klaus FX; Schneitz, Kay

    2007-01-01

    Background Receptor-like kinases are a prominent class of surface receptors that regulate many aspects of the plant life cycle. Despite recent advances the function of most receptor-like kinases remains elusive. Therefore, it is paramount to investigate these receptors. The task is complicated by the fact that receptor-like kinases belong to a large monophyletic family with many sub-clades. In general, functional analysis of gene family members by reverse genetics is often obscured by several issues, such as redundancy, subtle or difficult to detect phenotypes in mutants, or by decision problems regarding suitable biological and biochemical assays. Therefore, in many cases additional strategies have to be employed to allow inference of hypotheses regarding gene function. Results We approached the function of genes encoding the nine-member STRUBBELIG-RECEPTOR FAMILY (SRF) class of putative leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases. Sequence comparisons show overall conservation but also divergence in predicted functional domains among SRF proteins. Interestingly, SRF1 undergoes differential splicing. As a result, SRF1 is predicted to exist in a standard receptor configuration and in a membrane-anchored receptor-like version that lacks most of the intracellular domain. Furthermore, SRF1 is characterised by a high degree of polymorphism between the Ler and Col accessions. Two independent T-DNA-based srf4 mutants showed smaller leaves while 35S::SRF4 plants displayed enlarged leaves. This is in addition to the strubbelig phenotype which has been described before. Additional single and several key double mutant combinations did not reveal obvious mutant phenotypes. Ectopic expression of several SRF genes, using the 35S promoter, resulted in male sterility. To gain possible insights into SRF gene function we employed a computational analysis of publicly available microarray data. We performed global expression profiling, coexpression analysis, and an analysis of the

  20. Distinct functions for thyroid hormone receptors alpha and beta in brain development indicated by differential expression of receptor genes.

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, D; Hallböök, F; Persson, H; Vennström, B

    1991-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for correct brain development, and since vertebrates express two thyroid hormone receptor genes (TR alpha and beta), we investigated TR gene expression during chick brain ontogenesis. In situ hybridization analyses showed that TR alpha mRNA was widely expressed from early embryonic stages, whereas TR beta was sharply induced after embryonic day 19 (E19), coinciding with the known hormone-sensitive period. Differential expression of TR mRNAs was striking in the cerebellum: TR beta mRNA was induced in white matter and granule cells after the migratory phase, suggesting a main TR beta function in late, hormone-dependent glial and neuronal maturation. In contrast, TR alpha mRNA was expressed in the earlier proliferating and migrating granule cells, and in the more mature granular and Purkinje cell layers after hatching, indicating a role for TR alpha in both immature and mature neural cells. Surprisingly, both TR genes were expressed in early cerebellar outgrowth at E9, before known hormone requirements, with TR beta mRNA restricted to the ventricular epithelium of the metencephalon and TR alpha expressed in migrating cells and the early granular layer. The results implicate TRs with distinct functions in the early embryonic brain as well as in the late phase of hormone requirement. Images PMID:1991448

  1. Deletion of exon 3 of the insulin receptor gene in a kindred with a familial form of insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Wertheimer, E.; Barbetti, F.; Accili, D.; Taylor, S.I.; Litvin, Y.; Ebstein, R.P.; Bennet, E.R.

    1994-05-01

    Molecular scanning techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), greatly facilitate screening candidate genes for mutations. The authors have used DGGE to screen for mutations in the insulin receptor gene in a family in which four of five daughters were affected by type A insulin resistance in association with acanthosis nigricans and hyperandrogenism. DGGE did not detect mutations in any of the 22 exons of the insulin receptor gene. Nevertheless, Southern blot analysis suggested that there was a deletion of exon 3 in the other paternal allele of the insulin receptor gene. Analysis of the father`s cDNA confirmed that exon 3 was deleted from mRNA molecules derived from one of his two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the father was found to be hemizygous for a polymorphic sequence (GAC{sup Asp} at codon 234) in exon 3 that was not inherited by any of the five daughters. Instead, all five daughters inherited the paternal allele with the deletion mutation. They did not detect mutations in the mother`s insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the clinical syndrome did not segregate with either of the mother`s two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Although the youngest daughter inherited the mutant allele from her father, she was not clinically affected. The explanation for the incomplete penetrance is not known. These results emphasize the importance of specifically searching for deletion mutations when screening candidate genes for mutations. Furthermore, the existence of apparently asymptomatic carriers of mutations in the insulin receptor gene, such as the father in the present study, suggests that the prevalence of mutations in the insulin receptor gene may be higher than would be predicted on the basis of the observed prevalence of patients with extreme insulin resistance. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Expression map of a complete set of gustatory receptor genes in chemosensory organs of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huizhen; Cheng, Tingcai; Chen, Zhiwei; Jiang, Liang; Guo, Youbing; Liu, Jianqiu; Li, Shenglong; Taniai, Kiyoko; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Wu, Jiaqi; Kishino, Hirohisa; Zhang, Huijie; Seth, Rakesh K; Gopinathan, Karumathil P; Montagné, Nicolas; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Goldsmith, Marian R; Xia, Qingyou; Mita, Kazuei

    2017-03-01

    Most lepidopteran species are herbivores, and interaction with host plants affects their gene expression and behavior as well as their genome evolution. Gustatory receptors (Grs) are expected to mediate host plant selection, feeding, oviposition and courtship behavior. However, due to their high diversity, sequence divergence and extremely low level of expression it has been difficult to identify precisely a complete set of Grs in Lepidoptera. By manual annotation and BAC sequencing, we improved annotation of 43 gene sequences compared with previously reported Grs in the most studied lepidopteran model, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and identified 7 new tandem copies of BmGr30 on chromosome 7, bringing the total number of BmGrs to 76. Among these, we mapped 68 genes to chromosomes in a newly constructed chromosome distribution map and 8 genes to scaffolds; we also found new evidence for large clusters of BmGrs, especially from the bitter receptor family. RNA-seq analysis of diverse BmGr expression patterns in chemosensory organs of larvae and adults enabled us to draw a precise organ specific map of BmGr expression. Interestingly, most of the clustered genes were expressed in the same tissues and more than half of the genes were expressed in larval maxillae, larval thoracic legs and adult legs. For example, BmGr63 showed high expression levels in all organs in both larval and adult stages. By contrast, some genes showed expression limited to specific developmental stages or organs and tissues. BmGr19 was highly expressed in larval chemosensory organs (especially antennae and thoracic legs), the single exon genes BmGr53 and BmGr67 were expressed exclusively in larval tissues, the BmGr27-BmGr31 gene cluster on chr7 displayed a high expression level limited to adult legs and the candidate CO2 receptor BmGr2 was highly expressed in adult antennae, where few other Grs were expressed. Transcriptional analysis of the Grs in B. mori provides a valuable new reference for

  3. Regulation of AMPA Receptor Function by the Human Memory-Associated Gene KIBRA

    PubMed Central

    Makuch, Lauren; Volk, Lenora; Anggono, Victor; Johnson, Richard C.; Yu, Yilin; Duning, Kerstin; Kremerskothen, Joachim; Xia, Jun; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    KIBRA has recently been identified as a gene associated with human memory performance. Despite the elucidation of the role of KIBRA in several diverse processes in non-neuronal cells, the molecular function of KIBRA in neurons is unknown. We found that KIBRA directly binds to the protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) and forms a complex with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPARs), the major excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. KIBRA knockdown accelerates the rate of AMPAR recycling following N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor induced internalization. Genetic deletion of KIBRA in mice impairs both long-term depression and long-term potentiation at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Moreover, KIBRA knockout mice have severe deficits in contextual fear learning and memory. These results indicate that KIBRA regulates higher brain function by regulating AMPAR trafficking and synaptic plasticity. PMID:21943600

  4. Regulation of AMPA receptor function by the human memory-associated gene KIBRA.

    PubMed

    Makuch, Lauren; Volk, Lenora; Anggono, Victor; Johnson, Richard C; Yu, Yilin; Duning, Kerstin; Kremerskothen, Joachim; Xia, Jun; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L

    2011-09-22

    KIBRA has recently been identified as a gene associated with human memory performance. Despite the elucidation of the role of KIBRA in several diverse processes in nonneuronal cells, the molecular function of KIBRA in neurons is unknown. We found that KIBRA directly binds to the protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) and forms a complex with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPARs), the major excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. KIBRA knockdown accelerates the rate of AMPAR recycling following N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-induced internalization. Genetic deletion of KIBRA in mice impairs both long-term depression and long-term potentiation at hippocampal Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. Moreover, KIBRA knockout mice have severe deficits in contextual fear learning and memory. These results indicate that KIBRA regulates higher brain function by regulating AMPAR trafficking and synaptic plasticity.

  5. Control of energy balance by hypothalamic gene circuitry involving two nuclear receptors, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 and glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Gyun; Lee, Bora; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Juhee; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Jae W

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, including the central nervous system control of energy balance. However, the molecular mechanisms for the central actions of NRs in energy balance remain relatively poorly defined. Here we report a hypothalamic gene network involving two NRs, neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which directs the regulated expression of orexigenic neuropeptides agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in response to peripheral signals. Our results suggest that the anorexigenic signal leptin induces NOR1 expression likely via the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the orexigenic signal glucocorticoid mobilizes GR to inhibit NOR1 expression by antagonizing the action of CREB. Also, NOR1 suppresses glucocorticoid-dependent expression of AgRP and NPY. Consistently, relative to wild-type mice, NOR1-null mice showed significantly higher levels of AgRP and NPY and were less responsive to leptin in decreasing the expression of AgRP and NPY. These results identify mutual antagonism between NOR1 and GR to be a key rheostat for peripheral metabolic signals to centrally control energy balance.

  6. Identification of natural killer cell receptor genes in the genome of the marsupial Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    van der Kraan, Lauren E; Wong, Emily S W; Lo, Nathan; Ujvari, Beata; Belov, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Within the mammalian immune system, natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the first line of defence against infectious agents and tumours. Their activity is regulated, in part, by cell surface NK cell receptors. NK receptors can be divided into two unrelated, but functionally analogous superfamilies based on the structure of their extracellular ligand-binding domains. Receptors belonging to the C-type lectin superfamily are predominantly encoded in the natural killer complex (NKC), while receptors belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily are predominantly encoded in the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). Natural killer cell receptors are emerging as a rapidly evolving gene family which can display significant intra- and interspecific variation. To date, most studies have focused on eutherian mammals, with significantly less known about the evolution of these receptors in marsupials. Here, we describe the identification of 43 immunoglobulin domain-containing LRC genes in the genome of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), the largest remaining marsupial carnivore and only the second marsupial species to be studied. We also identify orthologs of NKC genes KLRK1, CD69, CLEC4E, CLEC1B, CLEC1A and an ortholog of an opossum NKC receptor. Characterisation of these regions in a second, distantly related marsupial provides new insights into the dynamic evolutionary histories of these receptors in mammals. Understanding the functional role of these genes is also important for the development of therapeutic agents against Devil Facial Tumour Disease, a contagious cancer that threatens the Tasmanian devil with extinction.

  7. Identification of natural killer cell receptor clusters in the platypus genome reveals an expansion of C-type lectin genes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Emily S W; Sanderson, Claire E; Deakin, Janine E; Whittington, Camilla M; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2009-08-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell receptors belong to two unrelated, but functionally analogous gene families: the immunoglobulin superfamily, situated in the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC) and the C-type lectin superfamily, located in the natural killer complex (NKC). Here, we describe the largest NK receptor gene expansion seen to date. We identified 213 putative C-type lectin NK receptor homologs in the genome of the platypus. Many have arisen as the result of a lineage-specific expansion. Orthologs of OLR1, CD69, KLRE, CLEC12B, and CLEC16p genes were also identified. The NKC is split into at least two regions of the genome: 34 genes map to chromosome 7, two map to a small autosome, and the remainder are unanchored in the current genome assembly. No NK receptor genes from the LRC were identified. The massive C-type lectin expansion and lack of Ig-domain-containing NK receptors represents the most extreme polarization of NK receptors found to date. We have used this new data from platypus to trace the possible evolutionary history of the NK receptor clusters.

  8. Chromosomal localization of the human V3 pituitary vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR3) to 1q32

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau-Merck, M.F.; Derre, J.; Berger, R.

    1995-11-20

    Vasopressin exerts its physiological effects on liver metabolism, fluid osmolarity, and corticotrophic response to stress through a set of at least three receptors, V1a, V2, and V3 (also called V1b), respectively. These receptors constitute a distinct group of the superfamily of G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. When bound to vasopressin, they couple to G proteins activating phospholipase C for the V1a and V3 types and adenylate cyclase for the V2. The vasopressin receptor subfamily also includes the receptor for oxytocin, a structurally related hormone that signals through the activation of phospholipase C. The chromosomal position of the V2 receptor gene has been assigned to Xq28-qter by PCR-based screening of somatic cell hybrids, whereas the oxytocin receptor gene has been mapped to chromosome 3q26.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The chromosomal location of the V1a gene is currently unknown. We recently cloned the cDNA and the gene coding for the human pituitary-specific V3 receptor (HGMW-approved symbol AVPR3). We report here the chromosomal localization of this gene by two distinct in situ hybridization techniques using radioactive and fluorescent probes. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Genetic variations in the human cannabinoid receptor gene are associated with happiness.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kaori; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Happiness has been viewed as a temporary emotional state (e.g., pleasure) and a relatively stable state of being happy (subjective happiness level). As previous studies demonstrated that individuals with high subjective happiness level rated their current affective states more positively when they experience positive events, these two aspects of happiness are interrelated. According to a recent neuroimaging study, the cytosine to thymine single-nucleotide polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene is associated with sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli. Thus, we hypothesized that our genetic traits, such as the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes, are closely related to the two aspects of happiness. In Experiment 1, 198 healthy volunteers were used to compare the subjective happiness level between cytosine allele carriers and thymine-thymine carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene. In Experiment 2, we used positron emission tomography with 20 healthy participants to compare the brain responses to positive emotional stimuli of cytosine allele carriers to that of thymine-thymine carriers. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, cytosine allele carriers have a higher subjective happiness level. Regression analysis indicated that the cytosine allele is significantly associated with subjective happiness level. The positive mood after watching a positive film was significantly higher for the cytosine allele carriers compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Positive emotion-related brain region such as the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated when the cytosine allele carriers watched the positive film compared to the thymine-thymine carriers. Thus, the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes are closely related to two aspects of happiness. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, the cytosine allele carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene, who are sensitive to positive emotional stimuli, exhibited greater magnitude

  10. Voluntary wheel running modulates glutamate receptor subunit gene expression and stress hormone release in Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Makatsori, A; Duncko, R; Schwendt, M; Moncek, F; Johansson, B B; Jezova, D

    2003-07-01

    Lewis rats that are known to be addiction-prone, develop compulsive running if they have access to running wheels. The present experiments were aimed 1) to evaluate the activation of stress systems following chronic and acute voluntary wheel running in Lewis rats by measurement of hormone release and gene expression of neuropeptides related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity and 2) to test the hypothesis that wheel running as a combined model of addictive behavior and stress exposure is associated with modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the ventral tegmental area. Voluntary running for three weeks but not for one night resulted in a rise in plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels (p<0.05) compared to those in control rats. Principal component analysis revealed the relation between POMC gene expression in the intermediate pituitary and running rate. Acute exposure of animals to voluntary wheel running induced a significant decrease in alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor GluR1 subunit mRNA levels (p<0.01), while repeated voluntary physical activity increased levels of GluR1 mRNA in the ventral tegmentum (p<0.05). Neither acute nor chronic wheel running influenced N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR1 mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area. Thus, the present study revealed changes in AMPA receptor subunit gene expression in a reward-related brain structure as well as an activation of HPA axis in response to compulsive wheel running in Lewis rats. It may be suggested that hormones of HPA axis and glutamate receptors belong to the factors that substantiate higher vulnerability to addictive behavior.

  11. The Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene and Moderation of the Association Between Externalizing Behavior and IQ

    PubMed Central

    DeYoung, Colin G.; Peterson, Jordan B.; Séguin, Jean R.; Mejia, Jose Maria; Pihl, Robert O.; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Jain, Umesh; Tremblay, Richard E.; Kennedy, James L.; Palmour, Roberta M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in externalizing behavior problems, such as aggression and hyperactivity. Externalizing behavior is known to be negatively associated with cognitive ability. Activation of dopamine D4 receptors appears to inhibit the functioning of the prefrontal cortex, a brain region implicated in cognitive ability. The 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene produces less efficient receptors, relative to other alleles, and this may alter the effects of dopamine on cognitive function. Objective To examine the influence of a polymorphism in the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor gene on the association between externalizing behavior and IQ. Design In 1 community sample and 2 clinical samples, the presence or absence of the 7-repeat allele was examined as a moderator of the association between externalizing behavior and IQ; the strength of this effect across samples was estimated meta-analytically. Patients Eighty-seven boys from a longitudinal community study, 48 boys referred clinically for aggression, and 42 adult males diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Main Outcome Measures IQ scores and observer ratings of externalizing behavior were taken from existing data sets. Results Among individuals lacking the 7-repeat allele, externalizing behavior was negatively correlated with IQ (mean r=−0.43; P<.001). Among individuals having at least 1 copy of the 7-repeat allele, externalizing behavior and IQ were uncorrelated (mean r=0.02; P=.45). The difference between these correlations was significant (z=−2.99; P<.01). Conclusions Allelic variation of the dopamine D4 receptor gene appears to be a genetic factor moderating the association between externalizing behavior and cognitive ability. This finding may help to elucidate the adaptive value of the 7-repeat allele. PMID:17146015

  12. Recombinant Human Adenovirus: Targeting to the Human Transferrin Receptor Improves Gene Transfer to Brain Microcapillary Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Haibin; Anderson, Brian; Mao, Qinwen; Davidson, Beverly L.

    2000-01-01

    Some inborn errors of metabolism due to deficiencies of soluble lysosomal enzymes cause global neurodegenerative disease. Representative examples include the infantile and late infantile forms of the ceroid lipofuscinoses (CLN1 or CLN2 deficiency, respectively) and mucopolysaccharidoses type VII (MPS VII), a deficiency of β-glucuronidase. Treatment of the central nervous system component of these disorders will require widespread protein or enzyme replacement, either through dissemination of the protein or through dissemination of a gene encoding it. We hypothesize that transduction of brain microcapillary endothelium (BME) with recombinant viral vectors, with secretion of enzyme product basolaterally, could allow for widespread enzyme dissemination. To achieve this, viruses should be modified to target the BME. This requires (i) identification of a BME-resident target receptor, (ii) identification of motifs targeted to that molecule, (iii) the construction of modified viruses to allow for binding to the target receptor, and (iv) demonstrated transduction of receptor-expressing cells. In proof of principal experiments, we chose the human transferrin receptor (hTfR), a molecule found at high density on human BME. A nonamer phage display library was panned for motifs which could bind hTfR. Forty-three clones were sequenced, most of which contained an AKxxK/R, KxKxPK/R, or KxK motif. Ten peptides representative of the three motifs were cloned into the HI loop of adenovirus type 5 fiber. All motifs tested retained their ability to trimerize and bind transferrin receptor, and seven allowed for recombinant adenovirus production. Importantly, the fiber-modified viruses facilitated increased gene transfer (2- to 34-fold) to hTfR expressing cell lines and human brain microcapillary endothelia expressing high levels of endogenous receptor. Our data indicate that adenoviruses can be modified in the HI loop for expanded tropism to the hTfR. PMID:11070036

  13. Structurally divergent human T cell receptor. gamma. proteins encoded by distinct C. gamma. genes

    SciTech Connect

    Krangel, M.S.; Band, H.; Hata, S.; McLean, J.; Brenner, M.B.

    1987-07-03

    The human T cell receptor (TCR) ..gamma.. polypeptide occurs in structurally distinct forms on certain peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Complementary DNA clones representing the transcripts of functionally rearranged TCR ..gamma.. genes in these cells have been analyzed. The expression of a disulfide-linked and a nondisulfide-linked form of TCR ..gamma.. correlates with the use of the C..gamma..1 and C..gamma..2 constant-region gene segments, respectively. Variability in TCR ..gamma.. polypeptide and disulfide linkage is determined by the number of copies and the sequence of a repeated segment of the constant region. Thus, C..gamma..1 and C..gamma..2 are used to generate structurally distinct, yet functional, T3-associated receptor complexes on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Tryptic peptide mapping suggests that the T3-associated TCR ..gamma.. and delta peptides in the nondisulfide-linked form are distinct.

  14. A common mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene in Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muenke, M; Schell, U; Hehr, A; Robin, N H; Losken, H W; Schinzel, A; Pulleyn, L J; Rutland, P; Reardon, W; Malcolm, S

    1994-11-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) is one of the classic autosomal dominant craniosynostosis syndromes with craniofacial anomalies and characteristic broad thumbs and big toes. We have previously mapped one of the genes for PS to the centromeric region of chromosome 8 by linkage analysis. Here we present evidence that mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) gene, which maps to 8p, cause one form of familial Pfeiffer syndrome. A C to G transversion in exon 5, predicting a proline to arginine substitution in the putative extracellular domain, was identified in all affected members of five unrelated PS families but not in any unaffected individuals. FGFR1 therefore becomes the third fibroblast growth factor receptor to be associated with an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder.

  15. The Arabidopsis ERECTA gene encodes a putative receptor protein kinase with extracellular leucine-rich repeats.

    PubMed Central

    Torii, K U; Mitsukawa, N; Oosumi, T; Matsuura, Y; Yokoyama, R; Whittier, R F; Komeda, Y

    1996-01-01

    Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta is one of the most popular ecotypes and is used widely for both molecular and genetic studies. It harbors the erecta (er) mutation, which confers a compact inflorescence, blunt fruits, and short petioles. We have identified five er mutant alleles from ecotypes Columbia and Wassilewskija. Phenotypic characterization of the mutant alleles suggests a role for the ER gene in regulating the shape of organs originating from the shoot apical meristem. We cloned the ER gene, and here, we report that it encodes a putative receptor protein kinases. The deduced ER protein contains a cytoplasmic protein kinase catalytic domain, a transmembrane region, and an extracellular domain consisting of leucine-rich repeats, which are thought to interact with other macromolecules. Our results suggest that cell-cell communication mediated by a receptor kinase has an important role in plant morphogenesis. PMID:8624444

  16. Novel growth hormone receptor gene mutation in a patient with Laron syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arman, Ahmet; Yüksel, Bilgin; Coker, Ajda; Sarioz, Ozlem; Temiz, Fatih; Topaloglu, Ali Kemal

    2010-04-01

    Growth Hormone (GH) is a 22 kDa protein that has effects on growth and glucose and fat metabolisms. These effects are initiated by binding of growth hormone (GH) to growth hormone receptors (GHR) expressed in target cells. Mutations or deletions in the growth hormone receptor cause an autosomal disorder called Laron-type dwarfism (LS) characterized by high circulating levels of serum GH and low levels of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We analyzed the GHR gene for genetic defect in seven patients identified as Laron type dwarfism. We identified two missense mutations (S40L and W104R), and four polymorphisms (S473S, L526I, G168G and exon 3 deletion). We are reporting a mutation (W104R) at exon 5 of GHR gene that is not previously reported, and it is a novel mutation.

  17. Enhancement of gene transactivation activity of androgen receptor by hepatitis B virus X protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Yanyan; Chen Wenling; Ma, W.-L. Maverick; Chang Chawnshang; Ou, J.-H. James . E-mail: jamesou@hsc.usc.edu

    2007-07-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) is a regulatory protein that is required for efficient replication of HBV in its natural host. In this report, we demonstrate by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that HBx can physically bind to the androgen receptor (AR), which is a nuclear hormone receptor that is expressed in many different tissues including the liver. This observation is further supported by confocal microscopy, which reveals that HBx can alter the subcellular localization of the AR both in the presence and in the absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Further studies indicate that HBx can enhance the gene transactivation activity of AR by enhancing its DNA binding activity in a DHT-dependent manner. However, HBx does not remain associated with AR on the DNA. As AR can regulate the expression of a number of cellular genes, our results raise the possibility that HBV pathogenesis may be mediated in part via the interaction between HBx and AR.

  18. The structure and organization of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gromoll, J; Pekel, E.; Nieschlag, E.

    1996-07-15

    The structure and organization of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene were determined by either screening a phage library of human genomic DNA or applying the long PCR technique to amplify different exon pairs with their corresponding introns. The FSHR gene spans a region of 54 kb and consists of 10 exons and 9 introns. Most of the extracellular domain is encoded by 9 exons, ranging in length between 69 and 251 bp; the C-terminal part of the extracellular domain, the transmembrane domain, and the intracellular domain are encoded by the large exon 10 (1234 bp). Overall the gene encodes 695 amino acids. The structure of the human FSHR displays a striking similarity to that of the previously characterized rat FSHR gene, with a high degree of conservation in exon sizes and exon/intron junctions. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Growth and gene expression are predominantly controlled by distinct regions of the human IL-4 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J J; McReynolds, L J; Keegan, A; Wang, L H; Garfein, E; Rothman, P; Nelms, K; Paul, W E

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 causes hematopoietic cells to proliferate and express a series of genes, including CD23. We examined whether IL-4-mediated growth, as measured by 4PS phosphorylation, and gene induction were similarly controlled. Studies of M12.4.1 cells expressing human IL-4R truncation mutants indicated that the region between amino acids 557-657 is necessary for full gene expression, which correlated with Stat6 DNA binding activity. This region was not required for 4PS phosphorylation. Tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutations in the interval between amino acids 557-657 revealed that as long as one tyrosine remained unmutated, CD23 was fully induced. When all three tyrosines were mutated, the receptor was unable to induce CD23. The results indicate that growth regulation and gene expression are principally controlled by distinct regions of IL-4R.

  20. Diversity in the Toll-like receptor genes of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Belov, Katherine

    2015-03-01

    The Tasmanian devil is an endangered marsupial species that has survived several historical bottlenecks and now has low genetic diversity. Here we characterize the Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes and their diversity in the Tasmanian devil. TLRs are a key innate immune gene family found in all animals. Ten TLR genes were identified in the Tasmanian devil genome. Unusually low levels of diversity were found in 25 devils from across Tasmania. We found two alleles at TLR2, TLR3 and TLR6. The other seven genes were monomorphic. The insurance population, which safeguards the species from extinction, has successfully managed to capture all of these TLR alleles, but concerns remain for the long-term survival of this species.

  1. Rebalancing immune specificity and function in cancer by T-cell receptor gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Udyavar, Akshata; Geiger, Terrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with tumor-specific T lymphocytes has demonstrated clinical benefit in some cancers, particularly melanoma. Yet isolating and expanding tumor-specific cells from patients is challenging, and there is limited ability to control T cell affinity and response characteristics. T cell receptor (TCR) gene therapy, in which T lymphocytes for immunotherapy are redirected using introduced rearranged TCR, has emerged as an important alternative. Successful TCR gene therapy requires consideration of a number of issues, including TCR specificity and affinity, optimal gene therapy constructs, types of T cells administered, and the survival and activity of the modified cells. In this review, we highlight the rationale for and experience with, as well as new approaches to enhance TCR gene therapy. PMID:20680493

  2. Characterization of Squamate Olfactory Receptor Genes and Their Transcripts by the High-Throughput Sequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dehara, Yuki; Hashiguchi, Yasuyuki; Matsubara, Kazumi; Yanai, Tokuma; Kubo, Masahito; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    The olfactory receptor (OR) genes represent the largest multigene family in the genome of terrestrial vertebrates. Here, the high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach was applied to characterization of OR gene repertoires in the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis and the Japanese four-lined ratsnake Elaphe quadrivirgata. Tagged polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products amplified from either genomic DNA or cDNA of the two species were used for parallel pyrosequencing, assembling, and screening for errors in PCR and pyrosequencing. Starting from the lizard genomic DNA, we accurately identified 56 of 136 OR genes that were identified from its draft genome sequence. These recovered genes were broadly distributed in the phylogenetic tree of vertebrate OR genes without severe biases toward particular OR families. Ninety-six OR genes were identified from the ratsnake genomic DNA, implying that the snake has more OR gene loci than the anole lizard in response to an increased need for the acuity of olfaction. This view is supported by the estimated number of OR genes in the Burmese python's draft genome (∼280), although squamates may generally have fewer OR genes than terrestrial mammals and amphibians. The OR gene repertoire of the python seems unique in that many class I OR genes are retained. The NGS approach also allowed us to identify candidates of highly expressed and silent OR gene copies in the lizard's olfactory epithelium. The approach will facilitate efficient and parallel characterization of considerable unbiased proportions of multigene family members and their transcripts from nonmodel organisms. PMID:22511035

  3. Response to Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in Tomato Involves Regulation of Ethylene Receptor Gene Expression1

    PubMed Central

    Ciardi, Joseph A.; Tieman, Denise M.; Lund, Steven T.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Stall, Robert E.; Klee, Harry J.

    2000-01-01

    Although ethylene regulates a wide range of defense-related genes, its role in plant defense varies greatly among different plant-microbe interactions. We compared ethylene's role in plant response to virulent and avirulent strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (Nr) mutant displays increased tolerance to the virulent strain, while maintaining resistance to the avirulent strain. Expression of the ethylene receptor genes NR and LeETR4 was induced by infection with both virulent and avirulent strains; however, the induction of LeETR4 expression by the avirulent strain was blocked in the Nr mutant. To determine whether ethylene receptor levels affect symptom development, transgenic plants overexpressing a wild-type NR cDNA were infected with virulent X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. Like the Nr mutant, the NR overexpressors displayed greatly reduced necrosis in response to this pathogen. NR overexpression also reduced ethylene sensitivity in seedlings and mature plants, indicating that, like LeETR4, this receptor is a negative regulator of ethylene response. Therefore, pathogen-induced increases in ethylene receptors may limit the spread of necrosis by reducing ethylene sensitivity. PMID:10806227

  4. Melanocortin-1-receptor gene and sun sensitivity in individuals without red hair.

    PubMed

    Healy, E; Flannagan, N; Ray, A; Todd, C; Jackson, I J; Matthews, J N; Birch-Machin, M A; Rees, J L

    2000-03-25

    Susceptibility to sunburn, photoageing, and skin cancer is inversely related to an individual's ability to tan after sun exposure. We examined variants in the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) gene in individuals from Ireland and the UK. We found evidence of an association between the degree of tanning after repeated sun exposure, and the number of variant alleles present. Heterozygotes were intermediate between wild-type individuals and those with two variant alleles. We suggest that MC1R gene status therefore determines sun sensitivity in people without red hair.

  5. Localization of the gene for the ciliary neutrotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR) to human chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, D.H.; Jones, C.; Patterson, D. Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, CO ); Britt, D.E.; Jackson, C.L. )

    1993-09-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has recently been found to be important for the survival of motor neurons and has shown activity in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). CNTF therefore holds promise as a treatment for ALS, and it and its receptor (CNTFR) are candidates for a gene involved in familial ALS. The CNTFR gene was mapped to chromosome 9 by PCR on a panel of human/CHO somatic cell hybrids and localized to 9p13 by PCR on a panel of radiation hybrids. 18 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Association study of schizophrenia and IL-2 receptor {beta} chain gene

    SciTech Connect

    Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Yang, Z.W.; Zhang, X.R.; Brar, J.S.

    1995-10-09

    A case-control association study was conducted in Caucasian patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R, n = 42) and unaffected controls (n = 47) matched for ethnicity and area of residence. Serum interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) concentrations, as well as a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the IL-2RP chain gene, were examined in both groups. No significant differences in IL-2R concentrations or in the distribution of the polymorphism were noted. This study does not support an association between schizophrenia and the IL-2RP gene locus, contrary to the suggestive evidence from linkage analysis in multicase families. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. The dopamine D sub 2 receptor locus as a modifying gene in neuropsychiatric disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Comings, D.E.; Comings, B.G.; Muhleman, D.; Dietz, G.; Shahbahrami, B.; Tast, D.; Knell, E.; Kocsis, P.; Baumgarten, R.; Kovacs, B.W.; Gysin, R.; Flanagan, S.D. ); Levy, D.L. ); Smith, M. ); Klein, D.N. ); MacMurray, J.; Tosk, J.M. ); Sverd, J. Cornell Univ. Medical College, Manhasset, NY ); Borison, R.L.; Evans, D.D. )

    1991-10-02

    The A1 allele of the Taq I polymorphism of the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (DRD2) gene has been earlier reported to occur in 69% of alcoholics, compared with 20% of controls. Other research has reported no significant difference in the prevalence of the A1 allele in alcoholics vs controls and no evidence that the DRD2 gene was linked to alcoholism. The authors hypothesized that these seemingly conflicting results might be because increases in the prevalence of the A1 allele may not be specific to alcoholism. Thus, they examined other disorders frequently associated with alcoholism or those believed to involve defects in dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  8. Farnesoid X receptor directly regulates xenobiotic detoxification genes in the long-lived Little mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanjun; Jin, Jingling; Iakova, Polina; Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Jawanmardi, Nicole; Sullivan, Emily; Guo, Grace L; Timchenko, Nikolai A; Darlington, Gretchen J

    2013-09-01

    Activation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways has been linked to lifespan extension in different models of aging. However, the mechanisms underlying activation of xenobiotic genes remain largely unknown. Here we showed that although farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) mRNA levels do not change significantly, FXR protein levels are elevated in the livers of the long-lived Little mice, leading to increased DNA binding activity of FXR. Hepatic FXR expression is sex-dependent in wild-type mice but not in Little mice, implying that up-regulation of FXR might be dependent on the reduction of growth hormone in Little mice. Growth hormone treatment decreased hepatic expression of FXR and xenobiotic genes Abcb1a, Fmo3 and Gsta2 in both wild-type and Little mice, suggesting an association between FXR and xenobiotic gene expression. We found that Abcb1a is transactivated by FXR via direct binding of FXR/retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer to a response element at the proximal promoter. FXR also positively controls Fmo3 and Gsta2 expression through direct interaction with the response elements in these genes. Our study demonstrates that xenobiotic genes are direct transcriptional targets of FXR and suggests that FXR signaling may play a critical role in the lifespan extension observed in Little mice.

  9. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  10. Chimpanzee sociability is associated with vasopressin (Avpr1a) but not oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) variation.

    PubMed

    Staes, Nicky; Koski, Sonja E; Helsen, Philippe; Fransen, Erik; Eens, Marcel; Stevens, Jeroen M G

    2015-09-01

    The importance of genes in regulating phenotypic variation of personality traits in humans and animals is becoming increasingly apparent in recent studies. Here we focus on variation in the vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a) and oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and their effects on social personality traits in chimpanzees. We combine newly available genetic data on Avpr1a and OXTR allelic variation of 62 captive chimpanzees with individual variation in personality, based on behavioral assessments. Our study provides support for the positive association of the Avpr1a promoter region, in particular the presence of DupB, and sociability in chimpanzees. This complements findings of previous studies on adolescent chimpanzees and studies that assessed personality using questionnaire data. In contrast, no significant associations were found for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ss1388116472 of the OXTR and any of the personality components. Most importantly, our study provides additional evidence for the regulatory function of the 5' promoter region of Avpr1a on social behavior and its evolutionary stable effect across species, including rodents, chimpanzees and humans. Although it is generally accepted that complex social behavior is regulated by a combination of genes, the environment and their interaction, our findings highlight the importance of candidate genes with large effects on behavioral variation.

  11. Engineering validamycin production by tandem deletion of γ-butyrolactone receptor genes in Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Peng, Yao; Lu, Chenyang; Bai, Linquan; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Paired homologs of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) biosynthesis gene afsA and GBL receptor gene arpA are located at different positions in genome of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008. Inactivation of afsA homologs dramatically decreased biosynthesis of validamycin, an important anti-fungal antibiotic and a critical substrate for antidiabetic drug synthesis, and the deletion of arpA homologs increased validamycin production by 26% (ΔshbR1) and 20% (ΔshbR3). By double deletion, the ΔshbR1/R3 mutant showed higher transcriptional levels of adpA-H (the S. hygroscopicus ortholog of the global regulatory gene adpA) and validamycin biosynthetic genes, and validamycin production increased by 55%. Furthermore, by engineering a high-producing industrial strain via tandem deletion of GBL receptor genes, validamycin production and productivity were enhanced from 19 to 24 g/L (by 26%) and from 6.7 to 9.7 g/L(-1) d(-1) (by 45%), respectively, which was the highest ever reported. The strategy demonstrated here may be useful to engineering other Streptomyces spp. with multiple pairs of afsA-arpA homologs.

  12. The frequency distribution of vitamin D Receptor fok I gene polymorphism among Ugandan pulmonary TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Acen, Ester L.; Worodria, William; Mulamba, Peter; Kambugu, Andrew; Erume, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is still a major problem globally and especially in Africa. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to TB in the past and studies have found vitamin D deficiency to be common among Ugandan TB patients. The functional activity of vitamin D is dependent on the genotype of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphic genes. Recent findings have indicated that VDR polymorphisms may cause increased resistance or susceptibility to TB. The vitamin D ligand and its receptor play a pivotal role in innate immunity by eliciting antimicrobial activity, which is important in prevention of TB. The fok I vitamin D receptor gene has extensively been examined in TB patients but findings so far have been inconclusive. Objectives: This study sought to investigate the frequency distribution of the VDR fok I gene polymorphisms in pulmonary TB patients and controls. Methods: A pilot case control study of 41 newly diagnosed TB patients and 41 healthy workers was set up. Vitamin D receptor fok I gene was genotyped. Results: The frequency distribution of fok I genotype in Ugandan TB patients was 87.8% homozygous-dominant (FF), 7.3% (Ff) heterozygous and 4.8% (ff) homozygous recessive. For normal healthy subjects the frequencies were (FF) 92.6%, (Ff) 2.4% and (ff) 4.8%. No significant difference was observed in the FF and ff genotypes among TB patients and controls. The Ff heterozygous genotype distribution appeared more in TB patients than in controls. A significant difference was observed in the fok I genotype among gender p value 0.02. No significant difference was observed in ethnicity, p value 0.30. Conclusions: The heterozygous Ff fok I genotype may be associated with TB in the Ugandan population. PMID:27785354

  13. Familial hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria: no mutations in the Ca2+-sensing receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Soriano, J; Vallo, A; Quintela, M J; Pérez de Nanclares, G; Bilbao, J R; Castaño, L

    2001-09-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented with persistent hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis from early infancy. His 40-year-old father also had hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. In both individuals serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were repeatedly normal. Although these findings suggest a functional abnormality of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), no mutations in coding regions of the CaR gene could be demonstrated.

  14. The Sigma-2 Receptor and Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 are Different Binding Sites Derived From Independent Genes

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Uyen B.; Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Chu, Ming-Liang; Yang, Huan; Schulman, Amanda; Mesangeau, Christophe; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Guo, Lian-Wang; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-2 receptor (S2R) is a potential therapeutic target for cancer and neuronal diseases. However, the identity of the S2R has remained a matter of debate. Historically, the S2R has been defined as (1) a binding site with high affinity to 1,3-di-o-tolylguanidine (DTG) and haloperidol but not to the selective sigma-1 receptor ligand (+)-pentazocine, and (2) a protein of 18–21 kDa, as shown by specific photolabeling with [3H]-Azido-DTG and [125I]-iodoazido-fenpropimorph ([125I]-IAF). Recently, the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), a 25 kDa protein, was reported to be the S2R (Nature Communications, 2011, 2:380). To confirm this identification, we created PGRMC1 knockout NSC34 cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We found that in NSC34 cells devoid of or overexpressing PGRMC1, the maximum [3H]-DTG binding to the S2R (Bmax) as well as the DTG-protectable [125I]-IAF photolabeling of the S2R were similar to those of wild-type control cells. Furthermore, the affinities of DTG and haloperidol for PGRMC1 (KI = 472 μM and 350 μM, respectively), as determined in competition with [3H]-progesterone, were more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than those reported for the S2R (20–80 nM). These results clarify that PGRMC1 and the S2R are distinct binding sites expressed by different genes. PMID:26870805

  15. Identification of chemical modulators of the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) in a gene expression compendium

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Jones, Carlton; Moore, Tanya; Hester, Susan; Nesnow, Stephen; Auerbach, Scott; Geter, David R.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.; Thomas, Russell S.; Applegate, Dawn; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Corton, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member constitutive activated receptor (CAR) is activated by structurally diverse drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals leading to transcriptional regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Chronic activation of CAR increases liver cancer incidence in rodents, whereas suppression of CAR can lead to steatosis and insulin insensitivity. Here, analytical methods were developed to screen for chemical treatments in a gene expression compendium that lead to alteration of CAR activity. A gene expression biomarker signature of 83 CAR-dependent genes was identified using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators (CITCO, phenobarbital, TCPOBOP). A rank-based algorithm (Running Fisher’s algorithm (p-value ≤ 10-4)) was used to evaluate the similarity between the CAR biomarker signature and a test set of 28 and 32 comparisons positive or negative, respectively, for CAR activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 97%. The biomarker signature was used to identify chemicals that activate or suppress CAR in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 comparisons. CAR was activated by 1) activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in wild-type but not AhR-null mice, 2) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activators in wild-type and to lesser extents in PXR-null mice, and 3) activators of PPARα in wild-type and PPARα-null mice. CAR was consistently activated by five conazole fungicides and four perfluorinated compounds. Comparison of effects in wild-type and CAR-null mice showed that the fungicide propiconazole increased liver weight and hepatocyte proliferation in a CAR-dependent manner, whereas the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased these endpoints in a CAR-independent manner. A number of compounds suppressed CAR coincident with increases in markers of

  16. Identification of chemical modulators of the constitutive activated receptor (CAR) in a gene expression compendium.

    PubMed

    Oshida, Keiyu; Vasani, Naresh; Jones, Carlton; Moore, Tanya; Hester, Susan; Nesnow, Stephen; Auerbach, Scott; Geter, David R; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Thomas, Russell S; Applegate, Dawn; Klaassen, Curtis D; Corton, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor family member constitutive activated receptor (CAR) is activated by structurally diverse drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals leading to transcriptional regulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and transport. Chronic activation of CAR increases liver cancer incidence in rodents, whereas suppression of CAR can lead to steatosis and insulin insensitivity. Here, analytical methods were developed to screen for chemical treatments in a gene expression compendium that lead to alteration of CAR activity. A gene expression biomarker signature of 83 CAR-dependent genes was identified using microarray profiles from the livers of wild-type and CAR-null mice after exposure to three structurally-diverse CAR activators (CITCO, phenobarbital, TCPOBOP). A rank-based algorithm (Running Fisher's algorithm (p-value ≤ 10(-4))) was used to evaluate the similarity between the CAR biomarker signature and a test set of 28 and 32 comparisons positive or negative, respectively, for CAR activation; the test resulted in a balanced accuracy of 97%. The biomarker signature was used to identify chemicals that activate or suppress CAR in an annotated mouse liver/primary hepatocyte gene expression database of ~1850 comparisons. CAR was activated by 1) activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in wild-type but not AhR-null mice, 2) pregnane X receptor (PXR) activators in wild-type and to lesser extents in PXR-null mice, and 3) activators of PPARα in wild-type and PPARα-null mice. CAR was consistently activated by five conazole fungicides and four perfluorinated compounds. Comparison of effects in wild-type and CAR-null mice showed that the fungicide propiconazole increased liver weight and hepatocyte proliferation in a CAR-dependent manner, whereas the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increased these endpoints in a CAR-independent manner. A number of compounds suppressed CAR coincident with increases in markers of

  17. Detection of circulating tumor cells using GeneScan analysis for antigen receptor gene rearrangements in canine lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    HIYOSHI-KANEMOTO, Saaya; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; FUJINO, Yasuhito; OHNO, Koichi; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) serves as a prognostic marker and indicator of disease relapse, as well as a means of evaluating treatment efficacy in human and canine lymphoma patients. As an extension of our previous study for the construction of clinically useful GeneScan system, we utilized the GeneScan system for detecting CTCs in canine lymphoma patients. Samples from the primary lesion and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from 32 dogs with lymphoma at initial diagnosis. All samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor gene rearrangements (PARR) followed by GeneScan analysis. Common clonal rearrangements with identical amplified fragments were detected in both the primary lesion and PBMCs in 19 of the 32 dogs (59.4%). However, the detection rate of CTCs varied among the anatomical classification of lymphoma studied. GeneScan analysis following PARR would facilitate studies on determining the clinical significance of CTCs in canine lymphoma patients. PMID:26888583

  18. Sequence Analysis of Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Repertoires in Different Ruminant Species

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro Ferreira, Ana; Tomás Marques, Andreia; Bhide, Mangesh; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka; Hollung, Kristin; Knight, Christopher Harold; Raundrup, Katrine; Lippolis, John; Palmer, Mitchell; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana Sousa; de Almeida, André Martinho

    2015-01-01

    Bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. At the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (T2R) present at the surface of taste receptor cells in the gustatory papillae. Our work aims at exploring the phylogenetic relationships of T2R gene sequences within different ruminant species. To accomplish this goal, we gathered a collection of ruminant species with different feeding behaviors and for which no genome data is available: American bison, chamois, elk, European bison, fallow deer, goat, moose, mouflon, muskox, red deer, reindeer and white tailed deer. The herbivores chosen for this study belong to different taxonomic families and habitats, and hence, exhibit distinct foraging behaviors and diet preferences. We describe the first partial repertoires of T2R gene sequences for these species obtained by direct sequencing. We then consider the homology and evolutionary history of these receptors within this ruminant group, and whether it relates to feeding type classification, using MEGA software. Our results suggest that phylogenetic proximity of T2R genes corresponds more to the traditional taxonomic groups of the species rather than reflecting a categorization by feeding strategy. PMID:26061084

  19. Growth hormone receptor gene mutations in two Italian patients with Laron Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fassone, L; Corneli, G; Bellone, S; Camacho-Hübner, C; Aimaretti, G; Cappa, M; Ubertini, G; Bona, G

    2007-05-01

    Laron Syndrome (LS) represents a condition characterized by GH insensitivity caused by molecular defects in the GH receptor (GHR) gene or in the post-receptor signalling pathway. We report the molecular characterization of two unrelated Italian girls from Sicily diagnosed with LS. The DNA sequencing of the GHR gene revealed the presence of different nonsense mutations, occurring in the same background haplotype. The molecular defects occurred in the extracellular domain of the GHR leading to a premature termination signal and to a truncated non-functional receptor. In one patient, a homozygous G to T transversion, in exon 6, led to the mutation GAA to TAA at codon 180 (E180X), while in the second patient a homozygous C to T transition in exon 7 was detected, causing the CGA to TAA substitution at codon 217 (R217X). Both probands presented the polymorphisms Gly168Gly and Ile544Leu in a homozygous state in exons 6 and 10, respectively. The E180X represents a novel defect of the GHR gene, while the R217X mutation has been previously reported in several patients from different ethnic backgrounds but all from countries located in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern region.

  20. Rapid evolution of smell and taste receptor genes during host specialization in Drosophila sechellia

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Carolyn S.

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the genetic basis of host specialization in insects is limited to basic information on the number and location of genetic factors underlying changes in conspicuous phenotypes. We know nothing about general patterns of molecular evolution that may accompany host specialization but are not traceable to a single prominent phenotypic change. Here, I describe changes in the entire repertoire of 136 olfactory receptor (Or) and gustatory receptor (Gr) genes of the recently specialized vinegar fly Drosophila sechellia. I find that D. sechellia is losing Or and Gr genes nearly 10 times faster than its generalist sibling Drosophila simulans. Moreover, those D. sechellia receptors that remain intact have fixed amino acid replacement mutations at a higher rate relative to silent mutations than have their D. simulans orthologs. Comparison of these patterns with those observed in a random sample of genes indicates that the changes at Or and Gr loci are likely to reflect positive selection and/or relaxed constraint associated with the altered ecological niche of this fly. PMID:17360391

  1. Evidence for an indirect transcriptional regulation of glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression by liver X receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Grempler, Rolf . E-mail: rolfgrempler@yahoo.de; Guenther, Susanne; Steffensen, Knut R.; Nilsson, Maria; Barthel, Andreas; Schmoll, Dieter

    2005-12-16

    Liver X receptor (LXR) paralogues {alpha} and {beta} (LXR{alpha} and LXR{beta}) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor family and have oxysterols as endogenous ligands. LXR activation reduces hepatic glucose production in vivo through the inhibition of transcription of the key gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of G6Pase gene expression by LXR. Both T0901317, a synthetic LXR agonist, and the adenoviral overexpression of either LXR{alpha} or LXR{beta} suppressed G6Pase gene expression in H4IIE hepatoma cells. However, compared to the suppression of G6Pase expression seen by insulin, the decrease of G6Pase mRNA by LXR activation was delayed and was blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. These observations, together with the absence of a conserved LXR-binding element within the G6Pase promoter, suggest an indirect inhibition of G6Pase gene expression by liver X receptors.

  2. T Cell Receptor-Independent Basal Signaling via Erk and Abl Kinases Suppresses RAG Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Roose, Jeroen P; Diehn, Maximilian; Tomlinson, Michael G; Lin, Joseph; Alizadeh, Ash A; Botstein, David; Brown, Patrick O

    2003-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways guided by cellular receptors commonly exhibit low-level constitutive signaling in a continuous, ligand-independent manner. The dynamic equilibrium of positive and negative regulators establishes such a tonic signal. Ligand-independent signaling by the precursors of mature antigen receptors regulates development of B and T lymphocytes. Here we describe a basal signal that controls gene expression profiles in the Jurkat T cell line and mouse thymocytes. Using DNA microarrays and Northern blots to analyze unstimulated cells, we demonstrate that expression of a cluster of genes, including RAG-1 and RAG-2, is repressed by constitutive signals requiring the adapter molecules LAT and SLP-76. This TCR-like pathway results in constitutive low-level activity of Erk and Abl kinases. Inhibition of Abl by the drug STI-571 or inhibition of signaling events upstream of Erk increases RAG-1 expression. Our data suggest that physiologic gene expression programs depend upon tonic activity of signaling pathways independent of receptor ligation. PMID:14624253

  3. Twisting integrin receptors increases endothelin-1 gene expression in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.; Fabry, B.; Schiffrin, E. L.; Wang, N.; Ingber, D. E. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic twisting stimulator was developed based on the previously published technique of magnetic twisting cytometry. Using ligand-coated ferromagnetic microbeads, this device can apply mechanical stresses with varying amplitudes, duration, frequencies, and waveforms to specific cell surface receptors. Biochemical and biological responses of the cells to the mechanical stimulation can be assayed. Twisting integrin receptors with RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp)-containing peptide-coated beads increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene expression by >100%. In contrast, twisting scavenger receptors with acetylated low-density lipoprotein-coated beads or twisting HLA antigen with anti-HLA antibody-coated beads did not lead to alterations in ET-1 gene expression. In situ hybridization showed that the increase in ET-1 mRNA was localized in the cells that were stressed with the RGD-coated beads. Blocking stretch-activated ion channels with gadolinium, chelating Ca2+ with EGTA, or inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation with genistein abolished twist-induced ET-1 mRNA elevation. Abolishing cytoskeletal tension with an inhibitor of the myosin ATPase, with an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, or with an actin microfilament disrupter blocked twisted-induced increases in ET-1 expression. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the molecular structural linkage of integrin-cytoskeleton is an important pathway for stress-induced ET-1 gene expression.

  4. Human GABAA receptor alpha 1 and alpha 3 subunits genes and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Parsian, A; Cloninger, C R

    1997-05-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA effects are largely mediated by binding to the postsynaptic GABAA receptor, causing the opening of an integral chloride-ion channel. The GABAA antagonists picrotoxin and bicuculline reduce some ethanol-induced behaviors, such as motor impairment, sedation, and hypnosis. The role of this receptor in alcoholism is further supported by effective alleviation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms by GABAA agonists. To determine the role of the GABAA receptor (GABR) genes in the development of alcoholism, we have used alpha 1 and alpha 3 simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in a sample of unrelated alcoholics, alcoholic probands with both parents, and psychiatrically normal controls. For the GABR alpha 1 gene, the differences between allele frequencies, when all alleles were compared together, were not significant between total alcoholics, subtypes of alcoholics, and normal controls. However, for GABR alpha 3, the differences between total alcoholics and normal controls were significant when all alleles were compared together. The differences between subtypes of alcoholics and normal controls were not significant. The results of haplotype relative risk analysis for both genes, GABR alpha 1 and GABR alpha 3, were also negative. It is possible that the sample size in the haplotype relative risk is too small to have power to detect the differences in transmitted versus nontransmitted alleles. There is a need for a replication study in a large family sample that will allow haplotype relative risk or affected sib-pair analysis.

  5. Ethylene and pollination decrease transcript abundance of an ethylene receptor gene in Dendrobium petals.

    PubMed

    Thongkum, Monthathip; Burns, Parichart; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Warin, Nuchnard; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2015-03-15

    We studied the expression of a gene encoding an ethylene receptor, called Ethylene Response Sensor 1 (Den-ERS1), in the petals of Dendrobium orchid flowers. Transcripts accumulated during the young floral bud stage and declined by the time the flowers had been open for several days. Pollination or exposure to exogenous ethylene resulted in earlier flower senescence, an increase in ethylene production and a lower Den-ERS1 transcript abundance. Treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of the ethylene receptor, decreased ethylene production and resulted in high transcript abundance. The literature indicates two kinds of ethylene receptor genes with regard to the effects of ethylene. One group shows ethylene-induced down-regulated transcription, while the other has ethylene-induced up-regulation. The present gene is an example of the first group. The 5' flanking region showed binding sites for Myb and myb-like, homeodomain, MADS domain, NAC, TCP, bHLH and EIN3-like transcription factors. The binding site for the EIN3-like factor might explain the ethylene effect on transcription. A few other transcription factors (RAV1 and NAC) seem also related to ethylene effects.

  6. Expansion of the Receptor-Like Kinase/Pelle Gene Family and Receptor-Like Proteins in Arabidopsis1[w

    PubMed Central

    Shin-Han, Shiu; Bleecker, Anthony B.

    2003-01-01

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are a family of transmembrane proteins with versatile N-terminal extracellular domains and C-terminal intracellular kinases. They control a wide range of physiological responses in plants and belong to one of the largest gene families in the Arabidopsis genome with more than 600 members. Interestingly, this gene family constitutes 60% of all kinases in Arabidopsis and accounts for nearly all transmembrane kinases in Arabidopsis. Analysis of four fungal, six metazoan, and two Plasmodium sp. genomes indicates that the family was represented in all but fungal genomes, indicating an ancient origin for the family with a more recent expansion only in the plant lineages. The RLK/Pelle family can be divided into several subfamilies based on three independent criteria: the phylogeny based on kinase domain sequences, the extracellular domain identities, and intron locations and phases. A large number of receptor-like proteins (RLPs) resembling the extracellular domains of RLKs are also found in the Arabidopsis genome. However, not all RLK subfamilies have corresponding RLPs. Several RLK/Pelle subfamilies have undergone differential expansions. More than 33% of the RLK/Pelle members are found in tandem clusters, substantially higher than the genome average. In addition, 470 of the RLK/Pelle family members are located within the segmentally duplicated regions in the Arabidopsis genome and 268 of them have a close relative in the corresponding regions. Therefore, tandem duplications and segmental/whole-genome duplications represent two of the major mechanisms for the expansion of the RLK/Pelle family in Arabidopsis. PMID:12805585

  7. Dopamine D1 receptors, regulation of gene expression in the brain, and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Jean Lud; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; McCoy, Michael T; Beauvais, Genevieve; Cai, Ning Sheng

    2010-11-01

    Dopamine (DA), the most abundant catecholamine in the basal ganglia, participates in the regulation of motor functions and of cognitive processes such as learning and memory. Abnormalities in dopaminergic systems are thought to be the bases for some neuropsychiatric disorders including addiction, Parkinson's disease, and Schizophrenia. DA exerts its arrays of functions via stimulation of D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) DA receptors which are located in various regions of the brain. The DA D1 and D2 receptors are very abundant in the basal ganglia where they exert their functions within separate neuronal cell types. The present paper focuses on a review of the effects of stimulation of DA D1 receptors on diverse signal transduction pathways and gene expression patterns in the brain. We also discuss the possible involvement of the DA D1 receptors in DA-mediated toxic effects observed both in vitro and in vivo. Future studies using more selective agonist and antagonist agents and the use of genetically modified animals should help to further clarify the role of these receptors in the normal physiology and in pathological events that involve DA.

  8. Molecular Characterization and Sex Distribution of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Family Based on Transcriptome Analysis of Scaeva pyrastri

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; He, Peng; Xu, Lu; Sun, Liang; Chen, Li; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Dao-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors play key roles in insect behavior. Thus, genes encoding these receptors have great potential for use in integrated pest management. The hover fly Scaeva pyrastri (L.) is an important pollinating insect and a natural enemy of aphids, mainly distributed in the Palearctic and Nearctic regions. However, a systematic identification of their chemosensory receptor genes in the antennae has not been reported. In the present study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of S. pyrastri by using Illumina sequencing technology. Analysis of the transcriptome data identified 60 candidate chemosensory genes, including 38 for odorant receptors (ORs), 16 for ionotropic receptors (IRs), and 6 for gustatory receptors (GRs). The numbers are similar to those of other Diptera species, suggesting that we were able to successfully identify S. pyrastri chemosensory genes. We analyzed the expression patterns of all genes by using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and found that some genes exhibited sex-biased or sex-specific expression. These candidate chemosensory genes and their tissue expression profiles provide information for further studies aimed at fully understanding the molecular basis behind chemoreception-related behaviors in S. pyrastri. PMID:27171401

  9. Taste and odorant receptors of the coelacanth--a gene repertoire in transition.

    PubMed

    Picone, Barbara; Hesse, Uljana; Panji, Sumir; Van Heusden, Peter; Jonas, Mario; Christoffels, Alan

    2014-09-01

    G-protein coupled chemosensory receptors (GPCR-CRs) aid in the perception of odors and tastes in vertebrates. So far, six GPCR-CR families have been identified that are conserved in most vertebrate species. Phylogenetic analyses indicate differing evolutionary dynamics between teleost fish and tetrapods. The coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae belongs to the lobe-finned fishes, which represent a phylogenetic link between these two groups. We searched the genome of L. chalumnae for GPCR-CRs and found that coelacanth taste receptors are more similar to those in tetrapods than in teleost fish: two coelacanth T1R2s co-segregate with the tetrapod T1R2s that recognize sweet substances, and our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the teleost T1R2s are closer related to T1R1s (umami taste receptors) than to tetrapod T1R2s. Furthermore, coelacanths are the first fish with a large repertoire of bitter taste receptors (58 T2Rs). Considering current knowledge on feeding habits of coelacanths the question arises if perception of bitter taste is the only function of these receptors. Similar to teleost fish, coelacanths have a variety of olfactory receptors (ORs) necessary for perception of water-soluble substances. However, they also have seven genes in the two tetrapod OR subfamilies predicted to recognize airborne molecules. The two coelacanth vomeronasal receptor families are larger than those in teleost fish, and similar to tetrapods and form V1R and V2R monophyletic clades. This may point to an advanced development of the vomeronasal organ as reported for lungfish. Our results show that the intermediate position of Latimeria in the phylogeny is reflected in its GPCR-CR repertoire.

  10. Apple contains receptor-like genes homologous to the Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene family of tomato with a cluster of genes cosegregating with Vf apple scab resistance.

    PubMed

    Vinatzer, B A; Patocchi, A; Gianfranceschi, L; Tartarini, S; Zhang, H B; Gessler, C; Sansavini, S

    2001-04-01

    Scab caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis is the most common disease of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Monogenic resistance against scab is found in some small-fruited wild Malus species and has been used in apple breeding for scab resistance. Vf resistance of Malus floribunda 821 is the most widely used scab resistance source. Because breeding a high-quality cultivar in perennial fruit trees takes dozens of years, cloning disease resistance genes and using them in the transformation of high-quality apple varieties would be advantageous. We report the identification of a cluster of receptor-like genes with homology to the Cladosporium fulvum (Cf) resistance gene family of tomato on bacterial artificial chromosome clones derived from the Vf scab resistance locus. Three members of the cluster were sequenced completely. Similar to the Cf gene family of tomato, the deduced amino acid sequences coded by these genes contain an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain and a transmembrane domain. The transcription of three members of the cluster was determined by reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction to be constitutive, and the transcription and translation start of one member was verified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. We discuss the parallels between Cf resistance of tomato and Vf resistance of apple and the possibility that one of the members of the gene cluster is the Vf gene. Cf homologs from other regions of the apple genome also were identified and are likely to present other scab resistance genes.

  11. The murine DUB-1 gene is specifically induced by the betac subunit of interleukin-3 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Y; Pless, M; Inhorn, R; Mathey-Prevot, B; D'Andrea, A D

    1996-01-01

    Cytokines regulate cell growth and differentiation by inducing the expression of specific target genes. We have recently isolated a cytokine-inducible, immediate-early cDNA, DUB-1, that encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme. The DUB-1 mRNA was specifically induced by the receptors for interleukin-3, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-5, suggesting a role for the beta common (betac subunit known to be shared by these receptors. In order to identify the mechanism of cytokine induction, we isolated a murine genomic clone for DUB-1 containing a functional promoter region. The DUB-1 gene contains two exons, and the nucleotide sequence of its coding region is identical to the sequence of DUB-1 cDNA. Various regions of the 5' flanking region of the DUB-1 gene were assayed for cytokine-inducible activity. An enhancer region that retains the beta c-specific inducible activity of the DUB-1 gene was identified. Enhancer activity was localized to a 112-bp fragment located 1.4 kb upstream from the ATG start codon. Gel mobility shift assays revealed two specific protein complexes that bound to this minimal enhancer region. One complex was induced by betac signaling, while the other was noninducible. Finally, the membrane-proximal region of human betac was required for DUB-1 induction. In conclusion, DUB-1 is the first example of an immediate-early gene that is induced by a specific subunit of a cytokine receptor. Further analysis of the DUB-1 enhancer element may reveal specific determinants of a betac-specific signaling pathway. PMID:8756639

  12. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  13. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster: Dual role in nicotine addiction and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Improgo, Ma. Reina D.; Scofield, Michael D.; Tapper, Andrew R.; Gardner, Paul D.

    2010-01-01

    More than 1 billion people around the world smoke, with 10 million cigarettes sold every minute. Cigarettes contain thousands of harmful chemicals including the psychoactive compound, nicotine. Nicotine addiction is initiated by the binding of nicotine to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, ligand-gated cation channels activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. These receptors serve as prototypes for all ligand-gated ion channels and have been extensively studied in an attempt to elucidate their role in nicotine addiction. Many of these studies have focused on heteromeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 and β2 subunits and homomeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing the α7 subunit, two of the most abundant subtypes expressed in the brain. Recently however, a series of linkage analyses, candidate-gene analyses and genome-wide association studies have brought attention to three other members of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family: the α5, α3 and β4 subunits. The genes encoding these subunits lie in a genomic cluster that contains variants associated with increased risk for several diseases including nicotine dependence and lung cancer. The underlying mechanisms for these associations have not yet been elucidated but decades of research on the nicotinic receptor gene family as well as emerging data provide insight on how these receptors may function in pathological states. Here, we review this body of work, focusing on the clustered nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes and evaluating their role in nicotine addiction and lung cancer. PMID:20685379

  14. Genome-wide landscape of liver X receptor chromatin binding and gene regulation in human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The liver X receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol sensing nuclear receptors with multiple effects on metabolism and immune cells. However, the complete genome-wide cistrome of LXR in cells of human origin has not yet been provided. Results We performed ChIP-seq in phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 cells (macrophage-type) after stimulation with the potent synthetic LXR ligand T0901317 (T09). Microarray gene expression analysis was performed in the same cellular model. We identified 1357 genome-wide LXR locations (FDR < 1%), of which 526 were observed after T09 treatment. De novo analysis of LXR binding sequences identified a DR4-type element as the major motif. On mRNA level T09 up-regulated 1258 genes and repressed 455 genes. Our results show that LXR actions are focused on 112 genomic regions that contain up to 11 T09 target genes per region under the control of highly stringent LXR binding sites with individual constellations for each region. We could confirm that LXR controls lipid metabolism and transport and observed a strong association with apoptosis-related functions. Conclusions This first report on genome-wide binding of LXR in a human cell line provides new insights into the transcriptional network of LXR and its target genes with their link to physiological processes, such as apoptosis. The gene expression microarray and sequence data have been submitted collectively to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo under accession number GSE28319. PMID:22292898

  15. Expanding Duplication of Free Fatty Acid Receptor-2 (GPR43) Genes in the Chicken Genome.

    PubMed

    Meslin, Camille; Desert, Colette; Callebaut, Isabelle; Djari, Anis; Klopp, Christophe; Pitel, Frédérique; Leroux, Sophie; Martin, Pascal; Froment, Pascal; Guilbert, Edith; Gondret, Florence; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Monget, Philippe

    2015-04-24

    Free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) belong to a family of five G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, so that their loss of function increases the risk of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the expansion of genes encoding paralogs of FFAR2 in the chicken, considered as a model organism for developmental biology and biomedical research. By estimating the gene copy number using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, genomic DNA resequencing, and RNA sequencing data, we showed the existence of 23 ± 1.5 genes encoding FFAR2 paralogs in the chicken genome. The FFAR2 paralogs shared an identity from 87.2% up to 99%. Extensive gene conversion was responsible for this high degree of sequence similarities between these genes, and this concerned especially the four amino acids known to be critical for ligand binding. Moreover, elevated nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios on some amino acids within or in close-vicinity of the ligand-binding groove suggest that positive selection may have reduced the effective rate of gene conversion in this region, thus contributing to diversify the function of some FFAR2 paralogs. All the FFAR2 paralogs were located on a microchromosome in a same linkage group. FFAR2 genes were expressed in different tissues and cells such as spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, abdominal adipose tissue, intestine, and lung, with the highest rate of expression in testis. Further investigations are needed to determine whether these chicken-specific events along evolution are the consequence of domestication and may play a role in regulating lipid metabolism in this species.

  16. The emergence of the vasopressin and oxytocin hormone receptor gene family lineage: Clues from the characterization of vasotocin receptors in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Mayasich, Sally A; Clarke, Benjamin L

    2016-01-15

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a jawless vertebrate at an evolutionary nexus between invertebrates and jawed vertebrates. Lampreys are known to possess the arginine vasotocin (AVT) hormone utilized by all non-mammalian vertebrates. We postulated that the lamprey would possess AVT receptor orthologs of predecessors to the arginine vasopressin (AVP)/oxytocin (OXT) family of G protein-coupled receptors found in mammals, providing insights into the origins of the mammalian V1A, V1B, V2 and OXT receptors. Among the earliest animals to diverge from the vertebrate lineage in which these receptors are characterized is the jawed, cartilaginous elephant shark, which has genes orthologous to all four mammalian receptor types. Therefore, our work was aimed at helping resolve the critical gap concerning the outcomes of hypothesized large-scale (whole-genome) duplication events. We sequenced one partial and four full-length putative lamprey AVT receptor genes and determined their mRNA expression patterns in 15 distinct tissues. Phylogenetically, three of the full-coding genes possess structural characteristics of the V1 clade containing the V1A, V1B and OXT receptors. Another full-length coding gene and the partial sequence are part of the V2 clade and appear to be most closely related to the newly established V2B and V2C receptor subtypes. Our synteny analysis also utilizing the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum) genome supports the recent proposal that jawless and jawed vertebrates shared one-round (1R) of WGD as the most likely scenario.

  17. Global Analysis of Predicted G Protein−Coupled Receptor Genes in the Filamentous Fungus, Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Ilva E.; Pacentine, Itallia V.; Lim, Andrew; Guerrero, Nayeli; Krystofova, Svetlana; Li, Liande; Michkov, Alexander V.; Servin, Jacqueline A.; Ahrendt, Steven R.; Carrillo, Alexander J.; Davidson, Liza M.; Barsoum, Andrew H.; Cao, Jackie; Castillo, Ronald; Chen, Wan-Ching; Dinkchian, Alex; Kim, Stephanie; Kitada, Sho M.; Lai, Taffani H.; Mach, Ashley; Malekyan, Cristin; Moua, Toua R.; Torres, Carlos Rojas; Yamamoto, Alaina; Borkovich, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    G protein−coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate facets of growth, development, and environmental sensing in eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi. The largest predicted GPCR class in these organisms is the Pth11-related, with members similar to a protein required for disease in the plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the Pth11-related class has not been functionally studied in any filamentous fungal species. Here, we analyze phenotypes in available mutants for 36 GPCR genes, including 20 Pth11-related, in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We also investigate patterns of gene expression for all 43 predicted GPCR genes in available datasets. A total of 17 mutants (47%) possessed at least one growth or developmental phenotype. We identified 18 mutants (56%) with chemical sensitivity or nutritional phenotypes (11 uniquely), bringing the total number of mutants with at least one defect to 28 (78%), including 15 mutants (75%) in the Pth11-related class. Gene expression trends for GPCR genes correlated with the phenotypes observed for many mutants and also suggested overlapping functions for several groups of co-transcribed genes. Several members of the Pth11-related class have phenotypes and/or are differentially expressed on cellulose, suggesting a possible role for this gene family in plant cell wall sensing or utilization. PMID:26464358

  18. Genes Involved in Interleukin-1 Receptor Type II Activities Are Associated With Asthmatic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Anne-Marie; Vaillancourt, Vanessa T.; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Sarnowski, Chloé; Monier, Florent; Dizier, Marie-Hélène; Demenais, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role in inflammation and immunity and its decoy receptor, IL-1R2, has been implicated in transcriptomic and genetic studies of asthma. Methods Two large asthma family collections, the French-Canadian Saguenay—Lac-St-Jean (SLSJ) study and the French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA), were used to investigate the association of SNPs in 10 genes that modulate IL-1R2 activities with asthma, allergic asthma, and atopy. Gene-gene interactions were also tested. Results One SNP in BACE2 was associated with allergic asthma in the SLSJ study and replicated in the EGEA study before statistical correction for multiple testing. Additionally, two SNPs in the MMP2 gene were replicated in both studies prior to statistical correction and reached significance in the combined analysis. Moreover, three gene-gene interactions also survived statistical correction in the combined analyses (BACE1-IL1RAP in asthma and allergic asthma and IL1R1-IL1RAP in atopy). Conclusions Our results highlight the relevance of genes involved in the IL-1R2 activity in the context of asthma and asthma-related traits. PMID:27334786

  19. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Roma from Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Petlichkovski, A; Djulejic, E; Trajkov, D; Efinska-Mladenovska, O; Hristomanova, S; Kirijas, M; Senev, A; Spiroski, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze Killer Ig-Like Receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms in Roma people from Republic of Macedonia. The studied sample consists of 103 healthy unrelated individuals, aged 20-45 years. All individuals are of Roma origin, residents of different geographical regions (Gostivar, Skopje, and Kochani). The population genetics analysis package, Arlequin, was used for analysis of the data. We found that all 16 KIR genes were observed in the Roma individuals and framework genes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR- 2DL4, and KIR3DL2) were present in all individuals. The frequencies of other KIR genes were: KIR2DP1 (1), KIR2DL1 (0.961), KIR2DL2 (0.544), KIR2DL3 (0.874), KIR2DL5 (0.311), KIR3DL1 (0.990), KIR- 2DS1 (0.330), KIR2DS2 (0.553), KIR2DS3 (0.359), KIR2DS4 (0.981), KIR2DS5 (0.291), and KIR3DS1 (0.379). The results of tested linkage disequilibrium (LD) among KIR genes demonstrated that KIR genes present a wide range of linkage disequilibrium. The obtained results for KIR genes and genotype frequencies in Macedonian Roma individuals can be used for anthropological comparisons.

  20. Adenoviral-Mediated Imaging of Gene Transfer Using a Somatostatin Receptor-Cytosine Deaminase Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lears, Kimberly A.; Parry, Jesse J.; Andrews, Rebecca; Nguyen, Kim; Wadas, Thaddeus J.; Rogers, Buck E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy is a process by which cells are administered a gene that encodes a protein capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into an active toxin. Cytosine deaminase (CD) has been widely investigated as a means of suicide gene therapy due to the enzyme’s ability to convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, the extent of gene transfer is a limiting factor in predicting therapeutic outcome. The ability to monitor gene transfer, non-invasively, would strengthen the efficiency of therapy. In this regard, we have constructed and evaluated a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) containing the human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) fused with a C-terminal yeast CD gene for the non-invasive monitoring of gene transfer and therapy. The resulting Ad (AdSSTR2-yCD) was evaluated in vitro in breast cancer cells to determine the function of the fusion protein. These studies demonstrated that the both the SSTR2 and yCD were functional in binding assays, conversion assays, and cytotoxicity assays. In vivo studies similarly demonstrated the functionality using conversion assays, biodistribution studies, and small animal positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the fusion protein has been validated as useful for the non-invasive imaging of yCD expression and will be evaluated in the future for monitoring yCD-based therapy. PMID:25837665

  1. Methylation Status of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Promoter in Benign and Malignant Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Catia; Rebellato, Andrea; Urbanet, Riccardo; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Cappellesso, Rocco; Sasano, Hironobu; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed a decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA/protein in a small group of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) tissues, suggesting the loss of a protective role of VDR against malignant cell growth in this cancer type. Downregulation of VDR gene expression may result from epigenetics events, that is, methylation of cytosine nucleotide of CpG islands in VDR gene promoter. We analyzed methylation of CpG sites in the VDR gene promoter in normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumor samples. Methylation of CpG-rich 5′ regions was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from archival microdissected paraffin-embedded adrenocortical tissues. Three normal adrenals and 23 various adrenocortical tumor samples (15 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) were studied. Methylation in the promoter region of VDR gene was found in 3/8 ACCs, while no VDR gene methylation was observed in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower in ACCs than in benign tumors, and VDR immunostaining was weak or negative in ACCs, including all 3 methylated tissue samples. The association between VDR gene promoter methylation and reduced VDR gene expression is not a rare event in ACC, suggesting that VDR epigenetic inactivation may have a role in adrenocortical carcinogenesis. PMID:26843863

  2. Adenoviral-mediated imaging of gene transfer using a somatostatin receptor-cytosine deaminase fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Lears, K A; Parry, J J; Andrews, R; Nguyen, K; Wadas, T J; Rogers, B E

    2015-03-01

    Suicide gene therapy is a process by which cells are administered a gene that encodes a protein capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into an active toxin. Cytosine deaminase (CD) has been widely investigated as a means of suicide gene therapy owing to the enzyme's ability to convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, the extent of gene transfer is a limiting factor in predicting therapeutic outcome. The ability to monitor gene transfer, non-invasively, would strengthen the efficiency of therapy. In this regard, we have constructed and evaluated a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) containing the human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) fused with a C-terminal yeast CD gene for the non-invasive monitoring of gene transfer and therapy. The resulting Ad (AdSSTR2-yCD) was evaluated in vitro in breast cancer cells to determine the function of the fusion protein. These studies demonstrated that both the SSTR2 and yCD were functional in binding assays, conversion assays and cytotoxicity assays. In vivo studies similarly demonstrated the functionality using conversion assays, biodistribution studies and small animal positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the fusion protein has been validated as useful for the non-invasive imaging of yCD expression and will be evaluated in the future for monitoring yCD-based therapy.

  3. Human substance P receptor (NK-1): Organization of the gene, chromosome localization, and functional expression of cDNA clones

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, N.P.; Paquet, J.L. Children's Hospital, Boston, MA Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Garraway, L.A. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Eddy, R.L. Jr.; Shows, T.B. ); Iijima, Hideya Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA ); Gerard, C. )

    1991-11-05

    The gene for the human substance P receptor (NK-1) was cloned using cDNA probes made by the polymerase chain reaction from primers based on the rat sequence. The gene spans 45-60 kb and is contained in five exons, with introns interrupting at sites homologous to those in the NK-2 receptor gene. Analysis of restriction digests of genomic DNA from mouse/human cell hybrids indicates the NK-1 receptor is a single-copy gene located on human chromosome 2. Polymerase chain reaction using primers based on the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends of the coding sequence was used to generate full-length cDNAs from human lung and from IM9 lymphoblast cells. When transfected into COS-7 cells, the NK-1 receptor binds {sup 125}I-BHSP with a K{sub d} of 0.35 {plus minus} 0.07 nM and mediates substance P induced phosphatidylinositol metabolism. The receptor is selective for substance P; the relative affinity for neurokinin A and neurokinin B is 100- and 500-fold lower, respectively. Human IM9 lymphoblast cells express relatively high levels of the NK-1 receptor, and Northern blot analysis indicates modulation of mRNA levels by glucocorticoids and growth factors, suggesting that this cell line may be useful as a model for studying the control of NK-1 receptor gene expression.

  4. Role of constitutive androstane receptor in Toll-like receptor-mediated regulation of gene expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pranav; Guo, Tao; Moore, David D; Ghose, Romi

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of drug disposition in the liver during inflammation has been attributed to downregulation of gene expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and drug transporters. Inflammatory responses in the liver are primarily mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have recently shown that activation of TLR2 or TLR4 by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), respectively, leads to the downregulation of gene expression of DMEs/transporters. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this downregulation is not fully understood. The xenobiotic nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), regulate the expression of DMEs/transporter genes. Downregulation of DMEs/transporters by LTA or LPS was associated with reduced expression of PXR and CAR genes. To determine the role of CAR, we injected CAR(+/+) and CAR(-/-) mice with LTA or LPS, which significantly downregulated (~40%-60%) RNA levels of the DMEs, cytochrome P450 (Cyp)3a11, Cyp2a4, Cyp2b10, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1a1, amine N-sulfotransferase, and the transporter, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, in CAR(+/+) mice. Suppression of most of these genes was attenuated in LTA-treated CAR(-/-) mice. In contrast, LPS-mediated downregulation of these genes was not attenuated in CAR(-/-) mice. Induction of these genes by mouse CAR activator 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene was sustained in LTA- but not in LPS-treated mice. Similar observations were obtained in humanized CAR mice. We have replicated these results in primary hepatocytes as well. Thus, LPS can downregulate DME/transporter genes in the absence of CAR, whereas the effect of LTA on these genes is attenuated in the absence of CAR, indicating the potential involvement of CAR in LTA-mediated downregulation of DME/transporter genes.

  5. MicroRNA-433 Dampens Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling, Impacting Circadian Rhythm and Osteoblastic Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Smith, Spenser S; Dole, Neha S; Franceschetti, Tiziana; Hrdlicka, Henry C; Delany, Anne M

    2016-10-07

    Serum glucocorticoids play a critical role in synchronizing circadian rhythm in peripheral tissues, and multiple mechanisms regulate tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In the skeleton, circadian rhythm helps coordinate bone formation and resorption. Circadian rhythm is regulated through transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops that include microRNAs. How microRNAs regulate circadian rhythm in bone is unexplored. We show that in mouse calvaria, miR-433 displays robust circadian rhythm, peaking just after dark. In C3H/10T1/2 cells synchronized with a pulse of dexamethasone, inhibition of miR-433 using a tough decoy altered the period and amplitude of Per2 gene expression, suggesting that miR-433 regulates rhythm. Although miR-433 does not directly target the Per2 3'-UTR, it does target two rhythmically expressed genes in calvaria, Igf1 and Hif1α. miR-433 can target the glucocorticoid receptor; however, glucocorticoid receptor protein abundance was unaffected in miR-433 decoy cells. Rather, miR-433 inhibition dramatically enhanced glucocorticoid signaling due to increased nuclear receptor translocation, activating glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional targets. Last, in calvaria of transgenic mice expressing a miR-433 decoy in osteoblastic cells (Col3.6 promoter), the amplitude of Per2 and Bmal1 mRNA rhythm was increased, confirming that miR-433 regulates circadian rhythm. miR-433 was previously shown to target Runx2, and mRNA for Runx2 and its downstream target, osteocalcin, were also increased in miR-433 decoy mouse calvaria. We hypothesize that miR-433 helps maintain circadian rhythm in osteoblasts by regulating sensitivity to glucocorticoid receptor signaling.

  6. Increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression and effects of pharmacologic 5-HT2A receptor inactivation in obese A{sup y} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nonogaki, Katsunori . E-mail: knonogaki-tky@umin.ac.jp; Nozue, Kana; Oka, Yoshitomo

    2006-12-29

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) 2A receptors contribute to the effects of 5-HT on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and are reportedly involved in decreases in plasma levels of adiponectin, an adipokine, in diabetic subjects. Here, we report that systemic administration of sarpogrelate, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, suppressed appetite and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, corticotropin releasing hormone, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT1B receptor gene expression. A{sup y} mice, which have ectopic expression of the agouti protein, significantly increased hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in association with obesity compared with wild-type mice matched for age. Systemic administration of sarpogrelate suppressed overfeeding, body weight gain, and hyperglycemia in obese A{sup y} mice, whereas it did not increase plasma adiponectin levels. These results suggest that obesity increases hypothalamic 5-HT2A receptor gene expression, and pharmacologic inactivation of 5-HT2A receptors inhibits overfeeding and obesity in A{sup y} mice, but did not increase plasma adiponectin levels.

  7. Structure of the gene for human. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor: expression and promoter characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Emorine, L.J.; Marullo, S.; Delavier-Klutchko, C.; Kaveri, S.V.; Durieu-Trautmann, O.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-10-01

    The genomic gene coding for the human ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor (..beta../sub 2/AR) from A431 epidermoid cells has been isolated. Transfection of the gene into eukaryotic cells restores a fully active receptor/GTP-binding protein/adenylate cyclase complex with ..beta../sub 2/AR properties. Southern blot analyses with ..beta../sub 2/AR-specific probes show that a single ..beta../sub 2/AR gene is common to various human tissues and that its flanking sequences are highly conserved among humans and between man and rabbit, mouse, and hamster. Functional significance of these regions is supported by the presence of a promoter region (including mRNA cap sites, two TATA boxes, a CAAT box, and three G + C-rich regions that resemble binding sites for transcription factor Sp1) 200-300 base pairs 5' to the translation initiation codon. In the 3' flanking region, sequences homologous to glucocorticoid-response elements might be responsible for the increased expression of the ..beta../sub 2/AR gene observed after treatment of the transfected cells with hydrocortisone. In addition, 5' to the promoter region, an open reading frame encodes a 251-residue polypeptide that displays striking homologies with protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins.

  8. Association between Age and the 7 Repeat Allele of the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    Szekely, Anna; Bircher, Julianna; Vereczkei, Andrea; Balota, David A.; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Ronai, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is in part (25%) inherited, and genetic studies aim to uncover allelic variants that play an important role in prolonging life span. Results to date confirm only a few gene variants associated with longevity, while others show inconsistent results. However, GWAS studies concentrate on single nucleotide polymorphisms, and there are only a handful of studies investigating variable number of tandem repeat variations related to longevity. Recently, Grady and colleagues (2013) reported a remarkable (66%) accumulation of those carrying the 7 repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene in a large population of 90–109 years old Californian centenarians, as compared to an ancestry-matched young population. In the present study we demonstrate the same association using continuous age groups in an 18–97 years old Caucasian sample (N = 1801, p = 0.007). We found a continuous pattern of increase from 18–75, however frequency of allele 7 carriers decreased in our oldest age groups. Possible role of gene-environment interaction effects driven by historical events are discussed. In accordance with previous findings, we observed association preferentially in females (p = 0.003). Our results underlie the importance of investigating non-disease related genetic variants as inherited components of longevity, and confirm, that the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D4 receptor gene is a longevity enabling genetic factor, accumulating in the elderly female population. PMID:27992450

  9. The dynamic nature of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Laprairie, RB; Kelly, MEM; Denovan-Wright, EM

    2012-01-01

    The type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is an integral component of the endocannabinoid system that modulates several functions in the CNS and periphery. The majority of our knowledge of the endocannabinoid system involves ligand–receptor binding, mechanisms of signal transduction, and protein–protein interactions. In contrast, comparatively little is known about regulation of CB1 gene expression. The levels and anatomical distribution of CB1 mRNA and protein are developmental stage-specific and are dysregulated in several pathological conditions. Moreover, exposure to a variety of drugs, including cannabinoids themselves, alters CB1 gene expression and mRNA levels. As such, alterations in CB1 gene expression are likely to affect the optimal response to cannabinoid-based therapies, which are being developed to treat a growing number of conditions. Here, we will examine the regulation of CB1 mRNA levels and the therapeutic potential inherent in manipulating expression of this gene. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.167.issue-8 PMID:22924606

  10. Association between Tourette Syndrome and the Dopamine D3 Receptor Gene Rs6280

    PubMed Central

    He, Fan; Zheng, Yi; Huang, Huan-Huan; Cheng, Yu-Hang; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex, heterozygous genetic disorder. The number of molecular genetic studies have investigated several candidate genes, particularly those implicated in the dopamine system. The dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene has been considered as a candidate gene in TS. There was not any report about the association study of TS and DRD3 gene in Han Chinese population. We combined a case–control genetic association analysis and nuclear pedigrees transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis to investigate the association between DRD3 gene rs6280 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and TS in a Han Chinese population. Methods: A total of 160 TS patients was diagnosed by the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The DRD3 gene rs6280 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay technique in all subjects. We used a case–control genetic association analysis to compare the difference in genotype and allele frequencies between 160 TS patients and 90 healthy controls. At the same time, we used TDT analysis to identify the DRD3 gene rs6280 transmission disequilibrium among 101 nuclear pedigrees. Results: The genotype and allele frequency of DRD3 gene rs6280 SNPs had no statistical difference between control group (90) and TS group (160) (χ2 = 3.647, P = 0.161; χ2 = 0.643, P = 0.423) using Chi-squared test. At the basis of the 101 nuclear pedigrees, TDT analysis showed no transmission disequilibrium of DRD3 gene rs6280 SNPs (χ2 = 0; P = 1). Conclusions: Our findings provide no evidence for an association between DRD3 gene rs6280 and TS in the Han Chinese population. PMID:25698199

  11. Impact of gene polymorphisms of gonadotropins and their receptors on human reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Casarini, Livio; Santi, Daniele; Marino, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Gonadotropins and their receptors' genes carry several single-nucleotide polymorphisms resulting in endocrine genotypes modulating reproductive parameters, diseases, and lifespan leading to important implications for reproductive success and potential relevance during human evolution. Here we illustrate common genotypes of the gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors' genes and their clinical implications in phenotypes relevant for reproduction such as ovarian cycle length, age of menopause, testosterone levels, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cancer. We then discuss their possible role in human reproduction and adaptation to the environment. Gonadotropins and their receptors' variants are differently distributed among human populations. Some hints suggest that they may be the result of natural selection that occurred in ancient times, increasing the individual chance of successful mating, pregnancy, and effective post-natal parental cares. The gender-related differences in the regulation of the reproductive endocrine systems imply that many of these genotypes may lead to sex-dependent effects, increasing the chance of mating and reproductive success in one sex at the expenses of the other sex. Also, we suggest that sexual conflicts within the FSH and LH-choriogonadotropin receptor genes contributed to maintain genotypes linked to subfertility among humans. Because the distribution of polymorphic markers results in a defined geographical pattern due to human migrations rather than natural selection, these polymorphisms may have had only a weak impact on reproductive success. On the contrary, such genotypes could acquire relevant consequences in the modern, developed societies in which parenthood attempts often occur at a later age, during a short, suboptimal reproductive window, making clinical fertility treatments necessary.

  12. Lack of Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Alexithymia: Evidence from Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Koh, Min Jung; Kim, Wonji; Kang, Jee In; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Se Joo

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with structural and functional alterations in brain regions, which involve social-emotional processing. Therefore, oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms may contribute to individual differences in alexithymia, which is considered to be a dysfunction of emotional processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between oxytocin receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. We recruited 355 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (234 men, 121 women). Alexithymia was measured by using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We performed single-marker and haplotype association analyses with eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs237885, rs237887, rs2268490, rs4686301, rs2254298, rs13316193, rs53576, and rs2268498) in the oxytocin receptor gene. There were no significant associations between any of the eight single nucleotide polymorphism of the oxytocin receptor gene and alexithymia. In addition, a six-locus haplotype block (rs237885-rs237887-rs2268490-rs4686301-rs2254298-rs13316193) was not significantly associated with alexithymia. These findings suggest that genetic variations in the oxytocin receptor gene may not explain a significant part of alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  13. Identification of putative chemosensory receptor genes from yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) antennae transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xing; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2016-01-01

    The yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, is an extremely important polyphagous insect in Asia. The chemosensory systems of moth play an important role in detecting food, oviposition sites and mate attraction. Several antennal chemosensory receptors are involved in odor detection. Our study aims to identify chemosensory receptor genes for potential applications in behavioral responses of yellow peach moth. By transcriptomic analysis of male and female antennae, 83 candidate chemosensory receptors, including 62 odorant receptors, 11 ionotropic receptors and 10 gustatory receptors were identified. Through Blast and sequence alignment, the highly conserved co-receptor Orco was annotated, eight unigenes clustered into pheromone receptors, and two clustered as sugar receptor. Among the IRs, one unigenes was similar with co-receptors IR25a. Expression levels of 50 odorant receptors were further evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR in antennae. All the ORs tested were detected in antennae and some of which were associated with sex-biased expression. The chemosensory receptors identified in C. punctiferalis provide a foundational resource for further analysis on olfaction for behavior. The expression profiles of ORs in antennae indicated variant functions in olfactory recognition, and our results provided the possibility for the potential application of semiochemical to control this pest moth. PMID:27659493

  14. Orthologs of Human Disease Associated Genes and RNAi Analysis of Silencing Insulin Receptor Gene in Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zan; Teng, Xiaolu; Chen, Maohua; Li, Fei

    2014-01-01

    The silkworm, Bombyx mori L., is an important economic insect that has been domesticated for thousands of years to produce silk. It is our great interest to investigate the possibility of developing the B. mori as human disease model. We searched the orthologs of human disease associated genes in the B. mori by bi-directional best hits of BLAST and confirmed by searching the OrthoDB. In total, 5006 genes corresponding to 1612 kinds of human diseases had orthologs in the B. mori, among which, there are 25 genes associated with diabetes mellitus. Of these, we selected the insulin receptor gene of the B. mori (Bm-INSR) to study its expression in different tissues and at different developmental stages and tissues. Quantitative PCR showed that Bm-INSR was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubules but expressed at low levels in the testis. It was highly expressed in the 3rd and 4th instar larvae, and adult. We knocked down Bm-INSR expression using RNA interference. The abundance of Bm-INSR transcripts were dramatically reduced to ~4% of the control level at 6 days after dsRNA injection and the RNAi-treated B. mori individuals showed apparent growth inhibition and malformation such as abnormal body color in black, which is the typical symptom of diabetic patients. Our results demonstrate that B. mori has potential use as an animal model for diabetic mellitus research. PMID:25302617

  15. A mutation in the insulin receptor gene that impairs transport of the receptor to the plasma membrane and causes insulin-resistant diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Accili, D; Frapier, C; Mosthaf, L; McKeon, C; Elbein, S C; Permutt, M A; Ramos, E; Lander, E; Ullrich, A; Taylor, S I

    1989-01-01

    Insulin binds to a receptor on the cell surface, thereby triggering a biological response within the target cell. Mutations in the insulin receptor gene can render the cell resistant to the biological action of insulin. We have studied a family in which two sisters have a genetic form of insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. The technique of homozygosity mapping has been used to demonstrate that the mutation causing diabetes in this consanguineous family is genetically linked to the insulin receptor gene. The two insulin-resistant sisters are homozygous for a mutation encoding substitution of valine for phenylalanine at position 382 in the alpha-subunit of the insulin receptor. Transfection of mutant insulin receptor cDNA into NIH3T3 cells demonstrated that the Val382 mutation impaired post-translational processing and retarded transport of the insulin receptor to the plasma membrane. Thus, the mutation causes insulin resistance by decreasing the number of insulin receptors on the surface of the patients' cells. Images PMID:2573522

  16. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ben-Wen; Rush, Amy C.; Weil, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs) in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12) in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63) were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the broad effects

  17. Altered Expression of Genes Encoding Neurotransmitter Receptors in GnRH Neurons of Proestrous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vastagh, Csaba; Rodolosse, Annie; Solymosi, Norbert; Liposits, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a key role in the central regulation of reproduction. In proestrous female mice, estradiol triggers the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge, however, its impact on the expression of neurotransmitter receptor genes in GnRH neurons has not been explored yet. We hypothesized that proestrus is accompanied by substantial changes in the expression profile of genes coding for neurotransmitter receptors in GnRH neurons. We compared the transcriptome of GnRH neurons obtained from intact, proestrous, and metestrous female GnRH-GFP transgenic mice, respectively. About 1500 individual GnRH neurons were sampled from both groups and their transcriptome was analyzed using microarray hybridization and real-time PCR. In this study, changes in mRNA expression of genes involved in neurotransmitter signaling were investigated. Differential gene expression was most apparent in GABA-ergic (Gabbr1, Gabra3, Gabrb3, Gabrb2, Gabrg2), glutamatergic (Gria1, Gria2, Grin1, Grin3a, Grm1, Slc17a6), cholinergic (Chrnb2, Chrm4) and dopaminergic (Drd3, Drd4), adrenergic (Adra1b, Adra2a, Adra2c), adenosinergic (Adora2a, Adora2b), glycinergic (Glra), purinergic (P2rx7), and serotonergic (Htr1b) receptors. In concert with these events, expression of genes in the signaling pathways downstream to the receptors, i.e., G-proteins (Gnai1, Gnai2, Gnas), adenylate-cyclases (Adcy3, Adcy5), protein kinase A (Prkaca, Prkacb) protein kinase C (Prkca) and certain transporters (Slc1a4, Slc17a6, Slc6a17) were also changed. The marked differences found in the expression of genes involved in neurotransmitter signaling of GnRH neurons at pro- and metestrous stages of the ovarian cycle indicate the differential contribution of these neurotransmitter systems to the induction of the pre-ovulatory GnRH surge, the known prerequisite of the subsequent hormonal cascade inducing ovulation. PMID:27774052

  18. Regulation of nonclassical renin-angiotensin system receptor gene expression in the adrenal medulla by acute and repeated immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Nostramo, Regina; Serova, Lidia; Laukova, Marcela; Tillinger, Andrej; Peddu, Chandana; Sabban, Esther L

    2015-03-15

    The involvement of the nonclassical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the adrenomedullary response to stress is unclear. Therefore, we examined basal and immobilization stress (IMO)-triggered changes in gene expression of the classical and nonclassical RAS receptors in the rat adrenal medulla, specifically the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) and type 4 (AT4) receptors, (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], and Mas receptor (MasR). All RAS receptors were identified, with AT2 receptor mRNA levels being the most abundant, followed by the (P)RR, AT1A receptor, AT4 receptor, and MasR. Following a single IMO, AT2 and AT4 receptor mRNA levels decreased by 90 and 50%, respectively. Their mRNA levels were also transiently decreased by repeated IMO. MasR mRNA levels displayed a 75% transient decrease as well. Conversely, (P)RR mRNA levels were increased by 50% following single or repeated IMO. Because of its abundance, the function of the (P)RR was explored in PC-12 cells. Prorenin activation of the (P)RR increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and tyrosine hydroxylase at Ser(31), likely increasing its enzymatic activity and catecholamine biosynthesis. Together, the broad and dynamic changes in gene expression of the nonclassical RAS receptors implicate their role in the intricate response of the adrenomedullary catecholaminergic system to stress.

  19. Activation of the prolactin receptor gene by promoter insertion in a Moloney murine leukemia virus-induced rat thymoma.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, C S; Bear, S E; Keler, T; Copeland, N G; Gilbert, D J; Jenkins, N A; Yeung, R S; Tsichlis, P N

    1992-01-01

    The prolactin receptor (Prlr) and growth hormone receptor (Ghr) genes and the Moloney murine leukemia virus integration-2 (Mlvi-2) locus were mapped to mouse chromosome 15 and human chromosome 5 bands p12-p14. To examine the potential relationship between Mlvi-2 and the genes encoding the growth hormone receptor and the prolactin receptor, we determined the chromosomal location of all three loci in the rat, using a panel of rat-mouse somatic cell hybrids, and in the mouse, using a panel of (C57BL/6J x Mus spretus)F1 x C57BL/6J interspecific backcross mice. These analyses revealed that Ghr, Prlr, and Mlvi-2 map to chromosome 2 in the rat and to chromosome 15 in the mouse, in close proximity with each other. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of rat genomic DNA showed no overlaps between the gene encoding the prolactin receptor and the remaining loci. Moreover, expression of the prolactin receptor was not affected by provirus insertion in Mlvi-2. During these studies, however, we detected one T-cell lymphoma line (2779) in which the prolactin receptor gene was activated by provirus integration. Sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-derived cDNA clones showed that the prolactin receptor RNA message initiates at the 5' long terminal repeat and utilizes the splice donor site 5' of the gag gene to splice the viral sequences onto exon 1 of the prolactin receptor. This message is predicted to encode the intact prolactin receptor protein product. Exposure of the T-cell lymphoma line 2779 to prolactin promoted cellular proliferation. Images PMID:1404614

  20. Diversity of killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor genes in the Mongolian population.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Wang, Aili; Ju, Zhong; Zhang, Yonghong

    2013-06-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor (KIR) is highly polymorphic in genotype, haplotype and allele levels. This study was done to investigate KIR genes frequencies, genotypes and inheritance in Mongolian. Gene-specific PCR amplification was used to identify the presence or absence of 16 KIR loci.KIR genotypes were obtained by a KIR genotypes website. The KIR genes frequencies of Mongolian were compared to 24 different populations around the world. The distribution of haplotype B in Mongolian was higher than that in Mongoloid and less than that in Caucasian. Thirty discovered genotypes and five novel genotypes were identified from 1 to 34 individuals. 37.8% of Mongolian carried KIR haplotype AA.Mongolian was exhibited between North Mongoloid and Caucasus by principal component and genetic tree analysis.

  1. The first intron of the human growth hormone gene contains a binding site for glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Moore, D D; Marks, A R; Buckley, D I; Kapler, G; Payvar, F; Goodman, H M

    1985-02-01

    Glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) protein stimulates transcription from a variety of cellular genes. We show here that GCR partially purified from rat liver binds specifically to a site within the first intron of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene, approximately 100 base pairs downstream from the start of hGH transcription. GCR binding is selectively inhibited by methylation of two short, symmetrically arranged clusters of guanine residues within this site. A cloned synthetic 24-base-pair deoxyoligonucleotide containing the predicted GCR binding sequence interacts specifically with GCR. The hGH binding site shares sequence homology with a GCR binding site upstream from the human metallothionein II gene and a subset of GCR binding sites from mouse mammary tumor virus. All of these binding sites for this eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory protein show remarkable similarity in overall geometry to the binding sites for several prokaryotic transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  2. Reduction in breast cancer susceptibility due to XbaI gene polymorphism of alpha estrogen receptor gene in Jordanians

    PubMed Central

    Atoum, Manar Fayiz; Alzoughool, Foad

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a global health concern among women worldwide. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) mediates diverse polymorphic effects in breast tissues that may relate to breast cancer susceptibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of −397 PvuII (T/C) and −351 XbaI (A/G) restriction fragment length polymorphism within intron 1 of ERα, and its effect on breast cancer susceptibility. A total of 156 women who were histopathologically diagnosed with breast cancer and 142 healthy Jordanian women were enrolled in this case–control study. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole peripheral blood, and the desired fragment was amplified using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction digestion with PvuII and XbaI restriction enzymes. The results showed no significant association between PvuII polymorphism and breast cancer risk. However, a significant association was found between XbaI polymorphism and reduction in breast cancer risk within the “x” allele of heterozygotes (odds ratio [OR] 0.199, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09–0.044) and heterozygotes (OR 0.208, 95% CI 0.09–0.047). The combined analysis of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms revealed a synergistic effect of Pp/Xx and pp/xx genotypes and a significant reduction in breast cancer risk with these genotypes. The results also showed no statistical differences among PvuII or XbaI polymorphisms based on stage, ER, progesterone receptor and expression of hormone receptor such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. This case–control study showed that XbaI polymorphism of alpha estrogen gene modified and reduced breast cancer susceptibility among Jordanians. PMID:28182136

  3. Critical role of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in cortical spreading depression

    PubMed Central

    Tozzi, Alessandro; de Iure, Antonio; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Costa, Cinzia; Caproni, Stefano; Pisani, Antonio; Bonsi, Paola; Picconi, Barbara; Cupini, Letizia M.; Materazzi, Serena; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Sarchielli, Paola; Calabresi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a key pathogenetic step in migraine with aura. Dysfunctions of voltage-dependent and receptor-operated channels have been implicated in the generation of CSD and in the pathophysiology of migraine. Although a known correlation exists between migraine and release of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), the possibility that CGRP is involved in CSD has not been examined in detail. We analyzed the pharmacological mechanisms underlying CSD and investigated the possibility that endogenous CGRP contributes to this phenomenon. CSD was analyzed in rat neocortical slices by imaging of the intrinsic optical signal. CSD was measured as the percentage of the maximal surface of a cortical slice covered by the propagation of intrinsic optical signal changes during an induction episode. Reproducible CSD episodes were induced through repetitive elevations of extracellular potassium concentration. AMPA glutamate receptor antagonism did not inhibit CSD, whereas NMDA receptor antagonism did inhibit CSD. Blockade of voltage-dependent sodium channels by TTX also reduced CSD. CSD was also decreased by the antiepileptic drug topiramate, but not by carbamazepine. Interestingly, endogenous CGRP was released in the cortical tissue in a calcium-dependent manner during CSD, and three different CGRP receptor antagonists had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on CSD, suggesting a critical role of CGRP in this phenomenon. Our findings show that both glutamate NMDA receptors and voltage-dependent sodium channels play roles in CSD. They also demonstrate that CGRP antagonism reduces CSD, supporting the possible use of drugs targeting central CGRP receptors as antimigraine agents. PMID:23112192

  4. Identification and expression analyses of a novel serotonin receptor gene, 5-HT2β, in the field cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Aonuma, H

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) modulates various aspects of behaviors such as aggressive behavior and circadian behavior in the cricket. In our previous report, in order to elucidate the molecular basis of the cricket 5-HT system, we identified three genes involved in 5-HT biosynthesis, as well as four 5-HT receptor genes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2α, and 5-HT7) expressed in the brain of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer [7]. In the present study, we identified Gryllus 5-HT2β gene, an additional 5-HT receptor gene expressed in the cricket brain, and examined its tissue-specific distribution and embryonic stage-dependent expression. Gryllus 5-HT2β gene was ubiquitously expressed in the all examined adult tissues, and was expressed during early embryonic development, as well as during later stages. This study suggests functional differences between two 5-HT2 receptors in the cricket.

  5. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi . E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  6. Genomic variation in the vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires of inbred mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vomeronasal receptors (VRs), expressed in sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, are thought to bind pheromones and mediate innate behaviours. The mouse reference genome has over 360 functional VRs arranged in highly homologous clusters, but the vast majority are of unknown function. Differences in these receptors within and between closely related species of mice are likely to underpin a range of behavioural responses. To investigate these differences, we interrogated the VR gene repertoire from 17 inbred strains of mice using massively parallel sequencing. Results Approximately half of the 6222 VR genes that we investigated could be successfully resolved, and those that were unambiguously mapped resulted in an extremely accurate dataset. Collectively VRs have over twice the coding sequence variation of the genome average; but we identify striking non-random distribution of these variants within and between genes, clusters, clades and functional classes of VRs. We show that functional VR gene repertoires differ considerably between different Mus subspecies and species, suggesting these receptors may play a role in mediating behavioural adaptations. Finally, we provide evidence that widely-used, highly inbred laboratory-derived strains have a greatly reduced, but not entirely redundant capacity for differential pheromone-mediated behaviours. Conclusions Together our results suggest that the unusually variable VR repertoires of mice have a significant role in encoding differences in olfactory-mediated responses and behaviours. Our dataset has expanded over nine fold the known number of mouse VR alleles, and will enable mechanistic analyses into the genetics of innate behavioural differences in mice. PMID:22908939

  7. Haplotypes of the porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene are associated with backfat thickness

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-inducible transcription factors. It is a key regulator of lipid metabolism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene (PPARD) has been assigned to a region on porcine chromosome 7, which harbours a quantitative trait locus for backfat. Thus, PPARD is considered a functional and positional candidate gene for backfat thickness. The purpose of this study was to test this candidate gene hypothesis in a cross of breeds that were highly divergent in lipid deposition characteristics. Results Screening for genetic variation in porcine PPARD revealed only silent mutations. Nevertheless, significant associations between PPARD haplotypes and backfat thickness were observed in the F2 generation of the Mangalitsa × Piétrain cross as well as a commercial German Landrace population. Haplotype 5 is associated with increased backfat in F2 Mangalitsa × Piétrain pigs, whereas haplotype 4 is associated with lower backfat thickness in the German Landrace population. Haplotype 4 and 5 carry the same alleles at all but one SNP. Interestingly, the opposite effects of PPARD haplotypes 4 and 5 on backfat thickness are reflected by opposite effects of these two haplotypes on PPAR-δ mRNA levels. Haplotype 4 significantly increases PPAR-δ mRNA levels, whereas haplotype 5 decreases mRNA levels of PPAR-δ. Conclusion This study provides evidence for an association between PPARD and backfat thickness. The association is substantiated by mRNA quantification. Further studies are required to clarify, whether the observed associations are caused by PPARD or are the result of linkage disequilibrium with a causal variant in a neighbouring gene. PMID:19943979

  8. Body Mass Index is Associated with Gene Methylation in Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Brionna Y.; Troester, Melissa A.; Edmiston, Sharon N.; Parrish, Eloise A.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Wu, Michael C.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Conway, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although obesity is associated with breast cancer incidence and prognosis, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Identification of obesity-associated epigenetic changes in breast tissue may advance mechanistic understanding of breast cancer initiation and progression. The goal of this study, therefore, was to investigate associations between obesity and gene methylation in breast tumors. Methods Using the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer I Panel, we estimated the association between body mass index (BMI) and gene methylation in 345 breast tumor samples from Phase I of the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population based case-control study. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify sites that were differentially methylated by BMI. Stratification by tumor estrogen receptor status was also conducted. Results In the majority of the 935 probes analyzed (87%), the average beta value increased with obesity (BMI ≥ 30). Obesity was significantly associated with differential methylation (false discovery rate q-value < 0.05) in just 2 gene loci in breast tumor tissue overall and in 21 loci among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Obesity was associated with methylation of genes that function in immune response, cell growth, and DNA repair. Conclusions Obesity is associated with altered methylation overall, and with hypermethylation among ER-positive tumors in particular, suggesting that obesity may influence the methylation of genes with known relevance to cancer. Some of these differences in methylation by obese status may influences levels of gene expression within breast cells. Impact If our results are validated, obesity-associated methylation sites could serve as targets for prevention and treatment research. PMID:25583948

  9. Association of vitamin D receptor gene variants with polycystic ovary syndrome: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Touraj; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan; Farahani, Hamid; Mirakhorli, Mojgan; Dabiri, Reza; Nobakht, Hossein; Asadi, Asadollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin D and insulin play an important role in susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and therefore vitamin D receptor (VDR), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and insulin receptor (INSR) gene variants might be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the possible associations between polymorphisms in VDR, PTH, and INSR genes and the risk of PCOS. Materials and Methods: VDR, PTH, and INSR gene variants were genotyped in 35 women with PCOS and 35 controls using Polymerase chain reaction – Restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Furthermore, serum levels of glucose and insulin were measured in all participants. Results: No significant differences were observed for the VDR FokI, VDR Tru9I, VDR TaqI, PTH DraII, INSR NsiI, and INSR PmlI gene polymorphisms between the women with PCOS and controls. However, after adjustment for confounding factors, the VDR BsmI “Bb” genotype and the VDR ApaI "Aa" genotype were significantly under transmitted to the patients (p= 0.016; OR= 0.250; 95% CI= 0.081-0.769, and p= 0.017; OR= 0.260; 95% CI= 0.086-0.788, respectively). Furthermore, in the women with PCOS, insulin levels were lower in the participants with the INSR NsiI "NN" genotype compared with those with the "Nn + nn" genotypes (P= 0.045). Conclusion: The results showed an association between the VDR gene BsmI and ApaI polymorphisms and PCOS risk. These data also indicated that the INSR "NN" genotype was a marker of decreased insulin in women with PCOS. Our findings, however, do not lend support to the hypothesis that PTH gene DraII variant plays a role in susceptibility to PCOS. PMID:27141540

  10. ET-receptor antagonism, myocardial gene expression, and ventricular remodeling during CHF in rats.

    PubMed

    Oie, E; Bjønerheim, R; Grogaard, H K; Kongshaug, H; Smiseth, O A; Attramadal, H

    1998-09-01

    Both myocardial and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) are elevated in congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the role played by endogenous ET-1 in the progression of CHF remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate and correlate myocardial gene expression programs and left ventricular (LV) remodeling during chronic ET-receptor antagonism in CHF rats. After ligation of the left coronary artery, rats were randomized to oral treatment with a nonselective ET-receptor antagonist (bosentan, 100 mg . kg-1 . day-1, n = 11) or vehicle (saline, n = 13) for 15 days, starting 24 h after induction of myocardial infarction. Bosentan substantially attenuated LV dilatation during postinfarction failure as evaluated by echocardiography. Furthermore, bosentan decreased LV systolic and end-diastolic pressures and increased fractional shortening. Myocardial expression of preproET-1 mRNA and a fetal gene program characteristic of myocardial hypertrophy were increased in the CHF rats and were not affected by bosentan. Consistently, right ventricular-to-body weight ratios, diameters of cardiomyocytes, and echocardiographic analysis demonstrated a sustained hypertrophic response and a normalized relative wall thickness after intervention with bosentan. Thus the modest reduction of preload and afterload provided by bosentan substantially attenuates LV dilatation, causing improved pressure-volume relationships. However, the compensatory hypertrophic response was not altered by ET-receptor antagonism. Therefore, ET-1 does not appear to play a crucial role in the mechanisms of myocardial hypertrophy during the early phase of postinfarction failure.

  11. Expression of a Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholine receptor-related gene in the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, S.C.; Rosenthal, L.S.; Kammermeyer, K.L.; Potter, M.B.; Nelson, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    The authors isolated Drosophila melanogaster genomic sequences with nucleotide and amino acid sequence homology to subunits of vertebrate acetylcholine receptor by hybridization with a Torpedo acetylcholine receptor subunit cDNA probe. Five introns are present in the portion of the Drosophila gene encoding the unprocessed protein and are positionally conserved relative to the human acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit gene. The Drosophila genomic clone hybridized to salivary gland polytene chromosome 3L within region 64B and was termed AChR64B. A 3-kilobasae poly(A)-containing transcript complementary to the AChR64B clone was readily detectable by RNA blot hybridizations during midembryogenesis, during metamorphosis, and in newly enclosed adults. AChR64B transcripts were localized to the cellular regions of the central nervous system during embryonic, larval, pupal, and adult stages of development. During metamorphosis, a temporal relationship between the morphogenesis of the optic lobe and expression of AChR64B transcripts was observed.

  12. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility: results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K; Herranz, J; Pita, G; Moreno, L T; Alonso, M R; Dennis, J; Wang, Q; Bolla, M K; Meyer, K B; Menéndez-Rodríguez, P; Hardisson, D; Mendiola, M; González-Neira, A; Lindblom, A; Margolin, S; Swerdlow, A; Ashworth, A; Orr, N; Jones, M; Matsuo, K; Ito, H; Iwata, H; Kondo, N; Hartman, M; Hui, M; Lim, W Y; T-C Iau, P; Sawyer, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerin, M; Miller, N; Kang, D; Choi, J-Y; Park, S K; Noh, D-Y; Hopper, J L; Schmidt, D F; Makalic, E; Southey, M C; Teo, S H; Yip, C H; Sivanandan, K; Tay, W-T; Brauch, H; Brüning, T; Hamann, U; Dunning, A M; Shah, M; Andrulis, I L; Knight, J A; Glendon, G; Tchatchou, S; Schmidt, M K; Broeks, A; Rosenberg, E H; van't Veer, L J; Fasching, P A; Renner, S P; Ekici, A B; Beckmann, M W; Shen, C-Y; Hsiung, C-N; Yu, J-C; Hou, M-F; Blot, W; Cai, Q; Wu, A H; Tseng, C-C; Van Den Berg, D; Stram, D O; Cox, A; Brock, I W; Reed, M W R; Muir, K; Lophatananon, A; Stewart-Brown, S; Siriwanarangsan, P; Zheng, W; Deming-Halverson, S; Shrubsole, M J; Long, J; Shu, X-O; Lu, W; Gao, Y-T; Zhang, B; Radice, P; Peterlongo, P; Manoukian, S; Mariette, F; Sangrajrang, S; McKay, J; Couch, F J; Toland, A E; Yannoukakos, D; Fletcher, O; Johnson, N; Silva, I dos Santos; Peto, J; Marme, F; Burwinkel, B; Guénel, P; Truong, T; Sanchez, M; Mulot, C; Bojesen, S E; Nordestgaard, B G; Flyer, H; Brenner, H; Dieffenbach, A K; Arndt, V; Stegmaier, C; Mannermaa, A; Kataja, V; Kosma, V-M; Hartikainen, J M; Lambrechts, D; Yesilyurt, B T; Floris, G; Leunen, K; Chang-Claude, J; Rudolph, A; Seibold, P; Flesch-Janys, D; Wang, X; Olson, J E; Vachon, C; Purrington, K; Giles, G G; Severi, G; Baglietto, L; Haiman, C A; Henderson, B E; Schumacher, F; Le Marchand, L; Simard, J; Dumont, M; Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F; Winqvist, R; Pylkäs, K; Jukkola-Vuorinen, A; Grip, M; Devilee, P; Tollenaar, R A E M; Seynaeve, C; García-Closas, M; Chanock, S J; Lissowska, J; Figueroa, J D; Czene, K; Eriksson, M; Humphreys, K; Darabi, H; Hooning, M J; Kriege, M; Collée, J M; Tilanus-Linthorst, M; Li, J; Jakubowska, A; Lubinski, J; Jaworska-Bieniek, K; Durda, K; Nevanlinna, H; Muranen, T A; Aittomäki, K; Blomqvist, C; Bogdanova, N; Dörk, T; Hall, P; Chenevix-Trench, G; Easton, D F; Pharoah, P D P; Arias-Perez, J I; Zamora, P; Benítez, J; Milne, R L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods: Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk was observed for SNPs in the FGF receptor genes. The strongest evidence in European women was for rs743682 in FGFR3; the estimated per-allele odds ratio was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=1.02–1.09, P=0.0020), which is substantially lower than that observed for SNPs in FGFR2. Conclusion: Our results suggest that common variants in the other FGF receptors are not associated with risk of breast cancer to the degree observed for FGFR2. PMID:24548884

  13. Ku proteins function as corepressors to regulate farnesoid X receptor-mediated gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Masae; Kunimoto, Masaaki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2009-12-18

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates the expression of genes involved in enterohepatic circulation and the metabolism of bile acids. Based on functional analyses, nuclear receptors are divided into regions A-F. To explore the cofactors interacting with FXR, we performed a pull-down assay using GST-fused to the N-terminal A/B region and the C region, which are required for the ligand-independent transactivation and DNA-binding, respectively, of FXR, and nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. We identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), Ku80, and Ku70 as FXR associated factors. These proteins are known to have an important role in DNA repair, recombination, and transcription. DNA-PKcs mainly interacted with the A/B region of FXR, whereas the Ku proteins interacted with the C region and with the D region (hinge region). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the Ku proteins associated with FXR on the bile salt export pump (BSEP) promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Ku proteins decreased the promoter activity and expression of BSEP gene mediated by FXR. These results suggest that the Ku proteins function as corepressors for FXR.

  14. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) affects hormone receptor activity, steroidogenesis, and expression of endocrine-related genes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Du, Guizhen; Hu, Jialei; Huang, Hongyu; Qin, Yufeng; Han, Xiumei; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2013-02-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a widespread and persistent chemical in the environment. We investigated the endocrine-disrupting effects of PFOS using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays. Reporter gene assays were used to detect receptor-mediated (anti-)estrogenic, (anti-)androgenic, and (anti-)thyroid hormone activities. The effect of PFOS on steroidogenesis was assessed both at hormone levels in the supernatant and at expression levels of hormone-induced genes in the H295R cell. A zebrafish-based short-term screening method was developed to detect the effect of PFOS on endocrine function in vivo. The results indicate that PFOS can act as an estrogen receptor agonist and thyroid hormone receptor antagonist. Exposure to PFOS decreased supernatant testosterone (T), increased estradiol (E2) concentrations in H295R cell medium and altered the expression of several genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, PFOS increased early thyroid development gene (hhex and pax8) expression in a concentration-dependent manner, decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene (CYP17, CYP19a, CYP19b) expression, and changed the expression pattern of estrogen receptor production genes (esr1, esr2b) after 500 µg/L PFOS treatment in zebrafish embryos. These results indicate that PFOS has the ability to act as an endocrine disruptor both in vitro and in vivo by disrupting the function of nuclear hormone receptors, interfering with steroidogenesis, and altering the expression of endocrine-related genes in zebrafish embryo.

  15. Latitudinal Clines of the Human Vitamin D Receptor and Skin Color Genes

    PubMed Central

    Tiosano, Dov; Audi, Laura; Climer, Sharlee; Zhang, Weixiong; Templeton, Alan R.; Fernández-Cancio, Monica; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Sánchez-Muro, José Miguel; El Kholy, Mohamed; Hochberg, Zèev

    2016-01-01

    The well-documented latitudinal clines of genes affecting human skin color presumably arise from the need for protection from intense ultraviolet radiation (UVR) vs. the need to use UVR for vitamin D synthesis. Sampling 751 subjects from a broad range of latitudes and skin colors, we investigated possible multilocus correlated adaptation of skin color genes with the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), using a vector correlation metric and network method called BlocBuster. We discovered two multilocus networks involving VDR promoter and skin color genes that display strong latitudinal clines as multilocus networks, even though many of their single gene components do not. Considered one by one, the VDR components of these networks show diverse patterns: no cline, a weak declining latitudinal cline outside of Africa, and a strong in- vs. out-of-Africa frequency pattern. We confirmed these results with independent data from HapMap. Standard linkage disequilibrium analyses did not detect these networks. We applied BlocBuster across the entire genome, showing that our networks are significant outliers for interchromosomal disequilibrium that overlap with environmental variation relevant to the genes’ functions. These results suggest that these multilocus correlations most likely arose from a combination of parallel selective responses to a common environmental variable and coadaptation, given the known Mendelian epistasis among VDR and the skin color genes. PMID:26921301

  16. Gene expression induced by Toll-like receptors in macrophages requires the transcription factor NFAT5.

    PubMed

    Buxadé, Maria; Lunazzi, Giulia; Minguillón, Jordi; Iborra, Salvador; Berga-Bolaños, Rosa; Del Val, Margarita; Aramburu, José; López-Rodríguez, Cristina

    2012-02-13

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) engage networks of transcriptional regulators to induce genes essential for antimicrobial immunity. We report that NFAT5, previously characterized as an osmostress responsive factor, regulates the expression of multiple TLR-induced genes in macrophages independently of osmotic stress. NFAT5 was essential for the induction of the key antimicrobial gene Nos2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) in response to low and high doses of TLR agonists but is required for Tnf and Il6 mainly under mild stimulatory conditions, indicating that NFAT5 could regulate specific gene patterns depending on pathogen burden intensity. NFAT5 exhibited two modes of association with target genes, as it was constitutively bound to Tnf and other genes regardless of TLR stimulation, whereas its recruitment to Nos2 or Il6 required TLR activation. Further analysis revealed that TLR-induced recruitment of NFAT5 to Nos2 was dependent on inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) β activity and de novo protein synthesis, and was sensitive to histone deacetylases. In vivo, NFAT5 was necessary for effective immunity against Leishmania major, a parasite whose clearance requires TLRs and iNOS expression in macrophages. These findings identify NFAT5 as a novel regulator of mammalian anti-pathogen responses.

  17. Gene expression induced by Toll-like receptors in macrophages requires the transcription factor NFAT5

    PubMed Central

    Buxadé, Maria; Lunazzi, Giulia; Minguillón, Jordi; Iborra, Salvador; Berga-Bolaños, Rosa; del Val, Margarita; Aramburu, José

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) engage networks of transcriptional regulators to induce genes essential for antimicrobial immunity. We report that NFAT5, previously characterized as an osmostress responsive factor, regulates the expression of multiple TLR-induced genes in macrophages independently of osmotic stress. NFAT5 was essential for the induction of the key antimicrobial gene Nos2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]) in response to low and high doses of TLR agonists but is required for Tnf and Il6 mainly under mild stimulatory conditions, indicating that NFAT5 could regulate specific gene patterns depending on pathogen burden intensity. NFAT5 exhibited two modes of association with target genes, as it was constitutively bound to Tnf and other genes regardless of TLR stimulation, whereas its recruitment to Nos2 or Il6 required TLR activation. Further analysis revealed that TLR-induced recruitment of NFAT5 to Nos2 was dependent on inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) β activity and de novo protein synthesis, and was sensitive to histone deacetylases. In vivo, NFAT5 was necessary for effective immunity against Leishmania major, a parasite whose clearance requires TLRs and iNOS expression in macrophages. These findings identify NFAT5 as a novel regulator of mammalian anti-pathogen responses. PMID:22312110

  18. Characterization of horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain genes

    SciTech Connect

    Schrenzel, M.D.; Watson, J.L.; Ferrick, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Genes encoding the horse (Equus caballus) T-cell receptor beta chain (TCRB) were cloned and characterized. Of 33 cDNA clones isolated from the mesenteric lymph node, 30 had functionally rearranged gene segments, and three contained germline sequences. Sixteen unique variable segments (TCRBV), 14 joining genes (TCRBJ), and two constant region genes (TCRBC) were identified. Horse TCRBV were grouped into nine families based on similarity to human sequences. TCRBV2 and TCRBV12 were the most commonly represented horse families. Analysis of predicted protein structure revealed the presence of conserved regions similar to those seen in TCRB of other species. A decanucleotide promoter sequence homologous to those found in humans and mice was located in the 5{prime} untranslated region of one horse gene. Germline sequences included the 5{prime} region of the TCRBD2 gene with flanking heptamer/nonamer recombination signals and portions of the TCRBJ2-C2 intro. Southern blot hybridizations demonstrated restriction fragment length polymorphisms at the TCRBC locus among different horse breeds.

  19. Extensive variation in gene copy number at the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor locus in humans.

    PubMed

    Vendelbosch, Sanne; de Boer, Martin; Gouw, Remko A T W; Ho, Cynthia K Y; Geissler, Judy; Swelsen, Wendy T N; Moorhouse, Michael J; Lardy, Neubury M; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2013-01-01

    Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are involved in the regulation of natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Within the human genome seventeen KIR genes are present, which all contain a large number of allelic variants. The high level of homology among KIR genes has hampered KIR genotyping in larger cohorts, and determination of gene copy number variation (CNV) has been difficult. We have designed a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique for genotyping and CNV determination in one single assay and validated the results by next-generation sequencing and with a KIR gene-specific short tandem repeat assay. In this way, we demonstrate in a cohort of 120 individuals a high level of CNV for all KIR genes except for the framework genes KIR3DL3 and KIR3DL2. Application of our MLPA assay in segregation analyses of families from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humaine, previously KIR-genotyped by classical techniques, confirmed an earlier reported duplication and resulted in the identification of a novel duplication event in one of these families. In summary, our KIR MLPA assay allows rapid and accurate KIR genotyping and CNV detection, thus rendering improved transplantation programs and oncology treatment feasible, and enables more detailed studies on the role of KIRs in human (auto)immunity and infectious disease.

  20. Impact of karyotype organization on interlocus recombination between T cell receptor genes in Equidae.

    PubMed

    Drbalova, Jitka; Musilova, Petra; Kubickova, Svatava; Sebestova, Hana; Vahala, Jiri; Rubes, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) genes (TRA, TRB, TRD and TRG) reside in 3 different chromosomal regions. During the maturation of T lymphocytes, the TCR genes are rearranged by site-specific recombination, a process that also predisposes T cells to aberrant rearrangements. Illegitimate recombination between the TCR genes occurs at a low level in healthy individuals, but this frequency may correlate with the risk of lymphoma. The aim of this work was to investigate interlocus recombination in equids. Illegitimate rearrangements were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes by FISH with painting and BAC probes and by sequencing of PCR products, and the frequencies of recombination were assessed in horses and 4 other equids. The presence of several trans-rearrangement products between the TRA and TRG genes was verified by PCR in all investigated equids. Frequencies of trans-rearrangements in horses are higher than in humans, and colocalization of the TCR genes on the same chromosome increases the incidence of trans-rearrangements between them. The orientation of the TCR genes does not impact interlocus recombination itself but does affect the viability of cells carrying its products and consequently the number of trans-rearrangements observed in lymphocytes.

  1. Unliganded thyroid hormone receptor α regulates developmental timing via gene repression in Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinyoung; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Shewade, Leena; Yamamoto, Takashi; Buchholz, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) expression begins early in development in all vertebrates when circulating TH levels are absent or minimal, yet few developmental roles for unliganded TRs have been established. Unliganded TRs are expected to repress TH-response genes, increase tissue responsivity to TH, and regulate the timing of developmental events. Here we examined the role of unliganded TRα in gene repression and development in Xenopus tropicalis. We used transcription activator-like effector nuclease gene disruption technology to generate founder animals with mutations in the TRα gene and bred them to produce F1 offspring with a normal phenotype and a mutant phenotype, characterized by precocious hind limb development. Offspring with a normal phenotype had zero or one disrupted TRα alleles, and tadpoles with the mutant hind limb phenotype had two truncated TRα alleles with frame shift mutations between the two zinc fingers followed by 40-50 mutant amino acids and then an out-of-frame stop codon. We examined TH-response gene expression and early larval development with and without exogenous TH in F1 offspring. As hypothesized, mutant phenotype tadpoles had increased expression of TH-response genes in the absence of TH and impaired induction of these same genes after exogenous TH treatment, compared with normal phenotype animals. Also, mutant hind limb phenotype animals had reduced hind limb and gill responsivity to exogenous TH. Similar results in methimazole-treated tadpoles showed that increased TH-response gene expression and precocious development were not due to early production of TH. These results indicate that unliganded TRα delays developmental progression by repressing TH-response genes.

  2. Human T-cell receptor v{beta} gene polymorphism and multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S.; Charmley, P.; Birchfield, R.I.; Concannon, P.

    1995-04-01

    Population-based genetic associations have been reported between RFLPs detected with probes corresponding to the genes encoding the {beta} chain of the T-cell receptor for antigen (RCRB) and a variety of autoimmune disorders. In the case of multiple sclerosis (MS), these studies have localized a putative disease-associated gene to a region of {approximately}110 kb in length, located within the TCRB locus. In the current study, all 14 known TCRBV (variable region) genes within the region of localization were mapped and identified. The nucleotide sequences of these genes were determined in a panel of six MS patients and six healthy controls, who were human-leukocyte antigen and TCRB-RFLP haplotype matched. Nine of the 14 TCRBV genes studied showed evidence of polymorphism. PCR-based assays for each of these polymorphic genes were developed, and allele and genotype frequencies were determined in a panel of DNA samples from 48 MS patients and 60 control individuals. No significant differences in allele, genotype, or phenotype frequencies were observed between the MS patients and controls for any of the 14 TCRBV-gene polymorphisms studied. In light of the extensive linkage disequilibrium across the region studied, the saturating numbers of polymorphisms examined, and the direct sequence analysis of all BV genes in the region, these results suggest that it is unlikely that germ-line polymorphism in the TCRBV locus makes a major contribution to MS susceptibility. The TCRBV coding region-specific markers generated in these studies, as well as the approach of testing for associations with specific functionally relevant polymorphic sites within individual BV genes, should be useful in the evaluation of the many reported disease associations involving the human TCRB region. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Characterization of the 5' flanking region of the human D1A dopamine receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Minowa, M T; Minowa, T; Monsma, F J; Sibley, D R; Mouradian, M M

    1992-01-01

    To study how the expression of the D1A dopamine receptor gene is regulated, a human genomic clone was isolated by using a rat cDNA as probe. A 2.3-kilobase genomic fragment spanning -2571 through -236 relative to the adenosine of the first methionine codon was sequenced. The gene has an intron of 116 base pairs in the 5' noncoding region, nucleotides -599 through -484 as determined by S1 mapping and reverse transcription-PCR. It has multiple transcription initiation sites located between -1061 and -1040. The promoter region lacks a TATA box and a CAAT box, is rich in G+C content, and has multiple putative binding sites for transcription factor Sp1. Thus, the promoter region of the human D1A gene has features of "housekeeping" genes. However, it also has consensus sequences for AP1 and AP2 binding sites and a putative cAMP response element. The ability of four deletion mutants of the 2.3-kilobase fragment to modulate transcription of the heterologous chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in the promoterless plasmid pCAT-Basic was determined. All mutants demonstrated substantial transcriptional activity in the murine neuroblastoma cell line NS20Y, which expresses the D1A gene endogenously. Transient expression assays suggested the presence of a positive modulator between nucleotides -1340 and -1102, and a negative modulator between -1730 and -1341. The four genomic fragments had no or very low transcriptional activity in NB41A3, C6, and Hep G2 cells, which are not known to express this gene. Thus, the human D1A gene belongs to the category of tissue-specific, regulated genes that have housekeeping-type promoters. Images PMID:1557411

  4. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide and receptor component protein in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Sardi, Claudia; Zambusi, Laura; Finardi, Annamaria; Ruffini, Francesca; Tolun, Adviye A.; Dickerson, Ian M.; Righi, Marco; Zacchetti, Daniele; Grohovaz, Fabio; Provini, Luciano; Furlan, Roberto; Morara, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) inhibits microglia inflammatory activation in vitro. We here analyzed the involvement of CGRP and Receptor Component Protein (RCP) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Alpha-CGRP deficiency increased EAE scores which followed the scale alpha-CGRP null > heterozygote > wild type. In wild type mice, CGRP delivery into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 1) reduced chronic EAE (C-EAE) signs, 2) inhibited microglia activation (revealed by quantitative shape analysis), and 3) did not alter GFAP expression, cell density, lymphocyte infiltration, and peripheral lymphocyte production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-17, IL-2, and IL-4. RCP (probe for receptor involvement) was expressed in white matter microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and vascular-endothelial cells: in EAE, also in infiltrating lymphocytes. In relapsing–remitting EAE (R-EAE) RCP increased during relapse, without correlation with lymphocyte density. RCP nuclear localization (stimulated by CGRP in vitro) was I) increased in microglia and decreased in astrocytes (R-EAE), and II) increased in microglia by CGRP CSF delivery (C-EAE). Calcitonin like receptor was rarely localized in nuclei of control and relapse mice. CGRP increased in motoneurons. In conclusion, CGRP can inhibit microglia activation in vivo in EAE. CGRP and its receptor may represent novel protective factors in EAE, apparently acting through the differential cell-specific intracellular translocationof RCP. PMID:24746422

  5. HES1 Is a Master Regulator of Glucocorticoid Receptor-Dependent Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Revollo, Javier R.; Oakley, Robert H.; Lu, Nick Z.; Kadmiel, Mahita; Gandhavadi, Maheer; Cidlowski, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is a key regulator of development and organogenesis. However, little is known about the role of HES1 after birth. Glucocorticoids, primary stress hormones that are essential for life, regulate numerous homeostatic processes that permit vertebrates to cope with physiological challenges. The molecular actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by glucocorticoid receptor-dependent regulation of nearly 25% of the genome. We now establish a genome wide molecular link between HES1 and glucocorticoid receptors that controls the ability of cells and animals to respond to stress. Glucocorticoid signaling rapidly and robustly silenced HES1 expression. This glucocorticoid-dependent repression of HES1 was necessary for the glucocorticoid receptor to regulate many of its target genes. Mice with conditional knockout of HES1 in the liver exhibited an expanded glucocorticoid receptor signaling profile and aberrant metabolic phenotype. Our results indicate that HES1 acts as a master repressor, the silencing of which is required for proper glucocorticoid signaling. PMID:24300895

  6. Variation in mothers' arginine vasopressin receptor 1a and dopamine receptor D4 genes predicts maternal sensitivity via social cognition.

    PubMed

    Leerkes, E M; Su, J; Calkins, S; Henrich, V C; Smolen, A

    2017-02-01

    We examined the extent to which the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) were related to sensitive maternal behavior directly or indirectly via maternal social cognition. Participants were 207 (105 European-American and 102 African-American) mothers and their children (52% females). Sensitive maternal behavior was rated and aggregated across a series of tasks when infants were 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old. At 6 months, mothers were interviewed about their empathy, attributions about infant behavior and beliefs about crying to assess their parenting-related social cognition. Mothers with long alleles for AVPR1a and DRD4 engaged in more mother-oriented social cognition (i.e. negative attributions and beliefs about their infants' crying, β = 0.13, P < 0.05 and β = 0.16, P < 0.05, respectively), which in turn predicted less sensitive maternal behavior (β = -0.23, P < 0.01). Both indirect effects were statistically significant independent of one another and covariates [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.22, -0.03 and β = -0.03 for AVPR; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.03 and β = -0.04 for DRD4]. There were no significant direct effects of AVPR1a or DRD4 on maternal sensitivity (β = 0.02, P = .73 and β = -0.10, P = .57, respectively). The results did not vary for African-American and European-American mothers (Δχ(2)  = 18.76, Δdf = 16, P = 0.28). Results support the view that one mechanism by which maternal genes are associated with parental behavior is via social cognition.

  7. Atlantic salmon possesses two clusters of type I interferon receptor genes on different chromosomes, which allows for a larger repertoire of interferon receptors than in zebrafish and mammals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baojian; Greiner-Tollersrud, Linn; Koop, Ben F; Robertsen, Børre

    2014-12-01

    Mammalian type I interferons (IFNs) signal through a receptor composed of the IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. In zebrafish two-cysteine IFNs utilize a receptor composed of CRFB1 and CRFB5, while four-cysteine IFNs signal through a receptor formed by CRFB2 and CRFB5. In the present work two CRFB clusters were identified in different chromosomes of Atlantic salmon. Genes of three CRFB5s, one CRFB1, one CRFB2 and the novel CRFB5x were identified, cloned and studied functionally. All CRFBs were expressed in 10 different organs, but the relative expression of CRFBs varied. Mx-reporter assay was used to study which CRFBs might be involved in receptors for salmon IFNa, IFNb and IFNc. The results of Mx-reporter assays suggest that IFNa signals through a receptor composed of CRFB1a as the long chain and either CRFB5a, CRFB5b or CRFB5c as the short chain; IFNc signals through a receptor with CRFB5a or CRFB5c as the short chain while IFNb may signal through a receptor with CRFB5x as a short chain. Taken together, the present work demonstrates that Atlantic salmon has a more diverse repertoire of type I IFN receptors compared to zebrafish or mammals.

  8. Immunophenotypic and antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis in T cell neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews the immunophenotypic profiles displayed by the major clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia, the immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia, and the contributions made by antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis to the understanding of T cell neoplasia. Neoplasms belonging to distinct clinicopathologic categories of T cell neoplasia often exhibit characteristic immunophenotypic profiles. Approximately 80% of lymphoblastic lymphomas and 20% of acute lymphoblastic leukemias express phenotypes consistent with prethymic and intrathymic stages of T cell differentiation, including intranuclear terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of mycosis fungoides type usually express pan-T cell antigens CD2, CD5, and CD3, often lack the pan-T cell antigen CD7, and usually express the mature, peripheral helper subset phenotype, CD4+ CD8-. Cutaneous T cell lymphomas of nonmycosis fungoides type and peripheral T cell lymphomas often lack one or more pan-T cell antigens and, in addition, occasionally express the anomalous CD4+ CD8+ or CD4- CD8- phenotypes. T gamma-lymphoproliferative disease is divisable into two broad categories: those cases that are CD3 antigen positive and exhibit clonal T cell receptor beta chain (TCR-beta) gene rearrangements and those cases that are CD3 antigen negative and exhibit the TCR-beta gene germline configuration. Human T cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) associated Japanese, Carribean, and sporadic adult T cell leukemia/lymphomas usually express pan-T cell antigens, the CD4+ CD8- phenotype, and various T cell-associated activation antigens, including the interleukin-2 receptor (CD25). Immunophenotypic criteria useful in the immunodiagnosis of T cell neoplasia include, in increasing order of utility, T cell predominance, T cell subset antigen restriction, anomalous T cell subset antigen expression, and deletion of one or more pan-T cell antigens. Only in

  9. A Killer Immunoglobulin - Like Receptor Gene - Content Haplotype and A Cognate Human Leukocyte Antigen Ligand are Associated with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Anthony; Westover, Jonna; Benson, Michael; Johnson, Randall; Dykes, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    The killing activity of natural killer cells is largely regulated by the binding of class I human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands to killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor proteins. The killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor gene - complex contains genes that activate and others that inhibit the killing state of natural killer cells depending on the binding of specific human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands. It has been suggested in previous publications that activating human leukocyte antigen/killer - cell immunoglobulin - like receptor complexes are increased in people with autism. We present data, which suggests that an activating cB01/tA01 killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor gene - content haplotype and the cognate ligand human leukocyte antigen - C1k that activates this haplotype is significantly increased in autism. This is an important observation suggesting that the interaction between two proteins encoded on different chromosomes increases natural killer cell killing in autism. PMID:27853655

  10. A Killer Immunoglobulin - Like Receptor Gene - Content Haplotype and A Cognate Human Leukocyte Antigen Ligand are Associated with Autism.

    PubMed

    Torres, Anthony; Westover, Jonna; Benson, Michael; Johnson, Randall; Dykes, Annelise

    2016-04-01

    The killing activity of natural killer cells is largely regulated by the binding of class I human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands to killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor proteins. The killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor gene - complex contains genes that activate and others that inhibit the killing state of natural killer cells depending on the binding of specific human leukocyte antigen cognate ligands. It has been suggested in previous publications that activating human leukocyte antigen/killer - cell immunoglobulin - like receptor complexes are increased in people with autism. We present data, which suggests that an activating cB01/tA01 killer cell immunoglobulin - like receptor gene - content haplotype and the cognate ligand human leukocyte antigen - C1k that activates this haplotype is significantly increased in autism. This is an important observation suggesting that the interaction between two proteins encoded on different chromosomes increases natural killer cell killing in autism.

  11. HLA and NK cell inhibitory receptor genes in resolving hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Khakoo, Salim I; Thio, Chloe L; Martin, Maureen P; Brooks, Collin R; Gao, Xiaojiang; Astemborski, Jacquie; Cheng, Jie; Goedert, James J; Vlahov, David; Hilgartner, Margaret; Cox, Steven; Little, Ann-Margeret; Alexander, Graeme J; Cramp, Matthew E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Rosenberg, William M C; Thomas, David L; Carrington, Mary

    2004-08-06

    Natural killer (NK) cells provide a central defense against viral infection by using inhibitory and activation receptors for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules as a means of controlling their activity. We show that genes encoding the inhibitory NK cell receptor KIR2DL3 and its human leukocyte antigen C group 1 (HLA-C1) ligand directly influence resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This effect was observed in Caucasians and African Americans with expected low infectious doses of HCV but not in those with high-dose exposure, in whom the innate immune response is likely overwhelmed. The data strongly suggest that inhibitory NK cell interactions are important in determining antiviral immunity and that diminished inhibitory responses confer protection against HCV.

  12. Interaction between immunoglobulin allotypes and NK receptor genes in diabetes post-hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Granados-Montiel, Julio; Zúñiga, Joaquin; Azocar, Jose; Feris, Edmond J; Terreros, Daniel; Larsen, Charles E; Clavijo, Olga P; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Middleton, Derek; Alper, Chester A; Pandey, Janardan P; Yunis, Edmond J

    2011-06-01

    Genetic interactions between natural killer (NK) cells immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes and immunoglobulin allotypes have been previously reported in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Puerto Rican Americans with a history of intravenous drug use who developed DM following HCV infection (n=32) were compared to individuals infected with HCV without diabetes (n=121) and to DM non-infected individuals (n=95). Subjects were genotyped for KIRs and immunoglobulin allotypes. We found interactions of immunoglobulin allotypes KM3/KM3 with NK inhibitory receptors 2DL3/2DL3, 2DL1 in the absence of 2DS4 associated with susceptibility to DM in HCV infected individuals. These data suggest the possibility that a subset of patients with HCV could have an immune-mediated component contributing to the development of DM.

  13. Association study between the dopamine D4 receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Petronis, A.; Macciardi, F.; Athanassiades, A.; Paterson, A.D.

    1995-10-09

    The dopamine D4 receptor is of major interest in schizophrenia research due to its high affinity for the atypical neuroleptic clozapine and a high degree of variability in the receptor gene (DRD4). Although several genetic linkage analyses performed on schizophrenia multiplex families from different regions of the world have either excluded or failed to prove that DRD4 is a major genetic factor for the development of schizophrenia, analyses for moderate predisposing effects are still of significant interest. We performed a study examining differences in allele frequencies of 4 different DRD4 polymorphisms in schizophrenia patients and age, sex, and ethnic origin matched controls. None of these 4 polymorphisms showed evidence for genetic association with schizophrenia, although a trend towards excess of the allele with 7 repeats in the (48){sub n} bp exon III polymorphism was observed. Complexities in the DRD4 genetic investigation and further analytic approaches are discussed. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Lack of association between dopamine D2 receptor gene Cys311 variant and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihisa; Fukushima, Noboru; Takahashi, Makoto; Kameda, Kensuke; Ihda, Shin

    1996-04-09

    Itokawa et al. reported identifying one missense nucleotide mutation from C to G resulting in a substitution of serine with cysteine at codon 311 in the third intracellular loop of the dopamine D2 receptor in schizophrenics. Arinami et al. reported finding a positive association between the Cys311 variant and schizophrenia. In response to the report by Arinami et al. we examined 106 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 106 normal controls to determine if there is any association of the Cys311 variant with schizophrenia. However, we found no statistically significant differences in allelic frequencies of Cys311 between schizophrenia and normal controls. The present results as well as those of all previous studies except for that of Arinami et al. indicated that an association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Gene and protein alterations of FKBP5 and glucocorticoid receptor in the amygdala of suicide victims.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ortiz, José M; García-Gutiérrez, María S; Navarrete, Francisco; Giner, Salvador; Manzanares, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that FKBP5 gene and its corresponding FKBP5 protein play a relevant role in the regulation of anxiety and depression in animal models and human stress-related disorders. In the present study, FKBP5 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene and protein expression were analyzed in the amygdala (AMY) of suicide victims (n=13 males, without clinical psychiatric history and non-treated with anxiolytic or antidepressant drugs) and its corresponding controls (n=13 males) by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The results revealed that FKBP5 and GR gene expression were significantly reduced in the AMY (-38% and -48%, respectively) of suicide victims compared with controls. Interestingly, FKBP5 and GR protein expression were also significantly decreased (-41% and -42%, respectively) in the AMY of suicide victims compared with controls. These results suggest that the FKBP5 plays a relevant role in human emotional responses and suggest this receptor as a new promising target in the treatment of suicide behavior.

  16. Transactivation of the proximal promoter of human oxytocin gene by TR4 orphan receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-P.; Lee, Y.-F.; Chang, C.; Lee, H.-J. . E-mail: hjlee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw

    2006-12-08

    The human testicular receptor 4 (TR4) shares structural homology with members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Some other members of this superfamily were able to regulate the transcriptional activity of the human oxytocin (OXT) promoter by binding to the first DR0 regulatory site. However, little investigation was conducted systematically in the study of the second dDR4 site of OXT proximal promoter, and the relationship between the first and the second sites of OXT promoter. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that TR4 could increase the proximal promoter activity of the human OXT gene via DR0, dDR4, and OXT (both DR0 and dDR4) elements, respectively. TR4 might induce OXT gene expression through the OXT element in a dose-dependent manner. However, there is no synergistic effect between DR0 and dDR4 elements during TR4 transactivation. Taken together, these results suggested that TR4 should be one of important regulators of OXT gene expression.

  17. Androgen receptor regulation of the seladin-1/DHCR24 gene: altered expression in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Lorella; Luciani, Paola; Nesi, Gabriella; Mannucci, Edoardo; Deledda, Cristiana; Dichiara, Francesca; Paglierani, Milena; Rosati, Fabiana; Masieri, Lorenzo; Serni, Sergio; Carini, Marco; Proietti-Pannunzi, Laura; Monti, Salvatore; Forti, Gianni; Danza, Giovanna; Serio, Mario; Peri, Alessandro

    2008-10-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) represents a major leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Elevated cholesterol levels, resulting from altered cholesterol metabolism, have been found in CaP cells. Seladin-1 (SELective Alzheimer Disease INdicator-1)/DHCR24 is a recently described gene involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrated the androgen regulation of seladin-1/DHCR24 expression, due to the presence of androgen responsive element sequences in its promoter region. In metastatic androgen receptor-negative CaP cells seladin-1/DHCR24 expression and cholesterol amount were reduced compared to androgen receptor-positive cells. In tumor samples from 61 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy the expression of seladin-1/DHCR24 was significantly higher with respect to normal tissues. In addition, in cancer tissues mRNA levels were positively related to T stage. In tumor specimens from 23 patients who received androgen ablation treatment for 3 months before surgery seladin-1/DHCR24 expression was significantly lower with respect to patients treated by surgery only. In conclusion, our study demonstrated for the first time the androgen regulation of the seladin-1/DHCR24 gene and the presence of a higher level of expression in CaP tissues, compared to the normal prostate. These findings, together with the results previously obtained in metastatic disease, suggest an involvement of this gene in CaP.

  18. Radiation induction of the receptor tyrosine kinase gene Ptk-3 in normal rat astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuma, S.; Hideyuki, S.; Akihiro, I.

    1995-07-01

    Radiation-induced gene expression was examined in rat astrocyte cultures using differential display of mRNA via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A 0.3-kb cDNA that was consistently observed in irradiated cultures but not in unirradiated cultures was cloned and sequenced. It was found to be identical to Ptk-3, a receptor tyrosine kinase gene identified recently. The protein encoded by Ptk-3 is a member of a novel class of receptor tyrosine kinases whose extracellular domain contains regions of homology with coagulation factors V and VIII and complement component C1. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression of Ptk-3 was increased in rat astrocytes by 0.5 h after exposure to 10 Gy and remained at the same elevated level for at least 24 h. The maximum increase occurred after 5 Gy cloning studies indicated the presence of at least two Ptk-3 mRNA transcripts, which are probable the result of an alternative splicing mechanism. The short isoform lacks a 37 amino acid sequence in the glycine/proline-rich juxtamembrane region. The splicing pattern of the Ptk-3 gene was not altered by radiation. However, the ratios of the longer to the shorter mRNA transcripts differed between adult cortex, neonatal cortex and in vitro astrocyte cultures. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Genomic organization of the mouse fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Castro, A.V.; Wilson, J.; Altherr, M.R.

    1995-11-20

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) protein is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in the signal transduction of various fibroblast growth factors. Recent studies suggest its important role in normal development. In humans, mutation in Fgfr3 is responsible for growth disorders such as achondroplasia, hypoachondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia. Here, we report the complete genomic organization of the mouse Fgfr3 gene. The murine gene spans approximately 15 kb and consists of 19 exons and 18 introns. One major and one minor transcription initiation site were identified. Position +1 is located 614 nucleotides upstream from the ATG initiation codon. The translation initiation and termination sites are located in exons 2 and 19, respectively. Five Sp1 sites, two AP2 sites, one Zeste site, and one Krox 24 site were observed in the 5{prime}-flanking region. The Fgfr3 promoter appears to be contained within a CpG island and, as is common in genes having multiple Sp1-binding sites, lacks a TATA box. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. An S receptor kinase gene in self-compatible Brassica napus has a 1-bp deletion.

    PubMed Central

    Goring, D R; Glavin, T L; Schafer, U; Rothstein, S J

    1993-01-01

    S locus glycoprotein (SLG) and S locus receptor kinase (SRK) cDNAs were isolated from an S allele present in a number of self-compatible Brassica napus lines. This A10 allele did not segregate with self-incompatibility in crosses involving other self-incompatible B. napus lines. The SLG-A10 cDNA was found to contain an intact open reading frame and was predicted to encode an SLG protein with sequence similarities to those previously associated with phenotypically strong self-incompatibility reactions. SLG-A10 transcripts were detected in the developing stigma at steady state levels even higher than those detected for SLG alleles linked with self-incompatibility. Analysis of the corresponding SRK-A10 cDNA showed that it was very similar to other S locus receptor kinase genes and was expressed predominantly in the stigma. However, a 1-bp deletion was detected in the SRK gene toward the 3' end of the SLG homology domain. This deletion would lead to premature termination of translation and the production of a truncated SRK protein. The A10 allele was determined to represent a B. oleracea S allele based on its segregation pattern with the B. oleracea S24 allele when both these alleles were present in the same B. napus background. These results suggest that a functional SRK gene is required for Brassica self-incompatibility. PMID:8518554

  1. Genetic imaging of the association of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms with positive maternal parenting

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Kalina J.; Decety, Jean; Liu, Chunyu; Chen, Qi; Martz, Meghan E.; Jacob, Suma; Hipwell, Alison E.; Lee, Steve S.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Well-validated models of maternal behavior in small-brain mammals posit a central role of oxytocin in parenting, by reducing stress and enhancing the reward value of social interactions with offspring. In contrast, human studies are only beginning to gain insights into how oxytocin modulates maternal behavior and affiliation. Methods: To explore associations between oxytocin receptor genes and maternal parenting behavior in humans, we conducted a genetic imaging study of women selected to exhibit a wide range of observed parenting when their children were 4–6 years old. Results: In response to child stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), hemodynamic responses in brain regions that mediate affect, reward, and social behavior were significantly correlated with observed positive parenting. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs53576 and rs1042778) in the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor were significantly associated with both positive parenting and hemodynamic responses to child stimuli in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and hippocampus. Conclusions: These findings contribute to the emerging literature on the role of oxytocin in human social behavior and support the feasibility of tracing biological pathways from genes to neural regions to positive maternal parenting behaviors in humans using genetic imaging methods. PMID:24550797

  2. Effect of genetic variation in the nicotinic receptor genes on risk for posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Garrett, Melanie E.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Liu, Yutao; Patanam, Ilyas; Ashley-Koc, Allison E.; Hauser, Michael A.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the association between genetic variation in the nicotinic receptor gene family (CHRNA2, CHRNA3, CHRNA4, CHRNA5, CHRNA6, CHRNA7, CHRNA9, CHRNA10, CHRNB2, CHRNB3, CHRNB4) and the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Clinical interviews were used to diagnose PTSD in 925 non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and 743 non-Hispanic White (NHW) participants. Trauma history and smoking status were assessed with self-report. No significant main effects or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) * smoking interactions were observed among NHB participants; however, among NHW participants, a novel association between rs12898919 in the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha-5 (CHRNA5) gene and PTSD was observed. No other significant main effects or SNP * smoking interactions were identified among NHW participants. While preliminary, these findings provide continued support for the hypothesis that the CHRNA5 gene is associated with increased risk for PTSD. Limitations of the present study include cross-sectional design, relatively small sample sizes for genetic research, use of self-report to assess smoking status, and use of different methods to diagnose PTSD. Additional research in other samples of trauma-exposed participants is needed to identify the specific functional variant(s) responsible for the association observed between CHRNA5 and PTSD risk in the present study. PMID:26184988

  3. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  4. Orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 participates in human apolipoprotein A5 gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kwang-Hoon

    2010-01-29

    The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) has been reported to play a crucial role in the modulation of diverse metabolic processes in liver. Here, we reported the identification of human apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5), which implicated in lowering plasma triglyceride levels, as a novel target gene of Nur77. Nur77 induced the human ApoA5 promoter activity. Using 5'-deletion and mutagenesis of human ApoA5 promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, it was shown that Nur77 directly regulated human ApoA5 gene expression by binding to a Nur77 response element (AAAGGTCA) located in the proximal human ApoA5 promoter region. In addition, we demonstrated that blocking of Nur77 transcriptional activity via overexpression of dominant negative Nur77 suppressed human ApoA5 promoter activity and mRNA expression in human hepatoma cells, HepG2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that Nur77 is a novel regulator of human ApoA5 gene expression and provide a new insight into the role of this orphan nuclear receptor in lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride homeostasis.

  5. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-07

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes.

  6. Evolution of the Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Tas1r2 in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C. Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-01-01

    Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste–specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species. PMID:20558596

  7. Direct modulation of simian virus 40 late gene expression by thyroid hormone and its receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, F; Kraus, R J; Gulick, T; Moore, D D; Mertz, J E

    1997-01-01

    Transcription of the late genes of simian virus 40 (SV40) is repressed during the early phase of the lytic cycle of infection of primate cells by the binding of cellular factors, called IBP-s, to the SV40 late promoter; repression is relieved after the onset of viral DNA replication by titration of these repressors (S. R. Wiley, R. J. Kraus, F. R. Zuo, E. E. Murray, K. Loritz, and J. E. Mertz, Genes Dev. 7:2206-2219, 1993). Recently, we showed that IBP-s consists of several members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily (F. Zuo and J. E. Mertz, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:8586-8590, 1995). Here, we show that the thyroid hormone receptor TRalpha1, in combination with retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), is specifically bound at the transcriptional initiation site of the major late promoter of SV40. This binding repressed transcription from the SV40 late promoter by preventing the formation of pre-initiation complexes. Addition of the thyroid hormone 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3) resulted in reversal of this repression in cotransfected CV-1 cells. Interestingly, repression did not occur when this thyroid response element (TRE) was translocated to 50 bp upstream of the major late initiation site. Binding of TRalpha1/RXRalpha heterodimers to this TRE induced bending of the promoter DNA. We conclude that hormones and their receptors can directly affect the expression of SV40, probably by affecting protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions involved in the formation of functional preinitiation complexes. PMID:8985367

  8. Association of the dopamine receptor interacting protein gene, NEF3, with early response to antipsychotic medication.

    PubMed

    Strous, Rael D; Greenbaum, Lior; Kanyas, Kyra; Merbl, Yifat; Horowitz, Anat; Karni, Osnat; Viglin, Dina; Olender, Tsviya; Deshpande, Smita N; Lancet, Doron; Ben-Asher, Edna; Lerer, Bernard

    2007-06-01

    Genetic variation in antipsychotic drug targets could underlie variability among patients in the time required for antipsychotic effects to be elicited. In a clinical, pharmacogenetic study we focused on the dopamine receptor interacting protein (DRIP) gene family. DRIPs are pivotally involved in regulating dopamine receptor signal transduction. Consecutively hospitalized, acutely psychotic patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia (n=121) were included in the study if they received treatment with typical antipsychotic medication (TYP, n=72) or TYP plus risperidone (TYP-R, n=49) for at least 2 wk. Clinical state and adverse effects were rated at baseline and after 2 wk. Patients improved significantly on both TYP and TYP-R with no significant difference between them. Early responders were defined as patients whose PANSS change scores were greater than the median. Twenty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analysed in five DRIP-encoding genes. Two SNPs in NEF3, which encodes the DRIP, neurofilament-medium (NF-M), were associated with early response (rs1457266, p=0.01; rs1379357, p=0.006). A 5 SNP haplotype spanning NEF3 was over-represented in early responders (p=0.015), in the combined patient group and in the TYP group alone. These findings suggest that variation in NEF3, most likely functional variants that are in linkage disequilibrium with the SNPs that we studied, influences rate of response to TYP. Since NEF3 is primarily associated with dopamine D1 receptor function, the evidence for a complementary role of dopamine D1 receptors in antipsychotic effects is considered. The findings reported here open an interesting research avenue in the pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic effects but require replication in larger samples treated in a controlled context.

  9. Aberrant methylation of imprinted genes is associated with negative hormone receptor status in invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Timothy M; Barault, Ludovic; Ellsworth, Rachel E; Harris, Holly R; Binder, Alexandra M; Valente, Allyson L; Shriver, Craig D; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes enables monoallelic expression according to parental origin, and its disruption is implicated in many cancers and developmental disorders. The expression of hormone receptors is significant in breast cancer as they are indicators of cancer cell growth rate and determine response to endocrine therapies. We investigated the frequency of aberrant events and variation in DNA methylation at nine imprinted sites in invasive breast cancer and examined the association with estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Breast tissue and blood from patients with invasive breast cancer (n=38) and benign breast disease (n=30) were compared to those from healthy individuals (n=36), matched to the cancer patients by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, BMI, menopausal status, and familial history of cancer. DNA methylation and allele-specific expression were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Tumor-specific methylation changes at IGF2 DMR2 were observed in 59% of cancer patients, IGF2 DMR0 in 38%, DIRAS3 DMR in 36%, GRB10 ICR in 23%, PEG3 DMR in 21%, MEST ICR in 19%, H19 ICR in 18%, KvDMR in 8%, and SNRPN/SNURF ICR in 4%. Variation of methylation was significantly greater in breast tissue from cancer patients than healthy individuals and benign breast disease. Aberrant methylation of three or more sites was significantly associated with negative estrogen-alpha (Fisher’s Exact Test, p=0.02) and progesterone-A (p=0.02) receptor status. Aberrant events and increased variation of imprinted gene DNA methylation therefore appear to be frequent in invasive breast cancer and are associated with negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status, without loss of monoallelic expression. PMID:25560175

  10. Evolution of the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 in bats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huabin; Zhou, Yingying; Pinto, C Miguel; Charles-Dominique, Pierre; Galindo-González, Jorge; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2010-11-01

    Taste perception is an important component of an animal's fitness. The identification of vertebrate taste receptor genes in the last decade has enabled molecular genetic studies of the evolution of taste perception in the context of the ecology and dietary preferences of organisms. Although such analyses have been conducted in a number of species for bitter taste receptors, a similar analysis of sweet taste receptors is lacking. Here, we survey the sole sweet taste-specific receptor gene Tas1r2 in 42 bat species that represent all major lineages of the order Chiroptera, one of the most diverse groups of mammals in terms of diet. We found that Tas1r2 is under strong purifying selection in the majority of the bats studied, with no significant difference in the strength of the selection between insect eaters and fruit eaters. However, Tas1r2 is a pseudogene in all three vampire bat species and the functional relaxation likely started in their common ancestor, probably due to the exclusive feeding of vampire bats on blood and their reliance on infrared sensors rather than taste perception to locate blood sources. Our survey of available genome sequences, together with previous reports, revealed additional losses of Tas1r2 in horse, cat, chicken, zebra finch, and western clawed frog, indicating that sweet perception is not as conserved as previously thought. Nonetheless, we found no common dietary pattern among the Tas1r2-lacking vertebrates, suggesting different causes for the losses of Tas1r2 in different species. The complexity of the ecological factors that impact the evolution of Tas1r2 calls for a better understanding of the physiological roles of sweet perception in different species.

  11. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Down Syndrome: Effects of the Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Gina Marie; Spanó, Goffredina; Edgin, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined individual differences in ADHD symptoms and executive function (EF) in children with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, a gene often linked to ADHD in people without DS. Participants included 68 individuals with DS (7-21 years), assessed through laboratory tasks, caregiver reports, and…

  12. Association between the Dopamine Receptor D5 Gene and the Liability to Substance Dependence in Males: A Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanyukov, Michael M.; Maher, Brion S.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Devlin, Bernard; Marazita, Mary L.; Kirillova, Galina P.

    2001-01-01

    The heritability of substance dependence (SD) liability is based on polymorphisms at the genes that are likely to be related to the function of the central nervous system. We have recently shown an association between the dopamine D5 receptor gene and SD liability. We report herein a replication of this association in an independent case-control…

  13. WT1-specific T cell receptor gene therapy: improving TCR function in transduced T cells.

    PubMed

    Stauss, Hans J; Thomas, Sharyn; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela; Hart, Daniel P; Xue, Shao-An; Holler, Angelika; King, Judy; Wright, Graham; Perro, Mario; Pospori, Constantina; Morris, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T lymphocytes is an attractive form of immunotherapy for haematological malignancies and cancer. The difficulty of isolating antigen-specific T lymphocytes for individual patients limits the more widespread use of adoptive T cell therapy. The demonstration that cloned T cell receptor (TCR) genes can be used to produce T lymphocyte populations of desired specificity offers new opportunities for antigen-specific T cell therapy. The first trial in humans demonstrated that TCR gene-modified T cells persisted for an extended time period and reduced tumor burden in some patients. The WT1 protein is an attractive target for immunotherapy of leukemia and solid cancer since elevated expression has been demonstrated in AML, CML, MDS and in breast, colon and ovarian cancer. In the past, we have isolated high avidity CTL specific for a WT1-derived peptide presented by HLA-A2 and cloned the TCR alpha and beta genes of a WT1-specific CTL line. The genes were inserted into retroviral vectors for transduction of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes of leukemia patients and normal donors. The treatment of leukemia-bearing NOD/SCID mice with T cells transduced with the WT1-specific TCR eliminated leukemia cells in the bone marrow of most mice, while treatment with T cells transduced with a TCR of irrelevant specificity did not diminish the leukemia burden. In order to improve the safety and efficacy of TCR gene therapy, we have developed lentiviral TCR gene transfer. In addition, we employed strategies to enhance TCR expression while avoiding TCR mis-pairing. It may be possible to generate dominant TCR constructs that can suppress the expression of the endogenous TCR on the surface of transduced T cells. The development of new TCR gene constructs holds great promise for the safe and effective delivery of TCR gene therapy for the treatment of malignancies.

  14. Recurrent somatic mutations affecting B-cell receptor signaling pathway genes in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Matlock, Matthew; Trani, Lee; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kreisel, Friederike; Cashen, Amanda F.; Carson, Kenneth R.; Bartlett, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common form of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma, yet it remains only partially characterized at the genomic level. To improve our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of this incurable and clinically heterogeneous disease, whole-exome sequencing was performed on tumor/normal pairs from a discovery cohort of 24 patients with FL. Using these data and mutations identified in other B-cell malignancies, 1716 genes were sequenced in 113 FL tumor samples from 105 primarily treatment-naive individuals. We identified 39 genes that were mutated significantly above background mutation rates. CREBBP mutations were associated with inferior PFS. In contrast, mutations in previously unreported HVCN1, a voltage-gated proton channel-encoding gene and B-cell receptor signaling modulator, were associated with improved PFS. In total, 47 (44.8%) patients harbor mutations in the interconnected B-cell receptor (BCR) and CXCR4 signaling pathways. Histone gene mutations were more frequent than previously reported (identified in 43.8% of patients) and often co-occurred (17.1% of patients). A novel, recurrent hotspot was identified at a posttranslationally modified residue in the histone H2B family. This study expands the number of mutated genes described in several known signaling pathways and complexes involved in lymphoma pathogenesis (BCR, Notch, SWitch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF), vacuolar ATPases) and identified novel recurrent mutations (EGR1/2, POU2AF1, BTK, ZNF608, HVCN1) that require further investigation in the context of FL biology, prognosis, and treatment. PMID:28064239

  15. The human fibroblast growth factor receptor genes: a common structural arrangement underlies the mechanisms for generating receptor forms that differ in their third immunoglobulin domain.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D E; Lu, J; Chen, H; Werner, S; Williams, L T

    1991-01-01

    To determine the mechanisms by which multiple forms of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are generated, we have mapped the arrangement of exons and introns in the human FGF receptor 1 (FGFR 1) gene (flg). We found three alternative exons encoding a portion of the third immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of the receptor. One of these alternatives encodes a sequence that is part of a secreted form of FGFR 1. The other two encode sequences that are likely part of transmembrane forms of FGFR 1. One of these forms has not been previously reported in published cDNAs. Also, we have determined the structural organization of a portion of the human FGFR 2 gene (bek) and found a similar arrangement of alternative exons for the third Ig-like domain. The arrangement of these genes suggests that there are conserved mechanisms governing the expression of secreted FGF receptors as well as the expression of at least two distinct membrane-spanning forms of the FGF receptors. The diverse forms appear to be generated by alternative splicing of mRNA and selective use of polyadenylation signals. Images PMID:1652059

  16. Interaction between Calpain 5, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta genes: a polygenic approach to obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, María E; Grilo, Antonio; Morón, Francisco J; Manzano, Luis; Martínez-Larrad, María T; González-Pérez, Antonio; Serrano-Hernando, Javier; Ruiz, Agustín; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Context Obesity is a multifactorial disorder, that is, a disease determined by the combined effect of genes and environment. In this context, polygenic approaches are needed. Objective To investigate the possibility of the existence of a crosstalk between the CALPAIN 10 homologue CALPAIN 5 and nuclear receptors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors family. Design Cross-sectional, genetic association study and gene-gene interaction analysis. Subjects The study sample comprise 1953 individuals, 725 obese (defined as body mass index ≥ 30) and 1228 non obese subjects. Results In the monogenic analysis, only the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) gene was associated with obesity (OR = 1.43 [1.04–1.97], p = 0.027). In addition, we have found a significant interaction between CAPN5 and PPARD genes (p = 0.038) that reduces the risk for obesity in a 55%. Conclusion Our results suggest that CAPN5 and PPARD gene products may also interact in vivo. PMID:18657264

  17. Inhibition of solid tumor growth by gene transfer of VEGF receptor-1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Regina; Machein, Marcia; Nicolaus, Anke; Hilbig, Andreas; Wild, Carola; Clauss, Matthias; Plate, Karl H; Breier, Georg

    2004-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the high-affinity VEGF receptor Flk-1/KDR (VEGFR-2) are key regulators of tumor angiogenesis. Strategies to block VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling were successfully used to inhibit experimental tumor growth and indicated that VEGFR-2 is the main signaling VEGF receptor in proliferating tumor endothelium. Here, we investigated the role of the VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1/Flt-1) in the vascularization of 2 different experimental tumors in vivo. VEGFR-1 mutants were generated that lack the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer of the VEGFR-1 mutants led to a strong reduction of tumor growth and angiogenesis in xenografted C6 glioma and in syngeneic BFS-1 fibrosarcoma. Histological analysis of the inhibited fibrosarcoma revealed reduced vascular density, decreased tumor cell proliferation as well as increased tumor cell apoptosis and the formation of necrosis. The retroviral gene transfer of the full length VEGFR-1 also caused a significant reduction of tumor growth in both models. The inhibitory effects of the VEGFR-1 mutants and the full length VEGFR-1 in BFS-1 fibrosarcoma were mediated through host tumor endothelial cells because the BFS-1 fibrosarcoma cells were not infected by the retrovirus. The formation of heterodimers between VEGFR-2 and full length or truncated VEGFR-1 was observed in vitro and might contribute to the growth inhibitory effect by modulating distinct signal transduction pathways. The results of our study underline the central role of the VEGF/VEGFR-1 signaling system in tumor angiogenesis and demonstrate that VEGFR-1 can serve as a target for anti-angiogenic gene therapy.

  18. Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Human Directed Social Behavior in Dogs (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Ádám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (−212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5′ and 3′ UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3′ and 5′ UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene–behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system. PMID:24454713

  19. Isolation, characterization, and expression analyses of ecdysone receptor 1, ecdysone receptor 2 and ultraspiracle genes in varroa destructor mite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a honeybee ectoparasite considered the most important pest in apiaries throughout the US. Ecdysone receptor is a hormone secreted by the prothoracic gland of insects that controls ecdysis and stimulates metamorphosis. The ecdysone receptor is a nuclear receptor...

  20. Isolation and characterization of CXC receptor genes in a range of elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Goostrey, Anna; Jones, Gareth; Secombes, Christopher J

    2005-01-01

    The CXC group of chemokines exert their cellular effects via the CXCR group of G-protein coupled receptors. Six CXCR genes have been identified in humans (CXCR1-6), and homologues to some of these have been isolated from a range of vertebrate species. Here we isolate and characterize CXCR genes from a range of elasmobranch species. One CXCR1/2 gene fragment isolated from Scyliorhinus caniculus (lesser spotted catshark), and two CXCR1/2 copies from each of the elasmobranchs, Cetorhinus maximus (basking shark), Carcharodon carcharias (great white shark), and Raja naevus (cuckoo ray), exhibit high similarity to both CXCR1 and CXCR2. The two copies evident in the cuckoo ray and lamniform sharks provide strong evidence of CXCR1/2 lineage specific duplication in rays and sharks. A CXCR fragment isolated from Lamna ditropis (salmon shark) shows high similarity to a range of CXCR4 genes and strong clustering with CXCR4 gene homologues was apparent during phylogenetic reconstruction.

  1. T-Cell Receptor Gene Therapy of Established Tumors in a Murine Melanoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Abad, John D.; Wrzensinski, Claudia; Overwijk, Willem; De Witte, Moniek A.; Jorritsma, Annelies; Hsu, Gary; Gattinoni, Luca; Cohen, Cyrille J.; Paulos, Chrystal M.; Palmer, Douglas C.; Haanen, John B. A. G.; Schumacher, Ton N. M.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Morgan, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Adoptive cell transfer therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for patients with metastatic melanoma has demonstrated significant objective response rates. One major limitation of these current therapies is the frequent inability to isolate tumor-reactive lymphocytes for treatment. Genetic engineering of peripheral blood lymphocytes with retroviral vectors encoding tumor antigen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) bypasses this restriction. To evaluate the efficacy of TCR gene therapy, a murine treatment model was developed. A retroviral vector was constructed encoding the pmel-1 TCR genes targeting the B16 melanoma antigen, gp100. Transduction of C57BL/6 lymphocytes resulted in efficient pmel-1 TCR expression. Lymphocytes transduced with this retrovirus specifically recognized gp100-pulsed target cells as measured by interferon-γ secretion assays. Upon transfer into B16 tumor-bearing mice, the genetically engineered lymphocytes significantly slowed tumor development. The effectiveness of tumor treatment was directly correlated with the number of TCR-engineered T cells administered. These results demonstrated that TCR gene therapy targeting a native tumor antigen significantly delayed the growth of established tumors. When C57BL/6 lymphocytes were added to antigen-reactive pmel-1 T cells, a reduction in the ability of pmel-1 T cell to treat B16 melanomas was seen, suggesting that untransduced cells may be deleterious to TCR gene therapy. This model may be a powerful tool for evaluating future TCR gene transfer-based strategies. PMID:18157006

  2. T-cell receptor gene therapy of established tumors in a murine melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Abad, John D; Wrzensinski, Claudia; Overwijk, Willem; De Witte, Moniek A; Jorritsma, Annelies; Hsu, Cary; Gattinoni, Luca; Cohen, Cyrille J; Paulos, Chrystal M; Palmer, Douglas C; Haanen, John B A G; Schumacher, Ton N M; Rosenberg, Steven A; Restifo, Nicholas P; Morgan, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for patients with metastatic melanoma has demonstrated significant objective response rates. One major limitation of these current therapies is the frequent inability to isolate tumor-reactive lymphocytes for treatment. Genetic engineering of peripheral blood lymphocytes with retroviral vectors encoding tumor antigen-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs) bypasses this restriction. To evaluate the efficacy of TCR gene therapy, a murine treatment model was developed. A retroviral vector was constructed encoding the pmel-1 TCR genes targeting the B16 melanoma antigen, gp100. Transduction of C57BL/6 lymphocytes resulted in efficient pmel-1 TCR expression. Lymphocytes transduced with this retrovirus specifically recognized gp100-pulsed target cells as measured by interferon-gamma secretion assays. Upon transfer into B16 tumor-bearing mice, the genetically engineered lymphocytes significantly slowed tumor development. The effectiveness of tumor treatment was directly correlated with the number of TCR-engineered T cells administered. These results demonstrated that TCR gene therapy targeting a native tumor antigen significantly delayed the growth of established tumors. When C57BL/6 lymphocytes were added to antigen-reactive pmel-1 T cells, a reduction in the ability of pmel-1 T cell to treat B16 melanomas was seen, suggesting that untransduced cells may be deleterious to TCR gene therapy. This model may be a powerful tool for evaluating future TCR gene transfer-based strategies.

  3. Dopamine receptor DRD4 gene and stressful life events in persistent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mora, Cristina; Richarte, Vanesa; Garcia-Martínez, Iris; Pagerols, Mireia; Corrales, Montse; Bosch, Rosa; Vidal, Raquel; Viladevall, Laia; Casas, Miguel; Cormand, Bru; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Ribasés, Marta

    2015-09-01

    We performed a case-control association study in persistent ADHD considering eight candidate genes (DRD4, DAT1/SLC6A3, COMT, ADRA2A, CES1, CYP2D6, LPHN3, and OPRM1) and found additional evidence for the involvement of the Dup 120bp and VNTR 48bp functional variants within the dopamine receptor DRD4 gene in the etiology of adult ADHD. We subsequently investigated the interaction of stressful life events with these two DRD4 polymorphisms, and the impact of such events on the severity of ADHD symptomatology. The gene-by-environment analysis revealed an independent effect of stressful experiences on the severity of persistent ADHD, and a gene-by-environment interaction on the inattentive dimension of the disorder, where non carriers of the Dup 120bp (L) - VNTR 48bp (7R) haplotype were more sensitive to environmental adversity than carriers. These results are in agreement with previous works reporting a relationship between DRD4 and the effect of adverse experiences, which may explain the discordant findings in previous genetic studies and strengthen the importance of gene-by-environment interactions on the severity of ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Meta-analysis of primary target genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Heinäniemi, Merja; Uski, J Oskari; Degenhardt, Tatjana; Carlberg, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are known for their critical role in the development of diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer. Here, an in silico screening method is presented, which incorporates experiment- and informatics-derived evidence, such as DNA-binding data of PPAR subtypes to a panel of PPAR response elements (PPREs), PPRE location relative to the transcription start site (TSS) and PPRE conservation across multiple species, for more reliable prediction of PPREs. Results In vitro binding and in vivo functionality evidence agrees with in silico predictions, validating the approach. The experimental analysis of 30 putative PPREs in eight validated PPAR target genes indicates that each gene contains at least one functional, strong PPRE that occurs without positional bias relative to the TSS. An extended analysis of the cross-species conservation of PPREs reveals limited conservation of PPRE patterns, although PPAR target genes typically contain strong or multiple medium strength PPREs. Human chromosome 19 was screened using this method, with validation of six novel PPAR target genes. Conclusion An in silico screening approach is presented, which allows increased sensitivity of PPAR binding site and target gene detection. PMID:17650321

  5. Concomitant T-cell receptor alpha and delta gene rearrangements in individual T-cell precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, S D; Pelkonen, J; Hurwitz, J L

    1990-01-01

    A debate has recently surfaced concerning the degree of precommitment attained by alpha beta and gamma delta T-cell precursors prior to T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement. It has been suggested that precursors may be precommitted to rearrange either alpha or delta genes, but not both, thus giving rise to alpha beta- and gamma delta-producing T cells, respectively. Alternatively, the precursors may be flexible with regard to potential TCR gene rearrangements. To address this controversy, the gene rearrangements among a group of T-cell hybridomas from fetal, newborn, and early postnatal mouse thymi were examined. Six probes spanning the delta and alpha loci were used in Southern blot analyses to characterize the rearrangements which occurred on homologous chromosomes in each cell. Although homologous chromosomes often rearranged in synchrony within the alpha locus, a number of hybridomas were found which had retained a delta rearrangement on one chromosome and an alpha rearrangement on the second. Results show that a precommitment by T cells to rearrange delta or alpha genes in a mutually exclusive manner is not an absolute feature of mouse thymocyte development. Images PMID:2164690

  6. Odor-evoked gene regulation and visualization in olfactory receptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Mosi K.; Kulaga, Heather M.; Reed, Randall R.

    2010-01-01

    Odorant-evoked activity contributes to olfactory epithelium organization and axon targeting. We examined the consequences on gene expression of a genetic disruption of the channel responsible for olfactory transduction. Genes encoding calcium-binding EF-hand motifs, were among the most highly regulated transcripts consistent with the central role of Ca2+ influx in neuronal depolarization. Several genes encoding integral membrane proteins are also highly regulated. One gene, Lrrc3b, was regulated more than 10-fold by odorant activity. Changes in expression occur within thirty minutes and are maintained for several hours. In genetic disruptions of Lrrc3b, a Lrrc3b-promoter-driven reporter adopts the activity-regulated expression of the endogenous gene. Individual olfactory glomeruli have a wide spectrum of activity levels that can be modulated by altering odor exposure. The Lrrc3b reporter mouse permits direct assessment of activity in identified glomeruli. In stable odorant environments, activity-regulated proteins provide a characteristic signature that is correlated with the olfactory receptor they express. PMID:20080187

  7. Dopamine D2 receptor gene -141C Insertion/Deletion polymorphism in Turkish schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Hulyam; Dikmen, Miris; Basaran, Ayşe; Yenilmez, Cinar; Ozdemir, Figen; Degirmenci, Irfan; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Kucuk, Meral Urhan; Mutlu, Fezan

    2011-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and neuropsychiatric disease that affects about 0.5-1% of the world's population. An increase in dopamine and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene products has been well described in schizophrenic patients. Several groups have studied the relationship between dopaminergic hyperactivity and cellular communications have obtained discordant results. Studies searching for the relationship between the schizophrenia and DRD2 gene have gained more interest. Our objective was to determine the relationships among schizophrenic symptoms in schizophrenia subtypes and severity of symptoms in terms of DRD2 gene -141C Insertion/Deletion [Ins/Del; I/D] polymorphism by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) assay method. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood by using salt extraction method. After amplification of genomic DNA, PCR products were digested with BstNI restriction enzyme for the detection of DRD2 gene -141C Ins/Del polymorphism in 73 schizophrenic patients and 60 healthy control subjects. The allelic frequencies of the DRD2 gene -141C Ins/Del polymorphism in case and control groups were 79.5 and 77.5% for I allele; 20.5 and 22.5% for D allele respectively. There was no significant difference in frequencies of genotypes and alleles between the two groups. In schizophrenic and control subjects, there were no significant relationship in severity of the disease and schizophrenia types among the -141C Ins/Del genotypes and alleles.

  8. Regulation of mucous differentiation and mucin gene expression in the tracheobronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Gray, T; Koo, J S; Nettesheim, P

    2001-03-07

    The goal of our studies is to elucidate mechanisms that control and modulate mucous differentiation and mucin gene expression in the conducting airways. We used cultures of normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells that were shown to secrete two major airway mucins, namely MUC5AC and MUC5B as well as several other secretory products. Mucous differentiation and expression of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC7, but not MUCi, MUC4, and MUC8 mucin genes, were shown to be retinoic acid- (RA) or retinol-dependent. We found that RA control of mucin genes was mediated by the retinoid acid receptors RAR alpha and, to a lesser extent, by RAR gamma. Our studies also showed that other important bioregulators such as thyroid hormone (T3) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) modulate basal expression of mucin genes, interacting with RA in a concentration-dependent manner. T3, which binds to thyroid receptors (TRs) belonging to the same superfamily of steroid hormone nuclear receptors as the RARs, inhibits mucin gene expression, particularly MUC5AC. One possible mechanism of this T3 effect is downregulation of RAR proteins, which are critical for mucin gene expression. However, we also found that T3 inhibits MUC5AC transcription.EGF, which had previously been shown to stimulate mucin expression and mucin secretion in cultured rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells, inhibited mucin secretion in human bronchial epithelial cell cultures. This effect was EGF concentration- and time-dependent and was progressively abolished by increasing the RA concentration. Subsequent studies suggested that the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of EGF may result from selective reduction of MUC5AC expression. These studies thus point to potentially important species differences in the mechanisms regulating mucous production, and they also confirm previous findings indicating differential regulation of MUC5AC and MUC5B gene expression.

  9. Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene.

    PubMed

    Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-03-01

    The most frequent conditions that are associated with inherited/familial pituitary adenomas are familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), which together account for up to 5% of pituitary adenomas. One important genetic cause of FIPA are inactivating mutations or deletions in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene. FIPA is the most frequent clinical presentation of AIP mutations. This article traces the current state of knowledge regarding the clinical features of FIPA and the particular genetic, pathologic, and clinical characteristics of pituitary adenomas due to AIP mutations.

  10. CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene of SBMA patients and a control group.

    PubMed

    Sułek, Anna; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Krysa, Wioletta; Szirkowiec, Walentyna; Fidziańska, Elzbieta; Zaremba, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked form of motor neuron disease characterized by progressive atrophy of the muscles, dysphagia, dysarthria and mild androgen insensitivity. SBMA is caused by CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a Polish control group (n = 150) and patients suspected of SBMA (n = 60). Normal and abnormal ranges of CAG repeats were established in the control group and in 21 patients whose clinical diagnosis of SBMA was molecularly confirmed. The ranges are similar to those reported for other populations.

  11. Disseminated cysticercosis: clinical spectrum, Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms and role of albendazole

    PubMed Central

    Qavi, Abdul; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita; Kumar, Neeraj; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we describe clinical and imaging spectrum, and the natural course of patients with disseminated cysticercosis. How albendazole affects the course of disease has also been evaluated. We assessed the Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms, to know the reason for the apparently higher prevalence of disseminated cysticercosis in India. Sixty consecutive patients with disseminated cysticercosis were enrolled. Sixty age-and-sex-matched healthy controls were also enrolled for the purpose of genetic study. Twenty patients, who gave consent, were treated with albendazole along with corticosteroids. Forty patients did not give consent for antiparasitic therapy. Assessment for Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile genes) was done. Patients were followed for 6 months. We also performed a literature search of cases published in English language using PubMed electronic database and analyzed 56 cases thus available. There was an increased risk (6.63 fold and 4.61 fold) of disseminated cysticercosis in the presence of Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor-4, respectively. The allelic frequency of Gly (11% vs. 3%, P = 0.024, odds ratio [OR] = 3.52) and Ile alleles (11% vs. 2%, P = 0.009, OR = 4.738) in disseminated cysticercosis was high. Albendazole resulted in complete disappearance of all cerebral lesions in 35% (7/20) patients and reduction in lesion load in remaining 65% (13/20) patients. No significant change in number of cysticercal lesion was noted in patients who did not receive albendazole. No major adverse reaction following antiparasitic treatment was noted. Three deaths were recorded in patients who did not receive antiparasitic treatment. Of the 56 cases reported in PubMed, 33 patients received antiparasitic treatment with follow-up data available for 31 patients. Most (24) of these patients received albendazole. A significant clinical and/or imaging improvements, on follow up, were observed in

  12. Analysis of the murine Dtk gene identifies conservation of genomic structure within a new receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Crosier, K.E.; Crosier, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Dtk/Tyro 3/Sky/rse/brt/tif is a member of a new subfamily of receptors that also includes Axl/Ufo/Ark and Eyk/Mer. These receptors are characterized by the presence of two immunoglobulin-like loops and two fibronectin type III repeats in their extracellular domains. The structure of the murine Dtk gene has been determined. The gene consists of 21 exons that are distributed over 21 kb of genomic DNA. An isoform of Dtk is generated by differential splicing of exons from the 5{prime} region of the gene. The overall genomic structure of Dtk is virtually identical to that determined for the human UFO gene. This particular genomic organization is likely to have been duplicated and closely maintained throughout evolution. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Thyroid hormone and adrenergic signaling interact to control pineal expression of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (Drd4).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-So; Bailey, Michael J; Weller, Joan L; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2010-01-15

    Dopamine plays diverse and important roles in vertebrate biology, impacting behavior and physiology through actions mediated by specific G-protein-coupled receptors, one of which is the dopamine receptor D4 (Drd4). Here we present studies on the >100-fold daily rhythm in rat pineal Drd4 expression. Our studies indicate that Drd4 is the dominant dopamine receptor gene expressed in the pineal gland. The gene is expressed in pinealocytes at levels which are approximately 100-fold greater than in other tissues, except the retina, in which transcript levels are similar. Pineal Drd4 expression is circadian in nature and under photoneural control. Whereas most rhythmically expressed genes in the pineal are controlled by adrenergic/cAMP signaling, Drd4 expression also requires thyroid hormone. This advance raises the questions of whether Drd4 expression is regulated by this mechanism in other systems and whether thyroid hormone controls expression of other genes in the pineal gland.

  14. Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Gene Associations with Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases, Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion, and Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kuśnierczyk, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are a family of cell surface inhibitory or activating receptors expressed on natural killer cells and some subpopulations of T lymphocytes. KIR genes are clustered in the 19q13.4 region and are characterized by both allelic (high numbers of variants) and haplotypic (different numbers of genes for inhibitory and activating receptors on individual chromosomes) polymorphism. This contributes to diverse susceptibility to diseases and other clinical situations. Associations of KIR genes, as well as of genes for their ligands, with selected diseases such as psoriasis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent spontaneous abortion, and non-small cell lung cancer are discussed in the context of NK and T cell functions. PMID:23372569

  15. Three neuropeptide Y receptor genes in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, support en bloc duplications in early vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Salaneck, Erik; Ardell, David H; Larson, Earl T; Larhammar, Dan

    2003-08-01

    It has been debated whether the increase in gene number during early vertebrate evolution was due to multiple independent gene duplications or synchronous duplications of many genes. We describe here the cloning of three neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor genes belonging to the Y1 subfamily in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, a cartilaginous fish. The three genes are orthologs of the mammalian subtypes Y1, Y4, and Y6, which are located in paralogous gene regions on different chromosomes in mammals. Thus, these genes arose by duplications of a chromosome region before the radiation of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Estimates of duplication times from linearized trees together with evidence from other gene families supports two rounds of chromosome duplications or tetraploidizations early in vertebrate evolution. The anatomical distribution of mRNA was determined by reverse-transcriptase PCR and was found to differ from mammals, suggesting differential functional diversification of the new gene copies during the radiation of the vertebrate classes.

  16. Frequency of the CCR5-delta 32 chemokine receptor gene mutation in the Lebanese population.

    PubMed

    Karam, W; Jurjus, R; Khoury, N; Khansa, H; Assad, C; Zalloua, P; Jurjus, A

    2004-01-01

    A direct correlation between HIV infection and mutation in the chemokine receptor (CCR5) gene has been established. However, such correlation has never been investigated in Lebanon. We report the frequency of the CCR5-delta 32 mutation in a random sample of 209 healthy, HIV-1 seronegative Lebanese aged 19-68. Overall, 4.8% were heterozygous for the mutation. Homozygosity was absent from our sample. The frequency for the CCR5-delta 32 allele was 2.5%. Distribution of the mutation was unaffected by sex, age, religion or educational level. The frequency in the Lebanese population is consistent with that in the origin of the mutation in northern Europe. This could be attributed to a gene flow into the Middle East from northern Europe.

  17. The growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mouse fails to respond to an intermittent fasting diet.

    PubMed

    Arum, Oge; Bonkowski, Michael S; Rocha, Juliana S; Bartke, Andrzej

    2009-12-01

    The interaction of longevity-conferring genes with longevity-conferring diets is poorly understood. The growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-KO) mouse is long lived; and this longevity is not responsive to 30% caloric restriction, in contrast to wild-type animals from the same strain. To determine whether this may have been limited to a particular level of dietary restriction, we subjected GHR-KO mice to a different dietary restriction regimen, an intermittent fasting diet. The intermittent fasting diet increased the survivorship and improved insulin sensitivity of normal males, but failed to affect either parameter in GHR-KO mice. From the results of two paradigms of dietary restriction, we postulate that GHR-KO mice would be resistant to any manner of dietary restriction; potentially due to their inability to further enhance insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity may be a mechanism and/or a marker of the lifespan extending potential of an intervention.

  18. No Association between Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Gene Polymorphisms and Experimentally Elicited Social Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Apicella, Coren L.; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Dawes, Christopher T.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wallace, Björn; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Westberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in a suite of complex social behaviors including observed choices in economic laboratory experiments. However, actual studies of associations between oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants and experimentally elicited social preferences are rare. Methodology/Principal Findings We test hypotheses of associations between social preferences, as measured by behavior in two economic games, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the OXTR gene in a sample of Swedish twins (n = 684). Two standard economic games, the dictator game and the trust game, both involving real monetary consequences, were used to elicit such preferences. After correction for multiple hypothesis testing, we found no significant associations between any of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and behavior in either of the games. Conclusion We were unable to replicate the most significant association reported in previous research between the amount donated in a dictator game and an OXTR genetic variant. PMID:20585395

  19. Current Concepts of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Gene Regulation1

    PubMed Central

    George, Jitu W.; Dille, Elizabeth A.; Heckert, Leslie L.

    2010-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), a pituitary glycoprotein hormone, is an integral component of the endocrine axis that regulates gonadal function and fertility. To transmit its signal, FSH must bind to its receptor (FSHR) located on Sertoli cells of the testis and granulosa cells of the ovary. Thus, both the magnitude and the target of hormone response are controlled by mechanisms that determine FSHR levels and cell-specific expression, which are supported by transcription of its gene. The present review examines the status of FSHR/Fshr gene regulation, emphasizing the importance of distal sequences in FSHR/Fshr transcription, new insights gained from the influx of genomics data and bioinformatics, and emerging trends that offer direction in deciphering the FSHR/Fshr regulatory landscape. PMID:20739665

  20. Glucocorticoid receptor gene haplotype structure and steroid therapy outcome in IBD patients

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Jessica; Wenger, Christa; Eloranta, Jyrki J; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study whether the glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) gene haplotypes influence the steroid therapy outcome in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We sequenced all coding exons and flanking intronic sequences of the NR3C1 gene in 181 IBD patients, determined the single nucleotide polymorphisms, and predicted the NR3C1 haplotypes. Furthermore, we investigated whether certain NR3C1 haplotypes are significantly associated with steroid therapy outcomes. RESULTS: We detected 13 NR3C1 variants, which led to the formation of 17 different haplotypes with a certainty of > 95% in 173 individuals. The three most commonly occurring haplotypes were included in the association analysis of the influence of haplotype on steroid therapy outcome or IBD activity. None of the NR3C1 haplotypes showed statistically significant association with glucocorticoid therapy success. CONCLUSION: NR3C1 haplotypes are not related to steroid therapy outcome. PMID:20712049

  1. Mutation scan of the D1 dopamine receptor gene in 22 cases of bipolar I disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Coon, H.; Holik, J.; Hoff, M.

    1995-04-24

    In a previous study we found suggestive evidence of linkage between manic-depressive illness (MDI) in eight multiplex pedigrees and D5S62, a DNA marker mapping to the telomeric region of 5q. As the D1 dopamine receptor gene (DRDI) maps to this region and as alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission have been indirectly implicated in the pathogenesis of MDI, we directly searched for mutations in the coding region of the DRDI gene in 22 unrelated cases of bipolar I (BPI) disorder derived from multiplex families. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, we did not observe any abnormal SSCP variants in the BPI cases that differed from controls. 30 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Genomic organization and chromosomal localization of the human and mouse genes encoding the alpha receptor component for ciliary neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, D M; Rojas, E; Le Beau, M M; Espinosa, R; Brannan, C I; McClain, J; Masiakowski, P; Ip, N Y; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A

    1995-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has recently been found to share receptor components with, and to be structurally related to, a family of broadly acting cytokines, including interleukin-6, leukemia inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M. However, the CNTF receptor complex also includes a CNTF-specific component known as CNTF receptor alpha (CNTFR alpha). Here we describe the molecular cloning of the human and mouse genes encoding CNTFR. We report that the human and mouse genes have an identical intron-exon structure that correlates well with the domain structure of CNTFR alpha. That is, the signal peptide and the immunoglobulin-like domain are each encoded by single exons, the cytokine receptor-like domain is distributed among 4 exons, and the C-terminal glycosyl phosphatidylinositol recognition domain is encoded by the final coding exon. The position of the introns within the cytokine receptor-like domain corresponds to those found in other members of the cytokine receptor superfamily. Confirming a recent study using radiation hybrids, we have also mapped the human CNTFR gene to chromosome band 9p13 and the mouse gene to a syntenic region of chromosome 4.

  3. Multiple Thyrotropin β-Subunit and Thyrotropin Receptor-Related Genes Arose during Vertebrate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maugars, Gersende; Dufour, Sylvie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle; Quérat, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is composed of a specific β subunit and an α subunit that is shared with the two pituitary gonadotropins. The three β subunits derive from a common ancestral gene through two genome duplications (1R and 2R) that took place before the radiation of vertebrates. Analysis of genomic data from phylogenetically relevant species allowed us to identify an additional Tshβ subunit-related gene that was generated through 2R. This gene, named Tshβ2, present in cartilaginous fish, little skate and elephant shark, and in early lobe-finned fish, coelacanth and lungfish, was lost in ray-finned fish and tetrapods. The absence of a second type of TSH receptor (Tshr) gene in these species suggests that both TSHs act through the same receptor. A novel Tshβ sister gene, named Tshβ3, was generated through the third genomic duplication (3R) that occurred early in the teleost lineage. Tshβ3 is present in most teleost groups but was lostin tedraodontiforms. The 3R also generated a second Tshr, named Tshrb. Interestingly, the new Tshrb was translocated from its original chromosomic position after the emergence of eels and was then maintained in its new position. Tshrb was lost in tetraodontiforms and in ostariophysians including zebrafish although the latter species have two TSHs, suggesting that TSHRb may be dispensable. The tissue distribution of duplicated Tshβs and Tshrs was studied in the European eel. The endocrine thyrotropic function in the eel would be essentially mediated by the classical Tshβ and Tshra, which are mainly expressed in the pituitary and thyroid, respectively. Tshβ3 and Tshrb showed a similar distribution pattern in the brain, pituitary, ovary and adipose tissue, suggesting a possible paracrine/autocrine mode of action in these non-thyroidal tissues. Further studies will be needed to determine the binding specificity of the two receptors and how these two TSH systems are interrelated. PMID:25386660

  4. Cholinergic muscarinic M4 receptor gene polymorphisms: a potential risk factor and pharmacogenomic marker for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Um, Jung Yoon; Cowie, Tiffany Frances; Dean, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Although schizophrenia is a widespread disorder of unknown aetiology, we have previously shown that muscarinic M4 receptor (CHRM4) expression is decreased in the hippocampus and caudate-putamen from subjects with the disorder, implicating the receptor in its pathophysiology. These findings led us to determine whether variation in the CHRM4 gene sequence was associated with an altered risk of schizophrenia by sequencing the CHRM4 gene from the brains of 76 people with the disorder and 74 people with no history of psychiatric disorders. In addition, because the CHRM4 is a potential target for antipsychotic drug development, we investigated whether variations in CHRM4 sequence were associated with final recorded doses of, and life-time exposure to, antipsychotic drugs. Gene sequencing identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs2067482 and rs72910092) in the CHRM4 gene. For rs2067482, our data suggested that both genotype (1341C/C; p = 0.05) and allele (C; p = 0.03) were associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. In addition, there was a strong trend (p = 0.08) towards an association between CHRM4 sequence and increased lifetime exposure to antipsychotic drugs. Furthermore, there was a trend for people with the C allele to be prescribed benzodiazepines more frequently (p = 0.06) than those with the T allele. These data, albeit on small cohorts, are consistent with genetic variance at rs2067482 contributing to an altered risk of developing schizophrenia which requires more forceful pharmacotherapy to achieve a clinical response.

  5. Molecular characterization, expression profile, and polymorphism of goose dopamine D1 receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Liu, Yi; Wang, Huiying; Wu, Huali; Gong, Shaoming; He, Daqian

    2014-05-01

    Dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) is one of the dopamine receptors with seven transmembrane domains that are coupled to the G protein. In the present study, we cloned the full coding region of DRD1 gene by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends from the goose hypothalamus tissues. Results showed that the goose DRD1 cDNA (GenBank: KF156790) contained a 1,356 bp open reading frame encoding a protein 452 amino acid with a molecular weight of 50.52 kDa and a isoelectric point of 6.96. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the deduced amino acid sequence was 71-98% identical to the DRD1 protein of other species, contained seven transmembrane domains and four N-glycosylation sites. A phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the deduced goose DRD1 protein had a close genetic relationship and evolutional distance with that of duck, chicken, and zebra finch. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis displayed goose DRD1 gene was widely expressed in all detected tissues, including heart, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, breast muscle, duodenum, sebum, pituitary, hypothalamus, ovary and oviduct. Eighteen single nucleotide polymorphisms were indentified in 3,169 bp length of this gene. For G90A mutation, the genotyping analysis of PCR-TspRI-RFLP showed the allele G was in dominance in all detected goose breeds, and the allele frequencies of this polymorphism were significantly different between Chinese goose breeds and foreign breeds (P<0.01). These findings will help us understand the functions of the DRD1 gene and the molecular breeding in geese.

  6. Vitamin D receptor gene FokI polymorphisms and tuberculosis susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yan; Cao, Zhihong; Cheng, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between FokI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility has been investigated previously; however, the results were inconsistent and conflicting. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the relationship between VDR FokI gene polymorphism and the risk of TB. Material and methods Databases including PubMed and Embase were searched for genetic association studies of FokI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and TB. Data were extracted by two independent authors and the pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to assess the strength of the association between VDR FokI gene polymorphism and TB risk. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Results Thirty-four studies with a total of 5669 cases and 6525 controls were reviewed in the present meta-analysis. A statistically significant correlation was found between VDR FokI gene polymorphism and increased TB risk in two comparison models: the homozygote model (ff vs. FF: OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17–1.60; Pheterogeneity = 0.001) and the recessive model (ff vs. Ff + FF: OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.14–1.52; Pheterogeneity = 0.006). Meta-regression found no source contributing to heterogeneity. However, sub-group analyses revealed that there was a statistically increased TB risk in the East and Southeast Asian population. Conclusions Synthesis of the available studies suggests that homozygosity for the FokI polymorphism of the VDR gene might be associated with an increased TB risk, especially in the East and Southeast Asian population. Additional well-designed, larger-scale epidemiological studies among different ethnicities are needed. PMID:27695504

  7. Evolution of a Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Cluster in a New World Sparrow

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jamie K.; Lowman, Josh J.; Thomas, Pamela J.; ten Hallers, Boudewijn F. H.; Koriabine, Maxim; Huynh, Lynn Y.; Maney, Donna L.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Martin, Christa L.; Thomas, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Bitter taste perception likely evolved as a protective mechanism against the ingestion of harmful compounds in food. The evolution of the taste receptor type 2 (TAS2R) gene family, which encodes the chemoreceptors that are directly responsible for the detection of bitter compounds, has therefore been of considerable interest. Though TAS2R repertoires have been characterized for a number of species, to date the complement of TAS2Rs from just one bird, the chicken, which had a notably small number of TAS2Rs, has been established. Here, we used targeted mapping and genomic sequencing in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) and sample sequencing in other closely related birds to reconstruct the history of a TAS2R gene cluster physically linked to the break points of an evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement. In the white-throated sparrow, this TAS2R cluster encodes up to 18 functional bitter taste receptors and likely underwent a large expansion that predates and/or coincides with the radiation of the Emberizinae subfamily into the New World. In addition to signatures of gene birth-and-death evolution within this cluster, estimates of Ka/Ks for the songbird TAS2Rs were similar to those previously observed in mammals, including humans. Finally, comparison of the complete genomic sequence of the cluster from two common haplotypes in the white-throated sparrow revealed a number of nonsynonymous variants and differences in functional gene content within this species. These results suggest that interspecies and intraspecies genetic variability does exist in avian TAS2Rs and that these differences could contribute to variation in bitter taste perception in birds. PMID:20624740

  8. AT1 receptor A1166C and AT2 receptor -1332A/G gene polymorphisms: efficient genotyping by single-tube PCR.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Maja; Stanković, Aleksandra; Alavantić, Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) genes have been investigated in recent years as potential etiologic candidates for cardiovascular and renal diseases. The pathogenic implications of AT1 A1166C and AT2 A-1332G gene polymorphisms have been shown. Here we describe a rapid and reliable method for detecting both AT1 and AT2 gene polymorphisms by a single-tube PCR, to reduce analysis time and simplify the genotyping procedure. In contrast to previously described methods, our method does not require hybridization, primer extension, or nested PCR for genotyping. In most previous studies concerning gene polymorphisms of RAS, both AT1 and AT2 receptor gene polymorphisms were investigated. The advantage of our method is that it makes it possible to detect both of these polymorphisms in a duplex PCR. The procedure described is convenient for routine laboratory use with manual sample processing, and offers the potential for further automation as well. Its simplicity makes it practical for large-scale screening of individuals and families at risk for cardiovascular or renal diseases.

  9. Transferrin receptor-2 gene and non-C282Y homozygous patients with hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Martinez, P; Esculié-Coste, C; Bismuth, M; Giansily-Blaizot, M; Larrey, D; Schved, J F

    2001-01-01

    More than 80% of the patients affected by hereditary hemochromatosis, a common inherited iron disorder, are homozygotes for the 845G --> A (C282Y) mutation of the HFE gene. However, depending on the population, 10-20% of hereditary hemochromatosis can be linked either to other HFE genotypes, particularly the compound heterozygous state for C282Y and the 187 C --> G (H63D) mutation, or to mutations of new other genes. Recently, Camaschella et al. (Nat. Genet. 25, 14-15, 2000) identified a stop mutation (exon 6 nt 750 C --> T, Y250X) on the transferrin receptor-2 (TFR2) gene in two unrelated Sicilian families with hereditary hemochromatosis. The TFR2 gene is a transferrin receptor gene homologue that seems to be involved in iron metabolism. Moreover, one of the patients described by Camaschella et al. was a H63D homozygote. H63D homozygosity can be associated with various phenotypes from asymptomatic subjects to patients with a typical form of hereditary hemochromatosis. Thus, the Y250X mutation could be the molecular defect responsible for hereditary hemochromatosis in subjects with atypical HFE genotypes. We have searched for the Y250X mutation in 63 unrelated French subjects. Forty-three had a diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis based on classical criteria. This group included 12 H63D homozygotes, 3 C282Y heterozygotes, and 3 patients with none of the two most prevalent HFE mutants. These 18 patients had no other HFE sequence change and were subsequently subjected to DNA sequencing of the 15 last exons and flanking sequences of the TFR2 gene. The 25 remaining hereditary hemochromatosis patients who were tested for the Y250X mutant were compound heterozygotes for the C282Y and H63D mutations. Finally, we also tested for this TFR2 mutation 20 H63D homozygotes with milder manifestations of iron overload and no acquired cause of iron overload. None of the 63 tested subjects had the Y250X mutation. Concurrently, none of the 18 hereditary hemochromatosis patients

  10. Amplification and analysis of promoter region of insulin receptor gene in a patient with leprechaunism associated with severe insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Haruta, T; Imamura, T; Iwanishi, M; Egawa, K; Goji, K; Kobayashi, M

    1995-04-01

    A patient with leprechaunism associated with severe insulin resistance was studied to identify the molecular and genetic basis for insulin resistance. Insulin binding and surface labeling of transformed lymphocytes prepared from the patient showed a significantly decreased insulin receptor number on the cell surface. Southern blot analysis of the insulin receptor gene showed no evidence of large insertions or deletions. Furthermore, direct sequencing of all 22 exons and exon-intron junctions of the insulin receptor gene failed to show any missense mutations, nonsense mutations, or mutations at exon-intron junctions. However, Northern blot analysis indicated significantly decreased insulin receptor mRNA expression in the patient's cells. Moreover, restriction endonuclease digestion of the amplified cDNA suggested that the expression levels of one allele were less efficient than the other. These findings suggested that the regulatory region of the insulin receptor gene might have abnormalities. Therefore, we examined the 5' flanking region of the insulin receptor gene. Southern blot analysis showed no major deletions or insertions between positions -1,823 and -2 relative to the translation initiation site. A 5' flanking region of the insulin receptor gene spanning positions -881 approximately +7 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and introduced into a reporter plasmid carrying the human growth hormone (hGH) gene. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified fragment showed two polymorphic sites at positions -603 and -500 in the patient, as well as in normal subjects. No other abnormal sequence was found in the patient. Promoter activity measured by hGH expression in transfected mouse L cells was not influenced by the polymorphism at position -603 located in a cluster of GC boxes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Association between Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Depression in Post-Menopausal Women: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Chi Un; Kim, Mi Ran; Min, Jung Ah; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Chang Uk; Lee, Chul; Paik, In Ho

    2010-01-01

    Post-menopausal women experience variable biological and psychological changes. The effect of reduced levels of estrogen can effect on post-menopausal depression. Estrogen triggers physiological responses by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). Two subtypes of ER, ERa and ERb are now known. We investigated the significance of ERa and ERb polymorphisms and post-menopasal depression in this study. Forty three women with post-menopausal depression and 63 post-menopausal women without depression as normal controls were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to investigate genotypes of ERa and ERb polymorphisms. Genotypes of PvuII and XbaI polymorphism of ERa receptor were significantly different in patients with post-menopausal depression comparing with controls. Genotypes of ERb did not show association with post-menopausal depression. Our study showed that ERa receptor polymorphism had an association with depression in post-menopausal women. It suggests that investigation of ER genes and their functions might be important for understanding pathophysilogical mechanism of post-menopausal depression. PMID:20927313

  12. A novel mutation of the erythropoietin receptor gene associated with primary familial and congenital polycythaemia.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Kacey; Fairbairn, David J; Jackson, Kathryn A; Morris, Kirk L; Tey, Siok-Keen; Kennedy, Glen A

    2011-04-01

    Primary familial and congenital polycythaemia (PFCP) is a rare form of inherited erythrocytosis caused by heterozygous mutations in the erythropoietin receptor gene (EPOR). We present a novel mutation in the EPOR in a 15-year-old male who was referred to our clinic for investigation of a persistently elevated haemoglobin level. A significant family history of unexplained erythrocytosis spanning four generations of the patient's family was established. The family history was also significant for an apparent increased rate of cerebrovascular disease in individuals with erythrocytosis. The mutation detected in our patient resides in exon 8 of EPOR, similar to all other EPOR mutations responsible for PFCP. These mutations result in truncation of the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor and impair down-regulation of signalling via the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR). Clinical manifestations in published cases have varied widely and there is a paucity of firm recommendations regarding the management of affected patients. Given the strong family history of complications attributable to erythrocytosis we have recommended venesection with a haematocrit target of ≤0.45 for our patient.

  13. Effects of deletion of the prolactin receptor on ovarian gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Grosdemouge, Isabelle; Bachelot, Anne; Lucas, Aurélie; Baran, Nathalie; Kelly, Paul A; Binart, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) exerts pleiotropic physiological effects in various cells and tissues, and is mainly considered as a regulator of reproduction and cell growth. Null mutation of the PRL receptor (R) gene leads to female sterility due to a complete failure of embryo implantation. Pre-implantatory egg development, implantation and decidualization in the mouse appear to be dependent on ovarian rather than uterine PRLR expression, since progesterone replacement permits the rescue of normal implantation and early pregnancy. To better understand PRL receptor deficiency, we analyzed in detail ovarian and corpora lutea development of PRLR-/- females. The present study demonstrates that the ovulation rate is not different between PRLR+/+ and PRLR-/- mice. The corpus luteum is formed but an elevated level of apoptosis and extensive inhibition of angiogenesis occur during the luteal transition in the absence of prolactin signaling. These modifications lead to the decrease of LH receptor expression and consequently to a loss of the enzymatic cascades necessary to produce adequate levels of progesterone which are required for the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:12646063

  14. Macrophage mannose receptor-specific gene delivery vehicle for macrophage engineering.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Gui-Xin; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Yao, Xing-Lei; Du, Anariwa; Tang, Gu-Ping; Shen, You-Qing; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2014-05-01

    Macrophages are the most plastic cells in the hematopoietic system and they exhibit great functional diversity. They have been extensively applied in anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and anti-cancer therapies. However, the application of macrophages is limited by the efficiency of their engineering. The macrophage mannose receptor (MMR, CD206), a C-type lectin receptor, is ubiquitously expressed on macrophages and has a high affinity for mannose oligosaccharides. In the present study, we developed a novel non-viral vehicle with specific affinity for MMR. Mannan was cationized with spermine at a grafted ratio of ∼12% to deliver DNA and was characterized as a stable system for delivery. This spermine-mannan (SM)-based delivery system was evaluated as a biocompatible vehicle with superior transfection efficiency on murine macrophages, up to 28.5-fold higher than spermine-pullulan, 11.5-fold higher than polyethylenimine and 3.0-fold higher than Lipofectamine™ 2000. We confirmed that the SM-based delivery system for macrophages transfection was MMR-specific and we described the intracellular transport of the delivery system. To our knowledge, this is the first study using SM to demonstrate a mannose receptor-specific gene delivery system, thereby highlighting the potential of a novel specific non-viral delivery vehicle for macrophage engineering.

  15. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hong; Li, Sheng; Huang, Jing-Yu; He, Zi-Qi; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Cao, Yue; Fang, Cheng; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Although the association between CAG and GGN repeats in the androgen receptor gene and prostate cancer risk has been widely studied, it remains controversial from previous meta-analyses and narrative reviews. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to provide more precise estimates with sufficient power. A total of 51 publications with 61 studies for CAG repeats and 14 publications with 16 studies for GGN repeats were identified in the meta-analysis. The results showed that short CAG repeats (<22 repeats) carriers presented an elevated risk of prostate cancer than long CAG repeats (≥22) carriers (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.47). Prostate cancer cases presented an average fewer CAG repeats (MD = −0.85, 95% CI −1.28 to −0.42) than controls. Short GGN repeats (≤16) carriers presented an increased risk of prostate cancer than long GGN repeats (>16) carriers (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.82). In subgroup analyses, the abovementioned significant association was predominantly observed in Caucasian populations. The meta-analysis showed that short CAG and GGN repeats in androgen receptor gene were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, especially in Caucasians. PMID:28091563

  16. Mutations of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 gene during progression of lung tumors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Takanori; Obo, Yumi; Furukawa, Mami; Hotta, Mayuko; Yamasaki, Ayako; Honoki, Kanya; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2009-01-16

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid that stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and protects cells from apoptosis. It interacts with specific G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. In this study, mutations of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1 (LPA1) gene were investigated to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the development of lung tumors induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (BHP) in rats. Male Wistar rats, 6 weeks of age, were given 2000 ppm BHP in their drinking water for 12 weeks and then maintained without further treatment until sacrifice at 25 weeks. Genomic DNAs were extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues and exons 2-4 were examined for mutations, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. No LPA1 mutations were detected in 15 hyperplasias, but 2 out of 12 adenomas (16.7%) and 7 out of 17 adenocarcinomas (41.2%). These results suggest that mutations of LPA1 gene may be involved in the acquisition of growth advantage from adenomas to adenocarcinomas in lung carcinogenesis induced in rats by BHP.

  17. Testicular development involves the spatiotemporal control of PDGFs and PDGF receptors gene expression and action

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are growth-regulatory molecules that stimulate chemotaxis, proliferation and metabolism primarily of cells of mesenchymal origin. In this study, we found high levels of PDGFs and PDGFs receptors (PDGFRs) mRNAs, and specific immunostaining for the corresponding proteins in the rat testis. PDGFs and PDGFRs expression was shown to be developmentally regulated and tissue specific. Expression of PDGFs and PDGFRs genes was observed in whole testis RNA 2 d before birth, increased through postnatal day 5 and fell to low levels in adult. The predominant cell population expressing transcripts of the PDGFs and PDGFRs genes during prenatal and early postnatal periods were Sertoli cells and peritubular myoid cells (PMC) or their precursors, respectively, while in adult animals PDGFs and PDGFRs were confined in Leydig cells. We also found that early postnatal Sertoli cells produce PDGF-like substances and that this production is inhibited dose dependently by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The expression of PDGFRs by PMC and of PDGFs by Sertoli cells corresponds in temporal sequence to the developmental period of PMC proliferation and migration from the interstitium to the peritubulum. Moreover, we observed that all the PDGF isoforms and the medium conditioned by early postnatal Sertoli cells show a strong chemotactic activity for PMC which is inhibited by anti-PDGF antibodies. These data indicate that, through the spatiotemporal pattern of PDGF ligands and receptors expression, PDGF may play a role in testicular development and homeostasis. PMID:7490286

  18. The glucocorticoid receptor type II complex is a target of the HIV-1 vpr gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Refaeli, Y; Levy, D N; Weiner, D B

    1995-01-01

    The vpr gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes a 15-kDa virion-associated protein that functions as a regulator of cellular processes linked to the HIV life cycle. We report the interaction of a 41-kDa cytosolic viral protein R interacting protein 1 (Rip-1) with Vpr in vitro. Rip-1 displays a wide tissue distribution, including relevant targets of HIV infection. Vpr protein induced nuclear translocation of Rip-1, as did glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-II-stimulating steroids. Importantly, Vpr and Rip-1 coimmunoprecipitated with the human GR as part of an activated receptor complex. Vpr complementation of a vpr mutant virus was also mimicked by GR-II-stimulating steroids. Vpr and GR-II actions were inhibited by mifepristone, a GR-II pathway inhibitor. Together these data directly link the activity of the vpr gene product to the glucocorticoid steroid pathway and provide a biochemical mechanism for the cellular and viral activity of Vpr, as well as suggest that a unique class of antivirals, which includes mifepristone (RU486), may influence HIV-1 replication. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:7724608

  19. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C gene polymorphism and essential hypertension in San Luis.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Alicia Viviana; Arce, Maria Elena; Lopez, José Raul; Ciuffo, Gladys María

    2006-12-01

    Essential hypertension is considered a multifactorial trait resulting from a combination of environmental and genetic factors. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor mediates the vasoconstrictor and growth-promoting effects of Ang II. The A1166C polymorphism of the AT1 receptor gene may be associated with cardiovascular phenotypes, such as high arterial blood pressure, aortic stiffness, and increased cardiovascular risk. We investigated the association between this A1166C polymorphism and hypertension in hypertense and normotense subjects from San Luis (Argentina) by mismatch PCR-RFLP analysis. Hypertense patients exhibited significant increases in lipid related values and body mass index. The frequency of occurrence of the C1166 allele was higher among patients with hypertension (0.19) than in the control group (0.06). No significant association was found between this polymorphism and essential hypertension in the study population, although the AC genotype prevalence was higher in patients with hypertension and positive family history of hypertension (32%) than in control subjects (12%). Patients with the A1166C polymorphism exhibited higher levels of serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and BMI than in control subjects. Taken together the genotype and biochemical parameters and considering the restrictive selection criteria used, the present results suggest a correlation between AT1 A1166C gene polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Odorant receptors can mediate axonal identity and gene choice via cAMP-independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Grosmaitre, Xavier; Feinstein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Odorant receptors (ORs) control several aspects of cell fate in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), including singular gene choice and axonal identity. The mechanisms of OR-induced axon guidance have been suggested to principally rely on G-protein signalling. Here, we report that for a subset of OSNs, deleting G proteins or altering their levels of signalling does not affect axonal identity. Signalling-deficient ORs or surrogate receptors that are unable to couple to Gs/Golf still provide axons with distinct identities and the anterior–posterior targeting of axons does not correlate with the levels of cAMP produced by genetic modifications. In addition, we refine the models of negative feedback by showing that ectopic ORs can be robustly expressed without suppressing endogenous gene choice. In conclusion, our results uncover a new feature of ORs, showing that they can instruct axonal identity and regulate olfactory map formation independent of canonical G-protein signalling and cAMP production. PMID:27466441

  1. The D4 dopamine receptor gene maps on 11p proximal to HRAS

    SciTech Connect

    Petronis, A.; Kennedy, J.L.; Van Tol, H.H.M. ); Lichter, J.B.; Livak, K.J. )

    1993-10-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) is of high interest in neuropsychiatric illness due to its anatomical distribution in the limbic system and its relatively high affinity for the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. Also, D4 receptors are expressed in cardiac tissue, and D4 maps in the same region as the inherited cardiac disease referred to as Long QT syndrome. DRD4 was genetically mapped near the tip of the short arm of chromosome 11, close to the oncogene Harvey-RAS (HRAS). Multipoint linkage analysis of several large families could not define the location of DRD4 proximal versus distal to HRAS, although it was evident that DRD4 was located distal to the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A proximal localization of DRD4 relative to HRAS was thus demonstrated. The localization is inferred from a single recombination event, and additional studies on families segregating analyzed polymorphisms would be valuable. Exact order of the genes on 11p15 will greatly assist the resolving power of linkage studies in this region, as applied to neuropsychiatric diseases, as well as Long QT syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.

  2. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes.

  3. No association between dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and human intelligence.

    PubMed

    Moises, H W; Frieboes, R M; Spelzhaus, P; Yang, L; Köhnke, M; Herden-Kirchhoff, O; Vetter, P; Neppert, J; Gottesman, I I

    2001-01-01

    Significantly diminished intellectual functioning, as indicated by appropriately administered IQ tests with scores below 70, is a frequent mental handicap leading to severe social disadvantages and serves as a paradigm for molecular genetic research of complex disorders and traits due to its multitude of known and unknown, genetic as well as environmental causes. Since the number of confounding variables is expected to be considerably reduced in the normal population at the opposite ends of the IQ distribution, we employed a contrast of extremes approach by comparing adults of high (N = 71) and average IQ (N = 78) in association studies to search for genes involved in the multigenic forms of familial mental retardation. The dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) was chosen as a candidate gene for general cognitive ability (g) since it has been found to be associated with visuospatial ability which in turn is highly correlated with g. Confirming two similar studies in children, however, no significant differences were obtained. Given three negative studies, the DRD2 gene is unlikely to pay a major role in g.

  4. The role of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in Turkish infants with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Goknar, Nilufer; Öktem, Faruk; Torun, Emel; Gok, Ozlem; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Kucukkoc, Mehmet; Kilic, Ulkan

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have recently been reported to be associated with urinary calculi in pediatric and adult cases, but no studies have looked at the youngest period of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of VDR gene polymorphisms in infantile urolithiasis in a Turkish population. We compared a study group of 104 infants (55 girls and 49 boys, mean age 6.94 ± 3.81 months) with a control group of 96 infants (51 girls and 45 boys, mean age 7.51 ± 3.23) to evaluate their demographics and metabolic risk factors. PCR-based restriction analysis of the polymorphisms on the VDR gene (BsmI and TaqI) showed statistically significant differences between study and control groups (p = 0.001 and 0.043, respectively). In addition, the prevalence of the BsmI genotype was significantly different between the hypercalciuric and normocalciuric stone formers (p = 0.007). Allelic frequencies were similar between the urolithiasis and control groups (p > 0.05). The B allele of BsmI and the A allele of ApaI were more prevalent in the hypercalciuric stone formers than in the normocalciuric stone formers (p = 0.018 vs.0.036, respectively). These results suggest that the BsmI and TaqI VDR genotypes could be candidate genes leading to infantile urolithiasis.

  5. Association analysis of class II cytokine and receptor genes in vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Traks, Tanel; Karelson, Maire; Reimann, Ene; Rätsep, Ranno; Silm, Helgi; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli

    2016-05-01

    The loss of melanocytes in vitiligo is mainly attributed to defective autoimmune mechanisms and lately autoinflammatory mediators have become more emphasized. Among these, a number of class II cytokines and their receptors have displayed altered expression patterns in vitiligo. Thus, we selected 30 SNPs from the regions of respective genes to be genotyped in Estonian case-control sample (109 and 328 individuals, respectively). For more precise analyses, patients were divided into subgroups based on vitiligo progression activity, age of onset, sex, occurrence of vitiligo among relatives, extent of depigmented areas, appearance of Köbner's phenomenon, existence of halo nevi, occurrence of spontaneous repigmentation, and amount of thyroid peroxidase antibodies. No associations appeared in whole vitiligo group. In subgroups, several allelic and haplotype associations were found. The strongest involved SNPs rs12301088 (near IL26 gene), that was associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi, and rs2257167 (IFNAR1 gene), that was associated with female vitiligo. Additionally, haplotypes consisting of rs12301088 and rs12321603 alleles (IL26-IL22 genes), that were associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi. In conclusion, several genetic associations with vitiligo subphenotypes were revealed and functional explanations to these remain to be determined in respective studies.

  6. Delta 32 mutation of the chemokine-receptor 5 gene in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Martin, K; Heinzlmann, M; Borchers, R; Mack, M; Loeschke, K; Folwaczny, C

    2001-01-01

    The gene encoding chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is colocalized to the microsatellite marker D3S1573, which was linked with inflammatory bowel disease. Genetic heterogeneity in inflammatory bowel disease might be defined by a combination of the p-ANCA status and immunoregulatory genes. One hundred and twenty healthy unrelated controls, 101 patients with Crohn's disease, and 99 patients with ulcerative colitis were genotyped for the Delta 32 mutation of the CCR5 gene. The presence of p-ANCA was determined by the use of indirect immunofluorescence. After genotyping, patients were stratified according to p-ANCA status. The frequency of the Delta 32 mutation was not significantly different in controls and patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis (P 0.207 or more). Moreover, the frequency of the mutation was not significantly different in patients with inflammatory bowel disease after stratification for the p-ANCA status (P 0.482). Regardless of the p-ANCA status, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are not associated with the Delta 32 mutation of the CCR5 gene.

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 gene (KDR) polymorphisms and expression levels in depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gałecki, Piotr; Orzechowska, Agata; Berent, Dominika; Talarowska, Monika; Bobińska, Kinga; Gałecka, Elżbieta; Lewiński, Andrzej; Maes, Michael; Szemraj, Janusz

    2013-05-01

    Recent research findings suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) participates in the development of depressive disorder. VEGF is involved in neurogenesis and neuroprotection processes, mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). VEGFR2 also plays a role in angiogenesis, a process related to neurogenesis and other biological processes. We examined VEGFR2 (KDR) gene polymorphism, mRNA expression levels, as well as VEGFR2 protein levels in 268 patients diagnosed with a recurrent depressive disorder (rDD) using the ICD-10 criteria, and in 200 healthy controls. Genotyping and gene expression level analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for measurement of KDR protein levels. Our study found that distribution of KDR polymorphism +1416T/A differs significantly in patients with rDD when compared to healthy subjects, while A allele and AA genotype are risk factors for rDD. KDR mRNA and protein expression are higher in patients with rDD. We also observed a significant association between the -271A/G variant and gene and protein levels. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the KDR gene may serve as a novel genetic marker that could participate in the etiology of rDD. This new pathway may play a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression.

  8. Association of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Related Gene Variants with the Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Nishitani, Shota; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Matsuzaki, Junko; Kawasaki, Chisato; Tochigi, Mamoru; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kato, Nobumasa; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as dioxin, is known to have adverse effects on the homeostasis of gonadal steroids, thereby potentially altering the sexual differentiation of the brain to express autistic traits. Dioxin-like chemicals act on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), polymorphisms, and mutations of AhR-related gene may exert pathological influences on sexual differentiation of the brain, causing autistic traits. To ascertain the relationship between AhR-related gene polymorphisms and autism susceptibility, we identified genotypes of them in patients and controls and determined whether there are different gene and genotype distributions between both groups. In addition, to clarify the relationships between the polymorphisms and the severity of autism, we compared the two genotypes of AhR-related genes (rs2066853, rs2228099) with the severity of autistic symptoms. Although no statistically significant difference was found between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients and control individuals for the genotypic distribution of any of the polymorphisms studied herein, a significant difference in the total score of severity was observed in rs2228099 polymorphism, suggesting that the polymorphism modifies the severity of ASD symptoms but not ASD susceptibility. Moreover, we found that a significant difference in the social communication score of severity was observed. These results suggest that the rs2228099 polymorphism is possibly associated with the severity of social communication impairment among the diverse ASD symptoms. PMID:27899901

  9. Multiple episodic evolution events in V1R receptor genes of East-African cichlids.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Ota, Tomoki; Hirata, Tadashi; Suzuki, Hikoyu; Satta, Yoko; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mzighani, Semvua I; Sturmbauer, Christian; Hagino-Yamagishi, Kimiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2014-05-06

    Fish use olfaction to detect a variety of nonvolatile chemical signals, and thus, this sense is key to survival and communication. However, the contribution of the olfactory sense to social-especially reproductive-interactions in cichlids is still controversial. To obtain insights into this issue, we investigated the genes encoding V1Rs-possible candidates for reproductive pheromone receptors-among East-African cichlids. Interestingly, we found an excess of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitutions in four of six V1R genes in multiple cichlid lineages. First, we found that highly dimorphic V1R2 allele groups were shared among the cichlids inhabiting all East-African Great Lakes emerged through the episodic accumulation of the nonsynonymous substitutions prior to the radiation of the Lake Tanganyika species flock. We further detected such episodic events in V1R1 of the tribe Tropheini, and in V1R3 and V1R6 of the tribe Trematocarini. The excess of nonsynonymous substitutions in these examples were indicated as dN/dS > 1, which were all statistically significant by Fisher's exact test. Furthermore, we speculate that the amino acid changes in these episodic events are likely functional switch because they occurred in the putative ligand-binding pocket. Our finding of the occurrence of multiple episodic events and the unexpected gene diversity in one unique gene family is suggestive of the contribution of the V1R to the species diversification and the social interaction in cichlids.

  10. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with aggression in Japanese Akita Inu.

    PubMed

    Konno, Akitsugu; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2011-10-23

    We tested for an association between variable number of tandem repeats in the canine androgen receptor (AR) gene and personality differences in Japanese Akita Inu dogs. The polymorphic trinucleotide (CAG) repeat region coding for glutamine in exon 1 of the AR gene was genotyped using genomic DNA obtained from 171 dogs. Three alleles (23, 24 and 26 repeats) were detected, and the allele frequency differed with the coat colour. We assessed the personality profiles of 100 fawn-coloured dogs (54 males and 46 females) based on a questionnaire answered by each dog's owner. The questionnaire consisted of five sub-scales (sociability, playfulness, neuroticism, aggressiveness, distractibility), and the psychometric properties were acceptable based upon internal consistency of the subscales. We found that male dogs with a short allele conferring increased AR function had higher aggressiveness scores than male dogs with longer alleles. By contrast, no evidence was found for a relationship between AR gene variants and personality in females. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence of polymorphism in the AR gene being associated with canine aggression.

  11. The D4 receptor gene and mood disorders: An association study

    SciTech Connect

    Macciardi, F.; Cavalini, M.C.; Petronis, A.

    1994-09-01

    The problem of a gene-disease association is of major relevance in the current research of Psychiatric Disorders, mostly because of the lack of unequivocal results obtained with the linkage approach. However, some points of an association study must also be carefully considered, namely the statistical methodology and the strategy to select a gene to be tested. The gene coding for the D4 receptor (DRD4) might be theoretically relevant as a component of the genetic susceptibility for mood disorders. We now know that DRD4 has at least 2 functional polymorphisms in the coding regions of the gene, in exon 3 and exon 1, thus conferring etiologic relevance to a potentially positive association. In our work, we investigated the DRD4 genotypes of the 3rd and 1st exon for 93 patients with bipolar disorder and 57 patients with major depression, recurrent disorder. Patients have been diagnosed either by traditional DSMIII-R criteria or by clustering their lifetime psychopathological symptomatology. A random control group consisted of 151 subjects. A significant association has been found with DRD4 exon 3 genotypes, revealing an increase of genotypes 2-4 in Bipolar patients (chi-square=23.07, df=12, p=0.02). Even though a definitive confirmation of our finding requires an independent replication of the study, this result emphasizes the importance of DRD4 in mood disorders.

  12. Mutational analysis of the androgen receptor gene in two Chinese families with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Xu, Haikun; An, Wei; Zhu, Dechun; Li, Dejun

    2016-06-01

    Androgens are essential for normal male sex differentiation and are responsible for the normal development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty. The physiological effects of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR). Mutations in the AR gene are the most common cause of androgen insensitivity syndrome. The present study undertook a genetic analysis of the AR gene in two unrelated families affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) in China. In family 1, a previously reported nonsense mutation (G-to-A; p.W751X) was identified in exon 5 of the AR gene. In addition, a novel missense mutation was detected in exon 6 of the AR gene from family 2; this mutation resulted in a predicted amino acid change from phenylalanine to serine at codon 804 (T-to-C; p.F804S) in the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. Computer simulation of the structural changes generated by the p.F804S substitution revealed marked conformational alterations in the hydrophobic core responsible for the stability and function of the AR-LBD. In conclusion, the present study identified two mutations from two unrelated Chinese families affected by CAIS. The novel mutation (p.F804S) may provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying CAIS. Furthermore, it expands on the number of mutational hot spots in the international AR mutation database, which may be useful in the future for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  13. The Neuronal Sortilin-Related Receptor Gene SORL1 and Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph H.; Barral, Sandra; Reitz, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that two clusters of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the neuronal sortilin-related receptor gene (SORL1) are causally associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). At the cellular level, SORL1 is thought to be involved in intracellular trafficking of amyloid precursor protein. When this gene is suppressed, toxic amyloid β production is increased, and high levels of amyloid β are associated with a higher AD risk. Extending the cellular findings, gene expression studies show that SORL1 is differentially expressed in AD patients compared with controls. Furthermore, several genetic studies have identified allelic and haplotypic SORL1 variants associated with late-onset AD, and these variants confer small to modest risk of AD. Taken together, the evidence for SORL1 as a causative gene is compelling. However, putative variants have not yet been identified. Further research is necessary to determine its utility as a diagnostic marker of AD or as a target for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:18713574

  14. Improved Semliki Forest virus vectors for receptor research and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Lundstrom, K; Ziltener, P; Hermann, D; Schweitzer, C; Richards, J G; Jenck, F

    2001-02-01

    We have modified Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors to broaden their application range. Here we describe a series of site-directed mutagenesis experiments on the SFV subgenomic 26S promoter to down-regulate the heterologous gene expression. Several mutants showed a dramatic effect on transgene expression levels in BHK cells. The luciferase activity was reduced to approximately 30%, 3%, and 1% compared to the wild type promoter. Similarly, a decrease in beta-galactosidase activity was observed in BHK cells and after injection into the striatum of male Wistar rats. Novel non-cytopathogenic and temperature-sensitive SFV vectors have recently been developed by introduction of point mutations in the viral nonstructural genes nsP2 and nsP4. These vectors do not show the typical shut down of host cell protein synthesis after SFV infections and therefore allow for a substantially prolonged survival of host cells. Both the mutant vectors demonstrating lower and more physiological expression levels and the non-cytopathogenic vectors should be valuable tools for various applications within receptor research. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that SFV vectors can be efficient gene delivery vehicles for gene therapy applications.

  15. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with the urine calcium level in nephrolithiasis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zong-Pei; Huang, Miao-Fang; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    Association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism with the urine calcium level in nephrolithiasis patients from the published reports are still conflicting. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between VDR BsmI (rs1544410), Fok1 (rs2228570), TaqI (rs731236) and ApaI (rs7975232) gene polymorphism and urine calcium level in nephrolithiasis patients using meta-analysis method. The association studies were identified from PubMed, and Cochrane Library on 1 April 2014, and eligible investigations were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. Four reports were recruited into this meta-analysis for the association of VDR BsmI, Fok1, TaqI and ApaI gene polymorphism with urine calcium level in nephrolithiasis patients. In this meta-analysis, VDR BsmI B allele and BB genotype, Fok1 f allele and ff genotype, TaqI, and ApaI gene polymorphism were not associated with urine calcium level in nephrolithiasis patients. However, the BsmI bb genotype and Fok1 FF genotype were associated with the urine calcium level in nephrolithiasis patients. In conclusion, VDR BsmI bb genotype and Fok1 FF genotype were associated with the urine calcium level in nephrolithiasis patients. However, more studies should be conducted to confirm it.

  16. ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-β and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Andreas; Salway, Fiona; Dressman, Holly K; Kröner-Lux, Gabriele; Hafner, Mathias; Day, Philip JR; Marchuk, Douglas A; Garland, John

    2006-01-01

    Background TGF-β1 is an important angiogenic factor involved in the different aspects of angiogenesis and vessel maintenance. TGF-β signalling is mediated by the TβRII/ALK5 receptor complex activating the Smad2/Smad3 pathway. In endothelial cells TGF-β utilizes a second type I receptor, ALK1, activating the Smad1/Smad5 pathway. Consequently, a perturbance of ALK1, ALK5 or TβRII activity leads to vascular defects. Mutations in ALK1 cause the vascular disorder hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methods The identification of ALK1 and not ALK5 regulated genes in endothelial cells, might help to better understand the development of HHT. Therefore, the human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1 was infected with a recombinant constitutively active ALK1 adenovirus, and gene expression was studied by using gene arrays and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results After 24 hours, 34 genes were identified to be up-regulated by ALK1 signalling. Analysing ALK1 regulated gene expression after 4 hours revealed 13 genes to be up- and 2 to be down-regulated. Several of these genes, including IL-8, ET-1, ID1, HPTPη and TEAD4 are reported to be involved in angiogenesis. Evaluation of ALK1 regulated gene expression in different human endothelial cell types was not in complete agreement. Further on, disparity between constitutively active ALK1 and TGF-β1 induced gene expression in HMEC-1 cells and primary HUVECs was observed. Conclusion Gene array analysis identified 49 genes to be regulated by ALK1 signalling and at least 14 genes are reported to be involved in angiogenesis. There was substantial agreement between the gene array and quantitative real-time PCR data. The angiogenesis related genes might be potential HHT modifier genes. In addition, the results suggest endothelial cell type specific ALK1 and TGF-β signalling. PMID:16594992

  17. Age at first sexual intercourse, genes, and social context: evidence from twins and the dopamine D4 receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guang; Tong, Yuying

    2006-11-01

    We carried out two distinct types of genetic analysis with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The first was a non-DNA twin analysis using monozygotic (identical) and same-sex dizygotic (fraternal) twins. The second analysis investigates the association between age at first sexual intercourse and the 48-bp repeat polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). The twin analysis shows that MZ twins correlate their timing of first sex to a much greater extent than do the same-sex DZ twins. Our analysis of the polymorphisms in DRD4 indicates that those with an any-3R genotype experienced a risk of first sexual intercourse 23% (p = .016), 233% (p = .0001), 28% (p = .012), and 69% (p = .006) higher than those with an other/other (or any-4R) genotype in the all-ethnicities (n = 2,552), Asian, white, and Hispanic samples, respectively. The risk of first sex does not differ between the two genotypes in the African American sample. These results were obtained after adjusting the standard socioeconomic covariates, including gender, parental education, family structure, and community poverty in the regression model. Evidence from both twin and genetic-variant analyses points to a role of genes in the timing of first sexual intercourse.

  18. The Circadian Rhythm Gene Arntl2 Is a Metastasis Susceptibility Gene for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc-Han; Long, Jirong; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to metastasis rather than primary tumors, yet relatively little is understood regarding the etiology of metastatic breast cancer. Previously, using a mouse genetics approach, we demonstrated that inherited germline polymorphisms contribute to metastatic disease, and that these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used to predict outcome in breast cancer patients. In this study, a backcross between a highly metastatic (FVB/NJ) and low metastatic (MOLF/EiJ) mouse strain identified Arntl2, a gene encoding a circadian rhythm transcription factor, as a metastasis susceptibility gene associated with progression, specifically in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. Integrated whole genome sequence analysis with DNase hypersensitivity sites reveals SNPs in the predicted promoter of Arntl2. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated substitution of the MOLF promoter, we demonstrate that the SNPs regulate Arntl2 transcription and affect metastatic burden. Finally, analysis of SNPs associated with ARNTL2 expression in human breast cancer patients revealed reproducible associations of ARNTL2 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) SNPs with disease-free survival, consistent with the mouse studies. PMID:27656887

  19. Season of Birth and Dopamine Receptor Gene Associations with Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Campbell, Benjamin; MacKillop, James; Lum, J. Koji; Wilson, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Background Season of birth (SOB) has been associated with many physiological and psychological traits including novelty seeking and sensation seeking. Similar traits have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system. SOB and dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms may independently and interactively influence similar behaviors through their common effects on the dopaminergic system. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a sample of 195 subjects, we examined whether SOB was associated with impulsivity, sensation seeking and reproductive behaviors. Additionally we examined potential interactions of dopamine receptor genes with SOB for the same set of traits. Phenotypes were evaluated using the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, the Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire, the Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Delay Discounting Task. Subjects were also asked about their age at first sex as well as their desired age at the birth of their first child. The dopamine gene polymorphisms examined were Dopamine Receptor D2 (DRD2) TaqI A and D4 (DRD4) 48 bp VNTR. Primary analyses included factorial gender×SOB ANOVAs or binary logistic regression models for each dependent trait. Secondary analysis extended the factorial models by also including DRD2 and DRD4 genotypes as independent variables. Winter-born males were more sensation seeking than non-winter born males. In factorial models including both genotype and season of birth as variables, two previously unobserved effects were discovered: (1) a SOB×DRD4 interaction effect on venturesomeness and (2) a DRD2×DRD4 interaction effect on sensation seeking. Conclusion These results are consistent with past findings that SOB is related to sensation seeking. Additionally, these results provide tentative support for the hypothesis that SOB modifies the behavioral expression of dopaminergic genetic polymorphism. These findings suggest that SOB should be included in future studies of

  20. Gender, variation in opioid receptor genes and sensitivity to experimental pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain tolerance is subject to considerable inter-individual variation, which may be influenced by a number of genetic and non-genetic factors. The mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors play a role in pain perception and are thought to mediate different pain modalities. The aim of this study was to explore associations between pain thresholds and gender and genetic variants in the three opioid receptor genes (OPRM, OPRD and OPRK). Experimental multi-modal pain data from previously published studies carried out in healthy Caucasian volunteers were used in order to limit the number of confounders to the study outcome. Data on thermal skin pain (n=36), muscle pressure pain (n=31) and mechanical visceral pain (n=50)) tolerance thresholds were included. Results Nineteen genetic polymorphisms were included in linear regression modeling. Males were found to tolerate higher thermal and muscle pressure pain than females (p=0.003 and 0.02). Thirty four percent of variability in thermal skin pain was accounted for by a model consisting of OPRK rs6473799 and gender. This finding was just outside significance when correction for multiple testing was applied. Variability in muscle pressure pain tolerance was associated with OPRK rs7016778 and rs7824175. These SNPs accounted for 43% of variability in muscle pressure pain sensitivity and these findings remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing. No association was found with mechanical visceral pain. Conclusion This is a preliminary and hypothesis generating study due to the relatively small study size. However, significant association between the opioid receptor genes and experimental pain sensitivity supports the influence of genetic variability in pain perception. These findings may be used to generate hypotheses for testing in larger clinical trials of patients with painful conditions. PMID:23570317

  1. Childhood maltreatment, the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene and adult depression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Schwahn, Christian; Appel, Katja; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Barnow, Sven; Lucht, Michael; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Teumer, Alexander; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry

    2010-12-05

    Dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was found to modulate emotional memory consolidation. Recently, two studies have reported an interaction between childhood abuse and the TAT-haplotype of the CRH-Receptor Gene (CRHR1) connecting childhood adversities and genetic susceptibility to adult depression. We tested the hypothesis of an interaction of childhood maltreatment with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the CRHR1 gene not previously investigated. Caucasian subjects (n = 1,638) from the German general population (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP) were analyzed. As in the previous studies, childhood abuse and neglect were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2). The CRHR1-SNPs were genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 platform. We identified an interaction between the TAT-haplotype and childhood physical neglect. The interaction with physical neglect showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 23 of the 28 SNPs, with rs17689882 (P = 0.0013) reaching "gene-wide" significance. Although we did not replicate the specific interaction of abuse and the TAT-haplotype of the CRHR1 gene we confirmed the relevance of an interplay between variants within the CRHR1 gene and childhood adversities in the modulation of depression in adults. The largest effect was found for rs17689882, a SNP previously not analyzed. Relevant sample differences between this and prior studies like lower BDI-2 scores, less childhood maltreatment and higher psychosocial functioning may account for the differences in gene-environment interaction findings. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Is Nasal Polyposis Related to Levels of Serum Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Expression?

    PubMed Central

    Erdag, Omer; Turan, Mahfuz; Ucler, Rıfkı; Berkoz, Mehmet; Garca, Mehmet Fatih; Bozan, Nazım; Kıroglu, Ahmet Faruk; Cankaya, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasal polyposis (NP) is the most frequent cause of nasal masses. Despite considerable research on the subject, its etiology has not been fully elucidated, and effective treatment methods have not been developed. Some etiological factors causing low or high expression of genes in genetically predisposed individuals may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between levels of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene expression and serum vitamin D with NP. Material/Methods The study included 46 subjects with NP (NP group) and 40 volunteers (control group). Nasal polyp tissue samples were taken from the NP group and nasal mucosa samples were taken from the control group. Levels of VDR gene expression in the tissue samples were assessed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were 13.38±14.08 ng/ml in the NP group and 10.57±6.44 ng/ml in the control group (p=0.249). VDR gene expression was present in 17.5% of the NP group and 3.3% of the control group, and the difference between the 2 groups was statistically significant (likelihood ratio χ2=3.887; p=0.049). Conclusions This is the first study to assess levels of VDR gene expression in subjects with NP. Our results suggest that VDR gene expression may be associated with the pathogenesis or progression of NP. PMID:27895321

  3. The cyclic AMP receptor protein is the main activator of pectinolysis genes in Erwinia chrysanthemi.

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, S; Expert, D; Robert-Baudouy, J; Nasser, W

    1997-01-01

    The main virulence factors of the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi are pectinases that cleave pectin, a major constituent of the plant cell wall. Although physiological studies suggested that pectinase production in Erwinia species is subjected to catabolite repression, the direct implication of the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) in this regulation has never been demonstrated. To investigate the role of CRP in pectin catabolism, we cloned the E. chrysanthemi crp gene by complementation of an Escherichia coli crp mutation and then constructed E. chrysanthemi crp mutants by reverse genetics. The carbohydrate fermentation phenotype of the E. chrysanthemi crp mutants is similar to that of an E. coli crp mutant. Furthermore, these mutants are unable to grow on pectin or polygalacturonate as the sole carbon source. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the E. chrysanthemi crp gene revealed the presence of a 630-bp open reading frame (ORF) that codes for a protein highly similar to the CRP of E. coli. Using a crp::uidA transcriptional fusion, we demonstrated th