Sample records for hornworm caterpillar manduca

  1. Over-expression of StZFP2 in Solanum tuberosum L. var. Kennebec (potato) inhibits growth of tobacco hornworm larvae (THW, Manduca sexta L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta, THW) is a voracious pest of Solanaceous plants such as tomato and potato. Finding new approaches to enhance protection against this pest in potato has led to investigating transcription factors (TF) that are induced upon insect infestation. StZFP2 is a Q-type C2H2 z...

  2. The effect of within-instar development on tracheal diameter and hypoxia-inducible factors α and β in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Lundquist, Taylor A; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Ahsan, Rubina; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2017-12-12

    As insects grow within an instar, body mass increases, often more than doubling. The increase in mass causes an increase in metabolic rate and hence oxygen demand. However, the insect tracheal system is hypothesized to increase only after molting and may be compressed as tissues grow within an instar. The increase in oxygen demand in the face of a potentially fixed or decreasing supply could result in hypoxia as insects near the end of an instar. To test these hypotheses, we first used synchrotron X-ray imaging to determine how diameters of large tracheae change within an instar and after molting to the next instar in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Large tracheae did not increase in diameter within the first, second, third, and fourth instars, but increased upon molting. To determine if insects are hypoxic at the end of instars, we used the presence of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) as an index. HIF-α and HIF-β dimerize in hypoxia and act as a transcription factor that turns on genes that will increase oxygen delivery. We sequenced both of these genes and measured their mRNA levels at the beginning and end of each larval instar. Finally, we obtained an antibody to HIF-α and measured protein expression during the same time. Both mRNA and protein levels of HIFs were increased at the end of most instars. These data support the hypothesis that some insects may experience hypoxia at the end of an instar, which could be a signal for molting. As caterpillars grow within an instar, major tracheae do not increase in size, while metabolic demand increases. At the same life stages, caterpillars increased expression of hypoxia inducible factors, suggesting that they become hypoxic near the end of an instar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Humidity Detection and Hygropreference Behavior in Larvae of the Tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Marc; Hanson, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Water is a critical resource for any terrestrial animal, especially for a soft-bodied insect such as larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Strategies for coping with a dry environment might include seeking out regions of high relative humidity that reduce desiccative stress, or to find and imbibe liquid water. Desiccated larvae placed in a linear arena with a humidity gradient preferred the humid end, whereas un-desiccated larvae did not. This behavior was not affected by temperature. Ablation or occlusion of the antennae showed that they are required to mediate this behavior. A series of experiments showed that control larvae oriented towards and imbibed liquid water whereas those whose antennae had been occluded with wax did not. Electrophysiological recordings from the lateral basiconic sensillum of the second antennal segment revealed the presence of at least one hygroreceptive unit that greatly increased its firing rate in response to moist air, decreased firing rates in response to dry air, and showed mild post-stimulatory inhibition. PMID:20302460

  4. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Kanost, Michael R.; Arrese, Estela L.; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G.; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L.; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Almeida, Francisca C.; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B.; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M.; Clarke, David F.; Dittmer, Neal T.; Ferguson, Laura C.F.; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H.J.; Gunaratna, Ramesh T.; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R.; Kuwar, Suyog S.; Lee, Sandy L.; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H.; McCulloch, Kyle J.; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M.; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling-Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang-Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K.; Worley, Kim C.; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D.; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J.; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J.P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.; Hansson, Bill S.; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S.; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K.; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David B.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G.; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A. Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Brown, Susan J.; Scherer, Steven E.; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects. PMID:27522922

  5. Effect of Altered Gravity Environment on Tobacco Hornworm (Manduca Sexta) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1996-01-01

    Metamorphosis provides a unique condition for studying the role of gravity in development. Formation of new organs in a previously existing organism requires a highly active period of turnover of amino acids and proteins, and of changes in the endocrine profile. Furthermore, metamorphosis offers the advantage of studying a self-contained biological system. The tobacco hornworm provides a suitable species to study the effect of altered gravitational environment on invertebrate development. This species has been one of the most thoroughly investigated organisms in a variety of aspects of insect biology. M. sexta pharate adults can provide significant amounts of material with which to work, thus facilitating the study of metabolic aspects of adult development. During wandering, the period immediately following cessation of larval feeding, the larva burrows into the soil to form a pupation chamber. Despite burrowing down 25 to 30 cm, the insects reorient themselves to a slightly head-up (10 +/- 1 degree) position. Since light and temperature are not factors in this process, the larvae must sense the gravity vector. In our ground-based studies we had assessed whether developing adults might be sensitive to their gravitational environment by orienting pupae in a vertical head-up position within 24 to 48 h after pupal ecdysis. Our ground-based findings formed the foundation for determining which parameters would be evaluated in developing Manduca following spaceflight. Measurements were to include: (1) extent of development by all of the insects, (2) analysis of hemolymph obtained from half of the insects postflight for ecdysteroid, amino acid, urea, ammonia and trehalose concentrations, (3) further development of the other half of the insects to adult (moths), (4) analysis of the flight muscle protein content of the adults. Based on the first flight attempt in July, 1995, we modified the BRIC hardware to accommodate the insects. Our studies after BRIC-04 showed that

  6. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Kanost, Michael R; Arrese, Estela L; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Almeida, Francisca C; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M; Clarke, David F; Dittmer, Neal T; Ferguson, Laura C F; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H J; Gunaratna, Ramesh T; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R; Kuwar, Suyog S; Lee, Sandy L; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H; McCulloch, Kyle J; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling-Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang-Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K; Worley, Kim C; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Hansson, Bill S; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David B; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Brown, Susan J; Scherer, Steven E; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W

    2016-09-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation of hemocyte counts with different developmental parameters during the last larval instar of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Susann; Holthusen, Traute K; Koolman, Jan; Trenczek, Tina

    2008-02-01

    We determined the changes in hemocyte titer and in the abundance of hemocyte types of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta during the fourth and fifth larval stadium and the beginning of the pupal stadium. As we analyzed the samples of individual insects at daily intervals, we were able to correlate phenotypical features, body weight, as well as total protein content and lysozyme activity in the hemolymph with the observations on hemocytes. In the course of the fifth larval stadium, the hemocyte titer decreased slightly and declined further after pupation. Using calculated values for total hemocyte numbers, females had about five times and males three times more hemocytes in the circulating population at the beginning of the wandering stage (in the middle of the fifth larval stadium) than immediately after the last larval--larval molt (from the fourth to the fifth larval stadium). This sexual difference was mainly due to an increase in the number of plasmatocytes, which was more prominent in females than in males. Granular cells were dominant in early fifth larval stadium while plasmatocytes were the most abundant cells in pupae. Oenocytoids and spherule cells disappeared during the wandering stage. Lysozyme activity in the hemolymph rose to a maximum during the wandering stage, with females having lysozyme values twice as high as those for males. These changes in lysozyme activity, however, did not correlate with the increase of total hemolymph protein titer which occurred already at the beginning of the wandering stage. We postulate that changes in hemocyte titers are under direct hormonal control, which has to be proven in future experiments. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The immune signaling pathways of Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaolong; He, Yan; Hu, Yingxia; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yun-Ru; Bryant, Bart; Clem, Rollie J.; Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Blissard, Gary; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways and their coordination are critically important for proper functioning of animal immune systems. Our knowledge of the constituents of the intracellular signaling network in insects mainly comes from genetic analyses in Drosophila melanogaster. To facilitate future studies of similar systems in the tobacco hornworm and other lepidopteran insects, we have identified and examined the homologous genes in the genome of Manduca sexta. Based on 1:1 orthologous relationships in most cases, we hypothesize that the Toll, Imd, MAPK-JNK-p38 and JAK-STAT pathways are intact and operative in this species, as are most of the regulatory mechanisms. Similarly, cellular processes such as autophagy, apoptosis and RNA interference probably function in similar ways, because their mediators and modulators are mostly conserved in this lepidopteran species. We have annotated a total of 186 genes encoding 199 proteins, studied their domain structures and evolution, and examined their mRNA levels in tissues at different life stages. Such information provides a genomic perspective of the intricate signaling system in a non-drosophiline insect. PMID:25858029

  9. The Hornworm Assay: Useful in Mathematically-Based Biological Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Stanley A.; Griffin, Jennifer R.

    2004-01-01

    Hornworms are good assay organisms for leaf toxins, and can be raised on an artificial medium ("chow"), consisting of corn meal, soy flour, dry milk, yeast and other additives and preservatives. The hornworm assay is less useful in ecological and toxicological research, but is very useful in learning about experimental design and hypothesis…

  10. Food restriction alters energy allocation strategy during growth in tobacco hornworms ( Manduca sexta larvae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lihong; Amunugama, Kaushalya; Hayes, Matthew B.; Jennings, Michael; Domingo, Azriel; Hou, Chen

    2015-08-01

    Growing animals must alter their energy budget in the face of environmental changes and prioritize the energy allocation to metabolism for life-sustaining requirements and energy deposition in new biomass growth. We hypothesize that when food availability is low, larvae of holometabolic insects with a short development stage (relative to the low food availability period) prioritize biomass growth at the expense of metabolism. Driven by this hypothesis, we develop a simple theoretical model, based on conservation of energy and allometric scaling laws, for understanding the dynamic energy budget of growing larvae under food restriction. We test the hypothesis by manipulative experiments on fifth instar hornworms at three temperatures. At each temperature, food restriction increases the scaling power of growth rate but decreases that of metabolic rate, as predicted by the hypothesis. During the fifth instar, the energy budgets of larvae change dynamically. The free-feeding larvae slightly decrease the energy allocated to growth as body mass increases and increase the energy allocated to life sustaining. The opposite trends were observed in food restricted larvae, indicating the predicted prioritization in the energy budget under food restriction. We compare the energy budgets of a few endothermic and ectothermic species and discuss how different life histories lead to the differences in the energy budgets under food restriction.

  11. Plant volatile eliciting FACs in lepidopteran caterpillars, fruit flies, and crickets: a convergent evolution or phylogenetic inheritance?

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Naoko; Abe, Hiroaki; Morita, Sayo; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Aboshi, Takako; Fukui, Masao; Tumlinson, James H.; Mori, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs), first identified in lepidopteran caterpillar spit as elicitors of plant volatile emission, also have been reported as major components in gut tracts of Drosophila melanogaster and cricket Teleogryllus taiwanemma. The profile of FAC analogs in these two insects was similar to that of tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, showing glutamic acid conjugates predominantly over glutamine conjugates. The physiological function of FACs is presumably to enhance nitrogen assimilation in Spodoptera litura larvae, but in other insects it is totally unknown. Whether these insects share a common synthetic mechanism of FACs is also unclear. In this study, the biosynthesis of FACs was examined in vitro in five lepidopteran species (M. sexta, Cephonodes hylas, silkworm, S. litura, and Mythimna separata), fruit fly larvae and T. taiwanemma. The fresh midgut tissues of all of the tested insects showed the ability to synthesize glutamine conjugates in vitro when incubated with glutamine and sodium linolenate. Such direct conjugation was also observed for glutamic acid conjugates in all the insects but the product amount was very small and did not reflect the in vivo FAC patterns in each species. In fruit fly larvae, the predominance of glutamic acid conjugates could be explained by a shortage of substrate glutamine in midgut tissues, and in M. sexta, a rapid hydrolysis of glutamine conjugates has been reported. In crickets, we found an additional unique biosynthetic pathway for glutamic acid conjugates. T. taiwanemma converted glutamine conjugates to glutamic acid conjugates by deaminating the side chain of the glutamine moiety. Considering these findings together with previous results, a possibility that FACs in these insects are results of convergent evolution cannot be ruled out, but it is more likely that the ancestral insects had the glutamine conjugates and crickets and other insects developed glutamic acid conjugates in a different way. PMID

  12. Characterisation of the Manduca sexta sperm proteome: Genetic novelty underlying sperm composition in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Emma; Zhao, Qian; Borziak, Kirill; Walters, James R; Dorus, Steve

    2015-07-01

    The application of mass spectrometry based proteomics to sperm biology has greatly accelerated progress in understanding the molecular composition and function of spermatozoa. To date, these approaches have been largely restricted to model organisms, all of which produce a single sperm morph capable of oocyte fertilisation. Here we apply high-throughput mass spectrometry proteomic analysis to characterise sperm composition in Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm moth, which produce heteromorphic sperm, including one fertilisation competent (eupyrene) and one incompetent (apyrene) sperm type. This resulted in the high confidence identification of 896 proteins from a co-mixed sample of both sperm types, of which 167 are encoded by genes with strict one-to-one orthology in Drosophila melanogaster. Importantly, over half (55.1%) of these orthologous proteins have previously been identified in the D. melanogaster sperm proteome and exhibit significant conservation in quantitative protein abundance in sperm between the two species. Despite the complex nature of gene expression across spermatogenic stages, a significant correlation was also observed between sperm protein abundance and testis gene expression. Lepidopteran-specific sperm proteins (e.g., proteins with no homology to proteins in non-Lepidopteran taxa) were present in significantly greater abundance on average than those with homology outside the Lepidoptera. Given the disproportionate production of apyrene sperm (96% of all mature sperm in Manduca) relative to eupyrene sperm, these evolutionarily novel and highly abundant proteins are candidates for possessing apyrene-specific functions. Lastly, comparative genomic analyses of testis-expressed, ovary-expressed and sperm genes identified a concentration of novel sperm proteins shared amongst Lepidoptera of potential relevance to the evolutionary origin of heteromorphic spermatogenesis. As the first published Lepidopteran sperm proteome, this whole

  13. Carnivore Attractant or Plant Elicitor? Multifunctional Roles of Methyl Salicylate Lures in Tomato Defense.

    PubMed

    Rowen, Elizabeth; Gutensohn, Michael; Dudareva, Natalia; Kaplan, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Synthetic plant volatile lures attract natural enemies, but may have non-target effects due to the multifunctional nature of volatile signals. For example, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is used to attract predators, yet also serves as a signaling hormone involved in plant pathogen defense. We investigated the consequences of deploying MeSA lures to attract predators for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defense against herbivores. To understand the spatial distribution of the lure's effect, we exposed tomatoes in the field to MeSA along a linear distance gradient and induced defenses by simulating feeding by hornworm caterpillars in a fully crossed factorial design (+/- MeSA, +/- herbivory). Subsequently, we analyzed activity of several defensive proteins (protease inhibitors, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase), development of hornworm larvae (Manduca sexta), growth of fungal pathogens (Cladosporium and Alternaria), and attractiveness to herbivores and predators. Overall, MeSA-exposed plants were more resistant to both insects and pathogens. Secondary pathogen infection was reduced by 25% in MeSA exposed plants, possibly due to elevated polyphenol oxidase activity. Interestingly, we found that lures affected plant pathogen defenses equivalently across all distances (up to 4 m away) indicating that horizontal diffusion of a synthetic volatile may be greater than previously assumed. While thrips avoided colonizing hornworm- damaged tomato plants, this induced resistance was not observed upon pre-exposure to MeSA, suggesting that MeSA suppresses the repellant effect induced by herbivory. Thus, using MeSA lures in biological control may inadvertently protect crops from pathogens, but has mixed effects on plant resistance to insect herbivores.

  14. Sequence of a cDNA and expression of the gene encoding a putative epidermal chitin synthase of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Cheng; Specht, Charles A; Dittmer, Neal T; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kanost, Michael R; Kramer, Karl J

    2002-11-01

    Glycosyltransferases are enzymes that synthesize oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and glycoconjugates. One type of glycosyltransferase is chitin synthase, a very important enzyme in biology, which is utilized by insects, fungi, and other invertebrates to produce chitin, a polysaccharide of beta-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Chitin is an important component of the insect's exoskeletal cuticle and gut lining. To identify and characterize a chitin synthase gene of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, degenerate primers were designed from two highly conserved regions in fungal and nematode chitin synthase protein sequences and then used to amplify a similar region from Manduca cDNA. A full-length cDNA of 5152 nucleotides was assembled for the putative Manduca chitin synthase gene, MsCHS1, and sequencing of genomic DNA verified the contiguity of the sequence. The MsCHS1 cDNA has an ORF of 4692 nucleotides that encodes a transmembrane protein of 1564 amino acid residues with a mass of approximately 179 kDa (GenBank no. AY062175). It is most similar, over its entire length of protein sequence, to putative chitin synthases from other insects and nematodes, with 68% identity to enzymes from both the blow fly, Lucilia cuprina, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The similarity with fungal chitin synthases is restricted to the putative catalytic domain, and the MsCHS1 protein has, at equivalent positions, several amino acids that are essential for activity as revealed by mutagenesis of the fungal enzymes. A 5.3-kb transcript of MsCHS1 was identified by northern blot hybridization of RNA from larval epidermis, suggesting that the enzyme functions to make chitin deposited in the cuticle. Further examination by RT-PCR showed that MsCHS1 expression is regulated in the epidermis, with the amount of transcript increasing during phases of cuticle deposition.

  15. Characterization of the gut bacterial community in Manduca sexta and effect of antibiotics on bacterial diversity and nematode reproduction.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven, Ransome; Betrabet, Geeta; Forst, Steven

    2008-09-01

    The tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, is a model lepidopteran insect used to study the pathogenic and mutualistic phases of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and their bacterial symbionts. While intestinal microbial communities could potentially compete with the EPN and its bacterial partner for nutrient resources of the insect, the microbial gut community had not been characterized previously. Here, we show that the midgut of M. sexta raised on an artificial diet contained mostly Gram-positive cocci and coryneforms including Staphylococcus, Pediococcus, Micrococcus and Corynebacterium. Major perturbation in the gut community was observed on addition of antibiotics to the diet. Paenibacillus and several Proteobacteria such as Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas and Acinetobacter were primary genera identified under these conditions. Furthermore, the reproduction of the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae was less efficient, and the level of nematode colonization by its symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila reduced, in insects reared on a diet containing antibiotics. The effect of antibiotics and perturbation of gut microbiota on nematode reproduction is discussed.

  16. Ontogenetic scaling of metabolism, growth, and assimilation: testing metabolic scaling theory with Manduca sexta larvae.

    PubMed

    Sears, Katie E; Kerkhoff, Andrew J; Messerman, Arianne; Itagaki, Haruhiko

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism, growth, and the assimilation of energy and materials are essential processes that are intricately related and depend heavily on animal size. However, models that relate the ontogenetic scaling of energy assimilation and metabolism to growth rely on assumptions that have yet to be rigorously tested. Based on detailed daily measurements of metabolism, growth, and assimilation in tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, we provide a first experimental test of the core assumptions of a metabolic scaling model of ontogenetic growth. Metabolic scaling parameters changed over development, in violation of the model assumptions. At the same time, the scaling of growth rate matches that of metabolic rate, with similar scaling exponents both across and within developmental instars. Rates of assimilation were much higher than expected during the first two instars and did not match the patterns of scaling of growth and metabolism, which suggests high costs of biosynthesis early in development. The rapid increase in size and discrete instars observed in larval insect development provide an ideal system for understanding how patterns of growth and metabolism emerge from fundamental cellular processes and the exchange of materials and energy between an organism and its environment.

  17. Pyrosequencing the Manduca sexta larval midgut transcriptome: messages for digestion, detoxification and defence.

    PubMed

    Pauchet, Y; Wilkinson, P; Vogel, H; Nelson, D R; Reynolds, S E; Heckel, D G; ffrench-Constant, R H

    2010-02-01

    The tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta is an important model for insect physiology but genomic and transcriptomic data are currently lacking. Following a recent pyrosequencing study generating immune related expressed sequence tags (ESTs), here we use this new technology to define the M. sexta larval midgut transcriptome. We generated over 387,000 midgut ESTs, using a combination of Sanger and 454 sequencing, and classified predicted proteins into those involved in digestion, detoxification and immunity. In many cases the depth of 454 pyrosequencing coverage allowed us to define the entire cDNA sequence of a particular gene. Many new M. sexta genes are described including up to 36 new cytochrome P450s, some of which have been implicated in the metabolism of host plant-derived nicotine. New lepidopteran gene families such as the beta-fructofuranosidases, previously thought to be restricted to Bombyx mori, are also described. An unexpectedly high number of ESTs were involved in immunity, for example 39 contigs encoding serpins, and the increasingly appreciated role of the midgut in insect immunity is discussed. Similar studies of other tissues will allow for a tissue by tissue description of the M. sexta transcriptome and will form an essential complimentary step on the road to genome sequencing and annotation.

  18. Characterization of toxin complex gene clusters and insect toxicity of bacteria representing four subgroups of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ten strains representing four lineages of Pseudomonas (P. chlororaphis, P. corrugata, P. koreensis, and P. fluorescens subgroups) were evaluated for toxicity to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains within the P. chlororaphis subgroup exhibi...

  19. Ecdysteroids affect in vivo protein metabolism of the flight muscle of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Wu, M.; Cook, P.; Hodsden, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ecdysteroid growth promotion of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscle of Manduca sexta was studied by measuring in vivo protein metabolism using both "flooding-dose" and "non-carrier" techniques. These procedures differ in that the former method includes injection of non-labelled phenylalanine (30 micromoles/insect) together with the [3H]amino acid. Injected radioactivity plateaued in the haemolymph within 7 min. With the flooding-dose method, haemolymph and intramuscular specific radioactivities were similar between 15 min and 2 h. Incorporation of [3H]phenylalanine into muscle protein was linear with either method between 30 and 120 min. Fractional rates (%/12 h) of synthesis with the flooding-dose technique were best measured after 1 h because of the initial delay in radioactivity equilibration. Estimation of body phenylalanine turnover with the non-carrier method showed 24-53%/h which was negligible with the flooding-dose method. Since the two methods yielded similar rates of protein synthesis, the large injection of non-labelled amino acid did not alter the rate of synthesis. Because the flooding-dose technique requires only a single time point measurement, it is the preferred method. The decline and eventual cessation of flight-muscle growth was mostly a consequence of declining protein synthesis though degradation increased between 76-86 h before eclosion and was relatively rapid. This decline in muscle growth could be prevented by treating pupae with 20-hydroxyecdysone (10 micrograms/insect). Protein accretion was promoted by a decline of up to 80% in protein breakdown, which was offset in part by a concurrent though much smaller decrease in protein synthesis. Therefore, ecdysteroids may increase flight-muscle growth by inhibiting proteolysis.

  20. Caterpillar induced kerato-conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Vissenberg, I; Raus, P; Van Tittelboom, T; Dockx, P; Tassignon, M J

    1993-01-01

    Caterpillar hairs disseminated by the wind can cause serious ocular problems in man. Although this ocular injury was already described in the past century, caterpillar keratoconjunctivitis remains occasional. A recent case of caterpillar keratoconjunctivitis will be described. The conjunctiva as well as the surrounding skin was involved in a huge erythematous rash. Since caterpillar hairs are equipped with barbed hooks, they can easily penetrate soft tissue and thus are very difficult to remove. Recurrent inflammatory reactions lasting for months and resulting in a granulomatous disease, is the rule. The name of keratitis nodosum was given to the granulomatous reaction, secondary to the presence of caterpillar hairs in corneal tissue.

  1. Binding specificity of the juvenile hormone carrier protein from the hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta Johannson (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Peterson, R C; Reich, M F; Dunn, P E; Law, J H; Katzenellnbogen, J A

    1977-05-17

    A series of analogues of insect juvenile hormone (four geometric isomers of methyl epoxyfarnesenate, several para-substituted epoxygeranyl phenyl ethers, and epoxyfarnesol and its acetate and haloacetate derivatives) was prepared to investigate the binding specificity of the hemolymph juvenile hormone binding protein from the tobacco hornworm Manduct sexta. The relative binding affinities were determined by a competition assay against radiolabeled methyl (E,E)-3,11-dimethyl-7-ethyl-cis-10,11-epoxytrideca-2,6-dienoate (JH I). The ratio of dissociation constants was estimated by plotting competitor data according to a linear transformation of the dissociation equations describing competition of two ligands for a binding protein. The importance of the geometry of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon chain is indicated by the fact that the binding affinity is decreased as Z (cis) double bonds are substituted for E (trans) double bonds in the methyl epoxyfarnesenate series; the unepoxidized analogues do not bind. A carboxylic ester function is important although its orientation can be reversed, as indicated by the good binding of epoxyfarnesyl acetate. In the monoterpene series, methyl epoxygeranoate shows no affinity for the binding protein, but substitution of a phenyl or p-carbomethoxyphenyl ether for the ester function imparts a low, but significant affinity. These data taken together with earlier results indicate that the binding site for juvenile hormone in the hemolymph binding protein is characterized by a sterically defined hydrophobic region with polar sites that recognize the epoxide and the ester functions.

  2. A Structural Dynamic Analysis of a Manduca Sexta Forewing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Manduca Sexta wing, it is possible that the agreement with the first two experimental modes was the result of the non -uniqueness of the stiffness...flapping wings. Experimental t ests revealed the first three modes o f a cl amped Manduca Sexta wing in vacuum a re 86 H z, 106 H z, a nd 155 Hz; t...15 II. Experimental Methods

  3. Protection via parasitism: Datura odors attract parasitoid flies, which inhibit Manduca larvae from feeding and growing but may not help plants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J K; Woods, H A

    2015-12-01

    Insect carnivores frequently use olfactory cues from plants to find prey or hosts. For plants, the benefits of attracting parasitoids have been controversial, partly because parasitoids often do not kill their host insect immediately. Furthermore, most research has focused on the effects of solitary parasitoids on growth and feeding of hosts, even though many parasitoids are gregarious (multiple siblings inhabit the same host). Here, we examine how a gregarious parasitoid, the tachinid fly Drino rhoeo, uses olfactory cues from the host plant Datura wrightii to find the sphingid herbivore Manduca sexta, and how parasitism affects growth and feeding of host larvae. In behavioral trials using a Y-olfactometer, female flies were attracted to olfactory cues emitted by attacked plants and by cues emitted from the frass produced by larval Manduca sexta. M. sexta caterpillars that were parasitized by D. rhoeo grew to lower maximum weights, grew more slowly, and ate less of their host plant. We also present an analytical model to predict how tri-trophic interactions change with varying herbivory levels, parasitization rates and plant sizes. This model predicted that smaller plants gain a relatively greater benefit compared to large plants in attracting D. rhoeo. By assessing the behavior, the effects of host performance, and the variation in ecological parameters of the system, we can better understand the complex interactions between herbivorous insects, the plants they live on and the third trophic level members that attack them.

  4. The effects of surface-applied jasmonic and salicylic acids on caterpillar growth and damage to tomato plants

    Treesearch

    Aaron L. Iverson; Louis R. Iverson; Steve Eshita

    2001-01-01

    We tested the role of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in altering the tomato plant's defense against herbivory by tobacco hornworm. Treatments of SA or JA were topically applied to tomato plants, hornworm consumption was allowed to proceed for 12 days, and harvest analyses were performed Measurements taken included a subjective plant rating (1-10 score...

  5. Caterpillars

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood flow problems, decrease the time ice is used to prevent possible damage to the skin. After several ice treatments, apply a paste of baking soda and water to the area. If the caterpillar touched your ...

  6. Isolation and maintenance-free culture of contractile myotubes from Manduca sexta embryos.

    PubMed

    Baryshyan, Amanda L; Woods, William; Trimmer, Barry A; Kaplan, David L

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering has the potential to treat tissue loss and degenerative diseases. However, these systems are also applicable for a variety of devices where actuation is needed, such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and robotics. Most current efforts to generate muscle bioactuators are focused on using mammalian cells, which require exacting conditions for survival and function. In contrast, invertebrate cells are more environmentally robust, metabolically adaptable and relatively autonomous. Our hypothesis is that the use of invertebrate muscle cells will obviate many of the limitations encountered when mammalian cells are used for bioactuation. We focus on the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, due to its easy availability, large size and well-characterized muscle contractile properties. Using isolated embryonic cells, we have developed culture conditions to grow and characterize contractile M. sexta muscles. The insect hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone was used to induce differentiation in the system, resulting in cells that stained positive for myosin, contract spontaneously for the duration of the culture, and do not require media changes over periods of more than a month. These cells proliferate under normal conditions, but the application of juvenile hormone induced further proliferation and inhibited differentiation. Cellular metabolism under normal and low glucose conditions was compared for C2C12 mouse and M. sexta myoblast cells. While differentiated C2C12 cells consumed glucose and produced lactate over one week as expected, M. sexta muscle did not consume significant glucose, and lactate production exceeded mammalian muscle production on a per cell basis. Contractile properties were evaluated using index of movement analysis, which demonstrated the potential of these cells to perform mechanical work. The ability of cultured M. sexta muscle to continuously function at ambient conditions without medium replenishment, combined with the

  7. Forest Tent Caterpillar (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1996-01-01

    The forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria, is an important defoliator of North American hardwoods including sugar maple, oak, black gum, and aspen. Despite its name, the forest tent caterpillar does not build tents but spins silken mats on tree trunks and large branches.

  8. High tunnels: protection for rather than from insect pests?

    PubMed

    Ingwell, Laura L; Thompson, Sarah L; Kaplan, Ian; Foster, Ricky E

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are a season extension tool creating a hybrid of field and greenhouse growing conditions. High tunnels have recently increased in the USA and thus research on their management is lacking. One purported advantage of these structures is protection from common field pests, but evidence to support this claim is lacking. We compared insect pest populations in high tunnels with field production over two years for three crops: tomato, broccoli and cucumber. Greenhouse pests (e.g. aphids, whiteflies) were more prevalent in high tunnels, compared to field plots. Hornworms (tobacco (Manduca sexta L.) and tomato (M. quinquemaculata Haworth)), a common field pest on tomato, were also more abundant in high tunnels, requiring chemical control while field populations were low. The crucifer caterpillar complex (imported cabbageworm (Pieris rapae L.), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) and cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni Hübner)) was also more abundant in high tunnels in 2010. Cucumber beetle (striped (Acalymma vittatum F.) and spotted (Diabrotica undecimpunctata Mannerheim)) densities were higher in high tunnels in 2010 and field plots in 2011. The common assumption that high tunnels offer protection from field pests was not supported. Instead, high tunnel growing conditions may facilitate higher pest populations. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Azusa; Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Caterpillar hairs are thought to act as a physical barrier against natural enemies, including parasitoids. However, very few studies have experimentally demonstrated how hairs protect caterpillars from parasitoid oviposition. To clarify the importance of caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence, we observed the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking both smooth and hairy caterpillars under laboratory conditions. A female Meteorus pulchricornis uses its ovipositor to inject venom and lay a single egg inside host larvae. We placed a smooth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caterpillar or a hairy Lymantria dispar japonica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) caterpillar in front of parasitoid females. We observed that 100 % and 84 % of the parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into the smooth larvae of S. litura and first instars of the hairy caterpillar L. dispar japonica, respectively. However, only 24 % of parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into second-instar L. dispar japonica. A higher rate of successful stabs (94 %) by parasitoids was obtained by cutting the hairs of second instar L. dispar japonica much shorter than the parasitoid ovipositor. The results demonstrate that the long, thick hairs of second and later instars of L. dispar japonica function as a physical barrier against parasitoid oviposition.

  10. Caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Azusa; Sugiura, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    Caterpillar hairs are thought to act as a physical barrier against natural enemies, including parasitoids. However, very few studies have experimentally demonstrated how hairs protect caterpillars from parasitoid oviposition. To clarify the importance of caterpillar hairs as an anti-parasitoid defence, we observed the generalist endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking both smooth and hairy caterpillars under laboratory conditions. A female Meteorus pulchricornis uses its ovipositor to inject venom and lay a single egg inside host larvae. We placed a smooth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) caterpillar or a hairy Lymantria dispar japonica (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) caterpillar in front of parasitoid females. We observed that 100 % and 84 % of the parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into the smooth larvae of S. litura and first instars of the hairy caterpillar L. dispar japonica, respectively. However, only 24 % of parasitoids could successfully stab their ovipositors into second-instar L. dispar japonica. A higher rate of successful stabs (94 %) by parasitoids was obtained by cutting the hairs of second instar L. dispar japonica much shorter than the parasitoid ovipositor. The results demonstrate that the long, thick hairs of second and later instars of L. dispar japonica function as a physical barrier against parasitoid oviposition.

  11. Chlorophyll degradation in the gut of generalist and specialist Lepidopteran caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Badgaa, Amarsanaa; Jia, Aiqun; Ploss, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-12-01

    Plant feeding herbivores excrete most of the ingested chlorophyll (Chl) as partly degraded derivatives lacking the phytol side chain and the central magnesium ion. An ecological role of digested and degraded Chls in the interactions between insects, their food plant and other insects has been described recently. To gain more information on common degradation patterns in plant-feeding insects, the orals secretions and frass of five Lepidopteran caterpillars covering generalists and specialists, namely Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera eridania, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera, Manduca sexta, and, for comparison, of the leaf beetle larva Chrysomela lapponica were analyzed for chlorophyll catabolites. The major degradation products were determined as pheohorbide a/b and pyropheophorbide a/b by using LC-MS, LC-NMR, UV, and fluorescence spectrometry. The compounds were not present in fresh leaves of the food plants (Phaseolus lunatus, Nicotiana tabacum). The catabolite spectrum in generalists and specialists was qualitatively similar and could be attributed to the action of gut proteins and the strongly alkaline milieu in the digestive tract. Due to the anaerobic environment of the larval gut, the tetrapyrrole core of the Chl catabolites was not cleaved. Substantial amounts of Chl a/b metabolites were strongly complexed by a protein in the mid-gut.

  12. Monarch Caterpillar Changes to a Chrysalis

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-01-16

    The annual monarch migration is underway! Should you happen to spot a monarch caterpillar impersonating the letter 'J', watch it carefully. It might change from a caterpillar (the larva) to a chrysalis (the pupa) before your very eyes!

  13. Chitin synthase genes in Manduca sexta: characterization of a gut-specific transcript and differential tissue expression of alternately spliced mRNAs during development.

    PubMed

    Hogenkamp, David G; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Zimoch, Lars; Merzendorfer, Hans; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Specht, Charles A; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2005-06-01

    Chitin, the linear homopolymer of beta-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine, is produced by the enzyme chitin synthase (CHS). In general, this insoluble polysaccharide is found in two major extracellular structures in insects, the cuticle that overlays the epidermis and the peritrophic membrane (PM) that lines the midgut. Based on amino acid sequence similarities, insect CHSs are divided into two classes, A and B, and to date no more than two CHS genes have been identified in any single insect species. In species where both CHSs have been identified, one class A CHS and one class B CHS are always present. This finding suggests that these two genes may encode enzymes that synthesize chitin in different epithelial tissues. In our laboratory, we previously characterized transcripts for a class A CHS gene (MsCHS1) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We observed the expression of this gene in the larval epidermis, suggesting that the encoded enzyme functions to synthesize cuticular chitin. In this paper, we characterize a second chitin synthase gene (MsCHS2) belonging to class B and its cDNA from Manduca and show that it is expressed only in the midgut. This cDNA contains an open reading frame of 4575 nucleotides, which encodes a conceptual protein that is 1524 amino acids in length and is predicted to contain 16 transmembrane spans. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from anterior, medial, and posterior sections of the midgut from feeding larvae indicate that MsCHS2 is primarily expressed in the anterior midgut, with transcript levels tapering off in the medial and posterior midgut. Analysis of the MsCHS2 gene sequence indicates the absence of an alternate exon in contrast to the MsCHS1 gene, which yields two transcripts, MsCHS1a and MsCHS1b. RT-PCR analysis of the differential expression of these alternately spliced transcripts reveals that both splice variants are present in the epidermis. However, the ratio of the two alternately spliced transcripts varies

  14. Manduca sexta recognition and resistance among allopolyploid Nicotiana host plants

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yonggen; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2003-01-01

    Allopolyploid speciation occurs instantly when the genomes of different species combine to produce self-fertile offspring and has played a central role in the evolution of higher plants, but its consequences for adaptive responses are unknown. We compare herbivore-recognition and -resistance responses of the diploid species and putative ancestral parent Nicotiana attenuata with those of the two derived allopolyploid species Nicotiana clevelandii and Nicotiana bigelovii. Manduca sexta larvae attack all three species, and in N. attenuata attack is recognized when larval oral secretions are introduced to wounds during feeding, resulting in a jasmonate burst, a systemic amplification of trypsin inhibitor accumulation, and a release of volatile organic compounds, which function as a coordinated defense response that slows caterpillar growth and increases the probability of their being attacked. Most aspects of this recognition response are retained with modifications in one allotetraploid (N. bigelovii) but lost in the other (N. clevelandii). Differences between diploid and tetraploid species were apparent in delays (maximum 1 and 0.5 h, respectively) in the jasmonate burst, the elicitation of trypsin inhibitors and release of volatile organic compounds, and the constitutive levels of nicotine, trypsin inhibitors, diterpene glycosides, rutin, and caffeoylputrescine in the leaves. Resistance to M. sexta larvae attack was most strongly associated with diterpene glycosides, which were higher in the diploid than in the two allotetraploid species. Because M. sexta elicitors differentially regulate a large proportion of the N. attenuata transcriptome, we propose that these species are suited for the study of the evolution of adaptive responses requiring trans-activation mechanisms. PMID:14530394

  15. Coalescent histories for caterpillar-like families.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2013-01-01

    A coalescent history is an assignment of branches of a gene tree to branches of a species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree occur. The number of coalescent histories for a pair consisting of a labeled gene tree topology and a labeled species tree topology is important in gene tree probability computations, and more generally, in studying evolutionary possibilities for gene trees on species trees. Defining the Tr-caterpillar-like family as a sequence of n-taxon trees constructed by replacing the r-taxon subtree of n-taxon caterpillars by a specific r-taxon labeled topology Tr, we examine the number of coalescent histories for caterpillar-like families with matching gene tree and species tree labeled topologies. For each Tr with size r≤8, we compute the number of coalescent histories for n-taxon trees in the Tr-caterpillar-like family. Next, as n→∞, we find that the limiting ratio of the numbers of coalescent histories for the Tr family and caterpillars themselves is correlated with the number of labeled histories for Tr. The results support a view that large numbers of coalescent histories occur when a tree has both a relatively balanced subtree and a high tree depth, contributing to deeper understanding of the combinatorics of gene trees and species trees.

  16. Eastern Tent Caterpillar (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    Robert Rabaglia; Daniel Twardus

    1990-01-01

    The eastern tent caterpillar is often mistaken for the gypsy moth. Though they are similar in appearance, they differ in habits. The fully grown eastern tent caterpillar is about 2 inches long, black with a white stripe along the middle of the back and a row of pale blue oval spots on each side. It is sparsely covered with fine light brown hairs. The gypsy moth...

  17. A deterministic model of nettle caterpillar life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syukriyah, Y.; Nuraini, N.; Handayani, D.

    2018-03-01

    Palm oil is an excellent product in the plantation sector in Indonesia. The level of palm oil productivity is very potential to increase every year. However, the level of palm oil productivity is lower than its potential. Pests and diseases are the main factors that can reduce production levels by up to 40%. The existence of pests in plants can be caused by various factors, so the anticipation in controlling pest attacks should be prepared as early as possible. Caterpillars are the main pests in oil palm. The nettle caterpillars are leaf eaters that can significantly decrease palm productivity. We construct a deterministic model that describes the life cycle of the caterpillar and its mitigation by using a caterpillar predator. The equilibrium points of the model are analyzed. The numerical simulations are constructed to give a representation how the predator as the natural enemies affects the nettle caterpillar life cycle.

  18. Walnut Caterpillar

    Treesearch

    M.E. Farris; J.E. Appleby; B.C. Weber

    1982-01-01

    The walnut caterpillar (Datana integerrima Grote and Robinson) is a relatively common insect in hardwood forests of eastern North America. It has been recorded from Ontario, through most of the Eastern States west to Minnesota, and south to northern Mexico. Periodically, it heavily defoliates host trees.

  19. The Caterpillar Game: A Classroom Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floress, Margaret T.; Rock, Angela L.; Hailemariam, Assegedech

    2017-01-01

    A single-case experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Caterpillar Game, a classroom management system, on disruptive behavior in a general education first grade classroom. A multiple baseline design across settings was used to evaluate changes in student disruptive behavior and teacher praise. When the Caterpillar Game was…

  20. Predation of caterpillars on understory saplings in an Ozark forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtenberg, J.S.; Lichtenberg, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Predators of caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae) can indirectly enhance economic gains from plant resources by reducing herbivore damage to plants. For this study, we directly observed predation of caterpillars on understory trees in the Ozarks. Our objectives were to determine the relative importance of diurnal guilds of caterpillar predators, the time of day most diurnal predation events occur, and whether predators spend more time feeding in open or closed canopy areas. Once per month, June-September, we tethered caterpillars to understory saplings and recorded all predation events. Only invertebrate predators were observed feeding on caterpillars, and most predation events were attributed to ants and vespids (wasps, hornets and yellow jackets). Predation by vertebrate predators such as birds, small mammals, reptiles and amphibians was not observed. Most predation events took place at mid-day between 1200 and 1600 hrs. Predation pressure differed significantly over the four observation dates with peak ant predation in July and peak vespid predation in September. Canopy environment appeared to influence predation events as there was a trend towards higher vespid predation of caterpillars on open canopy as opposed to closed canopy saplings. Ants and vespids accounted for 90% of observed predation events; therefore they appear to be important predators of caterpillars during the summer months. Future studies at earlier sampling dates would be valuable in determining whether the relative importance of other diurnal guilds of caterpillar predators might be greater in the spring.

  1. Clay Caterpillars: A Tool for Ecology & Evolution Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    I present a framework for ecology and evolution laboratory exercises using artificial caterpillars made from modeling clay. Students generate and test hypotheses about predation rates on caterpillars that differ in appearance or "behavior" to understand how natural selection by predators shapes distribution and physical characteristics of…

  2. Caterpillar, Inc. — Converter GP-Catalytic Technology (CGP) system

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA memo approves Caterpillar Inc. request for Caterpillar Converter GP-Catalytic Technology (CGP) system for certain wheeled hydraulic excavators in reducing emissions and will be posted on the National Clean Diesel Verified Technologies List.

  3. Manduca sexta serpin-12 controls the prophenoloxidase activation system in larval hemolymph.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yang; Sumathipala, Niranji; Cao, Xiaolong; Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo

    2018-08-01

    Insect prophenoloxidase activation is coordinated by a serine protease network, which is regulated by serine protease inhibitors of the serpin superfamily. The enzyme system also leads to proteolytic processing of a Spätzle precursor. Binding of Spätzle to a Toll receptor turns on a signaling pathway to induce the synthesis of defense proteins. Previous studies of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta have revealed key members of the protease cascade, which generates phenoloxidase for melanogenesis and Spätzle to induce immunity-related genes. Here we provide evidence that M. sexta serpin-12 regulates hemolymph protease-14 (HP14), an initiating protease of the cascade. This inhibitor, unlike the other serpins characterized in M. sexta, has an amino-terminal extension rich in hydrophilic residues and an unusual P1 residue (Leu 429 ) right before the scissile bond cleaved by a target protease. Serpins with similarities to serpin-12, including Drosophila Necrotic, were identified in a wide range of insects including flies, moths, wasps, beetles, and two hemimetabolous species. The serpin-12 mRNA is present at low, constitutive levels in larval fat body and hemocytes and becomes more abundant after an immune challenge. We produced the serpin-12 core domain (serpin-12ΔN) in insect cells and in Escherichia coli and demonstrated its inhibition of human cathepsin G, bovine α-chymotrypsin, and porcine pancreatic elastase. MALDI-TOF analysis of the reaction mixtures confirmed the predicted P1 residue of Leu 429 . Supplementation of larval plasma samples with the serpin-12ΔN decreased prophenoloxidase activation elicited by microbial cells and reduced the proteolytic activation of the protease precursors of HP6, HP8, PAPs, and other serine protease-related proteins. After incubation of plasma stimulated with peptidoglycan, a 72 kDa protein appeared, which was recognized by polyclonal antibodies against both serpin-12 and HP14, suggesting that a covalent serpin

  4. Trail and arena marking by caterpillars ofArchips cerasivoranus (lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D

    1993-07-01

    The activity ofArchips cerasivoranus caterpillars is largely limited to their colonial silk web and trails. Silk pulled directly from the spinnerets of caterpillars and wound onto paper strips to form artificial trails elicited locomotion from the larvae. Trails made from extracts of silk and silk glands also elicited locomotion. These and other observations reported here indicate that the caterpillars are responsive to a water-soluble pheromone that is a component of the silk strand. Marker pheromones appear not to be secreted from other regions of the body, as has been reported for some other trail-following caterpillars.

  5. Caterpillars and moths: Part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars are the larval forms of moths and butterflies and belong to the order Lepidoptera. Caterpillars, and occasionally moths, have evolved defense mechanisms, including irritating hairs, spines, venoms, and toxins that may cause human disease. The pathologic mechanisms underlying reactions to Lepidoptera are poorly understood. Lepidoptera are uncommonly recognized causes of localized stings, eczematous or papular dermatitis, and urticaria. Part I of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews Lepidopteran life cycles, terminology, and the epidemiology of caterpillar and moth envenomation. It also reviews the known pathomechanisms of disease caused by Lepidopteran exposures and how they relate to diagnosis and management. Part II discusses the specific clinical patterns caused by Lepidopteran exposures, with particular emphasis on groups of caterpillars and moths that cause a similar pattern of disease. It also discusses current therapeutic options regarding each pattern of disease.

  6. Extensive Conserved Synteny of Genes between the Karyotypes of Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori Revealed by BAC-FISH Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka-Okuyama, Makiko; Shibata, Fukashi; Yoshido, Atsuo; Marec, František; Wu, Chengcang; Zhang, Hongbin; Goldsmith, Marian R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Genome sequencing projects have been completed for several species representing four highly diverged holometabolous insect orders, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Lepidoptera. The striking evolutionary diversity of insects argues a need for efficient methods to apply genome information from such models to genetically uncharacterized species. Constructing conserved synteny maps plays a crucial role in this task. Here, we demonstrate the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes as a powerful tool for physical mapping of genes and comparative genome analysis in Lepidoptera, which have numerous and morphologically uniform holokinetic chromosomes. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated 214 clones containing 159 orthologs of well conserved single-copy genes of a sequenced lepidopteran model, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, from a BAC library of a sphingid with an unexplored genome, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We then constructed a BAC-FISH karyotype identifying all 28 chromosomes of M. sexta by mapping 124 loci using the corresponding BAC clones. BAC probes from three M. sexta chromosomes also generated clear signals on the corresponding chromosomes of the convolvulus hawk moth, Agrius convolvuli, which belongs to the same subfamily, Sphinginae, as M. sexta. Conclusions/Significance Comparison of the M. sexta BAC physical map with the linkage map and genome sequence of B. mori pointed to extensive conserved synteny including conserved gene order in most chromosomes. Only a few rearrangements, including three inversions, three translocations, and two fission/fusion events were estimated to have occurred after the divergence of Bombycidae and Sphingidae. These results add to accumulating evidence for the stability of lepidopteran genomes. Generating signals on A. convolvuli chromosomes using heterologous M. sexta probes demonstrated that BAC-FISH with orthologous sequences can be used for karyotyping a

  7. Sources of Variation in the Gut Microbial Community of Lycaeides melissa Caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Samridhi; Rego, Alexandre; Lucas, Lauren K; Gompert, Zachariah

    2017-09-12

    Microbes can mediate insect-plant interactions and have been implicated in major evolutionary transitions to herbivory. Whether microbes also play a role in more modest host shifts or expansions in herbivorous insects is less clear. Here we evaluate the potential for gut microbial communities to constrain or facilitate host plant use in the Melissa blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa). We conducted a larval rearing experiment where caterpillars from two populations were fed plant tissue from two hosts. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to quantify the relative effects of sample type (frass versus whole caterpillar), diet (plant species), butterfly population and development (caterpillar age) on the composition and diversity of the caterpillar gut microbial communities, and secondly, to test for a relationship between microbial community and larval performance. Gut microbial communities varied over time (that is, with caterpillar age) and differed between frass and whole caterpillar samples. Diet (host plant) and butterfly population had much more limited effects on microbial communities. We found no evidence that gut microbe community composition was associated with caterpillar weight, and thus, our results provide no support for the hypothesis that variation in microbial community affects performance in L. melissa.

  8. Serpin-9 and -13 regulate hemolymph proteases during immune responses of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Picheng; Rayaprolu, Subrahmanyam; Wang, Xiuhong; Cao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Haobo

    2017-11-01

    Serpins are a superfamily of proteins, most of which inhibit cognate serine proteases by forming inactive acyl-enzyme complexes. In the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, serpin-1, -3 through -7 negatively regulate a hemolymph serine protease system that activates precursors of the serine protease homologs (SPHs), phenoloxidases (POs), Spätzles, and other cytokines. Here we report the cloning and characterization of M. sexta serpin-9 and -13. Serpin-9, a 402-residue protein most similar to Drosophila Spn77Ba, has R 366 at the P1 position right before the cleavage site; Serpin-13, a 444-residue ortholog of Drosophila Spn28Dc, is longer than the other seven serpins and has R 410 as the P1 residue. Both serpins are mainly produced in fat body and secreted into plasma to function. While their mRNA and protein levels were not up-regulated upon immune challenge, they blocked protease activities and affected proPO activation in hemolymph. Serpin-9 inhibited human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, trypsin, and chymotrypsin to different extents; serpin-13 reduced trypsin activity to approximately 10% at a molar ratio of 4:1 (serpin: enzyme). Serpin-9 was cleaved at Arg 366 by the enzymes with different specificity, but serpin-13 had four P1 sites (Arg 410 for trypsin-like proteases, Gly 406 and Ala 409 for the elastase and Thr 404 for cathepsin G). Supplementation of induced cell-free hemolymph (IP, P for plasma) with recombinant serpin-9 did not noticeably affect proPO activation, but slightly reduced the PO activity increase after 0-50% ammonium sulfate fraction of the IP had been elicited by bacteria. In comparison, addition of recombinant serpin-13 significantly inhibited proPO activation in IP and the suppression was stronger in the fraction of IP. Serpin-9- and -13-containing protein complexes were isolated from IP using their antibodies. Hemolymph protease-1 precursor (proHP1), HP6 and HP8 were found to be associated with serpin-9, whereas proHP1, HP2 and HP6 were

  9. Variable Oakleaf Caterpillar

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson; Gordon A. Surgeoner

    1979-01-01

    The variable oakleaf caterpillar (Heterocampa manteo (Dbldy.)) is a common insect in deciduous forests of Eastern North America. It has been recorded from most of the Eastern Canadian Provinces and most of the States in the East to North Dakota in the West and south to eastern Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Heavy defoliations of hosts may occur anywhere within this...

  10. Trail Marking by Caterpillars of the Silverspot Butterfly Dione Juno Huascuma

    PubMed Central

    Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso; Stanford-Camargo, Sergio G.; Páez-Gerardo, Luis E; Ramírez-Reyes, Alberto J.; Ibarra-Jiménez, René A.; Fitzgerald, Terrence D.

    2011-01-01

    A pheromone is implicated in the trail marking behavior of caterpillars of the nymphalid silverspot butterfly, Dione juno huascuma (Reakirt) (Lepidoptera: Heliconiinae) that feed gregariously on Passiflora (Malpighiales: Passifloraceae) vines in Mexico. Although they mark pathways leading from one feeding site to another with silk, this study shows that the silk was neither adequate nor necessary to elicit trail following behavior. Caterpillars marked trails with a long-lived pheromone that was deposited when they brushed the ventral surfaces of the tips of their abdomens along branch pathways. The caterpillars distinguished between pathways deposited by different numbers of siblings and between trails of different ages. Caterpillars also preferentially followed the trails of conspecifics over those of another nymphalid, Nymphalis antiopa L., the mourning cloak butterfly. PMID:21861659

  11. Probable chronic renal failure caused by Lonomia caterpillar envenomation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Erucism is a skin reaction to envenomation from certain poisonous caterpillar bristles. In Brazil, most reports of erucism provoked by Lonomia caterpillars are from the southern region. Most manifestations of erucism are local and include burning pain, itching, local hyperthermia and, rarely, blisters (benign symptoms with spontaneous regression in a few hours). General symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, headache, fever, myalgia, abdominal pain and conjunctivitis may also occur. Uncommon symptoms include arthritis, coagulation disorders (manifested as bruising and bleeding), intracerebral hemorrhage and acute renal failure, which comprise serious complications. The present study reports the case of 60-year-old patient from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, who came into contact with a caterpillar and developed, a few days later, chronic renal disease. PMID:23849585

  12. Hemocyte Density Increases with Developmental Stage in an Immune-Challenged Forest Caterpillar

    PubMed Central

    Stoepler, Teresa M.; Castillo, Julio C.; Lill, John T.; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    The cellular arm of the insect immune response is mediated by the activity of hemocytes. While hemocytes have been well-characterized morphologically and functionally in model insects, few studies have characterized the hemocytes of non-model insects. Further, the role of ontogeny in mediating immune response is not well understood in non-model invertebrate systems. The goals of the current study were to (1) determine the effects of caterpillar size (and age) on hemocyte density in naïve caterpillars and caterpillars challenged with non-pathogenic bacteria, and (2) characterize the hemocyte activity and diversity of cell types present in two forest caterpillars: Euclea delphinii and Lithacodes fasciola (Limacodidae). We found that although early and late instar (small and large size, respectively) naïve caterpillars had similar constitutive hemocyte densities in both species, late instar Lithacodes caterpillars injected with non-pathogenic E. coli produced more than a twofold greater density of hemocytes than those in early instars. We also found that both caterpillar species contained plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids, all of which are found in other lepidopteran species, but lacked spherulocytes. Granulocytes and plasmatocytes were found to be strongly phagocytic in both species, but granulocytes exhibited a higher phagocytic activity than plasmatocytes. Our results strongly suggest that for at least one measure of immunological response, the production of hemocytes in response to infection, response magnitudes can increase over ontogeny. While the underlying raison d’ être for this improvement remains unclear, these findings may be useful in explaining natural patterns of stage-dependent parasitism and pathogen infection. PMID:23940679

  13. The Caterpillar Game: A SW-PBIS Aligned Classroom Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floress, Margaret T.; Jacoby, Amber L.

    2017-01-01

    The Caterpillar Game is a classroom management system that is aligned with School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports standards. A single-case, multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Caterpillar Game on disruptive student behavior and teacher praise. Three classrooms were included in the study (preschool,…

  14. Role of trail pheromone in foraging and processionary behavior of pine processionary caterpillars Thaumetopoea pityocampa.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D

    2003-03-01

    Although caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocamnpa may mark their pathways with silk, this study shows that the material is essential to neither the elicitation nor maintenance of trail-following or processionary behavior. Trail following is dependent upon a pheromone the caterpillars deposit by brushing the ventral surfaces of the tips of their abdomens against the substate. Earlier instars are strongly bound to their trail system; in the laboratory, caterpillars followed circular trails continuously for as long as 12 hr before breaking away from them. The trail pheromone is long-lived and soluble in nonpolar solvents, but its volatilization or degradation allows the caterpillars to distinguish new from aged trails. In contrast to trail following, processionary behavior, the head-to-tail, single-file movement of the caterpillars is dependent on neither silk nor the trail pheromone. Stimuli associated with setae found on the tip of the abdomen of the precedent caterpillar serve to hold processions together, and such stimuli take priority over those associated with either the trail pheromone or silk. Although the caterpillars discern trail strength and choose stronger over weaker trails, the trail marking system of the processionary caterpillar appears less sophisticated than those of other, previously studied species of social caterpillars, and colonies are relatively inefficient in abandoning exhausted feeding sites in favor of new food finds. In laboratory studies, females were more likely to lead processions than males, and leaders, regardless of gender, expended more energy in locomotion than followers.

  15. GoQBot: a caterpillar-inspired soft-bodied rolling robot.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huai-Ti; Leisk, Gary G; Trimmer, Barry

    2011-06-01

    Rolling locomotion using an external force such as gravity has evolved many times. However, some caterpillars can curl into a wheel and generate their own rolling momentum as part of an escape repertoire. This change in body conformation occurs well within 100 ms and generates a linear velocity over 0.2 m s(-1), making it one of the fastest self-propelled wheeling behaviors in nature. Inspired by this behavior, we construct a soft-bodied robot to explore the dynamics and control issues of ballistic rolling. This robot, called GoQBot, closely mimics caterpillar rolling. Analyzing the whole body kinematics and 2D ground reaction forces at the robot ground anchor reveals about 1G of acceleration and more than 200 rpm of angular velocity. As a novel rolling robot, GoQBot demonstrates how morphing can produce new modes of locomotion. Furthermore, mechanical coupling of the actuators improves body coordination without sensory feedback. Such coupling is intrinsic to soft-bodied animals because there are no joints to isolate muscle-generated movements. Finally, GoQBot provides an estimate of the mechanical power for caterpillar rolling that is comparable to that of a locust jump. How caterpillar musculature produces such power in such a short time is yet to be discovered.

  16. Recognition of microbial molecular patterns and stimulation of prophenoloxidase activation by a β-1,3-glucanase-related protein in Manduca sexta larval plasma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Sumathipala, Niranji; Rayaprolu, Subrahmanyam; Jiang, Haobo

    2011-01-01

    Detection of pathogenic invaders is the essential first step of a successful defense response in multicellular organisms. In this study, we have identified a new member of the β-1,3-glucanase-related protein superfamily from the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. This protein, designated microbe binding protein (MBP), is 61% identical in sequence to Bombyx mori Gram-negative bacteria binding protein, but only 34-36% identical to M. sexta β-1,3-glucan recognition protein-1 and 2. Its mRNA levels were strongly up-regulated in hemocytes and fat body of immune challenged larvae, along with an increase in concentration of the plasma protein. We expressed M. sexta MBP in a baculovirus-insect cell system. The purified protein associated with intact bacteria and fungi. It specifically bound to lipoteichoic acid, lipopolysaccharide, diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycans (DAP-PGs) from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, but less so to laminarin or Lys-type PG from Staphylococcus aureus. The complex binding pattern was influenced by other plasma factors and additional microbial surface molecules. After different amounts of MBP had been incubated with larval plasma on ice, a concentration-dependent increase in phenoloxidase (PO) activity occurred in the absence of any microbial elicitor. The activity increase was also observed in the mixture of plasma and a bacterial or fungal cell wall component. The prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation became more prominent when DAP-PGs, Micrococcus luteus Lys-PG, or lipoteichoic acid was included in the mixture of MBP and plasma. Statistic analysis suggested that a synergistic enhancement of proPO activation was caused by an interaction between MBP and these elicitors, but not S. aureus Lys-PG, lipopolysaccharide, curdlan, or laminarin. These data indicate that M. sexta MBP is a component of the surveillance mechanism and, by working together with other pattern recognition molecules and serine proteinases, triggers the proPO activation

  17. Simulating Halos with the Caterpillar Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    The Caterpillar Project is a beautiful series of high-resolution cosmological simulations. The goal of this project is to examine the evolution of dark-matter halos like the Milky Ways, to learn about how galaxies like ours formed. This immense computational project is still in progress, but the Caterpillar team is already providing a look at some of its first results.Lessons from Dark-Matter HalosWhy simulate the dark-matter halos of galaxies? Observationally, the formation history of our galaxy is encoded in galactic fossil record clues, like the tidal debris from disrupted satellite galaxies in the outer reaches of our galaxy, or chemical abundance patterns throughout our galactic disk and stellar halo.But to interpret this information in a way that lets us learn about our galaxys history, we need to first test galaxy formation and evolution scenarios via cosmological simulations. Then we can compare the end result of these simulations to what we observe today.This figure illustrates the difference that mass resolution makes. In the left panel, the mass resolution is 1.5*10^7 solar masses per particle. In the right panel, the mass resolution is 3*10^4 solar masses per particle [Griffen et al. 2016]A Computational ChallengeDue to how computationally expensive such simulations are, previous N-body simulations of the growth of Milky-Way-like halos have consisted of only one or a few halos each. But in order to establish a statistical understanding of how galaxy halos form and find out whether the Milky Ways halo is typical or unusual! it is necessary to simulate a larger number of halos.In addition, in order to accurately follow the formation and evolution of substructure within the dark-matter halos, these simulations must be able to resolve the smallest dwarf galaxies, which are around a million solar masses. This requires an extremely high mass resolution, which adds to the computational expense of the simulation.First OutcomesThese are the challenges faced by

  18. Predatory birds and ants partition caterpillar prey by body size and diet breadth.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael S; Clark, Robert E; Lichter-Marck, Issac H; Johnson, Emily R; Mooney, Kailen A

    2017-10-01

    The effects of predator assemblages on herbivores are predicted to depend critically on predator-predator interactions and the extent to which predators partition prey resources. The role of prey heterogeneity in generating such multiple predator effects has received limited attention. Vertebrate and arthropod insectivores constitute two co-dominant predatory taxa in many ecosystems, and the emergent properties of their joint effects on insect herbivores inform theory on multiple predator effects as well as biological control of insect herbivores. Here we use a large-scale factorial manipulation to assess the extent to which birds and ants engage in antagonistic predator-predator interactions and the consequences of heterogeneity in herbivore body size and diet breadth (i.e. the diversity of host plants used) for prey partitioning. We excluded birds and reduced ant density (by 60%) in the canopies of eight northeastern USA deciduous tree species during two consecutive years and measured the community composition and traits of lepidopteran larvae (caterpillars). Birds did not affect ant density, implying limited intraguild predation between these taxa in this system. Birds preyed selectively upon large-bodied caterpillars (reducing mean caterpillar length by 12%) and ants preyed selectively upon small-bodied caterpillars (increasing mean caterpillar length by 6%). Birds and ants also partitioned caterpillar prey by diet breadth. Birds reduced the frequency dietary generalist caterpillars by 24%, while ants had no effect. In contrast, ants reduced the frequency of dietary specialists by 20%, while birds had no effect, but these effects were non-additive; under bird exclusion, ants had no detectable effect, while in the presence of birds, they reduced the frequency of specialists by 40%. As a likely result of prey partitioning by body size and diet breadth, the combined effects of birds and ants on total caterpillar density were additive, with birds and ants reducing

  19. Model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdausi, F. Z.; Nuraini, N.

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is a vital commodity to the economy of Indonesia. The area of oil palm plantations in Indonesia has increased from year to year. However, the effectiveness of palm oil production is reduced by pest infestation. One of the pest which often infests oil palm plantations is nettle caterpillar. The pest control used in this study is biological control, viz. biological agents given to oil palm trees. This paper describes a mathematical model of two infectious diseases in nettle caterpillar population. The two infectious diseases arise due to two biological agents, namely Bacillus thuringiensis bacterium and parasite which usually attack nettle caterpillars. The derivation of the model constructed in this paper is obtained from ordinary differential equations without time delay. The equilibrium points are analyzed. Two of three equilibrium points are stable if the Routh-Hurwitz criteria are fulfilled. In addition, this paper also presents the numerical simulation of the model which has been constructed.

  20. Deleterious effects of repeated cold exposure in a freeze-tolerant sub-Antarctic caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent J; Chown, Steven L

    2005-03-01

    Multiple freeze-thaw cycles are common in alpine, polar and temperate habitats. We investigated the effects of five consecutive cycles of approx. -5 degrees C on the freeze-tolerant larvae of Pringleophaga marioni Viette (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) on sub-Antarctic Marion Island. The likelihood of freezing was positively correlated with body mass, and decreased from 70% of caterpillars that froze on initial exposure to 55% of caterpillars that froze on subsequent exposures; however, caterpillars retained their freeze tolerance and did not appear to switch to a freeze-avoiding strategy. Apart from an increase in gut water, there was no difference in body composition of caterpillars frozen 0 to 5 times, suggesting that the observed effects were not due to freezing, but rather to exposure to cold per se. Repeated cold exposure did not result in mortality, but led to decreased mass, largely accounted for by a decreased gut mass caused by cessation of feeding by caterpillars. Treatment caterpillars had fragile guts with increased lipid content, suggesting damage to the gut epithelium. These effects persisted for 5 days after the final exposure to cold, and after 30 days, treatment caterpillars had regained their pre-exposure mass, whereas their control counterparts had significantly gained mass. We show that repeated cold exposure does occur in the field, and suggest that this may be responsible for the long life cycle in P. marioni. Although mean temperatures are increasing on Marion Island, several climate change scenarios predict an increase in exposures to sub-zero temperatures, which would result in an increased generation time for P. marioni. Coupled with increased predation from introduced house mice on Marion Island, this could have severe consequences for the P. marioni population.

  1. Caterpillar mimicry by plant galls as a visual defense against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2016-09-07

    Plant galls, induced by arthropods and various other organisms have an intimate relationship with host plants, and gall-inducers have limited mobility. In addition to their own photosynthesis, galls are resource sinks rich with nutrients, with neighboring plant organs commonly serving as external photosynthate sources. Galls, if not well defended, may therefore be attractive food sources for herbivores. Galls produced by some aphids, jumping plant lice, thrips, and gall midges in Japan, Palearctic region and in the Middle East visually resemble lepidopteran caterpillars. I propose that such visual resemblance may reduce herbivory of galls and surrounding plant tissues, resulting in an increase in galler survival due to reduced gall damage and in enhanced galler growth due to improved nutrient inflow to the galls, when herbivores avoid colonizing or consuming plant parts that look as if they have been occupied by other herbivores. Potential predators and parasitoids of caterpillars may be attracted to the caterpillar-like galls and then attack real caterpillars and other invertebrate herbivores, which would also be beneficial for both gallers and their hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Caterpillar chemical defense and parasitoid success: Cotesia congregata parasitism of Ceratomia catalpae.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Evan C; Dyer, Lee A; Bowers, M Deane

    2010-09-01

    Sequestration of plant compounds by herbivorous insects as a defense against predators is well documented; however, few studies have examined the effectiveness of sequestration as a defense against parasitoids. One assumption of the "nasty host" hypothesis is that sequestration of plant defense compounds is deleterious to parasitoid development. We tested this hypothesis with larvae of the sequestering sphingid Ceratomia catalpae, which is heavily parasitized by the endoparasitoid Cotesia congregata, despite sequestering high concentrations of the iridoid glycoside catalpol from their catalpa host plants. We collected C. catalpae and catalpa leaves from six populations in the Eastern US, and allowed any C. congregata to emerge in the lab. Leaf iridoid glycosides and caterpillar iridoid glycosides were quantified, and we examined associations between sequestered caterpillar iridoid glycosides and C. congregata performance. Caterpillar iridoid glycosides were not associated with C. congregata field parasitism or number of offspring produced. Although wasp survival was over 90% in all populations, there was a slight negative relationship between caterpillar iridoid glycosides and wasp survival. Iridoid glycosides were present in caterpillars at levels that are deterrent to a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate predators. Thus, our results support the alternative hypothesis that unpalatable, chemically defended hosts are "safe havens" for endoparasitoids. Future trials examining the importance of catalpol sequestration to potential natural enemies of C. congregata and C. catalpae are necessary to strengthen this conclusion.

  3. DELLA proteins modulate Arabidopsis defences induced in response to caterpillar herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Bede, Jacqueline C.

    2014-01-01

    Upon insect herbivory, many plant species change the direction of metabolic flux from growth into defence. Two key pathways modulating these processes are the gibberellin (GA)/DELLA pathway and the jasmonate pathway. In this study, the effect of caterpillar herbivory on plant-induced responses was compared between wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and quad-della mutants that have constitutively elevated GA responses. The labial saliva (LS) of caterpillars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is known to influence induced plant defence responses. To determine the role of this herbivore cue in determining metabolic shifts, plants were subject to herbivory by caterpillars with intact or impaired LS secretions. In both wild-type and quad-della plants, a jasmonate burst is an early response to caterpillar herbivory. Negative growth regulator DELLA proteins are required for the LS-mediated suppression of hormone levels. Jasmonate-dependent marker genes are induced in response to herbivory independently of LS, with the exception of AtPDF1.2 that showed LS-dependent expression in the quad-della mutant. Early expression of the salicylic acid (SA)-marker gene, AtPR1, was not affected by herbivory which also reflected SA hormone levels; however, this gene showed LS-dependent expression in the quad-della mutant. DELLA proteins may positively regulate glucosinolate levels and suppress laccase-like multicopper oxidase activity in response to herbivory. The present results show a link between DELLA proteins and early, induced plant defences in response to insect herbivory; in particular, these proteins are necessary for caterpillar LS-associated attenuation of defence hormones. PMID:24399173

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis in caterpillars and associated materials collected from protected tropical forests in northwestern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, César; Sittenfeld, Ana; Janzen, Daniel H; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) synthesizes crystalline inclusions that are toxic to caterpillars (Lepidoptera) and other orders of invertebrates. Materials associated with 37 caterpillars from 16 species, collected while feeding on 15 different species of host plants in dry, cloud and rain forests located in the Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica, were examined for the presence of Bt. From a total of 101 derived samples, 25 Bt isolates were cultured: 56% from host plant leaves, 8% from caterpillar guts and 36% from caterpillar fecal pellets. Bt was isolated from at least one sample in 38% of the systems constituted by the food plant, gut and fecal pellets corresponding to a single caterpillar. Four different morphologies of crystalline inclusions were observed, with bipyramidal and irregular crystal morphologies being the most prevalent.

  5. [Cornea imagery and keratitis caused by processionary caterpillar hairs].

    PubMed

    Fournier, I; Saleh, M; Beynat, J; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bourcier, T; Speeg-Schatz, C

    2011-03-01

    With their ability to migrate into the cornea and release toxins, caterpillar hairs can induce different clinical presentations such as conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, uveitis, and less frequently vitreoretinal inflammation (hyalitis, papillitis, macular edema). We report a case that occurred in Alsace (France) in a 13-years-old boy presenting with keratitis caused by caterpillar hairs. We localized them in the cornea, for the first time, using confocal microscopy and anterior segment spectral optical coherence tomography. Confocal microscopy and spectral optical coherence tomography can be useful for diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Manduca rustica (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) damage on olive (Olea europaea;Lamiales:Oleaceae)trees in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rustic sphinx, Manduca rustica has been identified as an occasional pest for olive, Olea europaea, in Florida. This pest’s distribution spans Florida’s olive growing region from the northern panhandle as far south as Polk County....

  7. Chemical trail marking and following by caterpillars ofMalacosoma neustria.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S C

    1988-03-01

    Chemical trail marking and following by gregarious caterpillars,Malacosoma neustria L. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), was studied in the laboratory. As in other species ofMalacosoma, larvae deposit a trail pheromone from a sternal secretory site when searching the host for food. Larvae in the vanguard of foraging columns establish chemical trails as they explore new territory. Marking behavior diminishes as successive unfed foragers utilize the trail. These exploratory trails are subsequently overmarked by fed larvae returning to the tent. Other foragers follow the trails of fed larvae in preference to trails of unfed larvae. Thus, like the eastern tent caterpillar,M. americanum, successful foragers ofM. neustria recruit colony-mates to feeding sites. The chemical activity of both recruitment and exploratory trails degrades slowly, suggesting that the trail pheromone ofM. neustria is a nonvolatile substance. Caterpillars ofM. neustria readily follow the nonvolatile trail pheromone which has been identified fromM. americanum, 5β-cholestane-3,24-dione.

  8. Body odors of parasitized caterpillars give away the presence of parasitoid larvae to their primary hyperparasitoid enemies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Lhie, Boris; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Dicke, Marcel; Poelman, Erik H

    2014-09-01

    Foraging success of parasitoids depends on the utilization of reliable information on the presence of their often, inconspicuous hosts. These parasitic wasps use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that provide reliable cues on host presence. However, host searching of hyperparasitoids, a group of parasitoids that parasitize the larvae and pupae of other parasitoids, is more constrained. Their hosts do not feed on plants, and often are even concealed inside the body of the herbivore host. Hyperparasitoids recently have been found to use HIPVs of plants damaged by herbivore hosts in which the parasitoid larvae develop. However, hyperparasitoids that search for these parasitoid larvae may be confronted with healthy and parasitized caterpillars on the same plant, further complicating their host location. In this study, we addressed whether the primary hyperparasitoid Baryscapus galactopus uses caterpillar body odors to discriminate between unparasitized herbivores and herbivores carrying larvae of parasitoid hosts. We show that the hyperparasitoids made faster first contact and spent a longer mounting time with parasitized caterpillars. Moreover, although the three parasitoid hosts conferred different fitness values for the development of B. galactopus, the hyperparasitoids showed similar behavioral responses to caterpillar hosts carrying different primary parasitoid hosts. In addition, a two-chamber olfactometer assay revealed that volatiles emitted by parasitized caterpillars were more attractive to the hyperparasitoids than those emitted by unparasitized caterpillars. Analysis of volatiles revealed that body odors of parasitized caterpillars differ from unparasitized caterpillars, allowing the hyperparasitoids to detect their parasitoid host.

  9. Population dynamics of caterpillars on three cover crops before sowing cotton in Mato Grosso (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silvie, P J; Menzel, C A; Mello, A; Coelho, A G

    2010-01-01

    Direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems under a preliminary cover crop such as millet are common in some areas of Brazil. Lepidopteran pests that damage cotton, soybean and maize crops can proliferate on cover crops, so preventive chemical treatments are necessary. Very little data is available on these pests on cover crops. This paper presents the dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda, S. eridania, Mocis latipes and Diatraea saccharalis caterpillars monitored at Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso state (Brazil) during the of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 cropping seasons on four cover crops, i.e. finger millet (Eleusine coracana), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis). The pests were visually counted on plants within a 1 m2 transect (wooden frame). Caterpillars were reared to facilitate identification of collected species and parasitoids. Many S. frugiperda caterpillars were observed on millet in 2005, with a maximum of 37 caterpillars/m2. On sorghum, we found 30 caterpillars/m2, or 0.83 caterpillars/plant. The Diatraea borer attacked sorghum later than the other pests. M. latipes was also observed on millet. The millet cover crop had to be dried for at least 1 month before direct drilling the main cotton crop in order to impede S. frugiperda infestations on cotton plantlets, thus avoiding the need for substantial resowing. The comparative methodological aspects are discussed.

  10. Collectively Facilitated Behavior of the Neonate Caterpillars of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Young, Ryan; Meyer, Katelyn; Fabozzi, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral biology of the first instar larva of Cactoblastis cactorum was studied from the time of eclosion until the colony penetrated and initiated excavation of the host plant. Hatching from an egg stick was asynchronous, requiring 20 h for the entire cohort to eclose at 50%–70% RH and significantly longer at a lower range of RHs. On eclosion, neonates aggregated in an arena at the base of their egg stick and did not attempt to excavate the cladode until an average of 25 caterpillars had collected, approximately 15 h after the onset of egg hatch. Typically only a single entrance hole was formed, limiting the active process of excavating to one or a few individuals at-a-time until the host was fully penetrated and enlarged internally. Olfactometer tests showed that the neonates are strongly attracted to volatile chemicals released when caterpillars chewed into the cladode, accounting for the strong fidelity of the whole cohort to the initial site of penetration. In one instance, the caterpillars were observed to deal with an explosive release of mucilage by imbibing the liquid until the flooded zone was drained and the caterpillars could reenter the plant through the original entrance hole. Once inside the cladode, marked individuals adopted a regular cycle of defecating at the surface at a mean interval of approximately 10 min when followed for 35 successive cycles. Blanket spraying cladodes with a mandibular gland extract prior to hatching led to the independent dispersal of neonates and a failure to form an arena. When the cladode was impenetrable at the site of eclosion, the active cohort of unfed neonates set off together in search of a new site, marking and following a persistent trail that allowed late-to-eclose caterpillars to join their departed siblings. The adaptive significance of these observations is discussed in the context of the life history of the caterpillar. PMID:27809231

  11. Caterpillar locomotion-inspired valveless pneumatic micropump using a single teardrop-shaped elastomeric membrane.

    PubMed

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P; Seo, Young Ho

    2014-07-07

    This paper presents a microfluidic pump operated by an asymmetrically deformed membrane, which was inspired by caterpillar locomotion. Almost all mechanical micropumps consist of two major components of fluid halting and fluid pushing parts, whereas the proposed caterpillar locomotion-inspired micropump has only a single, bilaterally symmetric membrane-like teardrop shape. A teardrop-shaped elastomeric membrane was asymmetrically deformed and then consecutively touched down to the bottom of the chamber in response to pneumatic pressure, thus achieving fluid pushing. Consecutive touchdown motions of the teardrop-shaped membrane mimicked the propagation of a caterpillar's hump during its locomotory gait. The initial touchdown motion of the teardrop-shaped membrane at the centroid worked as a valve that blocked the inlet channel, and then, the consecutive touchdown motions pushed fluid in the chamber toward the tail of the chamber connected to the outlet channel. The propagation of the touchdown motion of the teardrop-shaped membrane was investigated using computational analysis as well as experimental studies. This caterpillar locomotion-inspired micropump composed of only a single membrane can provide new opportunities for simple integration of microfluidic systems.

  12. Great tits (Parus major) reduce caterpillar damage in commercial apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Mols, Christel M M; Visser, Marcel E

    2007-02-07

    Alternative ways to control caterpillar pests and reduce the use of pesticides in apple orchards are in the interest of the environment, farmers and the public. Great tits have already been shown to reduce damage under high caterpillar density when breeding in nest boxes in an experimental apple orchard. We tested whether this reduction also occurs under practical conditions of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), as well as Organic Farming (OF), by setting up an area with nest boxes while leaving a comparable area as a control within 12 commercial orchards. We showed that in IPM orchards, but not in OF orchards, in the areas with breeding great tits, apples had 50% of the caterpillar damage of the control areas. Offering nest boxes to attract insectivorous passerines in orchards can thus lead to more limited pesticide use, thereby adding to the natural biological diversity in an agricultural landscape, while also being economically profitable to the fruit growers.

  13. "The caterpillar": a novel reading passage for assessment of motor speech disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rupal; Connaghan, Kathryn; Franco, Diana; Edsall, Erika; Forgit, Dory; Olsen, Laura; Ramage, Lianna; Tyler, Emily; Russell, Scott

    2013-02-01

    A review of the salient characteristics of motor speech disorders and common assessment protocols revealed the need for a novel reading passage tailored specifically to differentiate between and among the dysarthrias (DYSs) and apraxia of speech (AOS). "The Caterpillar" passage was designed to provide a contemporary, easily read, contextual speech sample with specific tasks (e.g., prosodic contrasts, words of increasing length and complexity) targeted to inform the assessment of motor speech disorders. Twenty-two adults, 15 with DYS or AOS and 7 healthy controls (HC), were recorded reading "The Caterpillar" passage to demonstrate its utility in examining motor speech performance. Analysis of performance across a subset of segmental and prosodic variables illustrated that "The Caterpillar" passage showed promise for extracting individual profiles of impairment that could augment current assessment protocols and inform treatment planning in motor speech disorders.

  14. Caterpillar-induced plant volatiles attract conspecific adults in nature

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M.; Knight, Alan L.; Byers, John A.; Judd, Gary J. R.; Suckling, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants release volatiles in response to caterpillar feeding that attract natural enemies of the herbivores, a tri-trophic interaction which has been considered an indirect plant defence against herbivores. The caterpillar-induced plant volatiles have been reported to repel or attract conspecific adult herbivores. To date however, no volatile signals that either repel or attract conspecific adults under field conditions have been chemically identified. Apple seedlings uniquely released seven compounds including acetic acid, acetic anhydride, benzyl alcohol, benzyl nitrile, indole, 2-phenylethanol, and (E)-nerolidol only when infested by larvae of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana. In field tests in New Zealand, a blend of two of these, benzyl nitrile and acetic acid, attracted a large number of conspecific male and female adult moths. In North America, male and female adults of the tortricid, oblique-banded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, were most attracted to a blend of 2-phenylethanol and acetic acid. Both sexes of the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana, were highly attracted to a blend of benzyl nitrile and acetic acid. This study provides the first identification of caterpillar-induced plant volatiles that attract conspecific adult herbivores under natural conditions, challenging the expectation of herbivore avoidance of these induced volatiles. PMID:27892474

  15. Feeding-induced rearrangement of green leaf volatiles reduces moth oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Allmann, Silke; Späthe, Anna; Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Kallenbach, Mario; Reinecke, Andreas; Sachse, Silke; Baldwin, Ian T; Hansson, Bill S

    2013-01-01

    The ability to decrypt volatile plant signals is essential if herbivorous insects are to optimize their choice of host plants for their offspring. Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) constitute a widespread group of defensive plant volatiles that convey a herbivory-specific message via their isomeric composition: feeding of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta converts (Z)-3- to (E)-2-GLVs thereby attracting predatory insects. Here we show that this isomer-coded message is monitored by ovipositing M. sexta females. We detected the isomeric shift in the host plant Datura wrightii and performed functional imaging in the primary olfactory center of M. sexta females with GLV structural isomers. We identified two isomer-specific regions responding to either (Z)-3- or (E)-2-hexenyl acetate. Field experiments demonstrated that ovipositing Manduca moths preferred (Z)-3-perfumed D. wrightii over (E)-2-perfumed plants. These results show that (E)-2-GLVs and/or specific (Z)-3/(E)-2-ratios provide information regarding host plant attack by conspecifics that ovipositing hawkmoths use for host plant selection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00421.001 PMID:23682312

  16. Terpenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis attacked by caterpillars and aphids: effects of aphid density on the attraction of a caterpillar parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Anneke; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Cappai, Francesco; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2017-12-01

    One of the responses of plants to insect attack is the production of volatile organic compounds that mediate indirect defence of plants by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivores. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) include terpenoids that play key roles in the attraction of natural enemies. Crosstalk between phytohormonal signalling pathways is well known to affect the regulation of plant defences, including the emission of HIPVs. Thus, simultaneous feeding on the same plant by caterpillars and aphids, can affect the attraction of parasitoids by the plant compared to single insect attack. The role of aphid density in the regulation of HIPV emission by plants under dual attack has not been studied previously. Here, we investigated the attraction of Diadegma semiclausum, a parasitoid of the Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, to volatiles emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana plants, simultaneously attacked by host caterpillars, and by the non-host aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Our study shows that the effect of aphid infestation on parasitoid attraction is influenced by the density of the aphids. Biosynthesis and emission of (E,E)-α-farnesene could be linked to the observed preference of D. semiclausum parasitoids for the HIPV blend emitted by plants dually infested by caterpillars and aphids at a high density compared to dually infested plants with a low aphid density. Parasitoids such as D. semiclausum are important enemies of herbivorous insects and a better understanding of how plants express indirect defence mechanisms in response to multiple insect attack will provide important knowledge on plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions under multiple stress conditions.

  17. Parasitism rate, parasitoid community composition and host specificity on exposed and semi-concealed caterpillars from a tropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Hrcek, Jan; Miller, Scott E; Whitfield, James B; Shima, Hiroshi; Novotny, Vojtech

    2013-10-01

    The processes maintaining the enormous diversity of herbivore-parasitoid food webs depend on parasitism rate and parasitoid host specificity. The two parameters have to be evaluated in concert to make conclusions about the importance of parasitoids as natural enemies and guide biological control. We document parasitism rate and host specificity in a highly diverse caterpillar-parasitoid food web encompassing 266 species of lepidopteran hosts and 172 species of hymenopteran or dipteran parasitoids from a lowland tropical forest in Papua New Guinea. We found that semi-concealed hosts (leaf rollers and leaf tiers) represented 84% of all caterpillars, suffered a higher parasitism rate than exposed caterpillars (12 vs. 5%) and their parasitoids were also more host specific. Semi-concealed hosts may therefore be generally more amenable to biological control by parasitoids than exposed ones. Parasitoid host specificity was highest in Braconidae, lower in Diptera: Tachinidae, and, unexpectedly, the lowest in Ichneumonidae. This result challenges the long-standing view of low host specificity in caterpillar-attacking Tachinidae and suggests higher suitability of Braconidae and lower suitability of Ichneumonidae for biological control of caterpillars. Semi-concealed hosts and their parasitoids are the largest, yet understudied component of caterpillar-parasitoid food webs. However, they still remain much closer in parasitism patterns to exposed hosts than to what literature reports on fully concealed leaf miners. Specifically, semi-concealed hosts keep an equally low share of idiobionts (2%) as exposed caterpillars.

  18. Ant-caterpillar antagonism at the community level: interhabitat variation of tritrophic interactions in a neotropical savanna.

    PubMed

    Sendoya, Sebastián F; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2015-03-01

    Ant foraging on foliage can substantially affect how phytophagous insects use host plants and represents a high predation risk for caterpillars, which are important folivores. Ant-plant-herbivore interactions are especially pervasive in cerrado savanna due to continuous ant visitation to liquid food sources on foliage (extrafloral nectaries, insect honeydew). While searching for liquid rewards on plants, aggressive ants frequently attack or kill insect herbivores, decreasing their numbers. Because ants vary in diet and aggressiveness, their effect on herbivores also varies. Additionally, the differential occurrence of ant attractants (plant and insect exudates) on foliage produces variable levels of ant foraging within local floras and among localities. Here, we investigate how variation of ant communities and of traits among host plant species (presence or absence of ant attractants) can change the effect of carnivores (predatory ants) on herbivore communities (caterpillars) in a cerrado savanna landscape. We sampled caterpillars and foliage-foraging ants in four cerrado localities (70-460 km apart). We found that: (i) caterpillar infestation was negatively related with ant visitation to plants; (ii) this relationship depended on local ant abundance and species composition, and on local preference by ants for plants with liquid attractants; (iii) this was not related to local plant richness or plant size; (iv) the relationship between the presence of ant attractants and caterpillar abundance varied among sites from negative to neutral; and (v) caterpillars feeding on plants with ant attractants are more resistant to ant predation than those feeding on plants lacking attractants. Liquid food on foliage mediates host plant quality for lepidopterans by promoting generalized ant-caterpillar antagonism. Our study in cerrado shows that the negative effects of generalist predatory ants on herbivores are detectable at a community level, affecting patterns of abundance and

  19. Chemoorientation of eastern tent caterpillars to trail pheromone, 5β-Cholestane-3,24-dione.

    PubMed

    Peterson, S C; Fitzgerald, T D

    1991-10-01

    Chemoorientation behavior of the larval eastern tent caterpillar,Malacosoma americanum, was studied using the synthetic trail pheromone 5β-cholestane-3,24-dione. Divergent arms of Y mazes were treated with various concentration ratios of the pheromone. At application rates of 10(-10)-10(-9) g/mm of trail, larvae showed a significant preference for stronger trails when concentration ratios differed by as little as 4:1. At application rates of 10(-8) and greater there was no significant difference in trail choice even when trails differed in strength by a full order of magnitude. Other studies showed that the caterpillars abandon the pattern of choosing stronger over weaker trails when they repeatedly fail to find food at the end of a stronger trail. Experiments in which larvae were required to choose trails separated by a gap demonstrated orientation by chemoklinotaxis. Caterpillars that had one of the maxillary palps ablated looped in the direction of their intact chemo-receptor when placed on filter paper treated uniformly with pheromone, indicating that they may also orient by tropotaxis. The relevance of these findings to the tent caterpillar communication system is discussed.

  20. Shelter-building behavior and natural history of two pyralid caterpillars feeding on Piper stipulaceum

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae) . A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  1. Forest Tent Caterpillar in the Upper Midwest

    Treesearch

    Steven Katovich; Jim Hanson

    2001-01-01

    The forest tent caterpillar (FTC), Malacosoma disstria, is a native species found throughout hardwood forests of North America. It feeds on the leaves of many trees, but in Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin, outbreaks occur in aspen, birch, basswood and oak stands. Sugar maple is a favorite host in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, but is not highly preferred in other...

  2. Defensive responses by a social caterpillar are tailored to different predators and change with larval instar and group size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Melanie; Despland, Emma

    2011-05-01

    Gregariousness in animals is widely accepted as a behavioral adaptation for protection from predation. However, predation risk and the effectiveness of a prey's defense can be a function of several other factors, including predator species and prey size or age. The objective of this study was to determine if the gregarious habit of Malacosoma disstria caterpillars is advantageous against invertebrate natural enemies, and whether it is through dilution or cooperative defenses. We also examined the effects of larval growth and group size on the rate and success of attacks. Caterpillars of M. disstria responded with predator-specific behaviors, which led to increased survival. Evasive behaviors were used against stinkbugs, while thrashing by fourth instar caterpillars and holding on to the silk mat by second instar caterpillars was most efficient against spider attacks. Collective head flicking and biting by groups of both second and fourth instar caterpillars were observed when attacked by parasitoids. Increased larval size decreased the average number of attacks by spiders but increased the number of attacks by both stinkbugs and parasitoids. However, increased body size decreased the success rate of attacks by all three natural enemies and increased handling time for both predators. Larger group sizes did not influence the number of attacks from predators but increased the number of attacks and the number of successful attacks from parasitoids. In all cases, individual risk was lower in larger groups. Caterpillars showed collective defenses against parasitoids but not against the walking predators. These results show that caterpillars use different tactics against different natural enemies. Overall, these tactics are both more diverse and more effective in fourth instar than in second instar caterpillars, confirming that growth reduces predation risk. We also show that grouping benefits caterpillars through dilution of risk, and, in the case of parasitoids, through

  3. Site of secretion of the trail marker of the eastern tent caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Edgerly, J S

    1982-01-01

    A new site of secretion of a chemical trail marker was found on the sternum at the tip of the last abdominal segment of the larva of the eastern tent caterpillarMalacosoma americanum. Larvae marked from this site by drawing their sterna along the substrate when they extended existing trails in search of food and again when they established recruitment trails to food-finds. Differences in the quantity or quality of the marker deposited by exploring and recruiting caterpillars may account for the greater activity of the recruitment trails.

  4. Effects of developmental change in body size on ectotherm body temperature and behavioral thermoregulation: caterpillars in a heat-stressed environment.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Matthew E; Papaj, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Ectotherms increase in size dramatically during development, and this growth should have substantial effects on their body temperature and ability to thermoregulate. To better understand how this change in size affects temperature, we examined the direct effects of body size on body temperature in Battus philenor caterpillars, and also how body size affects both the expression and effectiveness of thermal refuge-seeking, a thermoregulatory behavior. Field studies of both live caterpillars and physical operative temperature models indicated that caterpillar body temperature increases with body size. The operative temperature models also showed that thermal refuges have a greater cooling effect for larger caterpillars, while a laboratory study found that larger caterpillars seek refuges at a lower temperature. Although the details may vary, similar connections between developmental growth, temperature, and thermoregulation should be common among ectotherms and greatly affect both their development and thermal ecology.

  5. Lead residues in eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) and their host plant (Prunus serotina) close to a major highway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Moore, J.

    1980-01-01

    Eastern tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americanum (F.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae and leaves of their host plant, black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., were collected in May, 1978, at various distances from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Prince George's Co., MD, and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Caterpillars collected within 10 m of the parkway contained 7.1-7.4 ppm lead (dry weight). Caterpillars collected at greater distances from the parkway and from a control area had lead concentrations ca. half as high (2.6-5.3 ppm). Lead concentrations in caterpillars averaged 76% as high as those in leaves and were much lower than concentrations that have been reported in some roadside soil and litter invertebrates

  6. EXPRESSION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RECOMBINANT JUVENILE HORMONE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE (JHEH) FROM MANDUCA SEXTA. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The cDNA of the microsomal Juvenile Hormone Epoxide Hydrolase (JHEH) from Manduca sexta was expressed in vitro in the baculovirus system. In insect cell culture, the recombinant enzyme (Ms-JHEH) was produced at a high level (100 fold over background EH catalytic activit...

  7. Neuroglian is expressed on cells destined to form the prothoracic glands of Manduca embryos as they segregate from surrounding cells and rearrange during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, C L; Lampe, D J; Robertson, H M; Nardi, J B

    1997-01-01

    A cell surface protein (3B11) is differentially expressed in the embryonic labial segment of Manduca as two circular monolayers of epithelial cells invaginate and segregate from surrounding epithelial cells. The cells that invaginate and preferentially express 3B11 represent the presumptive prothoracic glands. These cells continue to express protein 3B11 as they rearrange to form first a three-dimensional aggregate and later anastomosing filaments of cells. In the differentiated prothoracic gland, expression of 3B11 is restricted to sites of cell-cell contact. Cloning and sequencing of the cDNA for protein 3B11 revealed that this protein is the Manduca counterpart of Drosophila neuroglian and mouse L1. These surface proteins are known to function as adhesion/recognition molecules during development. Manduca neuroglian shares 58 and 31% identity respectively with the Drosophila and mouse proteins and has a cytoplasmic domain of over 100 amino acids.

  8. Shelter-building behavior and natural history of two pyralid caterpillars feeding on Piper stipulaceum.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-03-15

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae) . A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  9. Microbial Insecticides Control Forest Tent Caterpillar in Southwestern Alabama

    Treesearch

    L. P. Abrahamson; J. D. Harper

    1973-01-01

    One aerial application of a commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel or Thuricide HPC) protected water tupelo from defoliation by forest tent caterpillars. Dipel appeared to be superior to Thuricide when both were applied at the same rates with a molasses sticker.

  10. Lead residues in eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) and their host plant (Prunus serotina) close to a major highway

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Beyer, W.N.; Moore, J.

    1980-02-01

    Eastern tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americanum (F.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), and leaves of their host plant, black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., were collected in May, 1978, at various distances from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Prince George's Co., MD, and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Caterpillars collected within 10 m of the parkway contained 7.1 to 7.4 ppM lead (dry weight). Caterpillars collected at greater distances from the parkway and from a control area had lead concentrations ca. half as high (2.6 to 5.3 ppM). Lead concentrations in caterpillars averaged 76% as high as those in leaves and were much lowermore » than concentrations that have been reported in some roadside soil and litter invertebrates.« less

  11. Fatty acid-amino acid conjugates diversification in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) have been found in Noctuid as well as Sphingid caterpillar oral secretions and especially volicitin [N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-Glutamine] and its biochemical precursor, N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine, are known elicitors of induced volatile emissions in corn plants...

  12. Harvest and trade of caterpillar mushroom (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and the implications for sustainable use in the Tibet Region of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    He, Jun

    2018-07-15

    Caterpillar mushroom (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) is a unique medicinal fungi which is only found in alpine grasslands in Himalayan mountain regions and the Tibetan Plateau. Known locally as Yartsa Gunbu, it has been widely used in Tibetan and Chinese Medicine for centuries. It is crucial to understand local commercial harvest and trade practices of caterpillar mushroom to support the sustainable management of this valuable resource. However, data derived from empirically grounded research is currently limited, particularly in China. The research aims to provide the most up-to-date insights into caterpillar mushroom harvest and trade in the main production area of the Tibet Region in Southwest China and to generate policy recommendations for sustainable use. The research was conducted in 2015-2016 in six Tibetan communities located in two counties in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest China. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from in-depth interviews with local households engaged in caterpillar mushroom harvesting (n = 157), local caterpillar mushroom traders (n = 14), and from focus groups discussions (n = 5) with regional caterpillar mushroom industry stakeholders. The research found large regional- and community-level differences in caterpillar mushroom harvest practices. The harvest practices of communities involved in the co-management of a Nature Reserve were more sustainable than those communities not involved in such a scheme, and this was due to the external support and training provided via the co-management scheme. Moreover, a customary tenure system was proving effective for avoiding competition over caterpillar mushroom collection. However, in both counties, narrow marketing channel and non-grading system in trade limits the possibility of improving the local benefits generated from the commercial harvest of caterpillar mushroom. Meanwhile, the local traders play an important bridging role in the value chain and

  13. SIFamide in the brain of the sphinx moth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Heuer, C M; Binzer, Marlene; Schachtner, J

    2012-01-01

    SIFamides form a group of highly conserved neuropeptides in insects, crustaceans, and chelicerates. Beyond their biochemical commonalities, the neuroanatomical distribution of SIFamide in the insect nervous system also shows a remarkable degree of conservation. Thus, expression of SIFamide has been found to be restricted to four neurons of the pars intercerebralis in different holometabolous species. By means of immunohistological stainings, we here show that in Manduca sexta, those four cells are complemented by additional immunoreactive cells located in the vicinity of the mushroom body calyx. Immunopositive processes form arborizations throughout the brain, innervating major neuropils like the antennal lobes, the central complex, and the optic neuropils.

  14. Hyperparasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Trigonalidae) reared from dry forest and rain forest caterpillars of Area de Conservacion, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five species of Trigonalidae, hyperparasites of Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) and Tachinidae (Diptera) that parasitize caterpillars (Lepidoptera), have been reared during the ongoing caterpillar inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), Guanacaste Province, northwestern Costa Rica: Lycogaste...

  15. Climbing robot. [caterpillar design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J. (Inventor); May, Edward L. (Inventor); Ecklund, Wayne D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A mobile robot for traversing any surface consisting of a number of interconnected segments, each interconnected segment having an upper 'U' frame member, a lower 'U' frame member, a compliant joint between the upper 'U' frame member and the lower 'U' frame member, a number of linear actuators between the two frame members acting to provide relative displacement between the frame members, a foot attached to the lower 'U' frame member for adherence of the segment to the surface, an inter-segment attachment attached to the upper 'U' frame member for interconnecting the segments, a power source connected to the linear actuator, and a computer/controller for independently controlling each linear actuator in each interconnected segment such that the mobile robot moves in a caterpillar like fashion.

  16. 21. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE DIRECTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. POWER ROOM INTERIOR, DETAIL OF CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO GENERAL ELECTRIC 15 KW DC GENERATOR (ON LEFT), 110 VOLTS, 136 AMPS, 1200 RPM. INSTALLED 1942. - Death Valley Ranch, Power House, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Binary floral lure attractive to velvetbean caterpillar adults (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in northern Florida, revealed that linalool was synergistic in attractiveness with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to the migratory moth velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner). This noctuid was the most common species collected from traps w...

  18. Impact of Climate Change on Potential Distribution of Chinese Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11–4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species. PMID:25180515

  19. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species.

  20. Premolis semirufa (Walker, 1856) Envenomation, Disease Affecting Rubber Tappers of the Amazon: Searching for Caterpillar-Bristles Toxic Components

    PubMed Central

    Villas-Boas, Isadora Maria; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute Maria; Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Assaf, Suely Lucia Muro Rais; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo A.; van den Berg, Carmen W.; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2012-01-01

    Background The caterpillar of the moth Premolis semirufa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), commonly named Pararama, is endemic of the Amazon basin. Accidental contact with these caterpillar bristles causes local symptoms such as intense heat, pain, edema and itching which last for three to seven days; however, after multiples contacts, it may induce joint-space narrowing and bone alteration, as well as degeneration of the articular cartilage and immobilization of the affected joints. Specific treatment for this disease does not exist, but corticosteroids are frequently administered. Despite of the public health hazard of Premolis semirufa caterpillar poisoning, little is known about the nature of the toxic components involved in the induction of the pathology. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have investigated the biological and immunochemical characteristics of the caterpillar's bristles components. Analysis of the bristles extract in in vitro assays revealed the presence of proteolytic and hyaluronidase activities but no phospholipase A2 activity. In vivo, it was observed that the bristles extract is not lethal but can induce an intense inflammatory process, characterized by the presence of neutrophils in the paw tissues of injected mice. Furthermore, the bristles components stimulated an intense and specific antibody response but autoantibodies such as anti-DNA or anti-collagen type II were not detected. Conclusion The results suggest that Premolis semirufa caterpillar bristles secretion contains a mixture of different enzymes that may act together in the generation and development of the clinical manifestations of the Pararama envenomation. Moreover, the high immunogenicity of the caterpillar bristles components, as shown by the generation of high antibody titers, may also contribute to the induction and establishment of the inflammatory disease. PMID:22389740

  1. Remodeling of the abdominal epithelial monolayer during the larva-pupa-adult transformation of Manduca.

    PubMed

    Nardi, James B; Bee, Charles Mark; Wallace, Catherine Lee

    2018-06-01

    During metamorphosis of insect epithelial monolayers, cells die, divide, and rearrange. In Drosophila undifferentiated diploid cells destined to form the adult cuticle of each abdominal segment segregate early in development from the surrounding polyploid larval epithelial cells of that segment as eight groups of diploid histoblast cells. The larval polyploid cells are programmed to die and be replaced by divisions and rearrangements of histoblast cells. By contrast, abdominal epithelial cells of Manduca larvae form a monolayer of cells representing different ploidy levels with no definitive segregation of diploid cells destined to form adult structures. These epithelial cells of mixed ploidy levels produce a thick smooth larval cuticle with sparsely distributed sensory bristles. Adult descendants of this larval monolayer produce a thinner cuticle with densely packed scale cells. The transition between these differentiated states of Manduca involves divisions of cells, changes in ploidy levels, and sorting of certain polyploid cells into circular rosette patches to minimize contacts of these polyploid cells with surrounding cells of equal or smaller size. Cells within the rosettes and some surrounding cells are destined to die and be replaced by remaining epithelial cells of uniform size and ploidy at pupa-adult apolysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brevicoryne brassicae aphids interfere with transcriptome responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to feeding by Plutella xylostella caterpillars in a density-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Anneke; Broekgaarden, Colette; Castellanos Uribe, Marcos; May, Sean; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Plants are commonly attacked by multiple herbivorous species. Yet, little is known about transcriptional patterns underlying plant responses to multiple insect attackers feeding simultaneously. Here, we assessed transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to simultaneous feeding by Plutella xylostella caterpillars and Brevicoryne brassicae aphids in comparison to plants infested by P. xylostella caterpillars alone, using microarray analysis. We particularly investigated how aphid feeding interferes with the transcriptomic response to P. xylostella caterpillars and whether this interference is dependent on aphid density and time since aphid attack. Various JA-responsive genes were up-regulated in response to feeding by P. xylostella caterpillars. The additional presence of aphids, both at low and high densities, clearly affected the transcriptional plant response to caterpillars. Interestingly, some important modulators of plant defense signalling, including WRKY transcription factor genes and ABA-dependent genes, were differentially induced in response to simultaneous aphid feeding at low or high density compared with responses to P. xylostella caterpillars feeding alone. Furthermore, aphids affected the P. xylostella-induced transcriptomic response in a density-dependent manner, which caused an acceleration in plant response against dual insect attack at high aphid density compared to dual insect attack at low aphid density. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that aphids influence the caterpillar-induced transcriptional response of A. thaliana in a density-dependent manner. It highlights the importance of addressing insect density to understand how plant responses to single attackers interfere with responses to other attackers and thus underlines the importance of the dynamics of transcriptional plant responses to multiple herbivory.

  3. Natural history of interaction between Meteorus sp. Haliday, 1835 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Sobczak, J F; Maia, D P; Moura, J C M S; Costa, V A; Vasconcellos-Neto, J

    2012-02-01

    Some parasitoids build a cocoon mass that hangs in the host body until the adults emergence, which is an advantage against attack by predators who troll the vegetation in search of prey. However, such behaviour is not effective against the hyperparasitoid attacks. This study reports the interaction between the caterpillar Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) parasitised by Meteorus sp. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) larvae and its hyperparasitoid Toxeumella albipes (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae). This is the first description of the attack and oviposition of T. albipes.

  4. Identification of trail pheromone of larva of eastern tent caterpillarMalacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Crump, D; Silverstein, R M; Williams, H J; Fitzgerald, T D

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that larvae of the eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosoma americanum F.) mark trails, leading from their tent to feeding sites on host trees, with a pheromone secreted from the posterior tip of the abdominal sternum. 5β-Cholestane-3,24-dione (1) has been identified as an active component of the trail. The larvae have a threshold sensitivity to the pheromone of 10(-11) g/mm of trail. Several related compounds elicit the trail-following response. Two other species of tent caterpillars also responded positively to the pheromone in preliminary laboratory tests.

  5. The Gastropod Menace: Slugs on Brassica Plants Affect Caterpillar Survival through Consumption and Interference with Parasitoid Attraction.

    PubMed

    Desurmont, Gaylord A; Zemanova, Miriam A; Turlings, Ted C J

    2016-03-01

    Terrestrial molluscs and insect herbivores play a major role as plant consumers in a number of ecosystems, but their direct and indirect interactions have hardly been explored. The omnivorous nature of slugs makes them potential disrupters of predator-prey relationships, as a direct threat to small insects and through indirect, plant-mediated effects. Here, we examined the effects of the presence of two species of slugs, Arion rufus (native) and A. vulgaris (invasive) on the survivorship of young Pieris brassicae caterpillars when feeding on Brassica rapa plants, and on plant attractiveness to the main natural enemy of P. brassicae, the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. In two separate predation experiments, caterpillar mortality was significantly higher on plants co-infested with A. rufus or A. vulgaris. Moreover, caterpillar mortality correlated positively with slug mass and leaf consumption by A. vulgaris. At the third trophic level, plants infested with slugs and plants co-infested with slugs and caterpillars were far less attractive to parasitoids than plants damaged by caterpillars only, independently of slug species. Chemical analyses confirmed that volatile emissions, which provide foraging cues for parasitoids, were strongly reduced in co-infested plants. Our study shows that the presence of slugs has the potential to affect insect populations, directly via consumptive effects, and indirectly via changes in plant volatiles that result in a reduced attraction of natural enemies. The fitness cost for P. brassicae imposed by increased mortality in presence of slugs may be counterbalanced by the benefit of escaping its parasitoids.

  6. Food Utilization (Energy-Flow) Investigations with Pieris Brassicae (Large White) Caterpillars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Derek H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for experiments in which caterpillars are used to investigate energy-flow relationships. Areas in which the experiments could be used include ecology, applied biology, and animal feeding. (DH)

  7. Impact of urbanization on abundance and phenology of caterpillars and consequences for breeding in an insectivorous bird.

    PubMed

    Seress, Gábor; Hammer, Tamás; Bókony, Veronika; Vincze, Ernő; Preiszner, Bálint; Pipoly, Ivett; Sinkovics, Csenge; Evans, Karl L; Liker, András

    2018-04-20

    Urbanization can have marked effects on plant and animal populations' phenology, population size, predator-prey interactions and reproductive success. These aspects are rarely studied simultaneously in a single system, and some are rarely investigated, e.g. how insect phenology responds to urban development. Here, we study a tri-trophic system of trees - phytophagous insects (caterpillars) - insectivorous birds (great tits) to assess how urbanization influences i) the phenology of each component of this system, ii) insect abundance and iii) avian reproductive success. We use data from two urban and two forest sites in Hungary, central Europe, collected over four consecutive years. Despite a trend of earlier leaf emergence in urban sites there is no evidence for an earlier peak in caterpillar abundance. Thus, contrary to the frequently stated prediction in the literature, the earlier breeding of urban bird populations is not associated with an earlier peak in caterpillar availability. Despite this the seasonal dynamics of caterpillar biomass exhibited striking differences between habitat types with a single clear peak in forests, and several much smaller peaks in urban sites. Caterpillar biomass was higher in forests than urban areas across the entire sampling period, and between 8.5 and 24 times higher during the first brood's chick-rearing period. This higher biomass was not associated with taller trees in forest sites, or with tree species identity, and occurred despite most of our focal trees being native to the study area. Urban great tits laid smaller clutches, experienced more frequent nestling mortality from starvation, reared fewer offspring to fledging age, and their fledglings had lower body mass. Our study strongly indicates that food limitation is responsible for lower avian reproductive success in cities, which is driven by reduced availability of the preferred nestling diet, i.e. caterpillars, rather than phenological shifts in the timing of peak food

  8. Parasitised caterpillars suffer reduced predation: potential implications for intra-guild predation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-bin; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-sheng; Li, Jian-yu; Wang, Cheng-xiang; Meng, Ruo-xue; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2017-01-01

    Intra-guild predation (IGP) is an important phenomenon structuring ecological communities and affects the success of biological control. Here we show that parasitism by the koinobiont wasp Cotesia vestalis is associated with behavioural changes in its larval host (diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella) that reduce risk of IGP. Compared with unparasitised caterpillars, parasitised P. xylostella moved less frequently to new feeding patches on plants and were less likely to fall from the plant. Wolf spiders killed significantly fewer parasitised larvae. Reflecting their reduced movement and capacity to select plant tissue of optimal quality, parasitised caterpillars fed at a lower rate and exhibited delayed development suggesting a trade-off between IGP avoidance and nutrient intake by the host. This change in behaviour to reduce risk may cascade to the first trophic level and help explain the stability of IGP systems. PMID:28230205

  9. Altered proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis during maturation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun-Zi; Zhang, Li-Juan; Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%-4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments during maturation. In conjunction with

  10. Altered Proteomic Polymorphisms in the Caterpillar Body and Stroma of Natural Cordyceps sinensis during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. Methods The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). Results: SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%–4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Conclusion Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments

  11. NASA’s Hubble Sees a Cosmic Caterpillar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-29

    This light-year-long knot of interstellar gas and dust resembles a caterpillar on its way to a feast. But the meat of the story is not only what this cosmic caterpillar eats for lunch, but also what's eating it. Harsh winds from extremely bright stars are blasting ultraviolet radiation at this "wanna-be" star and sculpting the gas and dust into its long shape. The culprits are 65 of the hottest, brightest known stars, classified as O-type stars, located 15 light-years away from the knot, towards the right edge of the image. These stars, along with 500 less bright, but still highly luminous B-type stars make up what is called the Cygnus OB2 association. Collectively, the association is thought to have a mass more than 30,000 times that of our sun. The caterpillar-shaped knot, called IRAS 20324+4057, is a protostar in a very early evolutionary stage. It is still in the process of collecting material from an envelope of gas surrounding it. However, that envelope is being eroded by the radiation from Cygnus OB2. Protostars in this region should eventually become young stars with final masses about one to ten times that of our sun, but if the eroding radiation from the nearby bright stars destroys the gas envelope before the protostars finish collecting mass, their final masses may be reduced. Spectroscopic observations of the central star within IRAS 20324+4057 show that it is still collecting material quite heavily from its outer envelope, hoping to bulk up in mass. Only time will tell if the formed star will be a "heavy-weight" or a "light-weight" with respect to its mass. This image of IRAS 20324+4057 is a composite of Hubble Advanced Camera for Surveys data taken in green and infrared light in 2006, and ground-based hydrogen data from the Isaac Newton Telescope in 2003. The object lies 4,500 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus. Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA

  12. 'Caterpillar right ventricle': unusual manifestation of a rare disease.

    PubMed

    Kalliath, Suneesh; Rajesh, Gopalan Nair

    2017-01-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with abdominal distension and pedal oedema for the past 10 years. He had history of right heart failure on several occasions in the past, and one of these admissions prompted referral to a cardiac specialist. On examination, he had markedly elevated jugular venous pressure with prominent 'y-descent', a tricuspid regurgitation murmur, gross ascites and pedal oedema. A full blood count, routine biochemical screen and serum bicarbonate levels were normal. Right ventricular angiogram revealed a 'caterpillar'-like aneurysm of the right ventricle (RV) apex (figure 1 arrow) with a dilated right ventricular outflow tract and significant tricuspid regurgitation with a dilated right atrium (see online supplementary video 1). Figure 1 A cine angiographic frame of the right ventricle in posteroanterior view, showing a 'caterpillar'-like right ventricle aneurysm (arrow). 10.1136/heartasia-2017-010957.supp3Supplementary file 3. On the basis of the clinical and right ventriculography features, what is the most likely diagnosis for this patient?Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)Right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis (RV-EMF) with an RV aneurysmCardiac sarcoidosisCongenital diverticulum of the right ventricle.

  13. A Reconfigurable Omnidirectional Soft Robot Based on Caterpillar Locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Lin, Yangqiao; Ji, Chen; Yang, Huayong

    2018-04-01

    A pneumatically powered, reconfigurable omnidirectional soft robot based on caterpillar locomotion is described. The robot is composed of nine modules arranged as a three by three matrix and the length of this matrix is 154 mm. The robot propagates a traveling wave inspired by caterpillar locomotion, and it has all three degrees of freedom on a plane (X, Y, and rotation). The speed of the robot is about 18.5 m/h (two body lengths per minute) and it can rotate at a speed of 1.63°/s. The modules have neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets embedded and can be easily replaced or combined into other configurations. Two different configurations are presented to demonstrate the possibilities of the modular structure: (1) by removing some modules, the omnidirectional robot can be reassembled into a form that can crawl in a pipe and (2) two omnidirectional robots can crawl close to each other and be assembled automatically into a bigger omnidirectional robot. Omnidirectional motion is important for soft robots to explore unstructured environments. The modular structure gives the soft robot the ability to cope with the challenges of different environments and tasks.

  14. Development of a stained cell nuclei counting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timilsina, Niranjan; Moffatt, Christopher; Okada, Kazunori

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a novel cell counting system which exploits the Fast Radial Symmetry Transformation (FRST) algorithm [1]. The driving force behind our system is a research on neurogenesis in the intact nervous system of Manduca Sexta or the Tobacco Hornworm, which was being studied to assess the impact of age, food and environment on neurogenesis. The varying thickness of the intact nervous system in this species often yields images with inhomogeneous background and inconsistencies such as varying illumination, variable contrast, and irregular cell size. For automated counting, such inhomogeneity and inconsistencies must be addressed, which no existing work has done successfully. Thus, our goal is to devise a new cell counting algorithm for the images with non-uniform background. Our solution adapts FRST: a computer vision algorithm which is designed to detect points of interest on circular regions such as human eyes. This algorithm enhances the occurrences of the stained-cell nuclei in 2D digital images and negates the problems caused by their inhomogeneity. Besides FRST, our algorithm employs standard image processing methods, such as mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. We have evaluated the developed cell counting system with fourteen digital images of Tobacco Hornworm's nervous system collected for this study with ground-truth cell counts by biology experts. Experimental results show that our system has a minimum error of 1.41% and mean error of 16.68% which is at least forty-four percent better than the algorithm without FRST.

  15. Hydrolyzable tannins as "quantitative defenses": limited impact against Lymantria dispar caterpillars on hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Jaros, Adam; Lee, Grace; Mozola, Cara; Weir, Quentin; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2009-04-01

    The high levels of tannins in many tree leaves are believed to cause decreased insect performance, but few controlled studies have been done. This study tested the hypothesis that higher foliar tannin levels produce higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals (from tannin oxidation) in caterpillar midguts, and that elevated levels of radicals are associated with increased oxidative stress in midgut tissues and decreased larval performance. The tannin-free leaves of hybrid poplar (Populus tremulaxP. alba) were treated with hydrolyzable tannins, producing concentrations of 0%, 7.5% or 15% dry weight, and fed to Lymantria dispar caterpillars. As expected, larvae that ingested control leaves contained no measurable semiquinone radicals in the midgut, those that ingested 7.5% hydrolyzable tannin contained low levels of semiquinone radicals, and those that ingested 15% tannin contained greatly increased levels of semiquinone radicals. Ingested hydrolyzable tannins were also partially hydrolyzed in the midgut. However, increased levels of semiquinone radicals in the midgut were not associated with oxidative stress in midgut tissues. Instead, it appears that tannin consumption was associated with increased metabolic costs, as measured by the decreased efficiency of conversion of digested matter to body mass (ECD). Decreased ECD, in turn, decreased the overall efficiency of conversion of ingested matter to body mass (ECI). Contrary to our hypothesis, L. dispar larvae were able to maintain similar growth rates across all tannin treatment levels, in part, because of compensatory feeding. We conclude that hydrolyzable tannins act as "quantitative defenses" in the sense that high levels appear to be necessary to increase levels of semiquinone radicals in the midguts of caterpillars. However, these putative resistance factors are not sufficient to decrease the performance of tannin-tolerant caterpillars such as L. dispar.

  16. A correlation between macronutrient balancing and insect host-plant range: evidence from the specialist caterpillar Spodoptera exempta (Walker).

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Pum; Raubenheimer, David; Behmer, Spencer T; Simpson, Stephen J

    2003-12-01

    In an earlier study, we showed that the ingestive responses of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis to foods imbalanced in their protein:carbohydrate content is similar to generalist locusts, but differs from that of specialist-feeding locusts. Here we further pursued the comparison by repeating the experiments using a closely related specialist caterpillar, Spodoptera exempta. First, caterpillars were allowed to self-compose a diet of preferred protein:carbohydrate balance by mixing between nutritionally complementary foods. Then, they were confined to one of five imbalanced foods, in which we measured the trade-off between over- and under-ingesting the two nutrients. On complementary foods, the caterpillars actively regulated their protein and carbohydrate intake. In the no-choice experiment, those fed excess-protein foods ingested small surpluses of protein compared with generalist feeders, thus showing a pattern of nutrient balancing similar to that observed in specialist locusts. Utilisation data indicated that ingested excesses and deficits were to some extent offset by differential utilisation. Evidence also showed that post-ingestive responses of the specialist S. exempta were less flexible than those observed in the generalist S. littoralis, a pattern which is again in accordance with comparisons of acridids differing in their host-plant range.

  17. DOE Light Truck Clean Diesel (LTCD) Program Final Caterpillar Public Report Light Truck Clean Diesel Program

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Eric Fluga

    The US Department of Energy and Caterpillar entered a Cooperative Agreement to develop compression ignition engine technology suitable for the light truck/SUV market. Caterpillar, in collaboration with a suitable commercialization partner, developed a new Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) engine technology to dramatically improve the emissions and performance of light truck engines. The overall program objective was to demonstrate engine prototypes by 2004, with an order of magnitude emission reduction while meeting challenging fuel consumption goals. Program emphasis was placed on developing and incorporating cutting edge technologies that could remove the current impediments to commercialization of CIDI power sources inmore » light truck applications. The major obstacle to commercialization is emissions regulations with secondary concerns of driveability and NVH (noise, vibration and harshness). The target emissions levels were 0.05 g/mile NOx and 0.01 g/mile PM to be compliant with the EPA Tier 2 fleet average requirements of 0.07 g/mile and the CARB LEV 2 of 0.05 g/mile for NOx, both have a PM requirement of 0.01 g/mile. The program team developed a combustion process that fundamentally shifted the classic NOx vs. PM behavior of CIDI engines. The NOx vs. PM shift was accomplished with a form of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). The HCCI concept centers on appropriate mixing of air and fuel in the compression process and controlling the inception and rate of combustion through various means such as variable valve timing, inlet charge temperature and pressure control. Caterpillar has adapted an existing Caterpillar design of a single injector that: (1) creates the appropriate fuel and air mixture for HCCI, (2) is capable of a more conventional injection to overcome the low power density problems of current HCCI implementations, (3) provides a mixed mode where both the HCCI and conventional combustion are functioning in the same

  18. Origin of the hungry caterpillar: Evolution of fasting in slug moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, J M; Weller, S J; Epstein, M E

    2016-01-01

    Studies of caterpillar defense strategy evolution typically focus on aposematic coloration, gregarious behavior, and/or chemical defense. In the slug moth family Limacodidae, the evolution of chemical defense is coupled to the life history trait of first instar feeding behaviors. In nettle caterpillars, the first instars fast and molt into a second instar that feeds. In contrast, gelatines and monkey slug larval forms feed in the first instar. This study focused on whether the evolution of fasting associated with the nettle morphology was a derived trait of single or multiple origins. Twenty-nine species of Limacodidae (including one Chrysopolominae) representing 27 genera and four outgroup species with known first and final instar morphologies and behaviors were included. Four out-group species representing Megalopygidae (1 sp), Dalceridae (1 sp) and Aididae (2 sp) were included. These were sequenced for three molecular markers for a total of 4073 bp, mitochondrial COI (∼1500 bp), 18S (∼1900 bp) and the D2 region of 28S (approximately 670 bp). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted. The resulting phylogeny and comparative analysis of feeding strategy revealed that the nettle caterpillar morphology and behavior of larval fasting may have a single origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid defense responses in maize leaves induced by Spodoptera exigua caterpillar feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insects such as beet armyworm caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua) cause extensive damage to maize (Zea mays) by consuming foliar tissue. Maize plants respond to insect attack by triggering defense mechanisms that involve massive changes in gene expression, biosynthesis of specialized metabolites and de...

  20. Flight motor modulation with speed in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Tyson L; Martínez-Blat, Jorge; Goodman, Mariah J

    2017-01-01

    The theoretical underpinnings for flight, including animal flight with flapping wings, predict a curvilinear U-shaped or J-shaped relationship between flight speed and the power required to maintain that speed. Experimental data have confirmed this relationship for a variety of bird and bat species but not insects, possibly due to differences in aerodynamics and physiology or experimental difficulties. Here we quantify modulation of the main flight motor muscles (the dorsolongitudinal and dorsoventral) via electromyography in hawkmoths (Manduca sexta) flying freely over a range of speeds in a wind tunnel and show that these insects exhibit a U-shaped speed-power relationship, with a minimum power speed of 2ms -1 , indicating that at least large flying insects achieve sufficiently high flight speeds that drag and power become limiting factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Invited review: the role of caterpillars in mare reproductive loss syndrome: a model for environmental causes of abortion.

    PubMed

    McDowell, K J; Webb, B A; Williams, N M; Donahue, J M; Newman, K E; Lindemann, M D; Horohov, D W

    2010-04-01

    A new abortigenic disease, now known as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), significantly affected the horse industry in the Ohio River Valley of the United States in late April and early May of 2001 and 2002. In 2001, approximately 25% of all pregnant mares aborted within several weeks (over 3,000 mares lost pregnancies), and abortion rates exceeded 60% on some farms. Mare reproductive loss syndrome struck hard and without warning, it was caused by something in the environment, it was not transmitted between animals, and it was not associated with any known abortigenic agent or disease. These experiments demonstrated that horses will inadvertently consume Eastern tent caterpillars (ETC) when the insects are present in the pasture or other feedstuffs, and MRLS-type abortions were induced in experimental animals (mares and pigs) by mixing ETC with the feed of the animals. Eastern tent caterpillars are hirsute (hairy) caterpillars, and the only part of the caterpillar that caused MRLS abortions was the cuticle. The experiments revealed that the setae (hairs) embed into the submucosa of the alimentary tract creating microgranulomatous lesions. It is hypothesized that the alimentary tract lesions allow bacteria from the alimentary tract of the mare, principally streptococci, actinobacilli, and to a lesser extent enterococci, to invade the circulatory system of the mare. The bacteria then establish infections in tissues where the immune surveillance of the mare is reduced, such as the fetus and placenta. Fetal and placental fluid bacterial infections lead to fetal death and abortion characteristic of MRLS. Inadvertent ingestion of ETC by pregnant mares causes MRLS. Currently the only known means to prevent MRLS is to avoid exposure of horses, particularly pregnant mares, to ETC and probably most hirsute caterpillars.

  2. Relationship between foliar chemistry and insect performance: the forest tent caterpillar

    Treesearch

    Francois Lorenzetti; Yves Mauffette; Eric Bauce

    1999-01-01

    Forest tent caterpillar (FTC) feeds on several species of deciduous trees (Stehr and Cook 1968), in northeastern North America, quaking aspen is the preferred host of this spring-feeding insect. FTC commonly defoliates several thousands of hectares of aspen stands each year in Quebec (Bordeleau 1990), although its secondary hosts seldom are attacked.

  3. Manduca Contactin Regulates Amyloid Precursor Protein-Dependent Neuronal Migration

    PubMed Central

    Ramaker, Jenna M.; Swanson, Tracy L.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) was originally identified as the source of β-amyloid peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it also has been implicated in the control of multiple aspects of neuronal motility. APP belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of transmembrane proteins that can interact with a variety of adapter and signaling molecules. Recently, we showed that both APP and its insect ortholog [APPL (APP-Like)] directly bind the heterotrimeric G-protein Goα, supporting the model that APP can function as an unconventional Goα-coupled receptor. We also adapted a well characterized assay of neuronal migration in the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to show that APPL–Goα signaling restricts ectopic growth within the developing nervous system, analogous to the role postulated for APP family proteins in controlling migration within the mammalian cortex. Using this assay, we have now identified Manduca Contactin (MsContactin) as an endogenous ligand for APPL, consistent with previous work showing that Contactins interact with APP family proteins in other systems. Using antisense-based knockdown protocols and fusion proteins targeting both proteins, we have shown that MsContactin is selectively expressed by glial cells that ensheath the migratory neurons (expressing APPL), and that MsContactin–APPL interactions normally prevent inappropriate migration and outgrowth. These results provide new evidence that Contactins can function as authentic ligands for APP family proteins that regulate APP-dependent responses in the developing nervous system. They also support the model that misregulated Contactin–APP interactions might provoke aberrant activation of Goα and its effectors, thereby contributing to the neurodegenerative sequelae that typify AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Members of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) family participate in many aspects of neuronal development, but the ligands that normally activate APP signaling have remained

  4. Embryonic integument and "molts" in Manduca sexta (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Ziese, Stefanie; Dorn, August

    2003-02-01

    In Manduca sexta the germ band is formed 12 h post-oviposition (p.o.) (=10% development completed) and is located above the yolk at the egg surface. The cells show a polar organization. They are engaged in the uptake and degradation of yolk globules, pinched off from the yolk cells. This process can be observed in the integumental cells during the first growth phase of the embryo that lasts until "katatrepsis," an embryonic movement that takes place at 40% development completed. At 37% development completed, the ectoderm deposits a thin membrane at its apical surface, the first embryonic membrane, which detaches immediately before katatrepsis. The second period of embryonic growth--from katatrepsis to 84 h p.o. (70% development completed)--starts with the deposition of a second embryonic membrane that is somewhat thicker than the first one and shows a trilaminar, cuticulin-like structure. Whereas the apical cell surface is largely smooth during the deposition of the first embryonic membrane, it forms microvilli during deposition of the second one. At the same time, uptake of formed yolk material ceases and the epidermal cells now contain clusters of mitochondria below the apical surface. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) increases in the perinuclear region. The second embryonic membrane detaches about 63 h p.o. At 69 h p.o., a new generation of microvilli forms and islands of a typical cuticulin layer indicate the onset of the deposition of the larval cuticle. The third growth phase is characterized by a steady increase in the embryo length, the deposition of the larval procuticle, and by cuticular tanning at about 100 h p.o. Beginning at that stage, electron-lucent vesicles aggregate below the epidermal surface and are apparently released below the larval cuticle. Manduca sexta is the first holometabolous insect in which the deposition of embryonic membranes and cuticles has been examined by electron microscopy. In correspondence with hemimetabolous insects, the

  5. "The Caterpillar": A Novel Reading Passage for Assessment of Motor Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Connaghan, Kathryn; Franco, Diana; Edsall, Erika; Forgit, Dory; Olsen, Laura; Ramage, Lianna; Tyler, Emily; Russell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A review of the salient characteristics of motor speech disorders and common assessment protocols revealed the need for a novel reading passage tailored specifically to differentiate between and among the dysarthrias (DYSs) and apraxia of speech (AOS). Method: "The Caterpillar" passage was designed to provide a contemporary, easily read,…

  6. A History of the Caterpillar Tractor Company's Use of Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veeder, Gerry A.

    Film historians have tended to overlook the industrial film even though it has been widely used as a sales tool since early in this century. The Caterpillar Tractor Company was one of the first to adopt this medium as a means of demonstrating what its machines could do in a variety of situations. While other types of films have been made by…

  7. The morphological characterization of the forewing of the Manduca sexta species for the application of biomimetic flapping wing micro air vehicles.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, R P; Palazotto, A N

    2012-12-01

    To properly model the structural dynamics of the forewing of the Manduca sexta species, it is critical that the material and structural properties of the biological specimen be understood. This paper presents the results of a morphological study that has been conducted to identify the material and structural properties of a sample of male and female Manduca sexta specimens. The average mass, area, shape, size and camber of the wing were evaluated using novel measurement techniques. Further emphasis is placed on studying the critical substructures of the wing: venation and membrane. The venation cross section is measured using detailed pathological techniques over the entire venation of the wing. The elastic modulus of the leading edge veins is experimentally determined using advanced non-contact structural dynamic techniques. The membrane elastic modulus is randomly sampled over the entire wing to determine global material properties for the membrane using nanoindentation. The data gathered from this morphological study form the basis for the replication of future finite element structural models and engineered biomimetic wings for use with flapping wing micro air vehicles.

  8. Arylphorin from Manduca sexta: carbohydrate structure and immunological studies.

    PubMed

    Ryan, R O; Anderson, D R; Grimes, W J; Law, J H

    1985-11-15

    The major hemolymph protein in the last larval stage of Manduca sexta is a hexameric glycoprotein, arylphorin (Mr = 450,000). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified arylphorin reveals the presence of two subunits, A1 and A2. Both subunits are glycosylated and have apparent Mr = 77,000 and 72,000, respectively. Pronase digestion of arylphorin yielded a single major glycopeptide. 250 MHz NMR spectroscopy of arylphorin glycopeptide revealed a Man9GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide structure similar to that observed in mammalian glycoproteins. Endoglycosidase-H treatment of arylphorin was employed to remove covalently linked carbohydrate residues. The carbohydrate removal lowered the apparent Mr of subunits A1 and A2 to 72,000 and 69,000, respectively, indicating that the difference in arylphorin subunit size is not due to levels of glycosylation. Immunoblotting experiments with anti-arylphorin antiserum and Bombyx mori storage proteins indicated cross reactivity with the corresponding arylphorin of this insect. Preparation of subunit A2 monospecific antibodies, followed by immunoblotting of arylphorin showed a close immunological relationship between subunits A1 and A2.

  9. Caterpillar cereal as a potential complementary feeding product for infants and young children: nutritional content and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Gado, Justin; Viera, Anthony J; Bentley, Margaret E; Engmann, Cyril; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is an important cause of growth stunting. To avoid micronutrient deficiency, the World Health Organization recommends complementary feeding with animal-source foods. However, animal-source foods are not readily available in many parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In such areas, caterpillars are a staple in adult diets and may be suitable for complementary feeding for infants and young children. We developed a cereal made from dried caterpillars and other locally available ingredients (ground corn, palm oil, sugar and salt), measured its macro- and micronutrient contents and evaluated for microbiologic contamination. Maternal and infant acceptability was evaluated among 20 mothers and their 8-10-month-old infants. Mothers were instructed in the preparation of the cereal and asked to evaluate the cereal in five domains using a Likert scale. Mothers fed their infants a 30-g portion daily for 1 week. Infant acceptability was based on cereal consumption and the occurrence of adverse events. The caterpillar cereal contained 132 kcal, 6.9-g protein, 3.8-mg iron and 3.8-mg zinc per 30 g and was free from microbiologic contamination. Mothers' median ratings for cereal characteristics were (5 = like very much): overall impression = 4, taste = 5, smell = 4, texture = 4, colour = 5, and consistency = 4. All infants consumed more than 75% of the daily portions, with five infants consuming 100%. No serious adverse events were reported. We conclude that a cereal made from locally available caterpillars has appropriate macro- and micronutrient contents for complementary feeding, and is acceptable to mothers and infants in the DRC. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Feeding on toxic prey. The praying mantis (Mantodea) as predator of poisonous butterfly and moth (Lepidoptera) caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich; Wunder, Cora; Pogoda, Werner; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-06-01

    Caterpillars of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, feed on milkweed plants, Asclepias spp. (Apocynaceae), and sequester their toxic cardenolides aimed at deterring predators. Nevertheless, Chinese praying mantids, Tenodera sinensis, consume these caterpillars after removing the midgut ("gutting") including its plant content. In the present study, monarch caterpillars raised on A. curassavica, and those of the death's-head hawkmoth, Acherontia atropos, raised on Atropa belladonna containing atropine, were fed to mantids, Hierodula membranacea, which removed the gut of both species discarding about 59% of cardenolides and more than 90% of atropine, respectively. The ingestion of these compounds produced no apparent ill effects in the mantids and both were excreted with faeces. On the other hand, when mantids were fed with larvae of two moth species, Amata mogadorensis and Brahmaea certia, raised on non-poisonous host plants, the mantids showed the same gutting behaviour, thereby discarding indigestible plant material. As polar compounds, e.g. cardenolides and atropine, are not absorbed from the mantids midgut and do not pass the gut membrane, this enables the mantids to feed on toxic prey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Partly transparent young legume pods: Do they mimic caterpillars for defense and simultaneously enable better photosynthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2015-01-01

    Being partly or fully transparent as a defense from predation is mostly known in various groups of aquatic animals and various terrestrial arthropods. Plants, being photosynthetic and having cell walls made of various polymers, cannot be wholly transparent. In spite of these inherent limitations, some succulent plant species of arid zones have partially transparent “windows” in order to perform photosynthesis in their below-ground leaves, as defense from herbivores as well as for protection from harsh environmental conditions. Similarly, transparent “windows” or even wholly transparent leaves are found in certain thick or thin, above-ground organs irrespective of aridity. The young pods of various wild annual Mediterranean legume species belonging to the genera Lathyrus, Pisum and Vicia are partly transparent and may therefore look like caterpillars when viewed with back illumination. I propose that this character serves 2 functions: (1) being a type of defensive caterpillar mimicry that may reduce their consumption by various herbivores in that very sensitive stage, and (2) simultaneously allowing better photosynthesis in the rapidly growing seeds and pods. Unlike animals that are transparent for either defensive or aggressive crypsis, in the case of young legume pods it allows them to visually mimic caterpillars for defense. PMID:26633565

  12. Genome Sequences of Three Cluster AU Arthrobacter Phages, Caterpillar, Nightmare, and Teacup

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Tamarah L.; Stowe, Emily; Pizzorno, Marie C.; Krukonis, Gregory; Harrison, Melinda; Garlena, Rebecca A.; Russell, Daniel A.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Caterpillar, Nightmare, and Teacup are cluster AU siphoviral phages isolated from enriched soil on Arthrobacter sp. strain ATCC 21022. These genomes are 58 kbp long with an average G+C content of 50%. Sequence analysis predicts 86 to 92 protein-coding genes, including a large number of small proteins with predicted transmembrane domains. PMID:29122860

  13. Function and evolutionary diversity of fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs)in Lepidopteran caterpillars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acid amino acid conjugates (FACs) in regurgitant of larval Spodoptera exigua1 were initially identified as plant volatile elicitors and research has been focused on this apparent ecological disadvantage rather than on possible benefit for the caterpillar itself. Recently, we demonstrated that...

  14. Detailed Characterization of Local Field Potential Oscillations and Their Relationship to Spike Timing in the Antennal Lobe of the Moth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Kevin C.; Galán, Roberto F.; Peters, Oakland J.; Staudacher, Erich M.

    2011-01-01

    The transient oscillatory model of odor identity encoding seeks to explain how odorants with spatially overlapped patterns of input into primary olfactory networks can be discriminated. This model provides several testable predictions about the distributed nature of network oscillations and how they control spike timing. To test these predictions, 16 channel electrode arrays were placed within the antennal lobe (AL) of the moth Manduca sexta. Unitary spiking and multi site local field potential (LFP) recordings were made during spontaneous activity and in response to repeated presentations of an odor panel. We quantified oscillatory frequency, cross correlations between LFP recording sites, and spike–LFP phase relationships. We show that odor-driven AL oscillations in Manduca are frequency modulating (FM) from ∼100 to 30 Hz; this was odorant and stimulus duration dependent. FM oscillatory responses were localized to one or two recording sites suggesting a localized (perhaps glomerular) not distributed source. LFP cross correlations further demonstrated that only a small (r < 0.05) distributed and oscillatory component was present. Cross spectral density analysis demonstrated the frequency of these weakly distributed oscillations was state dependent (spontaneous activity = 25–55 Hz; odor-driven = 55–85 Hz). Surprisingly, vector strength analysis indicated that unitary phase locking of spikes to the LFP was strongest during spontaneous activity and dropped significantly during responses. Application of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, significantly lowered the frequency content of odor-driven distributed oscillatory activity. Bicuculline significantly reduced spike phase locking generally, but the ubiquitous pattern of increased phase locking during spontaneous activity persisted. Collectively, these results indicate that oscillations perform poorly as a stimulus-mediated spike synchronizing mechanism for Manduca and hence are

  15. Discovery of a Manduca sexta Allatotropin Antagonist from a Manduca sexta Allatotropin Receptor Homology Model.

    PubMed

    Kai, Zhen-Peng; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Deng, Xi-Le; Yang, Xin-Ling; Chen, Shan-Shan

    2018-04-03

    Insect G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important roles in modulating biology, physiology and behavior. They have been identified as candidate targets for next-generation insecticides, yet these targets have been relatively poorly exploited for insect control. In this study, we present a pipeline of novel Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT) antagonist discovery with homology modeling, docking, molecular dynamics simulation and structure-activity relationship. A series of truncated and alanine-replacement analogs of Manse-AT were assayed for the stimulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis. The minimum sequence required to retain potent biological activity is the C -terminal amidated octapeptide Manse-AT (6-13). We identified three residues essential for bioactivity (Thr⁴, Arg6 and Phe⁸) by assaying alanine-replacement analogs of Manse-AT (6-13). Alanine replacement of other residues resulted in reduced potency but bioactivity was retained. The 3D structure of the receptor (Manse-ATR) was built and the binding pocket was identified. The binding affinities of all the analogs were estimated by calculating the free energy of binding. The calculated binding affinities corresponded to the biological activities of the analogs, which supporting our localization of the binding pocket. Then, based on the docking and molecular dynamics studies of Manse-AT (10-13), we described it can act as a potent Manse-AT antagonist. The antagonistic effect on JH biosynthesis of Manse-AT (10-13) validated our hypothesis. The IC 50 value of antagonist Manse-AT (10-13) is 0.9 nM. The structure-activity relationship of antagonist Manse-AT (10-13) was also studied for the further purpose of investigating theoretically the structure factors influencing activity. These data will be useful for the design of new Manse-AT agonist and antagonist as potential pest control agents.

  16. Tri-trophic movement of carotenoid pigments from host plant to the parasitoid of a caterpillar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect parasitoids normally produce white-colored eggs. Habrobracon gelechiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a gregarious ectoparasitoid of various caterpillars that lays yellow eggs when its larvae developed on leaf-fed Choristoneura rosaceana and Epiphyas postvittana (both Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ...

  17. Tree resistance to Lymantria dispar caterpillars: importance and limitations of foliar tannin composition.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Jaros, Adam; Lee, Grace; Mozola, Cara; Weir, Quentin; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2009-04-01

    The ability of foliar tannins to increase plant resistance to herbivores is potentially determined by the composition of the tannins; hydrolyzable tannins are much more active as prooxidants in the guts of caterpillars than are condensed tannins. By manipulating the tannin compositions of two contrasting tree species, this work examined: (1) whether increased levels of hydrolyzable tannins increase the resistance of red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a tree with low resistance that produces mainly condensed tannins, and (2) whether increased levels of condensed tannins decrease the resistance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), a tree with relatively high resistance that produces high levels of hydrolyzable tannins. As expected, when Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars ingested oak leaves coated with hydrolyzable tannins, levels of hydrolyzable tannin oxidation increased in their midgut contents. However, increased tannin oxidation had no significant impact on oxidative stress in the surrounding midgut tissues. Although growth efficiencies were decreased by hydrolyzable tannins, growth rates remained unchanged, suggesting that additional hydrolyzable tannins are not sufficient to increase the resistance of oak. In larvae on condensed tannin-coated maple, no antioxidant effects were observed in the midgut, and levels of tannin oxidation remained high. Consequently, neither oxidative stress in midgut tissues nor larval performance were significantly affected by high levels of condensed tannins. Post hoc comparisons of physiological mechanisms related to tree resistance revealed that maple produced not only higher levels of oxidative stress in the midgut lumen and midgut tissues of L. dispar, but also decreased protein utilization efficiency compared with oak. Our results suggest that high levels of hydrolyzable tannins are important for producing oxidative stress, but increased tree resistance to caterpillars may require additional factors, such as those that produce

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Alimentary Tract Development in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Ian J.; Goodman, Walter G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive 3D magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to investigate metamorphosis of the alimentary tract of Manduca sexta from the larval to the adult stage. The larval midgut contracts in volume immediately following cessation of feeding and then greatly enlarges during the late pharate pupal period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the foregut and hindgut of the pharate pupa undergo ecdysis considerably earlier than the external exoskeleton. Expansion of air sacs in the early pupa and development of flight muscles several days later appear to orient the midgut into its adult position in the abdomen. The crop, an adult auxiliary storage organ, begins development as a dorsal outgrowth of the foregut. This coincides with a reported increase in pupal ecdysteroid titers. An outgrowth of the hindgut, the rectal sac, appears several days later and continues to expand until it nearly fills the dorsal half of the abdominal cavity. This development correlates with a second rise in pupal ecdysteroid titers. In the pharate pupa, the presence of paramagnetic species renders the silk glands hyperintense. PMID:27280776

  19. Early pest detection in soy plantations from hyperspectral measurements: a case study for caterpillar detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailanián, Matías; Castiglioni, Enrique; Musé, Pablo; Fernández Flores, Germán.; Lema, Gabriel; Mastrángelo, Pedro; Almansa, Mónica; Fernández Liñares, Ignacio; Fernández Liñares, Germán.

    2015-10-01

    Soybean producers suffer from caterpillar damage in many areas of the world. Estimated average economic losses are annually 500 million USD in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Designing efficient pest control management using selective and targeted pesticide applications is extremely important both from economic and environmental perspectives. With that in mind, we conducted a research program during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 planting seasons in a 4,000 ha soybean farm, seeking to achieve early pest detection. Nowadays pest presence is evaluated using manual, labor-intensive counting methods based on sampling strategies which are time consuming and imprecise. The experiment was conducted as follows. Using manual counting methods as ground-truth, a spectrometer capturing reflectance from 400 to 1100 nm was used to measure the reflectance of soy plants. A first conclusion, resulting from measuring the spectral response at leaves level, showed that stress was a property of plants since different leaves with different levels of damage yielded the same spectral response. Then, to assess the applicability of unsupervised classification of plants as healthy, biotic-stressed or abiotic-stressed, feature extraction and selection from leaves spectral signatures, combined with a Supported Vector Machine classifier was designed. Optimization of SVM parameters using grid search with cross-validation, along with classification evaluation by ten-folds cross-validation showed a correct classification rate of 95%, consistently on both seasons. Controlled experiments using cages with different numbers of caterpillars--including caterpillar-free plants--were also conducted to evaluate consistency in trends of the spectral response as well as the extracted features.

  20. The Morphological Characterization of the Forewing of the Manduca sexta Species for the Application of Biomimetic Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    16.64 Figure 3. Venation map of Manduca sexta forewing [11]. 2.4. Venation Insect wings are formed from a complex makeup of polymer based chains, Chitin ...for coloration, but may subtly influence flow patterns and boundary layer structure over wings [4, 24]. There is significant understanding of chitin ...biological specimen to vary the bonding chains, assemblage of nanofibers and crystalline structure, the material properties of chitin can vary over a

  1. Insect Development in Altered Gravitational Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.

    1996-01-01

    When tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) larvae burrow underground (25-30 cm) to pupate, they reorient themselves to a relatively horizontal position indicating an ability to sense gravity. To evaluate their sensitivity to gravitational environment during metamorphosis, Manduca (pharate adults) were placed in a vertical (head-up) position. Distinct morphological changes, each one reflecting ensuing phases, were used to follow adult development. Five days after pupation, the vertical group showed accelerated (P less than 0.05) development and were nearly 4 phases ahead (P less than 0.0001) after 10 days. Differences in development in the vertical group were characterized further by increased (7-48%) hemolymph concentrations of 13 amino acids, but a decrease in cys and pro and no change in arg, his, met and val (trp, undetectable). Decreased (36%) turnover of injected H-3 - phenylalanine suggested slower utilization of amino acids contributed, at least partly, to the increased concentrations. Vertically-oriented Manduca also exhibited a greater (20 %, P less than 0.001) protein content in their flight muscles near the end of development. Analysis of hemolymph sugar levels showed a redistribution of sugars from the monosaccharide glucose to the disaccharide trehalose. Since injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone decreased (49%) turnover of H-3- phenylalanine in pharate adults and since ecdysteroids are known to increase flight muscle size and control adult development, these results are consistent with our measuring a greater (+80%, P less than 0.05) ecdysteroid titer in the vertically-oriented insects. These results suggest that gravity environment influences ecdysone output by the pharate adult. When we evaluated hemolymph flow in the head-up and control positions, we found that injected C-14-inulin was distributed somewhat more rapidly in the head-up group irrespective of the sight of injection (head or abdomen) likely because in the head-up position flow of the hemolymph is

  2. Clay Caterpillar Whodunit: A Customizable Method for Studying Predator-Prey Interactions in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rachel; Klemens, Jeffrey A.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Wood, Steve; Carlson, Jason A.; Stratford, Jeffrey A.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Predator-prey dynamics are an important concept in ecology, often serving as an introduction to the field of community ecology. However, these dynamics are difficult for students to observe directly. We describe a methodology that employs model caterpillars made of clay to estimate rates of predator attack on a prey species. This approach can be…

  3. The Lysozyme from Insect (Manduca sexta) is a Cold-Adapted Enzyme

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sotelo-Mundo,R.; Lopez-Zavala, A.; Garcia-Orozco, K.

    Enzymatic activity is dependent on temperature, although some proteins have evolved to retain activity at low temperatures at the expense of stability. Cold adapted enzymes are present in a variety of organisms and there is ample interest in their structure-function relationships. Lysozyme (E.C. 3.2.1.17) is one of the most studied enzymes due to its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria and is also a cold adapted protein. In this work the characterization of lysozyme from the insect Manduca sexta and its activity at low temperatures is presented. Both M. sexta lysozymes natural and recombinant showed a higher content of {alpha}-helixmore » secondary structure compared to that of hen egg white lysozyme and a higher specific enzymatic activity in the range of 5-30 {sup o}C. These results together with measured thermodynamic activation parameters support the designation of M. sexta lysozyme as a cold adapted enzyme. Therefore, the insect recombinant lysozyme is feasible as a model for structure-function studies for cold-adapted proteins.« less

  4. Trail following and recruitment: Response of eastern tent caterpillarMalacosoma americanum to 5β-cholestane-3,24-dione and 5β-cholestan-3-one.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D

    1993-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the relative effectiveness of 5β-cholestane-3,24-dione (diketone) and 5β-cholestan-3-one (monoketone) in eliciting trail following from eastern tent caterpillars,Malacosoma americanum. In Y maze tests, trails prepared from the monoketone were followed preferentially over diketone trails, even when the diketone trail was several orders of magnitude stronger. Under field conditions, colonies readily abandoned well-developed trail systems in favor of artificial trails that were established with the monoketone. Other tests in which the caterpillars selected trails prepared from the monoketone (but not the diketone) more often than their own recruitment trails indicate that the monoketone constitutes the chemical basis of recruitment communication in this insect. The study also shows that tent caterpillars are highly sensitive to small differences in the amount of monoketone in a trail and can distinguish between new and aged trails prepared from the compound.

  5. Polyamines Attenuate Ethylene-Mediated Defense Responses to Abrogate Resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Tomato1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nambeesan, Savithri; AbuQamar, Synan; Laluk, Kristin; Mattoo, Autar K.; Mickelbart, Michael V.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Handa, Avtar K.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines overexpressing yeast spermidine synthase (ySpdSyn), an enzyme involved in polyamine (PA) biosynthesis, were developed. These transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of spermidine (Spd) than the wild-type plants and were examined for responses to the fungal necrotrophs Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria solani, bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000, and larvae of the chewing insect tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). The Spd-accumulating transgenic tomato lines were more susceptible to B. cinerea than the wild-type plants; however, responses to A. solani, P. syringae, or M. sexta were similar to the wild-type plants. Exogenous application of ethylene precursors, S-adenosyl-Met and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, or PA biosynthesis inhibitors reversed the response of the transgenic plants to B. cinerea. The increased susceptibility of the ySpdSyn transgenic tomato to B. cinerea was associated with down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling. These data suggest that PA-mediated susceptibility to B. cinerea is linked to interference with the functions of ethylene in plant defense. PMID:22128140

  6. Immunochemical identification of insect hemocyte populations: monoclonal antibodies distinguish four major hemocyte types in manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Willott, E; Trenczek, T; Thrower, L W; Kanost, M R

    1994-12-01

    We have made 140 monoclonal antibodies to hemocytes (insect blood cells) from Manduca sexta. Four of these antibodies, when used in immunofluorescent microscopy of fixed hemocytes, distinguish the four main morphologically distinct hemocyte types. Plasmatocytes, granular cells, and oenocytoids are each recognized by a unique antibody specific to that type; spherulocytes are recognized by an antibody that also binds to plasmatocytes. When used in flow cytometry with nonfixed hemocytes, three of the four antibodies bind their respective cells; the oenocytoid marker failed to bind to any hemocytes. This set of four monoclonal antibodies may be useful for labeling individual cell types and for separating the different hemocyte types for further study of hemocyte functions.

  7. Priming of cowpea volatile emissions with defense inducers enhances the plant's attractiveness to parasitoids when attacked by caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Sobhy, Islam S; Bruce, Toby Ja; Turlings, Ted Cj

    2018-04-01

    The manipulation of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (HI-VOCs) via the application of the inducers benzo(1,2,3)thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) and laminarin (β-1,3-glucan) is known to enhance the attractiveness of caterpillar-damaged cotton and maize plants to parasitoids. To test if this is also the case for legumes, we treated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var. unguiculata) with these inducers and studied the effects on HI-VOC emissions and the attraction of three generalist endoparasitoids. After the inducers had been applied and the plants subjected to either real or mimicked herbivory by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars, females of the parasitoids Campoletis sonorensis and Microplitis rufiventris showed a strong preference for BTH-treated plants, whereas Cotesia females were strongly attracted to both BTH- and laminarin-treated plants with real or mimicked herbivory. Treated plants emitted more of certain HI-VOCs, but considerably less indole and linalool and less of several sesquiterpenes. Multivariate data analysis revealed that enhanced wasp attraction after treatment was correlated with high relative concentrations of nonanal, α-pinene, (E)-β-ocimene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and with low relative concentrations of indole, (S)-linalool and (E)-β-farnesene. Inducer treatments had no significant effect on leaf consumption by the caterpillars. Our findings confirm that treating cowpea plants with inducers can enhance their attractiveness to biological control agents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Compressed Air System Redesign Results in Increased Production at a Fuel System Plant (Caterpillar Fuel Systems Pontiac Plant)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    None

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Caterpillar's Pontiac Plant project.

  9. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    PubMed

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  10. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    PubMed Central

    Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Kobe, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008–2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  11. Indirect multi-trophic interactions mediated by induced plant resistance: impact of caterpillar feeding on aphid parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L.; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Cotton produces insecticidal terpenoids that are induced by tissue-feeding herbivores. Damage by Heliothis virescens caterpillars increases the terpenoid content, which reduces the abundance of aphids. This effect is not evident in Bt-transgenic cotton, which is resistant to H. virescens. We determined whether induction of terpenoids by caterpillars influences the host quality of Aphis gossypii for the parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes and whether this interaction is influenced by Bt cotton. The exposure of parasitoids to terpenoids was determined by quantifying terpenoids in the aphids. We detected several terpenoids in aphids and found a positive relationship between their concentrations in plants and aphids. When L. testaceipes was allowed to parasitize aphids on Bt and non-Bt cotton that was infested or uninfested with H. virescens, fewer parasitoid mummies were found on infested non-Bt than on Bt cotton. Important parasitoid life-table parameters, however, were not influenced by induced resistance following H. virescens infestation, or the Bt trait. Our study provides an example of a tritrophic indirect interaction web, where organisms are indirectly linked through changes in plant metabolites. PMID:24522627

  12. Neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes of Manduca sexta and the initiation of hemocyte attachment to foreign surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nardi, James B; Pilas, Barbara; Bee, Charles Mark; Zhuang, Shufei; Garsha, Karl; Kanost, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    Observations of hemocyte aggregation on abiotic surfaces suggested that certain plasmatocytes from larvae of Manduca sexta act as foci for hemocyte aggregation. To establish how these particular plasmatocytes form initial attachments to foreign surfaces, they were cultured separately from other selected populations of hemocytes. While all circulating plasmatocytes immunolabel with anti-beta-integrin monoclonal antibody (MAb), only these larger plasmatocytes immunolabel with a MAb to the adhesion protein neuroglian. Neuroglian-negative plasmatocytes and granular cells that have been magnetically segregated from the majority of granular cells adhere to each other but fail to adhere to foreign substrata; by contrast, neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes that segregate with most granular cells adhere firmly to a substratum. Hemocytes form stable aggregates around the large, neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes. However, if neuroglian-positive plasmatocytes are separated from most granular cells, attachment of these plasmatocytes to foreign surfaces is suppressed.

  13. Integrated modeling of protein-coding genes in the Manduca sexta genome using RNA-Seq data from the biochemical model insect

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Manduca sexta was recently determined using 454 technology. Cufflinks and MAKER2 were used to establish gene models in the genome assembly based on the RNA-Seq data and other species' sequences. Aided by the extensive RNA-Seq data from 50 tissue samples at various life stages, annotators over the world (including the present authors) have manually confirmed and improved a small percentage of the models after spending months of effort. While such collaborative efforts are highly commendable, many of the predicted genes still have problems which may hamper future research on this insect species. As a biochemical model representing lepidopteran pests, M. sexta has been used extensively to study insect physiological processes for over five decades. In this work, we assembled Manduca datasets Cufflinks 3.0, Trinity 4.0, and Oases 4.0 to assist the manual annotation efforts and development of Official Gene Set (OGS) 2.0. To further improve annotation quality, we developed methods to evaluate gene models in the MAKER2, Cufflinks, Oases and Trinity assemblies and selected the best ones to constitute MCOT 1.0 after thorough crosschecking. MCOT 1.0 has 18,089 genes encoding 31,666 proteins: 32.8% match OGS 2.0 models perfectly or near perfectly, 11,747 differ considerably, and 29.5% are absent in OGS 2.0. Future automation of this process is anticipated to greatly reduce human efforts in generating comprehensive, reliable models of structural genes in other genome projects where extensive RNA-Seq data are available. PMID:25612938

  14. Integrated modeling of protein-coding genes in the Manduca sexta genome using RNA-Seq data from the biochemical model insect.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    The genome sequence of Manduca sexta was recently determined using 454 technology. Cufflinks and MAKER2 were used to establish gene models in the genome assembly based on the RNA-Seq data and other species' sequences. Aided by the extensive RNA-Seq data from 50 tissue samples at various life stages, annotators over the world (including the present authors) have manually confirmed and improved a small percentage of the models after spending months of effort. While such collaborative efforts are highly commendable, many of the predicted genes still have problems which may hamper future research on this insect species. As a biochemical model representing lepidopteran pests, M. sexta has been used extensively to study insect physiological processes for over five decades. In this work, we assembled Manduca datasets Cufflinks 3.0, Trinity 4.0, and Oases 4.0 to assist the manual annotation efforts and development of Official Gene Set (OGS) 2.0. To further improve annotation quality, we developed methods to evaluate gene models in the MAKER2, Cufflinks, Oases and Trinity assemblies and selected the best ones to constitute MCOT 1.0 after thorough crosschecking. MCOT 1.0 has 18,089 genes encoding 31,666 proteins: 32.8% match OGS 2.0 models perfectly or near perfectly, 11,747 differ considerably, and 29.5% are absent in OGS 2.0. Future automation of this process is anticipated to greatly reduce human efforts in generating comprehensive, reliable models of structural genes in other genome projects where extensive RNA-Seq data are available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides.

  16. Larval leg integrity is maintained by Distal-less and is required for proper timing of metamorphosis in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuichiro; Squires, Diego C.; Riddiford, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic transformation from a larva to an adult must be accompanied by a coordinated activity of genes and hormones that enable an orchestrated transformation from larval to pupal/adult tissues. The maintenance of larval appendages and their subsequent transformation to appendages in holometabolous insects remains elusive at the developmental genetic level. Here the role of a key appendage patterning gene Distal-less (Dll) was examined in mid- to late- larval stages of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. During late larval development, Dll was expressed in appendages in a similar manner as previously reported for the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Removal of this late Dll expression resulted in disruption of adult appendage patterning. Intriguingly, earlier removal resulted in dramatic loss of structural integrity and identity of larval appendages. A large amount of variability in appendage morphology was observed following Dll dsRNA injection, unlike larvae injected with dachshund dsRNA. These Dll dsRNA-injected larvae underwent numerous supernumerary molts, which could be terminated with injection of either JH methyltransferase or Methoprene-tolerant dsRNA. Apparently, the partial dedifferentiation of the appendages in these larvae acts to maintain high JH and, hence, prevents metamorphosis. PMID:19022238

  17. A Hairy Affair: Ophthalmia nodosa Due to Caterpillar Hairs.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Pratik Y; Usgaonkar, Ugam; Kamat, Pradnya

    2018-01-01

    To study different clinical presentations, course, and final outcomes of ophthalmia nodosa, a rare disease caused by hairs of the caterpillar. A total of 29 eyes of 17 patients with the disease presenting to our institute in 2013 were included. Patients presented with foreign body sensation (94%), photophobia (88%), lacrimation (82%), redness (94%), and eyelid edema (82%). Hairs were found in the conjunctiva (89.6%), cornea (65.5%), and even anterior chamber (3.4%). There was a conjunctival nodule in two eyes (6.8%). Resolution of symptoms occurred in 3-21 days. Treatment included topical steroids, cycloplegia, and removal of hairs with forceps. More than one sitting was required in 17 eyes (62.9%) due to reactional inflammation, precluding visualization of all the hairs. Ophthalmia nodosa is a relatively rare condition with subtle findings, which can be missed, causing considerable discomfort to the patient if the hairs are not removed.

  18. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXVI, I--CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS, II--LEARNING ABOUT BRAKES (PART I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTIONS OF DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS AND THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF BRAKE SYSTEMS USED ON DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) THE NEED FOR OIL, (2) SERVICE CLASSIFICATION OF OILS, (3) CATERPILLAR LUBRICATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS (4)…

  19. Effects of herbicide-treated host plants on the development of Mamestra brassicae L. caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Melanie; Geisthardt, Martin; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a sulfonylurea (Atlantis WG, Bayer CropScience) or a glyphosate (Roundup LB Plus, Monsanto) herbicide, and the development of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. that fed on these plants was observed. Of the 6 tested plant-herbicide combinations, 1 combination (R. acris + sulfonylurea herbicide) resulted in significantly lower caterpillar weight, increased time to pupation, and increased overall development time compared with larvae that were fed unsprayed plants. These results might be caused by a lower nutritional value of these host plants or increased concentrations of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense. The results of the present and other studies suggest potential risks to herbivores that feed on host plants treated with sublethal rates of herbicides. However, as the effects of herbicides on host plant quality appear to be species-specific and as there are numerous plant-herbicide-herbivore relationships in agricultural landscapes, a general reduction in herbicide contamination of nontarget habitats (e.g., field margins) might mitigate the negative effects of herbicides on host plant quality. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Seven new species of Spathidexia Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Wood, D. Monty; Janzen, Daniel; Hallwachs, Winnie; Smith, M. Alex

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe seven new species of Spathidexia (Diptera: Tachinidae) reared from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. All were reared from ­various species of ACG caterpillars during an ongoing inventory of caterpillars, their food plants and their parasitoids. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of each species. All are known to be previously undescribed as a result of a comprehensive study of the genus by DMW. Spathidexia atripalpus sp. n., Spathidexia juanvialesi sp. n., Spathidexia marioburgosi sp. n., Spathidexia luisrobertogallegosi sp. n., Spathidexia luteola sp. n., Spathidexia hernanrodriguezi sp. n. and Spathidexia aurantiaca sp. n. are all authored and described by Fleming and Wood. Minthodexiopsis Townsend is proposed by Wood as a new synonym of Spathidexia. A new combination proposed by Wood as a result of the new synonymy is S. flavicornis (Brauer & Bergenstamm) comb. n. PMID:25859130

  1. First record of entomopathogenic fungi on autumn leaf Caterpillar (Doleschallia bisaltide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayanti, A. K.; Sholahuddin; Yunus, A.; Subositi, D.

    2018-03-01

    Caricature plant is one of the medicinal plants in Indonesia to cure hemorrhoids, menstruation, and others. The cultivation constraints of caricature plant is autumn leaf caterpillars (Doleschallia bisaltide). Utilization of synthetic insecticides is not allowed to avoid bioaccumulation of chemical residues. Entomopathogenic fungi is an alternative way to control D. bisaltide. The objective of the research was to obtain isolates of entomopathogenic fungi of D. bisaltide. The research conducted by two steps, which were exsploration of infecfted D. bisaltide. The second step was identification of the fungi. Exploration results of 16 pupae of D. Bisaltide were infected by fungi. Identification done by classify the mcroscopic and microscopic fungi isolate characteristic. One from five fungal isolates were entomopathogenic fungi from Verticillium genera.

  2. Pest-managing efficacy of trans-asarone isolated from Daucus carota L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Momin, Rafikali A; Nair, Muraleeddharan G

    2002-07-31

    The bioactive hexane extract of Daucus carota seed yielded 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde (1), oleic acid (2), trans-asarone (3), and geraniol (4). Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their mosquitocidal, nematicidal, antifeedant, and antimicrobial activities. Only trans-asarone was active in the assays performed, causing 100% mortality to fourth-instar mosquito larvae, Aedes aegyptii, at 200 microg mL(-1) and the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus redivivus at 100 microg mL(-1). In feeding trials, trans-asarone also caused significant weight reductions of the caterpillars Helicovarpa zea, Heliothis virescens, and Manduca sexta when incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1). Also, it exhibited slight activity at 100 microg mL(-1) against the yeasts Candida albicans, Candida parapsilasis, and Candida kruseii.

  3. Caterpillars and host plant records for 59 species of Geometridae (Lepidoptera) from a montane rainforest in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Florian; Brehm, Gunnar; Homeier, Jürgen; Strutzenberger, Patrick; Fiedler, Konrad

    2010-01-01

    During four months of field surveys at the Reserva Biológica San Francisco in the south Ecuadorian Andes, caterpillars of 59 Geometridae species were collected in a montane rainforest between 1800 and 2800m altitude and reared to adults. The resulting data on host plant affiliations of these species was collated. The preimaginal stages of 58 and adult stages of all 59 species are depicted in colour plates. Observations on morphology and behaviour are briefly described. Five species, documented for the first time in the study area by means of larval collections, had not been previously collected by intensive light-trap surveys. Together with published literature records, life-history data covers 8.6% of the 1271 geometrid species observed so far in the study area. For 50 species these are the first records of their early stages, and for another 7 the data significantly extend known host plant ranges. Most larvae were collected on shrubs or trees, but more unusual host plant affiliations, such as ferns (6 geometrid species) and lichens (3 geometrid species), were also recorded. Thirty-four percent of the caterpillars were infested by wasp or tachinid parasitoids.

  4. The mare reproductive loss syndrome and the eastern tent caterpillar: a toxicokinetic/statistical analysis with clinical, epidemiologic, and mechanistic implications.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Manu; Gantz, Marie G; Tobin, Thomas; Harkins, J Daniel; Bosken, Jeffrey M; Hughes, Charlie; Harrison, Lenn R; Bernard, William V; Richter, Dana L; Fitzgerald, Terrence D

    2003-01-01

    During 2001, central Kentucky experienced acute transient epidemics of early and late fetal losses, pericarditis, and unilateral endophthalmitis, collectively referred to as mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS). A toxicokinetic/statistical analysis of experimental and field MRLS data was conducted using accelerated failure time (AFT) analysis of abortions following administration of Eastern tent caterpillars (ETCs; 100 or 50 g/day or 100 g of irradiated caterpillars/day) to late-term pregnant mares. In addition, 2001 late-term fetal loss field data were used in the analysis. Experimental data were fitted by AFT analysis at a high (P <.0001) significance. Times to first abortion ("lag time") and abortion rates were dose dependent. Lag times decreased and abortion rates increased exponentially with dose. Calculated dose x response data curves allow interpretation of abortion data in terms of "intubated ETC equivalents." Analysis suggested that field exposure to ETCs in 2001 in central Kentucky commenced on approximately April 27, was initially equivalent to approximately 5 g of intubated ETCs/day, and increased to approximately 30 g/day at the outbreak peak. This analysis accounts for many aspects of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, and manifestations of MRLS. It allows quantitative interpretation of experimental and field MRLS data and has implications for the basic mechanisms underlying MRLS. The results support suggestions that MRLS is caused by exposure to or ingestion of ETCs. The results also show that high levels of ETC exposure produce intense, focused outbreaks of MRLS, closely linked in time and place to dispersing ETCs, as occurred in central Kentucky in 2001. With less intense exposure, lag time is longer and abortions tend to spread out over time and may occur out of phase with ETC exposure, obscuring both diagnosis of this syndrome and the role of the caterpillars.

  5. The spitting image of plant defenses: effects of plant secondary chemistry on the efficiency of caterpillar regurgitant as an anti-predator defense

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the arms race between plants, herbivores, and their natural enemies, specialized herbivores may use plant defenses for their own benefit. In such cases, variation in secondary chemistry among host plants may affect the benefits that herbivores derive from these defenses. Caterpillars of Pieris br...

  6. A candidate pheromone receptor and two odorant receptors of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Patch, Harland M; Velarde, Rodrigo A; Walden, Kimberly K O; Robertson, Hugh M

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we cloned and characterized three Manduca sexta odorant receptors (ORs). One receptor is a putative pheromone receptor expressed exclusively in a cell associated with male-specific type-I trichoid sensilla. We describe the results of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments that show MsextaOR1 is expressed only in male antennae. In situ hybridization labels a single cell associated with type-1 trichoid sensilla, which houses two neurons that have been previously determined to respond to the major components of the pheromone blend. The second receptor, MsextaOR2, was discovered using degenerate primers designed to conserved motifs of a unique group ORs that share as much as 88% identity. Comparison of RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, and in situ hybridization results with those of ORs in the Drosophila melanogaster Or83b subfamily shows a strong sequence and expression pattern similarity. The third receptor, MsextaOR3, was found by 5'-end sequencing of a normalized and subtracted cDNA library from male M. sexta antennae. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR show that this receptor is expressed only in male and female antennae. These are the first ORs, including a putative pheromone receptor, to be described from M. sexta.

  7. Transmembrane ion distribution during recovery from freezing in the woolly bear caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-08-01

    During extracellular freezing, solutes in the haemolymph are concentrated, resulting in osmotic dehydration of the cells, which must be reversed upon thawing. Here, we used freeze tolerant Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) larvae to examine the processes of ion redistribution after thawing. To investigate the effect of the intensity of cold exposure on ion redistribution after thawing, we exposed caterpillars to -14°C, -20°C or -30°C for 35h. To investigate the effect of duration of cold exposure on ion redistribution after thawing, we exposed the caterpillars to -14°C for up to 6 weeks while sampling several time points. The concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were measured after thawing in the haemolymph, fat body, muscle, midgut tissue and hindgut tissue. Being frozen for long durations (>3 weeks) or at low temperatures (-30°C) both result in 100% mortality, although different ions and tissues appear to be affected by each treatment. Both water distribution and ion content changes were detected after thawing, with the largest effects seen in the fat body and midgut tissue. Magnesium homeostasis appears to be vital for post-freeze survival in these larvae. The movement of ions during thawing lagged behind the movement of water, and ion homeostasis was not restored within the same time frame as water homeostasis. Failure to regain ion homeostasis after thawing is therefore implicated in mortality of freeze tolerant insects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Asymptotic Properties of the Number of Matching Coalescent Histories for Caterpillar-Like Families of Species Trees.

    PubMed

    Disanto, Filippo; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2016-01-01

    Coalescent histories provide lists of species tree branches on which gene tree coalescences can take place, and their enumerative properties assist in understanding the computational complexity of calculations central in the study of gene trees and species trees. Here, we solve an enumerative problem left open by Rosenberg (IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 10: 1253-1262, 2013) concerning the number of coalescent histories for gene trees and species trees with a matching labeled topology that belongs to a generic caterpillar-like family. By bringing a generating function approach to the study of coalescent histories, we prove that for any caterpillar-like family with seed tree t , the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 describing the number of matching coalescent histories of the n th tree of the family grows asymptotically as a constant multiple of the Catalan numbers. Thus, h n  ∼ β t c n , where the asymptotic constant β t > 0 depends on the shape of the seed tree t. The result extends a claim demonstrated only for seed trees with at most eight taxa to arbitrary seed trees, expanding the set of cases for which detailed enumerative properties of coalescent histories can be determined. We introduce a procedure that computes from t the constant β t as well as the algebraic expression for the generating function of the sequence (h n ) n ≥ 0 .

  9. No Evidence for Ionotropic Pheromone Transduction in the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Andreas; Gawalek, Petra; Koerte, Sarah; Wei, HongYing; Schumann, Robin; Werckenthin, Achim; Krieger, Jürgen; Stengl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are 7-transmembrane receptors with inverse membrane topology. They associate with the conserved ion channel Orco. As chaperon, Orco maintains ORs in cilia and, as pacemaker channel, Orco controls spontaneous activity in olfactory receptor neurons. Odorant binding to ORs opens OR-Orco receptor ion channel complexes in heterologous expression systems. It is unknown, whether this also occurs in vivo. As an alternative to this ionotropic transduction, experimental evidence is accumulating for metabotropic odor transduction, implicating that insect ORs couple to G-proteins. Resulting second messengers gate various ion channels. They generate the sensillum potential that elicits phasic-tonic action potentials (APs) followed by late, long-lasting pheromone responses. Because it is still unclear how and when Orco opens after odor-OR-binding, we used tip recordings to examine in vivo the effects of the Orco antagonist OLC15 and the amilorides MIA and HMA on bombykal transduction in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. In contrast to OLC15 both amilorides decreased the pheromone-dependent sensillum potential amplitude and the frequency of the phasic AP response. Instead, OLC15 decreased spontaneous activity, increased latencies of phasic-, and decreased frequencies of late, long-lasting pheromone responses Zeitgebertime-dependently. Our results suggest no involvement for Orco in the primary transduction events, in contrast to amiloride-sensitive channels. Instead of an odor-gated ionotropic receptor, Orco rather acts as a voltage- and apparently second messenger-gated pacemaker channel controlling the membrane potential and hence threshold and kinetics of the pheromone response.

  10. Artificial Manduca sexta forewings for flapping-wing micro aerial vehicles: how wing structure affects performance.

    PubMed

    Moses, K C; Michaels, S C; Willis, M; Quinn, R D

    2017-09-26

    A novel approach to fabricating and testing artificial insect wings has been developed. Utilizing these new techniques, locally harvested hawk moth (Manduca sexta) forewings are compared to engineered forewings with varying wing structures. A number of small, flexible engineered forewings were fabricated with identical planform size and shape but with variations in camber, ribbing, thickness and composition. A series of static and dynamic assessments compares the forewings in terms of structure and performance. Data from these experiments show that the fabrication method can produce artificial forewings with similar properties to that of M. sexta. Flexural stiffness (EI) data shows a maximum percent difference of 41% between the left and right natural M. sexta forewings, whereas engineered forewings have a maximum percent difference of 18%. When deflection is induced from the ventral side of the forewing, EI values are at least 9.1% higher than when it is induced from the dorsal side. According to simulations, approximately 57% of this difference can be attributed to the camber of the forewings. Fabricated forewings produced comparable amounts of lift to natural M. sexta forewings (1.00 g F and 0.96 g F at 25 Hz flapping frequency respectively).

  11. Asymmetry costs: effects of wing damage on hovering flight performance in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María José; Driver, Marion E; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2017-10-15

    Flight performance is fundamental to the fitness of flying organisms. Whilst airborne, flying organisms face unavoidable wing wear and wing area loss. Many studies have tried to quantify the consequences of wing area loss to flight performance with varied results, suggesting that not all types of damage are equal and different species may have different means to compensate for some forms of wing damage with little to no cost. Here, we investigated the cost of control during hovering flight with damaged wings, specifically wings with asymmetric and symmetric reductions in area, by measuring maximum load lifting capacity and the metabolic power of hovering flight in hawkmoths ( Manduca sexta ). We found that while asymmetric and symmetric reductions are both costly in terms of maximum load lifting and hovering efficiency, asymmetric reductions are approximately twice as costly in terms of wing area lost. The moths also did not modulate flapping frequency and amplitude as predicted by a hovering flight model, suggesting that the ability to do so, possibly tied to asynchronous versus synchronous flight muscles, underlies the varied responses found in different wing clipping experiments. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behavior of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    von Mérey, Georg E.; Veyrat, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Marco; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behavior of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behavior. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behavior under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies. PMID:23825475

  13. Enzymatic biomarkers as indicators of dietary cadmium in gypsy moth caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Mataruga, Vesna Perić; Mrdaković, Marija; Matić, Dragana; Lazarević, Jelica; Nenadović, Vera; Ilijin, Larisa

    2013-05-01

    Heavy metals damage the structure, chemistry, and function of cells, including enzyme systems inside them. Variation in the profile of biochemical biomarkers in prevalent species should be used for assessing environmental contamination. The present study pays attention to the phosphatases present in the midgut of gypsy moth fourth instar caterpillars, which had been exposed to short- and long-term cadmium intake at 10 and 30 μg Cd/g dry food. Chronic cadmium ingestion significantly inhibited the activity of all examined phosphatases, while only the activity of lysosomal phosphatase was acutely decreased. Total acid phosphatase activity recovered from both long-term cadmium treatments within 3 days. The low index of phenotypic plasticity was connected to high variability of plasticity. Dependence of phosphatase isoforms on genotype and duration of cadmium treatment was determined. We concluded that, with further investigations, profiling of total acid phosphatase activity, as well as the lysosomal fraction can be used as a biomarker for acute sublethal metal toxicity.

  14. A new species of Cordyligaster Macquart, reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Wood, D Monty; Smith, M Alex; Janzen, Daniel; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Cordyligaster Macquart (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Cordyligaster capellii sp. n., is described and photographed. All specimens of C. capellii were reared from Syngamia florella (Stoll, 1781) (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae), a leaf-rolling caterpillar collected in ACG rain forest. By coupling morphology, photographic documentation, life history and molecular data, we provide a clear and concise description of this new species. In addition the authors provide new distribution and host records for C. fuscipennis (Macquart) reared in ACG. PMID:25535485

  15. Parasitoids select plants more heavily infested with their caterpillar hosts: a new approach to aid interpretation of plant headspace volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Robbie D.; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Dherbecourt, Julie; Staley, Joanna T.; Wright, Denis J.; Poppy, Guy M.

    2011-01-01

    Plants produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in response to herbivore attack, and these VOCs can be used by parasitoids of the herbivore as host location cues. We investigated the behavioural responses of the parasitoid Cotesia vestalis to VOCs from a plant–herbivore complex consisting of cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) and the parasitoids host caterpillar, Plutella xylostella. A Y-tube olfactometer was used to compare the parasitoids' responses to VOCs produced as a result of different levels of attack by the caterpillar and equivalent levels of mechanical damage. Headspace VOC production by these plant treatments was examined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Cotesia vestalis were able to exploit quantitative and qualitative differences in volatile emissions, from the plant–herbivore complex, produced as a result of different numbers of herbivores feeding. Cotesia vestalis showed a preference for plants with more herbivores and herbivore damage, but did not distinguish between different levels of mechanical damage. Volatile profiles of plants with different levels of herbivores/herbivore damage could also be separated by canonical discriminant analyses. Analyses revealed a number of compounds whose emission increased significantly with herbivore load, and these VOCs may be particularly good indicators of herbivore number, as the parasitoid processes cues from its external environment. PMID:21270031

  16. The effect of carbon supply on allocation to allelochemicals and caterpillar consumption of peppermint.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, D E; Couvet, D

    1989-01-01

    The carbon supply of peppermint plants was manipulated by growing clonal propagules under three carbon dioxide regimes (350, 500 and 650 μl l -1 ). Feeding by fourth instar caterpillars of Spodoptera eridania increased with elevated CO 2 hostplant regime, as well as with low leaf nitrogen content and by a high proportion of leaf volatile terpenoids. Leaf weight increased significantly with the increased carbon supply, but the amount of nitrogen per leaf did not change. The amount of volatile leaf mono-and sesquiterpenes increased proportionately with total leaf dry weight and hence was not influenced by CO 2 supply. These results are consistent with ecological hypotheses which assume that allocation to defense is closely regulated and not sensitive to carbon supply per se.

  17. Flexible responses to visual and olfactory stimuli by foraging Manduca sexta: larval nutrition affects adult behaviour.

    PubMed

    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A

    2009-08-07

    Here, we show that the consequences of deficient micronutrient (beta-carotene) intake during larval stages of Manduca sexta are carried across metamorphosis, affecting adult behaviour. Our manipulation of larval diet allowed us to examine how developmental plasticity impacts the interplay between visual and olfactory inputs on adult foraging behaviour. Larvae of M. sexta were reared on natural (Nicotiana tabacum) and artificial laboratory diets containing different concentrations of beta-carotene (standard diet, low beta-carotene, high beta-carotene and cornmeal). This vitamin-A precursor has been shown to be crucial for photoreception sensitivity in the retina of M. sexta. After completing development, post-metamorphosis, starved adults were presented with artificial feeders that could be either scented or unscented. Regardless of their larval diet, adult moths fed with relatively high probabilities on scented feeders. When feeders were unscented, moths reared on tobacco were more responsive than moths reared on beta-carotene-deficient artificial diets. Strikingly, moths reared on artificial diets supplemented with increasing amounts of beta-carotene (low beta and high beta) showed increasing probabilities of response to scentless feeders. We discuss these results in relationship to the use of complex, multi-modal sensory information by foraging animals.

  18. Flexible responses to visual and olfactory stimuli by foraging Manduca sexta: larval nutrition affects adult behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we show that the consequences of deficient micronutrient (β-carotene) intake during larval stages of Manduca sexta are carried across metamorphosis, affecting adult behaviour. Our manipulation of larval diet allowed us to examine how developmental plasticity impacts the interplay between visual and olfactory inputs on adult foraging behaviour. Larvae of M. sexta were reared on natural (Nicotiana tabacum) and artificial laboratory diets containing different concentrations of β-carotene (standard diet, low β-carotene, high β-carotene and cornmeal). This vitamin-A precursor has been shown to be crucial for photoreception sensitivity in the retina of M. sexta. After completing development, post-metamorphosis, starved adults were presented with artificial feeders that could be either scented or unscented. Regardless of their larval diet, adult moths fed with relatively high probabilities on scented feeders. When feeders were unscented, moths reared on tobacco were more responsive than moths reared on β-carotene-deficient artificial diets. Strikingly, moths reared on artificial diets supplemented with increasing amounts of β-carotene (low β and high β) showed increasing probabilities of response to scentless feeders. We discuss these results in relationship to the use of complex, multi-modal sensory information by foraging animals. PMID:19419987

  19. How parasitism affects critical patch-size in a host-parasitoid model: application to the forest tent caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, C A; Lewis, M A; Lutscher, F; Roland, J

    2005-03-01

    Habitat structure has broad impacts on many biological systems. In particular, habitat fragmentation can increase the probability of species extinction and on the other hand it can lead to population outbreaks in response to a decline in natural enemies. An extreme consequence of fragmentation is the isolation of small regions of suitable habitat surrounded by a large region of hostile matrix. This scenario can be interpreted as a critical patch-size problem, well studied in a continuous time framework, but relatively new to discrete time models. In this paper we present an integrodifference host-parasitoid model, discrete in time and continuous in space, to study how the critical habitat-size necessary for parasitoid survival changes in response to parasitoid life history traits, such as emergence time. We show that early emerging parasitoids may be able to persist in smaller habitats than late emerging species. The model predicts that these early emerging parasitoids lead to more severe host outbreaks. We hypothesise that promoting efficient late emerging parasitoids may be key in reducing outbreak severity, an approach requiring large continuous regions of suitable habitat. We parameterise the model for the host species of the forest tent caterpillar Malacosoma disstria Hbn., a pest insect for which fragmented landscape increases the severity of outbreaks. This host is known to have several parasitoids, due to paucity of data and as a first step in the modelling we consider a single generic parasitoid. The model findings are related to observations of the forest tent caterpillar offering insight into this host-parasitoid response to habitat structure.

  20. Effect of body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Han, Jong-Seob; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-12-14

    This study explores the effects of the body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability of an insect at various different forward flight speeds. The insect model, whose morphological parameters are based on measurement data from the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, is treated as an open-loop six-degree-of-freedom dynamic system. The aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the insect are computed by an aerodynamic model that combines the unsteady panel method and the extended unsteady vortex-lattice method. The aerodynamic model is then coupled to a multi-body dynamic code to solve the system of motion equations. First, the trimmed flight conditions of insect models with and without consideration of the body aerodynamics are obtained using a trim search algorithm. Subsequently, the effects of the body aerodynamics on the dynamic flight stability are analysed through modal structures, i.e., eigenvalues and eigenvectors in this case, which are based on linearized equations of motion. The solutions from the nonlinear and linearized equations of motion due to gust disturbances are obtained, and the effects of the body aerodynamics are also investigated through these solutions. The results showed the important effect of the body aerodynamics at high-speed forward flight (in this paper at 4.0 and 5.0 m s -1 ) and the movement trends of eigenvalues when the body aerodynamics is included.

  1. Bauhinia proteinase inhibitor-based synthetic fluorogenic substrates for enzymes isolated from insect midgut and caterpillar bristles.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Sonia A; Santomauro-Vaz, Eugênio M; Lopes, Adriana R; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M; Juliano, Maria A; Terra, Walter R; Sampaio, Misako U; Sampaio, Claudio A M; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2003-03-01

    Bauhinia ungulata factor Xa inhibitor (BuXI) inactivates factor Xa and LOPAP, a prothrombin activator proteinase isolated from the venom of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristles. The reactive site of the enzyme-inhibitor interaction was explored to design specific substrates for both enzymes. Methionine is crucial for LOPAP and factor Xa substrate interaction, since the change of both Met residues in the substrates abolished the hydrolysis. Synthetic substrates containing the sequence around the reactive site of BbKI, a plasma kallikrein inhibitor, were shown to be specific for trypsin hydrolysis. Therefore, these substrates may be an alternative in studies aiming at a characterization of trypsin-like enzyme activities, especially non-mammalian enzymes.

  2. Comparative analysis of protocols for DNA extraction from soybean caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Palma, J; Valmorbida, I; da Costa, I F D; Guedes, J V C

    2016-04-07

    Genomic DNA extraction is crucial for molecular research, including diagnostic and genome characterization of different organisms. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyze protocols of DNA extraction based on cell lysis by sarcosyl, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, and to determine the most efficient method applicable to soybean caterpillars. DNA was extracted from specimens of Chrysodeixis includens and Spodoptera eridania using the aforementioned three methods. DNA quantification was performed using spectrophotometry and high molecular weight DNA ladders. The purity of the extracted DNA was determined by calculating the A260/A280 ratio. Cost and time for each DNA extraction method were estimated and analyzed statistically. The amount of DNA extracted by these three methods was sufficient for PCR amplification. The sarcosyl method yielded DNA of higher purity, because it generated a clearer pellet without viscosity, and yielded high quality amplification products of the COI gene I. The sarcosyl method showed lower cost per extraction and did not differ from the other methods with respect to preparation times. Cell lysis by sarcosyl represents the best method for DNA extraction in terms of yield, quality, and cost effectiveness.

  3. Application of caterpillar SMSF on ZiL 645 engine. Volume 2. Appendices. Export trade information

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1993-11-23

    The report, written by the Southwest Research Institute and Caterpillar, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of ZiL, a major Russian truck manufacturer. The purpose of the study was as follows: Install the Sleeve Metering Fuel System (SMFS) on the ZIL 645 NA. This would also include conversion of the MAN combustion system to a torroidal combustion system. Evaluate the cylinder head and determine if modifications are necessary. Design and test several sets of nozzles and two pistons to determine effect on smoke and fuel consumption. Obtain steady state emissions with the 'best' configurationmore » determined by smoke and specific fuel consumption and compare the results with EURO 1 standards.« less

  4. Developmental distribution of CaM kinase II in the antennal lobe of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Christian; Bergstein, Sandra; Hirnet, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    The antennal lobe (primary olfactory center of insects) is completely reorganized during metamorphosis. This reorganization is accompanied by changing patterns of calcium signaling in neurons and glial cells. In the present study, we investigated the developmental distribution of a major calcium-dependent protein, viz., calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II), in the antennal lobe of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta by using a monoclonal antibody. During synaptogenesis (developmental stages 6-10), we found a redistribution of CaM kinase II immunoreactivity, from a homogeneous distribution in the immature neuropil to an accumulation in the neuropil of the glomeruli. CaM kinase II immunoreactivity was less intense in olfactory receptor axons of the antennal nerve and antennal lobe glial cells. Western blot analysis revealed a growing content of CaM kinase II in antennal lobe tissue throughout metamorphosis. Injection of the CaM kinase inhibitor KN-93 into pupae resulted in a reduced number of antennal lobe glial cells migrating into the neuropil to form borders around glomeruli. The results suggest that CaM kinase II is involved in glial cell migration.

  5. Circadian clocks of both plants and pollinators influence flower seeking behavior of the pollinator hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Fenske, Myles P; Nguyen, LeAnn P; Horn, Erin K; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Imaizumi, Takato

    2018-02-12

    Most plant-pollinator interactions occur during specific periods during the day. To facilitate these interactions, many flowers are known to display their attractive qualities, such as scent emission and petal opening, in a daily rhythmic fashion. However, less is known about how the internal timing mechanisms (the circadian clocks) of plants and animals influence their daily interactions. We examine the role of the circadian clock in modulating the interaction between Petunia and one of its pollinators, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. We find that desynchronization of the Petunia circadian clock affects moth visitation preference for Petunia flowers. Similarly, moths with circadian time aligned to plants show stronger flower-foraging activities than moths that lack this alignment. Moth locomotor activity is circadian clock-regulated, although it is also strongly repressed by light. Moths show a time-dependent burst increase in flight activity during subjective night. In addition, moth antennal responsiveness to the floral scent compounds exhibits a 24-hour rhythm in both continuous light and dark conditions. This study highlights the importance of the circadian clocks in both plants and animals as a crucial factor in initiating specialized plant-pollinator relationships.

  6. Gait control in a soft robot by sensing interactions with the environment using self-deformation.

    PubMed

    Umedachi, Takuya; Kano, Takeshi; Ishiguro, Akio; Trimmer, Barry A

    2016-12-01

    All animals use mechanosensors to help them move in complex and changing environments. With few exceptions, these sensors are embedded in soft tissues that deform in normal use such that sensory feedback results from the interaction of an animal with its environment. Useful information about the environment is expected to be embedded in the mechanical responses of the tissues during movements. To explore how such sensory information can be used to control movements, we have developed a soft-bodied crawling robot inspired by a highly tractable animal model, the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta . This robot uses deformations of its body to detect changes in friction force on a substrate. This information is used to provide local sensory feedback for coupled oscillators that control the robot's locomotion. The validity of the control strategy is demonstrated with both simulation and a highly deformable three-dimensionally printed soft robot. The results show that very simple oscillators are able to generate propagating waves and crawling/inching locomotion through the interplay of deformation in different body parts in a fully decentralized manner. Additionally, we confirmed numerically and experimentally that the gait pattern can switch depending on the surface contact points. These results are expected to help in the design of adaptable, robust locomotion control systems for soft robots and also suggest testable hypotheses about how soft animals use sensory feedback.

  7. Gait control in a soft robot by sensing interactions with the environment using self-deformation

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Akio; Trimmer, Barry A.

    2016-01-01

    All animals use mechanosensors to help them move in complex and changing environments. With few exceptions, these sensors are embedded in soft tissues that deform in normal use such that sensory feedback results from the interaction of an animal with its environment. Useful information about the environment is expected to be embedded in the mechanical responses of the tissues during movements. To explore how such sensory information can be used to control movements, we have developed a soft-bodied crawling robot inspired by a highly tractable animal model, the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. This robot uses deformations of its body to detect changes in friction force on a substrate. This information is used to provide local sensory feedback for coupled oscillators that control the robot's locomotion. The validity of the control strategy is demonstrated with both simulation and a highly deformable three-dimensionally printed soft robot. The results show that very simple oscillators are able to generate propagating waves and crawling/inching locomotion through the interplay of deformation in different body parts in a fully decentralized manner. Additionally, we confirmed numerically and experimentally that the gait pattern can switch depending on the surface contact points. These results are expected to help in the design of adaptable, robust locomotion control systems for soft robots and also suggest testable hypotheses about how soft animals use sensory feedback. PMID:28083114

  8. Complete Dosage Compensation and Sex-Biased Gene Expression in the Moth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gilbert; Chen, Yun-Ru; Blissard, Gary W.; Briscoe, Adriana D.

    2014-01-01

    Sex chromosome dosage compensation balances homogametic sex chromosome expression with autosomal expression in the heterogametic sex, leading to sex chromosome expression parity between the sexes. If compensation is incomplete, this can lead to expression imbalance and sex-biased gene expression. Recent work has uncovered an intriguing and variable pattern of dosage compensation across species that includes a lack of complete dosage compensation in ZW species compared with XY species. This has led to the hypothesis that ZW species do not require complete compensation or that complete compensation would negatively affect their fitness. To date, only one study, a study of the moth Bombyx mori, has discovered evidence for complete dosage compensation in a ZW species. We examined another moth species, Manduca sexta, using high-throughput sequencing to survey gene expression in the head tissue of males and females. We found dosage compensation to be complete in M. sexta with average expression between the Z chromosome in males and females being equal. When genes expressed at very low levels are removed by filtering, we found that average autosome expression was highly similar to average Z expression, suggesting that the majority of genes in M. sexta are completely dosage compensated. Further, this compensation was accompanied by sex-specific gene expression associated with important sexually dimorphic traits. We suggest that complete dosage compensation in ZW species might be more common than previously appreciated and linked to additional selective processes, such as sexual selection. More ZW and lepidopteran species should now be examined in a phylogenetic framework, to understand the evolution of dosage compensation. PMID:24558255

  9. Crystal structure of Manduca sexta prophenoloxidase provides insights into the mechanism of type 3 copper enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongchao; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Haobo; Deng, Junpeng

    2009-01-01

    Arthropod phenoloxidase (PO) generates quinones and other toxic compounds to sequester and kill pathogens during innate immune responses. It is also involved in wound healing and other physiological processes. Insect PO is activated from its inactive precursor, prophenoloxidase (PPO), by specific proteolysis via a serine protease cascade. Here, we report the crystal structure of PPO from a lepidopteran insect at a resolution of 1.97 Å, which is the initial structure for a PPO from the type 3 copper protein family. Manduca sexta PPO is a heterodimer consisting of 2 homologous polypeptide chains, PPO1 and PPO2. The active site of each subunit contains a canonical type 3 di-nuclear copper center, with each copper ion coordinated with 3 structurally conserved histidines. The acidic residue Glu-395 located at the active site of PPO2 may serve as a general base for deprotonation of monophenolic substrates, which is key to the ortho-hydroxylase activity of PO. The structure provides unique insights into the mechanism by which type 3 copper proteins differ in their enzymatic activities, albeit sharing a common active center. A drastic change in electrostatic surface induced on cleavage at Arg-51 allows us to propose a model for localized PPO activation in insects. PMID:19805072

  10. Multiple alpha subunits of integrin are involved in cell-mediated responses of the Manduca immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shufei; Kelo, Lisha; Nardi, James B; Kanost, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    The cell-mediated responses of the insect innate immune system-phagocytosis, nodulation, encapsulation-involve multiple cell adhesion molecules of hemocyte surfaces. A hemocyte-specific (HS) integrin and a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily (neuroglian) are involved in the encapsulation response of hemocytes in Manduca sexta. In addition, two new integrin alpha (alpha) subunits have been found on these hemocytes. The alpha2 subunit is mainly expressed in epidermis and Malphigian tubules, whereas the alpha3 subunit is primarily expressed on hemocytes and fat body cells. Of the three known alpha subunits, the alpha1 subunit found in HS integrin is the predominant subunit of hemocytes. Cell adhesion assays indicate that alpha2 belongs to the integrin family with RGD-binding motifs, confirming the phylogenetic analysis of alpha subunits based on the amino-acid sequence alignment of different alpha subunits. Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting each of these three integrin alpha subunits not only specifically decreased transcript expression of each alpha subunit in hemocytes, but also abolished the cell-mediated encapsulation response of hemocytes to foreign surfaces. The individual alpha subunits of M. sexta integrins, like their integrin counterparts in mammalian immune systems, have critical, individual roles in cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions during immune responses.

  11. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the dopamine transporter from Eloria noyesi, a caterpillar pest of cocaine-rich coca plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Wu, Xiaohong; Wei, Hua; Han, Dawn D; Gu, Howard H

    2006-01-17

    Cocaine is produced by coca plants as a chemical defense to deter feeding by insects. It has been shown that cocaine sprayed on tomato leaves reduces insect feeding, causes abnormal behaviors at low doses and kills feeding insects at doses equivalent to that in coca leaves [Nathanson, J.A., Hunnicutt, E.J., Kantham, L., Scavone, C., 1993. Cocaine as a naturally occurring insecticide. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 90, 9645-9648.]. Most insects avoid coca leaves except the larvae of Eloria noyesi, a caterpillar pest of coca plants, which feeds preferentially on coca leaves. In the current study, we cloned and characterized the dopamine transporters (DATs) from caterpillars of E. noyesi (enDAT) and the silkworm, Bombyx mori (B. mori, bmDAT). The two insect DATs shared 88% amino acid sequence homology and functional similarity. Although enDAT and bmDAT showed the highest affinity for dopamine among endogenous amines, they were more sensitive to mammalian NET-selective inhibitors than to mammalian DAT-selective inhibitors. Despite a high cocaine content in the food source for E. noyesi, cocaine sensitivity of enDAT was similar to that of bmDAT, suggesting that mechanisms other than DAT insensitivity to cocaine, such as cocaine sequestration, might be responsible for cocaine resistance in this species. Given the significant differences in pharmacological profile from mammalian DATs, invertebrate DATs provide excellent tools for identifying regions and residues in the transporters that contribute to high-affinity binding of psychostimulants and antidepressants.

  12. A catalog for the transcripts from the venomous structures of the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua: identification of the proteins potentially involved in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Ana B. G.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Guimarães, Jorge A.; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Accidents with the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua are often associated with a coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. In the present study, we have constructed cDNA libraries from two venomous structures of the caterpillar, namely the tegument and the bristle. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed in parallel. Over one thousand cDNAs were obtained and clustered to produce a database of 538 contigs and singletons (clusters) for the tegument library and 368 for the bristle library. We have thus identified dozens of full-length cDNAs coding for proteins with sequence homology to snake venom prothrombin activator, trypsin-like enzymes, blood coagulation factors and prophenoloxidase cascade activators. We also report cDNA coding for cysteine proteases, Group III phospholipase A2, C-type lectins, lipocalins, in addition to protease inhibitors including serpins, Kazal-type inhibitors, cystatins and trypsin inhibitor-like molecules. Antibacterial proteins and housekeeping genes are also described. A significant number of sequences were devoid of database matches, suggesting that their biologic function remains to be defined. We also report the N-terminus of the most abundant proteins present in the bristle, tegument, hemolymph, and "cryosecretion". Thus, we have created a catalog that contains the predicted molecular weight, isoelectric point, accession number, and putative function for each selected molecule from the venomous structures of L. obliqua. The role of these molecules in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome caused by envenomation with this caterpillar is discussed. All sequence information and the Supplemental Data, including Figures and Tables with hyperlinks to FASTA-formatted files for each contig and the best match to the Databases, are available at http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/projects/omes. PMID:16023793

  13. Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths.

    PubMed

    Kariyat, Rupesh R; Mauck, Kerry E; Balogh, Christopher M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2013-04-22

    Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds-including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores.

  14. Non-stationary time series modeling on caterpillars pest of palm oil for early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyowati, Susi; Nugraha, Rida F.; Mukhaiyar, Utriweni

    2015-12-01

    The oil palm production has an important role for the plantation and economic sector in Indonesia. One of the important problems in the cultivation of oil palm plantation is pests which causes damage to the quality of fruits. The caterpillar pest which feed palm tree's leaves will cause decline in quality of palm oil production. Early warning system is needed to minimize losses due to this pest. Here, we applied non-stationary time series modeling, especially the family of autoregressive models to predict the number of pests based on its historical data. We realized that there is some uniqueness of these pests data, i.e. the spike value that occur almost periodically. Through some simulations and case study, we obtain that the selection of constant factor has a significance influence to the model so that it can shoot the spikes value precisely.

  15. Cadmium and high temperature effects on brain and behaviour of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars originating from polluted and less-polluted forests.

    PubMed

    Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Petković, Branka; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Dronjak Čučaković, Slađana; Todorović, Dajana; Vlahović, Milena

    2017-10-01

    Insects brain as a part of nervous system is the first-line of fast stress response that integrate stress signals to regulate all aspects of insect physiology and behaviour. The cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation factor (BF), activity of the neurotoxicity biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dopamine content, expression and amount of Hsp70 in the brain and locomotor activity were evaluated in the 4th instar of Lymantria dispar L. caterpillars fed a Cd supplemented diet and reared in an optimal temperature regime (23 °C) and/or exposed to high temperature (28 °C). The insects originated from two forests, one close to "Nikola Tesla" thermoelectric power plant, Obrenovac (polluted population), and the other Kosmaj mountain (less-polluted population, far from any industrial region). The Cd BF was higher in the less-polluted than in the polluted population especially at the high ambient temperature. AChE activity and dopamine content were changed in the brains of L. dispar from both populations in the same manner. Hsp70 concentration in caterpillar brains showed opposite trends, a decrease in the less-polluted and an increase in the polluted population. Locomotor activity was modified in both Lymantria dispar populations, but the pattern of changes depended on the stressors and their combined effect. ACh activity and dopamine content are sensitive parameters to Cd exposure, regardless of pollutant experience, and might be promising biomarkers in monitoring forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mitochondrial phylogeny, divergence history and high-altitude adaptation of grassland caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) inhabiting the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Jia, Cheng-Lin; Li, Xiao-Peng; Yang, Xing-Zhuo; Feng, Run-Qiu

    2018-05-01

    Grassland caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) are the most important pests in alpine meadows of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and have well adapted to high-altitude environments. To further understand the evolutionary history and their adaptation to the TP, we newly determined seven complete TP Gynaephora mitogenomes. Compared to single genes, whole mitogenomes provided the best phylogenetic signals and obtained robust results, supporting the monophyly of the TP Gynaephora species and a phylogeny of Arctiinae + (Aganainae + Lymantriinae). Incongruent phylogenetic signals were found among single mitochondrial genes, none of which recovered the same phylogeny as the whole mitogenome. We identified six best-performing single genes using Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests and found that the combinations of rrnS and either cox1 or cox3 generated the same phylogeny as the whole mitogenome, indicating the phylogenetic potential of these three genes for future evolutionary studies of Gynaephora. The TP Gynaephora species were estimated to radiate on the TP during the Pliocene and Quaternary, supporting an association of the diversification and speciation of the TP Gynaephora species with the TP uplifts and associated climate changes during this time. Selection analyses revealed accelerated evolutionary rates of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes in the TP Gynaephora species, suggesting that they accumulated more nonsynonymous substitutions that may benefit their adaptation to high altitudes. Furthermore, signals of positive selection were detected in nad5 of two Gynaephora species with the highest altitude-distributions, indicating that this gene may contribute to Gynaephora's adaptation to divergent altitudes. This study adds to the understanding of the TP Gynaephora evolutionary relationships and suggests a link between mitogenome evolution and ecological adaptation to high-altitude environments in grassland caterpillars. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc

  17. Contribution of different taste cells and signaling pathways to the discrimination of "bitter" taste stimuli by an insect.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Davis, Adrienne; Ramaswamy, Sudha

    2002-08-15

    Animals can discriminate among many different types of foods. This discrimination process involves multiple sensory systems, but the sense of taste is known to play a central role. We asked how the taste system contributes to the discrimination of different "bitter" taste stimuli in Manduca sexta caterpillars. This insect has approximately eight bilateral pairs of taste cells that respond selectively to bitter taste stimuli. Each bilateral pair of bitter-sensitive taste cells has a different molecular receptive range (MRR); some of these taste cells also contain two signaling pathways with distinctive MRRs and temporal patterns of spiking. To test for discrimination, we habituated the caterpillar's taste-mediated aversive response to one bitter taste stimulus (salicin) and then asked whether this habituation phenomenon generalized to four other bitter taste stimuli (caffeine, aristolochic acid, Grindelia extract, and Canna extract). We inferred that the two compounds were discriminable if the habituation phenomenon failed to generalize (e.g., from salicin to aristolochic acid). We found that M. sexta could discriminate between salicin and those bitter taste stimuli that activate (1) different populations of bitter-sensitive taste cells (Grindelia extract and Canna extract) or (2) different signaling pathways within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (aristolochic acid). M. sexta could not discriminate between salicin and a bitter taste stimulus that activates the same signaling pathway within the same bitter-sensitive taste cell (caffeine). We propose that the heterogeneous population of bitter-sensitive taste cells and signaling pathways within this insect facilitates the discrimination of bitter taste stimuli.

  18. Neuroglian on hemocyte surfaces is involved in homophilic and heterophilic interactions of the innate immune system of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Shufei; Kelo, Lisha; Nardi, James B; Kanost, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Neuroglian, a member of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules (L1-CAMs), is expressed on surfaces of granular cells and a subset of large plasmatocytes of Manduca sexta that act as foci for hemocyte aggregation during the innate immune response. Neuroglian expressed on surfaces of transfected Sf9 cells induced their homophilic aggregation, with the aggregation being abolished in the presence of recombinant immunoglobulin (Ig) domains of neuroglian. Neuroglian and its Ig domains also can interact with hemocyte-specific integrin (HS integrin) as demonstrated with an enzyme-linked immunoassay and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay. Neuroglian double-stranded (ds) RNA not only depresses expression of neuroglian in hemocytes but also depresses the cell-mediated encapsulation response of these hemocytes to foreign surfaces. After injection of a monoclonal antibody (MAb 3B11) into M. sexta larvae that recognizes the Ig domains of neuroglian, the cell-mediated encapsulation response of hemocytes was likewise inhibited. The Ig domains of neuroglian are involved in both homophilic and heterophilic interactions, and subsets of these six different Ig domains may affect different functions of neuroglian.

  19. [Outbreak of dermatitis caused by pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Artola-Bordás, F; Arnedo-Pena, A; Romeu-García, M A; Bellido-Blasco, J B

    2008-01-01

    To describe a dermatitis outbreak caused by exposure to pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa ) that took place on March 15th, 2006, in schoolchildren during their stay at a rural farm holiday centre in Villahermosa del Río (Castellón). A cross sectional epidemiological study was carried out on seventy schoolchildren, average age 10 years, and 3 teachers from Castellón. A specific questionnaire was used to be filled in by the schoolchildren. Six cases of dermatitis (attack rate 8.6%: 6/70) took place after children had swum in the heated farm pool and dried themselves with towels that had been left outside the heated pool enclosure, where they had come into contact with Thaumetopoea pityocampa. The cases needed medical attention, with prescription of antihistamine drugs, corticosteroids, and cold showers. The risk of dermatitis from contact with Thaumetopoea pityocampa was very high (Odds Ratio=157.2 Confidence Interval 95% 18.4-inf). Thaumetopoea pityocampa were collected near the swimming pool and Thaumetopoea pityocampa nests were observed on nearby pines. The presence of Thaumetopoea pityocampa near rural centres can cause outbreaks. Health education for schoolchildren and the removal of Thaumetopoea pityocampa nests near these centres are required.

  20. Metabolism of an insect diuretic hormone by Malpighian tubules studied by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Wang, Houle; Schegg, Kathleen M.; Schooley, David A.

    1997-01-01

    The larger of two diuretic hormones of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, (Mas-DH) is a peptide of 41 residues. It is one of a family of seven currently known insect diuretic hormones that are similar to the corticotropin-releasing factor–urotensin–sauvagine family of peptides. We investigated the possible inactivation of Mas-DH by incubating it in vitro with larval Malpighian tubules (Mt), the target organ of the hormone. The medium was analyzed, and degradation products were identified, using on-line microbore reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RPLC-ESI-MS). This sensitive technique allows identification of metabolites of Mas-DH (present at an initial level of ≈1 μM). An accurate Mr value for a metabolite is usually sufficient for unambiguous identification. Mas-DH is cleaved by Mt proteases initially at L29–R30 and R30–A31 under our assay conditions; some Mas-DH is also oxidized, apparently at M2 and M11. The proteolysis can be inhibited by 5 mM EDTA, suggesting that divalent metals are needed for peptide cleavage. The oxidation of the hormone can be inhibited by catalase or 1 mM methionine, indicating that H2O2 or related reactive oxygen species are responsible for the oxidative degradation observed. RPLC-ESI-MS is shown here to be an elegant and efficient method for studying peptide hormone metabolism resulting from unknown proteases and pathways. PMID:9391048

  1. Role of β-Oxidation in Jasmonate Biosynthesis and Systemic Wound Signaling in TomatoW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chuanyou; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Liu, Guanghui; Lee, Gyu In; Jayanty, Sastry; Sageman, Carolyn; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J.; Yagi, Kaori; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Howe, Gregg A.

    2005-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is a lipid-derived signal that regulates plant defense responses to biotic stress. Here, we report the characterization of a JA-deficient mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) that lacks local and systemic expression of defensive proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in response to wounding. Map-based cloning studies demonstrated that this phenotype results from loss of function of an acyl-CoA oxidase (ACX1A) that catalyzes the first step in the peroxisomal β-oxidation stage of JA biosynthesis. Recombinant ACX1A exhibited a preference for C12 and C14 straight-chain acyl-CoAs and also was active in the metabolism of C18 cyclopentanoid-CoA precursors of JA. The overall growth, development, and reproduction of acx1 plants were similar to wild-type plants. However, the mutant was compromised in its defense against tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) attack. Grafting experiments showed that loss of ACX1A function disrupts the production of the transmissible signal for wound-induced PI expression but does not affect the recognition of this signal in undamaged responding leaves. We conclude that ACX1A is essential for the β-oxidation stage of JA biosynthesis and that JA or its derivatives is required both for antiherbivore resistance and the production of the systemic wound signal. These findings support a role for peroxisomes in the production of lipid-based signaling molecules that promote systemic defense responses. PMID:15722469

  2. Changes in mitochondrial electron transport chain activity during insect metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, M E

    2007-02-01

    The midgut of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) is a highly aerobic tissue that is destroyed by programmed cell death during larval-pupal metamorphosis. The death of the epithelium begins after commitment to pupation, and the oxygen consumption of isolated midgut mitochondria decreases soon after commitment. To assess the role of the electron transport chain in this decline in mitochondrial function, the maximal activities of complexes I-IV of the respiratory chain were measured in isolated midgut mitochondria. Whereas there were no developmental changes in the activity of complex I or III, activities of complexes II and IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] were higher in mitochondria from precommitment than postcommitment larvae. This finding is consistent with a higher rate of succinate oxidation in mitochondria isolated from precommitment larvae and reveals that the metamorphic decline in mitochondrial respiration is due to the targeted destruction or inactivation of specific sites within the mitochondria, rather than the indiscriminate destruction of the organelles. The COX turnover number (e- x s(-1) x cytochrome aa3(-1)) was greater for the enzyme from precommitment than postcommitment larvae, indicating a change in the enzyme structure and/or its lipid environment during the early stages of metamorphosis. The turnover number of COX in the intact mitochondria (in organello COX) was also lower in postcommitment larvae. In addition to changes in the protein or membrane phospholipids, the metamorphic decline in this rate constant may be a result of the observed loss of endogenous cytochrome c.

  3. Why do Manduca sexta feed from white flowers? Innate and learnt colour preferences in a hawkmoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyret, Joaquín; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A.; Kelber, Almut

    2008-06-01

    Flower colour is an important signal used by flowering plants to attract pollinators. Many anthophilous insects have an innate colour preference that is displayed during their first foraging bouts and which could help them locate their first nectar reward. Nevertheless, learning capabilities allow insects to switch their colour preferences with experience and thus, to track variation in floral nectar availability. Manduca sexta, a crepuscular hawkmoth widely studied as a model system for sensory physiology and behaviour, visits mostly white, night-blooming flowers lacking UV reflectance throughout its range in the Americas. Nevertheless, the spectral sensitivity of the feeding behaviour of naïve moths shows a narrow peak around 450 nm wavelengths, suggesting an innate preference for the colour blue. Under more natural conditions (i.e. broader wavelength reflectance) than in previous studies, we used dual choice experiments with blue- and white-coloured feeders to investigate the innate preference of naïve moths and trained different groups to each colour to evaluate their learning capabilities. We confirmed the innate preference of M. sexta for blue and found that these moths were able to switch colour preferences after training experience. These results unequivocally demonstrate that M. sexta moths innately prefer blue when presented against white flower models and offer novel experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that learning capabilities could be involved in their foraging preferences, including their widely observed attraction to white flowers in nature.

  4. Why do Manduca sexta feed from white flowers? Innate and learnt colour preferences in a hawkmoth.

    PubMed

    Goyret, Joaquín; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A; Kelber, Almut

    2008-06-01

    Flower colour is an important signal used by flowering plants to attract pollinators. Many anthophilous insects have an innate colour preference that is displayed during their first foraging bouts and which could help them locate their first nectar reward. Nevertheless, learning capabilities allow insects to switch their colour preferences with experience and thus, to track variation in floral nectar availability. Manduca sexta, a crepuscular hawkmoth widely studied as a model system for sensory physiology and behaviour, visits mostly white, night-blooming flowers lacking UV reflectance throughout its range in the Americas. Nevertheless, the spectral sensitivity of the feeding behaviour of naïve moths shows a narrow peak around 450 nm wavelengths, suggesting an innate preference for the colour blue. Under more natural conditions (i.e. broader wavelength reflectance) than in previous studies, we used dual choice experiments with blue- and white-coloured feeders to investigate the innate preference of naïve moths and trained different groups to each colour to evaluate their learning capabilities. We confirmed the innate preference of M. sexta for blue and found that these moths were able to switch colour preferences after training experience. These results unequivocally demonstrate that M. sexta moths innately prefer blue when presented against white flower models and offer novel experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that learning capabilities could be involved in their foraging preferences, including their widely observed attraction to white flowers in nature.

  5. How to perform measurements in a hovering animal's wake: physical modelling of the vortex wake of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed Central

    Tytell, Eric D; Ellington, Charles P

    2003-01-01

    The vortex wake structure of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, was investigated using a vortex ring generator. Based on existing kinematic and morphological data, a piston and tube apparatus was constructed to produce circular vortex rings with the same size and disc loading as a hovering hawkmoth. Results show that the artificial rings were initially laminar, but developed turbulence owing to azimuthal wave instability. The initial impulse and circulation were accurately estimated for laminar rings using particle image velocimetry; after the transition to turbulence, initial circulation was generally underestimated. The underestimate for turbulent rings can be corrected if the transition time and velocity profile are accurately known, but this correction will not be feasible for experiments on real animals. It is therefore crucial that the circulation and impulse be estimated while the wake vortices are still laminar. The scaling of the ring Reynolds number suggests that flying animals of about the size of hawkmoths may be the largest animals whose wakes stay laminar for long enough to perform such measurements during hovering. Thus, at low advance ratios, they may be the largest animals for which wake circulation and impulse can be accurately measured. PMID:14561347

  6. On the total irregularity strength of caterpillar with each internal vertex has degree three

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indriati, Diari; Rosyida, Isnaini; Widodo

    2018-04-01

    Let G be a simple, connected and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling f:V \\cup E\\to \\{1,2,\\ldots,k\\} is defined as totally irregular total k-labeling if the weights of any two different both vertices and edges are distinct. The weight of vertex x is defined as wt(x)=f(x)+{\\sum }xy\\in Ef(xy), while the weight of edge xy is wt(xy)=f(x)+f(xy)+f(y). A minimum k for which G has totally irregular total k-labeling is mentioned as total irregularity strength of G and denoted by ts(G). This paper contains investigation of totally irregular total k-labeling and determination of their total irregularity strengths for caterpillar graphs with each internal vertex between two stars has degree three. The results are ts({S}n,3,n)=\\lceil \\frac{2n}{2}\\rceil, ts({S}n,3,3,n)=\\lceil \\frac{2n+1}{2}\\rceil and ts({S}n,3,3,3,n)=\\lceil \\frac{2n+2}{2}\\rceil for n > 4:

  7. Gustatory Receptor Neurons in Manduca sexta Contain a TrpA1-Dependent Signaling Pathway that Integrates Taste and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Temperature modulates the peripheral taste response of many animals, in part by activating transient receptor potential (Trp) cation channels. We hypothesized that temperature would also modulate peripheral taste responses in larval Manduca sexta. We recorded excitatory responses of the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla to chemical stimuli at 14, 22, and 30 °C. The excitatory responses to 5 chemical stimuli—a salt (KCl), 3 sugars (sucrose, glucose, and inositol) and an alkaloid (caffeine)—were unaffected by temperature. In contrast, the excitatory response to the aversive compound, aristolochic acid (AA), increased robustly with temperature. Next, we asked whether TrpA1 mediates the thermally dependent taste response to AA. To this end, we 1) identified a TrpA1 gene in M. sexta; 2) demonstrated expression of TrpA1 in the lateral and medial styloconic sensilla; 3) determined that 2 TrpA1 antagonists (HC-030031 and mecamylamine) inhibit the taste response to AA, but not caffeine; and then 4) established that the thermal dependence of the taste response to AA is blocked by HC-030031. Taken together, our results indicate that TrpA1 serves as a molecular integrator of taste and temperature in M. sexta. PMID:23828906

  8. 3D-Reconstructions and Virtual 4D-Visualization to Study Metamorphic Brain Development in the Sphinx Moth Manduca Sexta.

    PubMed

    Huetteroth, Wolf; El Jundi, Basil; El Jundi, Sirri; Schachtner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    DURING METAMORPHOSIS, THE TRANSITION FROM THE LARVA TO THE ADULT, THE INSECT BRAIN UNDERGOES CONSIDERABLE REMODELING: new neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. One well acknowledged model to study metamorphic brain development is the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. To further understand mechanisms involved in the metamorphic transition of the brain we generated a 3D standard brain based on selected brain areas of adult females and 3D reconstructed the same areas during defined stages of pupal development. Selected brain areas include for example mushroom bodies, central complex, antennal- and optic lobes. With this approach we eventually want to quantify developmental changes in neuropilar architecture, but also quantify changes in the neuronal complement and monitor the development of selected neuronal populations. Furthermore, we used a modeling software (Cinema 4D) to create a virtual 4D brain, morphing through its developmental stages. Thus the didactical advantages of 3D visualization are expanded to better comprehend complex processes of neuropil formation and remodeling during development. To obtain datasets of the M. sexta brain areas, we stained whole brains with an antiserum against the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin. Such labeled brains were then scanned with a confocal laser scanning microscope and selected neuropils were reconstructed with the 3D software AMIRA 4.1.

  9. Mechanical properties of cocoons constructed consecutively by a single silkworm caterpillar, Bombyx mori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S. Q.; Zhao, H. P.; Feng, X. Q.; Cui, W.; Lin, Z.; Xu, M. Q.

    2008-04-01

    Most animals have the ability to adapt, to some extends and in different ways, the variation or disturbance of environment. In our experiments, we forced a silkworm caterpillar to spin two, three or four thin cocoons by taking it out from the cocoon being constructed. The mechanical properties of these cocoons were studied by static tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Though external disturbances may cause the decrease in the total weight of silk spun by the silkworm, a gradual enhancement was interestingly found in the mechanical properties of these thin cocoons. Scanning electron microscopy observations of the fractured specimens of the cocoons showed that there exist several different energy dissipation mechanisms occurred simultaneously at macro-, meso-, and micro-scales, yielding a superior capacity of cocoons to adsorb the energy of possible attacks from the outside and to protect efficiently its pupa against damage. Through evolution of millions of years, therefore, the silkworm Bombyx mori seems to have gained the ability to adapt external disturbances and to redesign a new cocoon with optimized protective function when its first cocoon has been damaged for some reasons.

  10. Pyruvate cycling and implications for regulation of gluconeogenesis in the insect, Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N

    2000-08-11

    Pyruvate cycling was examined in the insect Manduca sexta L. (2-(13)C)pyruvate was injected into 5th instar larvae maintained on a semisynthetic high sucrose, low sucrose, or sucrose-free diet. Pyruvate cycling and gluconeogenesis were determined from the distribution of (13)C in blood metabolites, including trehalose, the blood sugar of insects, and alanine. Pyruvate cycling was evident from the (13)C enrichment of alanine C3, synthesized by transamination of pyruvate following carboxylation to oxaloacetate and cycling through phosphoenolpyruvate. Based on the relative (13)C enrichments of alanine C2 and C3, insects maintained on the high sucrose diet displayed higher levels of cycling than insects on the other diets. Insects on all the diets, when subsequently starved, displayed low levels of cycling. Gluconeogenesis was evident in insects on sucrose-free or low sucrose diets from the selective (13)C enrichment in trehalose. The level of gluconeogenesis relative to glycolysis was indicated by the (13)C enrichment of trehalose C6 and alanine C3, both enrichments metabolically derived in the same manner. Insects starved after maintenance on the sucrose-free or low sucrose diets remained glucogenic. Insects on the high sucrose diet were not glucogenic, and subsequent starvation did not induce gluconeogenesis. The results indicate that pyruvate kinase plays a critical role in regulating the gluconeogenic/glycolytic balance, and that inhibition of pyruvate kinase is a principal regulatory event during induction of de novo trehalose synthesis. Gluconeogenesis failed to maintain homeostatic levels of blood trehalose, supporting the conclusion that blood sugar level may be important for mediating nutrient intake. Possible factors involved in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in insects are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Effects of Carriers, Emulsifiers, and Biopesticides for Direct Silk Treatments on Caterpillar Feeding Damage and Ear Development in Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Westgate, P J; Schultz, B B; Hazzard, R V

    2017-04-01

    In the northeastern United States, control of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn, particularly corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)], is difficult using organic methods. The direct application of corn oil and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to corn silk has been shown to reduce ear damage from corn earworm in past studies; these studies sought to optimize this method by evaluating additional carrier and biopesticide mixtures that comply with the United States Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and National Organic Standards. Carriers, which are liquids used to dissolve the biopesticide and deliver it into the tip of the ear, may have phytotoxic or insecticidal properties. Experiments conducted from 2001 to 2005 evaluated caterpillar damage and ear development effects from carriers (vegetable and paraffinic oils and carrageenan), biopesticides (Bt, spinsosad, and neem), and three emulsifiers in various combinations when applied directly to the tips of the ears 5-7 d after silk initiation. There were no effects of emulsifiers on ear quality, except for slight reduction in caterpillar damage in one of the two years. There were no differences among corn, soy, canola, and safflower oils in corn earworm control or tip development. The carrageenan carrier had the least effect upon ear development as measured by the length of nonpollinated kernels at the tip, compared to corn oil or paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet Oil), which caused the greatest tip damage as well as an oily discoloration. The carrier-pesticide combinations with the best ear quality overall were spinosad in carrageenan or corn oil, and Bt in carrageenan. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Segmentally distributed metamorphic changes in neural circuits controlling abdominal bending in the hawk moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Lemon, W C; Levine, R B

    1997-06-01

    During the metamorphosis of Manduca sexta the larval nervous system is reorganized to allow the generation of behaviors that are specific to the pupal and adult stages. In some instances, metamorphic changes in neurons that persist from the larval stage are segment-specific and lead to expression of segment-specific behavior in later stages. At the larval-pupal transition, the larval abdominal bending behavior, which is distributed throughout the abdomen, changes to the pupal gin trap behavior which is restricted to three abdominal segments. This study suggests that the neural circuit that underlies larval bending undergoes segment specific modifications to produce the segmentally restricted gin trap behavior. We show, however, that non-gin trap segments go through a developmental change similar to that seen in gin trap segments. Pupal-specific motor patterns are produced by stimulation of sensory neurons in abdominal segments that do not have gin traps and cannot produce the gin trap behavior. In particular, sensory stimulation in non-gin trap pupal segments evokes a motor response that is faster than the larval response and that displays the triphasic contralateral-ipsilateral-contralateral activity pattern that is typical of the pupal gin trap behavior. Despite the alteration of reflex activity in all segments, developmental changes in sensory neuron morphology are restricted to those segments that form gin traps. In non-gin trap segments, persistent sensory neurons do not expand their terminal arbors, as do sensory neurons in gin trap segments, yet are capable of eliciting gin trap-like motor responses.

  13. The hemolymph of caterpillars Spodoptera littoralis: physico-chemical properties and ionic composition compared to culture media.

    PubMed

    Smagghe, G; Van Leeuwen, T

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we determined some physico-chemical properties like osmotic pressure, pH and electrical conductivity of the hemolymph from caterpillars of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during the last larval instar. It was of interest that we observed an increase in osmotic pressure with the increase in age in the last instar that may concur with the start of histolysis at metamorphosis. These physicochemical properties were then compared to those of Grace's and modified Grace's tissue culture medium. In addition, concentrations of the cations Na, K, Ca and Mg, and the anions Cl, NO3, PO4 and SO4 were determined in the insect hemolymph of S. littoralis. The cations K and Mg reached high values with a percent of about 52% of the total amount of cations. The concentration of sodium was low. The total sum of the anions consisted about 56 meq/1, and this allows to neutralise about 45 % of the total cations.

  14. Activation of EGF Receptor Mediates Receptor Axon Sorting and Extension in the Developing Olfactory System of the Moth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Nicholas J.; Tolbert, Leslie P.

    2008-01-01

    During development of the adult olfactory system of the moth Manduca sexta, olfactory receptor neurons extend axons from the olfactory epithelium in the antenna into the brain. As they arrive at the brain, interactions with centrally-derived glial cells cause axons to sort and fasciculate with other axons destined to innervate the same glomeruli. Here we report studies that indicate that activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in axon ingrowth and targeting. Blocking the EGFR kinase domain pharmacologically leads to stalling of many axons in the sorting zone and nerve layer, as well as abnormal axonal fasciculation in the sorting zone. We also find that neuroglian, an IgCAM known to activate the EGFR through homophilic interactions in other systems, is transiently present on olfactory receptor neuron axons and on glia during the critical stages of the sorting process. The neuroglian is resistant to extraction with Triton X-100 in the sorting zone and nerve layer, possibly indicating its stabilization by homophilic binding in these regions. Our results suggest a mechanism whereby neuroglian molecules on axons and possibly sorting zone glia bind homophilically, leading to activation of EGFRs with subsequent effects on axon sorting, pathfinding, and extension, and glomerulus development. PMID:16498681

  15. 3D-Reconstructions and Virtual 4D-Visualization to Study Metamorphic Brain Development in the Sphinx Moth Manduca Sexta

    PubMed Central

    Huetteroth, Wolf; el Jundi, Basil; el Jundi, Sirri; Schachtner, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    During metamorphosis, the transition from the larva to the adult, the insect brain undergoes considerable remodeling: new neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. One well acknowledged model to study metamorphic brain development is the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. To further understand mechanisms involved in the metamorphic transition of the brain we generated a 3D standard brain based on selected brain areas of adult females and 3D reconstructed the same areas during defined stages of pupal development. Selected brain areas include for example mushroom bodies, central complex, antennal- and optic lobes. With this approach we eventually want to quantify developmental changes in neuropilar architecture, but also quantify changes in the neuronal complement and monitor the development of selected neuronal populations. Furthermore, we used a modeling software (Cinema 4D) to create a virtual 4D brain, morphing through its developmental stages. Thus the didactical advantages of 3D visualization are expanded to better comprehend complex processes of neuropil formation and remodeling during development. To obtain datasets of the M. sexta brain areas, we stained whole brains with an antiserum against the synaptic vesicle protein synapsin. Such labeled brains were then scanned with a confocal laser scanning microscope and selected neuropils were reconstructed with the 3D software AMIRA 4.1. PMID:20339481

  16. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta to host plant headspace volatiles.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ann M; Mechaber, Wendy L; Hildebrand, John G

    2003-08-01

    Coupled gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) using antennae of adult female Manduca sexta was employed to screen for olfactory stimulants present in headspace collections from four species of larval host plants belonging to two families: Solanaceae--Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Capiscum annuum (bell pepper), and Datura wrightii; and Martyniaceae--Pronboscideaparviflora. Headspace volatiles were collected from undamaged foliage of potted, living plants. GC-EAD revealed 23 EAD-active compounds, of which 15 were identified by GC-mass spectrometry. Identified compounds included aliphatic, aromatic, and terpenoid compounds bearing a range of functional groups. Nine EAD-active compounds were common to all four host plant species: (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, nonanal, decanal, phenylacetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, benzyl alcohol, geranyl acetone, (E)-nerolidol, and one unidentified compound. Behavioral responses of female moths to an eight-component synthetic blend of selected tomato headspace volatiles were tested in a laboratory wind tunnel. Females were attracted to the blend. A comparison of responses from antennae of males and females to bell pepper headspace volatiles revealed that males responded to the same suite of volatiles as females, except for (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate. EAD responses of males also were lower for (Z)-and (E)-nerolidol and one unidentified compound. Electroantennogram EAG dose-response curves for the 15 identified EAD-active volatiles were recorded. At the higher test doses (10-100 microg), female antennae yielded larger EAG responses to terpenoids and to aliphatic and aromatic esters. Male antennae did respond to the higher doses of (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate, indicating that they can detect this compound. On the basis of ubiquity of the EAD-active volatiles identified to date in host plant headspace collections, we suggest that M. sexta uses a suite of volatiles to locate and identify appropriate host plants.

  17. Development of A-type allatostatin immunoreactivity in antennal lobe neurons of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Utz, Sandra; Schachtner, Joachim

    2005-04-01

    The antennal lobe (AL) of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta is a well-established model system for studying mechanisms of neuronal development. To understand whether neuropeptides are suited to playing a role during AL development, we have studied the cellular localization and temporal expression pattern of neuropeptides of the A-type allatostatin family. Based on morphology and developmental appearance, we distinguished four types of AST-A-immunoreactive cell types. The majority of the cells were local interneurons of the AL (type Ia) which acquired AST-A immunostaining in a complex pattern consisting of three rising (RI-RIII) and two declining phases (DI, DII). Type Ib neurons consisted of two local neurons with large cell bodies not appearing before 7/8 days after pupal ecdysis (P7/P8). Types II and III neurons accounted for single centrifugal neurons, with type II neurons present in the larva and disappearing in the early pupa. The type III neuron did not appear before P7/P8. RI and RII coincided with the rises of the ecdysteroid hemolymph titer. Artificially shifting the pupal 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) peak to an earlier developmental time point resulted in the precocious appearance of AST-A immunostaining in types Ia, Ib, and III neurons. This result supports the hypothesis that the pupal rise in 20E plays a role in AST-A expression during AL development. Because of their early appearance in newly forming glomeruli, AST-A-immunoreactive fibers could be involved in glomerulus formation. Diffuse AST-A labeling during early AL development is discussed as a possible signal providing information for ingrowing olfactory receptor neurons.

  18. Isolation, Culture and Characterization of Hirsutella sinensis Mycelium from Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yun-Fei; Liau, Jian-Ching; Lee, Chien-Sheng; Chiu, Chen-Yaw; Martel, Jan; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Ojcius, David M.; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production. However, O. sinensis fruiting bodies harvested in nature harbor several fungal contaminants, a phenomenon that led to the isolation and characterization of a large number of incorrect mycelium strains. We report here the isolation of a mycelium from a fruiting body of O. sinensis and we identify the isolate as O. sinensis’ anamorph (also called Hirsutella sinensis) based on multi-locus sequence typing of several fungal genes (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2, MCM7, β-tubulin, TEF-1α, and ATP6). The main characteristics of the isolated mycelium, including its optimal growth at low temperature (16°C) and its biochemical composition, are similar to that of O. sinensis fruiting bodies, indicating that the mycelium strain characterized here may be used as a substitute for the rare and expensive O. sinensis fruiting bodies found in nature. PMID:28046129

  19. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor mediates receptor axon sorting and extension in the developing olfactory system of the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Nicholas J; Tolbert, Leslie P

    2006-04-10

    During development of the adult olfactory system of the moth Manduca sexta, olfactory receptor neurons extend axons from the olfactory epithelium in the antenna into the brain. As they arrive at the brain, interactions with centrally derived glial cells cause axons to sort and fasciculate with other axons destined to innervate the same glomeruli. Here we report studies indicating that activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in axon ingrowth and targeting. Blocking the EGFR kinase domain pharmacologically leads to stalling of many axons in the sorting zone and nerve layer as well as abnormal axonal fasciculation in the sorting zone. We also find that neuroglian, an IgCAM known to activate the EGFR through homophilic interactions in other systems, is transiently present on olfactory receptor neuron axons and on glia during the critical stages of the sorting process. The neuroglian is resistant to extraction with Triton X-100 in the sorting zone and nerve layer, possibly indicating its stabilization by homophilic binding in these regions. Our results suggest a mechanism whereby neuroglian molecules on axons and possibly sorting zone glia bind homophilically, leading to activation of EGFRs, with subsequent effects on axon sorting, pathfinding, and extension, and glomerulus development. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del mundo: el caso de un s

  1. Dietary nutrient levels regulate protein and carbohydrate intake, gluconeogenic/glycolytic flux and blood trehalose level in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Borchardt, D B; Wang, L-W

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary casein and sucrose levels on nutrient intake, and distinguished the effects of carbohydrate and protein consumption on growth, fat content, pyruvate metabolism and blood trehalose level of 5th instar Manduca sexta larvae. Growth increased with increasing casein consumption but was unaffected by carbohydrate intake. Fat content also increased with carbohydrate consumption, but on carbohydrate-free diets fat content increased with increased protein consumption. Blood trehalose level and pyruvate metabolism were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of blood following administration of (3-(13)C)pyruvate. On diets containing sucrose, blood trehalose increased with increasing carbohydrate intake, and on most diets trehalose was synthesized entirely from dietary sucrose. Pyruvate cycling, indicated by the alanine C2/C3 (13)C enrichment ratio, increased with carbohydrate consumption reflecting increased glycolysis, and pyruvate decarboxylation exceeded carboxylation on all sucrose diets. Larvae that consumed <75 mg/day sucrose were gluconeogenic, based on the [2 (trehalose C6)(Glx C3/C2)]/alanine C2] (13)C enrichment ratio. On carbohydrate-free diets, blood trehalose levels were low and maintained entirely by gluconeogenesis. Blood trehalose level increased with increasing protein intake. Pyruvate cycling was very low, although many insects displayed higher levels of pyruvate decarboxylation than carboxylation. All gluconeogenic larvae displayed alanine (13)C enrichment ratios <0.35 and had blood trehalose levels <50 mM.

  2. A single Photorhabdus gene, makes caterpillars floppy (mcf), allows Escherichia coli to persist within and kill insects

    PubMed Central

    Daborn, P. J.; Waterfield, N.; Silva, C. P.; Au, C. P. Y.; Sharma, S.; ffrench-Constant, R. H.

    2002-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens, a bacterium with alternate pathogenic and symbiotic phases of its lifestyle, represents a source of novel genes associated with both virulence and symbiosis. This entomopathogen lives in a “symbiosis of pathogens” with nematodes that invade insects. Thus the bacteria are symbiotic with entomopathogenic nematodes but become pathogenic on release from the nematode into the insect blood system. Within the insect, the bacteria need to both avoid the peptide- and cellular- (hemocyte) mediated immune response and also to kill the host, which then acts as a reservoir for bacterial and nematode reproduction. However, the mechanisms whereby Photorhabdus evades the insect immune system and kills the host are unclear. Here we show that a single large Photorhabdus gene, makes caterpillars floppy (mcf), is sufficient to allow Esherichia coli both to persist within and kill an insect. The predicted high molecular weight Mcf toxin has little similarity to other known protein sequences but carries a BH3 domain and triggers apoptosis in both insect hemocytes and the midgut epithelium. PMID:12136122

  3. A single Photorhabdus gene, makes caterpillars floppy (mcf), allows Escherichia coli to persist within and kill insects.

    PubMed

    Daborn, P J; Waterfield, N; Silva, C P; Au, C P Y; Sharma, S; Ffrench-Constant, R H

    2002-08-06

    Photorhabdus luminescens, a bacterium with alternate pathogenic and symbiotic phases of its lifestyle, represents a source of novel genes associated with both virulence and symbiosis. This entomopathogen lives in a "symbiosis of pathogens" with nematodes that invade insects. Thus the bacteria are symbiotic with entomopathogenic nematodes but become pathogenic on release from the nematode into the insect blood system. Within the insect, the bacteria need to both avoid the peptide- and cellular- (hemocyte) mediated immune response and also to kill the host, which then acts as a reservoir for bacterial and nematode reproduction. However, the mechanisms whereby Photorhabdus evades the insect immune system and kills the host are unclear. Here we show that a single large Photorhabdus gene, makes caterpillars floppy (mcf), is sufficient to allow Esherichia coli both to persist within and kill an insect. The predicted high molecular weight Mcf toxin has little similarity to other known protein sequences but carries a BH3 domain and triggers apoptosis in both insect hemocytes and the midgut epithelium.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of the pattern recognition receptors: insights into molecular recognition of invading pathogens in Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiufeng; He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Gunaratna, Ramesh T.; Chen, Yun-ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R.; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detect microbial pathogens and trigger innate immune responses. Previous biochemical studies have elucidated the physiological functions of eleven PRRs in Manduca sexta but our understanding of the recognition process is still limited, lacking genomic perspectives. While 34 C-type lectin-domain proteins and 16 Toll-like receptors are reported in the companion papers, we present here 120 other putative PRRs identified through the genome annotation. These include 76 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins, 14 peptidoglycan recognition proteins, 6 EGF/Nim-domain proteins, 5 β-1,3-glucanase-related proteins, 4 galectins, 4 fibrinogen-related proteins, 3 thioester proteins, 5 immunoglobulin-domain proteins, 2 hemocytins, and 1 Reeler. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis reveal the evolution history of a diverse repertoire of proteins for pathogen recognition. While functions of insect LRR proteins are mostly unknown, their structure diversification is phenomenal: In addition to the Toll homologs, 22 LRR proteins with a signal peptide are expected to be secreted; 18 LRR proteins lacking signal peptides may be cytoplasmic; 36 LRRs with a signal peptide and a transmembrane segment may be non-Toll receptors on the surface of cells. Expression profiles of the 120 genes in 52 tissue samples reflect complex regulation in various developmental stages and physiological states, including some likely by Rel family transcription factors via κB motifs in the promoter regions. This collection of information is expected to facilitate future biochemical studies detailing their respective roles in this model insect. PMID:25701384

  5. Gyroscopic sensing in the wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: the role of sensor location and directional sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Brian T; Morgansen, Kristi A

    2015-10-06

    The wings of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta are lined with mechanoreceptors called campaniform sensilla that encode wing deformations. During flight, the wings deform in response to a variety of stimuli, including inertial-elastic loads due to the wing flapping motion, aerodynamic loads, and exogenous inertial loads transmitted by disturbances. Because the wings are actuated, flexible structures, the strain-sensitive campaniform sensilla are capable of detecting inertial rotations and accelerations, allowing the wings to serve not only as a primary actuator, but also as a gyroscopic sensor for flight control. We study the gyroscopic sensing of the hawkmoth wings from a control theoretic perspective. Through the development of a low-order model of flexible wing flapping dynamics, and the use of nonlinear observability analysis, we show that the rotational acceleration inherent in wing flapping enables the wings to serve as gyroscopic sensors. We compute a measure of sensor fitness as a function of sensor location and directional sensitivity by using the simulation-based empirical observability Gramian. Our results indicate that gyroscopic information is encoded primarily through shear strain due to wing twisting, where inertial rotations cause detectable changes in pronation and supination timing and magnitude. We solve an observability-based optimal sensor placement problem to find the optimal configuration of strain sensor locations and directional sensitivities for detecting inertial rotations. The optimal sensor configuration shows parallels to the campaniform sensilla found on hawkmoth wings, with clusters of sensors near the wing root and wing tip. The optimal spatial distribution of strain directional sensitivity provides a hypothesis for how heterogeneity of campaniform sensilla may be distributed.

  6. The discovery of a novel antagonist - Manduca sexta allatotropin analogue - as an insect midgut active ion transport inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xi-le; Kai, Zhen-Peng; Chamberlin, Mary E; Horodyski, Frank M; Yang, Xin-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The midgut is an important site for both nutrient absorption and ionic regulation in lepidopteran larvae, major pests in agriculture. The larval lepidopteran midgut has become a potent insecticide target over the past few decades. Recent studies have shown that an insect neuropeptide, Manduca sexta allatotropin (Manse-AT), exhibits inhibition of active ion transport (AIT) across the larval midgut epithelium. The full characteristic of the AIT inhibition capacity of Manse-AT is essential to assay. In this study, AIT inhibition across the M. sexta midgut by Manse-AT and its analogues in a range of concentrations was assayed. The structure-activity relationship of Manse-AT was also studied by truncated and alanine-replacement strategies. Our results identified three residues, Thr4, Arg6 and Phe8, as the most important components for activity on the midgut. Replacement of Glu1, Met2 and Met3 reduced the potency of the analogues. The conservative substitution of Gly7 with alanine had little effect on the potency of the analogues. We demonstrated for the first time that Manse-AT (10-13) behaves as a potent antagonist in vitro on active ion transport across the epithelium of the posterior midgut in M. sexta. Structure-activity studies of Manse-AT are useful in developing lead compounds for the design and testing of synthetic antagonists, ultimately to develop potent and specific pest control strategies. Manse-AT (10-13) has been discovered as the first Manse-AT antagonist, with a significant effect and a short sequence compared with other insect neuropeptides. It may be a new potential pest control agent in the future. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. REVERSE SIGNALING BY GPI-LINKED MANDUCA EPHRIN REQUIRES A SRC FAMILY KINASE TO RESTRICT NEURONAL MIGRATION IN VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Coate, Thomas M.; Swanson, Tracy L.; Copenhaver, Philip F.

    2011-01-01

    Reverse signaling via GPI-linked Ephrins may help control cell proliferation and outgrowth within the nervous system, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. In the embryonic enteric nervous system (ENS) of the moth Manduca sexta, migratory neurons forming the enteric plexus (EP cells) express a single Ephrin ligand (GPI-linked MsEphrin), while adjacent midline cells that are inhibitory to migration express the cognate receptor (MsEph). Knocking down MsEph receptor expression in cultured embryos with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides allowed the EP cells to cross the midline inappropriately, consistent with the model that reverse signaling via MsEphrin mediates a repulsive response in the ENS. Src family kinases have been implicated in reverse signaling by type-A Ephrins in other contexts, and MsEphrin colocalizes with activated forms of endogenous Src in the leading processes of the EP cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Src within the developing ENS induced aberrant midline crossovers, similar to the effect of blocking MsEphrin reverse signaling. Hyperstimulating MsEphrin reverse signaling with MsEph-Fc fusion proteins induced the rapid activation of endogenous Src specifically within the EP cells, as assayed by Western blots of single embryonic gut explants and by whole-mount immunostaining of cultured embryos. In longer cultures, treatment with MsEph-Fc caused a global inhibition of EP cell migration and outgrowth, an effect that was prevented by inhibiting Src activation. These results support the model that MsEphrin reverse signaling induces the Src-dependent retraction of EP cell processes away from the enteric midline, thereby helping to confine the neurons to their appropriate pathways. PMID:19295147

  8. Revision of the Mesoamerican species of Calolydella Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) and description of twenty-three new species reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, AJ; Wood, D. Monty; Smith, M. Alex; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Twenty-three new species of the genus Calolydella Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Tachinidae) are described, all reared from multiple species of wild-caught caterpillars across a wide variety of families (Lepidoptera: Crambidae; Erebidae; Geometridae; Hesperiidae; Lycaenidae; Nymphalidae; Pieridae; Riodinidae; and Sphingidae). All caterpillars were collected within Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), in northwestern Costa Rica. This study provides a concise description of each new species using morphology, life history, molecular data, and photographic documentation. In addition to the new species, we also provide a generic redescription and revised key to species of the genus Calolydella from Central and South America. New information The following 23 new species of Calolydella are described by Fleming and Wood: C. adelinamoralesae sp. n., C. alexanderjamesi sp. n., C. argentea sp. n., C. aureofacies sp. n., C. bicolor sp. n., C. bifissus sp. n., C. crocata sp. n., C. destituta sp. n., C. discalis sp. n., C. erasmocoronadoi sp. n., C. felipechavarriai sp. n., C. fredriksjobergi sp. n., C. inflatipalpis sp. n., C. interrupta sp. n., C. nigripalpis sp. n., C. omissa sp. n., C. ordinalis sp. n., C. renemalaisei sp. n., C. susanaroibasae sp. n., C. tanyadapkeyae sp. n., C. tenebrosa sp. n., C. timjamesi sp. n., C. virginiajamesae sp. n. Lydella frugale Curran, 1934 is proposed as a new synonym of Pygophorinia peruviana Townsend, 1927, syn. n., under the combination Calolydella frugale (Curran, 1934), comb. n. PMID:29674932

  9. Localization of a GABA transporter to glial cells in the developing and adult olfactory pathway of the moth Manduca sexta1

    PubMed Central

    Oland, Lynne A; Gibson, Nicholas J; Tolbert, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Glial cells have several critical roles in the developing and adult olfactory (antennal) lobe of the moth Manduca sexta. Early in development, glial cells occupy discrete regions of the developing olfactory pathway and processes of GABAergic neurons extend into some of these regions. Because GABA is known to have developmental effects in a variety of systems, we explored the possibility that the glial cells express a GABA transporter that could regulate GABA levels to which olfactory neurons and glial cells are exposed. Using an antibody raised against a characterized high-affinity M. sexta GABA transporter with high sequence homology to known mammalian GABA transporters (Mbungu et al., 1995; Umesh and Gill, 2002), we found that the GABA transporter is localized to subsets of centrally derived glial cells during metamorphic adult development. The transporter persists into adulthood in a subset of the neuropil-associated glial cells, but its distribution pattern as determined by light- and electron-microscopic-level immunocytochemistry indicates that it could not serve to regulate GABA concentration in the synaptic cleft. Rather its role is more likely to regulate extracellular GABA levels within the glomerular neuropil. Expression in the sorting zone glial cells disappears after the period of olfactory receptor axon ingrowth, but may be important during ingrowth if GABA regulates axon growth. Glial cells take up GABA, and that uptake can be blocked by DABA. This is the first molecular evidence that the central glial cell population in this pathway is heterogeneous. PMID:20058309

  10. Phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling of the pattern recognition receptors: Insights into molecular recognition of invading pathogens in Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; He, Yan; Cao, Xiaolong; Gunaratna, Ramesh T; Chen, Yun-ru; Blissard, Gary; Kanost, Michael R; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-07-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detect microbial pathogens and trigger innate immune responses. Previous biochemical studies have elucidated the physiological functions of eleven PRRs in Manduca sexta but our understanding of the recognition process is still limited, lacking genomic perspectives. While 34 C-type lectin-domain proteins and 16 Toll-like receptors are reported in the companion papers, we present here 120 other putative PRRs identified through the genome annotation. These include 76 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins, 14 peptidoglycan recognition proteins, 6 EGF/Nim-domain proteins, 5 β-1,3-glucanase-related proteins, 4 galectins, 4 fibrinogen-related proteins, 3 thioester proteins, 5 immunoglobulin-domain proteins, 2 hemocytins, and 1 Reeler. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis reveal the evolution history of a diverse repertoire of proteins for pathogen recognition. While functions of insect LRR proteins are mostly unknown, their structure diversification is phenomenal: In addition to the Toll homologs, 22 LRR proteins with a signal peptide are expected to be secreted; 18 LRR proteins lacking signal peptides may be cytoplasmic; 36 LRRs with a signal peptide and a transmembrane segment may be non-Toll receptors on the surface of cells. Expression profiles of the 120 genes in 52 tissue samples reflect complex regulation in various developmental stages and physiological states, including some likely by Rel family transcription factors via κB motifs in the promoter regions. This collection of information is expected to facilitate future biochemical studies detailing their respective roles in this model insect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Manduca sexta proprophenoloxidase activating proteinase-3 (PAP3) stimulates melanization by activating proPAP3, proSPHs, and proPOs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Lu, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Haobo

    2014-01-01

    Melanization participates in various insect physiological processes including antimicrobial immune responses. Phenoloxidase (PO), a critical component of the enzyme system catalyzing melanin formation, is produced as an inactive precursor prophenoloxidase (proPO) and becomes active via specific proteolytic cleavage by proPO activating proteinase (PAP). In Manduca sexta, three PAPs can activate proPOs in the presence of two serine proteinase homologs (SPH1 and SPH2). While the hemolymph proteinases (HPs) that generate the active PAPs are known, it is unclear how the proSPHs (especially proSPH1) are activated. In this study, we isolated from plasma of bar-stage M. sexta larvae an Ile-Glu-Ala-Arg-p-nitroanilide hydrolyzing enzyme that cleaved the proSPHs. This proteinase, PAP3, generated active SPH1 and SPH2, which function as cofactors for PAP3 in proPO activation. Cleavage of the purified recombinant proSPHs by PAP3 yielded 38 kDa bands similar in mobility to the SPHs formed in vivo. Surprisingly, PAP3 also can activate proPAP3 to stimulate melanization in a direct positive feedback loop. The enhanced proPO activation concurred with the cleavage activation of proHP6, proHP8, proPAP1, proPAP3, proSPH1, proSPH2, proPOs, but not proHP14 or proHP21. These results indicate that PAP3, like PAP1, is a key factor of the self-reinforcing mechanism in the proPO activation system, which is linked to other immune responses in M. sexta. PMID:24768974

  12. Evaluation of early fetal loss induced by gavage with eastern tent caterpillars in pregnant mares.

    PubMed

    Bernard, William V; LeBlanc, Michelle M; Webb, Bruce A; Stromberg, Arnold J

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether gavage of pregnant mares (housed without access to pasture) with starved eastern tent caterpillars (ETCs) or their excreta is associated with early fetal loss (EFL), panophthalmitis, or pericarditis. Randomized clinical trial. 15 mares. 15 mares with fetuses from 40 to 80 days of gestation (dGa) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups and received 2.5 g of ETC excreta, 50 g of starved ETCs, or 500 mL of water, respectively, once daily for 10 days. Mares were housed in box stalls, walked twice daily, and not allowed access to pasture for 12 days before or during the 21-day trial. 4 of 5 mares gavaged with starved ETCs (group 2) aborted on trial days 8 (2 mares), 10, and 13. No control mares or mares that received excreta aborted. Differences between the ETC group and other groups were significant. Abortion occurred on 49, 64, 70, and 96 dGa. Allantoic fluids became hyperechoic the day before or the day of fetal death. Alpha streptococci were recovered from 1 fetus and Serratia marcescens from 3 fetuses. Neither panophthalmitis nor pericarditis was seen. The abortifacient component of the ETCs was not elucidated. These findings suggest that mares with fetuses from 40 to 120 days of gestation should not be exposed to ETCs because they may induce abortion.

  13. Utilization of [14C]phenylalanine derived from arylphorin or free amino acid in Manduca sexta pharate adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M.; Tischler, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    The role of arylphorin as a storage protein was studied using 14C-arylphorin. 14C-arylphorin was produced optimally by incubating one-half fat body from Manduca sexta fifth instar larvae at 22 degrees C for 24 h, in 1 ml of medium containing amino acids at 25% of their physiological concentration with [U-14C]-phenylalanine (phe) provided initially without nonlabeled phenylalanine. Nonlabeled phe was provided after 1 h at 16% of its physiological concentration. The specific activity of 14C-arylphorin produced in vitro was 30 times greater than that generated in vivo. Injection of 14C-arylphorin into pharate adults was used to study the distribution of 14C-phe derived from this protein into 14CO2 and tissues for comparison with injection of free 14C-phe during the middle (days 6 to 12 pharate adult) and late (days 12 to 17 pharate adult) stages of adult development. Appearance of 14CO2 from 14C-arylphorin as compared to 14C-phenylalanine showed a slower time course during both the middle and late stages of development, in keeping with the time needed for degradation of the protein. In accord with faster phe turnover near the end of adult development, total 14CO2 production was greater and the retention of 14C in hemolymph and fat body was less compared to the middle stage of development regardless of whether 14C-arylphorin or 14C-phe was injected. In the middle stage of development, the appearance of 14C in the cuticle and head parts was greater, whereas incorporation into abdomen and thorax was less than during the late stage of development. Since the pattern of 14C distribution from 14C-arylphorin and 14C-phe was similar, one major function of arylphorin must be as a storage protein replenishing the supply of free amino acids used for synthesis of adult tissues. These results also suggest a limited contribution of M. sexta arylphorin to formation of the cuticle subsequent to day-6 pharate adult.

  14. Development and steroid regulation of RFamide immunoreactivity in antennal-lobe neurons of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Schachtner, Joachim; Trosowski, Björn; D'Hanis, Wolfgang; Stubner, Stephan; Homberg, Uwe

    2004-06-01

    During metamorphosis, the insect nervous system undergoes considerable remodeling: new neurons are integrated while larval neurons are remodeled or eliminated. To understand further the mechanisms involved in transforming larval to adult tissue we have mapped the metamorphic changes in a particularly well established brain area, the antennal lobe of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta, using an antiserum recognizing RFamide-related neuropeptides. Five types of RFamide-immunoreactive (ir) neurons could be distinguished in the antennal lobe, based on morphology and developmental appearance. Four cell types (types II-V, each consisting of one or two cells) showed RFamide immunostaining in the larva that persisted into metamorphosis. By contrast, the most prominent group (type I), a mixed population of local and projection neurons consisting of about 60 neurons in the adult antennal lobe, acquired immunostaining in a two-step process during metamorphosis. In a first step, from 5 to 7 days after pupal ecdysis, the number of labeled neurons reached about 25. In a second step, starting about 4 days later, the number of RFamide-ir neurons increased within 6 days to about 60. This two-step process parallels the rise and fall of the developmental hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in the hemolymph. Artificially shifting the 20E peak to an earlier developmental time point resulted in the precocious appearance of RFamide immunostaining and led to premature formation of glomeruli. Prolonging high 20E concentrations to stages when the hormone titer starts to decline had no effect on the second increase of immunostained cell numbers. These results support the idea that the rise in 20E, which occurs after pupal ecdysis, plays a role in the first phase of RFamide expression and in glomeruli formation in the developing antennal lobes. The role of 20E in the second phase of RFamide expression is less clear, but increased cell numbers showing RFamide-ir do not appear to be a consequence of

  15. Immunocytochemical localization of choline acetyltransferase and muscarinic ACh receptors in the antenna during development of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Clark, Julie; Meisner, Shannon; Torkkeli, Päivi H

    2005-04-01

    Immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies was used to investigate the locations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sections of the developing antennae of the moth Manduca sexta. The results were correlated with a previous morphological investigation in the developing antennae which allowed us to locate different cell types at various stages of development. Our findings indicated that the muscarinic cholinergic system was not restricted to the sensory neurons but was also present in glial and epidermal cells. By day 4-5 of adult development, immunoreactivity against both antibodies was present in the axons of the antennal nerve, and more intense labeling was present in sections from older pupae. At days 4-9, the cell bodies of the sensory neurons in the basal part of the epidermis were also intensely immunolabeled by the anti-mAChR antibody. In mature flagella, large numbers of cells, some with processes into hairs, were strongly labeled by both antibodies. Antennal glial cells were intensely immunolabeled with both antibodies by days 4-5, but in later stages, it was not possible to discriminate between glial and neural staining. At days 4-9, we observed a distinctly labeled layer of epidermal cells close to the developing cuticle. The expression of both ChAT and mAChRs by neurons in moth antennae may allow the regulation of excitability by endogenous ACh. Cholinergic communication between neurons and glia may be part of the system that guides axon elongation during development. The cholinergic system in the apical part of the developing epidermis could be involved in cuticle formation.

  16. Nine new species of Itaplectops (Diptera: Tachinidae) reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with a key to Itaplectops species

    PubMed Central

    Wood, D. Monty; Smith, M. Alex; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nine new species of Itaplectops Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) are described from Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. All specimens have been reared from ­various species of ACG caterpillars in the families Limacodidae and Dalceridae. By combining morphological, photographic, and genetic barcode data we provide clear yet concise descriptions. The following nine new species are described in the genus Itaplectops: Itaplectops akselpalolai, Itaplectops anikenpalolae, Itaplectops argentifrons, Itaplectops aurifrons, Itaplectops ericpalolai, Itaplectops griseobasis, Itaplectops omissus, Itaplectops shellymcsweeneyae, Itaplectops tristanpalolai. We move Itaplectops to the tribe Uramyini from its original placement within the Blondeliini, and we discuss its systematic placement. We also provide a key differentiating the, genera of the tribe Uramyini as well as the known species of Itaplectops. PMID:26752964

  17. Host plant associated enhancement of immunity and survival in virus infected caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Smilanich, Angela M; Langus, Tara C; Doan, Lydia; Dyer, Lee A; Harrison, Joshua G; Hsueh, Jennifer; Teglas, Mike B

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between host plant chemistry, the immune response, and insect pathogens can shed light on host plant use by insect herbivores. In this study, we focused on how interactions between the insect immune response and plant secondary metabolites affect the response to a viral pathogen. Based upon prior research, we asked whether the buckeye caterpillar, Junonia coenia (Nymphalidae), which specializes on plants containing iridoid glycosides (IGs), is less able to resist the pathogenic effects of a densovirus infection when feeding on plants with high concentrations of IGs. In a fully factorial design, individuals were randomly assigned to three treatments, each of which had two levels: (1) exposed to the densovirus versus control, (2) placed on a plant species with high concentrations of IGs (Plantago lanceolata, Plantaginaceae) versus low concentrations of IGs (P. major), and (3) control versus surface sterilized to exclude surface microbes that may contribute to viral resistance. We measured phenoloxidase (PO) activity, hemocyte counts, and gut bacterial diversity (16S ribosomal RNA) during the fourth larval instar, as well as development time, pupal weight, and survival to adult. Individuals infected with the virus were immune-suppressed (as measured by PO response and hemocyte count) and developed significantly faster than virus-free individuals. Contrary to our predictions,mortality was significantly less for virus challengedindividuals reared on the high IG plant compared to the low IG plant.This suggests that plant secondary metabolites can influence survival from viral infection and may be associated with activation of PO. Removing egg microbes did not affect the immune response or survival of the larvae. In summary, these results suggest that plant secondary metabolites are important for survival against a viral pathogen. Even though the PO response was better on the high IG plant, the extent to which this result contributes to

  18. Pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa envenomation in 109 dogs: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pouzot-Nevoret, Céline; Cambournac, Maxime; Violé, Amandine; Goy-Thollot, Isabelle; Bourdoiseau, Gilles; Barthélemy, Anthony

    2017-06-15

    Contact with the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth (CPPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa induces severe local allergic reactions. The purpose of this large-scale retrospective cohort-study was to describe the clinical manifestations and related risk factors of CPPM exposure. This cohort-study included 109 dogs between the years of 2000 and 2016. Tongue lesions ranging from oedema to severe necrosis were observed in 94/109 dogs (86%). The following systemic signs were observed in 60/109 dogs (55%): vomiting (52/109, 48%), dyspnoea (6/109, 5%), hypovolemia (4/109, 4%) and diarrhoea (2/109, 2%). Based on the time elapsed from CPPM contact to the first oral flushing, three groups were defined: <2 h (group 1, 37/105, 35%), 2 h-6 h (group 2, 39/105, 37%) and >6 h (group 3, 29/105, 28%). Tongue necrosis (TN) at admission was significantly more common in the dogs in group 3 than those in groups 1 and 2 (45% vs. 5% and 5% respectively, p = 0.0002). In addition, the development of TN during hospitalisation was significantly more common in the dogs in group 3 (65%) than in those in the other groups (21% in group 1, p = 0.02) and 31% in group 2, p = 0.001). The dogs in group 3 presented a 14.63-fold higher risk of TN at admission and a 3.78-fold higher risk of developing necrosis during hospitalisation compared with the other groups. The survival rate after exposure was 97%. Long-term follow-up data were available for 69/109 dogs (63%). Twenty-three dogs (37%) had persistent, definitive TN without major consequences on quality of life. Elapsed time between contact and first oral flushing appears to be a key determinant for the progression of necrotic lesions, and the best results were observed when flushing occurred within 6 h of contact. The prognosis of CPPM envenomation is excellent, with a short hospitalisation duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Flexible Caterpillar-Like Gold Nanoparticle Assemblies with Ultrasmall Nanogaps for Enhanced Dual-Modal Imaging and Photothermal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yuanzhi; Ma, Xuehua; Gao, Junhua; Chen, Guoxin; Li, Zihou; Wu, Xiaoxia; Yu, Zhangsen; Xing, Jie; Sun, Li; Ruan, Huimin; Luo, Lijia; Xiang, Lingchao; Dong, Chen; Ren, Wenzhi; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Aiguo

    2018-05-01

    Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) assemblies (GNAs) have attracted attention since enhanced coupling plasmonic resonance (CPR) emerged in the nanogap between coupling AuNPs. For one dimensional GNAs (1D-GNAs), most CPR from the nanogaps could be easily activated by electromagnetic waves and generate drastically enhanced CPR because the nanogaps between coupling AuNPs are linearly distributed in the 1D-GNAs. The reported studies focus on the synthesis of 1D-GNAs and fundamental exploration of CPR. There are still problems which impede further applications in nanomedicine, such as big size (>500 nm), poor water solubility, and/or poor stability. In this study, a kind of 1D flexible caterpillar-like GNAs (CL-GNAs) with ultrasmall nanogaps, good water solubility, and good stability is developed. The CL-GNAs have a flexible structure that can randomly move to change their morphology, which is rarely reported. Numerous ultrasmall nanogaps (<1 nm) are linearly distributed along the structure of CL-GNAs and generate enhanced CPR. The toxicity assessments in vitro and vivo respectively demonstrate that CL-GNAs have a low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility. The CL-GNAs can be used as an efficient photothermal agent for photothermal therapy, a probe for Raman imaging and photothermal imaging. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Mas-allatotropin in the developing antennal lobe of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta: distribution, time course, developmental regulation, and colocalization with other neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Utz, Sandra; Huetteroth, Wolf; Vömel, Matthias; Schachtner, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The paired antennal lobes (ALs) of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta serve as a well-established model for studying development of the primary integration centers for odor information in the brain. To further reveal the role of neuropeptides during AL development, we have analyzed cellular distribution, developmental time course, and regulation of the neuropeptide M. sexta allatotropin (Mas-AT). On the basis of morphology and appearance during AL formation, seven major types of Mas-AT-immunoreactive (ir) cells could be distinguished. Mas-AT-ir cells are identified as local, projection, and centrifugal neurons, which are either persisting larval or newly added adult-specific neurons. Complementary immunostaining with antisera against two other neuropeptide families (A-type allatostatins, RFamides) revealed colocalization within three of the Mas-AT-ir cell types. On the basis of this neurochemistry, the most prominent type of Mas-AT-ir neurons, the local AT neurons (LATn), could be divided in three subpopulations. The appearance of the Mas-AT-ir cell types occurring during metamorphosis parallels the rising titer of the developmental hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Artificially shifting the 20E titer to an earlier developmental time point resulted in the precocious occurrence of Mas-AT immunostaining. This result supports the hypothesis that the pupal rise of 20E is causative for Mas-AT expression during AL development. Comparing localization and developmental time course of Mas-AT and other neuropeptides with the time course of AL formation suggests various functions for these neuropeptides during development, including an involvement in the formation of the olfactory glomeruli.

  1. Recent Advances in Insect Olfaction, Specifically Regarding the Morphology and Sensory Physiology of Antennal Sensilla of the Female Sphinx Moth Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    SHIELDS, VONNIE D.C.; HILDEBRAND, JOHN G.

    2008-01-01

    The antennal flagellum of female Manduca sexta bears eight sensillum types: two trichoid, two basiconic, one auriculate, two coeloconic, and one styliform complex sensilla. The first type of trichoid sensillum averages 34 μm in length and is innervated by two sensory cells. The second type averages 26 μm in length and is innervated by either one or three sensory cells. The first type of basiconic sensillum averages 22 μm in length, while the second type averages 15 μm in length. Both types are innervated by three bipolar sensory cells. The auriculate sensillum averages 4 μm in length and is innervated by two bipolar sensory cells. The coeloconic type-A and type-B both average 2 μm in length. The former type is innervated by five bipolar sensory cells, while the latter type, by three bipolar sensory cells. The styliform complex sensillum occurs singly on each annulus and averages 38-40 μm in length. It is formed by several contiguous sensilla. Each unit is innervated by three bipolar sensory cells. A total of 2,216 sensilla were found on a single annulus (annulus 21) of the flagellum. Electrophysiological responses from type-A trichoid sensilla to a large panel of volatile odorants revealed three different subsets of olfactory receptor cells (ORCs). Two subsets responded strongly to only a narrow range of odorants, while the third responded strongly to a broad range of odorants. Anterograde labeling of ORCs from type-A trichoid sensilla revealed that their axons projected mainly to two large female glomeruli of the antennal lobe. PMID:11754510

  2. Time-lagged intraspecific competition in temporally separated cohorts of a generalist insect.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Elizabeth E; Murphy, Shannon M

    2018-03-01

    Competition can have far-reaching consequences for insect fitness and dispersion. Time-lagged interspecific competition is known to negatively affect fitness, yet time-lagged intraspecific competition is rarely studied outside of outbreak conditions. We tested the impact of competition between larval cohorts of the western tent caterpillar (Malacosoma californicum) feeding on chokecherry (Prunus virginiana). We reared larvae on host plants that either had or did not have feeding damage from tent caterpillars the previous season to test the bottom-up fitness effects of intraspecific competition. We measured host-plant quality to test potential mechanisms for bottom-up effects and conducted field oviposition surveys to determine if female adult tent caterpillars avoided host plants with evidence of prior tent caterpillar presence. We found that time-lagged intraspecific competition impacted tent caterpillar fitness by reducing female pupal mass, which is a predictor of lifetime fitness. We found that plants that had been fed upon by tent caterpillars the previous season had leaves that were significantly tougher than plants that had not been fed upon by tent caterpillars, which may explain why female tent caterpillars suffered reduced fitness on these plants. Finally, we found that there were fewer tent caterpillar egg masses on plants that had tent caterpillars earlier in the season than plants without tent caterpillars, which suggests that adult females avoid these plants for oviposition. Our results confirm that intraspecific competition occurs among tent caterpillars and suggests that time-lagged intraspecific competition has been overlooked as an important component of insect fitness.

  3. Dietary fat mediates hyperglycemia and the glucogenic response to increased protein consumption in an insect, Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N

    2004-08-04

    Many insects display non-homeostatic regulation over blood sugar level. The concentration of trehalose varies dramatically depending on physiological and nutritional state. In the absence of dietary carbohydrate, blood trehalose in larvae of the lepidopteran insect Manduca sexta is maintained by gluconeogenesis and is dependent on dietary protein consumption. In the present study, the effect of dietary fat on the glucogenic response of insects to increased dietary protein was examined by NMR analysis of (2-13C)pyruvate metabolism. Last instar larvae were maintained on a carbohydrate-free chemically defined artificial diet having variable levels of casein with and without corn oil. Gluconeogenic flux, the ratio of the rate of gluconeogenesis to the rate of glycolysis, was estimated from the 13C distribution in trehalose arising by gluconeogenesis and the 13C enrichment of alanine due to pyruvate cycling. Insects grew well on carbohydrate-free diets and growth increased with increasing dietary protein level. At all dietary protein levels, larvae grew better on diets with fat. Without dietary fat, larvae were glucogenic but displayed low blood trehalose concentrations, <30 mM, regardless of protein consumption. When fat was included in the diet, however, gluconeogenic flux and blood trehalose level increased sharply in response to increased dietary protein level, with trehalose concentrations >50 mM at higher levels of protein consumption. When offered a choice of a high carbohydrate and a high protein diet, larvae maintained on diets with fat displayed a food preference related to blood sugar level. Those with low blood sugar fed on carbohydrate, while those with high blood sugar preferred protein. Trehalose synthesized from (2-13C)pyruvate exhibited asymmetry in the 13C distribution in individual glucose molecules, indicating a disequilibrium at the triose phosphate isomerase-catalyzed step of the gluconeogenic pathway. In trehalose from larvae on diets with fat

  4. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture

    PubMed Central

    Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

  5. Host Plant Resistance and Insect Pest Management in Chickpea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nearly 60 insect species feed on chickpea worldwide, of which cutworms (black cutworm - Agrotis ipsilon and turnip moth - Agrotis segetum), leaf feeding caterpillars (leaf caterpillar - Spodoptera exigua and hairy caterpillar - Spilarctia oblique), leaf miners (Liriomyza cicerina), aphids (Aphis cr...

  6. Interactions of dietary protein and carbohydrate determine blood sugar level and regulate nutrient selection in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Redak, R A

    2000-09-01

    The non-homeostatic regulation of blood sugar concentration in the insect Manduca sexta L. was affected by nutritional status. Larvae maintained on diets lacking sucrose displayed low concentrations of trehalose, the blood sugar of insects, which varied from 5 to 15 mM with increasing dietary casein level between 12.5 and 75 g/l. These insects were glucogenic, as demonstrated by the selective 13C enrichment of trehalose synthesized from [3-13C]alanine, and de novo synthesis was the sole source of blood sugar. The distribution of 13C in glutamine established that following transamination of the 13C substituted substrate, [3-13C]pyruvate carboxylation rather than decarboxylation was the principal pathway of Pyr metabolism. The mean blood trehalose level was higher in insects maintained on diets with sucrose. At the lowest dietary casein level blood trehalose was approximately 50 mM, and declined to 20 mM at the highest casein level. Gluconeogenesis was detected in insects maintained on sucrose-free diets at the higher protein levels examined, but [3-13C]pyruvate decarboxylation and TCA cycle metabolism was the principal fate of [3-13C]alanine following transamination, and dietary carbohydrate was the principal source of glucose for trehalose synthesis. Feeding studies established a relationship between nutritional status, blood sugar level and dietary self-selection. Insects preconditioned by feeding on diets without sucrose had low blood sugar levels regardless of dietary casein level, and when subsequently given a choice between a sucrose diet or a casein diet, selected the former. Larvae preconditioned on a diet containing sucrose and the lowest level of casein had high blood sugar levels and subsequently selected the casein diet. Larvae maintained on the sucrose diet with the highest casein level had low blood sugar and self-selected the sucrose diet. When preconditioned on diets with sucrose and intermediate levels of casein, insects selected more equally

  7. A Lepidopteran-Specific Gene Family Encoding Valine-Rich Midgut Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Odman-Naresh, Jothini; Duevel, Margret; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Merzendorfer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Many lepidopteran larvae are serious agricultural pests due to their feeding activity. Digestion of the plant diet occurs mainly in the midgut and is facilitated by the peritrophic matrix (PM), an extracellular sac-like structure, which lines the midgut epithelium and creates different digestive compartments. The PM is attracting increasing attention to control lepidopteran pests by interfering with this vital function. To identify novel PM components and thus potential targets for insecticides, we performed an immunoscreening with anti-PM antibodies using an expression library representing the larval midgut transcriptome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We identified three cDNAs encoding valine-rich midgut proteins of M. sexta (MsVmps), which appear to be loosely associated with the PM. They are members of a lepidopteran-specific family of nine VMP genes, which are exclusively expressed in larval stages in M. sexta. Most of the MsVMP transcripts are detected in the posterior midgut, with the highest levels observed for MsVMP1. To obtain further insight into Vmp function, we expressed MsVMP1 in insect cells and purified the recombinant protein. Lectin staining and glycosidase treatment indicated that MsVmp1 is highly O-glycosylated. In line with results from qPCR, immunoblots revealed that MsVmp1 amounts are highest in feeding larvae, while MsVmp1 is undetectable in starving and molting larvae. Finally using immunocytochemistry, we demonstrated that MsVmp1 localizes to the cytosol of columnar cells, which secrete MsVmp1 into the ectoperitrophic space in feeding larvae. In starving and molting larvae, MsVmp1 is found in the gut lumen, suggesting that the PM has increased its permeability. The present study demonstrates that lepidopteran species including many agricultural pests have evolved a set of unique proteins that are not found in any other taxon and thus may reflect an important adaptation in the highly specialized lepidopteran digestive tract facing

  8. Temperature and population density: interactional effects of environmental factors on phenotypic plasticity, immune defenses, and disease resistance in an insect pest.

    PubMed

    Silva, Farley W S; Elliot, Simon L

    2016-06-01

    Temperature and crowding are key environmental factors mediating the transmission and epizooty of infectious disease in ectotherm animals. The host physiology may be altered in a temperature-dependent manner and thus affects the pathogen development and course of diseases within an individual and host population, or the transmission rates (or infectivity) of pathogens shift linearly with the host population density. To our understanding, the knowledge of interactive and synergistic effects of temperature and population density on the host-pathogen system is limited. Here, we tested the interactional effects of these environmental factors on phenotypic plasticity, immune defenses, and disease resistance in the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis . Upon egg hatching, caterpillars were reared in thermostat-controlled chambers in a 2 × 4 factorial design: density (1 or 8 caterpillars/pot) and temperature (20, 24, 28, or 32°C). Of the immune defenses assessed, encapsulation response was directly affected by none of the environmental factors; capsule melanization increased with temperature in both lone- and group-reared caterpillars, although the lone-reared ones presented the most evident response, and hemocyte numbers decreased with temperature regardless of the population density. Temperature, but not population density, affected considerably the time from inoculation to death of velvetbean caterpillar. Thus, velvetbean caterpillars succumbed to Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) more quickly at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures. As hypothesized, temperature likely affected caterpillars' movement rates, and thus the contact between conspecifics, which in turn affected the phenotypic expression of group-reared caterpillars. Our results suggest that environmental factors, mainly temperature, strongly affect both the course of disease in velvetbean caterpillar population and its defenses against pathogens. As a soybean

  9. Opsin cDNA sequences of a UV and green rhodopsin of the satyrine butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, K J A; Eggen, B J L; Janssen, J J M; Stavenga, D G

    2002-11-01

    The cDNAs of an ultraviolet (UV) and long-wavelength (LW) (green) absorbing rhodopsin of the bush brown Bicyclus anynana were partially identified. The UV sequence, encoding 377 amino acids, is 76-79% identical to the UV sequences of the papilionids Papilio glaucus and Papilio xuthus and the moth Manduca sexta. A dendrogram derived from aligning the amino acid sequences reveals an equidistant position of Bicyclus between Papilio and Manduca. The sequence of the green opsin cDNA fragment, which encodes 242 amino acids, represents six of the seven transmembrane regions. At the amino acid level, this fragment is more than 80% identical to the corresponding LW opsin sequences of Dryas, Heliconius, Papilio (rhodopsin 2) and Manduca. Whereas three LW absorbing rhodopsins were identified in the papilionid butterflies, only one green opsin was found in B. anynana.

  10. Ant-lepidopteran associations along African forest edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Azémar, Frédéric; Libert, Michel; Compin, Arthur; Hérault, Bruno; Orivel, Jérôme; Bouyer, Thierry; Corbara, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Working along forest edges, we aimed to determine how some caterpillars can co-exist with territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAAs) in tropical Africa. We recorded caterpillars from 22 lepidopteran species living in the presence of five TDAA species. Among the defoliator and/or nectarivorous caterpillars that live on tree foliage, the Pyralidae and Nymphalidae use their silk to protect themselves from ant attacks. The Notodontidae and lycaenid Polyommatinae and Theclinae live in direct contact with ants; the Theclinae even reward ants with abundant secretions from their Newcomer gland. Lichen feeders (lycaenid; Poritiinae), protected by long bristles, also live among ants. Some lycaenid Miletinae caterpillars feed on ant-attended membracids, including in the shelters where the ants attend them; Lachnocnema caterpillars use their forelegs to obtain trophallaxis from their host ants. Caterpillars from other species live inside weaver ant nests. Those of the genus Euliphyra (Miletinae) feed on ant prey and brood and can obtain trophallaxis, while those from an Eberidae species only prey on host ant eggs. Eublemma albifascia (Erebidae) caterpillars use their thoracic legs to obtain trophallaxis and trophic eggs from ants. Through transfer bioassays of last instars, we noted that herbivorous caterpillars living in contact with ants were always accepted by alien conspecific ants; this is likely due to an intrinsic appeasing odor. Yet, caterpillars living in ant shelters or ant nests probably acquire cues from their host colonies because they were considered aliens and killed. We conclude that co-evolution with ants occurred similarly in the Heterocera and Rhopalocera.

  11. Chemical disguise as particular caste of host ants in the ant inquiline parasite Niphanda fusca (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hojo, Masaru K.; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Akino, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Ozaki, Mamiko; Yamaoka, Ryohei

    2008-01-01

    The exploitation of parental care is common in avian and insect ‘cuckoos’ and these species engage in a coevolutionary arms race. Caterpillars of the lycaenid butterfly Niphanda fusca develop as parasites inside the nests of host ants (Camponotus japonicus) where they grow by feeding on the worker trophallaxis. We hypothesized that N. fusca caterpillars chemically mimic host larvae, or some particular castes of the host ant, so that the caterpillars are accepted and cared for by the host workers. Behaviourally, it was observed that the host workers enthusiastically tended glass dummies coated with the cuticular chemicals of larvae or males and those of N. fusca caterpillars living together. Cuticular chemical analyses revealed that N. fusca caterpillars grown in a host ant nest acquired a colony-specific blend of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). Furthermore, the CHC profiles of the N. fusca caterpillars were particularly close to those of the males rather than those of the host larvae and the others. We suggest that N. fusca caterpillars exploit worker care by matching their cuticular profile to that of the host males, since the males are fed by trophallaxis with workers in their natal nests for approximately ten months. PMID:18842547

  12. Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plans for Estimating Alfalfa Caterpillar, Colias lesbia, Egg Density in Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, Fields in Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Gerardo V.; Porta, Norma C. La; Avalos, Susana; Mazzuferi, Vilma

    2013-01-01

    The alfalfa caterpillar, Colias lesbia (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), is a major pest of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), crops in Argentina. Its management is based mainly on chemical control of larvae whenever the larvae exceed the action threshold. To develop and validate fixed-precision sequential sampling plans, an intensive sampling programme for C. lesbia eggs was carried out in two alfalfa plots located in the Province of Córdoba, Argentina, from 1999 to 2002. Using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans software, 12 additional independent data sets were used to validate the sequential sampling plan with precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 (SE/mean), respectively. For a range of mean densities of 0.10 to 8.35 eggs/sample, an average sample size of only 27 and 26 sample units was required to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25 for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, average sample size increased to 161 and 157 sample units for the sampling plans of Green and Kuno, respectively. We recommend using Green's sequential sampling plan because it is less sensitive to changes in egg density. These sampling plans are a valuable tool for researchers to study population dynamics and to evaluate integrated pest management strategies. PMID:23909840

  13. Plant quality and local adaptation undermine relocation in a bog specialist butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Turlure, Camille; Radchuk, Viktoriia; Baguette, Michel; Meijrink, Mark; den Burg, Arnold; Vries, Michiel Wallis; Duinen, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The butterfly Boloria aquilonaris is a specialist of oligotrophic ecosystems. Population viability analysis predicted the species to be stable in Belgium and to collapse in the Netherlands with reduced host plant quality expected to drive species decline in the latter. We tested this hypothesis by rearing B. aquilonaris caterpillars from Belgian and Dutch sites on host plants (the cranberry, Vaccinium oxycoccos). Dutch plant quality was lower than Belgian one conferring lower caterpillar growth rate and survival. Reintroduction and/or supplementation may be necessary to ensure the viability of the species in the Netherlands, but some traits may have been selected solely in Dutch caterpillars to cope with gradual changes in host plant quality. To test this hypothesis, the performance of Belgian and Dutch caterpillars fed with plants from both countries were compared. Dutch caterpillars performed well on both plant qualities, whereas Belgian caterpillars could not switch to lower quality plants. This can be considered as an environmentally induced plastic response of caterpillars and/or a local adaptation to plant quality, which precludes the use of Belgian individuals as a unique solution for strengthening Dutch populations. More generally, these results stress that the relevance of local adaptation in selecting source populations for relocation may be as important as restoring habitat quality. PMID:23467336

  14. Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

    2008-10-01

    This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis.

  15. Alternative Oxidase in Resistance to Biotic Stresses: Nicotiana attenuata AOX Contributes to Resistance to a Pathogen and a Piercing-Sucking Insect But Not Manduca sexta Larvae1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Oh, Youngjoo; Li, Hongyu; Baldwin, Ian T.; Galis, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The role of the alternative respiratory pathway in the protection of plants against biotic stress was examined in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) plants (irAOX) silenced in the expression of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE (AOX) gene. Wild-type and irAOX plants were independently challenged with (1) chewing herbivores (Manduca sexta), (2) piercing-sucking insects (Empoasca spp.), and (3) bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000), showing that all these treatments can strongly elicit accumulation of AOX gene transcripts in wild-type plants. When N. attenuata chemical defenses and resistance were examined, irAOX plants showed wild-type levels of defense-related phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and resistance to M. sexta. In contrast, piercing-sucking leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) caused more leaf damage and induced significantly higher salicylic acid levels in irAOX compared with wild-type plants in the field and/or glasshouse. Subsequently, irAOX plants accumulated lower levels of defense metabolites, 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpene glycosides, caffeoylputrescine, and nicotine compared with wild-type plants under prolonged attack of Empoasca spp. in the glasshouse. Finally, an accelerated cell death phenotype was observed in irAOX plants infected with P. syringae, which correlated with higher levels of salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide levels in pathogen-infected irAOX compared with wild-type leaves. Overall, the AOX-associated changes in phytohormone and/or redox levels appear to support the resistance of N. attenuata plants against cell piercing-sucking insects and modulate the progression of cell death in pathogen-infected tissues but are not effective against rapidly feeding specialist herbivore M. sexta. PMID:22961128

  16. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus as a biological control agent for Malacosoma americanum (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    Treesearch

    R.A. Progar; M.J. Rinella; D. Fekedulegn; L. Butler

    2010-01-01

    In addition to damaging trees, the eastern tent caterpillar is implicated in early fetal loss and late-term abortion in horses. In a field study, we evaluated the potential biological control of the caterpillar using eastern tent caterpillar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (ETNPV), a naturally occurring virus that is nearly species-specific. Egg masses were hatched and...

  17. Attenuation of the jasmonate burst, plant defensive traits, and resistance to specialist monarch caterpillars on shaded common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca).

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Kearney, Emily E; Hastings, Amy P; Ramsey, Trey E

    2012-07-01

    Plant responses to herbivory and light competition are often in opposing directions, posing a potential conflict for plants experiencing both stresses. For sun-adapted species, growing in shade typically makes plants more constitutively susceptible to herbivores via reduced structural and chemical resistance traits. Nonetheless, the impact of light environment on induced resistance has been less well-studied, especially in field experiments that link physiological mechanisms to ecological outcomes. Accordingly, we studied induced resistance of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca, a sun-adapted plant), and linked hormonal responses, resistance traits, and performance of specialist monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) in varying light environments. In natural populations, plants growing under forest-edge shade showed reduced levels of resistance traits (lower leaf toughness, cardenolides, and trichomes) and enhanced light-capture traits (higher specific leaf area, larger leaves, and lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio) compared to paired plants in full sun. In a field experiment repeated over two years, only milkweeds growing in full sun exhibited induced resistance to monarchs, whereas plants growing in shade were constitutively more susceptible and did not induce resistance. In a more controlled field experiment, plant hormones were higher in the sun (jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole acidic acid) and were induced by herbivory (jasmonic acid and abscisic acid). In particular, the jasmonate burst following herbivory was halved in plants raised in shaded habitats, and this correspondingly reduced latex induction (but not cardenolide induction). Thus, we provide a mechanistic basis for the attenuation of induced plant resistance in low resource environments. Additionally, there appears to be specificity in these interactions, with light-mediated impacts on jasmonate-induction being stronger for latex exudation than cardenolides.

  18. Domain III of Cry1Ac Is Critical to Binding and Toxicity against Soybean Looper (Chrysodeixis includens) but Not to Velvetbean Caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis).

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Rubina; Shakoori, Abdul Rauf; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2018-02-27

    Insecticidal proteins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ac7 from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) belong to the three-domain family of Bt toxins. Commercial transgenic soybean hybrids produce Cry1Ac to control the larvae of the soybean looper ( Chrysodeixis includens ) and the velvet bean caterpillar ( Anticarsia gemmatalis ). The specificity of Cry1Ac is determined by loops extending from domain II and regions of domain III in the three-dimensional structure of the toxin. In this study, we constructed a hybrid toxin (H1.2Ac) containing domains I and II of Cry1Ac and domain III of Cry2Ac7, in an attempt to obtain a protein with enhanced toxicity compared to parental toxins. Bioassays with H1.2Ac revealed toxicity against the larvae of A. gemmatalis but not against C. includens . Saturation binding assays with radiolabeled toxins and midgut brush border membrane vesicles demonstrated no specific H1.2Ac binding to C. includens , while binding in A. gemmatalis was specific and saturable. Results from competition binding assays supported the finding that Cry1Ac specificity against A. gemmatalis is mainly dictated by domain II. Taken together, these distinct interactions with binding sites may help explain the differential susceptibility to Cry1Ac in C. includens and A. gemmatalis , and guide the design of improved toxins against soybean pests.

  19. The Potential Risks and Future Impact of a Large Leverett Glacier Crevasse along the South Pole Traverse (SPoT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    agricultural tractors used on SPoT (Case Corporation and Caterpillar). (Adapted from Lever and Thur 2014.) ................. 2 2 Map showing the 1600...traversed for the first time in 2005 as a proof-of-concept, using a combination of several commercial rubber-tracked agricultural tractors (Caterpillar...traverse route. Inset shows two rubber-tracked, agricultural tractors used on SPoT (Case Corporation and Caterpillar). (Adapted from Lever and Thur 2014

  20. Genetic diversity and distribution patterns of host insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Quan, Qing-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xi; Li, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Yun-Guo; Wang, Mu; Cheng, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotide diversity mainly existed in the areas of Nyingchi, ShangriLa, and around the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where are considered as the diversity center or micro-refuges of the host insects of O. sinensis. However, there was little genetic variation among host insects from 72.1% of all populations, indicating that the host species composition might be relatively simple in large-scale O. sinensis populations. All host insects are monophyletic except for those from four O. sinensis populations around Qinghai Lake. Significant phylogeographic structure (NST>GST, P<0.05) was revealed for the monophyletic host insects, and the three major phylogenetic groups corresponded with specific geographical areas. The divergence of most host insects was estimated to have occurred at ca. 3.7 Ma, shortly before the rapid uplift of the QTP. The geographical distribution and star-like network of the haplotypes implied that most host insects were derived from the relicts of a once-widespread host that subsequently became fragmented. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and expansion time estimation confirmed that most host insects presented recent demographic expansions that began ca. 0.118 Ma in the late Pleistocene. Therefore, the genetic diversity and distribution of the present-day insects should be attributed to effects of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift and glacial advance/retreat cycles during the Quaternary ice age. These results provide valuable information to guide

  1. Control technology assessment for coal gasification and liquefaction processes, coal gasification facility, Caterpillar Tractor Company, York, Pennsylvania. Report for the site visit of May 1981. Final report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Telesca, D.R.

    A control technology survey was conducted at the coal gasification facility of the Caterpillar Tractor Company (SIC-5161), in York, Pennsylvania on August 18, 1980 and May 7, 1981, in conjunction with an industrial hygiene characterization study. Potential hazards included coal dust, noise, fire, carbon-monoxide (630080) (CO), polynuclear aromatics, hydrogen sulfide (7783064), phenols, and flammable and explosive gases. Preemployment physicals were given to employees including complete medical histories, physical examinations, and skin examination. Examinations were given annually for the first 5 years and semiannually thereafter. The most hazardous activities were poking, cleaning, inspection of process equipment, and equipment maintenance. Coal dustmore » emissions were effectively reduced by enclosure and venting. Venturi steam injectors in the gasifier pokeholes prevented gas emissions during poking. Ash dust was controlled by removal and handling while it was wet. An audible and visual alarm was used for CO monitoring. The ventilation system in the building effectively prevented accumulation of gases. The author recommends separate lockers for contaminated and clean clothing; a clean area for eating; escape pack respirators located in the rectifier room, control room, and coal bunker; and supplied air respirators in dangerous areas. Disposal of off gas from the feeding system should be addressed.« less

  2. Demographic parameters of the insecticide-exposed predator Podisus nigrispinus: implications for IPM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) shows potential for Integrated Pest Management programs of defoliating caterpillars in agricultural and forestry systems. Insecticides can indirectly affect caterpillar predators through consumption of contaminated prey. We examin...

  3. Differential Costs of Two Distinct Resistance Mechanisms Induced by Different Herbivore Species in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Reichelt, Michael; van Doorn, Arjen; Schuurink, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory with the induction of resistance, mediated by distinct phytohormonal signaling pathways and their interactions. Phloem feeders are known to induce plant resistance via the salicylic acid pathway, whereas biting-chewing herbivores induce plant resistance mainly via the jasmonate pathway. Here, we show that a specialist caterpillar (biting-chewing herbivore) and a specialist aphid (phloem feeder) differentially induce resistance against Pieris brassicae caterpillars in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Caterpillar feeding induces resistance through the jasmonate signaling pathway that is associated with the induction of kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside, whereas aphid feeding induces resistance via a novel mechanism involving sinapoyl malate. The role of sinapoyl malate is confirmed through the use of a mutant compromised in the biosynthesis of this compound. Caterpillar-induced resistance is associated with a lower cost in terms of plant growth reduction than aphid-induced resistance. A strong constitutive resistance against P. brassicae caterpillars in combination with a strong growth attenuation in plants of a transfer DNA (T-DNA) insertion mutant of WRKY70 (wrky70) suggest that the WRKY70 transcription factor, a regulator of downstream responses mediated by jasmonate-salicylic acid signaling cross talk, is involved in the negative regulation of caterpillar resistance and in the tradeoff between growth and defense. In conclusion, different mechanisms of herbivore-induced resistance come with different costs, and a functional WRKY70 transcription factor is required for the induction of low-cost resistance. PMID:26603653

  4. Trapping female Pandemis limitata (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) moths with mixtures of acetic acid, benzenoid apple leaf volatiles, and sex pheromones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pandemis limitata (Robinson) is one of several leaf-feeding caterpillar pests of commercial tree-fruit crops in British Columbia. Recent discovery that European Pandemis spp. are attracted to lures containing acetic acid (AA) and caterpillar-induced benzenoid apple leaf volatiles, 2-phenylethanol a...

  5. Rock Core Tests, Proposed Duplicate Lock-Phase 2, Starved Rock Lock and Dam, Illinois River, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    defined as being rlppable to marginally rippable by Caterpillar Tractor Company. A cheap, fast seismic refraction survey could verify that this is an...Ore RIPPABLE MARGINAL NGN RIPPABLE Figure 4. Rippability ranges for typical rock types - D9G caterpillar (from performance manual

  6. Diesel-Powered Equipment Properties and Activity Database for DoD Off-Road Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    CUMMINS ENGINE V903C 408 429,250 0.5% 96.4% MERCEDES BENZ OM 352 1,901 409,317 0.5% 96.9% CATERPILLAR 3306 278 400,886 0.5% 97.4% CATERPILLAR 3208 126... MERCEDES BENZ OM 603-950 501 35,841 0.0% 99.9% CATERPILLAR 3406 907 28,081 0.0% 100.0% MERCEDES BENZ OM402AT 70 23,293 0.0% 100.0% DEUTZ F4L-912 50 8,279...Consumption % of Total Total MERCEDES BENZ OM 352 1,901 409,317 0.5% 96.9% Equipment using this Engine Fuel Usage Nomenclature Service

  7. A cuckoo-like parasitic moth leads African weaver ant colonies to their ruin

    PubMed Central

    Dejean, Alain; Orivel, Jérôme; Azémar, Frédéric; Hérault, Bruno; Corbara, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In myrmecophilous Lepidoptera, mostly lycaenids and riodinids, caterpillars trick ants into transporting them to the ant nest where they feed on the brood or, in the more derived “cuckoo strategy”, trigger regurgitations (trophallaxis) from the ants and obtain trophic eggs. We show for the first time that the caterpillars of a moth (Eublemma albifascia; Noctuidae; Acontiinae) also use this strategy to obtain regurgitations and trophic eggs from ants (Oecophylla longinoda). Females short-circuit the adoption process by laying eggs directly on the ant nests, and workers carry just-hatched caterpillars inside. Parasitized colonies sheltered 44 to 359 caterpillars, each receiving more trophallaxis and trophic eggs than control queens. The thus-starved queens lose weight, stop laying eggs (which transport the pheromones that induce infertility in the workers) and die. Consequently, the workers lay male-destined eggs before and after the queen’s death, allowing the colony to invest its remaining resources in male production before it vanishes. PMID:27021621

  8. [Amplicon density-weighted algorithms for analyzing dissimilarity and dynamic alterations of RAPD polymorphisms of Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-sang; Gao, Ling; Li, Yu-ling; Ma, Shao-li; Wu, Zi-mei; Tan, Ning-zhi; Wu, Jian-yong; Ni, Lu-qun; Zhu, Jia-shi

    2014-08-18

    To examine the dynamic maturational alterations of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular marker polymorphism resulted from differential expressions of multiple fungi in the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp portion of Cordyceps sinensis (Cs). Used the fuzzy, integral RAPD molecular marker polymorphism method with 20 random primers; used density-weighted cluster algorithms and ZUNIX similarity equations; compared RAPD polymorphisms of the caterpillar body, stroma and ascocarp of Cs during maturation; and compared RAPD polymorphisms of Cs and Hirsutella sinensis (Hs). Density-unweighted algorithms neglected the differences in density of the DNA amplicons. Use of the density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and the clustering method integrated components of the amplicon density differences in similarity computations and clustering construction and prevented from the loss of the information of fungal genomes. An overall similarity 0.42 (< the overall dissimilarity 0.58) was observed for all compartments of Cs at different maturation stages. The similarities for the stromata or caterpillar bodies of Cs at 3 maturational stages were 0.57 or 0.50, respectively. During Cs maturation, there were dynamic Low→High→Low alterations of the RAPD polymorphisms between stromata and caterpillar bodies dissected from the same pieces of Cs. The polymorphic similarity was the highest (0.87) between the ascocarp and mature stroma, forming a clustering clade, while the premature stroma and caterpillar body formed another clade. These 2 clades merged into one cluster. Another clade containing the maturing stroma and caterpillar body merged with mature caterpillar body, forming another cluster. The RAPD polymorphic similarities between Hs and Cs samples were 0.55-0.69. Hs were separated from Cs clusters by the out-group control Paecilomyces militaris. The wealthy RAPD polymorphisms change dynamically in the Cs compartments with maturation. The different RAPD

  9. Miniature Earthmover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    International Machinery Corporation (IMC) developed a miniature earthmover, the 1/8 scale Caterpillar D11N Track-type Tractor, with trademark product approval and manufacturing/marketing license from Caterpillar, Inc. Through Marshall Space Flight Center assistance, the company has acquired infrared remote control technology, originally developed for space exploration. The technology is necessary for exports because of varying restrictions on radio frequency in foreign countries. The Cat D11N weighs only 340 pounds and has the world's first miniature industrial internal combustion engine. The earthmover's uses include mining, construction and demolition work, and hazardous environment work. IMC also has designs of various products for military use and other Caterpillar replicas.

  10. Herbivore diet breadth mediates the cascading effects of carnivores in food webs

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Michael S.; Lichter-Marck, Isaac H.; Farkas, Timothy E.; Aaron, Eric; Whitney, Kenneth D.; Mooney, Kailen A.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting the impact of carnivores on plants has challenged community and food web ecologists for decades. At the same time, the role of predators in the evolution of herbivore dietary specialization has been an unresolved issue in evolutionary ecology. Here, we integrate these perspectives by testing the role of herbivore diet breadth as a predictor of top-down effects of avian predators on herbivores and plants in a forest food web. Using experimental bird exclosures to study a complex community of trees, caterpillars, and birds, we found a robust positive association between caterpillar diet breadth (phylodiversity of host plants used) and the strength of bird predation across 41 caterpillar and eight tree species. Dietary specialization was associated with increased enemy-free space for both camouflaged (n = 33) and warningly signaled (n = 8) caterpillar species. Furthermore, dietary specialization was associated with increased crypsis (camouflaged species only) and more stereotyped resting poses (camouflaged and warningly signaled species), but was unrelated to caterpillar body size. These dynamics in turn cascaded down to plants: a metaanalysis (n = 15 tree species) showed the beneficial effect of birds on trees (i.e., reduced leaf damage) decreased with the proportion of dietary specialist taxa composing a tree species’ herbivore fauna. We conclude that herbivore diet breadth is a key functional trait underlying the trophic effects of carnivores on both herbivores and plants. PMID:24979778

  11. Isolation and identification of a cardioactive peptide from Tenebrio molitor and Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K; Liao, S; Reynolds, S E; Ota, R B; Hackett, M; Schooley, D A

    1993-12-01

    We isolated several cardioactive peptides from extracts of whole heads of the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, and the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, using a semi-isolated heart of Manduca sexta for bioassay. We have now isolated from each species the peptide with the strongest effect on rate of contraction of the heart. The peptides were identified using micro Edman sequencing and mass spectrometric methods. This cardioactive peptide has the same primary structure from both species: Pro-Phe-Cys-Asn-Ala-Phe-Thr-Gly-Cys-NH2, a cyclic nonapeptide which is identical to crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) originally isolated from the shore crab, Carcinus maenas, and subsequently isolated from Locusta migratoria and Manduca sexta. This is additional evidence that CCAP has widespread occurrence in arthropoda.

  12. Group size effects on survivorship and adult development in the gregarious larvae of Euselasia chrysippe (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae)

    Treesearch

    P. E. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars living in aggregations may derive several benefits that outweigh the costs, including better survivorship and improved growth rates. I tested whether larval group size had an effect on these two vital rates in Euselasia chrysippe. These caterpillars feed gregariously during all instars and move in processionary form over the host plant...

  13. Let Monarchs Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimkanin, John; Murphy, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Many teachers bring caterpillars into their class for their students to see the transformation from caterpillar to butterfly. This is exciting and educational, but more can be done using Monarchs across the curriculum. This article describes an integrated butterfly unit for students in grades four to six that starts with identifying the Monarch…

  14. Gypsy moths get sick too!

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer

    1999-01-01

    In June, those large, black, hairy caterpillars really begin to get your attention as they devour your trees, pelt you car with unpleasent dropping, and lounge about on your porch. I am describing the gysy moth, of course, an annoying caterpillar because of its voracious appette, large size, and abundance in many parts of eastern North America.

  15. Extracting whole short rotation trees with a skidder and a front-end loader

    Treesearch

    R. Spinelli; B.R. Hartsough

    2001-01-01

    We time-studied a Caterpillar 950F front-end loader and a Caterpillar 528 grapple skidder used to extract bunched whole trees to a landing in a short rotation Eucalyptus plantation. The loader was 40-60% more productive than the grapple skidder, depending on extraction distance. Alternatively, the single loader could both extract trees and handle the landing duties,...

  16. Symbiotic polydnavirus and venom reveal parasitoid to its hyperparasitoids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Cusumano, Antonino; Bloem, Janneke; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Villela, Alexandre; Fatouros, Nina E; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Vogel, Heiko; Poelman, Erik H

    2018-05-15

    Symbiotic relationships may provide organisms with key innovations that aid in the establishment of new niches. For example, during oviposition, some species of parasitoid wasps, whose larvae develop inside the bodies of other insects, inject polydnaviruses into their hosts. These symbiotic viruses disrupt host immune responses, allowing the parasitoid's progeny to survive. Here we show that symbiotic polydnaviruses also have a downside to the parasitoid's progeny by initiating a multitrophic chain of interactions that reveals the parasitoid larvae to their enemies. These enemies are hyperparasitoids that use the parasitoid progeny as host for their own offspring. We found that the virus and venom injected by the parasitoid during oviposition, but not the parasitoid progeny itself, affected hyperparasitoid attraction toward plant volatiles induced by feeding of parasitized caterpillars. We identified activity of virus-related genes in the caterpillar salivary gland. Moreover, the virus affected the activity of elicitors of salivary origin that induce plant responses to caterpillar feeding. The changes in caterpillar saliva were critical in inducing plant volatiles that are used by hyperparasitoids to locate parasitized caterpillars. Our results show that symbiotic organisms may be key drivers of multitrophic ecological interactions. We anticipate that this phenomenon is widespread in nature, because of the abundance of symbiotic microorganisms across trophic levels in ecological communities. Their role should be more prominently integrated in community ecology to understand organization of natural and managed ecosystems, as well as adaptations of individual organisms that are part of these communities.

  17. 76 FR 37781 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Jungbunzlauer Canada Inc. FRANCE: Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof A-427- 5/1/10-4/30/11 801 Audi AG Bosch... Zubehor GmbH GERMANY: Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof A-428- 5/1/10-4/30/11 801 Audi AG Bayerische Motoren... Audi AG Bosch Rexroth S.p.A. Caterpillar Overseas S.A.R.L. Caterpillar of Australia Pty. Ltd...

  18. Collards and Caterpillars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    "Community," "assemblage," "network," "complex," "interdependent," "web," and "synergism"--definitions of an ecosystem often include these words to highlight the dynamic interrelated workings of plants and animals with their physical environment. Young children don't understand the complexities of ecosystems, but they can begin to understand that…

  19. A Fungal Insecticide Engineered for Fast Per Os Killing of Caterpillars Has High Field Efficacy and Safety in Full-Season Control of Cabbage Insect Pests

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Jie; Liu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Fungal insecticides developed from filamentous pathogens of insects are notorious for their slow killing action through cuticle penetration, depressing commercial interest and practical application. Genetic engineering may accelerate their killing action but cause ecological risk. Here we show that a Beauveria bassiana formulation, HV8 (BbHV8), engineered for fast per os killing of caterpillars by an insect midgut-acting toxin (Vip3Aa1) overexpressed in conidia has both high field efficacy and safety in full-season protection of cabbage from the damage of an insect pest complex dominated by Pieris rapae larvae, followed by Plutella xylostella larvae and aphids. In two fields repeatedly sprayed during summer, BbHV8 resulted in overall mean efficacies of killing of 71% and 75%, which were similar or close to the 70% and 83% efficacies achieved by commercially recommended emamectin benzoate but much higher than the 31% and 48% efficacies achieved by the same formulation of the parental wild-type strain (WT). Both BbHV8 and WT sprays exerted no adverse effect on a nontarget spider community during the trials, and the sprays did not influence saprophytic fungi in soil samples taken from the field plots during 4 months after the last spray. Strikingly, BbHV8 and the WT showed low fitness when they were released into the environment because both were decreasingly recovered from the field lacking native B. bassiana strains (undetectable 5 months after the spray), and the recovered isolates became much less tolerant to high temperature and UV-B irradiation. Our results highlight for the first time that a rationally engineered fungal insecticide can compete with a chemical counterpart to combat insect pests at an affordable cost and with low ecological risk. PMID:23956386

  20. Rhizobacterial colonization of roots modulates plant volatile emission and enhances the attraction of a parasitoid wasp to host-infested plants.

    PubMed

    Pangesti, Nurmi; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Langendorf, Benjamin; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Pineda, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Beneficial root-associated microbes modify the physiological status of their host plants and affect direct and indirect plant defense against insect herbivores. While the effects of these microbes on direct plant defense against insect herbivores are well described, knowledge of the effect of the microbes on indirect plant defense against insect herbivores is still limited. In this study, we evaluate the role of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r in indirect plant defense against the generalist leaf-chewing insect Mamestra brassicae through a combination of behavioral, chemical, and gene-transcriptional approaches. We show that rhizobacterial colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots results in an increased attraction of the parasitoid Microplitis mediator to caterpillar-infested plants. Volatile analysis revealed that rhizobacterial colonization suppressed the emission of the terpene (E)-α-bergamotene and the aromatics methyl salicylate and lilial in response to caterpillar feeding. Rhizobacterial colonization decreased the caterpillar-induced transcription of the terpene synthase genes TPS03 and TPS04. Rhizobacteria enhanced both the growth and the indirect defense of plants under caterpillar attack. This study shows that rhizobacteria have a high potential to enhance the biocontrol of leaf-chewing herbivores based on enhanced attraction of parasitoids.

  1. Chemical Composition and Medicinal Value of Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris CBS-132098 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chan, Jannie Siew Lee; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a proximate analysis (i.e., moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (i.e., cordycepin and ergothioneine); fatty and amino acid analysis; and analyses of vitamin content, macro- and microelement composition of fruiting body (FB), and mycelial biomass (MB) of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris strain CBS-132098. These results demonstrate that the FB and MB of C. militaris are good sources of proteins: 59.8% protein content in the FB and 39.5% in the MB. The MB was distinguished by its carbohydrate content (39.6%), which was higher than that of the FB (29.1% carbohydrate). In the FB of C. militaris, the total amino acid content was 57.39 mg/g and in the MB it was 24.98 mg/g. The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied. The highest results were calcium (797 mg/kg FB; 11 mg/kg MB); potassium (15,938 mg/kg FB 12,183 mg/kg MB); magnesium (4,227 mg/kg FB; 3,414 mg/kg MB); sodium (171 mg/kg FB; 1,567 mg/kg MB); phosphorus (7,196 mg/kg FB; 14,293 mg/kg MB); and sulfur (5,088 mg/kg FB; 2,558 mg/kg MB). The vitamin composition was studied, and the most abundant vitamins were vitamin A, vitamin B3, and vitamin E. The bioactive components were cordycepin, cordycepic acid (D-mannitol), and ergothioneine. There were differences in cordycepin and ergothioneine contents between the FB and the MB. The cordycepin concentration was 0.11% in the FB and 0.182% in the MB, the cordycepic acid was 4.7 mg/100g in the FB and 5.2 mg/100 g in the MB, and the ergothioneine content was 782.37 mg/kg in the FB and 130.65 mg/kg in the MB. The nutritional values of the FB and the MB of C. militaris detected indicate its potential use in well-balanced diets and sources of bioactive compounds.

  2. A new species of Cotesia Cameron (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) reared from the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis, and luna moth, Actias luna, in east Texas

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, James B.; Jr., Robert J. Nuelle; III, Robert J. Nuelle

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The braconid wasp parasitoid Cotesia nuellorum Whitfield, new species, is described from specimens reared from a caterpillar of the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis (F.), and from a caterpillar of the luna moth, Actias luna (L.), in eastern Texas. The species is diagnosed with respect to other species of Cotesia recorded from North American Saturniidae, and details of its biology are provided. PMID:29674887

  3. Floral Trait Associations in Hawkmoth-Specialized and Mixed Pollination Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Variation in floral traits including odor, color and morphology, demonstrate the selective pressures imposed by specific pollinator taxa, such as insects and birds. In southern Arizona, Manduca sexta (Sphingidae) hawkmoths are associated with Datura wrightii (Solanaceae) at both the larval (herbivo...

  4. Plasticity of collective behavior in a nomadic early spring folivore

    PubMed Central

    Despland, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Collective behavior in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) meets the thermal constraints of being an early spring folivore, but introduces other constraints in food choice. These are minimized by state-dependent, inter-individual, and ontogenetic variations in responses to social cues. Forest tent caterpillars use pheromone trails and tactile communication among colony members to stay together during foraging. At the group level, these rules lead to cohesive synchronized collective nomadic foraging, in which the colony travels en masse between feeding and resting sites. This paper proposes that synchronized collective locomotion prevents individuals from becoming separated from the colony and hence permits them to reap the advantages of group-living, notably collective basking to increase their body temperature above ambient and collective defense against natural enemies. However, this cohesive behavior also implies conservative foraging, and colonies can become trapped on poor food sources. High fidelity to pheromone trails leads to strong amplification of an initial choice, such that colonies seldom abandon the first food source contacted, even if a better one is nearby. The risk of this trapping is modulated both by consistent inter-individual variations in exploratory behavior and by inner state. Colonies consisting of active-phenotype or protein-deprived individuals that explore more-off trails exhibit greater collective flexibility in foraging. An ontogenetic shift toward more independent movement occurs as caterpillars grow. This leads to colony break-up as the season advances. Selection pressures facing older caterpillars favor solitary living more than in the earlier instars. Caterpillars respond to this predictably changing environment by altering their behavioral rules as they grow. PMID:23526800

  5. Toxicity and residual effects of insecticides on Ascia monuste and predator Solenopsis saevissima.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Tamíris A de; Picanço, Marcelo C; Ferreira, Dalton de O; Campos, Júlia Nd; Arcanjo, Lucas de P; Silva, Gerson A

    2017-11-01

    Investigating the impact of pesticides on non-target organisms is essential for sustainable integrated pest management programs. We therefore assessed the toxicity of ten insecticides to the brassica caterpillar Ascia monuste and its ant predator Solenopsis saevissima and examined the effect that the insecticide synergists had on toxicity to the predator. We also assessed the residual period of control and impact of the insecticides during the brassica growing cycle. All insecticides except flubendiamide exhibited mortality above the threshold required by Brazilian legislation (80%). Chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, indoxacarb and spinosad exhibited lower toxicity to the ant predator than they did to the brassica caterpillar. The results obtained for synergized insecticides suggest that selectivity to the predator was due the involvement of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases. Chlorfenapyr and cyantraniliprole exhibited the highest residual periods of control to the brassica caterpillar, whereas malathion had the greatest impact on the predator. Most of the insecticides efficiently controlled the brassica caterpillar, but not all exhibited selectivity to the predator. Therefore, due to the distinctive responses of organisms with respect to residual periods of control and the impact of the insecticides, spraying frequency must be strongly considered in integrated pest management programs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Spatial analysis of the distribution of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and losses in maize crop productivity using geostatistics.

    PubMed

    Farias, Paulo R S; Barbosa, José C; Busoli, Antonio C; Overal, William L; Miranda, Vicente S; Ribeiro, Susane M

    2008-01-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is one of the chief pests of maize in the Americas. The study of its spatial distribution is fundamental for designing correct control strategies, improving sampling methods, determining actual and potential crop losses, and adopting precise agricultural techniques. In São Paulo state, Brazil, a maize field was sampled at weekly intervals, from germination through harvest, for caterpillar densities, using quadrates. In each of 200 quadrates, 10 plants were sampled per week. Harvest weights were obtained in the field for each quadrate, and ear diameters and lengths were also sampled (15 ears per quadrate) and used to estimate potential productivity of the quadrate. Geostatistical analyses of caterpillar densities showed greatest ranges for small caterpillars when semivariograms were adjusted for a spherical model that showed greatest fit. As the caterpillars developed in the field, their spatial distribution became increasingly random, as shown by a model adjusted to a straight line, indicating a lack of spatial dependence among samples. Harvest weight and ear length followed the spherical model, indicating the existence of spatial variability of the production parameters in the maize field. Geostatistics shows promise for the application of precise methods in the integrated control of pests.

  7. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON THE FIRST BENCH, POWDER HILLS ARE PRIMED FOR DOLOMITE EXTRACTION. ON THE SECOND BENCH, THE DRILL TEAM IS LAYING OUT THE NEXT SHOTS. ON THE TOP BENCH, A 245 CATERPILLAR LOADER FILLS A 55-TON CATERPILLAR ROCK TRUCK WITH EXTRACTED DOLOMITE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE DOLOMITE CRUSHING AND SCREENING PLANT. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Richness, diversity, and similarity of arthropod prey consumed by a community of Hawaiian forest birds.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Leonard, David L.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the diet richness, diversity, and similarity of a community of seven endemic and two introduced passerine birds by analyzing the composition of arthropod prey in fecal samples collected during 1994–1998 at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawai‘i Island. Most prey fragments were identified to order, but we also distinguished among morpho-species of Lepidoptera based on the shape of larval (caterpillar) mandibles for higher resolution of this important prey type. Diets were compared among feeding specialists, generalists, and “intermediate” species and among introduced and three endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper (Fringillidae) species. Lepidoptera (moths), especially the larval (caterpillar) stage, comprised the greatest proportion of prey in samples of all bird species except for the introduced Japanese white-eye (Zosterops japonicus; JAWE). Araneae (spiders) was the most abundant order in JAWE samples and the second most abundant order for most other species. The two specialist honeycreepers ranked lowest in the richness and diversity of arthropod orders, but only the ‘akiapōlā‘au (Hemignathus munroi, AKIP) was significantly lower than the three generalist or intermediate honeycreeper species. The diversity of arthropod orders was significantly lower for the three endangered honeycreeper species compared to the two introduced species. No significant differences were observed among the five honeycreepers with respect to the arthropod orders they consumed. The use of arthropod orders taken by endangered honeycreepers and introduced species was significantly different in all paired comparisons except for JAWE and ‘ākepa (Loxops coccineus; AKEP). In terms of richness and diversity of caterpillar morpho-species in the diet, only the specialist, AKEP, was significantly lower than all three generalist and intermediate species. Both AKEP and AKIP consumed a significantly different diet of caterpillar morpho-species compared to at least

  9. The role of reduced oxygen in the developmental physiology of growth and metamorphosis initiation in Drosophila

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rearing oxygen level is known to affect final body size in a variety of insects, but the physiological mechanisms by which oxygen affects size are incompletely understood. In Manduca and Drosophila, the larval size at which metamorphosis is initiated largely determines adult size, and metamorphosis ...

  10. Forecasting daily passenger traffic volumes in the Moscow metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Osetrov, E. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we have developed a methodology for the medium-term prediction of daily volumes of passenger traffic in the Moscow metro. It includes three options for the forecast: (1) based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), (2) singular-spectral analysis implemented in the Caterpillar-SSA package, and (3) a combination of the ANN and Caterpillar-SSA approaches. The methods and algorithms allow the mediumterm forecasting of passenger traffic flows in the Moscow metro with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Arabidopsis Leaf Trichomes as Acoustic Antennae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaobao; Jiao, Jiaojiao; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Pickard, Barbara G; Genin, Guy M

    2017-11-07

    The much studied plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been reported recently to react to the sounds of caterpillars of Pieris rapae chewing on its leaves by promoting synthesis of toxins that can deter herbivory. Identifying participating receptor cells-potential "ears"-of Arabidopsis is critical to understanding and harnessing this response. Motivated in part by other recent observations that Arabidopsis trichomes (hair cells) respond to mechanical stimuli such as pressing or brushing by initiating potential signaling factors in themselves and in the neighboring skirt of cells, we analyzed the vibrational responses of Arabidopsis trichomes to test the hypothesis that trichomes can respond acoustically to vibrations associated with feeding caterpillars. We found that these trichomes have vibrational modes in the frequency range of the sounds of feeding caterpillars, encouraging further experimentation to determine whether trichomes serve as mechanical antennae. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating Density and Temperature Dependence of Juvenile Vital Rates Using a Hidden Markov Model

    PubMed Central

    McElderry, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Organisms in the wild have cryptic life stages that are sensitive to changing environmental conditions and can be difficult to survey. In this study, I used mark-recapture methods to repeatedly survey Anaea aidea (Nymphalidae) caterpillars in nature, then modeled caterpillar demography as a hidden Markov process to assess if temporal variability in temperature and density influence the survival and growth of A. aidea over time. Individual encounter histories result from the joint likelihood of being alive and observed in a particular stage, and I have included hidden states by separating demography and observations into parallel and independent processes. I constructed a demographic matrix containing the probabilities of all possible fates for each stage, including hidden states, e.g., eggs and pupae. I observed both dead and live caterpillars with high probability. Peak caterpillar abundance attracted multiple predators, and survival of fifth instars declined as per capita predation rate increased through spring. A time lag between predator and prey abundance was likely the cause of improved fifth instar survival estimated at high density. Growth rates showed an increase with temperature, but the preferred model did not include temperature. This work illustrates how state-space models can include unobservable stages and hidden state processes to evaluate how environmental factors influence vital rates of cryptic life stages in the wild. PMID:28505138

  13. Application of Artificial Neural Networks and Singular-Spectral Analysis in Forecasting the Daily Traffic in the Moscow Metro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Victor; Osetrov, Evgenii

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility of applying various approaches to solving the problem of medium-term forecasting of daily passenger traffic volumes in the Moscow metro (MM): 1) on the basis of artificial neural networks (ANN); 2) using the singular-spectral analysis implemented in the package "Caterpillar"-SSA; 3) sharing the ANN and the "Caterpillar"-SSA approach. We demonstrate that the developed methods and algorithms allow us to conduct medium-term forecasting of passenger traffic in the MM with reasonable accuracy.

  14. Host-ant specificity of endangered large blue butterflies (Phengaris spp., Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shouhei; Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao; Arai, Ryusuke; Sakamoto, Hironori

    2016-11-03

    Large blue butterflies, Phengaris (Maculinea), are an important focus of endangered-species conservation in Eurasia. Later-instar Phengaris caterpillars live in Myrmica ant nests and exploit the ant colony's resources, and they are specialized to specific host-ant species. For example, local extinction of P. arion in the U. K. is thought to have been due to the replacement of its host-ant species with a less-suitable congener, as a result of changes in habitat. In Japan, Myrmica kotokui hosts P. teleius and P. arionides caterpillars. We recently showed, however, that the morphological species M. kotokui actually comprises four genetic clades. Therefore, to determine to which group of ants the hosts of these two Japanese Phengaris species belong, we used mitochondrial COI-barcoding of M. kotokui specimens from colonies in the habitats of P. teleius and P. arionides to identify the ant clade actually parasitized by the caterpillars of each species. We found that these two butterfly species parasitize different ant clades within M. kotokui.

  15. Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Enlargement and Cellular Gigantism during Galleria mellonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodas, Rocío; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luís; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C. neoformans in caterpillars induced a capsule-independent increase in haemocyte density 2 h after infection. C. neoformans manifested a significant increase in capsule size after inoculation into the caterpillar. The magnitude of capsule increase depended on the temperature, being more pronounced at 37°C than at 30°C, which correlated with an increased virulence of the fungus and reduced phagocytosis at 37°C. Capsule enlargement impaired phagocytosis by haemocytes. Incubation of the yeast in G. mellonella extracts also resulted in capsule enlargement, with the polar lipidic fraction having a prominent role in this effect. During infection, the capsule decreased in permeability. A low proportion of the cells (<5%) recovered from caterpillars measured more than 30 µm and were considered giant cells. Giant cells recovered from mice were able to kill the caterpillars in a manner similar to regular cells obtained from in vivo or grown in vitro, establishing their capacity to cause disease. Our results indicate that the morphological transitions exhibited by C. neoformans in mammals also occur in a non-vertebrate host system. The similarities in morphological transitions observed in different animal hosts and in their triggers are consistent with the hypothesis that the cell body and capsular responses represent an adaptation of environmental survival strategies to pathogenesis. PMID:21915338

  16. Effects of trophic level and metamorphosis on discrimination of hydrogen isotopes in a plant-herbivore system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Jacob M.; Wolf, Nathan; Stricker, Craig A.; Collier, Timothy R.; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes in ecological studies requires that we know the magnitude of discrimination factors between consumer and element sources. The causes of variation in discrimination factors for carbon and nitrogen have been relatively well studied. In contrast, the discrimination factors for hydrogen have rarely been measured. We grew cabbage looper caterpillars (Trichoplusia ni) on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) plants irrigated with four treatments of deuterium-enriched water (δD = -131, -88, -48, and -2‰, respectively), allowing some of them to reach adulthood as moths. Tissue δD values of plants, caterpillars, and moths were linearly correlated with the isotopic composition of irrigation water. However, the slope of these relationships was less than 1, and hence, discrimination factors depended on the δD value of irrigation water. We hypothesize that this dependence is an artifact of growing plants in an environment with a common atmospheric δD value. Both caterpillars and moths were significantly enriched in deuterium relative to plants by ~45‰ and 23‰ respectively, but the moths had lower tissue to plant discrimination factors than did the caterpillars. If the trophic enrichment documented here is universal, δD values must be accounted for in geographic assignment studies. The isotopic value of carbon was transferred more or less faithfully across trophic levels, but δ15N values increased from plants to insects and we observed significant non-trophic 15N enrichment in the metamorphosis from larvae to adult.

  17. Distributed Planning and Control for Teams of Cooperating Mobile Robots

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Parker, L.E.

    2004-06-15

    This CRADA project involved the cooperative research of investigators in ORNL's Center for Engineering Science Advanced Research (CESAR) with researchers at Caterpillar, Inc. The subject of the research was the development of cooperative control strategies for autonomous vehicles performing applications of interest to Caterpillar customers. The project involved three Phases of research, conducted over the time period of November 1998 through December 2001. This project led to the successful development of several technologies and demonstrations in realistic simulation that illustrated the effectiveness of the control approaches for distributed planning and cooperation in multi-robot teams.

  18. HCH, endosulfan, and fluvalinate residue behavior in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mukherjee, I.; Gopal, M.; Yaduraju, N.T.

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) is one of the major pulse crop of India. The loss of pigeonpea crop due to pod and foliage pests is significant, the major pests being pod fly, hairy caterpillar, aphids, white fly, plume moth borer, leaf caterpillar and jassids. It is imperative to save every grain by chemical control methods but these toxicants should not leave unusually high residues on the edible parts. In this paper the authors report the residue behavior of three different insecticides namely, hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan and fluvalinate on this crop.

  19. Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to chewing and sucking insect herbivores

    DOE PAGES

    Appel, Heidi M.; Fescemyer, Howard; Ehlting, Juergen; ...

    2014-11-14

    We tested the hypothesis that Arabidopsis can recognize and respond differentially to insect species at the transcriptional level using a genome wide microarray. Transcriptional reprogramming was characterized using co-expression analysis in damaged and undamaged leaves at two times in response to mechanical wounding and four insect species. In all, 2778 (10.6%) of annotated genes on the array were differentially expressed in at least one treatment. Responses differed mainly between aphid and caterpillar and sampling times. Responses to aphids and caterpillars shared only 10% of up-regulated and 8% of down-regulated genes. Responses to two caterpillars shared 21 and 12% of up-more » and down-regulated genes, whereas responses to the two aphids shared only 7 and 4% of up-regulated and down-regulated genes. Overlap in genes expressed between 6 and 24 h was 3–15%, and depended on the insect species. Responses in attacked and unattacked leaves differed at 6 h but converged by 24 h. Genes responding to the insects are also responsive to many stressors and included primary metabolism. Aphids down-regulated amino acid catabolism; caterpillars stimulated production of amino acids involved in glucosinolate synthesis. Co-expression analysis revealed 17 response networks. Transcription factors were a major portion of differentially expressed genes throughout and responsive genes shared most of the known or postulated binding sites. However, cis-element composition of genes down regulated by the aphid M. persicae was unique, as were those of genes down-regulated by caterpillars. As many as 20 cis-elements were over-represented in one or more treatments, including some from well-characterized classes and others as yet uncharacterized. We suggest that transcriptional changes elicited by wounding and insects are heavily influenced by transcription factors and involve both enrichment of a common set of cis-elements and a unique enrichment of a few cis-elements in responding

  20. Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to chewing and sucking insect herbivores

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Appel, Heidi M.; Fescemyer, Howard; Ehlting, Juergen

    We tested the hypothesis that Arabidopsis can recognize and respond differentially to insect species at the transcriptional level using a genome wide microarray. Transcriptional reprogramming was characterized using co-expression analysis in damaged and undamaged leaves at two times in response to mechanical wounding and four insect species. In all, 2778 (10.6%) of annotated genes on the array were differentially expressed in at least one treatment. Responses differed mainly between aphid and caterpillar and sampling times. Responses to aphids and caterpillars shared only 10% of up-regulated and 8% of down-regulated genes. Responses to two caterpillars shared 21 and 12% of up-more » and down-regulated genes, whereas responses to the two aphids shared only 7 and 4% of up-regulated and down-regulated genes. Overlap in genes expressed between 6 and 24 h was 3–15%, and depended on the insect species. Responses in attacked and unattacked leaves differed at 6 h but converged by 24 h. Genes responding to the insects are also responsive to many stressors and included primary metabolism. Aphids down-regulated amino acid catabolism; caterpillars stimulated production of amino acids involved in glucosinolate synthesis. Co-expression analysis revealed 17 response networks. Transcription factors were a major portion of differentially expressed genes throughout and responsive genes shared most of the known or postulated binding sites. However, cis-element composition of genes down regulated by the aphid M. persicae was unique, as were those of genes down-regulated by caterpillars. As many as 20 cis-elements were over-represented in one or more treatments, including some from well-characterized classes and others as yet uncharacterized. We suggest that transcriptional changes elicited by wounding and insects are heavily influenced by transcription factors and involve both enrichment of a common set of cis-elements and a unique enrichment of a few cis-elements in responding

  1. [Study on distribution of five heavy metal elements in different parts of Cordyceps sinensis by microwave digestion ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Hao, Qing-Xiu; Wang, Sheng; Yang, Quan; Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Zhen; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2017-08-01

    The contents of five heavy metals (Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Hg) in 17 batches of Cordyceps sinensis were determined by microwave digestion-ICP-MS, and their distribution in C. sinensis were analyzed. The results showed that the contents of Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg in all batches were in accordance with the international standards of Chinese Medicine-Chinese Herbal Medicine Heavy Metal Limit, with their contents in the stroma higher than that in the caterpillar body, and the excess rate of As, which mainly concentrated in the caterpillar body part of C. sinensis, was 88.24%, as the content of As in the caterpillar body was 7 to 12 fold of that in the stroma. In this study, the distribution of five heavy metals in C. sinensis was clarified, and the existing problems of arsenic limit of heavy metal in C. sinensis were analyzed, and some suggestions were put forward. It is hoped that the reference standard can be provided for the limited standard of arsenic in C. sinensis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Molecular detection of trophic links in a complex insect host-parasitoid food web.

    PubMed

    Hrcek, Jan; Miller, Scott E; Quicke, Donald L J; Smith, M Alex

    2011-09-01

    Previously, host-parasitoid links have been unveiled almost exclusively by time-intensive rearing, while molecular methods were used only in simple agricultural host-parasitoid systems in the form of species-specific primers. Here, we present a general method for the molecular detection of these links applied to a complex caterpillar-parasitoid food web from tropical rainforest of Papua New Guinea. We DNA barcoded hosts, parasitoids and their tissue remnants and matched the sequences to our extensive library of local species. We were thus able to match 87% of host sequences and 36% of parasitoid sequences to species and infer subfamily or family in almost all cases. Our analysis affirmed 93 hitherto unknown trophic links between 37 host species from a wide range of Lepidoptera families and 46 parasitoid species from Hymenoptera and Diptera by identifying DNA sequences for both the host and the parasitoid involved in the interaction. Molecular detection proved especially useful in cases where distinguishing host species in caterpillar stage was difficult morphologically, or when the caterpillar died during rearing. We have even detected a case of extreme parasitoid specialization in a pair of Choreutis species that do not differ in caterpillar morphology and ecology. Using the molecular approach outlined here leads to better understanding of parasitoid host specificity, opens new possibilities for rapid surveys of food web structure and allows inference of species associations not already anticipated. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Quantifying seasonal fallback on invertebrates, pith, and bromeliad leaves by white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in a tropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Mosdossy, Krisztina N; Melin, Amanda D; Fedigan, Linda M

    2015-09-01

    Fallback foods (FBFs) are hypothesized to shape the ecology, morphology, and behavior of primates, including hominins. Identifying FBFs is therefore critical for revealing past and present foraging adaptations. Recent research suggests invertebrates act as seasonal FBFs for many primate species and human populations. Yet, studies measuring the consumption of invertebrates relative to ecological variation are widely lacking. We address this gap by examining food abundance and entomophagy by primates in a seasonal forest. We study foraging behavior of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)-a species renowned for its intelligence and propensity for extractive foraging-along with the abundance of invertebrates, dietary ripe fruits, pith, and bromeliads. Consumption events and processing time are recorded during focal animal samples. We determine abundance of vegetative foods through phenological and density records. Invertebrates are collected in malaise, pan, and terrestrial traps; caterpillar abundance is inferred from frass traps. Invertebrates are abundant throughout the year and capuchins consume invertebrates-including caterpillars-frequently when fruit is abundant. However, capuchins spend significantly more time processing protected invertebrates when fruit and caterpillars are low in abundance. Invertebrate foraging patterns are not uniform. Caterpillar consumption is consistent with a preferred strategy, whereas capuchins appear to fallback on invertebrates requiring high handling time. Capuchins are convergent with hominins in possessing large brains and high levels of sensorimotor intelligence, thus our research has broad implications for primate evolution, including factors shaping cognitive innovations, brain size, and the role of entomophagy in the human diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Materials-Enabled High-Efficiency (MEHE) Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kass, M.; Veliz, M.

    2011-09-30

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UTBattelle, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. was to improve diesel engine efficiency by incorporating advanced materials to enable higher combustion pressures and temperatures necessary for improved combustion. The project scope also included novel materials for use in advanced components and designs associated with waste-heat recovery and other concepts for improved thermal efficiency. Caterpillar initially provided ORNL with a 2004 Tier 2 C15 ACERT diesel engine (designed for on-highway use) and two 600 hp motoring dynamometers. The first year of the CRADA effort was focused on establishing a heavy-duty experimental enginemore » research cell. First year activities included procuring, installing and commissioning the cell infrastructure. Infrastructure components consisted of intake air handling system, water tower, exhaust handling system, and cell air conditioning. Other necessary infrastructure items included the fuel delivery system and bottled gas handling to support the analytical instrumentation. The second year of the CRADA focused on commissioning the dynamometer system to enable engine experimentation. In addition to the requirements associated with the dynamometer controller, the electrical system needed a power factor correction system to maintain continuity with the electrical grid. During the second year the engine was instrumented and baseline operated to confirm performance and commission the dynamometer. The engine performance was mapped and modeled according to requirements provided by Caterpillar. This activity was further supported by a Work-for-Others project from Caterpillar to evaluate a proprietary modeling system. A second Work-for-Others activity was performed to evaluate a novel turbocharger design. This project was highly successful and may lead to new turbocharger designs for Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engines. During the third (and final) year of the

  5. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  6. A Systematic Review of the Mysterious Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in Dong-ChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo) and Related Bioactive Ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Hsieh, Chienyan; Lin, Fang-Yi; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn.† Cordyceps sinensis), which was originally used in traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, is called either “yartsa gunbu” or “DongChongXiaCao (冬蟲夏草 Dōng Chóng Xià Cǎo)” (“winter worm-summer grass”), respectively. The extremely high price of DongChongXiaCao, approximately USD $20,000 to 40,000 per kg, has led to it being regarded as “soft gold” in China. The multi-fungi hypothesis has been proposed for DongChongXiaCao; however, Hirsutella sinensis is the anamorph of O. sinensis. In Chinese, the meaning of “DongChongXiaCao” is different for O. sinensis, Cordyceps spp.,‡ and Cordyceps spƒ. Over 30 bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities, have been reported for wild DongChongXiaCao and for the mycelia and culture supernatants of O. sinensis. These bioactivities derive from over 20 bioactive ingredients, mainly extracellular polysaccharides, intracellular polysaccharides, cordycepin, adenosine, mannitol, and sterols. Other bioactive components have been found as well, including two peptides (cordymin and myriocin), melanin, lovastatin, γ-aminobutyric acid, and cordysinins. Recently, the bioactivities of O. sinensis were described, and they include antiarteriosclerosis, antidepression, and antiosteoporosis activities, photoprotection, prevention and treatment of bowel injury, promotion of endurance capacity, and learning-memory improvement. H. sinensis has the ability to accelerate leukocyte recovery, stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, antidiabetes, and improve kidney injury. Starting January 1st, 2013, regulation will dictate that one fungus can only have one name, which will end the system of using separate names for anamorphs. The anamorph name “H. sinensis” has changed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants to O. sinensis. PMID:24716152

  7. Phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form influence gene expression of the polyphagous comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album).

    PubMed

    Heidel-Fischer, Hanna M; Freitak, Dalial; Janz, Niklas; Söderlind, Lina; Vogel, Heiko; Nylin, Sören

    2009-10-31

    The mechanisms that shape the host plant range of herbivorous insect are to date not well understood but knowledge of these mechanisms and the selective forces that influence them can expand our understanding of the larger ecological interaction. Nevertheless, it is well established that chemical defenses of plants influence the host range of herbivorous insects. While host plant chemistry is influenced by phylogeny, also the growth forms of plants appear to influence the plant defense strategies as first postulated by Feeny (the "plant apparency" hypothesis). In the present study we aim to investigate the molecular basis of the diverse host plant range of the comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album) by testing differential gene expression in the caterpillars on three host plants that are either closely related or share the same growth form. In total 120 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in P. c-album after feeding on different host plants, 55 of them in the midgut and 65 in the restbody of the caterpillars. Expression patterns could be confirmed with an independent method for 14 of 27 tested genes. Pairwise similarities in upregulation in the midgut of the caterpillars were higher between plants that shared either growth form or were phylogenetically related. No known detoxifying enzymes were found to be differently regulated in the midgut after feeding on different host plants. Our data suggest a complex picture of gene expression in response to host plant feeding. While each plant requires a unique gene regulation in the caterpillar, both phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form appear to influence the expression profile of the polyphagous comma butterfly, in agreement with phylogenetic studies of host plant utilization in butterflies.

  8. Dual-guild herbivory disrupts predator-prey interactions in the field.

    PubMed

    Blubaugh, Carmen K; Asplund, Jacob S; Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Morra, Matthew J; Philips, Christopher R; Popova, Inna E; Reganold, John P; Snyder, William E

    2018-05-01

    Plant defenses often mediate whether competing chewing and sucking herbivores indirectly benefit or harm one another. Dual-guild herbivory also can muddle plant signals used by specialist natural enemies to locate prey, further complicating the net impact of herbivore-herbivore interactions in naturally diverse settings. While dual-guild herbivore communities are common in nature, consequences for top-down processes are unclear, as chemically mediated tri-trophic interactions are rarely evaluated in field environments. Combining observational and experimental approaches in the open field, we test a prediction that chewing herbivores interfere with top-down suppression of phloem feeders on Brassica oleracea across broad landscapes. In a two-year survey of 52 working farm sites, we found that parasitoid and aphid densities on broccoli plants positively correlated at farms where aphids and caterpillars rarely co-occurred, but this relationship disappeared at farms where caterpillars commonly co-occurred. In a follow-up experiment, we compared single and dual-guild herbivore communities at four local farm sites and found that caterpillars (P. rapae) caused a 30% reduction in aphid parasitism (primarily by Diaeretiella rapae), and increased aphid colony (Brevicoryne brassicae) growth at some sites. Notably, in the absence of predators, caterpillars indirectly suppressed, rather than enhanced, aphid growth. Amid considerable ecological noise, our study reveals a pattern of apparent commensalism: herbivore-herbivore facilitation via relaxed top-down suppression. This work suggests that enemy-mediated apparent commensalism may override constraints to growth induced by competing herbivores in field environments, and emphasizes the value of placing chemically mediated interactions within their broader environmental and community contexts. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Design of wormlike automated robotic endoscope: dynamic interaction between endoscopic balloon and surrounding tissues.

    PubMed

    Poon, Carmen C Y; Leung, Billy; Chan, Cecilia K W; Lau, James Y W; Chiu, Philip W Y

    2016-02-01

    The current design of capsule endoscope is limited by the inability to control the motion within gastrointestinal tract. The rising incidence of gastrointestinal cancers urged improvement in the method of screening endoscopy. This preclinical study aimed to design and develop a novel locomotive module for capsule endoscope. We investigated the feasibility and physical properties of this newly designed caterpillar-like capsule endoscope with a view to enhancing screening endoscopy. This study consisted of preclinical design and experimental testing on the feasibility of automated locomotion for a prototype caterpillar endoscope. The movement was examined first in the PVC tube and then in porcine intestine. The image captured was transmitted to handheld device to confirm the control of movement. The balloon pressure and volume as well as the contact force between the balloon and surroundings were measured when the balloon was inflated inside (1) a hard PVC tube, (2) a soft PVC tube, (3) muscular sites of porcine colons and (4) less muscular sites of porcine colons. The prototype caterpillar endoscope was able to move inward and backward within the PVC tubing and porcine intestine. Images were able to be captured from the capsule endoscope attached and being observed with a handheld device. Using the onset of a contact force as indication of the buildup of the gripping force between the balloon and the lumen walls, it is concluded from the results of this study that the rate of change in balloon pressure and volume is two good estimators to optimize the inflation of the balloon. The results of this study will facilitate further refinement in the design of caterpillar robotic endoscope to move inside the GI tract.

  10. Integrated behavioural and stable isotope data reveal altered diet linked to low breeding success in urban-dwelling blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    PubMed

    Pollock, Christopher J; Capilla-Lasheras, Pablo; McGill, Rona A R; Helm, Barbara; Dominoni, Davide M

    2017-07-10

    Animals often show reduced reproductive success in urban compared to adjacent natural areas. The lower availability and quality of natural food in cities is suggested as one key limiting factor. However, only few studies have provided conclusive support by simultaneously assessing food availability, diet and fitness. We consolidate this evidence by taking a holistic approach, comparing blue tits breeding in forest, suburban and urban areas. We (a) assessed arthropod availability, (b) investigated parental provisioning behaviour, (c) inferred diet through stable isotope analysis, and (d) measured reproductive success. At the urban site, we found a significant reduction in caterpillar availability, the main food source of blue tits, and consequently urban tits fed their offspring with fewer caterpillars than forest and suburban birds. Stable isotope analysis confirmed that diet in the urban area was fundamentally different than in the other sites. Reproductive success was lower in both urban and suburban sites compared to the forest site, and was positively associated with volume of provisioned caterpillars. Our findings provide strong integrative evidence that urban blue tit nestlings are not receiving a suitable diet, and this may be an important limiting factor for urban populations of this and potentially many other species.

  11. Transgenic upregulation of the condensed tannin pathway in poplar leads to a dramatic shift in leaf palatability for two tree-feeding Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Boeckler, G Andreas; Towns, Megan; Unsicker, Sybille B; Mellway, Robin D; Yip, Lynn; Hilke, Ines; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Constabel, C Peter

    2014-02-01

    Transgenic hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) overexpressing the MYB134 tannin regulatory gene show dramatically enhanced condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) levels, as well as shifts in other phenolic metabolites. A series of insect bioassays with forest tent caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria) and gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars was carried out to determine how this metabolic shift affects food preference and performance of generalist tree-feeding lepidopterans. Both species showed a distinct preference for the high-tannin MYB134 overexpressor plants, and L. dispar performance was enhanced relative to controls. L. dispar reached greater pupal weight and showed reduced time to pupation when reared on the MYB134 overexpressing poplar. These results were unexpected since enhanced condensed tannin levels were predicted to act as feeding deterrents. However, the data may be explained by the observed decrease in the salicinoids (phenolic glycosides) salicortin and tremulacin that accompanied the upregulation of the condensed tannins in the transgenics. We conclude that for these two lepidopteran species, condensed tannin levels are unlikely to be a major determinant of caterpillar food preference or performance. However, our experiments show that overexpression of a single regulatory gene in transgenic aspen can have a significant impact on herbivorous insects.

  12. A Simulation Environment for Aerodynamic Analysis and Design of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    parametric study involving numerous configurations with multiple flight conditions must be conducted in order to determine the potential "best design...virilis Honey Bee : Apis mellifica Bumble Bee : Bombus terrestris Hummingbird: Archi lochus colubris Hawkmoth: Manduca Sexta Hummingbird...Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) B.PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Streamline Numerics , Inc. SNI-CR

  13. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  14. Phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form influence gene expression of the polyphagous comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album)

    PubMed Central

    Heidel-Fischer, Hanna M; Freitak, Dalial; Janz, Niklas; Söderlind, Lina; Vogel, Heiko; Nylin, Sören

    2009-01-01

    Background The mechanisms that shape the host plant range of herbivorous insect are to date not well understood but knowledge of these mechanisms and the selective forces that influence them can expand our understanding of the larger ecological interaction. Nevertheless, it is well established that chemical defenses of plants influence the host range of herbivorous insects. While host plant chemistry is influenced by phylogeny, also the growth forms of plants appear to influence the plant defense strategies as first postulated by Feeny (the "plant apparency" hypothesis). In the present study we aim to investigate the molecular basis of the diverse host plant range of the comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album) by testing differential gene expression in the caterpillars on three host plants that are either closely related or share the same growth form. Results In total 120 genes were identified to be differentially expressed in P. c-album after feeding on different host plants, 55 of them in the midgut and 65 in the restbody of the caterpillars. Expression patterns could be confirmed with an independent method for 14 of 27 tested genes. Pairwise similarities in upregulation in the midgut of the caterpillars were higher between plants that shared either growth form or were phylogenetically related. No known detoxifying enzymes were found to be differently regulated in the midgut after feeding on different host plants. Conclusion Our data suggest a complex picture of gene expression in response to host plant feeding. While each plant requires a unique gene regulation in the caterpillar, both phylogenetic relatedness and host plant growth form appear to influence the expression profile of the polyphagous comma butterfly, in agreement with phylogenetic studies of host plant utilization in butterflies. PMID:19878603

  15. Plant Quantity Affects Development and Survival of a Gregarious Insect Herbivore and Its Endoparasitoid Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Zhu, Feng; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all studies of plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions focus on plant quality as the major constraint on development and survival. However, for many gregarious feeding insect herbivores that feed on small or ephemeral plants, the quantity of resources is much more limiting, yet this area has received virtually no attention. Here, in both lab and semi-field experiments using tents containing variably sized clusters of food plants, we studied the effects of periodic food deprivation in a tri-trophic system where quantitative constraints are profoundly important on insect performance. The large cabbage white Pieris brassicae, is a specialist herbivore of relatively small wild brassicaceous plants that grow in variable densities, with black mustard (Brassica nigra) being one of the most important. Larvae of P. brassicae are in turn attacked by a specialist endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. Increasing the length of food deprivation of newly molted final instar caterpillars significantly decreased herbivore and parasitoid survival and biomass, but shortened their development time. Moreover, the ability of caterpillars to recover when provided with food again was correlated with the length of the food deprivation period. In outdoor tents with natural vegetation, we created conditions similar to those faced by P. brassicae in nature by manipulating plant density. Low densities of B. nigra lead to potential starvation of P. brassicae broods and their parasitoids, replicating nutritional conditions of the lab experiments. The ability of both unparasitized and parasitized caterpillars to find corner plants was similar but decreased with central plant density. Survival of both the herbivore and parasitoid increased with plant density and was higher for unparasitized than for parasitized caterpillars. Our results, in comparison with previous studies, reveal that quantitative constraints are far more important that qualitative constraints on the performance of

  16. Beyond the Colours: Discovering Hidden Diversity in the Nymphalidae of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico through DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Blanca R.; Pozo, Carmen; Valdez-Moreno, Martha; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of DNA barcoding in the discovery of overlooked species and in the connection of immature and adult stages. In this study, we use DNA barcoding to examine diversity patterns in 121 species of Nymphalidae from the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Our results suggest the presence of cryptic species in 8 of these 121 taxa. As well, the reference database derived from the analysis of adult specimens allowed the identification of nymphalid caterpillars providing new details on host plant use. Methodology/Principal Findings We gathered DNA barcode sequences from 857 adult Nymphalidae representing 121 different species. This total includes four species (Adelpha iphiclus, Adelpha malea, Hamadryas iphtime and Taygetis laches) that were initially overlooked because of their close morphological similarity to other species. The barcode results showed that each of the 121 species possessed a diagnostic array of barcode sequences. In addition, there was evidence of cryptic taxa; seven species included two barcode clusters showing more than 2% sequence divergence while one species included three clusters. All 71 nymphalid caterpillars were identified to a species level by their sequence congruence to adult sequences. These caterpillars represented 16 species, and included Hamadryas julitta, an endemic species from the Yucatan Peninsula whose larval stages and host plant (Dalechampia schottii, also endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula) were previously unknown. Conclusions/Significance This investigation has revealed overlooked species in a well-studied museum collection of nymphalid butterflies and suggests that there is a substantial incidence of cryptic species that await full characterization. The utility of barcoding in the rapid identification of caterpillars also promises to accelerate the assembly of information on life histories, a particularly important advance for hyperdiverse tropical insect assemblages. PMID:22132140

  17. Feeding preferences and performance of an aquatic lepidopteran on macrophytes: plant hosts as food and habitat.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Nathan J; Cronin, Greg; Lodge, David M

    2001-08-01

    Although host preferences in phytophagous insects may be generated by several factors, few studies have simultaneously examined several potential host choice determinants. In this study we tested the impact of the following potential host choice determinants on host preference of the semi-aquatic lepidopteran Munroessa gyralis (Pyralidae): growth on different host plants; protein content, polyphenolic content, toughness, and chemical extracts of different host plants; prior feeding experience; and predation pressure on the caterpillar by fishes. Two water lilies, Brasenia schreberi and Nymphaea odorata, were preferred in cafeteria-style feeding experiments over 14 other species of vascular plants. The most preferred water lily (Brasenia) also afforded the fastest growth relative to three other species on which growth was measured. Feeding preferences across species were unrelated to protein content, polyphenolic content, or toughness. Domiciles constructed by caterpillars from leaf fragments were protective from field assemblages of fishes, but domiciles made from preferred or unpreferred host species conferred no significant protection from fish in the laboratory. Caterpillars responded positively to chemical cues of water lilies, and prior feeding experience increased preference for an otherwise unpreferred water lily (Nuphar advena) within the life-span of individual caterpillars. M. gyralis is a generalist herbivore exhibiting modest preference induction and preferences for and among members of the family Nymphaeaceae. Our results suggest that relative growth rates, chemical cues, and previous feeding experience are important factors determining feeding preference. Protein content, polyphenolic content, and toughness appear less important, and the importance of fish predators remains in question. As pupation seems to occur exclusively on Nymphaea, we suggest that host use may be restricted due to life-stage-specific developmental constraints that are not

  18. Plant Quantity Affects Development and Survival of a Gregarious Insect Herbivore and Its Endoparasitoid Wasp.

    PubMed

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Zhu, Feng; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all studies of plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions focus on plant quality as the major constraint on development and survival. However, for many gregarious feeding insect herbivores that feed on small or ephemeral plants, the quantity of resources is much more limiting, yet this area has received virtually no attention. Here, in both lab and semi-field experiments using tents containing variably sized clusters of food plants, we studied the effects of periodic food deprivation in a tri-trophic system where quantitative constraints are profoundly important on insect performance. The large cabbage white Pieris brassicae, is a specialist herbivore of relatively small wild brassicaceous plants that grow in variable densities, with black mustard (Brassica nigra) being one of the most important. Larvae of P. brassicae are in turn attacked by a specialist endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. Increasing the length of food deprivation of newly molted final instar caterpillars significantly decreased herbivore and parasitoid survival and biomass, but shortened their development time. Moreover, the ability of caterpillars to recover when provided with food again was correlated with the length of the food deprivation period. In outdoor tents with natural vegetation, we created conditions similar to those faced by P. brassicae in nature by manipulating plant density. Low densities of B. nigra lead to potential starvation of P. brassicae broods and their parasitoids, replicating nutritional conditions of the lab experiments. The ability of both unparasitized and parasitized caterpillars to find corner plants was similar but decreased with central plant density. Survival of both the herbivore and parasitoid increased with plant density and was higher for unparasitized than for parasitized caterpillars. Our results, in comparison with previous studies, reveal that quantitative constraints are far more important that qualitative constraints on the performance of

  19. Organismal responses to habitat change: herbivore performance, climate and leaf traits in regenerating tropical dry forests.

    PubMed

    Agosta, Salvatore J; Hulshof, Catherine M; Staats, Ethan G

    2017-05-01

    The ecological effects of large-scale climate change have received much attention, but the effects of the more acute form of climate change that results from local habitat alteration have been less explored. When forest is fragmented, cut, thinned, cleared or otherwise altered in structure, local climates and microclimates change. Such changes can affect herbivores both directly (e.g. through changes in body temperature) and indirectly (e.g. through changes in host plant traits). We advance an eco-physiological framework to understand the effects of changing forests on herbivorous insects. We hypothesize that if tropical forest caterpillars are climate and resource specialists, then they should have reduced performance outside of mature forest conditions. We tested this hypothesis with a field experiment contrasting the performance of Rothschildia lebeau (Saturniidae) caterpillars feeding on the host plant Casearia nitida (Salicaceae) in two different aged and structured tropical dry forests in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Compared to more mature closed-canopy forest, in younger secondary forest we found that: (1) ambient conditions were hotter, drier and more variable; (2) caterpillar growth and development were reduced; and (3) leaves were tougher, thicker and drier. Furthermore, caterpillar growth and survival were negatively correlated with these leaf traits, suggesting indirect host-mediated effects of climate on herbivores. Based on the available evidence, and relative to mature forest, we conclude that reduced herbivore performance in young secondary forest could have been driven by changes in climate, leaf traits (which were likely climate induced) or both. However, additional studies will be needed to provide more direct evidence of cause-and-effect and to disentangle the relative influence of these factors on herbivore performance in this system. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  20. Bt Jute Expressing Fused δ-Endotoxin Cry1Ab/Ac for Resistance to Lepidopteran Pests

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Shuvobrata; Sarkar, Chirabrata; Saha, Prosanta; Gotyal, Bheemanna S.; Satpathy, Subrata; Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan K.

    2018-01-01

    Jute (Corchorus sp.) is naturally occurring, biodegradable, lignocellulosic-long, silky, golden shiny fiber producing plant that has great demands globally. Paper and textile industries are interested in jute because of the easy availability, non-toxicity and high yield of cellulosic biomass produced per acre in cultivation. Jute is the major and most industrially used bast fiber-producing crop in the world and it needs protection from insect pest infestation that decreases its yield and quality. Single locus integration of the synthetically fused cry1Ab/Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in Corchorus capsularis (JRC 321) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoot tip transformation provided 5 potent Bt jute lines BT1, BT2, BT4, BT7 and BT8. These lines consistently expressed the Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin ranging from 0.16 to 0.35 ng/mg of leaf, in the following generations (analyzed upto T4). The effect of Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin was studied against 3 major Lepidopteran pests of jute- semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guenee), hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia obliqua Walker) and indigo caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubner) by detached leaf and whole plant insect bioassay on greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. Results confirm that larvae feeding on transgenic plants had lower food consumption, body size, body weight and dry weight of excreta compared to non-transgenic controls. Insect mortality range among transgenic feeders was 66–100% for semilooper and hairy caterpillar and 87.50% for indigo caterpillar. Apart from insect resistance, the transgenic plants were at par with control plants in terms of agronomic parameters and fiber quality. Hence, these Bt jutes in the field would survive Lepidopteran pest infestation, minimize harmful pesticide usage and yield good quality fiber. PMID:29354143

  1. Hyperparasitoids Use Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles to Locate Their Parasitoid Host

    PubMed Central

    Poelman, Erik H.; Bruinsma, Maaike; Zhu, Feng; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Boursault, Aline E.; Jongema, Yde; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Vet, Louise E. M.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory with the emission of induced plant volatiles. These volatiles may attract parasitic wasps (parasitoids) that attack the herbivores. Although in this sense the emission of volatiles has been hypothesized to be beneficial to the plant, it is still debated whether this is also the case under natural conditions because other organisms such as herbivores also respond to the emitted volatiles. One important group of organisms, the enemies of parasitoids, hyperparasitoids, has not been included in this debate because little is known about their foraging behaviour. Here, we address whether hyperparasitoids use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their host. We show that hyperparasitoids find their victims through herbivore-induced plant volatiles emitted in response to attack by caterpillars that in turn had been parasitized by primary parasitoids. Moreover, only one of two species of parasitoids affected herbivore-induced plant volatiles resulting in the attraction of more hyperparasitoids than volatiles from plants damaged by healthy caterpillars. This resulted in higher levels of hyperparasitism of the parasitoid that indirectly gave away its presence through its effect on plant odours induced by its caterpillar host. Here, we provide evidence for a role of compounds in the oral secretion of parasitized caterpillars that induce these changes in plant volatile emission. Our results demonstrate that the effects of herbivore-induced plant volatiles should be placed in a community-wide perspective that includes species in the fourth trophic level to improve our understanding of the ecological functions of volatile release by plants. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the impact of species in the fourth trophic level should also be considered when developing Integrated Pest Management strategies aimed at optimizing the control of insect pests using parasitoids. PMID:23209379

  2. The Influence of Host Plant Extrafloral Nectaries on Multitrophic Interactions: An Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Koptur, Suzanne; Jones, Ian M.; Peña, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with outplantings of the native perennial shrub Senna mexicana var. chapmanii in a semi-natural area adjacent to native pine rockland habitat in southern Florida. The presence of ants and the availability of extrafloral nectar were manipulated in a stratified random design. Insect communities were monitored and recorded over a period of six months with a view to addressing three main questions. Do ants provide biotic defense against key herbivores on S. chapmanii? Is the presence of ants on S. chapmanii mediated by EFN? Finally, are there ecological costs associated with the presence of ants on S. chapmanii, such as a reduction in alternative predator or parasitoid numbers? Herbivores on S. chapmanii included immature stages of three pierid butterflies, and adult weevils. Eight species of ants were associated with the plants, and other predators included spiders, ladybugs, wasps, and hemipterans. Parasitic, haemolymph-sucking midges (Ceratopogonidae) and parasitoid flies were also associated with the caterpillar herbivores, and possibly the extrafloral nectaries of the plants. The presence of ants did not appear to influence oviposition by butterflies, as numbers of lepidopterans of all developmental stages did not differ among treatments. Significantly more late instar caterpillars, however, were observed on plants with ants excluded, indicating that ants remove small caterpillars from plants. Substantially more alternative predators (spiders, ladybugs, and wasps) were observed on plants with ants excluded. Rates of parasitization did not differ among the treatments, but there were substantially fewer caterpillars succumbing to virus among those collected from control plants. We provide a rare look at facultative ant-plant mutualisms in the context of the many other interactions with which they overlap. We conclude that ants provide some biotic defense against herbivores on S. chapmanii, and plants benefit overall from the presence

  3. A small cable tunnel inspection robot design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaolong; Guo, Xiaoxue; Huang, Jiangcheng; Xiao, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Modern city mainly rely on internal electricity cable tunnel, this can reduce the influence of high voltage over-head lines of urban city appearance and function. In order to reduce the dangers of cable tunnel artificial inspection and high labor intensity, we design a small caterpillar chassis in combination with two degrees of freedom robot with two degrees of freedom camera pan and tilt, used in the cable tunnel inspection work. Caterpillar chassis adopts simple return roller, damping structure. Mechanical arm with three parallel shafts, finish the up and down and rotated action. Two degrees of freedom camera pan and tilt are used to monitor cable tunnel with 360 °no dead angle. It looks simple, practical and efficient.

  4. Use of an insect cell culture growth medium to isolate bacteria from horses with effusive, fibrinous pericarditis: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Samuel L; Valenzisi, Amy; Sontakke, Sushama; Sprayberry, Kimberly A; Maggi, Ricardo; Hegarty, Barbara; Breitschwerdt, Edward

    2007-03-31

    Effusive, fibrinous pericarditis is an uncommon disease entity in horses. In 2001, pericarditis occurred in conjunction with an epizootic in central Kentucky that was associated with exposure to eastern tent caterpillars (ETCs). Bacterial isolation from equine pericardial fluid samples was attempted using an insect cell culture growth medium (ICCGM). Using previously cultured, stored frozen samples from four horses with fibrinous pericarditis, inoculation of 10% blood agar plates yielded no growth, whereas simultaneous inoculation of ICCGM resulted in the isolation of Proprionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus equorum, a Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas rhodesiae from pericardial fluid samples. A similar or novel caterpillar-associated bacteria was not identified; however, use of an ICCGM might enhance isolation of bacteria from equine pericardial fluid.

  5. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure

    PubMed Central

    Solis-Gabriel, Lizet; Mendoza-Arroyo, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control) in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:28560101

  6. Restoring lepidopteran diversity in a tropical dry forest: relative importance of restoration treatment, tree identity and predator pressure.

    PubMed

    Solis-Gabriel, Lizet; Mendoza-Arroyo, Wendy; Boege, Karina; Del-Val, Ek

    2017-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been widely transformed by human activities worldwide and the ecosystem services they provide are diminishing. There has been an urgent call for conservation and restoration of the degraded lands previously occupied by TDFs. Restoration experiences aim to recover species diversity and ecological functions. Different restoration strategies have been used to maximize plant performance including weeding, planting or using artificial mulching. In this investigation, we evaluated whether different restoration practices influence animal arrival and the reestablishment of biotic interactions. We particularly evaluated lepidopteran larvae diversity and caterpillar predation on plants established under different restoration treatments (mulching, weeding and control) in the Pacific West Coast of México. This study corroborated the importance of plant host identity for lepidopteran presence in a particular area. Lepidopteran diversity and herbivory rates were not affected by the restoration treatment but they were related to tree species. In contrast, caterpillar predation marks were affected by restoration treatment, with a greater number of predation marks in control plots, while caterpillar predation marks among plant species were not significantly different. This study highlights the importance of considering the introduction of high plant species diversity when planning TDF restoration to maximize lepidopteran diversity and ecosystem functioning.

  7. Influence of temperature on the physiology and virulence of the insect pathogen Serratia sp. Strain SCBI.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lauren M; Tisa, Louis S

    2012-12-01

    The physiology of a newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae Isolate (SCBI), which is both a nematode mutualist and an insect pathogen, was investigated and compared to that of Serratia marcescens Db11, a broad-host-range pathogen. The two Serratia strains had comparable levels of virulence for Manduca sexta and similar cytotoxic activity patterns, but motility and lipase and hemolytic activities differed significantly between them.

  8. Influence of Temperature on the Physiology and Virulence of the Insect Pathogen Serratia sp. Strain SCBI

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lauren M.

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of a newly recognized Serratia species, termed South African Caenorhabditis briggsae Isolate (SCBI), which is both a nematode mutualist and an insect pathogen, was investigated and compared to that of Serratia marcescens Db11, a broad-host-range pathogen. The two Serratia strains had comparable levels of virulence for Manduca sexta and similar cytotoxic activity patterns, but motility and lipase and hemolytic activities differed significantly between them. PMID:23042169

  9. Hematopoietic organs of Manduca sexta and hemocyte lineages.

    PubMed

    Nardi, James B; Pilas, Barbara; Ujhelyi, Elizabeth; Garsha, Karl; Kanost, Michael R

    2003-10-01

    Cells of the moth immune system are derived from organs that loosely envelop the four wing imaginal discs. The immune response in these insects is believed to depend on the activities of two main classes of hemocytes: plasmatocytes and granular cells. The fates of cells that arise from these hematopoietic organs have been followed by immunolabeling with plasmatocyte-specific and granular-cell-specific antibodies. Cells within each hematopoietic organ differ in their coherence and in their expression of two plasmatocyte-specific surface proteins, integrin and neuroglian. Within an organ there is no overlap in the expression of these two surface proteins; neuroglian is found on the surfaces of the coherent cells while integrin is expressed on cells that are losing coherence, rounding up, and dispersing. A granular-cell-specific marker for the protein lacunin labels the basal lamina that delimits each organ but only a small number of granular cells that lie on or near the periphery of the hematopoietic organ. When organs are cultured in the absence of hemolymph, all cells derived from hematopoietic organs turn out to immunolabel with the plasmatocyte-specific antibody MS13. The circulating plasmatocytes derived from hematopoietic organs have higher ploidy levels than the granular cells and represent a separate lineage of hemocytes.

  10. Thinning strategies for aspen: a prediction model.

    Treesearch

    Donald A. Perala

    1978-01-01

    Derives thinning strategies to maximize volume yields of aspen fiber, sawtimber, and veneer. Demonstrates how yields are affected by growing season climatic variation and periodic defoliation by forest tent caterpillar.

  11. General and specific gypsy moth predators

    Treesearch

    Ronald M. Weseloh

    1991-01-01

    General larval predators of low-density gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), populations have been assessed by exposing caterpillars tethered by threads. Most mortality occurred on tree trunks and in leaf litter.

  12. A new twist on gyroscopic sensing: body rotations lead to torsion in flapping, flexing insect wings.

    PubMed

    Eberle, A L; Dickerson, B H; Reinhall, P G; Daniel, T L

    2015-03-06

    Insects perform fast rotational manoeuvres during flight. While two insect orders use flapping halteres (specialized organs evolved from wings) to detect body dynamics, it is unknown how other insects detect rotational motions. Like halteres, insect wings experience gyroscopic forces when they are flapped and rotated and recent evidence suggests that wings might indeed mediate reflexes to body rotations. But, can gyroscopic forces be detected using only changes in the structural dynamics of a flapping, flexing insect wing? We built computational and robotic models to rotate a flapping wing about an axis orthogonal to flapping. We recorded high-speed video of the model wing, which had a flexural stiffness similar to the wing of the Manduca sexta hawkmoth, while flapping it at the wingbeat frequency of Manduca (25 Hz). We compared the three-dimensional structural dynamics of the wing with and without a 3 Hz, 10° rotation about the yaw axis. Our computational model revealed that body rotation induces a new dynamic mode: torsion. We verified our result by measuring wing tip displacement, shear strain and normal strain of the robotic wing. The strains we observed could stimulate an insect's mechanoreceptors and trigger reflexive responses to body rotations. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Wide-field motion tuning in nocturnal hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Theobald, Jamie C.; Warrant, Eric J.; O'Carroll, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Nocturnal hawkmoths are known for impressive visually guided behaviours in dim light, such as hovering while feeding from nectar-bearing flowers. This requires tight visual feedback to estimate and counter relative motion. Discrimination of low velocities, as required for stable hovering flight, is fundamentally limited by spatial resolution, yet in the evolution of eyes for nocturnal vision, maintenance of high spatial acuity compromises absolute sensitivity. To investigate these trade-offs, we compared responses of wide-field motion-sensitive neurons in three species of hawkmoth: Manduca sexta (a crepuscular hoverer), Deilephila elpenor (a fully nocturnal hoverer) and Acherontia atropos (a fully nocturnal hawkmoth that does not hover as it feeds uniquely from honey in bees' nests). We show that despite smaller eyes, the motion pathway of D. elpenor is tuned to higher spatial frequencies and lower temporal frequencies than A. atropos, consistent with D. elpenor's need to detect low velocities for hovering. Acherontia atropos, however, presumably evolved low-light sensitivity without sacrificing temporal acuity. Manduca sexta, active at higher light levels, is tuned to the highest spatial frequencies of the three and temporal frequencies comparable with A. atropos. This yields similar tuning to low velocities as in D. elpenor, but with the advantage of shorter neural delays in processing motion. PMID:19906663

  14. A new twist on gyroscopic sensing: body rotations lead to torsion in flapping, flexing insect wings

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, A. L.; Dickerson, B. H.; Reinhall, P. G.; Daniel, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    Insects perform fast rotational manoeuvres during flight. While two insect orders use flapping halteres (specialized organs evolved from wings) to detect body dynamics, it is unknown how other insects detect rotational motions. Like halteres, insect wings experience gyroscopic forces when they are flapped and rotated and recent evidence suggests that wings might indeed mediate reflexes to body rotations. But, can gyroscopic forces be detected using only changes in the structural dynamics of a flapping, flexing insect wing? We built computational and robotic models to rotate a flapping wing about an axis orthogonal to flapping. We recorded high-speed video of the model wing, which had a flexural stiffness similar to the wing of the Manduca sexta hawkmoth, while flapping it at the wingbeat frequency of Manduca (25 Hz). We compared the three-dimensional structural dynamics of the wing with and without a 3 Hz, 10° rotation about the yaw axis. Our computational model revealed that body rotation induces a new dynamic mode: torsion. We verified our result by measuring wing tip displacement, shear strain and normal strain of the robotic wing. The strains we observed could stimulate an insect's mechanoreceptors and trigger reflexive responses to body rotations. PMID:25631565

  15. Higher-order neural processing tunes motion neurons to visual ecology in three species of hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, A L; O'Carroll, D; Warrant, E J

    2017-06-28

    To sample information optimally, sensory systems must adapt to the ecological demands of each animal species. These adaptations can occur peripherally, in the anatomical structures of sensory organs and their receptors; and centrally, as higher-order neural processing in the brain. While a rich body of investigations has focused on peripheral adaptations, our understanding is sparse when it comes to central mechanisms. We quantified how peripheral adaptations in the eyes, and central adaptations in the wide-field motion vision system, set the trade-off between resolution and sensitivity in three species of hawkmoths active at very different light levels: nocturnal Deilephila elpenor, crepuscular Manduca sexta , and diurnal Macroglossum stellatarum. Using optical measurements and physiological recordings from the photoreceptors and wide-field motion neurons in the lobula complex, we demonstrate that all three species use spatial and temporal summation to improve visual performance in dim light. The diurnal Macroglossum relies least on summation, but can only see at brighter intensities. Manduca, with large sensitive eyes, relies less on neural summation than the smaller eyed Deilephila , but both species attain similar visual performance at nocturnal light levels. Our results reveal how the visual systems of these three hawkmoth species are intimately matched to their visual ecologies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Aphid Honeydew Quality as a Food Source for Parasitoids Is Maintained in Bt Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L.; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Bt-transgenic cotton has proven to be highly efficient in controlling key lepidopteran pests. One concern with the deployment of Bt cotton varieties is the potential proliferation of non-target pests. We previously showed that Bt cotton contained lower concentrations of insecticidal terpenoids as a result of reduced caterpillar damage, which benefited the aphid Aphis gossypii. It is thus important that non-target herbivores are under biological control in Bt cotton fields. The induction or lack of induction of terpenoids could also influence the quality of aphid honeydew, an important food source for beneficial insects. We therefore screened A. gossypii honeydew for cotton terpenoids, that are induced by caterpillars but not the aphids. We then tested the influence of induced insect-resistance of cotton on honeydew nutritional quality for the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes and the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus. We detected the cotton terpenoids gossypol and hemigossypolone in A. gossypii honeydew. Although a feeding assay demonstrated that gossypol reduced the longevity of both parasitoid species in a non-linear, dose-dependent manner, the honeydew was capable of sustaining parasitoid longevity and reproduction. The level of caterpillar damage to Bt and non-Bt cotton had no impact on the quality of honeydew for the parasitoids.These results indicate that the nutritional quality of honeydew is maintained in Bt cotton and is not influenced by induced insect resistance. PMID:25226521

  17. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  18. Biology and occurrence of Inga Busk species (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) on Cerrado host plants.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Ivone R; Bernardes, Carolina; Rodovalho, Sheila; Morais, Helena C

    2007-01-01

    We sampled Inga Busk species caterpillars weekly in the cerrado on 15 plants of Diospyros burchellii Hern. (Ebenaceae) from January 2002 to December 2003, on 30 plants of Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae) from July 2003 to June 2004, and since 1991 on several other plant species. In total we found 15 species of Inga on cerrado host plants. Nine species were very rare, with only one to five adults reared. The other six species occurred throughout the year, with higher abundance during the dry season, from May to July, coinciding with overall peaks of caterpillar abundance in the cerrado. Caterpillars of the genus Inga build shelters by tying and lining two mature or old leaves with silk and frass, where they rest and develop (a common habit found in Oecophorinae). The final instar builds a special envelope inside the leaf shelter, where it will complete the larval stage and pupate. The species are very difficult to distinguish in the immature stages. External features were useful in identifying only four species: I. haemataula (Meyrick), I. phaecrossa (Meyrick), I. ancorata (Walsingham), and I. corystes (Meyrick). These four species are polyphagous and have wide geographical distributions. In this paper we provide information on the natural history and host plants of six Inga species common on cerrado host plants, for which there are no reports in the literature.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1998 Designing Greener Chemicals Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1998 award winner, Rohm and Haas, developed CONFIRM, a highly selective, reduced risk insecticide that disrupts the molting process of caterpillar pests in turf and a variety of crops.

  20. Identification of a CAPA-PVK (IXORI-PVK) from Single Cells of the Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma maculatum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    neurons of the abdominal ganglia and are likely to be released as hormones from the abdominal perisympatic organs ( PSOs ) into the hemolymph. The...CAPs) in the VNC/ PSOs of the tobacco hawk moth, Manduca sexta. Indeed, in a recent study we have identified the first peptidergic neurohormone from...discussions on the manuscript. REFERENCES [1] Coast G.M., Garside C.S., Ann . NY Acad Sci., 2005, 1040,1-8. [2] Pietrantonio P.V., Jagge C., Taneja

  1. Responses of insect herbivores and their food plants to wind exposure and the importance of predation risk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Biere, Arjen; Gols, Rieta; Halfwerk, Wouter; van Oers, Kees; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2018-04-19

    Wind is an important abiotic factor that influences an array of biological processes, but it is rarely considered in studies on plant-herbivore interactions. Here, we tested whether wind exposure could directly or indirectly affect the performance of two insect herbivores, Plutella xylostella and Pieris brassicae, feeding on Brassica nigra plants. In a greenhouse study using a factorial design, B. nigra plants were exposed to different wind regimes generated by fans before and after caterpillars were introduced on plants in an attempt to separate the effects of direct and indirect wind exposure on herbivores. Wind exposure delayed flowering, decreased plant height and increased leaf concentrations of amino acids and glucosinolates. Plant-mediated effects of wind on herbivores, that is effects of exposure of plants to wind prior to herbivore feeding, were generally small. However, development time of both herbivores was extended and adult body mass of P. xylostella was reduced when they were directly exposed to wind. By contrast, wind-exposed adult P. brassicae butterflies were significantly larger, revealing a trade-off between development time and adult size. Based on these results, we conducted a behavioural experiment to study preference by an avian predator, the great tit (Parus major) for last instar P. brassicae caterpillars on plants that were exposed to either control (no wind) or wind (fan-exposed) treatments. Tits captured significantly more caterpillars on still than on wind-exposed plants. Our results suggest that P. brassicae caterpillars are able to perceive the abiotic environment and to trade off the costs of extended development time against the benefits of increased size depending on the perceived risk of predation mediated by wind exposure. Such adaptive phenotypic plasticity in insects has not yet been described in response to wind exposure. © 2018 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of

  2. Climate change and unequal phenological changes across four trophic levels: constraints or adaptations?

    PubMed

    Both, Christiaan; van Asch, Margriet; Bijlsma, Rob G; van den Burg, Arnold B; Visser, Marcel E

    2009-01-01

    1. Climate change has been shown to affect the phenology of many organisms, but interestingly these shifts are often unequal across trophic levels, causing a mismatch between the phenology of organisms and their food. 2. We consider two alternative hypotheses: consumers are constrained to adjust sufficiently to the lower trophic level, or prey species react more strongly than their predators to reduce predation. We discuss both hypotheses with our analyses of changes in phenology across four trophic levels: tree budburst, peak biomass of herbivorous caterpillars, breeding phenology of four insectivorous bird species and an avian predator. 3. In our long-term study, we show that between 1988 and 2005, budburst advanced (not significantly) with 0.17 d yr(-1), while between 1985 and 2005 both caterpillars (0.75 d year(-1)) and the hatching date of the passerine species (range for four species: 0.36-0.50 d year(-1)) have advanced, whereas raptor hatching dates showed no trend. 4. The caterpillar peak date was closely correlated with budburst date, as were the passerine hatching dates with the peak caterpillar biomass date. In all these cases, however, the slopes were significantly less than unity, showing that the response of the consumers is weaker than that of their food. This was also true for the avian predator, for which hatching dates were not correlated with the peak availability of fledgling passerines. As a result, the match between food demand and availability deteriorated over time for both the passerines and the avian predators. 5. These results could equally well be explained by consumers' insufficient responses as a consequence of constraints in adapting to climate change, or by them trying to escape predation from a higher trophic level, or both. Selection on phenology could thus be both from matches of phenology with higher and lower levels, and quantifying these can shed new light on why some organisms do adjust their phenology to climate change, while

  3. Kid-Friendly Veggies and Fruits: 10 Tips for Making Healthy Food Choices More Fun for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... cashews, 3 caterpillar kabobs Assemble chunks of melon, apple, orange, and pear on skewers for a fruity ... warm. walnuts, or sunflower seeds mixed with dried apples, pineapple, cherries, apricots, or raisins. Add whole-grain ...

  4. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    SLACK, JEFFREY, M.

    Wood is a potential source for biofuels such as ethanol if it can be digested into sugars and fermented by yeast. Biomass derived from wood is a challenging substrate for ethanol production since it is made of lignin and cellulose which cannot be broken down easily into fermentable sugars. Some insects, and termites in particular, are specialized at using enzymes in their guts to digest wood into sugars. If termite gut enzymes could be made abundantly by a recombinant protein expression vector system, they could be applied to an industrial process to make biofuels from wood. In this study, amore » large cDNA library of relevant termite genes was made using termites fed a normal diet, or a diet with added lignin. A subtracted library yielded genes that were overexpressed in the presence of lignin. Termite gut enzyme genes were identified and cloned into recombinant insect viruses called baculoviruses. Using our PERLXpress system for protein expression, these termite gene recombinant baculoviruses were prepared and used to infect insect larvae, which then expressed abundant recombinant termite enzymes. Many of these expressed enzymes were prepared to very high purity, and the activities were studied in conjunction with collaborators at Purdue University. Recombinant termite enzymes expressed in caterpillars were shown to be able to release sugars from wood. Mixing different combinations of these enzymes increased the amount of sugars released from a model woody biomass substrate. The most economical, fastest and energy conserving way to prepare termite enzymes expressed by recombinant baculoviruses in caterpillars was by making crude liquid homogenates. Making enzymes stable in homogenates therefore was a priority. During the course of these studies, improvements were made to the recombinant baculovirus expression platform so that caterpillar-derived homogenates containing expressed termite enzymes would be more stable. These improvements in the baculoviruses

  5. Product shipping information using graceful labeling on undirected tree graph approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Yoong Kooi; Ghani, Ahmad Termimi Ab

    2017-08-01

    Product shipping information is the related information of an ordered product that ready to be shipped to the foreign customer's company, where the information represents as an irrefutable proof in black and white to the local manufacturer by E-mails. This messy and unordered list of information is stored in E-mail folders by the people incharge, which do not function in collating the information properly. So, in this paper, an algorithm is proposed on how to rearrange the messy information from the sequence of a path graph structure into a concise version of a caterpillar graph with achieving the concept of graceful labeling. The final graceful caterpillar graph consists of the full listed information together with the numbering, which able to assist people get the information fleetly for shipping arrangement procedure.

  6. Leaf development in Xylopia aromatica (Lam) Mart. (Annonaceae): implications for palatability to Stenoma scitiorella Walker 1864 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae).

    PubMed

    Varanda, E M; Costa, A A; Barosela, J R

    2008-11-01

    Variations in specific foliar mass and water content, nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates and tannins were studied during the growth and maturation processes of the Xylopia aromatica leaves, to determine the effects of such alterations on the herbivory of Stenoma scitiorella caterpillars. This work was carried out in the physiognomy of the typical cerrado of the Parque Estadual de Vassununga, Gleba Pé-de Gigante, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, São Paulo State, Brazil. While nutritional quality (water and nitrogen) decreases during expansion and maturation of Xylopia aromatica leaves, the chemical (tannins) and physical (sclerophylly) defenses are raised. In agreement with the observations on herbivory, the results support the hypothesis that the reduction in palatability and increase in chemical defenses of Xylopia aromatica leaves account for the caterpillars' preference for young expanding leaves.

  7. 31. ENGINE ROOM LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING BOTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. ENGINE ROOM LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING BOTH CATERPILLAR DIESELS AND ONE GENERATOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE PINE, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, South Broad Street, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  8. Mind Control: How Parasites Manipulate Cognitive Functions in Their Insect Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Libersat, Frederic; Kaiser, Maayan; Emanuel, Stav

    2018-01-01

    Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite) modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host). Such parasite–host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions. To name just a few examples, some worms induce crickets and other terrestrial insects to commit suicide in water, enabling the exit of the parasite into an aquatic environment favorable to its reproduction. In another example of behavioral manipulation, ants that consumed the secretions of a caterpillar containing dopamine are less likely to move away from the caterpillar and more likely to be aggressive. This benefits the caterpillar for without its ant bodyguards, it is more likely to be predated upon or attacked by parasitic insects that would lay eggs inside its body. Another example is the parasitic wasp, which induces a guarding behavior in its ladybug host in collaboration with a viral mutualist. To exert long-term behavioral manipulation of the host, parasite must secrete compounds that act through secondary messengers and/or directly on genes often modifying gene expression to produce long-lasting effects. PMID:29765342

  9. Mind Control: How Parasites Manipulate Cognitive Functions in Their Insect Hosts.

    PubMed

    Libersat, Frederic; Kaiser, Maayan; Emanuel, Stav

    2018-01-01

    Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite) modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host). Such parasite-host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions. To name just a few examples, some worms induce crickets and other terrestrial insects to commit suicide in water, enabling the exit of the parasite into an aquatic environment favorable to its reproduction. In another example of behavioral manipulation, ants that consumed the secretions of a caterpillar containing dopamine are less likely to move away from the caterpillar and more likely to be aggressive. This benefits the caterpillar for without its ant bodyguards, it is more likely to be predated upon or attacked by parasitic insects that would lay eggs inside its body. Another example is the parasitic wasp, which induces a guarding behavior in its ladybug host in collaboration with a viral mutualist. To exert long-term behavioral manipulation of the host, parasite must secrete compounds that act through secondary messengers and/or directly on genes often modifying gene expression to produce long-lasting effects.

  10. Fungal dimorphism in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium rileyi: detection of an in vivo quorum-sensing system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This investigation documents the expression of the in vivo dimorphic program exhibited by insect mycopathogen M. rileyi replicating. This insect mycopathogen represents the key mortality factor regulating various caterpillar populations in various legumes, including subtropical and tropical soybeans...

  11. Morphological and behavioral evidence of Batesian mimicry in nestlings of a lowland Amazonian bird.

    PubMed

    Londoño, Gustavo A; García, Duván A; Sánchez Martínez, Manuel A

    2015-01-01

    Because predation is the main cause of avian nest failure, selection should favor strategies that reduce the probability of nest predation. We describe apparent Batesian mimicry in the morphology and behavior of a Laniocera hypopyrra nestling. On hatching, the nestling had a distinctive bright orange color and modified feathers all over its body, and 6 days after hatching, it started to move its head very slowly from side to side (in a "caterpillar" movement) when disturbed. These traits gave it a resemblance to a hairy, aposematic caterpillar. This species has a long nestling period for its size (20 days), perhaps due to slow provisioning rates (about one feeding per hour). We argue that the slow growth rate, combined with high nest predation, favors the evolution of antipredation mechanisms such as the unique morphological and behavioral characteristics of L. hypopyrra nestlings.

  12. Host suitability affects odor association in Cotesia marginiventris: implications in generalist parasitoid host-finding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect herbivores often induce plant volatile compounds that can attract natural enemies. Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a generalist parasitoid wasp of noctuid caterpillars and is highly attracted to Spodoptera exigua-induced plant volatiles. The plasticity of C. marginiventris...

  13. Genomic basis for the pest status of two Helicoverpa species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea are major caterpillar pests of Old and New World agriculture respectively. Both, particularly H. armigera, are extremely polyphagous, and H. armigera has developed resistance to many insecticides. Here we use comparative and population genomics an...

  14. Insect pests and yield potential of vegetable soybean (Endamame) produced in Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of replicated field experiments was conducted with vegetable soybean (edamame), Glycine max (L.) Merrill, to assess the impacts of cultivars, planting dates, and insecticidal controls on insect pest abundance, crop damage and yield potential. The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatali...

  15. Beyond the Clock--Using the Computer to Teach the Abstract Concept of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Julie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses several projects to help teach and reinforce the concept of time, using the books "The Very Hungry Caterpillar" (by Eric Carle) and "Charlotte's Web (by E. B. White) as well as the computer software program "Timeliner" (by Tom Snyder). (SR)

  16. Contributions to Industrial Development of Science and Technology Institutions in Malaysia and Opportunities for Bilateral Cooperation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    example, Tractors Malaysia, Bhd., a subsidiary of the Malaysian multinational firm Sime Darby and holder of the Caterpillar equipment franchise , operates... entrepreneurship are often the key constraints which determine the success and subsequent expansion of smaller business enterprises. Another important

  17. Biodiversity and Landscape Planning: Alternative Futures for the Region of Camp Pendleton, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    beetles, ants, wasps, flies, and caterpillars. Vegetable items include small fruits such as currants, grapes, elderberries, and mistletoe . [m Bluebirds...small fruits such as currants, grapes, elderberries, and mistletoe . Bluebirds maintain a territory used for mating, nesting, and feeding. Territories

  18. Woodland Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents tips on nature observation during a woodland hike in the Adirondacks. Discusses engraver beetles and Dutch elm disease, birds' nests, hornets' nests, caterpillar webs, deer and bear signs, woodpecker holes, red squirrels, porcupine and beaver signs, and galls. (SV)

  19. Osteopontin CD44 Interaction: A Novel Mechanism for the Selective Homing of Breast Tumor Cells into Bone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    285, 1182-1186. Giunciuglio, D., T. Cai, C. Filanti, P. Manduca, and A. Albini. (1995) Cancer Letters. 97:69-74. Guirguis R, Margulies I, Taraboletti G...1998; 111,3119-27. Schirrmacher V. Sci. USA 87,1620-24. Shekhar, P. V., C. J. Aslakson, and F. R. Miller . (1993) Seminars in Cancer Biology. 4:193-204...in a mouse model . Science 279:377-380 Even though uncontrolled growth does not inevitably 4. Brooks PC, Montgomery AMP, Rosenfeld M, Reisfeld RA, lead

  20. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  1. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phylliss

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how, where, and when to capture indoor and outdoor insects for study: Grasshoppers, Cockroaches, Houseflies, Snowfleas, Stone Flies, Scorpian Flies, Crane Flies, Gypsy Moths, Tent Caterpillars, Bagworms, Praying Mantis, Oak Leaf Skeletonizers, Mourning Cloak Butterflies, Ladybird Beetles, Maple Leaf Cutters, Woolybears. Emphasizes…

  2. 78 FR 60826 - Foreign-Trade Zone 155-Calhoun/Victoria Counties, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 155--Calhoun/Victoria Counties, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity; Caterpillar, Inc. (Excavator and Frame Assembly Production); Victoria, Texas On May 29, 2013, The Calhoun-Victoria Foreign Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 155...

  3. 76 FR 55909 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ..., LLC dba AIM Global Logistics (NVO & OFF), 6402 Teluco Street, Houston, TX 77055, Officer: Angelica... Individual), Application Type: Name Change. BestOcean Worldwide Logistics, Inc. (NVO & OFF), 1300 Valley... Individual), Rosette Capito, Vice President, Application Type: Add OFF Service. Caterpillar Logistics Inc...

  4. Interactions between microbial agents and gypsy moth parasites

    Treesearch

    Ronald M. Weseloh

    1985-01-01

    The parasite Cotesia melanoscelus attacks small gypsy moth larvae more successfully than large ones, and Bacillus thuringiensis retards the growth of caterpillars it does not kill. Together, both factors lead to higher parasitism by C. melanoscelus in areas sprayed with B. thuringiensis than...

  5. Technology transfer of operator-in-the-loop simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yae, K. H.; Lin, H. C.; Lin, T. C.; Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The technology developed for operator-in-the-loop simulation in space teleoperation has been applied to Caterpillar's backhoe, wheel loader, and off-highway truck. On an SGI workstation, the simulation integrates computer modeling of kinematics and dynamics, real-time computational and visualization, and an interface with the operator through the operator's console. The console is interfaced with the workstation through an IBM-PC in which the operator's commands were digitized and sent through an RS-232 serial port. The simulation gave visual feedback adequate for the operator in the loop, with the camera's field of vision projected on a large screen in multiple view windows. The view control can emulate either stationary or moving cameras. This simulator created an innovative engineering design environment by integrating computer software and hardware with the human operator's interactions. The backhoe simulation has been adopted by Caterpillar in building a virtual reality tool for backhoe design.

  6. Biochemical crypsis in the avoidance of natural enemies by an insect herbivore

    PubMed Central

    De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.

    2004-01-01

    Plant-herbivore interactions provide well studied examples of coevolution, but little is known about how such interactions are influenced by the third trophic level. Here we show that larvae of the specialized lepidopteran herbivore Heliothis subflexa reduce their vulnerability to natural enemies through adaptation to a remarkable and previously unknown feature of their host plant, Physalis angulata: The fruits of this plant lack linolenic acid (LA), which is required for the development of most insects. By overcoming this nutritional deficiency, H. subflexa larvae achieve numerous advantages. First, they gain near-exclusive access to a food resource: we demonstrate that closely related Heliothis virescens larvae cannot develop on P. angulata fruit unless the fruit are treated with LA. Second, they reduce their vulnerability to enemies: LA is a key component of volicitin, an elicitor of plant-volatile-signaling defenses. We demonstrate that volicitin is absent in the oral secretions of fruit-feeding caterpillars, that the volatile profiles of plants induced by fruit feeding differ from those induced by leaf feeding or by feeding on LA-treated fruit, and that the former are far less attractive to female Cardiochiles nigriceps parasitoids. Finally, they render themselves nutritionally unsuitable as hosts for enemies that require LA for their own development: we show that C. nigriceps larvae fail to develop within the bodies of fruit-feeding caterpillars but do develop in caterpillars feeding on LA-treated fruit. Thus, H. subflexa larvae not only overcome a serious dietary deficiency but also reduce their vulnerability to natural enemies through a form of “biochemical crypsis.” PMID:15184664

  7. Biochemical crypsis in the avoidance of natural enemies by an insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2004-06-15

    Plant-herbivore interactions provide well studied examples of coevolution, but little is known about how such interactions are influenced by the third trophic level. Here we show that larvae of the specialized lepidopteran herbivore Heliothis subflexa reduce their vulnerability to natural enemies through adaptation to a remarkable and previously unknown feature of their host plant, Physalis angulata: The fruits of this plant lack linolenic acid (LA), which is required for the development of most insects. By overcoming this nutritional deficiency, H. subflexa larvae achieve numerous advantages. First, they gain near-exclusive access to a food resource: we demonstrate that closely related Heliothis virescens larvae cannot develop on P. angulata fruit unless the fruit are treated with LA. Second, they reduce their vulnerability to enemies: LA is a key component of volicitin, an elicitor of plant-volatile-signaling defenses. We demonstrate that volicitin is absent in the oral secretions of fruit-feeding caterpillars, that the volatile profiles of plants induced by fruit feeding differ from those induced by leaf feeding or by feeding on LA-treated fruit, and that the former are far less attractive to female Cardiochiles nigriceps parasitoids. Finally, they render themselves nutritionally unsuitable as hosts for enemies that require LA for their own development: we show that C. nigriceps larvae fail to develop within the bodies of fruit-feeding caterpillars but do develop in caterpillars feeding on LA-treated fruit. Thus, H. subflexa larvae not only overcome a serious dietary deficiency but also reduce their vulnerability to natural enemies through a form of "biochemical crypsis."

  8. DNA barcodes affirm that 16 species of apparently generalist tropical parasitoid flies (Diptera, Tachinidae) are not all generalists

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. Alex; Wood, D. Monty; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2007-01-01

    Many species of tachinid flies are viewed as generalist parasitoids because what is apparently a single species of fly has been reared from many species of caterpillars. However, an ongoing inventory of the tachinid flies parasitizing thousands of species of caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, has encountered >400 species of specialist tachinids with only a few generalists. We DNA-barcoded 2,134 flies belonging to what appeared to be the 16 most generalist of the reared tachinid morphospecies and encountered 73 mitochondrial lineages separated by an average of 4% sequence divergence. These lineages are supported by collateral ecological information and, where tested, by independent nuclear markers (28S and ITS1), and we therefore view these lineages as provisional species. Each of the 16 apparently generalist species dissolved into one of four patterns: (i) a single generalist species, (ii) a pair of morphologically cryptic generalist species, (iii) a complex of specialist species plus a generalist, or (iv) a complex of specialists with no remaining generalist. In sum, there remained 9 generalist species among the 73 mitochondrial lineages we analyzed, demonstrating that a generalist lifestyle is possible for a tropical caterpillar parasitoid fly. These results reinforce the emerging suspicion that estimates of global species richness are likely underestimates for parasitoids (which may constitute as much as 20% of all animal life) and that the strategy of being a tropical generalist parasitic fly may be yet more unusual than has been envisioned for tachinids. PMID:17360352

  9. Conservation biological control and pest performance in lawn turf: does mowing height matter?

    PubMed

    Dobbs, Emily K; Potter, Daniel A

    2014-03-01

    With >80 million United States households engaged in lawn and gardening activities, increasing sustainability of lawn care is important. Mowing height is an easily manipulated aspect of lawn management. We tested the hypothesis that elevated mowing of tall fescue lawn grass promotes a larger, more diverse community of arthropod natural enemies which in turn provides stronger biological control services, and the corollary hypothesis that doing so also renders the turf itself less suitable for growth of insect pests. Turf-type tall fescue was mowed low (6.4 cm) or high (10.2 cm) for two growing seasons, natural enemy populations were assessed by vacuum sampling, pitfall traps, and ant baits, and predation and parasitism were evaluated with sentinel prey caterpillars, grubs, and eggs. In addition, foliage-feeding caterpillars and root-feeding scarab grubs were confined in the turf to evaluate their performance. Although some predatory groups (e.g., rove beetles and spiders) were more abundant in high-mowed grass, predation rates were uniformly high because ants, the dominant predators, were similarly abundant regardless of mowing height. Lower canopy temperatures in high-mowed grass were associated with slower growth of grass-feeding caterpillars. Higher lawn mowing reduces fuel consumption and yard waste, and promotes a deep, robust root system that reduces need for water and chemical inputs. Although in this study elevated mowing height did not measurably increase the already-high levels of predation, it did suggest additional ways through which bottom-up effects on insect pest growth might interact with natural enemies to facilitate conservation biological control.

  10. Conservation Biological Control and Pest Performance in Lawn Turf: Does Mowing Height Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Emily K.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2014-03-01

    With >80 million United States households engaged in lawn and gardening activities, increasing sustainability of lawn care is important. Mowing height is an easily manipulated aspect of lawn management. We tested the hypothesis that elevated mowing of tall fescue lawn grass promotes a larger, more diverse community of arthropod natural enemies which in turn provides stronger biological control services, and the corollary hypothesis that doing so also renders the turf itself less suitable for growth of insect pests. Turf-type tall fescue was mowed low (6.4 cm) or high (10.2 cm) for two growing seasons, natural enemy populations were assessed by vacuum sampling, pitfall traps, and ant baits, and predation and parasitism were evaluated with sentinel prey caterpillars, grubs, and eggs. In addition, foliage-feeding caterpillars and root-feeding scarab grubs were confined in the turf to evaluate their performance. Although some predatory groups (e.g., rove beetles and spiders) were more abundant in high-mowed grass, predation rates were uniformly high because ants, the dominant predators, were similarly abundant regardless of mowing height. Lower canopy temperatures in high-mowed grass were associated with slower growth of grass-feeding caterpillars. Higher lawn mowing reduces fuel consumption and yard waste, and promotes a deep, robust root system that reduces need for water and chemical inputs. Although in this study elevated mowing height did not measurably increase the already-high levels of predation, it did suggest additional ways through which bottom-up effects on insect pest growth might interact with natural enemies to facilitate conservation biological control.

  11. Parasitoid-specific induction of plant responses to parasitized herbivores affects colonization by subsequent herbivores.

    PubMed

    Poelman, Erik H; Zheng, Si-Jun; Zhang, Zhao; Heemskerk, Nanda M; Cortesero, Anne-Marie; Dicke, Marcel

    2011-12-06

    Plants are exposed to a suite of herbivorous attackers that often arrive sequentially. Herbivory affects interactions between the host plants and subsequently attacking herbivores. Moreover, plants may respond to herbivory by emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that attract carnivorous natural enemies of the herbivores. However, information borne by VOCs is ubiquitous and may attract carnivores, such as parasitoids, that differ in their effectiveness at releasing the plant from its herbivorous attackers. Furthermore, the development of parasitoids within their herbivorous hosts, attacking a given host plant, may influence the elicitation of defensive reactions in the host plant. This may, in turn, affect the behavior of subsequent herbivores attacking the host plant. Here, we show that the species identity of a parasitoid had a more significant effect on defense responses of Brassica oleracea plants than the species identity of the herbivorous hosts of the parasitoids. Consequently, B. oleracea plants that were damaged by caterpillars (Pieris spp.) parasitized by different parasitoid species varied in the degree to which diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella) selected the plants for oviposition. Attracting parasitoids in general benefitted the plants by reducing diamondback moth colonization. However, the species of parasitoid that parasitized the herbivore significantly affected the magnitude of this benefit by its species-specific effect on herbivore-plant interactions mediated by caterpillar regurgitant. Our findings show that information-mediated indirect defense may lead to unpredictable consequences for plants when considering trait-mediated effects of parasitized caterpillars on the host plant and their consequences because of community-wide responses to induced plants.

  12. Virus Innexins induce alterations in insect cell and tissue function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polydnaviruses are dsDNA viruses that induce immune and developmental alterations in their caterpillar hosts. Characterization of polydnavirus gene families and family members is necessary to understand mechanisms of pathology and evolution of these viruses, and may aid to elucidate the role of host...

  13. Loss of function of fatty acid desturase7 in tomato enhances basal aphid resistance in a salicylate-dependent manner

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives mediate induced resistance against caterpillars and other herbivores that cause tissue disruption. Far less is known about the role of jasmonates in plant interactions with phloem-feeding insects such as aphids. This study compared responses in tomato (Solanu...

  14. Trail marking by the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to t...

  15. Using internet images to gather distributional data for a newly discovered Caloptilia species (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) specializing on Chinese tallow in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera (L.), Euphorbiaceae) is a noxious and highly invasive species that was deliberately introduced to GA in 1772. In early 2009, an unfamiliar caterpillar was independently discovered feeding on T. sebifera trees in Gainesville, FL and Slidell, LA. Adult moths were...

  16. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ie2, Cry2Ac7, and Cry7Ab3 proteins against Anticarsia gemmatalis, Chrysodeixis includens and Ceratoma trifurcata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic soybeans producing the Cry1Ac insecticidal protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (or “Bt”) are currently used to control larvae of the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner) and the soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)]. The main threat to the sustain...

  17. Effects of spinosad and neem on the efficacy of a nucleopolyhedrovirus on pickleworm larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A neem formulation (Neemix® 4.5) and spinosad (SpinTor® 2SC) were tested for their effects when mixed with the multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus virus (AgMNPV) from the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), for control of pickleworm larvae, Diaphania nitidalis...

  18. Characterization of Nonjunctional Hemichannels in Caterpillar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kaijun; Turnbull, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that hemichannels, which form gap junctions when paired from apposing cells, may serve additional roles when unpaired including cell adhesion and paracrine communication. Hemichannels in mammals are formed by connexins or pannexins, while in insects they are formed by pannexin homologues termed innexins. The formation of functional gap junctions by insect innexins has been established, although their ability to form functional nonjunctional hemichannels has not been reported. Here the characteristics of nonjunctional hemichannels were examined in three lepidopteran cell types, two cell lines (High Five and Sf9) and explanted hemocytes from Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Selective fluorescent dye uptake by hemichannels was observed in a significant minority of cells, using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Carbenoxelone, an inhibitor of mammalian junctions, disrupted dye uptake, while flufenamic acid and mefloquine did not. The presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the media increased hemichannel activity. Additionally, lipopolysaccharide, a stimulator of immune activity in lepidopterans, decreased dye uptake. These results demonstrate for the first time the activity of nonjunctional hemichannels in insect cells, as well as pharmacological tools to manipulate them. These results will facilitate the further examination of the role of innexins and nonjunctional hemichannels in insect cell biology, including paracrine signaling, and comparative studies of mammalian pannexins and insect innexins. PMID:21521140

  19. The within-tree distribution of caterpillar mines

    Treesearch

    Michail V. Kozlov; Yulia G. Koricheva

    1991-01-01

    Lepidoptera is a relatively young order and one of the largest and most diverse in the Insecta. The first paleontological vestiges of moths were found among lower Jurassic deposits, but the most intensive lepidopterous evolution (mainly in suborder Ditrysia = Papilionina) took place in the mid-Cretaceous Period, coterminous with the expansion of angiosperm plants. The...

  20. Early Metamorphic Insertion Technology for Insect Flight Behavior Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology (EMIT) is a novel methodology for integrating microfabricated neuromuscular recording and actuation platforms on insects during their metamorphic development. Here, the implants are fused within the structure and function of the neuromuscular system as a result of metamorphic tissue remaking. The implants emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during pupal development results in a bioelectrically and biomechanically enhanced tissue interface. This relatively more reliable and stable interface would be beneficial for many researchers exploring the neural basis of the insect locomotion with alleviated traumatic effects caused during adult stage insertions. In this article, we implant our electrodes into the indirect flight muscles of Manduca sexta. Located in the dorsal-thorax, these main flight powering dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscles actuate the wings and supply the mechanical power for up and down strokes. Relative contraction of these two muscle groups has been under investigation to explore how the yaw maneuver is neurophysiologically coordinated. To characterize the flight dynamics, insects are often tethered with wires and their flight is recorded with digital cameras. We also developed a novel way to tether Manduca sexta on a magnetically levitating frame where the insect is connected to a commercially available wireless neural amplifier. This set up can be used to limit the degree of freedom to yawing “only” while transmitting the related electromyography signals from dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscle groups. PMID:25079130

  1. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Volume 3, Edition 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    caterpillar dermatitis, phytophoto- dermatitis, varicella , and other vesicular conditions, including in a military or bioterrorism setting, blis- tering...Dorothy, remember he was always inspired to help others. “After our son graduated from high school in 1965, he went on a missionary trip to Mexico with

  2. 77 FR 67362 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... transaction: To support the export of mining trucks and bulldozers to Ukraine. Brief non-proprietary description of the anticipated use of the items being exported: To mine iron ore in Ukraine To the extent that... industry. Parties: Principal Supplier: Caterpillar Inc. Obligors: OJSC Ferrexpo Poltava Mining, Ukraine...

  3. Coconut leaf bioactivity toward generalist maize insect pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropical plants are often more resistant to insects than temperate plants due to evolution of robust defenses to cope with a more constant insect threat. Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) has very few chewing leaf feeding insect pests and was tested against two omnivorous leaf feeding caterpillar species,...

  4. Lady beetles of South Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lady beetles are one of the most familiar groups of beneficial insects. Farmers and gardeners appreciate them for devouring insect pests. Both adult lady beetles and caterpillar-like juveniles eat pests. Lady beetles are recognizable by their red and orange colors that contrast with black spots and...

  5. Aboveground to belowground herbivore defense signaling in maize: A two-way street?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect pests that attempt to feed on the caterpillar-resistant maize genotype Mp708 encounter a potent, multi-pronged defense system that thwarts their invasion. First, these plants are on “constant alert” due to constitutively elevated levels of the phytohormone jasmonic acid that signals the plan...

  6. Hijacking common mycorrhizal networks for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer between tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Ye, Mao; Li, Chuanyou; He, Xinhua; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Wang, Rui Long; Su, Yi Juan; Luo, Shi Ming; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2014-01-01

    Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) link multiple plants together. We hypothesized that CMNs can serve as an underground conduit for transferring herbivore-induced defence signals. We established CMN between two tomato plants in pots with mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae, challenged a ‘donor' plant with caterpillar Spodoptera litura, and investigated defence responses and insect resistance in neighbouring CMN-connected ‘receiver' plants. After CMN establishment caterpillar infestation on ‘donor' plant led to increased insect resistance and activities of putative defensive enzymes, induction of defence-related genes and activation of jasmonate (JA) pathway in the ‘receiver' plant. However, use of a JA biosynthesis defective mutant spr2 as ‘donor' plants resulted in no induction of defence responses and no change in insect resistance in ‘receiver' plants, suggesting that JA signalling is required for CMN-mediated interplant communication. These results indicate that plants are able to hijack CMNs for herbivore-induced defence signal transfer and interplant defence communication. PMID:24468912

  7. Plants respond to leaf vibrations caused by insect herbivore chewing.

    PubMed

    Appel, H M; Cocroft, R B

    2014-08-01

    Plant germination and growth can be influenced by sound, but the ecological significance of these responses is unclear. We asked whether acoustic energy generated by the feeding of insect herbivores was detected by plants. We report that the vibrations caused by insect feeding can elicit chemical defenses. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) rosettes pre-treated with the vibrations caused by caterpillar feeding had higher levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin defenses when subsequently fed upon by Pieris rapae (L.) caterpillars than did untreated plants. The plants also discriminated between the vibrations caused by chewing and those caused by wind or insect song. Plants thus respond to herbivore-generated vibrations in a selective and ecologically meaningful way. A vibration signaling pathway would complement the known signaling pathways that rely on volatile, electrical, or phloem-borne signals. We suggest that vibration may represent a new long distance signaling mechanism in plant-insect interactions that contributes to systemic induction of chemical defenses.

  8. Tear Down and Inspection of the Cummins VTA-903 Evaluated Using the Single Common Powertrain Lubricant SCPL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    Materials AT Anti-Thrust AVG Average BFV Bradley Fighting Vehicle CAT Caterpillar EOT End Of Test GEP General Engine Products HMMWV High...Vehicle ( BFV ), is a 14.8 liter, V8, turbocharged after-cooled diesel engine, producing approximately 600 hp, and 1225 lb-ft of torque at their respective

  9. Trail following response of larval Cactoblastis cactorum to 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The caterpillars of Cactoblastis cactorum secrete onto the surface of host cactuses droplets of an oily fluid that issues from the orifices of their paired mandibular glands. The fluid contains a series of 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones which, collectively, have been shown to elicit trail following ...

  10. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  11. Review of Apanteles sensu stricto (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, with keys to all described species from Mesoamerica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identification, and DNA barcoding over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservación de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world’s best place-ba...

  12. Developing kairomone-based lures and traps targeting female Spilonota ocellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards treated with ex pheromones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller) can be a serious pest of organic apples in British Columbia. Recent discovery that S. ocellana moths are attracted by a lure combining acetic acid (AA) and benzyl nitrile (BN), a caterpillar-induced apple leaf volatile, provides an opportunity to develo...

  13. Review of parasitic wasps and flies (Hymenoptera, Diptera) attacking Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) in North America, with a key to genera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from North America are reviewed and an illustrated key to 17 genera is presented. Limacodid surveys and rearing were conducted by the Lill lab (JTL, SMM, TMS) during the summer months of 2004–2009 as part of their...

  14. Are colorful males of great tits Parus major better parents? Parental investment is a matter of quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani-Núñez, Emilio; Senar, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Given the known influence of parental investment on breeding success of great tits Parus major, females should be expected to use male parental quality as an essential criterion in mate choice. Since parental quality cannot usually be observed directly at the time of pairing, it has been suggested that females rely on male ornaments as indicative of their ability to provide parental care. This hypothesis, called the good parent hypothesis, has been tested repeatedly assessing only parental effort as the number of feedings made by parents. However, in evaluating parental investment, the focus should also be on the quality of prey captured rather than only on its quantity. We analyzed feeding rates and the provisioning of different prey in relation to both male yellow carotenoid-based breast coloration and the size of the black melanin-based stripe in a Mediterranean great tit population. We predicted that more carotenoid ornamented individuals would feed nestlings with a diet consisting of a higher proportion of caterpillars. However, and contrary to predictions, we found that males with higher values of hue in the yellow breast feathers, fed their offspring with a lower proportion of caterpillars and a higher proportion of spiders. In addition, nestlings that received a higher proportion of spiders showed an improved body condition after controlling for tarsus length and other variables. Male feeding rates correlated positively with brood size and tended to correlate negatively with date, although we did not find any effect of male coloration. Our data therefore support the good parent hypothesis, insofar as parental investment is also a matter of quality, and that, at least in the Mediterranean area, caterpillars are not the only key food source.

  15. Minnesota's forest resources in 2004

    Treesearch

    Patrick D. Miles; Gary J. Brand; Manfred E. Mielke

    2006-01-01

    This report presents forest statistics based on the five annual inventory panels measured from 2000 through 2004. Forest area is estimated at 16.2 million acres or 32 percent of the total land area in the State. Important pests in Minnesota forests include the forest tent caterpillar and spruce budworm.

  16. If You Were a Dinosaur...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Dinosaurs are one of those science topics that draw children in and teach them about concepts like measuring and using descriptive language. Learning about dinosaurs, although not hands-on like observing and recording caterpillar growth, develops critical thinking and introduces animal diversity and the relations between body form and function.…

  17. 77 FR 24191 - CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... amended, to abandon and remove the Tate Island compressor station in Johnson County, Arkansas, all as more..., or TTY, contact (202) 502-8659. CEGT proposes to abandon the Tate Island compressor station, which is located on CEGT's Line B in Johnson County. CEGT would remove two rented 400 horsepower (HP) Caterpillar...

  18. Book Review: “A Guide to the Lepidoptera of Japan”

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The caterpillars of butterflies and moths are among the most destructive pests of agricultural, ornamental, and forest plants. This paper is a review of new book on the butterflies and moths of Japan, which includes a section on pest species. The subject is highly relevant to U.S. agriculture becaus...

  19. Dynamics and ecological consequences of the 2013−2014 koa moth outbreak at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Foote, David

    2014-01-01

    A massive outbreak of the koa moth (Geometridea: Scotorythra paludicola) defoliated more than a third of the koa (Acacia koa) forest on Hawai‘i Island during 2013−2014. This was the largest koa moth outbreak ever recorded and the first on the island since 1953. The outbreak spread to sites distributed widely around the island between 800−2,000 m elevation and in wet rainforest to dry woodland habitats. We monitored the outbreak at two windward forest sites (Laupāhoehoe and Saddle Road Kīpuka) and one leeward forest site (Kona), and we studied the dynamics of the outbreak and its impacts on the forest ecosystem at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, our higher elevation windward site. Study sites at Hakalau included two stands of koa that were planted (reforestation stands) in former cattle pastureland about 20 years earlier and two stands of koa that were dominated by ‘ōhi‘a (Metrosideros polymorpha) and that were naturally recovering from cattle grazing (forest stands). We observed one outbreak at Hakalau, multiple outbreaks at the two other windward sites, but no outbreak at the leeward site. Caterpillars at Hakalau reached peak estimated abundances of more than 250,000 per tree and 18,000,000 per hectare, and they removed between 64−93% of the koa canopy in managed forest stands. Defoliation was more extensive in naturally recovering forest, where ‘ōhi‘a dominated and koa was less abundant, compared to the planted stands, where koa density was high. Koa trees were still growing new foliage six months after being defoliated, and leaves were produced in greater proportion to phyllodes, especially by small koa (≤ 8 cm dbh) and by larger trees in forest stands, where light levels may have remained relatively low after defoliation due to the high cover of ‘ōhi‘a. Small branches of many trees apparently died, and canopy regrowth was absent or low in 9% of koa trees and seedlings, which indicates the likely level of mortality. Between 2

  20. Multi-sensor data fusion for estimating forest species composition and abundance in northern Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Peter P. Wolter; Phillip A. Townsend

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude, duration, and frequency of forest disturbance caused by the spruce budworm and forest tent caterpillar in northern Minnesota and neighboring Ontario, Canada have increased over the last century due to a shift in forest species composition linked to historical fire suppression, forest management, and pesticide application that has fostered increased...

  1. Partners in Flight: past, present, and future: prospects for neotropical migratory bird conservation in Canada

    Treesearch

    J. S. Wendt

    1993-01-01

    The plan for conservation of Neotropical Migratory Birds - Partners in Flight - appeals to many Canadians. The birds themselves are loved for their beauty, their song, their mysterious migration, and their faithful return each spring. They are valued as members of healthy ecosystems, especially when they gorge themselves on caterpillars. Canadians recognize that the...

  2. Factors associated with rapid mortality of sugar maple in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Hall; James D. Unger; Thomas C. Bast; Bradley S. Regester

    1999-01-01

    Mortality of sugar maple and red maple was observed throughout Pennsylvania in 1995 following an outbreak in 1994 by forest tent caterpillar and elm spanworm on sugar maple and red maple, respectively. Symptoms of leaf anthracnose caused by Discula campestris (Pass.) were observed during the refoliation period from July through September 1994: the...

  3. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  4. The Hunt for Red October II: A Magnetohydrodynamic Boat Demonstration for Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overduin, James; Polyak, Viktor; Rutah, Anjalee; Sebastian, Thomas; Selway, Jim; Zile, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The 1990 film "The Hunt for Red October" (based on Tom Clancy's 1984 debut novel of the same name) featured actors like Sean Connery and Alec Baldwin, but the star of the movie for physicists was a revolutionary new magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) marine propulsion system. The so-called "caterpillar drive" worked with no moving…

  5. Host selection by the pine processionary moth enhances larval performance: An experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan J.; Soler, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    The development of a phytophagous insect depends on the nutritional characteristics of plants on which it feeds. Offspring from different females, however, may vary in their ability to develop in different host species and therefore females should place their eggs on host plants that result in the highest performance for the insect offspring. Causes underlying the predicted relationships between host selection and offspring performance may be: (1) a genetic association between larval ability to exploit particular hosts and the female insect's host preference; and (2) phenotypic plasticity of larvae that may be due to (a) maternal effects (e.g. differential investment in eggs) or (b) diet. In this work, we analyse the performance (i.e. hatching success and larval size and mortality) of the pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) caterpillar developing in Aleppo (Pinus halepensis) or maritime (Pinus pinaster) pines. Larvae of this moth species do not move from the individual pine selected by the mother for oviposition. By means of cross-fostering experiments of eggs batches and silk nests of larvae between these two pine species, we explored whether phenotypic plasticity of offspring traits or genetic correlations between mother and offspring traits account for variation in developmental characteristics of caterpillars. Our results showed that females preferentially selected Aleppo pine for oviposition. Moreover, the offspring had the highest probability of survival and reached a larger body size in this pine species independently of whether or not batches were experimentally cross-fostered. Notably, the interaction between identity of donor and receiver pine species of larvae nests explained a significant proportion of variance of larval size and mortality, suggesting a role of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity of the hatchlings. These results suggest that both female selection of the more appropriate pine species and phenotypic plasticity of larva explain the

  6. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Digestive enzymes activity in subsequent generations of Cameraria ohridella larvae harvested from horse chestnut trees after treatment with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Stygar, Dominika; Michalczyk, Katarzyna; Dolezych, Bogdan; Nakonieczny, Miroslaw; Migula, Pawel; Zaak, Maria; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Karcz-Socha, Iwona; Kukla, Michal; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Buldak, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we describe the effect of chloronicotinoid pesticide (imidacloprid) on the digestive enzymes activity of the Cameraria ohridella larvae after lasting 1 year sublethal exposure to imidacloprid pesticide. Caterpillars - L4 stage (fourth instar, hyperphagic tissue-feeding phase) - were collected from chemically protected white horse chestnut trees 1 year after imidacloprid treatment, and compared with caterpillars collected from non-treated trees in a previous study. Enzymes activity of α-amylase, disaccharidases, glycosidases and proteases was assayed. The presence of pesticide in ingested food changed the digestive enzymes profile of caterpillars. The analysis of correlations between different digestive enzymes showed many significant correlations (P<0.05) among glycolytic activities like β-glucosidase and α-galactosidase activities. Statistically significant correlations for proteolytic activity were found between trypsin and chymotrypsin activity and aminopeptidase activity that occurred only in the 1st generation. PCA distinguished five primary components with eigenvalues higher than 1, from which the first two explain almost 59% of analyzed results. Surprisingly, in the pesticide treated groups significantly higher activities of sucrase and lactase in relation to control were found. In general, glycosidase (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase) activities showed a similar pattern of activity in different generations. These results contrast with those obtained with control larvae, where significant differences in activities of α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase may result from the different quantity and quality food intake by subsequent generations of larvae. No inter-generation differences in total proteolytic activity were observed in treated larvae. The absolute value of total proteolytic activity was higher than that in the control group. The pesticide present in the vascular system of the horse chestnut

  8. Twenty-four new species of Aleiodes Wesmael from the eastern Andes of Ecuador with associated biological information (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae)

    PubMed Central

    Shimbori, Eduardo Mitio; Shaw, Scott Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aleiodes Wesmael is the most diverse rogadine genus worldwide, with specialized koinobiont endoparasitic development in Lepidoptera caterpillars resulting in mummification of the host remains. This paper focuses on describing new Aleiodes species from the Yanayacu Biological Station, with special interest in those with biological information. We describe 24 new species (Aleiodes albidactyl sp. n., Aleiodes albigena sp. n., Aleiodes albiviria sp. n., Aleiodes bimaculatus sp. n., Aleiodes cacuangoi sp. n., Aleiodes colberti sp. n., Aleiodes delicatus sp. n., Aleiodes dyeri sp. n., Aleiodes elleni sp. n., Aleiodes falloni sp. n., Aleiodes frosti sp. n., Aleiodes kingmani sp. n., Aleiodes longikeros sp. n., Aleiodes luteosicarius sp. n., Aleiodes marilynae sp. n., Aleiodes mirandae sp. n., Aleiodes napo sp. n., Aleiodes nubicola sp. n., Aleiodes onyx sp. n., Aleiodes shakirae sp. n., Aleiodes stewarti sp. n., Aleiodes townsendi sp. n., Aleiodes tzantza sp. n., and Aleiodes yanayacu sp. n.) from Napo Province in Ecuador, 16 of which were reared from host caterpillars. With these results 89 species of Neotropical Aleiodes are now known, with 41 of them having host records. The most commonly reared species were in the circumscriptus/gastritor species-group, and mostly associated with Geometridae hosts (six of ten species). Three species of seriatus species-group, in contrast, were each reared from a different family. One of these species (i.e. A. frosti sp. n.), reared from Notodontidae, cuts a posterior radial opening in the mummy for emergence, a unique behavior in Aleiodes, recorded here for the first time. A. luteosicarius sp. n. is the first described species from Ecuador in the pallidator species-group. Differing from previously described pallidator species, which attack only Lymantriinae larvae, A. luteosicarius sp. n. attacks several species of Arctiinae larvae, being both subfamilies within Erebidae with densely setose caterpillars. We also describe new

  9. Reading the Complex Skipper Butterfly Fauna of One Tropical Place

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Burns, John M.; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Bertrand, Claudia; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background An intense, 30-year, ongoing biodiversity inventory of Lepidoptera, together with their food plants and parasitoids, is centered on the rearing of wild-caught caterpillars in the 120,000 terrestrial hectares of dry, rain, and cloud forest of Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. Since 2003, DNA barcoding of all species has aided their identification and discovery. We summarize the process and results for a large set of the species of two speciose subfamilies of ACG skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) and emphasize the effectiveness of barcoding these species (which are often difficult and time-consuming to identify). Methodology/Principal Findings Adults are DNA barcoded by the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, Guelph, Canada; and they are identified by correlating the resulting COI barcode information with more traditional information such as food plant, facies, genitalia, microlocation within ACG, caterpillar traits, etc. This process has found about 303 morphologically defined species of eudamine and pyrgine Hesperiidae breeding in ACG (about 25% of the ACG butterfly fauna) and another 44 units indicated by distinct barcodes (n = 9,094), which may be additional species and therefore may represent as much as a 13% increase. All but the members of one complex can be identified by their DNA barcodes. Conclusions/Significance Addition of DNA barcoding to the methodology greatly improved the inventory, both through faster (hence cheaper) accurate identification of the species that are distinguishable without barcoding, as well as those that require it, and through the revelation of species “hidden” within what have long been viewed as single species. Barcoding increased the recognition of species-level specialization. It would be no more appropriate to ignore barcode data in a species inventory than it would be to ignore adult genitalia variation or caterpillar ecology. PMID:21857895

  10. Estimating forest species composition using a multi-sensor approach

    Treesearch

    P.T. Wolter

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude, duration, and frequency of forest disturbance caused by the spruce budworm and forest tent caterpillar has increased over the last century due to a shift in forest species composition linked to historical fire suppression, forest management, and pesticide application that has fostered the increase in dominance of host tree species. Modeling approaches...

  11. Insects and Spiders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on insects and spiders. The bulletins have these titles: What Good Are Insects, How Insects Benefit Man, Life of the Honey Bee, Ants and Their Fascinating Ways, Mosquitoes and Other Flies, Caterpillars, Spiders and Silk,…

  12. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  13. Propagating native milkweeds for restoring monarch butterfly habitat

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2015-01-01

    The number of monarch butterflies, charismatic nomads of North America, is rapidly declining. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.), which are the sole food source for monarch caterpillars, have also experienced a decline throughout the breeding range of this butterfly. Milkweeds can be grown from seeds or vegetatively from root cuttings or rhizomes. Seed germination is often...

  14. The effects of defoliation and thinning on the dieback, mortality, and growth of sugar maple in the Tug Hill Region of New York

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Wink; Douglas C. Allen

    1999-01-01

    Some recent literature suggests that thinning should not be conducted immediately prior to, during, or immediately following an outbreak of defoliating insects. Although the individual effects of both defoliation and thinning are well documented in the literature, no study has assessed the combined effect of these two stressors. An outbreak of forest tent caterpillar...

  15. Essentialist Reasoning and Knowledge Effects on Biological Reasoning in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Patricia A.; French, Jason A.; DeHart, Ganie B.; Rosengren, Karl S.

    2013-01-01

    Biological kinds undergo a variety of changes during their life span, and these changes vary in degree by organism. Understanding that an organism, such as a caterpillar, maintains category identity over its life span despite dramatic changes is a key concept in biological reasoning. At present, we know little about the developmental trajectory of…

  16. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Van Itterbeeck, Joost; van Huis, Arnold

    2012-01-21

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin.

  17. Deficiency of gustatory sensitivity to some deterrent compounds in "polyphagous" mutant strains of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, K

    2000-11-01

    Sawa-J, CSJ02 and N601 x C601 are selected mutant strains of Bombyx mori, which grow on various artificial diets or temporarily ingest various plant leaves. To examine the mechanisms mediating diet breadth of caterpillars, gustatory spike responses of the silkworms, called 'polyphagous" strains, were compared with normal strains, N137 x C146 and C02. There were notable differences in their feeding habits and in their sensitivity to salicin in deterrent cells in the maxillary medial styloconic sensilla and the epipharyngeal sensilla. By contrast, the deterrent cells of all strains responded similarly to strychnine nitrate in a dose-dependent manner. In additional comparisons of Sawa-J and N137 x C146, Sawa-J maxillary deterrent cells were significantly less sensitive to phloridzin, amygdalin and arbutin, but responded to some alkaloids and 20-hydroxyecdysone with similar or even higher firing rate. These results suggest that the deficiency of the sensitivity to some deterrent compounds on the deterrent cell of the polyphagous strains may be caused by mutant genes and affects the diet breadth of caterpillars.

  18. The Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Methyl Salicylate Negatively Affects Attraction of the Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum

    PubMed Central

    Mumm, Roland; Poelman, Erik H.; Yang, Yue; Pichersky, Eran; Dicke, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    The indirect defense mechanisms of plants comprise the production of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that can attract natural enemies of plant attackers. One of the often emitted compounds after herbivory is methyl salicylate (MeSA). Here, we studied the importance of this caterpillar-induced compound in the attraction of the parasitoid wasp Diadegma semiclausum by using a mutant Arabidopsis line. Pieris rapae infested AtBSMT1-KO mutant Arabidopsis plants, compromised in the biosynthesis of MeSA, were more attractive to parasitoids than infested wild-type plants. This suggests that the presence of MeSA has negative effects on parasitoid host-finding behavior when exposed to wild-type production of herbivore-induced Arabidopsis volatiles. Furthermore, in line with this, we recorded a positive correlation between MeSA dose and repellence of D. semiclausum when supplementing the headspace of caterpillar-infested AtBSMT1-KO plants with synthetic MeSA. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9787-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20407809

  19. Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin. PMID:22264307

  20. Gas engine heat recovery unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubasco, A. J.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of Gas Engine Heat Recovery Unit was to design, fabricate, and test an efficient, compact, and corrosion resistant heat recovery unit (HRU) for use on exhaust of natural gas-fired reciprocating engine-generator sets in the 50-500 kW range. The HRU would be a core component of a factory pre-packaged cogeneration system designed around component optimization, reliability, and efficiency. The HRU uses finned high alloy, stainless steel tubing wound into a compact helical coil heat exchanger. The corrosion resistance of the tubing allows more heat to be taken from the exhaust gas without fear of the effects of acid condensation. One HRU is currently installed in a cogeneration system at the Henry Ford Hospital Complex in Dearborn, Michigan. A second unit underwent successful endurance testing for 850 hours. The plan was to commercialize the HRU through its incorporation into a Caterpillar pre-packaged cogeneration system. Caterpillar is not proceeding with the concept at this time because of a downturn in the small size cogeneration market.

  1. Inspection of Stryker Engines Evaluated Using SCPL in a 20K Mile RAM-D Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Availability, Maintainability, and Durability (RAM-D) test. The Caterpillar 3126 engine as tested was removed from the IAV Stryker, an 18 ton 8-wheeled...The objective of this work was to complete a tear down and inspection of two CAT 3126 engines as used in the IAV Stryker. A 20k mile RAM-D test was

  2. Art & Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Mark

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a two-week evolution unit for his biology class. He uses Maria Sybilla Merian (1647-1717) as an example of an Enlightenment mind at work--in this case a woman recognized as one of the great artists and natural scientists of her time. Her representations of butterflies, caterpillars and their pupae, and the…

  3. A Human Systems Integration Approach to Energy Efficiency in Ground Transportation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Granite Construction Organizational Structure .........................................53 Figure 7. A Comparison of USMC Structure to Granite Construction...Caterpillar Corporation and the implementation and use of their telematics systems within a company called Granite Construction. Granite Construction...profit over 250 million dollars annually. In addition, similar to the USMC, Granite Construction handles both large and small scale projects in a

  4. More Cooperative and Fitness Activities on Scooters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes both individual and team cooperative and fitness activities that can be played with scooters. The activities include but are not limited to: (1) Traffic Jam; (2) Chariot; (3) Crab Walk; (4) Pom Pom Pull Away; (5) Clothespin Hustle; (6) Four Corners; (7) Spider; (8) Carousel; (9) Amoeba; (10) Caterpillar; (11) Centipede; (12)…

  5. Happy Birthday with Handmade Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Making paper in the blender is always exciting for students. When coupled with using the paper to make a mural for a birthday celebration, the excitement swells. Eric Carle is a great inspiration to children with the books he has written and illustrated, such as "The Very Hungry Caterpillar" and "The Very Busy Spider." In this article, the author…

  6. Teachers Pick the Top 50 Kids Books Ever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the top 25 best picture and chapter books according to a survey of more than 200 teachers, children's authors, and children's literature experts. Included in the top 10 picture books are: (1) "Where the Wild Things Are" by Maurice Sendak (HarperCollins); (2) "The Very Hungry Caterpillar" by Eric Carle (Penguin); (3) "The…

  7. HOW to Manage Jack Pine to Reduce Damage from Jack Pine Budworm

    Treesearch

    Deborah G. McCullough; Steven Katovich; Robert L. Heyd; Shane Weber

    1994-01-01

    Jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman, is a needle feeding caterpillar that is generally considered the most significant pest of jack pine. Vigorous young jack pine stands are rarely damaged during outbreaks. The most vigorous stands are well stocked, evenly spaced, fairly uniform in height, and less than 45 years old. Stands older than 45 years that are...

  8. A Time and a Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Debbie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the author reflects on the activities of her previous year with her second-grade students, focusing on a spring butterfly project that she believes helped her students "take flight." Her second graders had anxiously awaited the arrival of the Painted Lady caterpillars. They had studied metamorphosis in the fall and as what she had…

  9. Toward a national early warning system for forest disturbances using remotely sensed canopy phenology

    Treesearch

    William W. Hargrove; Joseph P. Spruce; Gerald E. Gasser; Forrest M. Hoffman

    2009-01-01

    Imagine a national system with the ability to quickly identify forested areas under attack from insects or disease. Such an early warning system might minimize surprises such as the explosion of caterpillars referred to in the quotation above. Moderate resolution (ca. 500m) remote sensing repeated at frequent (ca. weekly) intervals could power such a monitoring system...

  10. Insects attacking black walnut in the midwestern United States

    Treesearch

    Steven Katovich

    2004-01-01

    Black walnut has only a handful of insects that would be considered significant pests. Of the leaf feeders, the walnut caterpillar is the most likely to cause significant defoliation and damage to trees. However, severe infestations are infrequent and tend to be restricted to small geographic areas. Two other commonly encountered defoliators are the yellow necked...

  11. A Forest Tent Caterpiller Outbreak in the Mississippi Delta: Host Preference and Growth Effects

    Treesearch

    Theodor D. Leininger; J.D. Solomon

    1995-01-01

    Abstract - An outbreak of forest tent caterpillars (FTC) began ln spring, 1989 and lasted three years.This is the first recorded epidemic of FTC in the Mississippi Delta. Species fed upon and defoliated, or nearly defoliated, include: willow oak, water oak, nuttall oak, overcup oak, green ash, and sweetgum.Water hickory, and sugarberry were not fed...

  12. Bruce Spanworm

    Treesearch

    Parker Snowden

    1984-01-01

    In the northern part of the USA and in Canada, the caterpillars of Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst), attack a variety of hardwood trees, but sugar maple, aspen, and beech are the favored host trees. In areas where these favored host trees are numerous, moderate to severe defoliation will occur. For the past two years, the insect has caused widespread...

  13. An Unconventional Approach to Photomobile Composite Polymer Films.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Riccardo; Nucara, Luca; Simoni, Francesco; Greci, Lucedio; Rippa, Massimo; Petti, Lucia; Lucchetta, Daniele E

    2017-04-01

    Photomobile polymer (Pmp) films are fabricated by using a cheap and fast process. The working mechanism of the Pmp-film motion under illumination is explained. Details concerning the film structure and formation are given. Two related applications regarding light-induced caterpillar-miming motion and photocontrolled electrical switches are proposed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2001.

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage; Gery J. Brand; Manfred E. Mielke

    2003-01-01

    Results of the 2001 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 15.8 million acres of forest land, more than 21.6 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 584 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, twolined chestnut borer, bronze birch borer, ash yellows, and white pine blister rust...

  15. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2002.

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage; Gary J. Brand; Manfred E. Mielke

    2004-01-01

    Results of the 2002 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 16.0 million acres of forest land, over 22.2 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 598 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, twolined chestnut borer, bronze birch borer, ash yellows, and white pine blister rust were...

  16. Proceedings of the European ISTVS Conference (6th), OVK Symposium (4th), on "Off Road Vehicles in Theory and Practice". Held at Vienna, Austria on 28-30 September 1994. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-30

    experimental proof-of-concept series hybrid thermo-mechano-elec- tromechanical and/or electromechanical All-Wheel-Driven (AWD) pro- pulsion, All-Wheel...caterpillar-tracks’ motorized sprocket-, road- and tensioner- wheels form a complete proof-of-concept series hybrid thermo- mechano-electromechanical and/or...tromechanical AWA supension spheres and skid-steering conversion spheres used as integral spheres together with future new concept hybrid thermo

  17. Aspen decline on the Coconino National Forest

    Treesearch

    Mary Lou Fairweather; Brian W. Geils; Mike Manthei

    2008-01-01

    An accelerated decline of aspen occurred across the Coconino National Forest, in northern Arizona, following a frost event in June 1999, and a long-term drought that included an extremely dry and warm period from 2001 through 2002, and bouts of defoliation by the western tent caterpillar in 2004, 2005, and 2007. From 2003 to 2007, we monitored aspen mortality and...

  18. Wheel loader round up

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-02-15

    Operator comfort and serviceability remain important features of front-end loaders or wheel loaders. The article reports on features of the latest large loaders from three companies: Caterpillar (the 992G and 994F), Komatsu (the WA800-3, WA900-3 and WA1200-3), and Le Tourneau (the L-950, L-1350, L-1850 and L-2350). 1 tab., 4 photos.

  19. Biology, spread, and biological control of winter moth in the eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Joseph Elkinton; George Boettner; Andrew Liebhold; Rodger Gwiazdowski

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.; Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an inchworm caterpillar that hatches coincident with bud-break on its hosts and feeds on a wide range of deciduous trees. It is one of a group of geometrid species that feed in early spring and then pupate in the top layer of the soil or litter beginning in mid-May. As postulated...

  20. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  1. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  2. Minnesota Forest Resources in 2000.

    Treesearch

    David E. Haugen; Manfred E. Mielke

    2002-01-01

    Results of the 2000 annual inventory of Minnesota show over 16.5 million acres of forest land, over 17.6 billion cubic feet of all live volume on timberland, and an estimated 429 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Known pests in Minnesota forests include the forest tent caterpillar, spruce budworm, large aspen tortrix, and introduced...

  3. Improving the Effectiveness of Program Managers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-03

    Improving the Effectiveness of Program Managers Systems and Software Technology Conference Salt Lake City, Utah May 3, 2006 Presented by GAO’s...Companies’ best practices Motorola Caterpillar Toyota FedEx NCR Teradata Boeing Hughes Space and Communications Disciplined software and management...and total ownership costs Collection of metrics data to improve software reliability Technology readiness levels and design maturity Statistical

  4. Bt: One Option for Gypsy Moth Management

    Treesearch

    Deborah C. Mccullough; Leah S. Bauer

    2000-01-01

    Though the gypsy moth will never go away, you have a variety of options to help manage this pest during outbreaks. One option involves the use of Bt to protect tree foliage and reduce the annoyance caused by gypsy moth caterpillars during an outbreak. Bt or Btk refers to a microorganism called Bacillus Thuringeniesis var. kurstaki. Bt has been widely adopted for...

  5. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-05-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems.

  6. A cardioactive peptide from the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K; Hackett, M; Cirelli, M A; Schegg, K M; Wang, H; Shabanowitz, J; Hunt, D F; Schooley, D A

    1999-01-01

    A cardioactive peptide was isolated from extracts of whole heads of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. This peptide has the sequence ENFAVGCTPGYQRTADGRCKPTF (Mr = 2516.8), determined from both Edman sequencing and tandem mass spectrometry in combination with off-line micropreparative capillary liquid chromatography. This peptide, termed Spoer-CAP23, has excitatory effects on a semi-isolated heart from larval Manduca sexta, causing an inotropic effect at low concentrations of peptide and chronotropic and inotropic effects at high doses. The threshold concentration for stimulatory effects of the synthetic peptide on the semi-isolated heart was about 1 nM, suggesting a physiological role as a neuropeptide.

  7. Distributing Planning and Control for Teams of Cooperating Mobile Robots

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Parker, L.E.

    2004-07-19

    This CRADA project involved the cooperative research of investigators in ORNL's Center for Engineering Science Advanced Research (CESAR) with researchers at Caterpillar, Inc. The subject of the research was the development of cooperative control strategies for autonomous vehicles performing applications of interest to Caterpillar customers. The project involved three Phases of research, conducted over the time period of November 1998 through December 2001. This project led to the successful development of several technologies and demonstrations in realistic simulation that illustrated the effectiveness of our control approaches for distributed planning and cooperation in multi-robot teams. The primary objectives of this researchmore » project were to: (1) Develop autonomous control technologies to enable multiple vehicles to work together cooperatively, (2) Provide the foundational capabilities for a human operator to exercise oversight and guidance during the multi-vehicle task execution, and (3) Integrate these capabilities to the ALLIANCE-based autonomous control approach for multi-robot teams. These objectives have been successfully met with the results implemented and demonstrated in a near real-time multi-vehicle simulation of up to four vehicles performing mission-relevant tasks.« less

  8. Synthesis of cubic Ia-3d mesoporous silica in anionic surfactant templating system with the aid of acetate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shao-Xin; Xu, Xue-Yan; He, Wen-Chao; Wang, Jin-Gui; Chen, Tie-Hong

    2014-08-01

    Mesoporous silica with three-dimensional (3D) bicontinuous cubic Ia-3d structure and fascinating caterpillar-like morphology was synthesized by using anionic surfactant N-lauroylsarcosine sodium (Sar-Na) as the template and 3-amionpropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) as the co-structure-directing agent (CSDA) with the aid of acetate. A phase transformation from high interfacial curvature 2D hexagonal to low interfacial curvature 3D cubic Ia-3d occurred in the presence of a proper amount of acetate. Other species of salts (excluding acetate) had the ability to induce the caterpillar-like morphology, but failed to induce the cubic Ia-3d mesostructure. Furthermore, [3-(2-aminoethyl)-aminopropyl]trimethoxysilane (DAPS) was also used as the CSDA to synthesize Ia-3d mesostructured silica under the aid of sodium acetate. After extraction of the anionic surfactants, amino and di-amine functionalized 3D bicontinuous cubic Ia-3d mesoporous silicas were obtained and used as supports to immobilize Pd nanoparticles for supported catalysts. The catalytic activity of the catalysts was tested by catalytic hydrogenation of allyl alcohol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective of Caterpillar's subcontract with ORNL is to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  10. Thick thermal barrier coatings for diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beardsley, M. Brad

    1995-01-01

    Caterpillar's approach to applying thick thermal barrier coatings (TTBC's) to diesel engine combustion chambers has been to use advanced modeling techniques to predict engine conditions and combine this information with fundamental property evaluation of TTBC systems to predict engine performance and TTBC stress states. Engine testing has been used to verify the predicted performance of the TTBC systems and provide information on failure mechanisms. The objective Caterpillar's program to date has been to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating systems. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impeded the application of TTBC's to diesel engines. Areas of TTBC technology being examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coat composition; coating design, microstructure, and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC 'aging' effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Methods to evaluate the reliability and durability of TTBC's have been developed that attempt to understand the fundamental strength of TTBC's for particular stress states.

  11. Distance-dependent pattern blending can camouflage salient aposematic signals.

    PubMed

    Barnett, James B; Cuthill, Innes C; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E

    2017-07-12

    The effect of viewing distance on the perception of visual texture is well known: spatial frequencies higher than the resolution limit of an observer's visual system will be summed and perceived as a single combined colour. In animal defensive colour patterns, distance-dependent pattern blending may allow aposematic patterns, salient at close range, to match the background to distant observers. Indeed, recent research has indicated that reducing the distance from which a salient signal can be detected can increase survival over camouflage or conspicuous aposematism alone. We investigated whether the spatial frequency of conspicuous and cryptically coloured stripes affects the rate of avian predation. Our results are consistent with pattern blending acting to camouflage salient aposematic signals effectively at a distance. Experiments into the relative rate of avian predation on edible model caterpillars found that increasing spatial frequency (thinner stripes) increased survival. Similarly, visual modelling of avian predators showed that pattern blending increased the similarity between caterpillar and background. These results show how a colour pattern can be tuned to reveal or conceal different information at different distances, and produce tangible survival benefits. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2003

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage; Gary J. Brand; J.E. Cummings-Carlson,

    2005-01-01

    Results of the 2003 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 15.9 million acres of forest land, over 21.9 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 591 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Gypsy moth, forest tent caterpillar, twolined chestnut borer, bronze birch borer, ash yellows, and oak wilt were among the pests of...

  13. JPRS Report, China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-03

    also diligently organize the gathering, processing and purchasing of Chinese medicinal herbs such as licorice root [Radix Geycyrrhizae], rhizome of...wind-weed [Rhizoma Ane- marrhenae], and Chinese caterpillar fungus [Cordyceps chinensis], as well as wild growing cash crops to increase the masses...unchanged for com- modities including grain and edible oil, sugar, coal, matches, soap, and washing powder supplies rationed to city and town residents

  14. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif

  15. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNA Ser (AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA) 8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  16. YC-1 BINDING TO THE BETA SUBUNIT OF SOLUBLE GUANYLYL CYCLASE OVERCOMES ALLOSTERIC INHIBITION BY THE ALPHA SUBUNIT

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Rahul; Fritz, Bradley G.; The, Juliana; Issaian, Aaron; Weichsel, Andrzej; David, Cynthia L.; Campbell, Eric; Hausrath, Andrew C.; Rassouli-Taylor, Leida; Garcin, Elsa D.; Gage, Matthew J.; Montfort, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric heme protein and the primary nitric oxide receptor. NO binding stimulates cyclase activity, leading to regulation of cardiovascular physiology and making sGC an attractive target for drug discovery. YC-1 and related compounds stimulate sGC both independently and synergistically with NO and CO binding; however, where the compounds bind and how they work remains unknown. Using linked-equilibria binding measurements, surface plasmon resonance, and domain truncations in Manduca sexta and bovine sGC, we demonstrate that YC-1 binds near or directly to the heme-containing domain of the beta subunit. In the absence of CO, YC-1 binds with Kd = 9–21 μM, depending on construct. In the presence of CO, these values decrease to 0.6–1.1 μM. Pfizer compound 25 bound ~10-fold weaker than YC-1 in the absence of CO whereas compound BAY 41–2272 bound particularly tightly in the presence of CO (Kd = 30–90 nM). Additionally, we found that CO binding is much weaker to heterodimeric sGC proteins (Kd = 50–100 μM) than to the isolated heme domain (Kd = 0.2 μM for Manduca beta H-NOX/PAS). YC-1 greatly enhanced CO binding to heterodimeric sGC, as expected (Kd = ~1 μM). These data indicate the alpha subunit induces a heme pocket conformation with lower affinity for CO and NO. YC-1 family compounds bind near the heme domain, overcoming the alpha subunit effect and inducing a heme pocket conformation with high affinity. We propose this high-affinity conformation is required for the full-length protein to achieve high catalytic activity. PMID:24328155

  17. Thinking Like a Scientist: The RITES Path for K-12 Students to Learn the Scientific Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, D. P.; Dooley, H., Jr.; Cardace, D.

    2015-12-01

    Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences (Manduca et al, 2002) stated that "An overaching goal for geoscience education is to help every student to 'think like a scientist'", and that continues to challenge geoscience education. The Rhode Island Technology Enhanced Science (RITES) project addresses that goal, and this presentation chronicles that successful effort. RITES strives to improve science education by providing professional development (PD) to the majority of science teachers at the 5th through 12th grade levels throughout Rhode Island. The PD is presented through ~forty 2.5 day workshops that emphasize the innovative use of technology and best teaching practices, consistent with the recommendations detailed in Manduca et al (2002). The presentation will focus on two of these workshops that provide middle and high school teachers with strategies and techniques for guiding student-run explorations of earthquakes as a result of tectonic plate movements. Teachers address these topics much as a scientist would by carrying out the following activities: 1) Identifying the relationships between faults, EQs and plate boundaries; 2) Using GPS data to quantify interseismic deformation; 3) Constructing an Earthquake machine; and 4) Scaling their observations from desktop to crustal scale, and (5) Using the results to forecast earthquakes along the SAF and to estimate the magnitude of earthquakes on ancient faults. As it is unrealistic to expect teachers to be able to incorporate all of this material into their syllabi, we have introduced the concept of Subtle Shifts (Exploratorium, 2006) as a means by which they can easily blend workshop material into their existing courses. Teacher surveys reflect a high level of satisfaction (81-100%), and pre- and post-evaluations show significant normalized gains (Hake, 1998), in about 90% of the courses. Moreover, students of RITES teachers demonstrate statistically significant gains in inquiry skills and content

  18. First-Class State Change in Plaid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    conceptual state change. State change is pervasive in the natural world; as a dramatic example, consider the state transition from egg, to caterpillar ...All this raises a natural question: why not support abstract states in programming languages? We previously proposed Typestate-Oriented Programming as...well as trait-like state composition. Plaid has been implemented, and has proven effective for writing a diverse set of small and medium- sized (up to

  19. Fate, behavior, and bioavailability of metal and metal oxide nanomaterials in terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertsch, P. M.; Unrine, J. M.; Judy, J.; Tsyusko, O.

    2012-12-01

    as referenced to the free metal ion concentration, and gene and protein expression associated with nanoparticle exposure. The results demonstrate the importance and challenges of characterization of nanoparticles under varying chemical conditions associated with exposure media. We have also demonstrated that metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are bioavailable and can be toxic to microorganisms, plants, nematodes, and earthworms. The results also suggest a different spatial distribution in tissues as well as unique toxicity mechanisms compared to the free metal ion concentration. Ongoing studies are evaluating the propensity for nanoparticles to be transferred from one trophic level to the next by feeding pre-exposed microorganisms (B. vietnamensis) to the nematode, C. elegans, pre-exposed earthworms (E. fetida) to bullfrogs (R. catesbeiana) and pre-exposed tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) to the caterpillar, tobacco horn worm (Manduca sexta), to test the hypothesis that surface modification of nanoparticles by peptides or other biomolecules facilitate the transmembrane transport of nanoparticles, thus enhancing the bioavailability to higher trophic levels.

  20. Flight motor networks modulate primary olfactory processing in the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Phillip D; Burkland, Rex; Bradley, Samual P; Houot, Benjamin; Bullman, Victoria; Dacks, Andrew M; Daly, Kevin C

    2018-05-22

    Nervous systems must distinguish sensory signals derived from an animal's own movements (reafference) from environmentally derived sources (exafference). To accomplish this, motor networks producing reafference transmit motor information, via a corollary discharge circuit (CDC), to affected sensory networks, modulating sensory function during behavior. While CDCs have been described in most sensory modalities, none have been observed projecting to an olfactory pathway. In moths, two mesothoracic to deutocerebral histaminergic neurons (MDHns) project from flight sensorimotor centers in the mesothoracic neuromere to the antennal lobe (AL), where they provide the sole source of histamine (HA), but whether they represent a CDC is unknown. We demonstrate that MDHn spiking activity is positively correlated with wing-motor output and increased before bouts of motor activity, suggesting that MDHns communicate global locomotor state, rather than providing a precisely timed motor copy. Within the AL, HA application sharpened entrainment of projection neuron responses to odor stimuli embedded within simulated wing-beat-induced flows, whereas MDHn axotomy or AL HA receptor (HA-r) blockade reduced entrainment. This finding is consistent with higher-order CDCs, as the MDHns enhanced rather than filtered entrainment of AL projection neurons. Finally, HA-r blockade increased odor detection and discrimination thresholds in behavior assays. These results establish MDHns as a CDC that modulates AL temporal resolution, enhancing odor-guided behavior. MDHns thus appear to represent a higher-order CDC to an insect olfactory pathway; this CDC's unique nature highlights the importance of motor-to-sensory signaling as a context-specific mechanism that fine-tunes sensory function. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  1. Biological Investigation of the Stimulated Flapping Motions of the Moth, Manduca sexta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    the sites of toxic chemical spills or damaged nuclear reactors (Alexander, 2002). Dr. Mark Reeder, Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal...Process The overall objective of research, using bio -inspired technology and techniques, is to develop clear scientific understanding about some of...it in a small container and submerging it in a bucket of ice for approximately 15 minutes, until the moth was unresponsive to stimulation.  Under

  2. Side-effects of pesticides on the generalist endoparasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ricardo Alcántara-de la; Zanuncio, José Cola; Lacerda, Mabio Chrisley; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Sediyama, Carlos Sigueyuki

    2017-08-30

    New plant protection strategies focus on minimizing chemical pesticide use and increasing their compatibility with biological control agents. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of glyphosate, diflubenzuron, malathion, tebuconazole and triflumuron (at 720, 45, 400, 150 and 20 g ai ha -1 , respectively), pesticides authorized for soybean crops in Brazil, on the parasitoid Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) reared on Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The emergence and female numbers produced per P. elaeisis female were higher in A. gemmatalis pupae from caterpillars fed an artificial diet treated with glyphosate. However, emergence was lower than 50% when the caterpillars were fed on soybean leaves treated with glyphosate offered ad libitum (3-5 times). Palmistichus elaeisis died before parasiting A. gemmatalis pupae treated with malathion. Diflubenzuron reduced the P. elaesis sex ratio in the second generation. Tebuconazole and triflumuron did not cause side-effects on this parasitoid. A continuous exposure to glyphosate by the host may lead to side-effects on P. elaeisis emergence, but its moderate use is acceptable for this parasitoid. Diflubenzuron had severe transgenerational side-effects. Tebuconazole fungicide and triflumuron insecticide are compatible with P. elaeisis in sustainable integrated pest management (IPM) programs, while malathion can not be included in them.

  3. [Population growth rate of the depredating Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and of the Tuta absoluta (Leptoptera: gelechiidae) in wintering place].

    PubMed

    Vivan, Lúcia M; Torres, Jorge B; Barros, Reginaldo; Veiga, Antônio F S L

    2002-03-01

    The fertility life table of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) preying either on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) caterpillars or on alternative prey Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) under greenhouse conditions (30 +/- 5 degrees C, 61 +/- 23% RH) were studied. The life table was also determined for the pest T. absoluta under the same conditions. The net reproductive rate (Ro) and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were higher 14.13 and 46.32 times for predators fed on T. molitor prey, however, the generation time (T) was similar between prey. The pest T. absoluta showed Ro and rm higher 2.15 and 32.10 times than those achieved for predators fed on this pest. However, females fed on a suitable prey T. molitor showed higher Ro and rm than those yielded for the pest. The survival curves were similar for P. nigrispinus females fed on both prey and classified as being type II by Weibull analysis. The results suggest that P. nigrispinus is able to maintain its population preying only on T. absoluta caterpillars; however, the life table parameters determined individually for both showed that the pest produces more generations per year and faster population natural growth than the predator.

  4. Why Have Multiple Plastic Responses? Interactions between Color Change and Heat Avoidance Behavior in Battus philenor Larvae.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Matthew E; Papaj, Daniel R

    2017-06-01

    Having multiple plastic responses to a change in the environment, such as increased temperature, can be adaptive for two major reasons: synergy (the plastic responses perform better when expressed simultaneously) or complementarity (each plastic response provides a greater net benefit in a different environmental context). We investigated these hypotheses for two forms of temperature-induced plasticity of Battus philenor caterpillars in southern Arizona populations: color change (from black to red at high temperatures) and heat avoidance behavior (movement from host to elevated refuges at high host temperatures). Field assays using aluminum models showed that the cooling effect of the red color is greatly reduced in a refuge position relative to that on a host. Field assays with live caterpillars demonstrated that refuge seeking is much more important for survival under hot conditions than coloration; however, in those assays, red coloration reduced the need to seek refuges. Our results support the complementarity hypothesis: refuge seeking facilitates survival during daily temperature peaks, while color change reduces the need to leave the host over longer warm periods. We propose that combinations of rapid but costly short-term behavioral responses and slow but efficient long-term morphological responses may be common when coping with temperature change.

  5. Cytopathological process by multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus in the testis of Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Eliana Peliçon; Conte, Hélio; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Zanatta, Daniela Bertolini; Bravo, Juliana Pereira; Fernandez, Maria Aparecida; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa

    2008-09-01

    A cytopathological methodology was used to analyze infection by Bombyx mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV), a geographic isolate of the family Baculoviridae, in the caterpillar testes of the B. mori. Japanese B. mori strain caterpillar, fifth instar, were inoculated with BmMNPV and their testes were collected and processed for light and transmission electronic microscopy. Epithelial coating cells and interfollicular septa in testes were susceptible to BmMNPV. The first evidence of infection was detected on the 6th day post-inoculation (p.i.) in the external epithelium, and on the 7th day p.i. in the internal epithelium and interfollicular septa. Cytopathological characteristics consisted of hypertrophied nuclei, the formation of virogenic stroma, and the occlusion of virions in polyhedron protein crystals in several stages of development. At the end of the infectious process, cell lysis and release of polyhedra into the extracellular medium occurred. Histopathology revealed early infection foci in the surrounding regions of tracheal insertions, thus underlining the role of the trachea as an infection-spreading organ in insects. This spreading occurs through penetration of the basal lamina, which facilitates entry of the budded virus into the testis. Additionally, an alignment of a partial sequence of the ORF 14 of the BmMNPV geographic isolate with other NPV certified the virus genera.

  6. Impact of native plants on bird and butterfly biodiversity in suburban landscapes.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Karin T; Tallamy, Douglas W; Gregory Shriver, W

    2009-02-01

    Managed landscapes in which non-native ornamental plants are favored over native vegetation now dominate the United States, particularly east of the Mississippi River. We measured how landscaping with native plants affects the avian and lepidopteran communities on 6 pairs of suburban properties in southeastern Pennsylvania. One property in each pair was landscaped entirely with native plants and the other exhibited a more conventional suburban mixture of plants--a native canopy with non-native groundcover and shrubs. Vegetation sampling confirmed that total plant cover and plant diversity did not differ between treatments, but non-native plant cover was greater on the conventional sites and native plant cover was greater on the native sites. Several avian (abundance, species richness, biomass, and breeding-bird abundance) and larval lepidopteran (abundance and species richness) community parameters were measured from June 2006 to August 2006. Native properties supported significantly more caterpillars and caterpillar species and significantly greater bird abundance, diversity, species richness, biomass, and breeding pairs of native species. Of particular importance is that bird species of regional conservation concern were 8 times more abundant and significantly more diverse on native properties. In our study area, native landscaping positively influenced the avian and lepidopteran carrying capacity of suburbia and provided a mechanism for reducing biodiversity losses in human-dominated landscapes.

  7. Birds Bug on Indirect Plant Defenses to Locate Insect Prey.

    PubMed

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Shriver, W Gregory

    2018-06-01

    It has long been thought that most birds do not use volatile cues to perceive their environment. Aside from some scavenging birds, this large group of vertebrates was believed to mostly rely on highly developed vision while foraging and there are relatively few studies exploring bird response to volatile organic compounds. In response to insect herbivory, plants release volatile organic compounds to attract parasitoids and predators of the pests. To test if insectivorous birds use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV), dispensers emitting a synthetic blend of HIPV typically emitted after insect herbivory were deployed in a maize field along with imitation clay caterpillars. Significantly more imitation insects were attacked by birds when located close to dispensers releasing HIPV than close to dispenser with organic solvent only. Seven times more peck marks, an index of avian predation, were counted on caterpillars in the vicinity of the HIPV dispensers than on insects close to control dispensers. This is the first field demonstration that insectivorous birds cue on HIPV to locate prey in agricultural settings. These results support the growing evidence that foraging birds exploit volatile cues. This more accurate understanding of their behavior will be important when implementing pest management program involving insectivorous birds.

  8. The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

  9. Investigating the Mobility of Light Autonoumous Tracked Vehicles Using a High Performance Computing Simulation Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release. DISCLAIMER: Reference herein to any specific commercial company , product...FunctionBay, S. Korea – NVIDIA – Caterpillar – MSC.Software – Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) 14-16 AUG 2012  Aaron Bartholomew  Makarand Datar...16GB DDR2 Graphics: 4x NVIDIA Tesla C1060 Power supply 1: 1000W Power supply 2: 750W Assembled Quad GPU Machine 14-16 AUG 2012 30

  10. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds have declined dramatically since humans arrived in the archipelago. Birds from all foraging guilds have been affected but insectivorous species are currently at greatest risk of extinction. On the island of Maui, populations and ranges of the insectivorous kiwikiu (Maui parrotbill; Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui ‘alauahio (Maui creeper; Paroreomyza montana) have declined significantly from historic levels primarily due to habitat loss, predation,disease, and food web disruption, leading to federal listings of endangered species and species of concern, respectively. Recovery plans for these birds include reestablishment of populations in parts of their former range. Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the leeward side of HaleakalāVolcano has been targeted for release of wild-caught or captive-bred individuals. The mesic, montane koa-‘ōhi‘a (Acacia koa-Metrosideros polymorpha) forest at Nakula has been heavily impacted through grazing by feral ungulates, but recent management actions to exclude these animals are promoting forest recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the arthropod prey base at Nakula in preparation for reintroductions of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. To accomplish that goal, we compared arthropod abundances at Nakula to those at Hanawi Natural Area Reserve and Waikamoi Preserve, areas where kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are currently found. We also identified diets of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio from fecal samples to better understand and evaluate the prey base at Nakula. Assessment methods included clipping branch tips to sample arthropods within the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, using traps to quantify arthropods on koa and ‘ōhi‘a bark surfaces, counting exit holes to quantify abundances of beetles (Coleoptera) within dead branches of koa, and measuring the density of arthropods within the stems of ‘ākala (Rubus hawaiiensis). The diet of kiwikiu was dominated by caterpillars (Lepidoptera larvae

  11. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil.

    On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through its left eye and right eye that have been combined into this stereo view. The image appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses.

    This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench.

    Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches.

    For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench.

    The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA

  12. Award and Administration of Multiple Award Contracts at Naval Facilities Engineering Command Specialty Centers Need Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-26

    Reasonableness on Modifications Adequate? N62583-10-D-0343-0009 Refurbishment and upgrade of PSB Yes N/A N/A N62583-10-D-0344-0004 Fabrication...and installation of a PSB Yes N/A N/A MAC 4 – Integrated Logistics Support N62583-09-D0061-0014 Training of Caterpillar equipment No No N/A...Frequency Active ELMR Enterprise Land Mobile Radio N/A Not Applicable PSB Port Security Barrier RDC Regional Dispatch Center STAFAC South

  13. Manufacturing and Characterization of Ultra Pure Ferrous Alloys Final Report CRADA No. TC02069.0

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lesuer, D.; McGreevy, T. E.

    This CRADA was a.collaborative effort between the Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC (formerly University of California)/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL),and Caterpillar Inc. (CaterpiHar), to further advance levitation casting techniques (developed at the Central Research Institute for Material (CRIM) in St. Petersburg, Russia) for use in manufacturing high purity metal alloys. This DOE Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention Program (IPP) project was to develop and demonstrate the levitation casting technology for producing ultra-pure alloys.

  14. Mechanical Failure Prognosis Through Oil Debris Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    laboratories. The writer first heard of it from Hakkenburg of the Caterpillar Tractor Company at the ASLE/ ASME 16 Chiu, Y. P., et al, "Refinement...34Examination of Abrasion Resistance Criteria for Some Ductile Metals," ASME Jour, of Lubr. Tech. 96F, 210-214 and 246 (1974). 21 Leonard, L...failures during five months in 1970. 28 Littmann, W. E., et al, "The role of Lubrication in Propagation of Con- tact Fatigue Cracks," Trans. ASME

  15. Allylglucosinolate and herbivorous caterpillars: a contrast in toxicity and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Blau, P A; Feeny, P; Contardo, L; Robson, D S

    1978-06-16

    Allylglucosinolate, found in many cruciferous plants, is acutely toxic to Papilio polyxenes larvae, which do not normally attack crucifers. By contrast, larval growth of Pieris rapae, a crucifer specialist, is not affected even by artificially high concentrations of allylglucosinolate. Larval growth of Spodoptera eridania, a generalist feeder, is inhibited by high but not by low concentrations of the compound.

  16. Catalyst or Caterpillar? On the State of History in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ken

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that the two problems with history teaching in Canada are the failure of historians to engage with the schools and the inability of many history teachers to feel at home in their subject. Reviews five crises in the teaching of history over the last 100 years. (CMK)

  17. Pheromone Caterpillar Trails: An Easy Lab Exercise for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Holly

    2003-01-01

    Lab activities using live specimens always seem to catch students' attention faster than those using inanimate materials. For example, many teachers are familiar with the activities using goldfish to study the effect of temperature on respiration rate. Insects are particularly useful because they are cheap, easy to find, and have a certain "yuck"…

  18. 2, 4, 8: Doubling Snakes, Caterpillars and Goats Made Easy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartambis, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Research has established that children's development of addition and subtraction skills progresses through a hierarchy of strategies that begin with counting-by-one methods through to flexible mental strategies using a combination of knowledge of basic facts and understanding of place value. An important transition point is the shift from the…

  19. Variation in the nutritional physiology of tree-feeding swallowtail caterpillars

    Treesearch

    Matthew P. Ayres; Janice L. Bossart; J. Mark Scriber

    1991-01-01

    A key problem in addressing patterns of interaction between forest insects and their host trees is determining the level at which important ecological and evolutionary interactions occur. We commonly view plant-herbivore relations as herbivore species interacting with plant species, tacitly assuming that variation among members of either species is small and one can...

  20. Micro- and Macroevolutionary Trade-Offs in Plant-Feeding Insects.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Daniel A; Hardy, Nate B; Normark, Benjamin B

    2016-12-01

    A long-standing hypothesis asserts that plant-feeding insects specialize on particular host plants because of negative interactions (trade-offs) between adaptations to alternative hosts, yet empirical evidence for such trade-offs is scarce. Most studies have looked for microevolutionary performance trade-offs within insect species, but host use could also be constrained by macroevolutionary trade-offs caused by epistasis and historical contingency. Here we used a phylogenetic approach to estimate the micro- and macroevolutionary correlations between use of alternative host-plant taxa within two major orders of plant-feeding insects: Lepidoptera (caterpillars) and Hemiptera (true bugs). Across 1,604 caterpillar species, we found both positive and negative pairwise correlations between use of 11 host-plant orders, with overall network patterns suggesting that different host-use constraints act over micro- and macroevolutionary timescales. In contrast, host-use patterns of 955 true bug species revealed uniformly positive correlations between use of the same 11 host plant orders over both timescales. The lack of consistent patterns across timescales and insect orders indicates that host-use trade-offs are historically contingent rather than universal constraints. Moreover, we observed few negative correlations overall despite the wide taxonomic and ecological diversity of the focal host-plant orders, suggesting that positive interactions between host-use adaptations, not trade-offs, dominate the long-term evolution of host use in plant-feeding insects.

  1. Mechanisms of macroevolution: polyphagous plasticity in butterfly larvae revealed by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    de la Paz Celorio-Mancera, Maria; Wheat, Christopher W; Vogel, Heiko; Söderlind, Lina; Janz, Niklas; Nylin, Sören

    2013-10-01

    Transcriptome studies of insect herbivory are still rare, yet studies in model systems have uncovered patterns of transcript regulation that appear to provide insights into how insect herbivores attain polyphagy, such as a general increase in expression breadth and regulation of ribosomal, digestion- and detoxification-related genes. We investigated the potential generality of these emerging patterns, in the Swedish comma, Polygonia c-album, which is a polyphagous, widely-distributed butterfly. Urtica dioica and Ribes uva-crispa are hosts of P. c-album, but Ribes represents a recent evolutionary shift onto a very divergent host. Utilizing the assembled transcriptome for read mapping, we assessed gene expression finding that caterpillar life-history (i.e. 2nd vs. 4th-instar regulation) had a limited influence on gene expression plasticity. In contrast, differential expression in response to host-plant identified genes encoding serine-type endopeptidases, membrane-associated proteins and transporters. Differential regulation of genes involved in nucleic acid binding was also observed suggesting that polyphagy involves large scale transcriptional changes. Additionally, transcripts coding for structural constituents of the cuticle were differentially expressed in caterpillars in response to their diet indicating that the insect cuticle may be a target for plant defence. Our results state that emerging patterns of transcript regulation from model species appear relevant in species when placed in an evolutionary context. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Many Dimensions of Diet Breadth: Phytochemical, Genetic, Behavioral, and Physiological Perspectives on the Interaction between a Native Herbivore and an Exotic Host

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Joshua G.; Gompert, Zachariah; Fordyce, James A.; Buerkle, C. Alex; Grinstead, Rachel; Jahner, Joshua P.; Mikel, Scott; Nice, Christopher C.; Santamaria, Aldrin; Forister, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of an herbivorous insect, conspecific host plants are not identical, and intraspecific variation in host nutritional quality or defensive capacity might mediate spatially variable outcomes in plant-insect interactions. Here we explore this possibility in the context of an ongoing host breadth expansion of a native butterfly (the Melissa blue, Lycaeides melissa) onto an exotic host plant (alfalfa, Medicago sativa). We examine variation among seven alfalfa populations that differed in terms of colonization by L. melissa; specifically, we examined variation in phytochemistry, foliar protein, and plant population genetic structure, as well as responses of caterpillars and adult butterflies to foliage from the same populations. Regional patterns of alfalfa colonization by L. melissa were well predicted by phytochemical variation, and colonized patches of alfalfa showed a similar level of inter-individual phytochemical diversity. However, phytochemical variation was a poor predictor of larval performance, despite the fact that survival and weight gain differed dramatically among caterpillars reared on plants from different alfalfa populations. Moreover, we observed a mismatch between alfalfa supporting the best larval performance and alfalfa favored by ovipositing females. Thus, the axes of plant variation that mediate interactions with L. melissa depend upon herbivore life history stage, which raises important issues for our understanding of adaptation to novel resources by an organism with a complex life history. PMID:26836490

  3. Arthropod but Not Bird Predation in Ethiopian Homegardens Is Higher in Tree-Poor than in Tree-Rich Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Lemessa, Debissa; Hambäck, Peter A.; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Bird and arthropod predation is often associated with natural pest control in agricultural landscapes, but the rates of predation may vary with the amount of tree cover or other environmental factors. We examined bird and arthropod predation in three tree-rich and three tree-poor landscapes across southwestern Ethiopia. Within each landscape we selected three tree-rich and three tree-poor homegardens in which we recorded the number of tree species and tree stems within 100 × 100 m surrounding the central house. To estimate predation rates, we attached plasticine caterpillars on leaves of two coffee and two avocado shrubs in each homegarden, and recorded the number of attacked caterpillars for 7–9 consecutive weeks. The overall mean daily predation rate was 1.45% for birds and 1.60% for arthropods. The rates of arthropod predation varied among landscapes and were higher in tree-poor landscapes. There was no such difference for birds. Within landscapes, predation rates from birds and arthropods did not vary between tree-rich and tree-poor homegardens in either tree-rich or tree-poor landscapes. The most surprising result was the lack of response by birds to tree cover at either spatial scale. Our results suggest that in tree-poor landscapes there are still enough non-crop habitats to support predatory arthropods and birds to deliver strong top-down effect on crop pests. PMID:25961306

  4. Batrachedra nuciferae, an Inflorescence-Feeding Moth Associated with Coconut, Cocos nucifera, and Palmiste, Roystonea oleracea, in Trinidad, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Cock, Matthew J. W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Batrachedra nuciferae Hodges (Lepidoptera: Batrachedridae) was the first phytophagous insect to be reported from inflorescences of coconut, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), in Trinidad, West Indies. At that time, it was suggested to be an introduced species contributing to decreasing coconut yields on the island and potentially a threat to other palms. In this preliminary study, inflorescences of coconut, seven indigenous palms, and six exotic ornamental palms were surveyed in several areas of Trinidad. Caterpillars of more than 10 species of Lepidoptera were found and reared through to the adult stage. Batrachedra nuciferae was positively identified. It was concluded that the caterpillars of B. nuciferae feed on pollen in the male flowers of coconut and palmiste or royal palm, Roystonea oleracea (Jacquin) O.F. Cook. There was no evidence that B. nuciferae bred on any of the other palms surveyed, but it is not conclusive that they do not do so. A parasitoid, Apanteles (sensu lato) sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), of B. nuciferae was reared. On available information, B. nuciferae is more likely to be an indigenous species that has hitherto been overlooked than an introduced species. In view of what is known about damage-yield relationships and biological control agents, B. nuciferae is unlikely to cause yield losses to coconut, so control measures are not justified. PMID:24786569

  5. Nesting biology of Paravespa rex (von Schulthess 1924) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) in the Crimea, Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Fateryga, Alexander V; Ivanov, Sergey P

    2013-01-01

    Paravespa rex is the only species of the wasp genus Paravespa that occurs in Europe. Females of this species nest in clay loam soil of proluvial terraces and deluvial aprons of badlands. The nests are vertical burrows 10-12 cm deep, surmounted by turrets of two distinct architectural forms: funnel-shaped and curved. The nests contain 1-3 vertical cells (mean-1.9) not different from the other parts of nest burrow. An egg is laid onto the bottom of the cell without attaching; it stands vertically via the moist adhesive surface of the bottom and then with the help of the position of the first prey, which is laid around the egg. The species is univoltine; prepupae hibernate in the cocoon for one or several years. Females hunt for caterpillars of two species of the noctuid genus Heliotis; 3-7 caterpillars (mean-3.7) are stored per cell. Adult feeding is recorded on flowers of Thymus tauricus. Males look for females at their water-collecting sites. Only a third of the cells are successful; the other ones are damaged by rain and the gold wasp, Chrysis valesiana, parasitizing in the nests. Nest-building and hunting activity of the species is described with the duration of certain nesting acts. Nesting biology of Paravespa species, rarity of P. rex, turret function, egg position, and measures for species conservation are discussed.

  6. Revision of the species of Lytopylus from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ilgoo; Chapman, Eric G.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie; Tanya Dapkey; Smith, M. Alex; Sharkey, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thirty two new species of Lytopylus (Agathidinae) are described with image plates for each species: Lytopylus alejandromasisi sp. n., Lytopylus alfredomainieri sp. n., Lytopylus anamariamongeae sp. n., Lytopylus angelagonzalezae sp. n., Lytopylus cesarmorai sp. n., Lytopylus eddysanchezi sp. n., Lytopylus eliethcantillanoae sp. n., Lytopylus ericchapmani sp. n., Lytopylus gahyunae sp. n., Lytopylus gisukae sp. n., Lytopylus guillermopereirai sp. n., Lytopylus gustavoindunii sp. n., Lytopylus hartmanguidoi sp. n., Lytopylus hernanbravoi sp. n., Lytopylus hokwoni sp. n., Lytopylus ivanniasandovalae sp. n., Lytopylus johanvalerioi sp. n., Lytopylus josecortesi sp. n., Lytopylus luisgaritai sp. n., Lytopylus mariamartachavarriae sp. n., Lytopylus miguelviquezi sp. n., Lytopylus motohasegawai sp. n., Lytopylus okchunae sp. n., Lytopylus pablocobbi sp. n., Lytopylus robertofernandezi sp. n., Lytopylus rogerblancoi sp. n., Lytopylus salvadorlopezi sp. n., Lytopylus sangyeoni sp. n., Lytopylus sarahmeierottoae sp. n., Lytopylus sergiobermudezi sp. n., Lytopylus sigifredomarini sp. n., and Lytopylus youngcheae sp. n. A dichotomous key and a link to an electronic, interactive key are included. All specimens were reared from Lepidoptera larvae collected in Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) and all are associated with ecological information including host caterpillar, collection date, eclosion date, caterpillar food plant, and locality. Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood analyses of the barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI DNA barcode) were conducted to aid in species delimitation. PMID:29308026

  7. Detecting host-parasitoid interactions in an invasive Lepidopteran using nested tagging DNA metabarcoding.

    PubMed

    Kitson, James J N; Hahn, Christoph; Sands, Richard J; Straw, Nigel A; Evans, Darren M; Lunt, David H

    2018-02-27

    Determining the host-parasitoid interactions and parasitism rates for invasive species entering novel environments is an important first step in assessing potential routes for biocontrol and integrated pest management. Conventional insect rearing techniques followed by taxonomic identification are widely used to obtain such data, but this can be time-consuming and prone to biases. Here, we present a next-generation sequencing approach for use in ecological studies which allows for individual-level metadata tracking of large numbers of invertebrate samples through the use of hierarchically organised molecular identification tags. We demonstrate its utility using a sample data set examining both species identity and levels of parasitism in late larval stages of the oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea-Linn. 1758), an invasive species recently established in the United Kingdom. Overall, we find that there are two main species exploiting the late larval stages of oak processionary moth in the United Kingdom with the main parasitoid (Carcelia iliaca-Ratzeburg, 1840) parasitising 45.7% of caterpillars, while a rare secondary parasitoid (Compsilura concinnata-Meigen, 1824) was also detected in 0.4% of caterpillars. Using this approach on all life stages of the oak processionary moth may demonstrate additional parasitoid diversity. We discuss the wider potential of nested tagging DNA metabarcoding for constructing large, highly resolved species interaction networks. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Batrachedra nuciferae, an inflorescence-feeding moth associated with coconut, Cocos nucifera, and palmiste, Roystonea oleracea, in Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Cock, Matthew J W

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, Batrachedra nuciferae Hodges (Lepidoptera: Batrachedridae) was the first phytophagous insect to be reported from inflorescences of coconut, Cocos nucifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae), in Trinidad, West Indies. At that time, it was suggested to be an introduced species contributing to decreasing coconut yields on the island and potentially a threat to other palms. In this preliminary study, inflorescences of coconut, seven indigenous palms, and six exotic ornamental palms were surveyed in several areas of Trinidad. Caterpillars of more than 10 species of Lepidoptera were found and reared through to the adult stage. Batrachedra nuciferae was positively identified. It was concluded that the caterpillars of B. nuciferae feed on pollen in the male flowers of coconut and palmiste or royal palm, Roystonea oleracea (Jacquin) O.F. Cook. There was no evidence that B. nuciferae bred on any of the other palms surveyed, but it is not conclusive that they do not do so. A parasitoid, Apanteles (sensu lato) sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), of B. nuciferae was reared. On available information, B. nuciferae is more likely to be an indigenous species that has hitherto been overlooked than an introduced species. In view of what is known about damage-yield relationships and biological control agents, B. nuciferae is unlikely to cause yield losses to coconut, so control measures are not justified.

  9. KSC-2012-3072

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-22

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Participants watch NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. The competition challenges university students to build machines that can collect soil such as the material found on the moon. Working inside the Caterpillar LunArena, the robotic craft dig soil that simulates lunar material. The event is judged by a machine's abilities to collect the soil, its design and operation, size, dust tolerance and its level of autonomy. Photo credit: NASA/Glenn Benson

  10. KSC-04pd0611

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-24

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Like a dinosaur crunching on its prey, the Caterpillar excavator and 48-inch shear attachment tear down Launch Umbilical Tower No. 1 (LUT-1) stored in the Industrial Area of KSC. The LUT-1 was part of the launch system used for Apollo-Saturn V, launching Apollo 8, Apollo 11, Skylab manned missions and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The shear is one used in the deconstruction of the Twin Towers in New York City after 9/11.

  11. KSC-04PD-0611

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Like a dinosaur crunching on its prey, the Caterpillar excavator and 48-inch shear attachment tear down Launch Umbilical Tower No. 1 (LUT-1) stored in the Industrial Area of KSC. The LUT-1 was part of the launch system used for Apollo-Saturn V, launching Apollo 8, Apollo 11, Skylab manned missions and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The shear is one used in the deconstruction of the Twin Towers in New York City after 9/11.

  12. KSC-04pd0651

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- This aerial photo shows the storage area containing Launch Umbilical Towers that were used during the early years of the Space Program. In the lower left corner of the storage field is a Caterpillar excavator with a 48-inch shear demolishing LUT-1, used to launch Apollo 8, Apollo 11, Skylab manned missions and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The shear is one used in the deconstruction of the Twin Towers in New York City after 9/11.

  13. KSC-04pd0649

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- This aerial photo shows the storage area containing Launch Umbilical Towers that were used during the early years of the Space Program. In the lower right corner of the storage field is a Caterpillar excavator with a 48-inch shear demolishing LUT-1, used to launch Apollo 8, Apollo 11, Skylab manned missions and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The shear is one used in the deconstruction of the Twin Towers in New York City after 9/11.

  14. KSC-04pd0648

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-26

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- This aerial photo shows the storage area containing Launch Umbilical Towers that were used during the early years of the Space Program. In the upper right corner of the storage field is a Caterpillar excavator with a 48-inch shear demolishing LUT-1, used to launch Apollo 8, Apollo 11, Skylab manned missions and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. The shear is one used in the deconstruction of the Twin Towers in New York City after 9/11.

  15. Direct effects of hypoxia and nitric oxide on ecdysone secretion by insect prothoracic glands.

    PubMed

    DeLalio, Leon J; Dion, Sara M; Bootes, Abigail M; Smith, Wendy A

    2015-05-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are controlled by the molt stimulating hormone ecdysone. A recent study suggests that reduced tissue oxygenation correlates with the size-sensing mechanism responsible for triggering molting. When reared in hypoxia, larvae of Manduca sexta and Drosophila melanogaster initiate molting at lower weights than do larvae reared in normoxia. Furthermore, in Drosophila, the signaling gas nitric oxide (NO) appears to be required for normal developmental timing. As observed in Drosophila, NO signaling targets the nuclear hormone receptor beta fushi tarazu transcription factor 1 (βFTZ-F1) through activation of Drosophila hormone receptor 3 (DHR3), two key regulators of ecdysone production and metamorphic tissue progression. We set out to directly examine the effects of hypoxia and NO on ecdysone secretion using prothoracic glands from feeding fifth (last) larval stage M. sexta. Our results indicate that in vitro treatment of prothoracic glands with hypoxia (2% oxygen) or the NO donor DETA-NONOate significantly inhibit ecdysone secretion. Protein markers of glandular activity were also in keeping with an initial inhibition, measured a decrease in phosphorylated ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase) and an increase in non-phosphorylated 4EBP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein). Additionally, gene expression levels of Manduca hormone receptor 3 (mhr3), βftz-f1, nitric oxide synthase (nos), and the PTTH receptor torso, were quantified using real-time PCR. NO treatment increased mhr3 expression and decreased nos expression. Hypoxia increased mhr3 transcription after 2 hr, but decreased transcription after 12 hr, with no effect on nos expression. Both NO and hypoxia had small effects on βftz-f1 expression, yet strongly increased torso transcription. Our results demonstrate that, in isolated prothoracic glands, hypoxia and NO signaling directly inhibit ecdysteroid secretion, but at the same time alter aspects of prothoracic

  16. Schlieren photography on freely flying hawkmoth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Roll, Jesse; Van Kooten, Stephen; Deng, Xinyan

    2018-05-01

    The aerodynamic force on flying insects results from the vortical flow structures that vary both spatially and temporally throughout flight. Due to these complexities and the inherent difficulties in studying flying insects in a natural setting, a complete picture of the vortical flow has been difficult to obtain experimentally. In this paper, Schlieren , a widely used technique for highspeed flow visualization, was adapted to capture the vortex structures around freely flying hawkmoth ( Manduca ). Flow features such as leading-edge vortex, trailing-edge vortex, as well as the full vortex system in the wake were visualized directly. Quantification of the flow from the Schlieren images was then obtained by applying a physics-based optical flow method, extending the potential applications of the method to further studies of flying insects. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. [Stings, bites and other adventures...].

    PubMed

    De Dobbeleer, G

    2000-09-01

    Most of us live in cities and nature seems beneficial. Unfortunately, invertebrates and vertebrates may be aggressive. We will try here a review of the diseases caused by arthropods and other noxious animals. Injuries caused by the following insects will be described: mosquitoes, flies, fleas, bees, wasps and ants, bugs, beetles, butterflies and caterpillars. In the class arachnida: spiders, scopions, ticks and mites. Among invertebrates: leeches, anemons, corals, sea urchins, sponges and mollusca. Noxious or venomous vertebrates will not be forgotten. Basic and practical attitudes are proposed.

  18. KSC-2012-3092

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-26

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Teams taking part in NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition were eligible for unique trophies such as this. The competition challenged university students to build machines that could collect soil such as the material found on the moon. Working inside the Caterpillar LunArena, the robotic craft dug soil that simulated lunar material. The event was judged by a machine's abilities to collect the soil, its design and operation, size, dust tolerance and its level of autonomy. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  19. KSC-2012-3069

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-22

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A robotic vehicle takes part in NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. The competition challenges university students to build machines that can collect soil such as the material found on the moon. Working inside the Caterpillar LunArena, the robotic craft dig soil that simulates lunar material. The event is judged by a machine's abilities to collect the soil, its design and operation, size, dust tolerance and its level of autonomy. Photo credit: NASA/Glenn Benson

  20. KSC-2012-3078

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-25

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A videogame simulates driving excavators during NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. The competition challenges university students to build machines that can collect soil such as the material found on the moon. Working inside the Caterpillar LunArena, the robotic craft dig soil that simulates lunar material. The event is judged by a machine's abilities to collect the soil, its design and operation, size, dust tolerance and its level of autonomy. Photo credit: NASA/Glenn Benson