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Sample records for horse diseases

  1. Neurologic Diseases in Horses.

    PubMed

    Rech, Raquel; Barros, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the gross examination of the brain and spinal cord and outlines the main lesions and neuroanatomic location related to neurologic diseases in horses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disease transmission in horses.

    PubMed

    Samper, Juan C; Tibary, Ahmed

    2006-08-01

    Bacterial, viral and protozoal infections may cause severe reproductive losses. The present paper reviews the risk factors, clinical signs and preventive measures for the most important venereal or potential sexually transmitted diseases in horses. The stallion and use of semen for artificial insemination represent major risk factors for the transmission of bacterial contaminants of the penis, including Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, known to cause endometritis and infertility in the mare. The role of the stallion in disease transmission is also due to the non-clinical manifestation of diseases such as contagious equine metritis and equine viral arteritis. Dourine has been eradicated from many countries, but continues to be a problem in other areas of the globe. Strategies for the prevention of introduction and transmission of diseases in breeding operation are discussed.

  3. Fungal diseases of horses.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-29

    Among diseases of horses caused by fungi (=mycoses), dermatophytosis, cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are of particular concern, due their worldwide diffusion and, for some of them, zoonotic potential. Conversely, other mycoses such as subcutaneous (i.e., pythiosis and mycetoma) or deep mycoses (i.e., blastomycosis and coccidioidomycosis) are rare, and/or limited to restricted geographical areas. Generally, subcutaneous and deep mycoses are chronic and progressive diseases; clinical signs include extensive, painful lesions (not pathognomonic), which resemble to other microbial infections. In all cases, early diagnosis is crucial in order to achieve a favorable prognosis. Knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and diagnosis of fungal diseases is essential for the establishment of effective therapeutic strategies. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of equine fungal infections as a support to early diagnosis and application of targeted therapeutic and control strategies.

  4. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    PubMed

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented.

  5. Shuni virus as cause of neurologic disease in horses.

    PubMed

    van Eeden, Charmaine; Williams, June H; Gerdes, Truuske G H; van Wilpe, Erna; Viljoen, Adrianne; Swanepoel, Robert; Venter, Marietjie

    2012-02-01

    To determine which agents cause neurologic disease in horses, we conducted reverse transcription PCR on isolates from of a horse with encephalitis and 111 other horses with acute disease. Shuni virus was found in 7 horses, 5 of which had neurologic signs. Testing for lesser known viruses should be considered for horses with unexplained illness.

  6. Exploring the virome of diseased horses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S.; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Pusterla, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  7. Dental disease in geriatric horses.

    PubMed

    Lowder, M Q; Mueller, P O

    1998-08-01

    The dental management of geriatric horses can be a rewarding challenge to the practitioner. Owners become dissatisfied when their expectations are unrealistic. Consequently, communication between the owner and the practitioner is essential prior to the start of any dental procedure in a geriatric horse. Owners often expect the practitioner to correct what has been neglected for years. It is critical that the owner understand the possible complications associated with dental procedures and that some procedures (e.g., trephination) may necessitate protracted care. Often, when a tooth has been removed, there is a need for more frequent masticatory examinations to curtail any potential problems (i.e., development of step mouth). The owner needs to be aware of the extra dental maintenance costs that must be included in the upkeep of the horse.

  8. Congenital dental disease of horses.

    PubMed

    DeBowes, R M; Gaughan, E M

    1998-08-01

    Equine congenital dental deformities are not limited merely to those presented here; however, the examples discussed offer the reader an appreciation for the range of severity and complexity that may be found in affected horses. The veterinarian is obligated to provide the best possible care for the patient and to relieve animal suffering. The lack of definitive evidence for heritability of many of these defects can place the veterinarian in an untenable position, particularly when presented with literature that proclaims or suggests without evidence that a particular condition is inherited. In such cases, the veterinarian is encouraged to counsel owners, citing substantiated medical information, and to recommend that owners make the decision to eliminate the affected animals' ability to reproduce.

  9. Horse-Expert: An aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases.

    PubMed

    Qin, H; Xiao, J; Gao, X; Wang, H

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the rapid development of the horse husbandry in China, the ability of horse veterinarians to diagnose diseases has not been improved and only a few domain experts have considerable expertise. At present, many expert systems have been developed for diseases diagnosis, but few for horse diseases diagnosis have been studied in depth. This paper presents the design and development of a computer-aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases. We suggest an approach for diagnosis of horse diseases based on the analysis of diagnostic characteristics and the experiential knowledge of domain experts. It is based on using evidence-weighted uncertainty reasoning theory, which is a combination of evidence theory and an uncertainty pass algorithm of confidence factors. It enables drawing of inferences with atypical clinical signs and the uncertainty of the user's subjective understanding. It reduces the influence of subjective factors on diagnostic accuracy. The system utilizes a user friendly interface for users and requests a confidence factor from users when feedback is given to the system. Horse-Expert combines the confidence factors with weight factors assigned to clinical signs by experts during the knowledge acquisition process to make diagnostic conclusions. The system can diagnose 91 common horse diseases, and provides suggestions for appropriate treatment options. In addition, users can check the medical record through statistical charts. The system has been tested in seven demonstration areas of Xinjiang province in northwestern China. By constantly maintaining and updating the knowledge base, the system has potential application in veterinary practice.

  10. Horses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Learn about the different types of horses and temperaments before you bring one home. Find out what ... veterinarian examines a horse. Match the horse's attitude, temperament, size, and training or activity level with your ...

  11. Sarcocystis fayeri in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Monica; Shapiro, Karen; Sisó, Silvia; Williams, Diane C; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of Sarcocystis fayeri-induced toxicity in people consuming horse meat warrant investigation on the prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. infection in horses. Sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses have been commonly regarded as an incidental finding. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. Our findings indicated that S. fayeri infection was common in young mature horses with neuromuscular disease and could be associated with myopathic and neurogenic processes. The number of infected muscles and number of sarcocysts per muscle were significantly higher in diseased than in control horses. S. fayeri was predominantly found in low oxidative highly glycolytic myofibers. This pathogen had a high glycolytic metabolism. Common clinical signs of disease included muscle atrophy, weakness with or without apparent muscle pain, gait deficits, and dysphagia in horses with involvement of the tongue and esophagus. Horses with myositis were lethargic, apparently painful, stiff, and reluctant to move. Similar to humans, sarcocystosis and cardiomyopathy can occur in horses. This study did not establish causality but supported a possible association (8.9% of cases) with disease. The assumption of Sarcocysts spp. being an incidental finding in every case might be inaccurate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Musculoskeletal Disease in Aged Horses and Its Management.

    PubMed

    van Weeren, Paul René; Back, Willem

    2016-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent health problem in aging horses. They are not life threatening, but are painful and an important welfare issue. Chronic joint disease (osteoarthritis) and chronic laminitis are the most prevalent. Treating osteoarthritis in the elderly horse is similar to treating performance horses, but aims at providing a stable situation with optimal comfort. Immediate medical treatment of flare-ups, long-term pain management, and adaptation of exercise and living conditions are the mainstays of treatment. Laminitis in the geriatric horse is related often to pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, which may be treated with additional pergolide.

  13. Magnetic resonance for evaluation of neurologic disease in 12 horses.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Eric A; Gavin, Patrick R; Tucker, Russell L; Sellon, Debra C; Hines, Melissa T

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used as a neurodiagnostic modality in the assessment of 12 horses with neurologic disease localized cranial to the foramen magnum. This retrospective study included a mixed population of horse breeds and consisted of three foals and nine adult horses. MR sequences of the head and central nervous system of each horse were acquired. Routine MR sequences included transverse T1 weighted (T1wt), T2 weighted (T2wt), and proton density images. Additional imaging sequences were obtained on a patient-dependent basis. Eight neurologic related diseases were diagnosed. MRI imaging of the horse head is a feasible and valuable neurodiagnostic modality in the assessment of equine neurologic diseases.

  14. Equine motor neuron disease in 2 horses from Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Husulak, Michelle L.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Gabadage, Kamal; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Marqués, Fernando J.

    2016-01-01

    Two horses from Saskatchewan were presented with signs of sweating, muscle fasciculations, weight loss, and generalized weakness. The horses were diagnosed with equine motor neuron disease (EMND), by histological assessment of a spinal accessory nerve or sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle biopsy. This is the first report of EMND in western Canada. PMID:27429468

  15. Equine motor neuron disease in 2 horses from Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Husulak, Michelle L; Lohmann, Katharina L; Gabadage, Kamal; Wojnarowicz, Chris; Marqués, Fernando J

    2016-07-01

    Two horses from Saskatchewan were presented with signs of sweating, muscle fasciculations, weight loss, and generalized weakness. The horses were diagnosed with equine motor neuron disease (EMND), by histological assessment of a spinal accessory nerve or sacrocaudalis dorsalis medialis muscle biopsy. This is the first report of EMND in western Canada.

  16. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  17. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  18. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  19. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  20. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period...

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the horse. 2: Therapy.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J R; McPherson, E A

    1983-07-01

    The therapy of equine chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) essentially entails minimising the horse's exposure to the aetiological antigens which are predominantly thermophilic actinomycetes and moulds occurring in hay and straw. This can be achieved, for example, by keeping affected horses permanently out of doors, or when stabled, using shredded paper, wood shavings or peat moss as bedding and feeding a complete cubed diet. There should be no supplementary hay feeding apart from dust-free vacuum-packed hay. Applying such measures generally allows horses to become asymptomatic in seven to 14 days. Bronchodilators and corticosteroids bring about a marked, but temporary, improvement and can be of value in the treatment of acute attacks. The use of oral bronchodilators in combination with environmental control measures may hasten the remission of clinical signs in affected horse. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate can be used prophylactically in asymptomatic horses to prevent the onset of COPD when unavoidable antigen exposure is anticipated.

  2. Chagas disease in a Texan horse with neurologic deficits.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Laura K; Hamer, Sarah A; Shaw, Sarah; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Auckland, Lisa D; Hodo, Carolyn L; Chaffin, Keith; Rech, Raquel R

    2016-01-30

    A 10-year-old Quarter Horse gelding presented to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a six month-history of ataxia and lameness in the hind limbs. The horse was treated presumptively for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) based on clinical signs but was ultimately euthanized after its condition worsened. Gross lesions were limited to a small area of reddening in the gray matter of the thoracic spinal cord. Histologically, trypanosome amastigotes morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans and dogs, were sporadically detected within segments of the thoracic spinal cord surrounded by mild lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Ancillary testing for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. was negative. Conventional and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of affected paraffin embedded spinal cord were positive for T. cruzi, and sequencing of the amplified T. cruzi satellite DNA PCR fragment from the horse was homologous with various clones of T. cruzi in GenBank. While canine Chagas disease cases have been widely reported in southern Texas, this is the first report of clinical T. cruzi infection in an equid with demonstrable amastigotes in the spinal cord. In contrast to previous instances of Chagas disease in the central nervous system (CNS) of dogs and humans, no inflammation or T. cruzi amastigotes were detected in the heart of the horse. Based on clinical signs, there is a potential for misdiagnosis of Chagas disease with other infectious diseases that affect the equine CNS. T. cruzi should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with neurologic clinical signs and histologic evidence of meningomyelitis that originate in areas where Chagas disease is present. The prevalence of T. cruzi in horses and the role of equids in the parasite life cycle require further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of equine vitamin D-binding protein, development of an assay, and assessment of plasma concentrations of the protein in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Tina H; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Dorthe T; Højrup, Peter; Grosche, Astrid; Freeman, David E; Andersen, Pia H; Houen, Gunnar

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To purify and characterize equine vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) from equine serum and to evaluate plasma concentrations of VDBP in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal injury or disease. ANIMALS 13 healthy laboratory animals (8 mice and 5 rabbits), 61 healthy horses, 12 horses with experimentally induced intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), and 59 horses with acute gastrointestinal diseases. PROCEDURES VDBP was purified from serum of 2 healthy horses, and recombinant equine VDBP was obtained through a commercial service. Equine VDBP was characterized by mass spectrometry. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against equine VDBP, and a rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay for equine VDBP was established. Plasma samples from 61 healthy horses were used to establish working VDBP reference values for study purposes. Plasma VDBP concentrations were assessed at predetermined time points in horses with IR and in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases. RESULTS The working reference range for plasma VDBP concentration in healthy horses was 531 to 1,382 mg/L. Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased after 1 hour of ischemia in horses with IR, compared with values prior to induction of ischemia, and were significantly lower in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases with a colic duration of < 12 hours than in healthy horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased in horses with acute gastrointestinal injury or disease. Further studies and the development of a clinically relevant assay are needed to establish the reliability of VDBP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses.

  4. Infection of Immunodeficient Horses with Sarcocystis neurona Does Not Result in Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sellon, Debra C.; Knowles, Donald P.; Greiner, Ellis C.; Long, Maureen T.; Hines, Melissa T.; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 × 105 sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 × 108 merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease. PMID:15539518

  5. Infection of immunodeficient horses with Sarcocystis neurona does not result in neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Sellon, Debra C; Knowles, Donald P; Greiner, Ellis C; Long, Maureen T; Hines, Melissa T; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B

    2004-11-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 x 10(5) sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 x 10(8) merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease.

  6. [Frequency of diseases and injuries in the Swiss horse population].

    PubMed

    Knubben, J M; Gygax, L; Auer, J; Fürst, A; Stauffacher, M

    2008-08-01

    Through a written questionnaire, which was sent to a representatively distributed and randomly selected sample of Swiss horse owners, data of 2912 horses and ponies were acquired to extrapolate prevalence data of health disorders. General questions about the horse and associated factors of housing and use, as well as questions about the current health status and the occurrence of diseases and injuries had been asked. 718 horses (24.7% of the sample) had been examined by a veterinarian within the 12 months prior to the survey. Orthopaedic and traumatic disorders (41.5%) had the largest proportion, followed by gastrointestinal--(27.1%) and respiratory (14.0%) diseases. Half of the lameness cases occurred as a direct consequence of a injury. The injuries were associated with pasture/paddock (38.1%), kicking and biting (21.6%), boxstall (7.8%), terrain and hacking (13.4%), training (3.5%), competition (3.5%), transportation (3.0%) or other circumstances (9.1%). A change in feeding management up to 4 weeks before development of a colic episode occurred in 26.5% of all colic cases. In 13.8% of all respiratory cases the same disease was diagnosed in other horses in the same barn. 8.1% of all cases had to be treated surgically, 6.7% required hospitalization for several days. Information about diagnostic or therapeutic procedures was related to specific disease categories. In 25.6% of all cases diagnosed by a veterinarian alternative therapeutic methods were used either in addition to traditional medicine or exclusively.

  7. The pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of horses.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N E; Derksen, F J; Olszewski, M A; Buechner-Maxwell, V A

    1996-05-01

    Present evidence suggests that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) of horses is a delayed hypersensitivity response to inhaled antigens, particularly the thermophilic moulds and actinomycetes that grow in damp hay. Within several hours of exposing COPD-susceptible horses to such hay, neutrophils invade the lung and accumulate in the lumens of airways, particularly bronchioles. The inflammatory response is accompanied by increased levels of histamine in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, increased plasma levels of the inflammatory mediators thromboxane and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), and a decrease in the production of prostaglandin (PG) E2 by the airway mucosa. During acute exacerbations of COPD, airways exhibit nonspecific hyperresponsiveness and become obstructed as a result of bronchospasm and the accumulation of mucus and exudates. Bronchospasm is due largely to activation of smooth muscle muscarinic receptors by acetylcholine (ACh). Because the in vitro response of smooth muscle to ACh is unaltered, the increase in airway smooth muscle tone is probably a result of activation of airway reflexes by inflammatory mediators and decreases in inhibitory mechanisms such as the intrapulmonary nonadrenergic noncholinergic nervous system and the production of PGE2 in affected horses. The diffuse airway obstruction leads to uneven distribution of ventilation, ventilation/perfusion mismatching, and hypoxaemia. As a result of the increased respiratory drive caused by hypoxaemia and the presence of airway obstruction, horses adopt a characteristic breathing strategy in which very high peak flows at the start of exhalation rapidly diminish as exhalation proceeds.

  8. Disseminated necrotizing myeloencephalitis: a herpes-associated neurological disease of horses.

    PubMed

    Little, P B; Thorsen, J

    1976-01-01

    Equine viral rhinopneumonitis type I virus was isolated from spinal cord and brain of a paraparetic horse with disseminated necrotizing myeloencephalitis. Necrotic arteriolitis,nonsuppurative necrotizing myeloencephalitis and Gasserian ganglioneuritis were present. On record were 12 more cases of horses with similar lesions. The horses had been ataxic or paretic for up to several weeks. A field survey indicated that 14 of 24 horses with acute myelitic signs developed them after recent exposure to respiratory disease.

  9. Efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin on bacterial extraocular disease in the horse.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi; Ando, Kunihide; Fujii, Yoshikazu

    2015-07-01

    Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution (0.3%) was instilled three times daily for 2-5 days in 65 horses diagnosed with bacterial extraocular disease based on clinical findings. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment. Of the 65 horses, 64 were positive for bacteria, and 22 bacterial genera and 47 bacterial species were identified. The efficacy of lomefloxacin was evaluated in 63 horses; one horse with a negative culture and another with suspected bacterial contamination were excluded. Lomefloxacin was considered to be clinically effective in 54 horses. The major bacterial species identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus vitulinus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Staphylococcus sciuri, with a cumulative disappearance rate of 80% or more at the termination of instillation. Excluding one horse that did not undergo a bacteriological examination, the remaining 62 horses were assessed for bacteriological outcome. Full or partial bacterial clearance was detected in 95% or more of the 62 horses. One of the 65 horses reported adverse events that had no causal relation with the eye drops. Our results showed that lomefloxacin is safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease in horses.

  10. Concentrations of trace minerals in the spinal cord of horses with equine motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Polack, E W; King, J M; Cummings, J F; Mohammed, H O; Birch, M; Cronin, T

    2000-06-01

    To compare concentrations of trace minerals in the spinal cord of horses with equine motor neuron disease (EMND) with those of horses without neurologic disease (control horses). 24 horses with EMND and 22 control horses. Spinal cord trace mineral concentrations in horses with EMND and control horses were analyzed by use of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, zinc, aluminum, cobalt, and chromium), atomic absorption spectrophotometry (lead and cadmium), flameless atomic absorption (mercury), and fluorometry (selenium). Copper concentration was significantly higher in the spinal cord of horses with EMND, compared with control horses; spinal cord concentrations of all other trace minerals were similar between groups. Among spinal cord trace minerals investigated in the study, only copper concentrations were significantly different between horses with EMND and horses without neurologic disease, which suggests that copper may be involved in the pathogenesis of EMND. An hypothesis of oxidative injury in this disease is supported by the finding of increased copper concentrations in the spinal cord and by low vitamin E concentrations reported by other researchers.

  11. Immunopathology of recurrent uveitis in spontaneously diseased horses.

    PubMed

    Deeg, C A; Ehrenhofer, M; Thurau, S R; Reese, S; Wildner, G; Kaspers, B

    2002-08-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most serious eye disease in horses worldwide. Despite the fact that ERU is generally considered to be immune mediated, a detailed description of the histopathology of the posterior part of ERU eyes is lacking. Here, we examined sections of paraffin-embedded eyes using histological and immunhistological methods. Twenty seven eyes of 20 horses with ERU and 30 eyes of 15 healthy control horses were included in this study. We could consistently demonstrate an involvement of the retina and the choroid in all examined eyes of horses with spontaneous ERU. In eyes with minimal histopathological changes, the infiltrates consisted almost exclusively of T-cells. Histopathological changes start with the destruction of the photoreceptor outer segments, which often leads to focal retinal detachment. In more severely affected eyes, there is additional disintegration of the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. In almost all examined eyes, lymphoid follicle formation could be demonstrated. Typical localizations of these follicles were the iris stroma and the choroid underneath the transition zone of the retina without photoreceptor cells to the region containing photoreceptor cells. These follicles consist of a T-cell rich periphery with a small center of CD3-negative lymphocytes. In cases with extreme histopathological changes, the retinal architecture is widely disintegrated with massive infiltration of the retina, the choroid, and the ciliary body by several types of inflammatory cells. Necrotic remnants of the retina are end-stage findings and there is only a minor inflammatory infiltration left. This study provides clear evidence that the retina is involved in all stages of ERU. Inflammation is mainly driven by T-cells as T-cells were demonstrated in mild stages of the disease and are also the predominating cell type in all other stages of ERU.

  12. Secretoglobin and Transferrin Expression in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Horses with Chronic Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Miskovic Feutz, M; Couetil, L L; Riley, C P; Zhang, X; Adamec, J; Raskin, R E

    2015-01-01

    Lower expression of secretoglobin and transferrin has been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of a small number of horses with experimentally induced signs of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) compared to healthy controls. Secretoglobin and transferrin BALF expression will be similarly decreased in horses with naturally occurring clinical signs of RAO and in horses with experimentally induced clinical signs of RAO as compared to healthy controls and intermediate in horses with inflammatory airway disease (IAD). Recurrent airway obstruction-affected and control horses were subjected to an experimental hay exposure trial to induce signs of RAO. Client-owned horses with a presumptive diagnosis of RAO and controls from the same stable environments were recruited. Pulmonary function and BALF were evaluated from control and RAO-affected research horses during an experimental hay exposure trial (n = 5 in each group) and from client-owned horses (RAO-affected horses, n = 17; IAD-affected horses, n = 19; healthy controls, n = 5). The concentrations of secretoglobin and transferrin in BALF were assessed using Western blots. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced RAO horses had similar decreases in BALF transferrin expression, but secretoglobin expression was most decreased in naturally occurring RAO. Secretoglobin and transferrin expression were both lower in BALF of RAO-affected horses than in IAD-affected and control horses. Secretoglobin and transferrin expression is decreased in BALF of RAO-affected horses after both experimental and natural exposure. Secretoglobin and transferrin likely play clinically relevant roles in the pathophysiology of RAO, and may thus be used as biomarkers of the disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Evaluation of a novel post operative treatment for sinonasal disease in the horse (1996-2007).

    PubMed

    Hart, S K; Sullins, K E

    2011-01-01

    Results of surgical treatment of sinonasal disease in horses have been reported previously; however, this paper describes the outcome of horses in which a specific post operative treatment protocol was used. The objectives of the study were to determine: 1) short- and long-term outcome; 2) complications; and 3) recurrence rates of different disease processes, when horses were treated with a specific treatment protocol. Medical records of horses presented for surgical treatment of sinonasal disease from 1996-2007 were reviewed. Results and duration of surgical exploration were recorded. Post operatively, the sinus flaps were re-opened with the horses standing and sedated. Number of horses requiring further treatment (debridement and/or lavage), median number of post operative days when the flap was re-opened, median number of times the flap was opened and median duration of hospitalisation were recorded. Short- and long-term survival and complication rates were determined. Ninety-one horses were included in the study. The sinus flaps were re-opened with the horses standing a median of 3 days post operatively. Thirty-nine horses (43%) required further treatment at this time and 89 horses (97%) survived to discharge. Incision infection was the most common complication encountered (29%). No horse required a blood transfusion. Recurrence rates were 5% for paranasal sinus cysts, 12% for progressive ethmoid haematoma and 50% for neoplasia. Rapid removal of the primary lesion followed by packing the sinuses and re-evaluating in the standing horse in a more controlled environment offers a safe and effective means to thoroughly assess and treat sinonasal disease. Surgical time, intraoperative haemorrhage, long-term complications and recurrence rates of paranasal sinus diseases treated via frontonasal or maxillary sinus flap may be reduced using this technique. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Pulmonary gas exchange and plasma lactate in horses with gastrointestinal disease undergoing emergency exploratory laparotomy: a comparison with an elective surgery horse population.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Annette M; Hackett, Eileen S; Wagner, Ann E; Mama, Khursheed R; Hendrickson, Dean A

    2011-07-01

    To characterize pulmonary gas exchange and arterial lactate in horses with gastrointestinal disease undergoing anesthesia, compared with elective surgical horses, and to correlate these variables with postoperative complications and mortality. Prospective clinical study. Horses undergoing emergency laparotomy for acute intestinal disease (n = 50) and healthy horses undergoing elective surgery in dorsal recumbency (n = 20). Arterial blood gas analysis was performed at predetermined intervals on horses undergoing a standardized anesthetic protocol. Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was calculated. Predictive factors for postoperative complications and death in colic horses were determined. Arterial oxygen tension (P(a) O(2)) varied widely among horses in both groups. P(a) O(2) significantly increased in the colic group after exteriorization of the ascending colon. P(a) O(2) and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient were not significantly different between groups, and neither were correlated with horse outcome. Arterial lactate in recovery ≥ 5 mmol/L was associated with a 2.25 times greater relative risk of complications and lactate ≥ 7 mmol/L was associated with a 10.5 times higher relative risk of death. Colic horses in this population were not more likely to be hypoxemic than elective horses, nor was gas exchange impaired to a greater degree in colic horses relative to controls. Arterial lactate sampled immediately after anesthetic recovery was predictive for postoperative complications and death. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Oxidative stress in hoof laminar tissue of horses with lethal gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Laskoski, Luciane Maria; Dittrich, Rosangela Locatelli; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; Brandão, Yara; Brito, Harald Fernando Vicente; de Sousa, Renato Silva

    2016-03-01

    Tissue damage caused by oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases in animals and man, and is believed to play a role in the development of laminitis in horses. The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative stress associated with laminar lesions in horses with lethal gastrointestinal disorders. Laminar tissue samples of the hoof of 30 horses were used. Tissue samples were divided as follows: six healthy horses (control group-CG), and 24 horses that died after complications of gastrointestinal diseases (group suffering from gastrointestinal disorders-GDG). Superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and nitrotyrosine immunostaining and the severity of laminar lesions were evaluated. Presence of laminar lesions and immunostaining for nitrotyrosine and SOD2 were only evident in horses from the GDG group. Thus, oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of laminar lesions secondary to gastrointestinal disorders.

  16. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses.

    PubMed

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse.

  17. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses

    PubMed Central

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse. PMID:18050794

  18. Responses of horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to inhalation challenges with mould antigens.

    PubMed

    McGorum, B C; Dixon, P M; Halliwell, R E

    1993-07-01

    Eight control and 8 asymptomatic COPD-affected horses were given, on separate occasions, inhalation challenges with extracts of Micropolyspora faeni, Aspergillus fumigatus and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. All horses were also given nebulised phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) challenges and 'natural challenges' (NCs), i.e. exposure to hay and straw, as control challenges. Responses were assessed by clinical, pulmonary mechanics, arterial blood gas tensions, arterial blood pH and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytological examinations. PBS challenges had no effect on control or COPD-affected horses, while NC induced COPD only in the COPD-affected horses. Pulmonary disease, similar to naturally occurring COPD, was induced, only in the COPD-affected horses, by M. faeni and A. fumigatus challenges, thus implicating these organisms in the aetiology of equine COPD. The role of T. vulgaris in the aetiology of equine COPD could not, however, be determined because the T. vulgaris challenges, in addition to inducing pulmonary disease in 4 COPD-affected horses, induced pulmonary disease in 2 control horses which had been unaffected by NC. The absence of pulmonary disease in control horses after M. faeni, A. fumigatus and NC challenges suggests that equine COPD is a pulmonary hypersensitivity, rather than a non-specific toxic response.

  19. [Heart disease in sports horses: Current recommendations of the 2014 ACVIM / ECEIM consensus statement].

    PubMed

    Schwarzwald, C

    2016-10-01

    Heart murmurs and arrhythmias are common in horses. Assessment of their clinical relevance concerning health, performance, safety and longevity of sports horses is of highest importance. A comprehensive cardiovascular examination is crucial for diagnosis and assessment of the severity of disease. Recently, an expert panel of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) and the European College of Equine Internal Medicine (ECEIM) developed a consensus statement containing recommendations for sports horses with heart disease. This article summarizes the most relevant recommendations for practitioners, considering the most common and most important cardiac disorders in adult sports horses. These include mitral, aortic and tricuspid insufficiency, ventricular septal defects, atrial fibrillation as well as supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. Despite the fact that most horses with cardiovascular disease maintain a sufficient performance capacity, regular evaluations are indicated in horses with clinically relevant disorders. Under certain circumstances, horses with moderate to severe structural disease, with persistent untreated atrial fibrillation and with certain ventricular arrhythmias might still be used by informed adult riders. Horses with complex ventricular arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension or congestive heart failure must not be ridden or driven and should be retired.

  20. Uveitis in horses induced by interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein is similar to the spontaneous disease.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Cornelia A; Thurau, Stephan R; Gerhards, Hartmut; Ehrenhofer, Marion; Wildner, Gerhild; Kaspers, Bernd

    2002-09-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an inflammatory eye disease with high similarity to uveitis in man. It is the only spontaneous animal model for uveitis and the most frequent eye disease in horses affecting up to 10% of the population. To further investigate the pathophysiology of ERU we now report the establishment of an inducible uveitis model in horses. An ERU-like disease was elicited in seven out of seven horses by injection of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) in complete Freund's adjuvant. Control horses did not develop uveitis. The disease model is characterized by a highly reproducible disease course and recurrent episodes with an identical time course elicited in all horses by repeated IRBP injections. The histology revealed the formation of lymphoid follicle-like structures in the eyes and an intraocular infiltration dominated by CD3(+) lymphocytes, morphological patterns typical for the spontaneous disease. Antigen-specific T cell proliferation of PBL was monitored prior to clinical uveitis and during disease episodes. An initial T cell response to IRBP-derived peptides was followed by epitope spreading to S-antigen-derived peptides in response to subsequent immunizations. Thus, horse experimental uveitis represents a valuable disease model for comparative studies with the spontaneous disease and the investigation of immunomodulatory therapeutic approaches after onset of the disease.

  1. [Detection of leptospira in the vitreous body of horses without ocular diseases and of horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) using transmission-electron microscopy].

    PubMed

    Niedermaier, G; Wollanke, B; Hoffmann, R; Brem, S; Gerhards, H

    2006-11-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is caused by persistent intraocular leptospira, which appear to use the vitreous body as a refuge. The detection of leptospira in the vitreous body of horses with spontaneous ERU by histological methods has not yet been described. Thirty eight vitreous body samples from 36 horses with ERU (collected during vitrectomy), and 10 vitreous body samples obtained from 5 horses without ocular disease (control group) were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Prior to sample collection, 2 ml of a leptospira culture suspension were injected into the vitreous body of 2 eyes enucleated from horses of the control group. The detection of leptospira in samples, experimentally inoculated with these bacteria was uncomplicated; in vitreous body samples from horses with spontaneous ERU the detection was successful in only a few cases (3/38). The morphologically varying envelope of leptospira in vitreous body samples of horses which developed ERU spontaneously suggests the existence of a bacterial masquerade in vivo.

  2. [Depiction of the structure of the vitreous body in horses without ocular diseases and in horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) using transmission electron microscopy].

    PubMed

    Niedermaier, G; Wollanke, B; Hoffmann, R; Matiasek, K; Gerhards, H

    2006-06-01

    Neither the ultrastructure of the vitreous body from horses without ocular diseases, nor the pathomorphological changes in the vitreous body associated with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) have been described. However, the vitreous body plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ERU. Ten vitreous body samples obtained from 5 horses without ocular disease, and 38 vitreous body samples from horses with ERU (collected during vitrectomy) were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The vitreous body samples of horses without ocular diseases were characterized by a loose network of unbranched fibrils 10-12 nm in width. In the vitreous body samples of horses with ERU numerous dense bundles of fibrils, mononuclear inflammatory cells and necrotic cells represent the destruction of the vitreous fibrillar network. In this study, equine vitreous body ultrastructure was described for the first time. Thus, demonstrating ultramorphologically, the clinically apparent changes of the vitreous body associated with ERU.

  3. Evidence for marsh mallow (Malva parviflora) toxicosis causing myocardial disease and myopathy in four horses.

    PubMed

    Bauquier, J; Stent, A; Gibney, J; Jerrett, I; White, J; Tennent-Brown, B; Pearce, A; Pitt, J

    2017-05-01

    Investigation of toxicosis caused by Malva parviflora was required after 4 horses from the same farm developed severe muscle fasciculations, tachycardia, sweating and periods of recumbency leading to death or euthanasia after ingesting the plant. To describe historical, clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings of 4 horses with suspected M. parviflora toxicosis. The role of cyclopropene fatty acids (found in M. parviflora) and mechanism for toxicosis are proposed. Case series. Historical, physical examination, clinicopathological and pathological findings are reported. Due to similarities with atypical myopathy or seasonal pasture myopathy acyl carnitine profiles were performed on sera from 2 cases and equine controls. Presence of cyclopropene fatty acids was also examined in sera of 2 cases. M. parviflora had been heavily grazed by the horses with little other feed available. Horse 1 deteriorated rapidly and was subjected to euthanasia. Horse 2 was referred to hospital where severe myocardial disease and generalised myopathy was determined; this horse was subjected to euthanasia 36 h after admission. Horse 3 died rapidly and Horse 4 was subjected to euthanasia at onset of clinical signs. Post-mortem examinations performed on 3 horses revealed acute, multifocal cardiac and skeletal myonecrosis. Myocyte glycogen accumulation was absent when examined in Horse 2. Acyl carnitine profiles revealed increased C14-C18 acyl carnitine concentrations in cases relative to controls. Cyclopropene fatty acids were detected in sera of cases but not controls. These findings suggest aetiology different to that of atypical myopathy or seasonal pasture myopathy. We hypothesise that cyclopropene fatty acids in M. parviflora interfere with fatty acid β-oxidation in horses in negative energy balance, causing the clinical signs and abnormal acyl carnitine profiles. These equine cases suggest a pathophysiological course that closely mimics the human genetic condition very

  4. Serial viscoelastic and traditional coagulation testing in horses with gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Kira L; Brainard, Benjamin M; Giguere, Steeve; Vrono, Zachary; Moore, James N

    2013-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to compare the ability of serial thromboelastography, Sonoclot, and traditional coagulation panels to detect coagulopathies associated with disease category, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), complications, and nonsurvival in horses with gastrointestinal disease. Prospective clinical evaluation. University referral hospital. One hundred twenty-one horses admitted as emergencies for gastrointestinal disease and 28 healthy adult horses. Blood samples were collected ≤4 times from emergency horses (admission and if surviving and hospitalized on days 2-4) and once from healthy horses. Thromboelastography (with and without tissue factor activation), Sonoclot, and a traditional coagulation panel were performed on each sample. Emergency horses were grouped based on disease category (ie, nonstrangulating medical, nonstrangulating surgical, strangulating, and inflammatory), survival to discharge, SIRS at admission, requirement for exploratory celiotomy, ileus, diarrhea, fever, thrombophlebitis, and laminitis. Changes over time were evaluated individually and compared between disease groups. Horses with gastrointestinal disease had dynamic changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis during the first 4 days of hospitalization that were correlated with disease category, SIRS, complications, and fatality. The multivariate logistic regression model for nonsurvival included activated partial thromboplastin time on day 2 and LY30 on day 3 (overall model significance P < 0.0001). The odds of nonsurvival were 23.75 times higher if activated partial thromboplastin time was >85.6 s on day 2 and 9.38 times higher if LY30 was >1% on day 3. Horses with gastrointestinal disease have activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Magnitude of change in these parameters is small and predictive value moderate, making application of these tests to direct therapy in clinical patients difficult. Effect of specific treatments (eg, surgery) on these tests and

  5. Equine disease events resulting from international horse movements: Systematic review and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, M; Münstermann, S; de Guindos, I; Timoney, P

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of the factors leading to equine disease events was used to support the development of international recommendations for mitigating the risk of disease dissemination through sport horse movements (high health, high performance - 'HHP' horses). A review was undertaken to identify the factors resulting in equine disease events following international movement of horses to draw lessons in support of the development of international recommendations for the safe movements of a specific subpopulation of horses: the HHP sport horses. Systematic review carried out in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The review covered disease events that occurred from 1995 to 2014, identified from the databases of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and international surveillance reports. Overall, 54 disease events were identified, of which 7 were contained in post arrival quarantine and the others resulted in the introduction of pathogens into importing countries. For 81% of the introductions, the OIE recommendations applicable to the diseases involved had not been complied with. Subclinical infections are a challenge for international trade: 88% of the regulated movements that resulted in introductions involved infected horses that showed no clinical signs at the time of import. Biosecurity and management practices in resident equine populations were identified as important mitigating factors in preventing disease spread to the local horse population. The global increase in international horse movements, if not appropriately regulated and supervised by competent veterinary authorities and respective equine industry partners, could potentially lead to increased global spread of infectious equine diseases. Appropriate mitigation measures and compliance with OIE import recommendations for specific diseases can significantly reduce this risk. The recommendations proposed under the HHP approach take into account the mitigation measures identified by this review as

  6. Pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a horse: zoonotic concerns and limitations of antemortem testing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of disease. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid...

  7. [The history of neurectomy in horses with navicular disease].

    PubMed

    Meier, H P

    1996-01-01

    The genetic predisposition to navicular disease is proven nowadays, but otherwise, etiology and pathogenesis are still unclear. Causal therapy isn't possible and because of the poor prognosis, neurectomy is still of bearing. This operation was performed already 200 years ago, but in the middle of the last century, critical voices have been raised in regard to the surgical procedure and its indication both for medical reasons and breeding. Clear instructions for exclusion of diseased animals from breeding are also older than one hundred years. These facts call for ethic considerations which concern both breeding and use of these animals. In earlier times, horses were used for basic human requirements mainly, but nowadays their employment occurs mainly for pleasure. Ethic reflections are our task, as our specialized knowledge forms their basis. Our philosophy has to be applicable in practice, what can be achieved best with utilitarianistic reasoning. The possibilities of our influence on the sport are limited, but in breeding our commitment has to be vigorous and unrestricted. Due to the development of immunogenetic studies, legal problems may arise in the near future as well.

  8. Antioxidant trace elements in serum of draft horses with acute and chronic lower airway disease.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; El-Khodery, Sabry Ahmed; Ibrahim, Hussam Mohamed Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress level and antioxidant trace elements status associated with lower airway disease in draft horses. For this purpose, venous blood samples were obtained from draft horses exhibiting signs of lower respiratory tract disorders (n = 83) and from control group (n = 20). Serum trace elements including selenium (Se), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) were assayed. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as well as plasma hydrogen peroxides (H₂O₂) concentration and activity of plasma glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were measured. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of Se, Cu, Zn, and Fe in diseased horses compared with healthy ones, but the Cu/Zn ratio and Mn were increased (p < 0.05). Se was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in chronically affected horses compared with acute cases, but Mn was increased (p < 0.05). There was an increase of MDA, LDL, and H₂O₂ levels and GR activity in diseased cases compared with healthy horses. However, there was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of GST and CAT activity. MDA and LDL levels were increased (p < 0.05) in horses with chronic respiratory disease compared to acute cases, but CAT activity was decreased (p < 0.05). In horses with acute lower airway disease, there was a negative correlation between GR and H₂O₂ (r = -0.458), and LDL and CAT (r = -0.816). However, in chronic disease, a negative correlation was recorded between Se and MDA (r = -0.590). The results of the present study indicate that oxidative stress, with alteration of antioxidant trace element levels, is a feature of respiratory disease in draft horses.

  9. Lineage 2 West Nile Virus as Cause of Fatal Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Human, Stacey; Zaayman, Dewald; Gerdes, Gertruida H.; Williams, June; Steyl, Johan; Leman, Patricia A.; Paweska, Janusz Tadeusz; Setzkorn, Hildegard; Rous, Gavin; Murray, Sue; Parker, Rissa; Donnellan, Cynthia; Swanepoel, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Serologic evidence suggests that West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed in horses in southern Africa. However, because few neurologic cases have been reported, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be nonpathogenic in horses. Recent evidence suggests that highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains exist in humans and mice. To determine whether neurologic cases are being missed in South Africa, we tested 80 serum or brain specimens from horses with unexplained fever (n = 48) and/or neurologic signs (n = 32) for WNV. From March 2007 through June 2008, using reverse transcription–PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) M ELISA, we found WNV RNA or IgM in 7/32 horses with acute neurologic disease; 5 horses died or were euthanized. In 5/7 horses, no other pathogen was detected. DNA sequencing for all 5 RT-PCR–positive cases showed the virus belonged to lineage 2. WNV lineage 2 may cause neurologic disease in horses in South Africa. PMID:19523285

  10. Lineage 2 west nile virus as cause of fatal neurologic disease in horses, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Venter, Marietjie; Human, Stacey; Zaayman, Dewald; Gerdes, Gertruida H; Williams, June; Steyl, Johan; Leman, Patricia A; Paweska, Janusz Tadeusz; Setzkorn, Hildegard; Rous, Gavin; Murray, Sue; Parker, Rissa; Donnellan, Cynthia; Swanepoel, Robert

    2009-06-01

    Serologic evidence suggests that West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed in horses in southern Africa. However, because few neurologic cases have been reported, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be nonpathogenic in horses. Recent evidence suggests that highly neuroinvasive lineage 2 strains exist in humans and mice. To determine whether neurologic cases are being missed in South Africa, we tested 80 serum or brain specimens from horses with unexplained fever (n = 48) and/or neurologic signs (n = 32) for WNV. From March 2007 through June 2008, using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoglobulin (Ig) M ELISA, we found WNV RNA or IgM in 7/32 horses with acute neurologic disease; 5 horses died or were euthanized. In 5/7 horses, no other pathogen was detected. DNA sequencing for all 5 RT-PCR-positive cases showed the virus belonged to lineage 2. WNV lineage 2 may cause neurologic disease in horses in South Africa.

  11. Ocular disease in working horses in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, C E; Aklilu, N; Reed, K; Knottenbelt, D C; Gebreab, F; Pinchbeck, G L

    2013-01-26

    Ocular disease is a frequent finding in working horses. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of ocular pathology, and explore risk factors potentially associated with disease within a population of working horses in Ethiopia. In total, 1049 horses were selected from horses attending clinics run by the Society for Protection of Animals Abroad (SPANA). Each had an ophthalmic examination conducted under field conditions using a pen-torch. All owners completed a short questionnaire. The prevalence of ocular abnormalities was 23.5 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 18.0 per cent to 30.1 per cent) and the percentage of horses with an abnormality in at least one eye was 43 per cent (95 per cent CI 28.7 per cent to 58.4 per cent), although this varied between towns. Mild eye pathology and end-stage disease with irreversible pathology were most common. There were significantly more eye abnormalities in the right eye compared with the left, and older horses were more likely to have ocular pathology. Only 55.1 per cent of owners had noticed there was an ocular abnormality present, and only 2.2 per cent had received any previous treatment for eye disease. Only 1.9 per cent presented to the clinic because of an eye problem. There appears to be either a lack of owner awareness, or a low perception of the importance of eye disease among owners.

  12. Risk of equine infectious disease transmission by non-race horse movements in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Yoko; Kobayashi, Sota; Nishida, Takeshi; Nishiguchi, Akiko; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2010-07-01

    For determining surveillance programs or infectious disease countermeasures, risk evaluation approaches have been recently undertaken in the field of animal health. In the present study, to help establish efficient and effective surveillance and countermeasures for equine infectious diseases, we evaluated the potential risk of equine infectious disease transmission in non-race horses from the viewpoints of horse movements and health management practices by conducting a survey of non-race horse holdings. From the survey, the non-race horse population was classified into the following five sectors based on their purposes: the equestrian sector, private owner sector, exhibition sector, fattening sector and others. Our survey results showed that the equestrian and private owner sectors had the largest population sizes, and movements between and within these sectors occurred quite frequently, while there was little movement in the other sectors. Qualitative evaluation showed that the equestrian and private owner sectors had relatively high risks of equine infectious disease transmission through horse movements. Therefore, it would be effective to concentrate on these two sectors when implementing surveillance or preventative measures. Special priority should be given to the private owner sector because this sector has not implemented inspection and vaccination well compared with the equestrian sector, which possesses a high compliance rate for these practices. This qualitative risk evaluation focused on horse movements and health management practices could provide a basis for further risk evaluation to establish efficient and effective surveillance and countermeasures for equine infectious diseases.

  13. Pigment retinopathy in warmblood horses with equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy and equine motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Finno, Carrie J; Kaese, Heather J; Miller, Andrew D; Gianino, Giuliana; Divers, Thomas; Valberg, Stephanie J

    2017-07-01

    A pigment retinopathy has been reported in adult horses with equine motor neuron disease (EMND) arising from chronic α-tocopherol (α-TP) deficiency. A pigment retinopathy has not been identified in horses with neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (NAD/EDM) that affects genetically susceptible young horses with α-TP deficiency. The objective of this report is to describe, for the first time, a pigment retinopathy in a family of α-TP-deficient Warmbloods (WB) with clinically apparent NAD/EDM or EMND. Twenty-five WB horses from one farm underwent complete neurologic and ophthalmic examinations and serum α-TP concentrations were assessed. Two of the most severely ataxic horses were euthanized and postmortem examinations performed. Alpha-TP deficiency was widespread on this farm (22 of 25 horses). Eleven of 25 horses were clinically normal (age range 2-12 years), one had signs of EMND (6 years of age), 10 had signs of ataxia consistent with NAD/EDM (1-10 years), and two of these were postmortem confirmed concurrent NAD/EDM and EMND. A pigment retinopathy characterized by varying amounts of granular dark pigment in the tapetal retina was observed in four clinically apparent NAD/EDM horses (two postmortem confirmed concurrent NAD/EDM and EMND) and one horse with clinical signs of EMND. A pigment retinopathy can be present in young α-TP-deficient Warmblood horses with clinical signs of EMND as well as those with signs of NAD/EDM. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Frequency of the severe combined immunodeficiency disease gene among horses in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Piro, M; Benjouad, A; Tligui, N S; El Allali, K; El Kohen, M; Nabich, A; Ouragh, L

    2008-09-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) of horses is an autosomal, recessive hereditary disease occurring among Arabian or crossbred Arabian horses. The genetic defect responsible was previously identified as a 5-base pair deletion in the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the DNA dependant protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). This study was carried out to determine the frequency of SCID and identify horses carrying the gene for SCID among Arabian and Arabian crossbred stallions and mares in Morocco using a DNA-based test. Twenty-one horses were SCID carriers: 14 (7%) Arabians, 6 (4%) Arab-Barbs and one (33%) Anglo-Arab. After analysing their genealogy, 3 imported stallions were identified that disseminated the mutant gene of DNA-PKcs in Morocco.

  15. 'High-health, high-performance' horses: risk mitigation strategies for OIE-listed diseases.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, M; Münstermann, S; Murray, G; Timoney, P

    2015-12-01

    The 'high-health, high-performance' (HHP) horse concept has been developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) together with the F6ddration Equestre Internationale and the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities. This concept is outlined in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Chapter 4.16). It aims to address impediments to the international movement of competition horses through a harmonised, practically feasible, globally applicable framework based on simplified certification requirements for the temporary importation of HHP horses and for their return to their country of usual residence. Based on the principle of compartmentalisation, the high health status of these horses would be established by the application, at all times, of stringent health management practices and biosecurity measures to create and maintain a functional separation between horses within the defined compartment and all other equids. These provisions are intended to mitigate the risk of disease spread for most OIE-listed diseases. For six OIE-listed diseases (African horse sickness, equine influenza, equine infectious anaemia, equine piroplasmosis, glanders and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis), the OIE recommends disease-specific mitigation measures, which have been included in a model HHP Veterinary Certificate, to provide additional guarantees to mitigate the risk of disease spread. This article presents the HH P disease risk mitigation strategy. It demonstrates how continuous observance of the HHP biosecurity measures and health management practices provides a scientific rationale for limiting the list of diseases for which HHP horses should be screened with respect to their temporary importation for competition purposes.

  16. Risk factors for development of neurologic disease after experimental exposure to equine herpesvirus-1 in horses.

    PubMed

    Allen, George P

    2008-12-01

    To identify risk factors associated with development of clinical neurologic signs in horses exposed to equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). 36 adult horses. Blood samples collected before and after challenge inoculation with nonneuropathogenic or neuropathogenic EHV-1 were analyzed for leukocyte-associated viremia, serum neutralizing antibody, and EHV-1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursors (CTLPs). Associations between variables and neurologic disease and correlations between age category or breed and development of neurologic disease were examined. 9 horses developed CNS signs (ataxia, hind limb paresis or paralysis, bladder atony, or recumbency). Neurologic deficits were correlated with infection by a neuropathogenic strain of EHV-1, age>20 years, high postexposure viremic load, and low preexposure concentration of CTLPs. No significant correlations were observed between preinfection titers or horse breed and postinfection development of neurologic signs. Horses with high concentrations of preexisting CTLPs, regardless of age, strain of virus, or titer, were more likely to control the magnitude of postinfection leukocyte-associated viremia and subsequent development of neurologic disease; therefore, CTLPs appear to be a critical requirement for protective immunity against EHV-1-induced myeloencephalopathy. The importance of achieving immunity related to high concentrations of vaccine-induced CTLPs in horses at high risk for exposure to neuropathogenic strains of EHV-1 is indicated.

  17. Effects of ophthalmic disease on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in the horse.

    PubMed

    Labelle, A L; Hamor, R E; Macneill, A L; Lascola, K M; Breaux, C B; Tolar, E L

    2011-07-01

    There is little scientific information available about the ability of ocular disease to cause a systemic inflammatory response. Horses are frequently affected with ocular disease and ensuring their systemic health prior to performing vision saving surgery under anaesthesia is essential for the successful treatment of ophthalmic disease. Ocular disease will cause elevations in the concentration of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in peripheral blood. Whole blood and serum samples were obtained from 38 mature horses with ulcerative keratitis or uveitis and no evidence of systemic disease, 9 mature horses with no evidence of ocular or systemic disease (negative controls) and 10 mature horses with systemic inflammatory disease and no evidence of ocular disease (positive controls). Blood samples were assayed for concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A. Fibrinogen and serum amyloid A were significantly different in the positive control group compared to the negative control, corneal disease and uveitis groups (P<0.126). There was no significant difference between the negative control, corneal disease and uveitis groups (P<0.001). Ulcerative keratitis and anterior uveitis are not associated with elevated concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in peripheral blood. When the clinician is presented with a patient with ocular disease and elevated plasma fibrinogen or serum amyloid A concentrations, a nonocular inflammatory focus should be suspected. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  18. Experiences with new generation vaccines against equine viral arteritis, West Nile disease and African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, N James; Balasuriya, Udeni B; Davis, Nancy L; Collier, Martha; Johnston, Robert E; Ferraro, Gregory L; Guthrie, Alan J

    2007-07-26

    Viral diseases constitute an ever growing threat to the horse industry worldwide because of the rapid movement of large numbers of horses for competition and breeding. A number of different types of vaccines are available for protective immunization of horses against viral diseases. Traditional inactivated and live-attenuated (modified live virus, MLV) virus vaccines remain popular and efficacious but recombinant vaccines are increasingly being developed and used, in part because of the perceived deficiencies of some existing products. New generation vaccines include MLVs with deletions and/or mutations of critical genes, subunit vaccines that incorporate immunogenic proteins (or portions thereof) or expression vectors that produce these proteins as immunogens, and DNA vaccines. New generation vaccines have been developed for several viral diseases of horses. We recently have developed an alphavirus replicon-vectored equine arteritis virus (EAV) vaccine, and evaluated a commercial canary pox virus-vectored vaccine for West Nile disease. The success of these new-generation vaccines has catalyzed efforts to develop improved vaccines for the prevention of African horse sickness, a disease of emerging global significance.

  19. Occlusal angles of cheek teeth in normal horses and horses with dental disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, S L; Arkins, S; Shaw, D J; Dixon, P M

    2008-06-21

    The angle between the occlusal surface of the tooth and the horizontal plane of 687 cheek teeth from the skulls of 22 horses without gross dental disorders and 11 horses with dental disorders were measured by using stiff malleable wire as an imprint. Each measurement was repeated five times and the mean angle was recorded. In the normal skulls, the mean occlusal angles of the mandibular cheek teeth ranged from 19.2 degrees at the Triadan 06 position to 30 degrees at the 11 position, and these angles were significantly greater than the occlusal angles of the opposing maxillary cheek teeth (range 12.5 degrees to 18 degrees) at all the positions except the 06. The rostral mandibular cheek teeth had significantly lower occlusal angles than the caudal mandibular cheek teeth, but the converse was true for the maxillary teeth. In the skulls with dental disorders the occlusal angles of the mandibular cheek teeth ranged from 15.6 degrees to 28.5 degrees , and of the maxillary cheek teeth from 9.2 degrees to 16.4 degrees. They were not significantly different from the angles of the teeth from the normal skulls, except at the 06 position, where they were smaller.

  20. Subclinical diseases underlying poor performance in endurance horses: diagnostic methods and predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Fraipont, A; Van Erck, E; Ramery, E; Richard, E; Denoix, J-M; Lekeux, P; Art, T

    2011-08-06

    Thirty-eight endurance horses underwent clinical and ancillary examinations, including haematological and biochemical evaluation, standardised exercise tests both on a treadmill and in the field, Doppler echocardiography, impulse oscillometry, video endoscopy and collection of respiratory fluids. All of the examined poorly performing horses were affected by subclinical diseases, and most of them had multiple concomitant disorders. On the contrary, the well-performing horses were free of any subclinical disease. The most frequently diagnosed diseases were respiratory disorders, followed by musculoskeletal and cardiac problems. Poor performers exhibited lower speeds at blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l (VLA4) and at heart rates of 160 (V160) and 200 bpm (V200) on the treadmill and in the field, as well as slower recovery of heart rate.

  1. Sindbis and Middelburg Old World Alphaviruses Associated with Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Niekerk, Stephanie; Human, Stacey; Williams, June; van Wilpe, Erna; Pretorius, Marthi; Swanepoel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Old World alphaviruses were identified in 52 of 623 horses with febrile or neurologic disease in South Africa. Five of 8 Sindbis virus infections were mild; 2 of 3 fatal cases involved co-infections. Of 44 Middelburg virus infections, 28 caused neurologic disease; 12 were fatal. Middelburg virus likely has zoonotic potential. PMID:26583836

  2. Sindbis and Middelburg Old World Alphaviruses Associated with Neurologic Disease in Horses, South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, Stephanie; Human, Stacey; Williams, June; van Wilpe, Erna; Pretorius, Marthi; Swanepoel, Robert; Venter, Marietjie

    2015-12-01

    Old World alphaviruses were identified in 52 of 623 horses with febrile or neurologic disease in South Africa. Five of 8 Sindbis virus infections were mild; 2 of 3 fatal cases involved co-infections. Of 44 Middelburg virus infections, 28 caused neurologic disease; 12 were fatal. Middelburg virus likely has zoonotic potential.

  3. Biochemical characterisation of navicular hyaline cartilage, navicular fibrocartilage and the deep digital flexor tendon in horses with navicular disease.

    PubMed

    Viitanen, M; Bird, J; Smith, R; Tulamo, R-M; May, S A

    2003-10-01

    The study hypothesis was that navicular disease is a process analogous to degenerative joint disease, which leads to changes in navicular fibrocartilage and in deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) matrix composition and that the process extends to the adjacent distal interphalangeal joint. The objectives were to compare the biochemical composition of the navicular articular and palmar cartilages from 18 horses with navicular disease with 49 horses with no history of front limb lameness, and to compare navicular fibrocartilage with medial meniscus of the stifle and collateral cartilage of the hoof. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), total glycosaminoglycan (GAG), metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and water content in tissues were measured. Hyaline cartilage had the highest content of COMP and COMP content in hyaline cartilage and tendon was higher in lame horses than in sound horses (p<0.05). The concentration of MMP-2 amount in hyaline cartilage was higher in lame horses than in sound horses. The MMP-2 amounts were significantly higher in tendons compared to other tissue types. Overall, 79% of the lame horses with lesions had MMP-9 in their tendons and the amount was higher than in sound horses (p<0.05). In horses with navicular disease there were matrix changes in navicular hyaline and fibrocartilage as well as the DDFT with potential implications for the pathogenesis and management of the condition.

  4. Immune-Mediated Muscle Diseases of the Horse.

    PubMed

    Durward-Akhurst, S A; Valberg, S J

    2017-01-01

    In horses, immune-mediated muscle disorders can arise from an overzealous immune response to concurrent infections or potentially from an inherent immune response to host muscle antigens. Streptococcus equi ss. equi infection or vaccination can result in infarctive purpura hemorrhagica (IPH) in which vascular deposition of IgA-streptococcal M protein complexes produces ischemia and complete focal infarction of skeletal muscle and internal organs. In Quarter Horse-related breeds with immune-mediated myositis, an apparent abnormal immune response to muscle antigens results in upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class (MHC) I and II on muscle cell membranes, lymphocytic infiltration of lumbar and gluteal myofibers, and subsequent gross muscle atrophy. Rarely, an inflammatory event results in myositis with subsequent systemic calcinosis characterized by a pathognomonic hyperphosphatemia and high fatality rate. This review presents an overview of these immune-mediated myopathies and highlights clinical and pathological features as well as the suspected pathophysiology.

  5. Pimelea trichostachya poisoning (St George disease) in horses.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S-J; Taylor, J D; Gibson, J A; McKenzie, R A

    2007-05-01

    A dense population of Pimelea trichostachya plants (Family Thymelaeaceae) in pasture poisoned a horse herd in southern inland Queensland in October-November 2005. Plant density was 2 to 45 g wet weight/m(2) (mean 16 g/m(2)) from 5 to 69 plants/m(2) (mean 38 plants/m(2)) representing 3 to 20% (mean 9%) of the volume of pasture on offer. Ten of 35 mares, fillies and geldings were affected. Clinical signs were loss of body weight, profound lethargy, serous nasal discharge, severe watery diarrhoea and subcutaneous oedema of the intermandibular space, chest and ventral midline. Pathological findings were anaemia, leucocytopenia, hypoproteinaemia, dilatation of the right ventricle of the heart, dilated hepatic portal veins and periportal hepatic sinusoids (peliosis hepatis), alimentary mucosal hyperaemia and oedema of mesenteric lymph nodes. Cattle grazing the same pasture were affected by Pimelea poisoning simultaneously. Removal of the horses to Pimelea-free pasture initiated recovery. The one other incident of this syndrome, previously only recognised in cattle in Australia, occurred in horses, in South Australia in 2002, with access to a dense Pimelea simplex population.

  6. Left- and right-sided laparoscopic-assisted nephrectomy in standing horses with unilateral renal disease.

    PubMed

    Röcken, Michael; Mosel, Gesine; Stehle, Christiane; Rass, Julia; Litzke, Lutz F

    2007-08-01

    To describe a technique for, and outcome after, left- or right-sided laparoscopic-assisted nephrectomy in standing horses with unilateral renal disease. Clinical report. Horses (n=3) with unilateral renal disease. Horses were sedated with detomidine (0.01 mg/kg intravenously [IV]) and levomethadone (0.05 mg/kg IV). Paravertebral anesthesia and infiltration-anesthesia with 2% lidocaine were used to create a surgical field incorporating the 17th intercostal space and paralumbar fossa. Two separate, ipsilateral portals and a mini-laparotomy were used. The perirenal peritoneum was horizontally incised (10-15 cm) using endoscissors and the incision digitally enlarged for manual dissection of the perirenal fat and kidney mobilization. The renal vessels and ureter were individually dissected, ligated, and transected under laparoscopic observation and the kidney removed. The perirenal and laparotomy peritoneal defects were not closed; and the laparotomy was closed in a multilayered fashion. The transverse abdominal muscle was apposed in a continuous pattern using 1 polyglactin 910, the subcutaneous tissue (simple continuous pattern) and skin (simple interrupted pattern) with 2-0 polyglactin 910. Left (2) and right (1) sided laparoscopic-assisted nephrectomy (1 nephrolithiasis, 2 hydronephrosis) was performed successfully. Sedation and local anesthesia was adequate for intraoperative immobilization and analgesia. No intraoperative complications occurred. Incisional seroma formation and fever occurred on days 3 and 4 in 1 horse and resolved with medical management. Laparoscopic-assisted nephrectomy can be used for removal of the left or right kidney in standing horses with unilateral kidney disease. To avoid risks associated with general anesthesia and to reduce surgical trauma, laparoscopic-assisted nephrectomy can be performed in the standing sedated horse using a 2 portal technique and a mini-laparotomy.

  7. Increased FOXP3 expression in tumour-associated tissues of horses affected with equine sarcoid disease.

    PubMed

    Mählmann, K; Hamza, E; Marti, E; Dolf, G; Klukowska, J; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with disease severity and progression in papilloma virus induced neoplasia. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is recognised as the most important aetiological factor in equine sarcoid (ES) disease. The aim of this study was to compare expression levels of Treg markers and associated cytokines in tissue samples of ES-affected equids with skin samples of healthy control horses. Eleven ES-affected, and 12 healthy horses were included in the study. Expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), interleukin 10 (IL10), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA in lesional and tumour-distant samples from ES-affected horses, as well as in dermal samples of healthy control horses were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels were compared between lesional and tumour-distant as well as between tumour-distant and control samples. Furthermore, BPV-1 E5 DNA in samples of ES-affected horses was quantified using quantitative PCR, and possible associations of viral load, disease severity and gene expression levels were evaluated. Expression levels of FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG mRNA and BPV-1 E5 copy numbers were significantly increased in lesional compared to tumour-distant samples. There was no difference in FOXP3 and cytokine expression in tumour-distant samples from ES- compared with control horses. In tumour-distant samples viral load was positively correlated with IL10 expression and severity score. The increased expression of Treg markers in tumour-associated tissues of ES-affected equids indicates a local, Treg-induced immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unilateral white line disease and laminitis in a quarter horse mare.

    PubMed

    Oke, Ray A

    2003-02-01

    A 5-year-old quarter horse mare presented with unilateral, severe, chronic forelimb lameness. Radiographs revealed extensive hoof wall separation and capsular rotation of the distal phalanx. Treatment included dorsal hoof wall resection, phenylbutazone, a bar shoe, and stall rest. Whether white line disease or laminitis was the primary lesion remains unclear.

  9. Evaluation of allele frequencies of inherited disease genes in subgroups of American Quarter Horses.

    PubMed

    Tryon, Robert C; Penedo, M Cecilia T; McCue, Molly E; Valberg, Stephanie J; Mickelson, James R; Famula, Thomas R; Wagner, Michelle L; Jackson, Mark; Hamilton, Michael J; Nooteboom, Sabine; Bannasch, Danika L

    2009-01-01

    To estimate allele frequencies of the hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis (HYPP), lethal white foal syndrome (LWFS), glycogen branching enzyme deficiency (GBED), hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), and type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) genes in elite performance subgroups of American Quarter Horses (AQHs). Prospective genetic survey. 651 elite performance AQHs, 200 control AQHs, and 180 control American Paint Horses (APHs). Elite performance AQHs successful in 7 competitive disciplines (barrel racing, cutting, halter, racing, reining, western pleasure, and working cow horse) were geno- typed for 5 disease-causing alleles. Age-matched control AQHs and APHs were used to establish comparative whole-breed estimates of allele frequencies. Highest allele frequencies among control AQHs were for type 1 PSSM (0.055) and GBED (0.054), whereas HERDA (0.021) and HYPP (0.008) were less prevalent. Control APHs uniquely harbored LWFS (0.107) and had high prevalence of HYPP (0.025), relative to AQHs. Halter horse subgroups had significantly greater allele frequencies for HYPP (0.299) and PSSM (0.155). Glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, HERDA, and PSSM were found broadly throughout subgroups; cutting subgroups were distinct for HERDA (0.142), and western pleasure subgroups were distinct for GBED (0.132). Racing and barrel racing subgroups had the lowest frequencies of the 5 disease genes. Accurate estimates of disease-causing alleles in AQHs and APHs may guide use of diagnostic genetic testing, aid management of genetic diseases, and help minimize production of affected foals.

  10. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Potomac horse fever disease.

    PubMed Central

    Pretzman, C I; Rikihisa, Y; Ralph, D; Gordon, J C; Bech-Nielsen, S

    1987-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM in natural and experimental infections of equids with Ehrlichia risticii was developed. Ehrlichial organisms purified from an infected mouse macrophage cell line were used as the antigen. IgM was separated from serum IgG by the expedient of spun-column chromatography, allowing the use of an indirect ELISA for quantitation of both IgG and IgM in the test sera. Among 16 paired sera from horses exhibiting clinical signs of Potomac horse fever, 8 were positive by the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFA), 11 were positive by the IgG ELISA, and 8 were positive by the IgM ELISA. All IFA-positive specimens were positive by the IgG ELISA, which appeared to be more sensitive than the IFA. In all cases, the IgG ELISA alone would have sufficed for diagnosis when acute- and convalescent-phase sera were available. When 26 single acute- or convalescent-phase serum samples were tested, the IFA detected 8, the IgG ELISA detected 10, and the IgM ELISA detected 6 positive serum specimens. The kinetics of IgG and IgM responses as determined by ELISA in two experimentally infected ponies which survived infection and challenges revealed that specific IgM was short-lived, falling to undetectable levels by day 60 postinoculation, whereas specific IgG persisted for more than 1 year. IgM and IgG were detected as early as days 1 and 10, respectively, postinoculation. The results suggest that the ELISA is more sensitive than the IFA and that the IgM ELISA may provide a means for early diagnosis of Potomac horse fever at or before the onset of clinical signs. PMID:3539995

  11. Dental Disease in Aged Horses and Its Management.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Victoria M; Townsend, Neil

    2016-08-01

    Improved recognition of equine geriatric conditions has resulted in a surge in our aged population with a concurrent escalation of many age-related dental pathologies. Prevention of these disorder is the ultimate aim but early identification and appropriate management can increase an animal's oral comfort and maximise its masticatory ability. There is only a finite amount of tooth available for eruption in the horse and therefore as the teeth become worn and less efficient as a grinding unit, dietary modification becomes a paramount consideration to accommodate this. Geriatric animals have differing requirements for restraint and sedation with treatment of coexisting disorders also an important requirement.

  12. A survey of health care and disease in geriatric horses aged 30 years or older.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Joanne L; McGowan, Catherine M; Clegg, Peter D; Chandler, Keith J; Pinchbeck, Gina L

    2012-04-01

    This study reports on aspects of preventive health care and on the prevalence of disease in geriatric (≥30 years old) horses and ponies in North-West England and North Wales. Of 128 questionnaires mailed to horse owners, 87 useable responses were received and 69 horses were subject to veterinary examination. Of the animals examined, 16% were underweight with body condition scores (BCS)<2/5, and 10% were overweight (BCS>3/5). This contrasted with the owner responses that reported 23% of the animals surveyed to be underweight and only 3% to be overweight. When assessed at trot, 77% of the horses were lame on at least one limb, with 97% having a reduced range of motion in at least one joint. Only 16% of these animals were reported by owners to have been lame within the previous 12 months. Owner-reported changes to hair coat were significantly associated with hirsutism or abnormal moulting detected at clinical examination (39%). At least one ophthalmic lesion was identified in all of the horses and ponies examined and 17% of owners reported that their animal had experienced visual problems within the previous year. Although dental abnormalities were detected in all animals where an oral examination was performed, only 42% of owners reported that their horse suffered from a known dental disorder. In general, despite a high prevalence of disease detected in these geriatric animals and with the majority having multiple abnormalities at clinical examination, there was under-reporting/under-recognition of these health problems by owners.

  13. Evidence of lateral gene transfer among strains of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in weanling horses with respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Velineni, Sridhar; Breathnach, Cormac C; Timoney, John F

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Sz) is a tonsillar commensal of healthy horses but with potential to opportunistically invade the lower respiratory tract. Sz is genetically variable and recombinogenic based on analysis of gene sequences including szp, szm and MLST data. Although a variety of serovars of the protective SzP are commonly harbored in the tonsils of the same horse, lower respiratory infections usually involve a single clone. Nevertheless, isolation of specific clones from epizootics of respiratory disease has been recently reported in horses and dogs in N. America, Europe and Asia. In this report, we provide evidence suggestive of lateral gene exchange and recombination between strains of Sz from cases of respiratory disease secondary to experimental equine herpes 1 virus infection in an isolated group of weanling horses and ponies. Nasal swabs of 13 of 18 weanlings with respiratory disease yielded mucoid colonies of Sz following culture. Comparison of arcC, nrdE, proS, spi, tdk, tpi and yqiL of these Sz revealed 3 Clades. Clade-1 (ST-212) and 2 (ST-24) were composed of 7 and 3 isolates, respectively. ST-24 and 212 differed in all 7 housekeeping as well as szp and szm alleles. Two isolates of Clade-1 were assigned to ST-308, a single locus variant of ST-212 that contained the proS-16 allele sequenced in ST-24. One isolate of ST-308 contained szm-2, the same allele sequenced in Clade 2 isolates; the other was positive for the szp-N2HV2 allele of Clade 2. These observations are consistent with gene transfer between Sz in the natural host and may explain formation of novel clones that invade the lower respiratory tract or cause epizootics of respiratory disease in dogs and horses.

  14. Effect of Dexamethasone and Fluticasone on Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Horses With Inflammatory Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Léguillette, R; Tohver, T; Bond, S L; Nicol, J A; McDonald, K J

    2017-07-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AWHR), expressed as hypersensitivity (PC75 RL ) or hyperreactivity (slope of the histamine dose-response curve), is a feature of inflammatory airway disease (IAD) or mild equine asthma in horses. Glucocorticoids are used empirically to treat IAD. To determine whether dexamethasone (DEX) (0.05 mg/kg IM q24h) and inhaled fluticasone (FLUT) (3,000 μg q12h) administered by inhalation are effective in decreasing AWHR, lung inflammation, and clinical signs in horses with IAD. A randomized crossover study design was used. Eight horses with IAD were assigned to a treatment group with either DEX or FLUT. Measured outcomes included lung mechanics during bronchoprovocative challenges, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology, and scoring of clinical signs during exercise. Dexamethasone and FLUT abolished the increase in RL by 75% at any histamine bronchoprovocative dose in all horses after the first week of treatment. However, after 2 weeks of FLUT treatment, 1 horse redeveloped hypersensitivity. There was a significant decrease in the number of lymphocytes after treatment with both DEX and FLUT (P = .039 for both) but no significant differences in other BALF cell types or total cell counts (P > .05). There was no difference in the scoring of the clinical signs during each treatment and washout period (P > .05). Both DEX and FLUT treatments significantly inhibit airway hypersensitivity and hyperreactivity in horses with IAD. There are no significant effects on the clinical signs or the number of inflammatory cells (except lymphocytes) in BALF. The treatments have no residual effect 3 weeks after discontinuation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. The effect of colloid formulation on colloid osmotic pressure in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Bellezzo, Fausto; Kuhnmuench, Timothy; Hackett, Eileen S

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring gastrointestinal disease is an important cause of acute hypoproteinemia in adult horses and hydroxyethyl starch colloid fluid treatment is a component of supportive care in these cases to improve plasma volume and maintain colloid osmotic pressure (COP). The objectives of the present study were to compare 2 formulations of high molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch and their relative effect on COP, acid-base status, and survival of horses with acute hypoproteinemia secondary to gastrointestinal disease. Twenty adult horses, ≥ 1 year of age, were prospectively enrolled, with informed client consent, if they developed acute hypoproteinemia, defined as a plasma total protein <5.0 g/dL or albumin <2.2 g/dL during hospitalization while undergoing treatment for gastrointestinal disease. Horses were randomly assigned to receive a rapid infusion of either 6% hydroxyethyl starch in 0.9% saline or 6% hydroxyethyl starch in lactated ringers solution at a dose of 10 ml/kg. Venous blood gas analysis, COP, and PCV were evaluated before and after colloid administration. For both groups, average COP prior to treatment was 11.0 mmHg (9.7 - 12.2 mmHg) and post colloid treatment was 13.2 mmHg (12.0 -14.7 mmHg) [Normal range 18 - 22 mmHg]. COP was significantly increased with colloid treatment (p<0.001) but this increase was not significantly different between treatment groups. Venous pH did not change significantly with treatment. Twelve horses survived to hospital discharge and survival did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Post-treatment COP improved approximately 20% regardless of the formulation used, however, values did not reach the normal range of COP observed in healthy horses. Acid-base parameters were not significantly impacted by either treatment. Further study is needed to determine how these two products compare with regards to other outcome measures. Evaluation of the relative effects of colloid formulation in horses with clinical

  16. [Bacteriological findings for endodontical and apical molar dental diseases in the horse].

    PubMed

    Bienert, A; Bartmann, C P; Verspohl, J; Deegen, E

    2003-09-01

    In most cases the diagnosis of any molar dental disease in horses is made at an advanced stage, so that permanent restoration of the diseased teeth is not feasible. Complications such as bacteraemia and septicaemia due to infections as a result of dentogenous sinusitis and following dentosurgical procedures have been described in human medicine and in veterinary medicine. Twenty patients were available for examination from the Clinic for Horses of the School of Veterinary Medicine Hannover with molar dental disease in upper or lower jaw. As a result of this disease the infected tooth had to be removed surgically. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of and to identify microbes in 20 patients. Swab samples were taken from infected pulpa, from dental abscesses and from involved nasal sinuses. The samples were examined microbiologically and tested for aerobes and anaerobes at the same time. Infectious agents were found in 19 of 20 horses. In all, 27 different species of infectious agents were isolated, including both aerobic and anaerobic microbes. Fifteen patients (75%) showed a mixed flora. Further differentiation indicated a preponderance of the group of gram-negative obligatory anaerobic agents isolated from a total of 17 horses. In all these samples there was a high concentration of infectious agents of these genera, the most common of which were Prevotella spp (n = 16) and Fusobacterium spp. (n = 15). Pre-surgical antibacterial therapy is recommended to reduce the risk of intra- and/or post-surgical bacteraemia and its serious consequences. In light of these microbiological results and considering the high degree of resistance among all anaerobic microbes, all patients in this study were treated with Amoxicillin.

  17. Genomic Dissection of an Icelandic Epidemic of Respiratory Disease in Horses and Associated Zoonotic Cases

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Harris, Simon R.; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G.; Gammeljord, Kristina; Steward, Karen F.; Newton, J. Richard; Robinson, Carl; Charbonneau, Amelia R. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iceland is free of the major infectious diseases of horses. However, in 2010 an epidemic of respiratory disease of unknown cause spread through the country’s native horse population of 77,000. Microbiological investigations ruled out known viral agents but identified the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) in diseased animals. We sequenced the genomes of 257 isolates of S. zooepidemicus to differentiate epidemic from endemic strains. We found that although multiple endemic clones of S. zooepidemicus were present, one particular clone, sequence type 209 (ST209), was likely to have been responsible for the epidemic. Concurrent with the epidemic, ST209 was also recovered from a human case of septicemia, highlighting the pathogenic potential of this strain. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the incursion of this strain into one training yard during February 2010 provided a nidus for the infection of multiple horses that then transmitted the strain to farms throughout Iceland. This study represents the first time that whole-genome sequencing has been used to investigate an epidemic on a national scale to identify the likely causative agent and the link to an associated zoonotic infection. Our data highlight the importance of national biosecurity to protect vulnerable populations of animals and also demonstrate the potential impact of S. zooepidemicus transmission to other animals, including humans. PMID:28765219

  18. Spi2 gene polymorphism is not associated with recurrent airway obstruction and inflammatory airway disease in thoroughbred horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Aline Correa; Brass, Karin Erica; da Silva Loreto, Elgion; Vinocur, Myriam Elizabeth; Pozzobon, Ricardo; da Silva Azevedo, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to detect the presence of polymorphisms at exons 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the Spi2 gene, and evaluate a possible association between them and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) or inflammatory airway disease (IAD) in thoroughbred horses, through single-strand conformational-polymorphism (SSCP) screening. Although polymorphism was not detected in exons 1, 2 and 3, three alleles and six genotypes were identified in exon 4. The frequencies of allele A (0.6388) and genotype AA (0.3888) were higher in horses affected by RAO, although no association was found between polymorphism and horses with either RAO or IAD. PMID:21931519

  19. Expression of PGP 9.5 by enteric neurons in horses and donkeys with and without intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Hudson, N P H; Pearson, G T; Mayhew, I G; Proudman, C J; Burden, F A; Fintl, C

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal motility disorders are an important problem in horses and donkeys and this study was carried out in order to evaluate the enteric neurons in animals with and without intestinal disease. Surplus intestinal tissue samples were collected from 28 horses undergoing exploratory laparotomy for colic. In addition, surplus intestinal samples from 17 control horses were collected immediately following humane destruction for clinical conditions not relating to the intestinal tract. Similar samples were also collected during routine post-mortem examinations from 12 aged donkeys; six animals were humanely destroyed for conditions related to the intestinal tract, while the remaining six were humanely destroyed for other reasons including dental and orthopaedic diseases. Tissue samples were fixed in formalin and immunohistochemical labelling was performed targeting the enteric neurons using a polyclonal antibody specific for the neuronal marker PGP 9.5. The distribution and density of neuronal networks were assessed qualitatively and semiquantitatively. There was strong PGP 9.5 expression in both the horse and donkey samples and labelling was detected throughout the tissue sections. In both species, PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibres were detected in all layers of the intestinal tract, both in large and small intestinal samples. Networks of enteric neurons were present in the donkey with a similar distribution to that seen in the horse. There was no demonstrable difference in enteric neuronal density and distribution in the groups of animals with intestinal disease compared with those without, apart from two (out of 28) horses with intestinal disease that showed a marked reduction in PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity. Apart from these two animals, this total cohort analysis differs from some previously observed findings in horses with intestinal disease and may therefore reflect the different pathophysiological processes occurring in varying intestinal conditions resulting in

  20. Quantitative analysis of diseased horse tendons using Fourier-transform-second-harmonic generation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaguru, Mayandi; Durgam, Sushmitha; Ambekar, Raghu; Luedtke, David; Fried, Glenn; Stewart, Allison; Toussaint, Kimani C., Jr.

    2011-03-01

    Fourier transform-second-harmonic generation (FT-SHG) imaging is used to quantitatively assess the structural organization of collagen fibers in tendonitis-induced horse tendons. Fiber orientation, isotropy, and the ratio of forward to backward SHG signal (F/B ratio) are used to differentiate the fiber organization between the normal and diseased horse tendons. Each second-harmonic generation (SHG) image is divided into several smaller regions of interest (ROI) and the aforementioned quantitative metrics are calculated across the whole grid. ROIs are further labeled as dark (no or minimal presence of fibers), isotropic (random fiber organization), or anisotropic (regular fiber organization) regions. Results show that the normal tendon possesses minimal isotropic regions and small standard deviations in the histograms of orientation and F/B ratio, indicating an intact and highly regular fiber organization. However, the tendonitis-induced horse tendons possess higher number of dark and isotropic regions, and larger standard deviations of the measured parameters, suggesting significantly disoriented and disorganized collagen fibers. This type of quantification would be highly beneficial in diagnosing and determining the stage of tendonitis in clinical settings. Not limited to tendonitis, the technique could also be applied to other diseases that structurally affect collagen fibers. The advantage of FT-SHG over the conventional polarization microscopy is also discussed.

  1. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed. PMID:24289102

  2. Interstitial lung disease associated with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus infection in horses.

    PubMed

    Bolfa, Pompei; Nolf, Marie; Cadoré, Jean-Luc; Catoi, Cornel; Archer, Fabienne; Dolmazon, Christine; Mornex, Jean-François; Leroux, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia) is a blood-borne disease primarily transmitted by haematophagous insects or needle punctures. Other routes of transmission have been poorly explored. We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. Lungs from 77 EIAV seropositive horses have been collected in Romania and France. Three types of lesions have been scored on paraffin-embedded lungs: lymphocyte infiltration, bronchiolar inflammation, and thickness of the alveolar septa. Expression of the p26 EIAV capsid (CA) protein has been evaluated by immunostaining. Compared to EIAV-negative horses, 52% of the EIAV-positive horses displayed a mild inflammation around the bronchioles, 22% had a moderate inflammation with inflammatory cells inside the wall and epithelial bronchiolar hyperplasia and 6.5% had a moderate to severe inflammation, with destruction of the bronchiolar epithelium and accumulation of smooth muscle cells within the pulmonary parenchyma. Changes in the thickness of the alveolar septa were also present. Expression of EIAV capsid has been evidenced in macrophages, endothelial as well as in alveolar and bronchiolar epithelial cells, as determined by their morphology and localization. To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. The presence of EIAV capsid in lung epithelial cells suggests that EIAV might be responsible for the broncho-interstitial damages observed.

  3. Genomic Dissection of an Icelandic Epidemic of Respiratory Disease in Horses and Associated Zoonotic Cases.

    PubMed

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Harris, Simon R; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G; Gammeljord, Kristina; Steward, Karen F; Newton, J Richard; Robinson, Carl; Charbonneau, Amelia R L; Parkhill, Julian; Holden, Matthew T G; Waller, Andrew S

    2017-08-01

    Iceland is free of the major infectious diseases of horses. However, in 2010 an epidemic of respiratory disease of unknown cause spread through the country's native horse population of 77,000. Microbiological investigations ruled out known viral agents but identified the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) in diseased animals. We sequenced the genomes of 257 isolates of S. zooepidemicus to differentiate epidemic from endemic strains. We found that although multiple endemic clones of S. zooepidemicus were present, one particular clone, sequence type 209 (ST209), was likely to have been responsible for the epidemic. Concurrent with the epidemic, ST209 was also recovered from a human case of septicemia, highlighting the pathogenic potential of this strain. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the incursion of this strain into one training yard during February 2010 provided a nidus for the infection of multiple horses that then transmitted the strain to farms throughout Iceland. This study represents the first time that whole-genome sequencing has been used to investigate an epidemic on a national scale to identify the likely causative agent and the link to an associated zoonotic infection. Our data highlight the importance of national biosecurity to protect vulnerable populations of animals and also demonstrate the potential impact of S. zooepidemicus transmission to other animals, including humans.IMPORTANCE An epidemic of respiratory disease affected almost the entire native Icelandic horse population of 77,000 animals in 2010, resulting in a self-imposed ban on the export of horses and significant economic costs to associated industries. Although the speed of transmission suggested that a viral pathogen was responsible, only the presence of the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus zooepidemicus was consistent with the observed clinical signs. We applied genomic sequencing to differentiate epidemic from endemic

  4. Preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence of horses and ponies in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Ireland, J L; Wylie, C E; Collins, S N; Verheyen, K L P; Newton, J R

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the provision of preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence in horses and ponies within Great Britain (GB), and to assess geographical variations in health care provision. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a postal questionnaire administered to a random sample of veterinary-registered owners of horses and ponies in GB (n=797). The majority of animals received regular preventive health care: 95.6% had regular hoof care; 71.3% were vaccinated for both influenza and tetanus and median time since last anthelmintic administration was 8.7 weeks. Thirty-one percent of owners indicated their animal was overweight/obese. A new health problem within the previous 7 days was reported for 7.4% of animals, 59.3% of which were veterinary-diagnosed. Thirty-two percent of animals were reported to have a long-term/recurrent condition, of which osteoarthritis (13.9%) was the most prevalent. Obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, and dermatological conditions were the most prevalent conditions affecting veterinary-registered horses/ponies.

  5. Guttural pouch diseases causing neurologic dysfunction in the horse.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre S; Watanabe, Marcos J

    2011-12-01

    The close relationship between guttural pouches, cranial nerves, and sympathetic structures make neurologic abnormalities due to diseases of the guttural pouches (especially mycosis) possible. Recognition of epistaxis or mucopurulent nasal discharge, together with signs of dysfunction of the cranial nerves in contact with the guttural pouches, are important key points in order to consider a comprehensive evaluation of these structures and further definitive diagnosis. Diseases of the guttural pouches can also cause signs such as dysphagia, abnormal soft palate positioning, laryngeal paralysis, and Horner syndrome due to lesions in one or more of the cranial nerves or sympathetic structures involved with these functions. Therefore, an accurate diagnosis is essential for treatment.

  6. Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other Orbivirus diseases

    PubMed Central

    MacLachlan, N. James; Guthrie, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod-transmitted viruses (Arboviruses) are important causes of disease in humans and animals, and it is proposed that climate change will increase the distribution and severity of arboviral diseases. Orbiviruses are the cause of important and apparently emerging arboviral diseases of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), equine encephalosis virus (EEV), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) that are all transmitted by haematophagous Culicoides insects. Recent changes in the global distribution and nature of BTV infection have been especially dramatic, with spread of multiple serotypes of the virus throughout extensive portions of Europe and invasion of the south-eastern USA with previously exotic virus serotypes. Although climate change has been incriminated in the emergence of BTV infection of ungulates, the precise role of anthropogenic factors and the like is less certain. Similarly, although there have been somewhat less dramatic recent alterations in the distribution of EHDV, AHSV, and EEV, it is not yet clear what the future holds in terms of these diseases, nor of other potentially important but poorly characterized Orbiviruses such as Peruvian horse sickness virus. PMID:20167199

  7. Corneal sensitivity and tear production in 108 horses with ocular disease.

    PubMed

    Knickelbein, Kelly E; Scherrer, Nicole M; Lassaline, Mary

    2017-06-09

    To compare corneal sensitivity and tear production in horses with keratitis to horses with other ocular disease. Retrospective medical record review was used to identify equine patients presented during a 1-year period for an ocular complaint who had Schirmer Tear Test (STT) or Corneal Touch Threshold (CTT) measured. Variables studied included patient age and sex; affected eye; category of presenting ocular complaint (keratitis vs. other ocular complaint); STT; and CTT. Patients with a complaint of ulcerative keratitis, immune-mediated keratitis, and stromal abscess were categorized in the keratitis group. Patients with a complaint of uveitis, as well as lid, lens, or retinal disease, were categorized in the group having other ocular disease. For patients presenting more than once in 2013, only the first visit at which STT or CTT was measured was included. For patients with bilateral disease, STT and CTT of both eyes were averaged. A total of 108 patients were included, 45 with keratitis and 63 with other ocular disease. Average age was 13.65 years, with more males (77) than females (31). Adjusted for age, STT in affected eyes did not differ significantly between the two groups (keratitis = 29.92 mm/min; other ocular disease = 27.96 mm/min), but CTT was significantly lower in patients with keratitis (33.78 mm) than in patients with other ocular disease (40.10 mm). Corneal sensitivity may be decreased in patients with keratitis. It is not known whether this is a cause or an effect of corneal disease. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Serosurvey Reveals Exposure to West Nile Virus in Asymptomatic Horse Populations in Central Spain Prior to Recent Disease Foci.

    PubMed

    Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á

    2017-10-01

    West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Beating a dead horse: dopamine and Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ahlskog, J Eric

    2007-10-23

    Our collective thinking about Parkinson disease (PD) has been heavily influenced by the dramatic response to dopamine replacement therapy. For progress to continue, however, we need to take a broad view of this disorder, which includes recognition of the following. First, substantial evidence now indicates that dopamine oxidation is unlikely to substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Second, levodopa therapy is not associated with neurotoxicity. Third, the first neurons affected in PD are nondopaminergic; the substantia nigra and other dopaminergic nuclei are affected only later in the course. Thus, PD is much more than degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Fourth, in the current era, most of the disability of advancing PD is from involvement of nondopaminergic systems, including levodopa-refractory motor symptoms, dementia, and dysautonomia. Motor complications associated with levodopa therapy can be problematic, but they can be controlled in most, using available medications and deep brain stimulation surgery. We have reached the point of diminishing therapeutic returns with drugs acting on dopamine systems; more dopaminergic medications will provide only modest incremental benefit over current therapies. Finally, the benefits from transplantation surgeries aimed at restoring dopaminergic neurotransmission will be limited because later-stage PD disability comes from nondopaminergic substrates. Scale.

  10. Combined use of platelet rich plasma & micro-fat in sport and race horses with degenerative joint disease: preliminary clinical study in eight horses

    PubMed Central

    Bembo, Fabrizio; Eraud, Julia; Philandrianos, Cecile; Bertrand, Baptiste; Silvestre, Alain; Veran, Julie; Sabatier, Florence; Magalon, Guy; Magalon, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background To assess the safety and potential efficacy of a standardized technique consisting of intra-articular injection of 10 cc of a homogeneous mixed product using autologous micro-fat and platelet rich plasma (PRP) (ratio 1:1) in the carpus or the fetlock joint of sport horses presenting degenerative joint disease (DJD). Methods Eight sport horses with DJD confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography and causing lameness and the impossibility to compete were treated. PRP was prepared after a double centrifugation whereas micro-fat was harvested and purified using a closed system. The two products were connected and mixed by gentle back and forth shaking of the syringes to finally obtain 10 ml of an homogeneous mixed product. Follow up was performed from 5 to 10 months with assessment of AAEP lameness score and return to training and competition. Results Nine joints were treated with significant improvement of the AAEP lameness score three months after the procedure (p = 0.021). Four horses returned to official competition between 5 to 10 months after the procedure (7.0±2.5) and three of them resumed intensive training between 5 to 9 months (6.3±2.3). No adverse event occurred. Conclusion This study is a first step in the development of innovative therapy for DJD which combines the potential chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs inside equine adipose tissue with the proliferative effect of growth factors present in PRP. PMID:27900293

  11. Combined use of platelet rich plasma & micro-fat in sport and race horses with degenerative joint disease: preliminary clinical study in eight horses.

    PubMed

    Bembo, Fabrizio; Eraud, Julia; Philandrianos, Cecile; Bertrand, Baptiste; Silvestre, Alain; Veran, Julie; Sabatier, Florence; Magalon, Guy; Magalon, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    To assess the safety and potential efficacy of a standardized technique consisting of intra-articular injection of 10 cc of a homogeneous mixed product using autologous micro-fat and platelet rich plasma (PRP) (ratio 1:1) in the carpus or the fetlock joint of sport horses presenting degenerative joint disease (DJD). Eight sport horses with DJD confirmed by radiography and ultrasonography and causing lameness and the impossibility to compete were treated. PRP was prepared after a double centrifugation whereas micro-fat was harvested and purified using a closed system. The two products were connected and mixed by gentle back and forth shaking of the syringes to finally obtain 10 ml of an homogeneous mixed product. Follow up was performed from 5 to 10 months with assessment of AAEP lameness score and return to training and competition. Nine joints were treated with significant improvement of the AAEP lameness score three months after the procedure (p = 0.021). Four horses returned to official competition between 5 to 10 months after the procedure (7.0±2.5) and three of them resumed intensive training between 5 to 9 months (6.3±2.3). No adverse event occurred. This study is a first step in the development of innovative therapy for DJD which combines the potential chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs inside equine adipose tissue with the proliferative effect of growth factors present in PRP.

  12. Impression cytology as diagnostic tool in horses with and without ocular surface disease.

    PubMed

    Braus, B K; Lehenauer, B; Tichy, A; Nell, B; Schwendenwein, I

    2017-07-01

    Cytology plays a major role in the diagnosis of ocular surface diseases. To compare 2 cytological sampling methods for obtaining corneal and conjunctival cell samples regarding irritation for the patient, invasiveness, sample quality and diagnostic equivalence. Observational prospective study. In 5 healthy horses, conjunctival and corneal samples were taken bilaterally by impression cytology sampling (ICS) and cytobrush sampling (CBS). Irritation and invasiveness were assessed with an eye irritation and an epithelial damaging score system, respectively. Sample quality was evaluated via morphometric analysis and graded by a board certified clinical pathologist. For the assessment of diagnostic equivalence, 15 eyes of 14 client owned horses with ocular surface anomalies were sampled by ICS and CBS. The methods were compared regarding the types of inflammatory cells and/or infectious agents detected and if the correct diagnosis could be achieved. Histopathology served as gold standard when available. ICS was significantly less invasive and less irritating for the horses. Both methods retrieved cells of overall high quality; the cell quantity was significantly higher in IC samples. ICS preserved the natural cellular layout. There was a fair, but no statistically significant agreement between the diagnostic outcomes between sampling methods although CBS resulted in a slightly greater variability of inflammatory cell types compared to ICS. None. Because of its low irritability and invasiveness ICS can be recommended for cell sampling in fragile corneas and for experimental studies. ICS is especially useful in cases where preservation of cellular layout is advantageous. CBS samples are easier to obtain because of the small equine palpebral fissure. Additionally, the identification of inflammatory cells within conjunctival cell samples is easier. Overall, CBS is still an appropriate method in clinical settings. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus

    PubMed Central

    Mealey, Robert H.; Zhang, Baoshan; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined. PMID:12954220

  14. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Robert H; Zhang, Baoshan; Leib, Steven R; Littke, Matt H; McGuire, Travis C

    2003-09-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined.

  15. Dexamethasone-Induced Cytokine Changes Associated with Diminished Disease Severity in Horses Infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum ▿

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R. S.; Madigan, J. E.; Hodzic, E.; Borjesson, D. L; Dumler, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the zoonotic cause of granulocytic anaplasmosis. We hypothesized that immune response, specifically gamma interferon (IFN-γ), plays a role in disease severity. To test this, horses were infected and IFNG expression was pharmacologically downregulated using corticosteroids. Eight horses were infected with A. phagocytophilum; 4 received dexamethasone on days 4 to 8 of infection. Clinical signs, hematologic parameters, and transcription of cytokine/chemokine genes were compared among treated and untreated horses. Infection was quantitated by msp2 real-time PCR and microscopy. As anticipated, there was significantly greater leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia in infected versus uninfected horses. The A. phagocytophilum load was higher for dexamethasone-treated horses. Dexamethasone reduced IFNG transcription by day 12 and IL-8 and IL-18 by days 7 to 9 and increased IL-4 on day 7. The ratio of IL-10 to IFNG was increased by dexamethasone on day 9. There were no hematologic differences between the infected horses. Dexamethasone suppression of proinflammatory response resulted in delayed infection-induced limb edema and decreased icterus, anorexia, and reluctance to move between days 6 and 9 and lower fever on day 7. These results underscore the utility of the equine model of granulocytic anaplasmosis and suggest that Th1 proinflammatory response plays a role in worsening disease severity and that disease severity can be decreased by modulating proinflammatory response. A role for Th1 response and macrophage activation in hematologic derangements elicited by A. phagocytophilum is not supported by these data and remains unproven. PMID:21880854

  16. A High-Performance Multiplex Immunoassay for Serodiagnosis of Flavivirus-Associated Neurological Diseases in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Cécile; Desprès, Philippe; Paulous, Sylvie; Vanhomwegen, Jessica; Lowenski, Steeve; Nowotny, Norbert; Durand, Benoit; Garnier, Annabelle; Blaise-Boisseau, Sandra; Guitton, Edouard; Yamanaka, Takashi; Zientara, Stéphan; Lecollinet, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are flaviviruses responsible for severe neuroinvasive infections in humans and horses. The confirmation of flavivirus infections is mostly based on rapid serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). These tests suffer from poor specificity, mainly due to antigenic cross-reactivity among flavivirus members. Robust diagnosis therefore needs to be validated through virus neutralisation tests (VNTs) which are time-consuming and require BSL3 facilities. The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein ectodomain is composed of three domains (D) named DI, DII, and DIII, with EDIII containing virus-specific epitopes. In order to improve the serological differentiation of flavivirus infections, the recombinant soluble ectodomain of WNV E (WNV.sE) and EDIIIs (rEDIIIs) of WNV, JEV, and TBEV were synthesised using the Drosophila S2 expression system. Purified antigens were covalently bonded to fluorescent beads. The microspheres coupled to WNV.sE or rEDIIIs were assayed with about 300 equine immune sera from natural and experimental flavivirus infections and 172 nonimmune equine sera as negative controls. rEDIII-coupled microspheres captured specific antibodies against WNV, TBEV, or JEV in positive horse sera. This innovative multiplex immunoassay is a powerful alternative to ELISAs and VNTs for veterinary diagnosis of flavivirus-related diseases. PMID:26457301

  17. Experimental induction of equine protozoan myeloencephalitis (EPM) in the horse: effect of Sarcocystis neurona sporocyst inoculation dose on the development of clinical neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    Sofaly, C D; Reed, S M; Gordon, J C; Dubey, J P; Ogleebee, M J; Njoku, C J; Grover, D L; Saville, W J A

    2002-12-01

    The effect of inoculation dose of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts on the development of clinical neurologic disease in horses was investigated. Twenty-four seronegative weanling horses were subjected to the natural stress of transport and then randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups of 4 horses each. Horses were then immediately inoculated with either 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), or 10(6) S. neurona sporocysts or placebo using nasogastric tube and housed indoors. Weekly neurologic examinations were performed by a blinded observer. Blood was collected weekly for antibody determination by Western blot analysis. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected before inoculation and before euthanasia for S. neurona antibody determination. Horses were killed and necropsied between 4 and 5 wk after inoculation. Differences were detected among dose groups based on seroconversion times, severity of clinical neurologic signs, and presence of microscopic lesions. Seroconversion of challenged horses was observed as early as 14 days postinfection in the 10(6) sporocyst dose group. Mild to moderate clinical signs of neurologic disease were produced in challenged horses from all groups, with the most consistent signs seen in the 10(6) sporocyst dose group. Histologic lesions suggestive of S. neurona infection were detected in 4 of the 20 horses fed sporocysts. Parasites were not detected in equine tissues by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, or bioassay in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice. Control horses remained seronegative for the duration of the study and had no histologic evidence of protozoal infection.

  18. Change in blood antioxidant status of horses moved from a stable following diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Delguste, Catherine; de Moffarts, Brieuc; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Art, Tatiana; Pincemail, Joël; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Amory, Hélène; Lekeux, Pierre

    2007-11-01

    The antioxidant status of 10 horses living in stable 1 where 2 cases of equine motor neuron disease had previously been diagnosed was assessed before and 9 weeks after moving to another stable. Duration of residence in stable 1, subsequent moving, or both, significantly affected several parameters of the antioxidant status.

  19. Prevalence, survival analysis and multimorbidity of chronic diseases in the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Claire E; Duz, Marco; Parkin, Timothy D H; Marshall, John F

    2016-09-01

    The average age of the global human population is increasing, leading to increased interest in the effects of chronic disease and multimorbidity on health resources and patient welfare. It has been posited that the average age of the general veterinarian-attended horse population of the UK is also increasing, and therefore it could be assumed that chronic diseases and multimorbidity would pose an increasing risk here also. However, evidence for this trend in ageing is very limited, and the current prevalence of many chronic diseases, and of multimorbidity, is unknown. Using text mining of first-opinion electronic medical records from seven veterinary practices around the UK, Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard modelling, we were able to estimate the apparent prevalence among veterinarian-attended horses of nine chronic diseases, and to assess their relative effects on median life expectancy following diagnosis. With these methods we found evidence of increasing population age. Multimorbidity affected 1.2% of the study population, and had a significant effect upon survival times, with co-occurrence of two diseases, and three or more diseases, leading to 6.6 and 21.3 times the hazard ratio compared to no chronic disease, respectively. Laminitis was involved in 74% of cases of multimorbidity. The population of horses attended by UK veterinarians appears to be aging, and chronic diseases and their co-occurrence are common features, and as such warrant further investigation.

  20. Influence of disease process and duration on acute phase proteins in serum and peritoneal fluid of horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Pihl, T H; Scheepers, E; Sanz, M; Goddard, A; Page, P; Toft, N; Andersen, P H; Jacobsen, S

    2015-01-01

    The acute phase proteins (APP) serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, and fibrinogen are valuable blood biomarkers in equine inflammatory diseases, but knowledge of factors influencing their concentrations in blood and peritoneal fluid (PF) of horses with colic is needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of demographics (age, sex, breed), disease process (simple obstruction, strangulating obstruction, inflammatory), disease location, disease duration, hypovolemia, and admission hospital on concentrations of APP, lactate and white blood cell counts (WBC) in horses with colic admitted to 2 referral hospitals. The study included 367 horses with colic admitted at 2 referral hospitals. Prospective multicenter observational study of clinical data, as well as blood and PF biomarkers. Associations between biomarker concentrations and clinical variables were analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis. Increasing pre-admission duration of colic was associated with increased concentrations of APP in blood and PF. Blood concentrations of SAA and fibrinogen were associated with disease process (inflammatory, strangulations, simple obstructions) in more colic duration groups (5-12 and >24 hours) than any of the other biomarkers. No relevant associations between demographic factors, hospital, or hydration status and the measured biomarkers were found. In horses with colic, concentrations of APP are associated mainly with disease process and duration of colic and may thus be used for assessment of disease independently of demographic or geographic factors. Serum amyloid A may be a diagnostic marker for use in colic differential diagnosis, but further evaluation is needed. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Ionized calcium concentration in horses with surgically managed gastrointestinal disease: 147 cases (1988-1990).

    PubMed

    Dart, A J; Snyder, J R; Spier, S J; Sullivan, K E

    1992-10-15

    Packed cell volume, total plasma protein, serum sodium, potassium, and ionized Ca2+ concentrations, and blood pH were determined at the time of admission and following surgery in 147 horses with acute abdominal crisis. Horses were allotted to 3 categories on the basis of the surgical lesion: (1) nonstrangulating obstruction of the ascending or descending colon (category A, n = 76), (2) strangulating and nonstrangulating infarction of the cecum or ascending colon (category B, n = 37), and (3) strangulating and nonstrangulating infarction of the small intestine (category C, n = 25). Horses with low serum ionized Ca2+ concentration following surgery were given 23% calcium gluconate (100 to 300 ml) IV to effect, and ionized Ca2+ concentration was determined following treatment. The serum ionized Ca2+ concentrations of horses in categories A, B, and C before and after surgery were lower than our normal laboratory reference range. Prior to surgery, serum ionized Ca2+ concentration measured from horses in category B and C was lower than that in horses in category A. There was no difference in ionized Ca2+ concentration in serum samples obtained before surgery in horses from category B and C, and in serum samples obtained following surgery. There was a decrease in ionized Ca2+ concentration during surgery in horses in category A. There was no change between preoperative and postoperative ionized Ca2+ concentration in the samples obtained from horses in category B and C. After calcium gluconate administration, all horses with low serum ionized Ca2+ after surgery had concentrations within our normal range. Measurement of serum ionized Ca2+ in horses with an acute abdominal crisis is recommended.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection (pigeon fever) in horses an emerging disease in western Canada?

    PubMed

    Corbeil, Louise E; Morrissey, Jennifer F; Léguillette, Renaud

    2016-10-01

    This report describes 5 horses in the southern Alberta region with typical and atypical external abscessation due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (pigeon fever). "Pigeon fever" has recently been diagnosed in new geographic regions in North America and should be kept as a differential diagnosis by practitioners when an external or internal abscess is identified in a horse.

  3. Is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis infection (pigeon fever) in horses an emerging disease in western Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, Louise E.; Morrissey, Jennifer K.; Léguillette, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    This report describes 5 horses in the southern Alberta region with typical and atypical external abscessation due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (pigeon fever). “Pigeon fever” has recently been diagnosed in new geographic regions in North America and should be kept as a differential diagnosis by practitioners when an external or internal abscess is identified in a horse. PMID:27708444

  4. Water hardness in relation to cadium accumulation and microscopic signs of cardiovascular disease in horses.

    PubMed

    Elinder, C G; Jonsson, L; Sternström, T; Piscator, M; Linnman, L

    1980-01-01

    The hardness of drinking water (i.e., the sum of calcium and magnesium concentrations) has been related to cadmium concentration in kidney cortex and to microscopic signs of arteriosclerosis and focal myocardial fibrosis in 50 Swedish horses slaughtered for meat production. A significant negative correlation was found between water hardness and cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex. This indicates that horses living in soft water areas are more inclined to accumulate cadmium from the general environment. Microscopic changes in the aorta and myocardium were approximately 2 times as frequent in horses that drank soft water compared to horses that drank hard water. The differences were, however, not statistically significant. It is concluded that horses are well suited for studies of the "water factor".

  5. The accuracy of the National Equine Database in relation to vector-borne disease risk modelling of horses in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Robin, C A; Lo Iacono, G; Gubbins, S; Wood, J L N; Newton, J R

    2013-05-01

    The National Equine Database (NED) contains information on the size and distribution of the horse population, but the data quality remains unknown. These data could assist with surveillance, research and contingency planning for equine infectious disease outbreaks. 1) To assess the extent of obsolete and missing data from NED, 2) evaluate the extent of spatial separation between horse and owner location and 3) identify relationships between spatial separation and land use. Two questionnaires were used to assess data accuracy in NED utilising local authority passport inspections and distribution of questionnaires to 11,000 horse owners. A subset of 1010 questionnaires was used to assess horse-owner geographic separation. During 2005-2010, 17,048 passports were checked through local authority inspections. Of these, 1558 passports (9.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.7-9.5%) were noncompliant, with 963 (5.6%; 95% CI 5.3-6.0%) containing inaccurate information and 595 (3.5%; 95% CI 3.2-3.8%) classified as missing. Of 1382 questionnaires completed by horse owners, 380 passports were obsolete (27.5%; 95% CI 25.2-29.9%), with 162 (11.7%; 95% CI 10.0-13.4%) being retained for deceased horses and 218 (15.8%; 95% CI 13.9-17.7%) having incorrect ownership details. Fifty-three per cent (95% CI 49.9-56.1%) of owners kept their horse(s) at home and 92% (95% CI 90.3-93.7%) of horses resided within 10 km of their owners. Data from a small sample survey suggest the majority of data on NED are accurate but a proportion of inaccuracies exist that may cause delay in locating horses and contacting owners during a disease outbreak. The probability that horses are located in the same postcode sector as the owner's home address is larger in rural areas. Appropriate adjustment for population size, horse-owner spatial separation and land usage would facilitate meaningful use of the national horse population derived from NED for risk modelling of incursions of equine diseases into Great

  6. [Pulmonary artery wedge pressure and heart rate measurement during pharmacological stress induction for left cardial function diagnosis in horses with and without heart disease].

    PubMed

    Gehlen, H; Groner, U; Rohn, K; Stadler, P

    2006-07-01

    In 18 horses, the pulmonary artery wedge pressure and the heart rate were measured during pharmacological stress load. 12 horses were healthy (4 trained, 8 untrained) and 6 horses had a heart disease (3 trained, 3 untrained). Pharmacological stress induction was carried out with the sympathomimetic drug dobutamine at a dosage rate of 7.5 microg/kg/min over 10 minutes of infusion. At the fourth minute, the parasympatholytic drug atropine was administered (5 microg/kg bw), and the heart rate and the pulmonary artery wedge pressure were continuously measured over 26 minutes. During sole dobutamine infusion, a significant decrease in heart rate and a significant increase in pulmonary artery wedge pressure were observed. After the application of atropine in the fourth minute, a significant increase in heart rate (from 35.7 +/- 6 up to 106 +/- 38/ min) and in pulmonary artery wedge pressure (from 15.7 +/- 3 up to 24 +/- 8.6 mmHg) were visible in the group of healthy horses. The horses with heart diseases had a significantly higher increase in both parameters (heart rate and pulmonary artery wedge pressure) with a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.7). The heart rate increased in the horses with heart diseases from 35.2 +/- 2,8 beats/min up to 132 +/- 45.7 beats/min and the pulmonary artery wedge pressure increased from 17.3 +/- 3,2 mmHg up to 32.7 +/- 13 mmHg. The cardiac status (healthy or heart disease) as well as the training level of the horses (untrained or trained) had a significant influence on the heart rate and the pulmonary artery wedge pressure. The untrained horses (healthy and heart disease) showed significantly higher values over a longer period of time than did the trained horses with the same cardiac status. Additionally the influence of pharmacological stress induction on echocardiographic parameters was investigated. The left atrial size (p = 0.015) and left ventricular diameter were significanly different in the systole (p = 0.008) and in the

  7. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against horse immunoglobulins useful for the diagnosis of equine diseases.

    PubMed

    Di Febo, Tiziana; Luciani, Mirella; Ciarelli, Antonella; Bortone, Grazia; Di Pancrazio, Chiara; Rodomonti, Diamante; Teodori, Liana; Tittarelli, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against horse IgG were produced by immunizing Balb/c mice with purified horse IgG and were characterized in indirect ELISA versus purified immunoglobulins from donkey, cow, buffalo, sheep, pig, and chicken. Three MAbs (1B10B6C9, 1B10B6C10, 1B10B6E9) reacted only with horse and donkey IgG and IgM and, in western blotting, were specific for the Fc fragment of equine IgG. MAb 1B10B6E9 was used in chemiluminescent immunoblotting assay for the diagnosis of dourine and in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the diagnosis of African horse sickness and dourine.

  8. Ticks and tick-borne disease in Guatemalan cattle and horses.

    PubMed

    Teglas, Mike; Matern, Erin; Lein, Sarah; Foley, Patrick; Mahan, Suman M; Foley, Janet

    2005-07-15

    Blood samples and ticks were collected from 48 cattle and 74 horses from seven sites in the Peten region of Guatemala. Data on body condition, mucous membrane capillary refill time and tick infestation levels were recorded for each animal in the study. Horses had significantly higher levels of tick infestation than cattle, as well as poorer body condition scores. Seroprevalence of Babesia spp. was 95.8% for B. bovis in cattle, 89.6% for B. bigemina in cattle, and 92.7% for B. equi in horses. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in cattle was 87.5%, similar to reports in animals from other regions of Central America. This is the first time that A. phagocytophilum has been reported in animals from this region, with overall PCR-prevalence of 27.6% in cattle and horses, and seroprevalence of 28.4% (52% in cattle and 13% in horses). An agent was identified with serological cross-reactivity and close genetic relatedness to Ehrlichia ruminantium, but further testing confirmed that the agent in Guatemalan cows was not the agent of heartwater. Ticks were identified to species with the predominant species identified on cattle as Boophilus microplus and Amblyomma cajennense, while Anocentor nitens and A. cajennense were most commonly found on horses. Prevalence of infection, tick infestation levels, host factors and environmental data were analyzed for association; A. nitens was significantly associated with A. phagocytophilum prevalence by village.

  9. Plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentrations and clinical response in horses treated for equine Cushing's disease with cyproheptadine or pergolide.

    PubMed

    Perkins, G A; Lamb, S; Erb, H N; Schanbacher, B; Nydam, D V; Divers, T J

    2002-11-01

    Plasma ACTH levels have been variable in horses with a positive clinical response for therapy for equine Cushing's Disease (ECD). Therefore, our purpose was to determine the value of monitoring plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels during treatment of equine Cushing's disease (ECD) with either cyproheptadine (n = 32) or pergolide (n = 10). First, we validated the chemiluminescent ACTH assay (specificity, precision, accuracy, intra-assay and interassay variations) and tested methods of handling the whole blood from the time of collection to when the ACTH was assayed. The sensitivity and specificity of high plasma ACTH levels for detecting ECD was determined in a retrospective study on hospitalised horses (n = 68). Surveys were sent to veterinarians who submitted equine ACTH levels that were high initially and had at least 2 ACTH samples to determine the value of monitoring ACTH levels during therapy of ECD. The ACTH chemiluminescent assay was valid. The ACTH was stable when whole blood was collected and held in plastic tubes for 8 h before separating the plasma. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma ACTH levels for detecting ECD were 84% (n = 19,95% CI 60,97) and 78% (n = 49,95% CI 63,88), respectively. Treated horses generally showed a decrease in plasma ACTH. Plasma ACTH levels may be helpful when monitoring therapy of ECD, although improvement in clinical signs should be considered most important. There were no differences between cyproheptadine and pergolide in terms of improvements in any of the clinical signs.

  10. First isolation of Bunyamwera virus (Bunyaviridae family) from horses with neurological disease and an abortion in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Laura B; Rivarola, Maria E; Lucca, Eduardo; Mariño, Betina; Mazzini, Rubén; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Barrandeguy, María Edith; Teixeira Nunes, Marcio Roberto; Contigiani, Marta S

    2015-10-01

    Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) is the prototype virus for both the Orthobunyavirus genus and the Bunyaviridae family. Different strains of BUNV have been associated with clinical diseases in domestic animals, mainly ruminants. During 2013, in Argentina's Santa Fe Province, three new isolates of BUNV were recovered from the brain and spleen of two horses with encephalitis, and from the brain of an aborted equine fetus. This isolation of BUNV from domestic animals provided the first association of BUNV infection with disease of the central nervous system and abortion in equines in Argentina.

  11. Transmission of equine infectious anemia virus from horses without clinical signs of disease.

    PubMed

    Issel, C J; Adams, W V; Meek, L; Ochoa, R

    1982-02-01

    Twenty seven adult horses positive to the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for equine infectious anemia (EIA), but with no history of clinical EIA, were used in transfusion studies to determine whether infectious EIA virus was present in 1 to 5 ml of their blood. Of 27 recipients, 21 (78%) became AGID test-positive at an average of 24 days after inoculation. Two horses that were initially negative when screened were retested and found to carry infectious virus in 5-300 ml of whole blood; the other 4 horses were not retested. Horse flies (Tabanus fuscicostatus Hine) were unable to transmit EIA virus from 10 AGID test-positive donors with no history of clinical EIA, but virus was transmitted from a pony with artificially induced acute EIA and from a horse that had recovered from a clinical attack of EIA 9 months earlier. Histopathologic changes indicative of EIA were noted in all test-positive recipients. The most consistent lesion was paracortical lymphoid hyperplasia in the splenic lymph node.

  12. Upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota in horses: bacterial communities associated with health and mild asthma (inflammatory airway disease) and effects of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Bond, Stephanie L; Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Alexander, Trevor; Léguillette, Renaud

    2017-08-23

    The microbial composition of the equine respiratory tract, and differences due to mild equine asthma (also called Inflammatory Airway Disease (IAD)) have not been reported. The primary treatment for control of IAD in horses are corticosteroids. The objectives were to characterize the upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota associated with respiratory health and IAD, and to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on these bacterial communities using high throughput sequencing. The respiratory microbiota of horses was dominated by four major phyla, Proteobacteria (43.85%), Actinobacteria (21.63%), Firmicutes (16.82%), and Bacteroidetes (13.24%). Fifty genera had a relative abundance > 0.1%, with Sphingomonas and Pantoea being the most abundant. The upper and lower respiratory tract microbiota differed in healthy horses, with a decrease in richness in the lower airways, and 2 OTUs that differed in abundance. There was a separation between bacterial communities in the lower respiratory tract of healthy and IAD horses; 6 OTUs in the tracheal community had different abundance with disease status, with Streptococcus being increased in IAD horses. Treatment with dexamethasone had an effect on the lower respiratory tract microbiota of both heathy and IAD horses, with 8 OTUs increasing in abundance (including Streptococcus) and 1 OTU decreasing. The lower respiratory tract microbiota differed between healthy and IAD horses. Further research on the role of Streptococcus in IAD is warranted. Dexamethasone treatment affected the lower respiratory tract microbiota, which suggests that control of bacterial overgrowth in IAD horses treated with dexamethasone could be part of the treatment strategy.

  13. Seasonal changes in circadian peripheral plasma concentrations of melatonin, serotonin, dopamine and cortisol in aged horses with Cushing's disease under natural photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Haritou, S J A; Zylstra, R; Ralli, C; Turner, S; Tortonese, D J

    2008-08-01

    Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is a common and serious condition that gives rise to Cushing's disease. In the older horse, it results in hyperadrenocorticism and disrupted energy metabolism, the severity of which varies with the time of year. To gain insight into the mechanism of its pathogenesis, 24-h profiles for peripheral plasma melatonin, serotonin, dopamine and cortisol concentrations were determined at the winter and summer solstices, and the autumn and spring equinoxes in six horses diagnosed with Cushing's disease and six matched controls. The nocturnal rises in plasma melatonin concentrations, although different across seasons, were broadly of the same duration and similar amplitude in both groups of animals (P > 0.05). The plasma concentrations of cortisol did not show seasonal variation and were different in diseased horses only in the summer when they were higher across the entire 24-h period (P < 0.05). Serotonin concentrations were not significantly affected by time of year but tended to be lower in Cushingoid horses (P = 0.07). By contrast, dopamine output showed seasonal variation and was significantly lower in the Cushing's group in the summer and autumn (P < 0.05). The finding that the profiles of circulating melatonin are similar in Cushingoid and control horses reveals that the inability to read time of year by animals suffering from Cushing's syndrome is an unlikely reason for the disease. In addition, the results provide evidence that alterations in the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems may participate in the pathogenesis of PPID.

  14. Monitoring and evaluating the physiological changes in the horse with acute abdominal disease.

    PubMed

    Coffman, J R

    1975-03-01

    but are benefical in many instances through improved peripheral perfusion of organs provided circulating volume is adequate, i.e., early in acute abdominal disease prior to development of circulatory insufficiency. They should not be administered if immediate surgery is contemplated because of hypotensive effects. The administration of oral antibiotics (Neomycin) early in the course of the disease is encouraged. This is contra-indicated if the horse is already toxic, when it should receive parenteral antibiotics, preferably chloromycetin. Tetracyclines may predispose to the later development of salmonella diarrhoea. Absolute analgesia should be provided; our preference is the magnesium sulphate-chloral hydrate solutions. Administration of mineral oil is desirable in initiation of peristalsis, depression of Gram-negative overgrowth and softening of impactioning obstructions but nothing should be administered per os if the stomach has required decompression.

  15. Relationships between equine airway reactivity measured by flowmetric plethysmography and specific indicators of airway inflammation in horses with suspected inflammatory airway disease.

    PubMed

    Wichtel, M; Gomez, D; Burton, S; Wichtel, J; Hoffman, A

    2016-07-01

    Agreement between airway reactivity measured by flowmetric plethysmography and histamine bronchoprovocation, and lower airway inflammation measured by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology, has not been studied in horses with suspected inflammatory airway disease (IAD). We tested the hypothesis that airway reactivity is associated with BAL cytology in horses presenting for unexplained poor performance and/or chronic cough. Prospective clinical study. Forty-five horses, predominantly young Standardbred racehorses, presenting for unexplained poor performance or chronic cough, underwent endoscopic evaluation, tracheal wash, flowmetric plethysmography with histamine bronchoprovocation and BAL. Histamine response was measured by calculating PC35, the concentration of nebulised histamine eliciting an increase in Δflow of 35%. In this population, there was no significant correlation between histamine response and cell populations in BAL cytology. When airway hyperreactivity (AHR) was defined as ≥35% increase in Δflow at a histamine concentration of <6 mg/ml, 24 of the 45 horses (53%) were determined to have AHR. Thirty-three (73%) had either abnormal BAL cytology or AHR, and were diagnosed with IAD on this basis. Of horses diagnosed with IAD, 9 (27%) had an abnormal BAL, 11 (33%) had AHR and 13 (39%) had both. Airway reactivity and BAL cytology did not show concordance in this population of horses presenting for unexplained poor performance and/or chronic cough. Failure to include tests of airway reactivity may lead to underdiagnosis of IAD in young Standardbred racehorses that present with clinical signs suggestive of IAD. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Genetic mapping of GBE1 and its association with glycogen storage disease IV in American Quarter horses.

    PubMed

    Ward, T L; Valberg, S J; Lear, T L; Guérin, G; Milenkovic, D; Swinburne, J E; Binns, M M; Raudsepp, T; Skow, L; Chowdhary, B P; Mickelson, J R

    2003-01-01

    Comparative biochemical and histopathological data suggest that a deficiency in the glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) is responsible for a fatal neonatal disease in Quarter Horse foals that closely resembles human glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV). Identification of DNA markers closely linked to the equine GBE1 gene would assist us in determining whether a mutation in this gene leads to the GSD IV-like condition. FISH using BAC clones as probes assigned the equine GBE1 gene to a marker deficient region of ECA26q12-->q13. Four other genes, ROBO2, ROBO1, POU1F1, and HTR1F, that flank GBE1 within a 10-Mb segment of HSA3p12-->p11, were tightly linked to equine GBE1 when analyzed on the Texas A&M University 5000 rad equine radiation hybrid panel, while the GLB1, MITF, RYBP, and PROS1 genes that flank this 10-Mb interval were not linked with markers in the GBE1 group. A polymorphic microsatellite (GBEms1) in a GBE1 BAC clone was then identified and genetically mapped to ECA26 on the Animal Health Trust full-sibling equine reference family. All Quarter Horse foals affected with GSD IV were homozygous for an allele of GBEms1, as well as an allele of the most closely linked microsatellite marker, while a control horse population showed significant allelic variation with these markers. This data provides strong molecular genetic support for the candidacy of the GBE1 locus in equine GSD IV.

  17. Isolation of Saint Louis Encephalitis Virus from a Horse with Neurological Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Roberta; Costa, Erica Azevedo; Marques, Rafael Elias; Oliveira, Taismara Simas; Furtini, Ronaldo; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Quaresma; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Paixão, Tatiane Alves; Santos, Renato Lima

    2013-01-01

    St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a causative agent of encephalitis in humans in the Western hemisphere. SLEV is a positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Flavivirus genus, which includes West Nile encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus and other medically important viruses. Recently, we isolated a SLEV strain from the brain of a horse with neurological signs in the countryside of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The SLEV isolation was confirmed by reverse-transcription RT-PCR and sequencing of the E protein gene. Virus identity was also confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using commercial antibodies against SLEV. To characterize this newly isolated strain in vivo, serial passages in newborn mice were performed and led to hemorrhagic manifestations associated with recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system of newborns. In summary this is the first isolation of SLEV from a horse with neurological signs in Brazil. PMID:24278489

  18. Use of antimicrobials in the treatment of reproductive diseases in cattle and horses.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S; Taponen, J; Katila, T

    2014-09-01

    Use of antimicrobials for veterinary indications related to reproduction in cattle and horses is reviewed. Antimicrobial compounds are widely used to treat and prevent infections of reproductive organs. Total amounts of antimicrobials for such purposes, estimated by weight, are low compared with major uses in food animals. The most common reproduction-related indication in cattle is mastitis. The number of intramammary products available for treatment of mastitis in the European Union is high. Metritis and endometritis also require antimicrobial treatment of cattle and specific products for intrauterine administration are available. The traditions and practices associated with the use of these products vary considerably among different countries. Parenteral antimicrobial treatment is used to treat acute clinical mastitis and puerperal metritis. Pharmacological characteristics of the antimicrobial administered parenterally are critical to achieve and maintain therapeutic concentrations in the target organs. In mares, the most common indications associated with reproduction are endometritis, retained placenta and placentitis. The number of authorized antimicrobial products for horses is limited. Horses are treated individually and off-label use of antimicrobials is very common. In veterinary indications related to reproduction, treatment practices exist that cannot be considered to be evidence-based or responsible use of antimicrobials. Not all products for local treatment have proven efficacy data. Examples of unnecessary uses are routine treatment of cows with retained placenta and use of post-breeding antibiotic treatments in mares.

  19. Effect of vaccination against leptospirosis on the frequency, days to recurrence and progression of disease in horses with equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Barton W; Ward, Daniel A; Hendrix, Diane V H; Cawrse-Foss, Margaret; Moyers, Tammy D

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of vaccination against leptospirosis on frequency and days to recurrence of uveitis and progression of disease in horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU). Forty-one horses with ERU. Horses were randomly assigned to experimental (vaccinated) or control groups. Vaccine containing six serovars of Leptospira or placebo was administered, an ophthalmic examination performed and blood samples drawn on days 0, 28, 180 and 365. Antibody titers were measured against each serovar. Recurrence of uveitis was verified by ophthalmic examination. Results of the initial and final ophthalmic examinations were compared and progression of disease defined as an increase in extent of synechiae, or development of new or progression of an existing cataract. Vaccination increased the average geometric mean serum antibody titer from 225 on day 0, to 4077 and 593 on days 28 and 180, respectively. After the second vaccination, days to first recurrence was significantly longer (median 126 days; range 24-231 days) when compared with controls (median 86 days; range 14-192 days, P=0.04). Recurrence of ERU was observed among 7/20 (35%) vaccinated horses and 12/21 (57%) controls; however, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.061, OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.06, 1.07). More horses in the experimental group 13/20 (65%) experienced progression of disease when compared with controls 12/21(57%); however, this difference was statistically nonsignificant (P=0.35). Vaccine significantly increased days to recurrence, but failed to slow the progression of disease. These data do not support the use of vaccination against leptospirosis as adjunct therapy for the routine treatment of horses with ERU.

  20. Computed tomographic evaluation of head diseases in the horse: 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Tietje, S; Becker, M; Böckenhoff, G

    1996-03-01

    The rapid development of software and technology now allows a large amount of diagnostic information to be obtained from a computed tomographic examination. This imaging technique can also be usefully applied to the horse, given appropriate premises and a custom built table for accurate positioning. Computed tomography of the skull has considerable advantages over other techniques, as structures are viewed without superimposition. Fifteen cases are used to demonstrate how through high image quality (precise detail, reduction in artefacts) and objective measurement of density, various pathological changes can be analysed and exact diagnoses achieved. In particular, short measurement and examination times allow preoperative imaging under general anaesthesia giving significant information to assist subsequent surgery.

  1. Role of Antioxidants in Horse Serum-mediated Vasculitis in Swine: Potential Relevance to Early Treatment in Mitigation of Coronary Arteritis in Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Philip, Saji; Lee, Wen-Chuan; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lue, Hung-Chi

    2017-08-01

    Horse serum-induced immune complex coronary vasculitis in swine is the first experimental model to mimic most of the pictures of Kawasaki disease. Immune complex mechanism has been implicated as one of the possible mechanisms in the pathogenesis of vasculitis in Kawasaki disease. Antioxidants have a significant role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases in both human and animal studies. We tried giving vitamins A, E, and C to treat immune complex vasculitis, in the hope of mitigating coronary vasculitis in Kawasaki disease. Our study group consisted of 30 pure bred male piglets of 2-3 months of age, and they were divided into test and control groups. The test (AEC) group (n = 20) received two doses of horse serum, 10 mL (0.65 g protein)/kg body weight at 5-day intervals, and oral vitamins A, E, and C once daily for 14 days. The control group (n = 10) was further divided into the saline group (n = 3) receiving two doses of normal saline and the horse serum group (n = 7) receiving two doses of horse serum at 5-day intervals. Piglets were observed for the rashes and coronary artery dimensions. Both the AEC and the control horse serum group developed rashes after horse serum infusions, but the AEC group developed significantly fewer rashes, and no rashes were seen in the saline group. The control horse serum group (mean ± standard deviation = 2.13 ± 0.72) showed significant coronary artery dilatation, whereas there was no significant dilatation in the AEC group (mean ± standard deviation = 0.81 ± 0.58) or the control saline group (p = 0.002). Serum sickness is a prototype of immune complex vasculitis, and the severity can be ameliorated with antioxidants. A trial of therapeutic dosages of vitamins A, E, and C in acute phase of Kawasaki disease, may be effective in mitigation of coronary artery lesion in addition to intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A signature of tree health? Shifts in the microbiome and the ecological drivers of horse chestnut bleeding canker disease.

    PubMed

    Koskella, Britt; Meaden, Sean; Crowther, William J; Leimu, Roosa; Metcalf, C Jessica E

    2017-07-01

    Host susceptibility to pathogens can be shaped by genetic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. The ability to predict the spread of disease therefore requires an integrated understanding of these factors, including effects of pests on pathogen growth and competition between pathogens and commensal microbiota for host resources. We examined interactions between the leaf-mining moth Cameraria ohridella, the bacterial causal agent of bleeding canker disease Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi, and the bark-associated microbiota of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. Through surveys of > 900 trees from 60 sites in the UK, we tested for ecological or life history predictors of leaf miner infestation, bleeding canker, or coinfection. Using culture-independent sequencing, we then compared the bark microbiomes from 46 trees to measure the association between microbiome composition and key ecological variables, including the severity of disease. Both pest and pathogen were found to respond to tree characteristics, but neither explained damage inflicted by the other. However, we found a clear loss of microbial diversity and associated shift in microbiome composition of trees as a function of disease. These results show a link between bark-associated microbiota and tree health that introduces the intriguing possibility that tree microbiota play key roles in the spread of disease. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Diagnostic evaluation and short-term outcome as indicators of long-term prognosis in horses with findings suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease treated with corticosteroids and anthelmintics.

    PubMed

    Kaikkonen, Ritva; Niinistö, Kati; Sykes, Benjamin; Anttila, Marjukka; Sankari, Satu; Raekallio, Marja

    2014-06-03

    Recurrent colic and unexplained weight loss despite good appetite and adequate feeding and management practices are common conditions in the horse. However, little information has been published on the systematic diagnostic evaluation, response to treatment, prognostic factors or outcome of either presentation. The aims of this study were to 1) identify possible prognostic indicators and 2) report the short- and long-term response to treatment with corticosteroid therapy of a variety of horses with a presumptive diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thirty-six horses with a history of recurrent colic and/or unexplained weight loss were screened with a detailed clinical, clinicopathological and diagnostic imaging examination. Twenty horses were subsequently selected that had findings consistent with inflammatory bowel disease based on the fulfilment of one or more of the following additional inclusion criteria: hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, malabsorption, an increased intestinal wall thickness on ultrasonographic examination or histopathological changes in rectal biopsy. These 20 horses were treated with a standardized larvicidal anthelmintic regime and a minimum of three weeks of corticosteroid therapy. The initial response to treatment was good in 75% (15/20) of horses, with a 3-year survival rate of 65% (13/20). The overall 3-year survival in horses that responded to initial treatment (12/15) was significantly higher (P = 0.031) than in those that did not respond to initial treatment (1/5). The peak xylose concentration was significantly (P = 0.048) higher in survivors (1.36 ± 0.44 mmol/L) than non-survivors (0.94 ± 0.36 mmol/L). The overall prognosis for long-term survival in horses with a presumptive diagnosis of IBD appears to be fair to moderate, and the initial response to anthelmintic and corticosteroid therapy could be a useful prognostic indicator. The findings of the present study suggest that a low peak xylose

  4. Seasonal Changes in Circadian Peripheral Plasma Concentrations of Melatonin, Serotonin, Dopamine and Cortisol in Aged Horses with Cushing’s Disease under Natural Photoperiod

    PubMed Central

    Haritou, S J A; Zylstra, R; Ralli, C; Turner, S; Tortonese, D J

    2008-01-01

    Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is a common and serious condition that gives rise to Cushing’s disease. In the older horse, it results in hyperadrenocorticism and disrupted energy metabolism, the severity of which varies with the time of year. To gain insight into the mechanism of its pathogenesis, 24-h profiles for peripheral plasma melatonin, serotonin, dopamine and cortisol concentrations were determined at the winter and summer solstices, and the autumn and spring equinoxes in six horses diagnosed with Cushing’s disease and six matched controls. The nocturnal rises in plasma melatonin concentrations, although different across seasons, were broadly of the same duration and similar amplitude in both groups of animals (P > 0.05). The plasma concentrations of cortisol did not show seasonal variation and were different in diseased horses only in the summer when they were higher across the entire 24-h period (P < 0.05). Serotonin concentrations were not significantly affected by time of year but tended to be lower in Cushingoid horses (P = 0.07). By contrast, dopamine output showed seasonal variation and was significantly lower in the Cushing’s group in the summer and autumn (P < 0.05). The finding that the profiles of circulating melatonin are similar in Cushingoid and control horses reveals that the inability to read time of year by animals suffering from Cushing’s syndrome is an unlikely reason for the disease. In addition, the results provide evidence that alterations in the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems may participate in the pathogenesis of PPID. PMID:18540997

  5. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Safety? The unprocessed seeds, leaves, bark, and flowers of horse chestnut contain esculin, which is poisonous ... Know the Science: 9 Questions To Help You Make Sense of Health Research NCCIH Clearinghouse The NCCIH ...

  6. Fossil Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFadden, Bruce J.

    1994-06-01

    The family Equidae have an extensive fossil record spanning the past 58 million years, and the evolution of the horse has frequently been used as a classic example of long-term evolution. In recent years, however, there have been many important discoveries of fossil horses, and these, in conjunction with such new methods as cladistics, and techniques such as precise geochronology, have allowed us to achieve a much greater understanding of the evolution and biology of this important group. This book synthesizes the large body of data and research relevant to an understanding of fossil horses from several disciplines including biology, geology and paleontology. Using horses as the central theme, the author weaves together in the text such topics as modern geochronology, paleobiogeography, climate change, evolution and extinction, functional morphology, and population biology during the Cenozoic period. This book will be exciting reading for researchers and graduate students in vertebrate paleontology, evolution, and zoology.

  7. Hyperelastosis in the Horse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equine hyperelastosis cutis, also known as dermatosporaxis and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (HERDA), is an autosomal recessive inheritable disease and has been reported in Thoroughbreds, Morgans, Haflingers , Hanoverians, a Swiss Warmblood, a mule and several Arabian cross horses in the United Kingdom, U...

  8. The effects of three models of airway disease on tidal breathing flow-volume loops of thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, A J; Beadle, R E; Bateman, R D; White, C E

    1995-01-01

    The effects of histamine and methacholine aerosols and of a fixed inspiratory resistance on tidal breathing flow-volume loops (TBFVL) were investigated using 18 unsedated, standing, healthy thoroughbred horses. The data were first analysed using traditional flow-volume loop indices and then reduced using standardized factor scoring coefficients obtained in a previous study in this laboratory using similar experimental techniques. On the basis of resting TBFVL analysis, the degree of pulmonary dysfunction caused by inhalation of histamine and methacholine aerosols with concentrations of 10 and 2 mg/ml, respectively, was similar. The fixed resistance also caused significant changes in the resting spirogram and TBFVL indices, suggesting that this model may prove valuable for further studies involving upper respiratory tract (URT) conditions. Administration of histamine and methacholine aerosols resulted in significant changes in all factor scores, although most of the observed changes were due to the effects of these aerosols on the respiratory rate. These findings re-emphasize the importance of the effects of respiratory rate on pulmonary mechanics. Application of the resistance resulted in significant changes in factor score 3, the 'inspiratory' factor, which lends support to the validity of this model for URT conditions. The close agreement between the factor scores obtained under controlled conditions in this study and in a previous study in this laboratory confirms that the factor analysis used for both of these studies provides an adequate means of reducing TBFVL data obtained from thoroughbred horses. The large intra- and inter-individual variation observed both with the indices of TBFVL and with the factor scores limits the potential of these variables for detecting individual animals with obstructive airway disease. Re-evaluation of these indices under the stress of exercise may reduce the variability observed in these data and may increase the magnitude of

  9. [The effectiveness of romifidine on myocardial function in horses with and without heart disease, evaluated with M-mode echocardiography and PW-tissue Doppler imaging].

    PubMed

    Nagel, Deborah; Gehlen, Heidrun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent the myocardial function in horses (measured by PW-tissue Doppler = PW-TDI) is affected during a sedation with romifidine (0.04 mg/kg, i. v.), particularly in case of an accompanying heart disease. Based on an echo- and electrocardiographic examination, a total of 45 horses was subdivided into group 1 (no heart disease), group 2 (heart disease without increased heart dimensions) and group 3 (heart disease with increased heart dimensions). Heart rate (HF), M-mode- (FS%) and TDI-measurements were performed before and after the application of romifidine. The velocities of the radial myocardial movement in the left and right ventricular wall were evaluated using PW-TDI. The TDI parameters included the isovolumic contraction (IVC), the systolic (S) as well as the early (E) and late diastolic maximal velocity (A). After the application of romifidine HF and FS were significantly decreased in all groups. IVC, S and E, determined by PW-TDI were also significantly decreased in both ventricular walls. A significant difference between groups was shown for the isovolumic contraction in the left ventricular wall. This was observed distinctly more in horses with heart disease and increased heart dimensions compared to horses with heart disease but no increased heart dimensions. The results of the study indicate that PW-TDI is a suitable imaging technique to analyse the effects of romifidine on equine myocardial function. The major percentage change after application of romifidine for TDI measurements compared to the M-mode parameters indicate that the parameter myocardial velocity measured with TDI appeared to be the most sensitive parameter to document romifidine--induced changes on the myocardium.

  10. Starry sky hepatic ultrasonographic pattern in horses.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kelly L; Chaffin, M Keith; Corapi, Wayne V; Snowden, Karen F; Schmitz, David G

    2011-01-01

    The starry sky hepatic pattern is an unusual ultrasonographic appearance of equine liver characterized by numerous small, hyperechoic foci, some of which cast an acoustic shadow, distributed randomly throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Our objectives were to describe the signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathological findings, primary disease process, and ultrasonographic findings of horses with this ultrasonographic pattern, as well as determine the associated gross and histologic changes. The starry sky pattern was identified in 18 adult horses of mixed gender and breed. The horses had various clinical signs, with weight loss and anorexia reported most commonly. Liver size and parenchymal echogenicity were normal in most horses. The hyperechoic foci frequently caused acoustic shadowing. Biliary dilation was noted rarely. The ultrasonographic pattern was the result of numerous fibrosing hepatic granulomas in all horses evaluated histologically. γ-Glutamyltransferase was the most commonly elevated hepatic enzyme, though it was increased in fewer than half the horses. Fifteen horses had an additional disease that was identified as the apparent cause of clinical signs. Three horses had primary hepatic disease while 12 had diseases of other body systems. Therefore, the starry sky ultrasonographic pattern is likely incidental in most horses and not clinically significant. Improved recognition of this pattern and further investigation of affected horses may help refine the etiology and clinical significance of the granulomas. © 2011 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  11. Use of micro-lightguide spectrophotometry for evaluation of microcirculation in the small and large intestines of horses without gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Christof; Kästner, Sabine B R; Hopster, Klaus; Rohn, Karl; Rötting, Anna K

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the use of a micro-lightguide tissue spectrophotometer for measurement of tissue oxygenation and blood flow in the small and large intestines of horses under anesthesia. 13 adult horses without gastrointestinal disease. Horses were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency. Ventral midline laparotomy was performed. Intestinal segments were exteriorized to obtain measurements. Spectrophotometric measurements of tissue oxygenation and regional blood flow of the jejunum and pelvic flexure were obtained under various conditions that were considered to have a potential effect on measurement accuracy. In addition, arterial oxygen saturation at the measuring sites was determined by use of pulse oximetry. 12,791 single measurements of oxygen saturation, relative amount of hemoglobin, and blood flow were obtained. Errors occurred in 381 of 12,791 (2.98%) measurements. Most measurement errors occurred when surgical lights were directed at the measuring site; covering the probe with the surgeon's hand did not eliminate this error source. No measurement errors were observed when the probe was positioned on the intestinal wall with room light, at the mesenteric side, or between the mesenteric and antimesenteric side. Values for blood flow had higher variability, and this was most likely caused by motion artifacts of the intestines. The micro-lightguide spectrophotometry system was easy to use on the small and large intestines of horses and provided rapid evaluation of the microcirculation. Results indicated that measurements should be performed with room light only and intestinal motion should be minimized.

  12. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in 40 standing horses.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Patrick J; Russell, Tom; Hughes, Thomas K; Archer, Michael R; Perkins, Justin D

    2008-04-01

    To report a technique for eye enucleation in standing sedated horses and to report outcome in 40 horses. Retrospective study. Horses (n=40) requiring eye enucleation. The eye was enucleated using a transpalpebral technique in 40 horses restrained in stocks and sedated. Anesthesia of orbital structures was provided by local nerve blocks and infiltration of the surgical site with local anesthetic solution. Affected eyes were successfully enucleated with the horse standing. Short-term complications included moderate swelling (5 horses) and wound discharge (1). Long-term complications were not observed. A diseased eye can be safely enucleated with a horse standing. Enucleating an equine eye in the standing position eliminates the risks and costs of general anesthesia.

  13. Nutrition of the aged horse.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Nicola G

    2009-04-01

    This article reviews current thoughts on nutrition of the older horse in health and disease. Common causes of weight loss and poor body condition in old horses include dental or oral cavity abnormalities, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, and reduced feed intake attributable to competition from herd mates or pain associated with osteoarthritis. Feed intake and body condition may improve after institution of management changes. Thin but otherwise healthy old horses can benefit from a diet that provides 12% to 16% crude protein and includes highly digestible feedstuffs. In horses with severe irreversible dental problems, long-stem fiber (hay) should be replaced by soaked hay cubes, short chopped hay, or heavily soaked sugar beet pulp. Evidence of chronic endocrine, hepatic, or renal disease dictates dietary modifications.

  14. Contribution of SRF, Elk-1, and myocardin to airway smooth muscle remodeling in heaves, an asthma-like disease of horses.

    PubMed

    Chevigny, Mylène; Guérin-Montpetit, Karine; Vargas, Amandine; Lefebvre-Lavoie, Josiane; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Myocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy contribute to the increased mass of airway smooth muscle (ASM) in asthma. Serum-response factor (SRF) is a transcription factor that regulates myocyte differentiation in vitro in vascular and intestinal smooth muscles. When SRF is associated with phosphorylated (p)Elk-1, it promotes ASM proliferation while binding to myocardin (MYOCD) leading to the expression of contractile elements in these tissues. The objective of this study was therefore to characterize the expression of SRF, pElk-1, and MYOCD in ASM cells from central and peripheral airways in heaves, a spontaneously occurring asthma-like disease of horses, and in controls. Six horses with heaves and five aged-matched controls kept in the same environment were studied. Nuclear protein expression of SRF, pElk-1, and MYOCD was evaluated in peripheral airways and endobronchial biopsies obtained during disease remission and after 1 and 30 days of naturally occurring antigenic exposure using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques. Nuclear expression of SRF (P = 0.03, remission vs. 30 days) and MYOCD (P = 0.05, controls vs. heaves at 30 days) increased in the peripheral airways of horses with heaves during disease exacerbation, while MYOCD (P = 0.04, remission vs. 30 days) decreased in the central airways of control horses. No changes were observed in the expression of pElk-1 protein in either tissue. In conclusion, SRF and its cofactor MYOCD likely contribute to the hypertrophy of peripheral ASM observed in equine asthmatic airways, while the remodeling of the central airways is more static or involves different transcription factors.

  15. Ultrastructural findings in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). II: Pathomorphological changes of the terminal airways and the alveolar region.

    PubMed

    Kaup, F J; Drommer, W; Damsch, S; Deegen, E

    1990-09-01

    Extensive light and electron microscope studies (transmission and scanning electron microscopy) of the bronchioles and alveolar region, in 28 horses suffering chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and eight control horses, revealed good correlation between clinical severity and morphological changes. In the bronchiolar epithelium the non-ciliated bronchiolar epithelial (Clara) cells, in particular, showed ultrastructural alterations and, even in the mild stages of disease, these presented degenerative changes and lack of differentiation. Together with loss of granulation in the Clara cells and metaplasia of the goblet cells, cells were seen with unusual intracytoplasmic lamellar inclusion, the number of which increased sharply with clinical severity. The focal changes in the alveolar region were necrosis of type I epithelial cells, alveolar fibrosis of varying degrees with type II epithelial transformation and emphysema or hyperinflation, with an increase in Kohn's pores. Some horse also showed morphological signs of interference with the surfactant system, in the form of marked cysts with lamellar structure. The alveolar changes were mostly in the peribronchiolar region and were, therefore, interpreted as reactive processes. No conclusions as to the aetiology of equine COPD can be derived from these morphological investigations.

  16. Retrospective analysis of exploratory laparotomies in 192 Andalusian horses and 276 horses of other breeds.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, E; Argüelles, D; Areste, L; Miguel, L San; Prades, M

    2008-03-08

    The medical records of 468 horses that underwent 490 exploratory laparotomies for the correction of gastrointestinal diseases were reviewed to search for differences between Andalusian horses and other breeds. The seasonal distribution of surgical colics and their outcome and complications were also investigated. Bivariant analysis was used to compare the horses' age, gender and breed with the type of surgery, the bowel affected and the type of colic, and all these variables were compared in relation to euthanasia during surgery, complications, short-term survival and seasonal distribution. A total of 405 horses survived the surgery and 329 were discharged from the hospital. Horses less than one year old had better short-term survival than older horses. Andalusian horses suffered more inguinal hernias than the other breeds and were more prone to suffer laminitis as a complication. Colic surgery and inguinal hernias were also more common in the summer.

  17. The Hypersensitivity of Horses to Culicoides Bites in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail S.; Belton, Peter; Kleider, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Culicoides hypersensitivity is a chronic, recurrent, seasonal dermatitis of horses that has a worldwide distribution, but has only recently been reported in Canada. It is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in lesions associated with self-induced trauma. A survey of veterinarians and horse-owners in British Columbia showed no differences in susceptibility due to the sex, color, breed, or height of the horses. The prevalence of the disease in the 209 horses surveyed was 26%. Horses sharing the same pasture could be unaffected. The disease was reported primarily from southwestern British Columbia; it occurred between April and October and usually affected the ventral midline, mane, and tail. Horses were generally less than nine years old when the clinical signs first appeared ([unk]=5.9 yr). Culicoides hypersensitivity was common in the lineage of several affected horses, possibly indicating a genetic susceptibility. Most cases were severe enough to require veterinary attention and some horses were euthanized. PMID:17423117

  18. Serum cortisol concentrations in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Mair, T S; Sherlock, C E; Boden, L A

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated cortisol concentrations in horses with colic. In humans with septic shock, high cortisol levels are associated with an increased risk of death. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum total cortisol concentrations (STCCs) in horses with colic to those without colic, and to assess whether the STCC relates to the pathological nature or outcome of the disease. STCCs were determined at presentation in horses with colic and in systemically healthy 'control' horses. Horses with colic were grouped based on clinical and clinico-pathological parameters at admission, treatment, lesion type and location, and outcome. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed using two different outcome measures: (a) whether the horse had colic or not (yes vs. no), and (b) horse STCC (≥200 nmol/L vs. <200 nmol/L). Horses were more likely to have colic if they presented with high STCCs (≥200 nmol/L compared with <200 nmol/L). Horses with colic and with STCCs ≥200nmol/L were more likely to have moderate or severe colic signs (compared with mild colic) and heart rates >45 beats per min (compared with ≤45 beats per min). It was concluded that colic in horses is associated with elevated STCCs, and increased STCC in horses with colic appears to relate to the severity of the disease. STCCs may provide additional decision-making and prognostic information in horses with colic but further studies are required to avoid misinterpretations associated with the wide variation in STCCs.

  19. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  20. The gold standard of dental care: the geriatric horse.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Nicole; Rucker, Bayard A

    2013-08-01

    Changes in normal equine dental anatomy with age result in dental disease specific to the geriatric horse. The culmination of dental disease throughout the life of a horse often results in advanced dental disease. Treatment of specific dental disease conditions has to be adapted for older horses to compensate for reduction in reserve crown and occlusal enamel. Ensuring oral comfort and maximizing masticatory ability are the mainstays of geriatric dental treatment. Recognition of dental disease common to older horses ensures that correct treatment is applied. Older patients often require long-term management changes, such as dietary modification, to manage dental disease effectively.

  1. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy in Lusitano horses.

    PubMed

    Finno, C J; Higgins, R J; Aleman, M; Ofri, R; Hollingsworth, S R; Bannasch, D L; Reilly, C M; Madigan, J E

    2011-01-01

    Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is a neurodegenerative disorder that has been previously associated with low vitamin E concentrations. To describe the clinical, electrophysiologic, and pathologic features of EDM in a group of related Lusitano horses. Fifteen Lusitano horses. Neurologic examinations were conducted, and serum vitamin E concentrations were measured. Three neurologically abnormal horses were further evaluated by ophthalmologic examination, electroretinography, electroencephalography, muscle and nerve biopsies, and post-mortem examination. Six horses appeared neurologically normal, 6 were neurologically abnormal, and 3 had equivocal gait abnormalities. Abnormal horses demonstrated ataxia and paresis. An inconsistent menace response was noted in 4 neurologically abnormal horses and in 1 horse with equivocal findings. All horses had low serum vitamin E concentrations (<1.5 ppm). Ophthalmologic examinations, electroretinograms, electroencephalograms, and muscle and peripheral nerve biopsies were unremarkable in 3 neurologically abnormal horses. At necropsy, major neuropathological findings in these horses were bilaterally symmetric, severe, neuro axonal degeneration in the gracilis, cuneatus medialis, cuneatus lateralis, and thoracicus nuclei and bilaterally symmetric axonal loss and demyelination mainly in the dorsolateral and ventromedial tracts of the spinal cord. A diagnosis of EDM was made based on these findings. Pedigree analysis identified 2 sires among the affected horses. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes ataxia and, in severe cases, paresis, in young Lusitano horses. The disease appears to have a genetic basis, and although vitamin E deficiency is a common finding, low serum vitamin E concentrations also may occur in apparently unaffected related individuals. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Vascular mineralization in the brain of horses.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Montgomery, Donald L; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    Vascular mineralization (siderocalcinosis) in the brain of horses has been usually assumed to be an incidental age-related finding with no clinic significance. In the present study, eight 15-32-year-old horses of different breeds with cerebral siderocalcinosis were studied. Four of these horses had acute and severe central nervous system clinical signs of unknown etiology, 2 horses had neurological signs of known cause, and 2 horses did not have neurological signs. Gross examination of the brains in 4 animals revealed symmetrical foci of malacia in the cerebellar white matter. Histologically, moderate to severe mineralization of blood vessels and parenchyma were observed in all 8 horses, occasionally associated with necrosis of the adjacent tissue. Some horses were tested by virus isolation, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and serology to investigate Rabies virus; West Nile virus; Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4; Eastern, Western, Venezuelan, and Saint Louis encephalitis virus; and Sarcocystis neurona infection. These tests were negative in all samples analyzed. Brain cholinesterase activity and heavy metal screening were also unremarkable. The significance of the vascular and parenchymal mineralization in the brains of some of these horses remains undetermined. However, the severity of the lesions observed in the brains of some of the animals in the present study, coupled with the negative results for other common causes of neurological disease in horses, suggests a possible relationship between siderocalcinosis and the clinical signs observed.

  3. Differential expression of TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) in the central nervous system of horses afflicted with equine motor neuron disease (EMND): a preliminary study of a potential pathologic marker.

    PubMed

    El-Assaad, Iqbal; Di Bari, Jeremy A; Yasuda, Koji; Divers, Thomas J; Summers, Brian A; de Lahunta, Alexander; Mohammed, Hussni

    2012-12-01

    Equine motor neuron disease (EMND) is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology affecting horses worldwide. Trans-Active Response DNA Binding Protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been reported in the central nervous system (CNS) of several neurodegenerative conditions in humans including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and assumed to play role in the disease. We examined whether horses afflicted with EMND express the TDP-43 in CNS. Ten horses with EMND and 6 controls of different ages and breed we enrolled. Detection of presence of TDP-43 protein in the CNS was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining using rabbit anti-human TARDBP (TDP-43) polyclonal antibody. Formalin fixed neuronal tissues from medulla, cervical, and lumbar spinal cord were harvested from EMND and from control horses. Sections were assigned randomly to TDP-43 treated or rabbit anti-IgG as control. Nuclear staining of TDP-43 was detected in one of the neural tissues of 75 % of EMND-positive and 0 of 0 % of control horses in the central nervous system (medulla, and/or cervical spinal cord and/or lumbar spinal cord). TDP-43 antibody was detected in the nucleus of EMND horses and no cytoplasmic staining was noted. As in ALS, there was no pattern of age clustering associated with the detection of TDP-43. This is the first report on the staining of TDP-43 in neuronal tissues of horses and suggests that TDP-43 may play a role in the pathogenesis of EMND. Further studies are needed to elucidate the etiologic role of this protein in the diseases.

  4. Gastritis, Enteritis, and Colitis in Horses.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2015-08-01

    The gastrointestinal system of horses is affected by a large variety of inflammatory infectious and noninfectious conditions. The most prevalent form of gastritis is associated with ulceration of the pars esophagea. Although the diagnostic techniques for alimentary diseases of horses have improved significantly over the past few years, difficulties still exist in establishing the causes of a significant number of enteric diseases in this species. This problem is compounded by several agents of enteric disease also being found in the intestine of clinically normal horses, which questions the validity of the mere detection of these agents in the intestine.

  5. Bacterial meningitis after sinus surgery in five adult horses.

    PubMed

    Bach, Fabienne S; Bodo, Gabor; Kuemmerle, Jan M; Bienert-Zeit, Astrid; Hainisch, Edmund K; Simhofer, Hubert

    2014-08-01

    To report meningoencephalitis as a complication after paranasal sinus surgery in 5 horses. Case series. Adult horses (n = 5). Medical records (2005-2010) of 5 horses that developed neurologic signs after sinus surgery were reviewed to identify potential risk factors, cause(s), or common pathways for infection. Underlying diseases were primary (n = 1) and secondary sinusitis (4) because of apical dental infection (1), sinus cyst (2), or masses in the ethmoturbinate region (2). Horses were treated by conventional surgical approaches and aftercare including repeated sinus lavage. Four horses had undulating pyrexia postoperatively despite antimicrobial therapy. All horses developed neurologic signs, eventually unresponsive to treatment. Suppurative meningoencephalitis was diagnosed macro- and/or microscopically on necropsy in all horses. Meningitis is a rare but fatal complication after sinus surgery in horses. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Langeveld, J P; Venteo, A; Sanz, A; Dalsgaard, K; Hamilton, W D; Meloen, R H; Casal, J I

    1999-05-10

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. Miscellaneous neurologic or neuromuscular disorders in horses.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Monica

    2011-12-01

    NMD is an important cause of morbidity in horses. Signs of dysfunction could be variable depending on the specific area affected. NM disease can go unrecognized if a thorough evaluation is not performed in diseased horses. Electrodiagnostic testing is an area that has the potential to document and improve our understanding of NM disease yet is uncommonly performed. Keeping an open and observant mind will enhance our ability to search and find answers.

  8. Experimental infection of horses with Hendra virus/Australia/horse/2008/Redlands.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Glenn A; Haining, Jessica; Hancock, Timothy J; Robinson, Rachel; Foord, Adam J; Barr, Jennifer A; Riddell, Shane; Heine, Hans G; White, John R; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E; Wang, Lin-Fa; Middleton, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for natural infection. In 2 of the 3 animals, HeV RNA was detected continually in nasal swabs from as early as 2 days postexposure, indicating that systemic spread of the virus may be preceded by local viral replication in the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. Our data suggest that a critical factor for reducing HeV exposure risk to humans includes early consideration of HeV in the differential diagnosis and institution of appropriate infection control procedures.

  9. Coagulopathies in horses with colic.

    PubMed

    Monreal, Luis; Cesarini, Carla

    2009-08-01

    The most common coagulopathy in horses with colic is a hypercoagulable state associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. The intensity of this coagulopathy depends on the severity and duration of the gastrointestinal lesion, with the ischemic and inflammatory problems and peritonitis being the most frequently affected by coagulopathies. Early initiation of prophylactic therapy significantly reduces the severe hypercoagulable state in horses with intestinal conditions which are recognized to be at high risk for disseminated intravascular coagulation. In addition to the systemic coagulopathy observed in horses with colic, a peritoneal coagulopathy independent from that occurring in blood has been observed, and its recognition and assessment may have clinical usefulness in the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal diseases and outcome.

  10. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Murray Valley encephalitis virus and West Nile virus (Kunjin subtype) from an arbovirus disease outbreak in horses in Victoria, Australia, in 2011.

    PubMed

    Mann, Rachel A; Fegan, Mark; O'Riley, Kim; Motha, Julian; Warner, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Virus was detected in the central nervous system (CNS) tissue of 11 horses from Victoria that died displaying neurological symptoms during an outbreak of disease in Australia in 2011. Five horses were identified as being infected with Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and 6 as being infected with West Nile virus subtype Kunjin (WNV(KUN)). Analysis of partial sequence information from the NS5 and E genes indicated that the MVEVs within the samples were highly homogenous and all belonged to lineage I, which is enzootic to the tropical regions of northern Australia. Likewise, analysis of partial NS5 and E gene and full genome sequences indicated that the WNV(KUN) within the samples were also highly homogenous and clustered with WNV lineage 1, clade b, which is consistent with other WNV(KUN) isolates. Full genomes of 1 MVEV isolate and 2 WNV(KUN) isolates were sequenced and characterized. The genome sequences of Victorian WNV(KUN) are almost identical (3 amino acid differences) to that of the recently sequenced WNV isolate WNV(NSW2011). Metagenome sequencing directly from CNS tissue identified the presence of WNV(KUN) and MVEV within infected CNS tissue.

  11. Clostridium difficile infection in horses: a review.

    PubMed

    Diab, S S; Songer, G; Uzal, F A

    2013-11-29

    Clostridium difficile is considered one of the most important causes of diarrhea and enterocolitis in horses. Foals and adult horses are equally susceptible to the infection. The highly resistant spore of C. difficile is the infectious unit of transmission, which occurs primarily via the fecal-oral route, with sources of infection including equine feces, contaminated soil, animal hospitals, and feces of other animals. Two major risk factors for the development of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) in adult horses are hospitalization and antimicrobial treatment, although sporadically, cases of CDAD can occur in horses that have not received antimicrobials or been hospitalized. The most common antibiotics associated with CDAD in horses are erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfonamides, β-lactam antimicrobials, clindamycin, rifampicin, and gentamicin. Clinical signs and intestinal lesions of CDAD infection are not specific and they cannot be used to distinguish infections by C. difficile from infections by other agents, such as Clostridium perfringens or Salmonella sp. The distribution of lesions throughout the intestinal tract seems to be age-dependent. Small intestine is invariably affected, and colon and cecum may or may not have lesions in foals<1-month old. Naturally acquired disease in older foals and adult horses has a more aboral distribution, affecting colon and sometimes cecum, but rarely the small intestine. Detection of toxin A, toxin B or both in intestinal contents or feces is considered the most reliable diagnostic criterion for CDAD in horses. Isolation of toxigenic strains of C. difficile from horses with intestinal disease is highly suggestive of CDAD. A better understanding of pathogenesis, reservoirs of infection, and vaccines and other methods of control is needed. Also further studies are recommended to investigate other possible predisposing factors and/or etiological agents of enteric diseases of horses.

  12. Surgical treatment of 45 horses affected by squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and prepuce.

    PubMed

    Mair, T S; Walmsley, J P; Phillips, T J

    2000-09-01

    The medical records of 45 horses treated for suspected squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and/or prepuce were reviewed. The age of 40 horses was known, and these had a mean age of 17.4 years. The duration of neoplasia was known for only 3 of the 45 horses. The results of histological evaluation of lesions, available for 35 horses, confirmed that the diseased tissue was squamous cell carcinoma. The location of gross neoplastic lesions was recorded for 43 horses; the glans penis was involved in 24 horses, the body of the penis or the inner lamina of the preputial fold in 27 horses, and the external fold of the prepuce in 10 horses. Surgical treatments of these horses included phallectomy (penile amputation) in 35 horses, segmental posthectomy in 4 horses, phallectomy plus segmental posthectomy in 2 horses, and en bloc resection of the penis, prepuce and superficial inguinal lymph nodes with penile retroversion in 4 cases. Short-term complications in the immediate postoperative period included preputial oedema and haemorrhage at the end of urination. One horse developed acute urinary retention because of severe urethral oedema. Long-term (>1 year) follow-up information was obtained for 31 horses. Neoplasia of the penis and/or prepuce recurred in 6 of these 31 horses (19%), and in 5 of these the recurrence necessitated euthanasia of the horse.

  13. COMPARISON BETWEEN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC ARTHROGRAPHY, RADIOGRAPHY, ULTRASONOGRAPHY, AND ARTHROSCOPY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF FEMOROTIBIAL JOINT DISEASE IN WESTERN PERFORMANCE HORSES.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Brad B; Kawcak, Chris E; Goodrich, Laurie R; Werpy, Natasha M; Valdés-Martínez, Alejandro; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2016-07-01

    The femorotibial joints are a common source of lameness in Western performance horses. The objective of this prospective study was to compare the radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomographic arthrography (CTA), and arthroscopy findings in horses with lameness localized to the femorotibial joints. Twenty-five stifles in 24 horses were included and were evaluated with all four of these diagnostic methods. Defects detected in femorotibial joint structures were compared between diagnostic methods using a McNemar's test to evaluate for disagreement. Cranial medial meniscotibial desmopathy was most detected on arthroscopy (in 14/25 cases) and was only detected on ultrasonography in three out of 11 (27.3%) arthroscopically observed cases, but was detected on CTA in nine out of 12 (75%) arthroscopically observed cases. Medial meniscal injury located on the craniolateral border was most detected on arthroscopy (n = 9) and was detected on CTA in five cases, but on ultrasonography in 0 cases. Detection of articular cartilage defects on the medial femoral condyle was most detected with arthroscopy (24/25, 96% cases) and was also detected on CTA in 12/20 (60%) cases with a significant disagreement identified between modalities (P = 0.02). Cranial and caudal cruciate ligament defects were detected on CTA in 6/22 (27.3%) and 7/19 (36.8%) cases, respectively, and with arthroscopy in 3/25 (12%) and 2/25 (8%) cases, respectively. The use of CTA detected more defects in the cruciate ligaments, proximal tibia, and ligament entheses than the other diagnostic methods, but was not reliable for detection of articular cartilage damage on the medial femoral condyle. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  14. Playing with fire - What is influencing horse owners' decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    PubMed

    Goyen, Kailiea Arianna; Wright, John David; Cunneen, Alexandra; Henning, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162) of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214) currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners' attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1) perceived low risk (compared to high) of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners' location and management practices) or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2) perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe) of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3) horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4) horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5) handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only) and 6) perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination). Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against Hendra

  15. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  16. Experimental Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki infection of horses.

    PubMed

    Yan, W; Faisal, S M; Divers, T; McDonough, S P; Akey, B; Chang, Y-F

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available about experimental induction of leptospirosis in horses. Determine serologic, hematologic responses of horses to Leptospira interrogans serovar Kennewicki infection. Four adult horses seronegative for leptospirosis. Experimental and observational study. Horses were challenged with an equine isolate of L. interrogans serovar Kennewicki at 2 different doses and different inoculation sites. After challenge, the horses were monitored for 60 days. Blood, urine, and aqueous humor samples were collected at intervals until euthanasia 60 days after infection. Pyrexia (39.3-40 degrees C) occurred as early as 1 day after challenge with 10x10(8)Leptospira divided equally between topical ocular and intraperitoneal injection in 2 horses. Leptospires were recovered from the blood and urine but not from the aqueous humor of the 2 febrile horses. The sera of all 4 challenged horses developed microscopic agglutination test antibody after challenge and remained relatively constant for 21 days. Titer to cross-reacting strains declined earlier than titer to the challenge strain. Clinical disease in experimentally infected horses can be mild or inapparent in Leptospira infected horses. Repeated serologic testing can allow recognition of the infecting serovar. In febrile horses, Leptospira can be isolated from blood while isolation from the urine can occur after fever has subsided.

  17. [Aspergillus fumigatus in nasopharyngeal cavity of horses].

    PubMed

    Guida, Nora; Mesplet, María; Di Gennaro, Esteban; Digilio, Patricio; Moras, Eduardo Vicente

    2005-09-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a cosmopolitan opportunistic fungal associated to rhinopharyngitis, sinusitis and guttural pouches infection with nasal discharges. All them are similar with Strangle's sign, the infectious disease produced by Streptococcus equi spp. The aim of this work was to detect A. fumigatus in healthy horses living in boxes and field. 226 nasopharyngeal swabbing samples were obtained by mycological routine. A. fumigatus was isolated in 26 (11.5%) horses.

  18. [Nutrition of horses: ration calculation and assessment].

    PubMed

    Hallebeek, J M; van 't Klooster, A T; Beynen, A C

    1999-07-01

    In various situations it is desirable to evaluate the diet of horses. Such situations occur when nutrition is considered as the cause of disease or symptoms or and when a diet or diet change raises concern about whether the animal is receiving sufficient nutrients. Ration evaluation consists of translating feed ingredients into nutrients supplied and comparing this with nutrient requirements. The basics of ration evaluation are illustrated by means of four examples of horse diets.

  19. Integumentary Disorders Including Cutaneous Neoplasia in Older Horses.

    PubMed

    Knottenbelt, Derek C

    2016-08-01

    Few skin diseases specifically or exclusively affect older horses and donkeys. Hypertrichosis (hirsutism) associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction is probably the most recognized and best understood exception and is the most common age-related skin condition in equids. Many other conditions are known to be more serious in older horses. Horses affected with immune-compromising conditions can be more severely affected by infectious diseases of the skin or heavy and pathologically significant parasitism. Neoplasia of the skin is probably more prevalent and worse in older horses, although many of the more serious skin tumors develop initially at a younger age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Is there an association between clinical features, response to diagnostic analgesia and radiological findings in horses with a magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of navicular disease or other injuries of the podotrochlear apparatus?

    PubMed

    Parkes, Rebecca; Newton, Richard; Dyson, Sue

    2015-04-01

    Previous descriptions of the clinical features of navicular disease occurred before the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed a more definitive diagnosis of foot pain. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical features of horses with lesions of the podotrochlear apparatus with those with other causes of foot pain. It was hypothesised that primary navicular bone disease would be associated with more advanced radiological findings than other diagnoses. A retrospective study was performed of all horses examined at a referral centre with a definitive diagnosis of foot pain based on MRI ± post-mortem examination. Clinical examination findings, response to diagnostic analgesia and radiological grading of the navicular bone were compared among five diagnosis groups: (1) primary navicular bone pathology (NB); (2) lesions of the collateral sesamoidean ligament and/or distal sesamoidean impar ligament (CSL + DSIL); (3) primary deep digital flexor tendon injury (DDFT); (4) navicular bone pathology and other lesions of the podotrochlear apparatus ± DDFT (PTA) and (5) Other. There were 702 horses (NB, 62; CSL + DSIL, 180; DDFT, 69; PTA, 92; Other, 299). Horses with PTA injuries were more frequently unilaterally lame than other groups (P = 0.04). Horses with DDFT injury were more likely to exhibit pain on turning than other groups (P <0.01). There were no associations between response to diagnostic analgesia and diagnostic group, and no association between radiological grade and diagnostic group. Clinical examination findings generally did not discriminate between diseases of the PTA and other causes of foot pain. Overall radiological scores of the navicular bone did not accurately predict navicular bone pathology.

  1. Putative uremic encephalopathy in horses: five cases (1978-1998).

    PubMed

    Frye, M A; Johnson, J S; Traub-Dargatz, J L; Savage, C J; Fettman, M J; Gould, D H

    2001-02-15

    To determine historical, physical examination, clinicopathologic, and postmortem findings in horses with putative uremic encephalopathy. Design-Retrospective study. Animals-5 horses with renal failure and neurologic disease not attributable to abnormalities in any other organ system. Medical records from 1978 to 1998 were examined for horses with renal disease and neurologic signs not attributable to primary neurologic, hepatic, or other diseases. Signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, renal ultrasonographic findings, and postmortem data were reviewed. Of 332 horses with renal disease, 5 met selection criteria. Historical findings, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, ultrasonographic data, and postmortem findings were consistent with chronic renal failure. Swollen astrocytes were detected in all 4 horses examined at necropsy. A single criterion was not determined to be pathognomonic for uremic encephalopathy in horses. Uremic encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with evidence of chronic renal failure and encephalopathic neurologic sign not attributable to other causes. Astrocyte swelling, which was common to all 4 horses examined at necropsy, may serve as a microscopic indicator of uremic encephalopathy in horses.

  2. Meningitis and meningoencephalomyelitis in horses: 28 cases (1985-2010).

    PubMed

    Toth, Balazs; Aleman, Monica; Nogradi, Nora; Madigan, John E

    2012-03-01

    To describe clinical and clinicopathologic findings and outcome of horses with meningitis and meningoencephalomyelitis. Retrospective case series. 28 horses. Medical records of horses admitted to the hospital during a 25-year period were reviewed. Horses with a definitive diagnosis of meningitis or meningoencephalomyelitis were included in this study. Information extracted from the medical records included signalment, history, reason for admission, clinical signs, results of clinicopathologic testing and diagnostic procedures, treatment, outcome, and necropsy findings. 22 horses had confirmed infectious disease (19 bacterial, 2 parasitic, and 1 fungal), 4 had suspected infectious disease on the basis of CSF cytologic examination findings, and 2 had noninfectious meningitis or meningoencephalomyelitis. Trauma of the head and vertebral column with disruption of the blood-brain barrier and local ascending or hematogenous spread were the most common routes of infection. Common neurologic signs included abnormal mental status, cranial nerve deficits, vestibular dysfunction, ataxia, tetraparesis, and apparent neck pain. Common hematologic abnormalities included leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and hyperfibrinogenemia. Cytologic examination of CSF samples revealed moderate to marked suppurative inflammation. Mortality rate was 96.4%. Microbial culture of CSF yielded bacterial growth in 15 of 23 horses (before death [2 horses], after death [11], and both [2]). Results suggested that meningitis and meningoencephalomyelitis are uncommon disorders in horses. Infectious disease was more common than noninfectious disease. Local trauma, ascending infection, or hematogenous spread of infection were the most common causes of meningitis or meningoencephalomyelitis. Neurologic deficits, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and CSF with neutrophilic pleocytosis were common findings in affected horses.

  3. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Hosseini, Zeynab; Raayat, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. A web-based survey of horse owners' perceptions and network analysis of horse movements relating to African horse sickness distribution in Namibia and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-06-01

    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is the most lethal infectious non-contagious horse disease and has accordingly been declared notifiable by the World Organisation for Animal Health. AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and causes considerable losses to the equestrian industry. The effect of diseases in livestock on socio-economic factors is well researched, but the effect of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of a disease is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to assess Namibian and South African horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on AHS distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect information from horse owners in Namibia and South Africa. To that end 'Fluid survey' was used for survey development. The survey was launched on Facebook and the link shared to horse related focus groups in Namibia and South Africa. A total of 508 responses were collected during the survey period. Of the 417 completed questionnaires received, 22% were from Namibia and 78% from South Africa. The participants comprised of 71% social and 29% professional riders. The most popular precautionary measures used, in addition to vaccination, were chemical repellents (64%) and stabling of horses during dusk and dawn (59%). A network analysis was performed in Gephi 0.8.2.B to illustrate the movement of horses between countries and districts/provinces. Network analysis results indicate that areas with the highest movement of horses corresponded to the areas with a high occurrence of AHS. Although 93% of the participants were aware that AHS is a notifiable and controlled disease, the process and efficiency of reporting is mostly unknown. With this snapshot of horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on the distribution of AHS, it is clear that a more holistic approach is needed. To that end, all environmental and social factors must be taken into account in effective management strategies.

  5. Salinomycin toxicosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Monica; Magdesian, K Gary; Peterson, Tracy S; Galey, Francis D

    2007-06-15

    A 4-month-old American Paint filly was evaluated because of sudden onset of ataxia that progressed to recumbency. Five additional horses from the same and neighboring premises developed signs of poor performance, generalized weakness, ataxia, and recumbency; 2 of those horses were also evaluated. A new batch of a commercial feed supplement had been introduced to the horses' diet on each farm within the preceding 3 days. Other than recumbency, findings of physical and neurologic examinations of the foal were unremarkable. The other 2 horses had generalized weakness and mild ataxia, and 1 horse also had persistent tachycardia. The foal had mild leukocytosis with neutrophilia, hyperglycemia, and mildly high serum creatine kinase activity. Results of cervical radiography, CSF analysis, and assessments of heavy metals and selenium concentrations in blood and vitamin E concentration in serum were within reference limits. Feed analysis revealed high concentrations of the ionophore antimicrobial salinomycin. The 5 affected horses survived, but the foal was euthanized. At necropsy, a major histopathologic finding was severe vacuolation within neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, which was compatible with ionophore toxicosis. The surviving horses developed muscle atrophy, persistent weakness, and ataxia. In horses, ionophore toxicosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for acute weakness, ataxia, recumbency, or sudden death. Furthermore, ionophore toxicosis should be considered as a cause of poor performance, weakness, muscle wasting, and cardiac arrhythmias in horses. Surviving horses may have impaired athletic performance.

  6. Nonprimate hepaciviruses in domestic horses, United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Sinéad; Kapoor, Amit; Sharp, Colin; Schneider, Bradley S; Wolfe, Nathan D; Culshaw, Geoff; Corcoran, Brendan; McGorum, Bruce C; Simmonds, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Although the origin of hepatitis C virus infections in humans remains undetermined, a close homolog of this virus, termed canine hepacivirus (CHV) and found in respiratory secretions of dogs, provides evidence for a wider distribution of hepaciviruses in mammals. We determined frequencies of active infection among dogs and other mammals in the United Kingdom. Samples from dogs (46 respiratory, 99 plasma, 45 autopsy samples) were CHV negative by PCR. Screening of 362 samples from cats, horses, donkeys, rodents, and pigs identified 3 (2%) positive samples from 142 horses. These samples were genetically divergent from CHV and nonprimate hepaciviruses that horses were infected with during 2012 in New York state, USA. Investigation of infected horses demonstrated nonprimate hepacivirus persistence, high viral loads in plasma (10(5)-10(7) RNA copies/mL), and liver function test results usually within reference ranges, although several values ranged from high normal to mildly elevated. Disease associations and host range of nonprimate hepaciviruses warrant further investigation.

  7. Evaluation of high-molecular weight adiponectin in horses.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Anne A; Edwards, Heather Gray; Plaisance, Eric P; Applegate, Rory; Taylor, Debra R; Taintor, Jennifer; Zhong, Qiao; Judd, Robert L

    2012-08-01

    To characterize adiponectin protein complexes in lean and obese horses. 26 lean horses and 18 obese horses. Procedures-Body condition score (BCS) and serum insulin activity were measured for each horse. Denaturing and native western blot analyses were used to evaluate adiponectin complexes in serum. A human ELISA kit was validated and used to quantify high-molecular weight (HMW) complexes. Correlations between variables were made, and HMW values were compared between groups. Adiponectin was present as a multimer consisting of HMW (> 720-kDa), low-molecular weight (180-kDa), and trimeric (90-kDa) complexes in serum. All complexes were qualitatively reduced in obese horses versus lean horses, but the percentage of complexes < 250 kDa was higher in obese versus lean horses. High-molecular weight adiponectin concentration measured via ELISA was negatively correlated with serum insulin activity and BCS and was lower in obese horses (mean ± SD, 3.6 ± 3.9 μg/mL), compared with lean horses (8.0 ± 4.6 μg/mL). HMW adiponectin is measurable via ELISA, and concentration is negatively correlated with BCS and serum insulin activity in horses. A greater understanding of the role of adiponectin in equine metabolism will provide insight into the pathophysiology of metabolic disease conditions.

  8. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses

    PubMed Central

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A.; Alfarhan, Ahmed H.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A.; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. PMID:27729493

  9. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses.

    PubMed

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Noninflammatory, nonpruritic alopecia of horses.

    PubMed

    Rosychuk, Rod A W

    2013-12-01

    Noninflammatory, nonpruritic alopecias are uncommonly encountered in the horse. Alopecia areata, an apparently autoimmune hair follicle bulbitis produces focal, multifocal to widespread hair loss. The skin is otherwise normal. Diseases that can mimic the widespread hair loss associated with alopecia areata include telogen and anagen effluvium, seasonal alopecias, follicular dysplasias (including color dilution alopecia), various nutritional deficiencies and chemical toxicosis, and diseases that result in defective hair shafts (eg, trichorrhexis nodosa and piedra). These problems are differentiated by history, physical examination, trichography, and skin biopsy. Most are cosmetic diseases that do not have predictably effective therapies.

  11. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials.

  12. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  13. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  14. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  15. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  16. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  17. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  18. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  19. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and...

  20. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  1. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal...

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Getah Virus Strains Isolated from Horses in 2016 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Ochi, Akihiro; Niwa, Hidekazu; Murakami, Satoshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kokado, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takashi

    2017-08-03

    Getah virus is mosquito-borne and causes disease in horses and pigs. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genomes of three strains isolated from horses in Ibaraki Prefecture, eastern Japan, in 2016. They were almost identical to the genomes of strains recently isolated from horses, pigs, and mosquitoes in Japan. Copyright © 2017 Nemoto et al.

  3. Influenza Virus Transmission from Horses to Dogs, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Finlaison, Deborah S.; Crispe, Ellie; Hurt, Aeron C.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2007 equine influenza outbreak in Australia, respiratory disease in dogs in close contact with infected horses was noted; influenza (H3N8) virus infection was confirmed. Nucleotide sequence of the virus from dogs was identical to that from horses. No evidence of dog-to-dog transmission or virus persistence in dogs was found. PMID:20350392

  4. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Ruth A.; Keen, John A.; Walker, Brian R.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL) is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing’s disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing’s syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6) and horses with EL (n = 6) destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein) and the facial skin (facial skin arteries) by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10−9–10-5M) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10−9–10-5M) and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10−9–10-5M) was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01). In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006) and veins (P = 0.009) from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof. PMID:27684374

  5. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Ruth A; Keen, John A; Walker, Brian R; Hadoke, Patrick W F

    Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL) is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6) and horses with EL (n = 6) destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein) and the facial skin (facial skin arteries) by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M) and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M) was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01). In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006) and veins (P = 0.009) from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  6. People and Horses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humane Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Described is an intermediate-level unit developed to help students understand five selected cultures through learning about the peoples' differing attitudes toward their horses. Five brief articles, each featuring a discussion; a breed of horse in its cultural context; a list of questions and work sheets are included. (DS)

  7. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Davis, T Z; Stegelmeier, B L; Lee, S T; Green, B T; Hall, J O

    2013-10-01

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehydrotremetone, 6-hydroxytremetone, and 3-oxyangeloyl-tremetone) are responsible for the toxicity of rayless goldenrod. However, experimental reproduction of rayless goldenrod-induced disease and detailed descriptions of poisoning in horses with known concentrations of tremetone and other BFK has not been documented. In this study four horses were fed increasing amounts of rayless goldenrod to obtain doses of approximately 0, 10, 30, and 60 mg BFK/kg BW for 14 days. After seven days of dosing the horse dosed with 60 mg BFK/kg BW horse developed depression, reluctance to eat, dehydration, trembling, and muscle fatigue. Biochemical alterations including increases in the serum enzyme activities of CK, AST, ALT, and LDH, and increased cardiac troponin I concentration, were also identified. Physiologically the clinically poisoned horse had decreased endurance seen as reluctance to perform on the treadmill with increased resting heart rate and a prolonged recovery of heart rate following treadmill exercise. The condition of the horse continued to decline and it was euthanized and necropsied on day 10. At necropsy the myocardium was pale and soft and many of the appendicular and large apical muscles were pale and moist. Histologically, the myocardium had extensive myocardial degeneration and necrosis with extensive fibrosis and multifocal mineralization. Several of the large appendicular muscles in this horse also had small foci of skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis. Less severe myocardial changes were also identified in the horse dosed with 30 mg BFK/kg BW after 14 days of dosing. No clinical, biochemical or histologic changes were identified in the control horse and

  8. Welfare of competition horses.

    PubMed

    Atock, M A; Williams, R B

    1994-03-01

    In the large majority of cases and circumstances, horses benefit from their association with man. However, abuse of horses can occur, due to neglect or through the pressures of competition. The welfare of all animals, including competition horses, has become increasingly topical over the past ten years. Equestrian sport is coming under closer public scrutiny due to reports of apparent abuse. The bodies responsible for regulating these sports strenuously endeavour to protect the welfare of horses which compete under their rules and regulations. The Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI: International Equestrian Federation) is the sole authority for all international events in dressage, show-jumping, three-day event, driving, endurance riding and vaulting. The FEI rules illustrate the ways in which the welfare of competing horses is safeguarded.

  9. Culling Rate of Icelandic Horses due to Bone Spavin

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdóttir, S; Árnason, Th; Lord, P

    2003-01-01

    A survival analysis was used to compare the culling rate of Icelandic horses due to the presence of radiographic and clinical signs of bone spavin. A follow-up study of 508 horses from a survey five years earlier was performed. In the original survey 46% of the horses had radiographic signs of bone spavin (RS) and/or lameness after flexion test of the tarsus. The horse owners were interviewed by telephone. The owners were asked if the horses were still used for riding and if not, they were regarded as culled. The owners were then asked when and why the horses were culled. During the 5 years, 98 horses had been culled, 151 had been withdrawn (sold or selected for breeding) and 259 were still used for riding. Hind limb lameness (HLL) was the most common reason for culling (n = 42). The rate of culling was low up to the age of 11 years, when it rose to 0.05 for horses with RS. The risk ratio for culling was twice as high for horses with RS compared with horses without RS and 5.5 times higher for culling because of HLL. The risk of culling (prognostic value) was highest for the combination of RS with lameness after flexion test, next highest for RS and lowest for lameness after flexion test as the only finding. It was concluded that bone spavin affects the duration of use of Icelandic horses and is the most common cause of culling due to disease of riding horses in the age range of 7–17 years. PMID:15074629

  10. Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV.

  11. Guttural pouch mycosis in six horses in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Archer, R M; Knight, C G; Bishop, W J

    2012-05-01

    Six horses from several geographical locations in New Zealand presented with signs of guttural pouch mycosis. All horses had experienced epistaxis within 14 days of presentation. In five horses with epistaxis, a diagnosis of guttural pouch mycosis was made on endoscopic observation of fungal plaques in the affected guttural pouches. One of these cases died before surgery was attempted. The remaining four cases underwent ligation and balloon catheter occlusion of the internal carotid artery of the affected pouch. Three of these horses survived and were reported to be healthy 1 year after surgery. One case died from haemorrhage 8 weeks after surgery. In a sixth horse, endoscopy was carried out but the affected guttural pouch which had recently haemorrhaged was not entered. This horse underwent ligation of the internal carotid and occipital arteries of the affected side but subsequently died. A diagnosis of guttural pouch mycosis of the maxillary artery was confirmed by post-mortem examination. Histology revealed fungal hyphae within thrombi in the lumen of the maxillary artery in the affected guttural pouch. Two horses displayed signs consistent with cranial nerve damage in the guttural pouch. Guttural pouch mycosis. This is the first report of which we are aware of the diagnosis and treatment of clinical cases of guttural pouch mycosis in horses in New Zealand. Practitioners in New Zealand should be aware of the presence and manifestations of this disease and be prepared to treat or refer horses for surgical treatment before fatal haemorrhage and/or profound neurologic signs occur.

  12. Analysis of risk factors for the development of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses.

    PubMed

    Saville, W J; Reed, S M; Morley, P S; Granstrom, D E; Kohn, C W; Hinchcliff, K W; Wittum, T E

    2000-10-15

    To investigate risk factors for development of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses. Case-control study. 251 horses admitted to The Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1992 to 1995. On the basis of clinical signs of neurologic disease and detection of antibody to Sarcocystis neurona or S neurona DNA in cerebrospinal fluid, a diagnosis of EPM was made for 251 horses. Two contemporaneous series of control horses were selected from horses admitted to the hospital. One control series (n = 225) consisted of horses with diseases of the neurologic system other than EPM (neurologic control horses), and the other consisted of 251 horses admitted for reasons other than nervous system diseases (nonneurologic control horses). Data were obtained from hospital records and telephone conversations. Risk factors associated with disease status were analyzed, using multivariable logistic regression. Horses ranged from 1 day to 30 years old (mean +/- SD, 5.7 +/- 5.2 years). Risk factors associated with an increased risk of developing EPM included age, season of admission, prior diagnosis of EPM on the premises, opossums on premises, health events prior to admission, and racing or showing as a primary use. Factors associated with a reduced risk of developing EPM included protection of feed from wildlife and proximity of a creek or river to the premises where the horse resided. Development of EPM was associated with a number of management-related factors that can be altered to decrease the risk for the disease.

  13. Ataxia and paresis with equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in a herd of riding school horses.

    PubMed

    Friday, P A; Scarratt, W K; Elvinger, F; Timoney, P J; Bonda, A

    2000-01-01

    An outbreak of neurologic disease associated with serologic evidence of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection occurred in a herd of 46 riding school horses. Ataxia and paresis were observed in 14 geldings and 5 barren mares. Eight affected horses had distal limb edema, 1 horse had a head tilt, and 3 others had urinary incontinence. Other clinical signs included fever, depression, and inappetance in 30 horses. Seven horses with neurologic signs were treated with acyclovir. Serum neutralizing antibody titers against EHV-1 increased 4-fold between acute and convalescent samples or exceeded 1:256 in 19 of 44 horses, confirming recent infection. A significantly greater proportion of horses that seroconverted were mares (P = .014). Of the 19 horses exhibiting ataxia and paresis, 17 made a complete recovery, 1 made a partial recovery, and 1 was euthanized.

  14. Mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses.

    PubMed

    Riet-Correa, Franklin; Rivero, Rodolfo; Odriozola, Ernesto; Adrien, Maria de Lourdes; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Schild, Ana Lucia

    2013-11-01

    In the current study, mycotoxicoses of ruminants and horses are reviewed, with an emphasis on the occurrence of these diseases in South America. The main mycotoxicoses observed in grazing cattle include intoxications by indole-diterpenoid mycotoxins (Paspalum spp. contaminated by Claviceps paspali, Lolium perenne infected by Neotyphodium lolii, Cynodon dactylon infected by Claviceps cynodontis, and Poa huecu), gangrenous ergotism and dysthermic syndrome (hyperthermia) caused by Festuca arundinacea (syn. Festuca elatior) infected by Neotyphodium coenophialum (syn. Acremonium coenophialum), and photosensitization in pastures contaminated by toxigenic Pithomyces chartarum. Other mycotoxicoses in grazing cattle include slaframine toxicity in clover pastures infected by Rhizoctonia leguminicola and diplodiosis in cattle grazing in corn stubbles. The mycotoxicoses caused by contaminated concentrated food or byproducts in cattle include poisoning by toxins of Aspergillus clavatus, which contaminate barley or sugar beetroot by-products, gangrenous ergotism or dysthermic syndrome caused by wheat bran or wheat screenings contaminated with Claviceps purpurea, and acute respiratory distress caused by damaged sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas). The main mycotoxicosis of horses is leukoencephalomalacia caused by the fumonisins B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium spp. Poisoning by C. purpurea and F. elatior infected by N. coenophialum has also been reported as a cause of agalactia and neonatal mortality in mares. Slaframine toxicosis caused by the ingestion of alfalfa hay contaminated by R. leguminicola has also been reported in horses.

  15. Outcome of Surgical and Medical Management of Cecal Impaction in 150 Horses (1991-2011).

    PubMed

    Aitken, Maia R; Southwood, Louise L; Ross, Beth M; Ross, Michael W

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate short- and long-term outcome after medical and surgical management of horses with cecal impaction and to determine reasons for death or euthanasia. Retrospective case series. Horses (n = 150). Data collected from medical records (1991-2011) of horses with a diagnosis of cecal impaction, included signalment, history of recent disease/surgical procedure, admission data, management (medical, typhlotomy alone, jejunocolostomy), complications, and outcome. Short-term outcome (alive or dead at discharge) and long-term outcome (alive or dead at ≥1 year) were determined by telephone interview. Data were analyzed using a χ(2) or Fisher's exact test. Level of significance was P < .05. Of 150 horses hospitalized with a diagnosis of cecal impaction, 102 (68%) had a history of recent disease or a surgical procedure. Thirty-eight horses (25%) had cecal perforation at admission and 3 horses (2%) were euthanatized without treatment. Of 109 horses treated, 59 (54%) were managed medically and 50 (46%) surgically (typhlotomy [26]; jejunocolostomy [24]). The proportion of horses alive at hospital discharge was significantly lower for horses managed medically (61%) compared with surgically (82%; P = .02) but there was no difference between horses managed with typhlotomy alone (77%) or with jejunocolostomy (88%; P = .47). There were 57% of horses managed medically alive at 1 year. There was a similar proportion of horses alive at 1 year after typhlotomy alone (73%) and jejunocolostomy (70%; P = .86). Compared to the recent reports, the proportion of horses alive at hospital discharge was lower for both medically and surgically managed horses with cecal impaction. There was decreased survival for horses treated medically than those treated surgically; however, no significant difference was seen in survival between horses managed with typhlotomy alone versus jejunocolostomy. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Comparison of the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Horses and Horses with Colitis by High Throughput Sequencing of the V3-V5 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marcio C.; Arroyo, Luis G.; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Stämpfli, Henry R.; Kim, Peter T.; Sturgeon, Amy; Weese, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    The intestinal tract houses one of the richest and most complex microbial populations on the planet, and plays a critical role in health and a wide range of diseases. Limited studies using new sequencing technologies in horses are available. The objective of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiome of healthy horses and to compare the fecal microbiome of healthy horses to that of horses with undifferentiated colitis. A total of 195,748 sequences obtained from 6 healthy horses and 10 horses affected by undifferentiated colitis were analyzed. Firmicutes predominated (68%) among healthy horses followed by Bacteroidetes (14%) and Proteobacteria (10%). In contrast, Bacteroidetes (40%) was the most abundant phylum among horses with colitis, followed by Firmicutes (30%) and Proteobacteria (18%). Healthy horses had a significantly higher relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes while horses with colitis had significantly more Fusobacteria. Members of the Clostridia class were more abundant in healthy horses. Members of the Lachnospiraceae family were the most frequently shared among healthy individuals. The species richness reported here indicates the complexity of the equine intestinal microbiome. The predominance of Clostridia demonstrates the importance of this group of bacteria in healthy horses. The marked differences in the microbiome between healthy horses and horses with colitis indicate that colitis may be a disease of gut dysbiosis, rather than one that occurs simply through overgrowth of an individual pathogen. PMID:22859989

  17. Tolerance Induction of Horse Allergy by Horse Contact with Curly Horses.

    PubMed

    Mitlehner, W; Mitlehner, H C

    2017-07-01

    A horse allergic rider completed 60 riding lessons on Curly Horses within six months. This rider has become clinically tolerant to normal horse breeds within this time. This case may indicate that riding and brushing ABCR Curly Horses after 60 riding hours facilitates tolerance induction. Our data indicate that this could be a valid alternative to the common recommendation to strictly avoid horse riding. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Veterinary problems of endurance horses in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Dyson, S J; Murray, J K

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB). A comprehensive online self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection (30th December 2015-29th February 2016) All members of Endurance GB who were the main rider of one or more endurance horses were eligible to participate. From the target population of 1209 horses, 190 questionnaires were completed by riders, resulting in a 15.7% response rate. The most common rider-reported veterinary problem was lameness, affecting 152/190 (80.0%) of endurance horses at some point during their careers and 101/190 (53.2%) of horses in the previous 12 months. Detailed information on the most recent episode of lameness was available for 147 horses. Seventy-six percent of these lameness episodes (112/147) had been initially identified by a veterinarian, but only 52% of these lameness episodes were investigated further by a veterinarian, despite the high proportion of horses affected by lameness and the proportion of horses with recurrent lameness episodes. The second most common veterinary problem was thoracolumbar region pain, followed by non-specific cough, skin disease and colic. Education of endurance riders may improve the number, quality and timing of veterinary investigations, especially for lameness and thoracolumbar region pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  20. Histological Examination of Horse Chestnut Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and Non-Destructive Heat Treatment to Stop Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A. M.; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39°C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens. PMID:22808044

  1. Histological examination of horse chestnut infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi and non-destructive heat treatment to stop disease progression.

    PubMed

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Ketelaar, Tijs; van Lammeren, André A M

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in Northwest Europe as a pathogen that infects trunks and branches of Aesculus spp. (the horse chestnuts) approximately one decade ago, Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi has rapidly established itself as major threat to these trees. Infected trees exhibit extensive necrosis of phloem and cambium, which can ultimately lead to dieback. The events after host entry leading to extensive necrosis are not well documented. In this work, the histopathology of this interaction is investigated and heat-treatment is explored as method to eradicate bacteria associated with established infections. The early wound-repair responses of A. hippocastanum, both in absence and presence of P. s. pv. aesculi, included cell wall lignification by a distinct layer of phloem and cortex parenchyma cells. The same cells also deposited suberin lamellae later on, suggesting this layer functions in compartmentalizing healthy from disrupted tissues. However, monitoring bacterial ingress, its construction appeared inadequate to constrain pathogen spread. Microscopic evaluation of bacterial dispersal in situ using immunolabelling and GFP-tagging of P. s. pv. aesculi, revealed two discriminative types of bacterial colonization. The forefront of lesions was found to contain densely packed bacteria, while necrotic areas housed bacterial aggregates with scattered individuals embedded in an extracellular matrix of bacterial origin containing alginate. The endophytic localization and ability of P. s. pv aesculi to create a protective matrix render it poorly accessible for control agents. To circumvent this, a method based on selective bacterial lethality at 39 °C was conceived and successfully tested on A. hippocastanum saplings, providing proof of concept for controlling this disease by heat-treatment. This may be applicable for curing other tree cankers, caused by related phytopathogens.

  2. Characteristics of equine summer eczema with emphasis on differences between Finnhorses and Icelandic horses in a 11-year study

    PubMed Central

    Hallamaa, Raija E

    2009-01-01

    Summer eczema, allergic dermatitis of the horse, was studied on 275 affected horses in Finland in 1997–2007. Features of the horses, clinical signs of the disease and owners' opinions of aggravating factors were recorded. Differences, especially, between two of the native Scandinavian horse breeds, the Finnhorse and the Icelandic horse, were evaluated. The study was based on clinical examination and information from the owners. Of the horses, 50% were Finnhorses, 26% Icelandic horses and 24% consisted of different breeds of ponies and other horses. Of the Finnhorses, 76% had summer eczema by the age of 5 years, but in the Icelandic horses born in Finland the average age at onset was 7 years. The vast majority of the horses, 75%, had moderate clinical signs, while 16% showed severe and 9% mild. The severity of clinical signs did not depend on the duration of the disease nor was it related to the age at onset. The only linkage to severity was the breed of the horse or import from Iceland; New Forest ponies and imported Icelandic horses showed severe clinical signs significantly more often than Finnhorses. Of the owners, 38% regarded insects as the only aggravating factor, 24% mentioned several simultaneous factors, including grass fodder and sunlight, while 22% could not specify any. In Finland, a typical horse breed suffering from summer eczema is the Finnhorse and the characteristics of the disease are mainly uniform with the other breeds affected. Equine summer eczema seems to be aggravated by various combinations of environmental factors. PMID:19602231

  3. Laminitis in the geriatric horse.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Robert J

    2002-12-01

    There are few diseases that instill a comparable sense of doom in the mind of a treating veterinarian as laminitis. There is a feeling of cautious optimism when a horse with laminitis responds favorably to treatment. Although this optimism all too often proves false when treating laminitic patients, management of the patient afflicted with chronic laminitis can be rewarding. Through diligent and careful client communication and instruction, many geriatric patients with chronic laminitis can be maintained for years as comfortable companions, for light riding use, or as productive breeding animals.

  4. Genetic stability in the Icelandic horse breed.

    PubMed

    Campana, M G; Stock, F; Barrett, E; Benecke, N; Barker, G W W; Seetah, K; Bower, M A

    2012-08-01

    Despite the Icelandic horse enjoying great popularity worldwide, the breed's gene pool is small. This is because of a millennium of isolation on Iceland, population crashes caused by natural disasters and selective breeding. Populations with small effective population sizes are considered to be more at risk of selection pressures such as disease and environmental change. By analysing historic and modern mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear coat colour genes, we examined real-time population dynamics in the Icelandic horse over the last 150 years. Despite the small gene pool of this breed, we found that the effective population size and genetic profile of the Icelandic horse have remained stable over the studied time period.

  5. Subclinical leptospirosis may impair athletic performance in racing horses.

    PubMed

    Hamond, Camila; Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2012-12-01

    The infection by Leptospira in horses, in both its acute disease and subclinical forms, is very common, particularly in endemic regions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of subclinical leptospirosis in the athletic performance of racing thoroughbred horses. Athletic performance of 119 racing Thoroughbred horses from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was calculated by assigning a point value for the results in racing (performance index (PI)), and serology for leptospirosis was conducted. A total of 85 (71.4 %) horses showed reactive titers (≥ 100), and of which 52 had high titers (34 with 400 and 18 with ≥ 800). Although those animals had high titers against Leptospira, no clinical signs associated with leptospirosis were observed. Seventeen (89.5 %) out of the 19 horses with substandard performance were seroreactive with high titers, in contrast with 35 % of seroreactivity in horses with good athletic performance (P < 0.0001). Additionally, seroreactivity to leptospirosis was more often observed in horses with substandard athletic performance in contrast to those with good performance (P < 0.0001, odds ratio 15.8). The Average PI of this group increased to 133 % after treatment (P < 0.0001). Leptospirosis may impair performance in racing horses, and antibiotic therapy may improve the performance of affected animals.

  6. Glucocorticoids and laminitis in the horse.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip J; Slight, Simon H; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Kreeger, John M

    2002-08-01

    The administration of exogenously administered GCs and syndromes associated with GC excess are both attended by increased risk for the development of laminitis in adult horses. However, there exists substantial controversy as to whether excess GCs cause laminitis de novo. If true, the pathogenesis of laminitis arising from the effects of GC excess is probably different from that associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and endotoxemia. Although a satisfactory explanation for the development of laminitis as a consequence of GC action is currently lacking, numerous possible and plausible theoretical mechanisms do exist. Veterinarians must exert caution with respect to the use of GCs in adult horses. The extent to which individual horses are predisposed to laminitis as a result of GC effect cannot be predicted based on current information. However, the administration of systemic GCs to horses that have been previously affected by laminitis should be used only with extreme caution, and should be accompanied by careful monitoring for further signs of laminitis. The risk of laminitis appears to be greater during treatment using some GCs (especially dexamethasone and triamcinalone) compared with others (prednisone and prednisolone). Whenever possible, to reduce the risk of laminitis, GCs should be administered locally. For example, the risk of GC-associated laminitis is evidently considerably reduced in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) if GC treatment is administered via inhalation. We have hypothesized that structural changes in the equine hoof that resemble laminitis may arise as a consequence of excess GC effect. Although these changes are not painful per se, and are not associated with inflammation, they could likely predispose affected horses to the development of bona fide laminitis for other reasons. Moreover, the gross morphological appearance of the chronically GC-affected hoof resembles that of a chronically

  7. 16. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the Yankee Horse Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Yankee Horse Ridge. View of the Yankee Horse Railroad trestle looking north. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. Using the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) to Assess Pain Associated with Acute Laminitis in Horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Stucke, Diana; Dai, Francesca; Minero, Michela; Leach, Matthew C.; Lebelt, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain. This work aimed to investigate whether the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, can be usefully applied to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest. Ten horses, referred as acute laminitis cases with no prior treatment, were assessed at the admission and at seven days after the initial evaluation and treatment. The authors found that the Horse Grimace Scale is a potentially effective method to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, as horses showing high HGS scores also exhibited higher Obel scores, and veterinarians classified them in a more severe painful state. Abstract Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain, both acutely and chronically. The Obel grading system is the most widely accepted method for describing the severity of laminitis by equine practitioners, however this method requires movement (walk and trot) of the horse, causing further intense pain. The recently developed Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, may offer a more effective means of assessing the pain associated with acute laminitis. The aims of this study were: to investigate whether HGS can be usefully applied to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, and to examine if scoring HGS using videos produced similar results as those obtained from still images. Ten horses, referred as acute laminitis cases with no prior treatment, were included in the study. Each horse was assessed using the Obel and HGS (from images and videos) scales: at the admission (before any treatment) and at seven days after the initial evaluation and treatment. The results of this study suggest that HGS is a potentially effective method to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, as horses showing high HGS scores also exhibited

  9. Antibodies to elastin peptides in sera of Belgian Draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    van Brantegem, L; de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Duchateau, L; Hoogewijs, M K; Govaere, J; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2007-09-01

    Chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) is a recently recognised disease of the lymphatic system characterised by lesions in the skin of the lower legs in several draught horse breeds, including the Belgian Draught hourse. Clinical signs slowly progress and result in severe disfigurement of the limbs. Ideally, supportive treatment should be started early in the disease process. However early diagnosis and monitoring progression of CPL is still a challenge. Elastin changes, characterised by morphological alterations as well as increased desmosine levels, in the skin of the distal limbs of horses affected with CPL are probably associated with a marked release of elastin degradation products, which elicit production of circulating anti-elastin antibodies (AEAbs) in the serum. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum AEAbs may document elastin breakdown. An ELISA technique was used to evaluate levels of AEAbs in sera of 97 affected Belgian Draught horses that were clinically healthy except for possible skin lesions, associated with CPL in their distal limbs. The horses were divided into 5 groups according to the severity of these skin lesions: normal horses (Group 1, n = 36), horses with mild lesions (Group 2, n = 43), horses with moderate lesions (Group 3, n = 8), horses with severe lesions (Group 4, n = 10) and, as a control, healthy Warmblood horses, unaffected by the disease (Group 5, n = 83). Horses with clinical signs of CPL had significantly higher AEAb levels compared to clinically normal Belgian Draught horses and to healthy Warmblood horses. These levels correlated with severity of lesions. CPL in draught horses is associated with an increase of serum AEAbs. Evaluation of serum levels of AEAbs by ELISA might be a useful diagnostic aid for CPL. Pathological degradation of elastic fibres, resulting in deficient support of the distal lymphatics, is proposed as a contributing factor for CPL in Belgian Draught horses.

  10. The genetics of skeletal muscle disorders in horses.

    PubMed

    Mickelson, James R; Valberg, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    Horses are remarkable athletes and a fascinating species in which to study the genetic bases of athletic performance, skeletal muscle biology, and neuromuscular disease. Genetic selection in horses has resulted in many breeds that possess anatomical, physiological, and metabolic variations linked to speed, power, and endurance that are beginning to be defined at the molecular level. Along with the concentration of positive traits, equine breeding programs have also inadvertently concentrated heritable muscle diseases for which mutations impacting electrical conduction, muscle contraction, and energy metabolism within and across breeds have been characterized. The study of heritable muscle diseases in horses has provided exciting insights into the normal structure and function of muscle and important diagnostic tools for veterinarians. Results empower breeders and breed associations to make difficult decisions about how to use this information to improve the overall health and well-being of horses.

  11. Suspensory ligament degeneration associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in horses.

    PubMed

    Hofberger, Sina; Gauff, Felicia; Licka, Theresia

    2015-03-01

    In older horses, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and suspensory ligament (SL) degeneration are common. The aim of the present study was to identify histopathological changes in the SL in horses with PPID. SLs of four horses with clinical signs of PPID (17-26 years of age) were compared with SLs from four old horses (18-31 years of age) and three young horses (4-9 years of age). In horses with PPID, there was reduced longitudinal arrangement of collagen fibres in SLs, along with inclusions of cartilage, extracellular matrix and haemorrhage, as well as significant proteoglycan accumulations between SL fibres. These changes are similar to the degeneration of connective tissues in Peruvian Paso horses with SL degeneration and in humans with Cushing's disease or after long term high dose corticosteroid treatments. These findings indicate an association between degeneration of the SL and PPID.

  12. Guttural pouch mycosis in horses: a retrospective study of 28 cases.

    PubMed

    Dobesova, O; Schwarz, B; Velde, K; Jahn, P; Zert, Z; Bezdekova, B

    2012-12-01

    The medical records of 28 horses with guttural pouch mycosis were reviewed. The most commonly observed clinical signs were nasal discharge, epistaxis, dysphagia and/or cough. All 28 horses had the disease unilaterally, however, in five of them, it had spread into the contralateral pouch via the mesial septum. Three horses were treated medically, 11 horses underwent surgery and seven horses were treated both medically and surgically. Fifty percent of horses (14/28) were euthanased or died, fifty percent of horses (14/28) survived. There was no significant correlation between treatment method (medical, surgical, combination) and survival rate. The most common reason for euthanasia was dysphagia due to pharyngeal dysfunction. There was a highly significant correlation between the presence of dysphagia and non-survival (p=0.008).

  13. Assessing fitness in endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-03-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels.

  14. An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB). Results This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable. Conclusions These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative

  15. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in an equine patient population: part I--adult horses.

    PubMed

    Aleman, M; Holliday, T A; Nieto, J E; Williams, D C

    2014-01-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked response has been an underused diagnostic modality in horses as evidenced by few reports on the subject. To describe BAER findings, common clinical signs, and causes of hearing loss in adult horses. Study group, 76 horses; control group, 8 horses. Retrospective. BAER records from the Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory were reviewed from the years of 1982 to 2013. Peak latencies, amplitudes, and interpeak intervals were measured when visible. Horses were grouped under disease categories. Descriptive statistics and a posthoc Bonferroni test were performed. Fifty-seven of 76 horses had BAER deficits. There was no breed or sex predisposition, with the exception of American Paint horses diagnosed with congenital sensorineural deafness. Eighty-six percent (n = 49/57) of the horses were younger than 16 years of age. The most common causes of BAER abnormalities were temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO, n = 20/20; abnormalities/total), congenital sensorineural deafness in Paint horses (17/17), multifocal brain disease (13/16), and otitis media/interna (4/4). Auditory loss was bilateral and unilateral in 74% (n = 42/57) and 26% (n = 15/57) of the horses, respectively. The most common causes of bilateral auditory loss were sensorineural deafness, THO, and multifocal brain disease whereas THO and otitis were the most common causes of unilateral deficits. Auditory deficits should be investigated in horses with altered behavior, THO, multifocal brain disease, otitis, and in horses with certain coat and eye color patterns. BAER testing is an objective and noninvasive diagnostic modality to assess auditory function in horses. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Temporomandibular joint cytokine profiles in the horse.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Gordon, John R; Allen, Andrew L

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested that dental abnormalities lead to temporomandibular joint inflammation and pain that may be mitigated by regular dental care. There is considerable literature on the pathophysiology of equine joint disease including studies on cytokine profiles in diseased appendicular joints. This study examined the effects of age and dental malocclusions summarized as a dental pathology score on equine temporomandibular joint cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha and TGF-beta1, -beta2, -beta3) concentrations. TGF-beta3 was not detected in any joint sample. IL-1, IL-6 and TNF alpha were not influenced by age. Foals had significantly lower concentrations of lL-8 and TGF-beta1, and higher levels of TGF-beta2 compared with older horses. Age did not effect cytokine concentration in older horses although there was a trend towards increasing 1L-8 with age. The dental pathology score increased with age in mature horses, however there was no effect of dental pathology score on cytokine concentration. There was no effect of incisor eruption, and presence or number of periodontal lesions on temporomandibular joint cytokine concentration. Our findings indicate that age but not dental pathology affected temporomandibular joint proinflammatory cytokine concentration in this population of horses.

  17. Experimental induction of recurrent airway obstruction with inhaled fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and silica microspheres in horses.

    PubMed

    Beeler-Marfisi, Janet; Clark, Mary Ellen; Wen, Xin; Sears, William; Huber, Leslie; Ackerley, Cameron; Viel, Laurent; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate experimental induction of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) with inhaled fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and silica microspheres in horses. 7 horses with and 3 horses without a history of RAO. RAO-susceptible horses ranged in age from 17 to approximately 30 years, and control horses ranged in age from 7 to approximately 15 years. Pure mold cultures were derived from repeated culture of hay and identified via gene amplification and sequencing. Pulmonary function testing and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed before and after nebulization with a suspension of spores derived from 3 fungi, lipopolysaccharide, and 1-microm silica microspheres in all horses. This was followed by a 4-month washout period and a further pulmonary function test followed by saline (0.9% NaCl) solution challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage. Lichtheimia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Eurotium amstelodami were consistently identified in cultures of moldy hay. Nebulization with fungal spores, lipopolysaccharide, and microspheres induced significant increases in pleural pressure in RAO-susceptible but not control horses. Airway neutrophilia developed in both groups of horses with exposure to challenge material but more severely in RAO-susceptible horses. Results indicated that inhalation of fungal spores in combination with lipopolysaccharide and silica microspheres can induce disease exacerbation in susceptible horses and may thus be a useful model for future standardized studies of RAO in horses.

  18. Welfare in horse breeding

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. L. H.; Sandøe, P.

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations. PMID:25908746

  19. Horse Allergy: Curly Horses Allow Horse Allergic Riders To Ride Again.

    PubMed

    Mitlehner, W; Mitlehner, H C; Niggemann, B

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that so called hypoallergenic horses (Curly horses) allow horse allergic riders to ride again, we investigated 40 horse allergic riders in a period of 37 months. Methods: We tested these patients (pts.) by skin prick test (SPT) with different non-curly and Curly horses and studied the riding hours and horse brushing by measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and Tiffeneau tests (FEV1) as well as peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) over 12 months. The results in 37/40 pts. showed no relevant reactions of the lower airways or nasal flow. Only in 3/40 patients an initial significant fall of FEV1 was observed, reversed by a single inhalation of salbutamol and not repeated despite further riding contact. In contrast to other allergic events (e. g. baker's asthma) a further and regular contact with these horses abolished the mild allergic reactions of the start period of contact. This may be due to hypoallergenic properties of these horses, whose test material produces weaker reactions in the SPT than that of normal horses. After a period of three years, a loss of reactivity to normal horses could be confirmed in some of the riders. Conclusion: The tested purebreed Curly horses may be a suitable alternative for horse allergic riders if the methodological precautions of this study are followed.

  20. Megaesophagus in Friesian horses associated with muscular hypertrophy of the caudal esophagus.

    PubMed

    Komine, M; Langohr, I M; Kiupel, M

    2014-09-01

    Friesian horses have a perceived high rate of congenital or hereditary diseases, including megaesophagus, that may lead to choke and death. A retrospective study was performed to determine the prevalence and pathologic characteristics of esophageal disease in 852 horses, including 17 Friesians, that had been necropsied over a 6-year period at the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health. Forty-two horses had grossly described esophageal lesions (25 muscular hypertrophy, 7 hemorrhage, 6 megaesophagus, 4 erosion/ulceration, 3 obstruction, 2 tears, 2 secondary neoplasms, 2 lymphoid patches, 1 thin wall, 1 esophagitis). Some of these lesions occurred concurrently in the same horse. Ten of these horses died or were euthanatized because of severe esophageal disease (6 megaesophagus causing tears in 2 horses, 3 esophageal obstruction with food bolus, and 1 esophagitis). All 6 horses with megaesophagus were Friesians. No cause for megaesophagus was noted in the necropsy reports; however, 5 of these 6 Friesians had marked caudal esophageal muscular hypertrophy (wall thickness: 1.9 ± 0.3 cm). Microscopic review of the esophagus of these Friesians confirmed smooth muscle hypertrophy, with no obvious fibrosis, degeneration, or loss of myenteric plexi. Unlike the Friesians, the 4 non-Friesian horses with severe esophageal disease had esophageal obstruction with an intraluminal food bolus or severe esophagitis. None had caudal esophageal muscular hypertrophy. It is concluded that in comparison to other horse breeds, Friesians have a higher prevalence of severe esophageal disease, specifically megaesophagus, that is commonly associated with marked caudal muscular hypertrophy.

  1. Radiation therapy in horses.

    PubMed

    Fidel, Janean L

    2010-04-01

    Although the diagnosis of cancer is relatively uncommon in horses, tumors do occur in this species. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are traditional cancer treatments in all species. In equine patients, surgery has often been the only treatment offered; however, not all tumors can be controlled with surgery alone. In small animal oncology, newer and better therapies are in demand and available. Radiation therapy is often used to control or palliate tumors locally, especially to satisfy clients who demand sophisticated treatments. The large size of equine patients can make radiation therapy difficult, but it is a valuable tool for treating cancer and should not be overlooked when treating horses.

  2. Thermographic diagnosis of Horner's syndrome in the horse.

    PubMed

    Purohit, R C; McCoy, M D; Bergfeld, W A

    1980-08-01

    Lateral and frontal thermographic patterns of the head of normal horses before and after exercise were characterized to aid the diagnosis of diseases of the head. Surgical induction of Horner's syndrome was done in four horses by isolation and transection of the vagosympathetic trunk. One clinical case and the surgically induced cases of Horner's syndrome were evaluated clinically. Thermographic findings of the clinical case were similar to the experimental cases.

  3. Effects of intra-articularly administered endotoxin on clinical signs of disease and synovial fluid tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6, and prostaglandin E2 values in horses.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, D L; MacKay, R J; Gum, G G; Colahan, P T; Meyer, J C

    1993-03-01

    In each of 4 horses, sterile synovitis was induced by intra-articular injection of 3 micrograms of Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) into one antebrachiocarpal joint; an equal volume (2 ml) of phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBSS) was injected into the opposite, control carpus. Blood and 1.5 ml of synovial fluid were obtained at postinjection hours (PIH) 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 42, 66, and 144. Synovial fluid sample collection was accomplished by use of an indwelling, intra-articular catheter through PIH 12, and by arthrocentesis subsequently. Joint fluid samples were analyzed for cell counts, protein concentration, cytologic variables, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) values. Tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 activities and WBC count were also measured in blood. To monitor local inflammation, skin temperature of each carpus was imaged, using a thermographic scanner prior to each sample collection time. Horses had minimal systemic effects. Mean (+/- SEM) rectal temperature increased significantly to 39.02 +/- 0.15 C only at PIH 18 after intra-articular injection of LPS. One horse had signs of mild depression from PIH 7 to 18, but its vital signs did not change appreciably. Each horse had mild signs of discomfort in the LPS-injected limb from PIH 1 to 3 until PIH 8 to 10. Mean peak surface temperature of the LPS-injected carpi was significantly higher than that of control carpi from PIH 8 to 144 (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. [Two horses with neurological symptoms: could this be equine botulism?].

    PubMed

    Roest, H I J; de Bruijn, C M; Picavet, M T J E; Prins, B; Parmentier, D; de Zwart, G M A M; Dijkstra, Y E; van Zijderveld, F G

    2009-10-01

    Symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of equine botulism are discussed by the presentation of two detailed reports of horses with neurological symptoms and the results of laboratory investigations over the period 2003-2008 in the Netherlands. In addition a brief summary of the available literature is presented. Prevailing symptoms of botulism in horses include paralysis of the tongue, salvation, dysphagia and paresis and paralysis of the skeletal muscles, as well as signs of colic. Symptoms and prognosis vary with the amount of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) involved. For early clinical diagnosis of botulism thorough investigation of the facial nerves is important, for instance by the use of the 'Tongue Stress Test'. Laboratory results often remain negative, probably due to the sampling time, the high sensitivity of horses for botulinum neurotoxin or treatment with antitoxins. Most clinical cases in horses are caused by botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B). For therapy to be successful antiserum needs to be administered in the earliest possible stage of the disease and this should be supported by symptomatic therapy. Botulism is a feed-related intoxication caused by either carcasses in the roughage or BoNT/B production after poor conservation of grass silage. This is the main source of botulism in horses due to the popularity of individually packed grass silage as feed for horses. As long as no vaccine is available in the Netherlands quality control of silage and haylage is strictly recommended in order to reduce the risk of botulism in horses.

  5. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: The microbiome of the horse hindgut: History and current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Julliand, V; Grimm, P

    2016-06-01

    In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome. In the first section, the quantification and diversity are described for each microbial community as well as the implication of plant fiber degradation and their crucial role for an herbivore host. The microbial communities are presented in chronological order of discovery: due to their large size, protozoa were brought to light as early as 1843 in the horse cecum; in 1897, bacteria were described in the horse intestine; as early as 1910, monoflagellated eukaryotic organisms resembling protozoa were observed in the horse cecum; since then, they have been identified to be zoospores of anaerobic fungi; in 1970, bacteriophage-like particles were recognized in the cecum and colon of pony and horse; and finally, in 1996, archaea were identified in the horse cecum. The second section discusses the variations that can occur between digestive segments or between individuals. The representativeness of the fecal microbiota to the hindgut one is debated, especially as the majority of recent studies conducted on the horse hindgut are in fact focused on the feces, rather than the cecum or colon. Also, the representation of microbiota between individuals is questioned. It has long been suggested in the literature that some ponies or horses that were more susceptible to intestinal diseases

  6. Immune response to Sarcocystis neurona infection in naturally infected horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jibing; Ellison, Siobhan; Gogal, Robert; Norton, Heather; Lindsay, David S; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Witonsky, Sharon

    2006-06-15

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is one of the most common neurologic diseases of horses in the United States. The primary etiologic agent is Sarcocystis neurona. Currently, there is limited knowledge regarding the protective or pathophysiologic immune response to S. neurona infection or the subsequent development of EPM. The objectives of this study were to determine whether S. neurona infected horses with clinical signs of EPM had altered or suppressed immune responses compared to neurologically normal horses and if blood sample storage would influence these findings. Twenty clinically normal horses and 22 horses with EPM, diagnosed by the presence of S. neurona specific antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal (CSF) and clinical signs, were evaluated for differences in the immune cell subsets and function. Our results demonstrated that naturally infected horses had significantly (P<0.05) higher percentages of CD4 T-lymphocytes and neutrophils (PMN) in separated peripheral blood leukocytes than clinically normal horses. Leukocytes from naturally infected EPM horses had significantly lower proliferation responses, as measured by thymidine incorporation, to a non-antigen specific mitogen than did clinically normal horses (P<0.05). Currently, studies are in progress to determine the role of CD4 T cells in disease and protection against S. neurona in horses, as well as to determine the mechanism associated with suppressed in vitro proliferation responses. Finally, overnight storage of blood samples appears to alter T lymphocyte phenotypes and viability among leukocytes.

  7. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating horses with spinal ataxia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Colleen W; Nykamp, Stephanie G; Foster, Robert; Cruz, Robert; Montieth, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing cervical stenotic myelopathy in horses, 39 horses with spinal ataxia and 20 control horses underwent clinical and neurologic examinations, cervical radiographs, euthanasia, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the cervical spine and necropsy. Twenty-four horses were diagnosed with cervical stenotic myelopathy, 5 with cervical vertebral stenosis, 7 with idiopathic ataxia, 3 horses had other causes of ataxia, and 20 were controls. The MR images were assessed for spinal cord intensity changes, presence of spinal cord compression, spinal cord compression direction, shape of spinal cord, and the presence of synovial cysts, joint mice, and degenerative joint disease. The height, width, and area of the spinal cord, dural tube and vertebral canal were measured. The identification of spinal cord compression on MR images was significantly different in horses with cervical stenotic myelopathy (P < 0.02), but in the cervical stenotic myelopathy group the identification of spinal cord compression on MR images had poor to slight agreement with histopathologic evidence of compression (κ = 0.05). Horses with cervical stenotic myelopathy were more likely to have a T2 hyperintensity in the spinal cord (P < 0.05). Horses with cervical stenotic myelopathy or cervical vertebral stenosis were more likely to have degenerative joint disease than control horses or horses with other or idiopathic ataxia. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  8. Familial basis of exertional rhabdomyolysis in quarter horse-related breeds.

    PubMed

    Valberg, S J; Geyer, C; Sorum, S A; Cardinet, G H

    1996-03-01

    To trace pedigrees from affected horses, identify likely contributing founder horses, and determine the conditional probability of founder genotypes. Muscle biopsy records from the Neuromuscular Disease Laboratory at the University of California-Davis and the University of Minnesota were searched to identify horses with a polysaccharide storage myopathy and exercise intolerance/rhabdomyolysis. Pedigrees containing 5 to 6 generations were obtained where possible. 13 Quarter Horses, 4 American Paint Horses, 3 Appaloosas, and 3 Quarter Horse crossbreds (16 mares, 4 geldings, and 3 stallions) were identified with polysaccharide storage myopathy. Pedigrees were available for 18 horses. Inbreeding coefficients, founder contributions, and conditional probability of founder genotypes were calculated. Three stallions (A, B, and C) were featured prominently in the pedigrees. Stallions A and B descended from a common sire. On average, A contributed 8.8% (range, 0 to 23%) of the genes in affected horses, B contributed 4.2% (range, 0 to 14%), and C contributed 3.0% (range, 0 to 14%). The sire and dam of 4 horses were descendants of stallion A, the sire and dam of 1 horse were descendants of stallion B, and the sire and dam of 11 horses were descendants of a combination of stallions A and B. The pattern of inheritance resembled an autosomal recessive disorder. Assuming this pattern of inheritance, the conditional probability that these founders were carriers or recessive for the trait was > 99.29% for stallions A and B and 92% for stallion C. Results support a familial basis for polysaccharide storage myopathy and associated exertional rhabdomyolysis in Quarter Horse-related breeds. The strong contribution of particular founder stallions to the gene pool in some lines of Quarter Horses may explain the high incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis in these horses.

  9. Detection of equine herpesvirus in horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and comparison of three sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Steven R; Pusterla, Nicola; Kass, Philip H; Good, Kathryn L; Brault, Stephanie A; Maggs, David J

    2015-09-01

    To determine the role of equine herpesvirus (EHV) in idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis in horses and to determine whether sample collection method affects detection of EHV DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Twelve horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and six horses without signs of ophthalmic disease. Conjunctival swabs, corneal scrapings, and conjunctival biopsies were collected from 18 horses: 12 clinical cases with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and six euthanized controls. In horses with both eyes involved, the samples were taken from the eye judged to be more severely affected. Samples were tested with qPCR for EHV-1, EHV-2, EHV-4, and EHV-5 DNA. Quantity of EHV DNA and viral replicative activity were compared between the two populations and among the different sampling techniques; relative sensitivities of the sampling techniques were determined. Prevalence of EHV DNA as assessed by qPCR did not differ significantly between control horses and those with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis. Sampling by conjunctival swab was more likely to yield viral DNA as assessed by qPCR than was conjunctival biopsy. EHV-1 and EHV-4 DNA were not detected in either normal or IKC-affected horses; EHV-2 DNA was detected in two of 12 affected horses but not in normal horses. EHV-5 DNA was commonly found in ophthalmically normal horses and horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis. Because EHV-5 DNA was commonly found in control horses and in horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis, qPCR was not useful for the etiological diagnosis of equine keratoconjunctivitis. Conjunctival swabs were significantly better at obtaining viral DNA samples than conjunctival biopsy in horses in which EHV-5 DNA was found. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Theme Unit. Horse Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses…

  11. Deborah Butterfield: "Derby Horse."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spomer, Marvin J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for students in grades seven to nine which examines the working methods of Deborah Butterfield's sculpture and its place in contemporary U.S. art. Includes a photograph of the sculpture, "Derby Horse," and provides background information about the artist, student objectives, instructional strategies, and evaluation…

  12. Nuclear scintigraphy in horses.

    PubMed

    Winter, Matthew D; Berry, Clifford R; Reese, David J

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear scintigraphy has been used successfully for various applications in horses in the past 30 years. Many private practices and most veterinary schools have gamma cameras, which are used to image an injected radionuclide in an equine patient. Unique exercise-related demands place specific physiologic stressors on the musculoskeletal system of horses. Horses are often pushed beyond normal physiologic limits because of specific performance stresses; therefore, injury to their musculoskeletal system is common. Skeletal scintigraphy is exceedingly sensitive but relatively nonspecific for determining a definitive etiology. Equine scintigraphy is best suited for detecting acute soft tissue and osseous abnormalities because radiopharmaceutical uptake often precedes radiographic detection. However, scintigraphy can also be used to locate potential areas of abnormal osseous turnover in horses with chronic, vague lameness. This article reviews the basic principles of equine scintigraphy, with an emphasis on bone scintigraphy and the clinical applications of this technique. Vascular-, soft tissue-, and bone-phase acquisition are described along with basic image interpretation. Potential pitfalls in image acquisition and interpretation are discussed.

  13. Cantharidin toxicosis in horses.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, D G

    1989-01-01

    Cantharidin toxicosis in horses has become an increasing problem in certain regions of the United States. Toxicosis occurs when horses ingest alfalfa hay or products that are contaminated with "blister" beetles. Clinical signs may vary from depression to severe shock and death, depending upon the amount of toxin ingested. The most frequently observed signs include varying degrees of abdominal pain, anorexia, depression, and signs suggestive of oral irritation. Many horses make frequent attempts to void urine. Less commonly observed signs include synchronous diaphragmatic flutter and erosions of the oral mucosal surfaces. Clinical laboratory abnormalities suggestive of cantharidin toxicosis include persistent hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, development of hypoproteinemia, microscopic hematuria, and mild azotemia with inappropriate urine specific gravity. Chemical analysis for cantharidin is accomplished by evaluation of urine or stomach contents. Treatment of cantharidin toxicosis is symptomatic, but must include removal of toxin source. Gastrointestinal protectants, laxative, intravenous fluids, analgesics, diuretics, calcium gluconate, and magnesium are all included in the treatment regimen. Early and vigorous therapy is imperative if it is to be successful. In horses that remain alive for several days, persistence of elevated heart and respiratory rates and increasing serum creatine kinase concentration are associated with a deteriorating condition. Prevention is aimed at timely harvesting of alfalfa hay. Hay fields should be inspected for the presence of beetle clusters before harvesting. Involved areas of the field should not be harvested.

  14. Theme Unit. Horse Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This integrated, cross-curricular theme unit has children become immersed in the equine world as they broaden their vocabulary, participate in hands-on science and math, explore art, become aware of the horse's important role in history, and learn about good grooming. A student reproducible, a poetry poster, and a poster on the coloring of horses…

  15. Objective assessment of gait in xylazine-induced ataxic horses.

    PubMed

    Nout-Lomas, Y S; Page, K M; Kang, H G; Aanstoos, M E; Greene, H M

    2017-05-01

    development of clinical neurological disease in horses is warranted. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella spp. in 46 Horses.

    PubMed

    Estell, K E; Young, A; Kozikowski, T; Swain, E A; Byrne, B A; Reilly, C M; Kass, P H; Aleman, M

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella spp. are implicated as a common cause of bacterial pneumonia in horses, but few reports describe clinical presentation and disease progression. To describe the signalment, clinicopathologic data, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, antimicrobial susceptibility, outcome, and pathologic lesions associated with Klebsiella spp. pneumonia in horses. Forty-six horses from which Klebsiella spp. was isolated from the lower respiratory tract. Retrospective study. Medical records from 1993 to 2013 at the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis were reviewed. Exact logistic regression was performed to determine if any variables were associated with survival to hospital discharge. Survival in horses <1 year old was 73%. Overall survival in adults was 63%. For adults in which Klebsiella pneumoniae was the primary isolate, survival was 52%. Mechanical ventilation preceded development of pneumonia in 11 horses. Complications occurred in 25/46 horses, with thrombophlebitis and laminitis occurring most frequently. Multi-drug resistance was found in 47% of bacterial isolates. Variables that significantly impacted survival included hemorrhagic nasal discharge, laminitis, and thoracic radiographs with a sharp demarcation between marked caudal pulmonary alveolar infiltration and more normal-appearing caudodorsal lung. Klebsiella spp. should be considered as a differential diagnosis for horses presenting with hemorrhagic pneumonia and for horses developing pneumonia after mechanical ventilation. Multi-drug resistance is common. Prognosis for survival generally is fair, but is guarded for adult horses in which K. pneumoniae is isolated as the primary organism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Kinematic discrimination of ataxia in horses is facilitated by blindfolding.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E; Fouche, N; Jordan, H; Pfau, T; Piercy, R J

    2017-08-10

    Agreement amongst experienced clinicians is poor when assessing presence and severity of ataxia, especially when signs are mild. Consequently, objective gait measurements might be beneficial for assessment of horses with neurological diseases. To assess diagnostic criteria using motion capture to measure variability of spatial gait-characteristics and swing duration derived from ataxic and non-ataxic horses and to assess if variability increases with blindfolding. Cross-sectional. Twenty-one horses underwent measurements in a gait laboratory and live neurological grading by multiple raters. In the gait laboratory the horses were walked across a runway surrounded by a 12-camera motion capture system with a sample frequency of 240 Hz. They were walked normally and with a blindfold in at least 3 trials each. Displacements of reflective markers on head, fetlock, hoof, 4th lumbar vertebra, tuber coxae and sacrum derived from 3-4 consecutive strides were processed and descriptive statistics, receiver operator characteristics (ROC) to determine the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) and correlation between median ataxia grade and gait parameters were determined. For horses with a median ataxia grade ≥2, Coefficient of Variation for the location of maximum vertical displacement of pelvic and thoracic distal limbs generated good diagnostic yield. The hoofs of the thoracic limbs yielded an AUC of 0.81 with 64% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Blindfolding exacerbated the variation for ataxic horses compared to non-ataxic horses with the hoof marker having an AUC of 0.89 with 82% sensitivity and 90% specificity. The low number of consecutive strides per horse obtained with motion capture could decrease diagnostic utility. Motion capture can objectively aid the assessment of horses with ataxia. Furthermore blindfolding increases variation of distal pelvic limb kinematics making it a useful clinical tool. This article is protected by copyright

  18. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Hall, Evelyn; Raidal, Sharanne; Celi, Pietro; Knight, Peter; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Records from road transport of horses from Perth to Sydney over a two year period were analysed to explore the incidence of transport related issues and identify risk factors. Transportation resulted in health problems in 2.8% of the transported horses, and in fatalities in 0.24%. Journey duration and season were risk factors for the development of transport related health problems, while breed, sex and age did not predict disease or injury risk. Overall, this study provides statistics to inform policy development for the equine transport industry and enhance management of the transported horse. Abstract Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km) in 2013–2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650) of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%); gastrointestinal problems (27%); pyrexia (19%); traumatic injuries (15%); and death (12%). Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues (p < 0.05); with a marked increase of the proportion of the most severe problems (i.e., gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death) in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and

  19. Azathioprine for treatment of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in two horses.

    PubMed

    Humber, K A; Beech, J; Cudd, T A; Palmer, J E; Gardner, S Y; Sommer, M M

    1991-09-01

    Azathioprine, a thiopurine antimetabolite used in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in human beings and dogs, was used in 2 cases of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia in horses that failed to respond to corticosteroid therapy alone. Platelet counts were increased to acceptable values in both horses. One horse returned to a successful racing career, and the other was euthanatized after developing renal disease and mild laminitis.

  20. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  1. Standing intraoral extractions of cheek teeth aided by partial crown removal in 165 horses (2010-2016).

    PubMed

    Rice, M K; Henry, T J

    2017-07-26

    Diseased cheek teeth in horses often require invasive extraction techniques that carry a high rate of complications. Techniques and instrumentation were developed to perform partial crown removal to aid standing intraoral extraction of diseased cheek teeth in horses. To analyse success rates and post-surgical complications in horses undergoing cheek teeth extraction assisted by partial crown removal. Retrospective cohort study. This study included 165 horses with 194 diseased cheek teeth that were extracted orally assisted by partial crown removal between 2010 and 2016. Medical records were analysed, including case details, obtained radiographs, surgical reports and follow-up information. Follow-up information (≥2 months) was obtained for 151 horses (91.5%). There were 95 horses examined post-operatively by the authors and, 16 horses by the referring veterinarian; in 40 horses, post-operative follow up was obtained by informal telephone interviews with the owner. Successful standing intraoral extraction of cheek teeth was obtained in 164/165 horses (99.4%). Twenty-five of these horses (15.2%) required additional intraoral extraction methods to complete the extraction, including minimally invasive transbuccal approach (n = 21) and tooth sectioning (n = 4). There was one (0.6%) horse with intraoral extraction failure that required standing repulsion to complete the extraction. The intraoperative complication of fractured root tips occurred in 11/165 horses (6.7%). Post-operative complications occurred in 6/165 horses (3.6%), including alveolar sequestra (n = 4), mild delay of alveolar healing at 2 months (n = 1), and development of a persistent draining tract secondary to a retained root tip (n = 1). Specialised instrumentation and additional training in the technique are recommended to perform partial crown removal in horses. Horses with cheek teeth extraction by partial crown removal have an excellent prognosis for a positive outcome. The term partial coronectomy

  2. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  3. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs.

    PubMed

    Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Yuk, Huijoon; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Bokyu; Song, Daesub

    2016-07-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health.

  4. Changes in Borrelia burgdorferi ELISA antibody over time in both antibiotic treated and untreated horses.

    PubMed

    Divers, Thomas J; Grice, Amy L; Mohammed, Hussni O; Glaser, Amy L; Wagner, Bettina

    2012-12-01

    Changes in ELISA serology are frequently used to determine antibiotic treatment success for Lyme disease in horses. This concept was based upon a previous report showing a marked decline in ELISA values in experimentally infected and antibiotic-treated ponies. Changes in Lyme serology following antibiotic treatment in naturally infected horses have not been reported. The objective of this study was to compare Borrelia ELISA antibody concentrations in naturally exposed horses both before and following antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease. A retrospective study was performed comparing oxytetracycline- or doxycyclinetreated (n = 68) and untreated (n = 183) horses from a single equine practice and their change in Borrelia ELISA values over a similar time period. Antibiotictreated horses had a decline in ELISA values in comparison to control horses (P ≤ 0.05) and untreated horses were twice as likely to have their ELISA values increase (OR = 0.5; 95% C.I. = 0.3-0.9) compared to treated horses. The magnitude of the decline in ELISA units following treatments was small compared to that previously reported in experimentally infected and treated ponies. Field-exposed horses with high Borrelia burgdorferi ELISA values who are treated with either oxytetracycline or doxycycline can be expected to have only a small decline in ELISA values following treatment. Persistently high ELISA titres following appropriate treatments for Lyme disease may not, without appropriate clinical signs, be a reason for more prolonged treatment.

  5. [Flunixin and its use in horses].

    PubMed

    Jaussaud, P

    1986-01-01

    Flunixin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, with a potent analgesic activity and a slight toxicity. It is largely used in horses, in the form of meglumine salt, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases or colics, and often identified in dopage cases. Physical and chemical properties of the drug, its pharmacological and toxicological properties, and its use in equine species are depicted.

  6. Clinical indications, complications, and long-term outcome of esophageal surgeries in 27 horses.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Judith B; Silveira, Andressa; Cribb, Nicola C; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Sorge, Ulrike S

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of this retrospective study was to describe clinical findings, management, and short- and long-term outcome in 27 horses that underwent various surgical techniques for esophageal disease. Surgical techniques (sometimes concurrently) performed were: esophagostomy (n = 14), esophagotomy with primary closure (n = 6), esophagomyotomy (n = 3), and esophagoplasty (n = 2). Esophageal perforation in 5 horses was treated by ventral drainage; 3 horses had the esophageal defect sutured (n = 3). Feeding tubes were placed in 15 horses. Postoperative complications occurred in 52% (14/27) with a median of 3 complications/horse (range: 1 to 7). Significantly more complications occurred in horses with a perforated esophagus. Eighteen horses (18/27; 67%) were discharged. Most horses (8/9; 89%) with a lesion located in the proximal esophagus were discharged. Horses with a higher number of postoperative complications, particularly postoperative infection, were more likely to be euthanized. One year after surgery, 41% of the horses were alive and free of complications.

  7. High resolution microscopic survey of third metacarpal articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone in the juvenile horse: possible implications in chondro-osseous disease.

    PubMed

    Boyde, Alan; Firth, Elwyn C

    2008-06-01

    The aim was to survey articular calcified cartilage (ACC) and subchondral bone in the palmar and dorsal regions of the condyles of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) of young horses with minimal or no signs of musculo-skeletal abnormality. Back-scattered electron scanning electron microscopy (BSE SEM) was conducted on polymethyl methacrylate-embedded mediolateral slices and macerated wedges of the right distal Mc3 from seven each of trained and untrained 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses. Furrows or grooves visible to the naked eye in the mineralizing front (MF) of ACC are the commonest "lesion" and are most common in the palmar portions of the medial and lateral condylar grooves. Cracks running predominantly in the parasagittal plane that infill with hypercalcified matrix are found in the same domain. Common to all these defects are deficiencies or absence of the ACC MF. Other anomalies include local excrescences or depressed areas of the MF. More important condylar lesions show displaced fragmented hypermineralized ACC with underlying excess resorption in the bone domain, leaving a thin ACC layer with cavernous space beneath it. The fragments may dislodge and displace to the joint space. Obvious although small lesions are present in horses that have undertaken little or no training. The nature and sites of the lesions indicate that they are possibly the earliest morphological evidence of changes that may lead to specific joint abnormalities. The lesions appear unlikely to be solely due to functional traumatic forces, and developmental influences are likely to be important in their initiation.

  8. "Why won't they just vaccinate?" Horse owner risk perception and uptake of the Hendra virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Manyweathers, J; Field, H; Longnecker, N; Agho, K; Smith, C; Taylor, M

    2017-04-13

    Hendra virus is a paramyxovirus that causes periodic serious disease and fatalities in horses and humans in Australia first identified in 1994. Pteropid bats (commonly known as flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, and the putative route of infection in horses is by ingestion or inhalation of material contaminated by flying-fox urine or other bodily fluids. Humans become infected after close contact with infected horses. Horse owners in Australia are encouraged to vaccinate their horses against Hendra virus to reduce the risk of Hendra virus infection, and to prevent potential transmission to humans. After the vaccine was released in 2012, uptake by horse owners was slow, with some estimated 11-17% of horses in Australia vaccinated. This study was commissioned to examine barriers to vaccine uptake and potential drivers to future adoption of vaccination by horse owners. This study examined qualitative comments from respondents to an on-line survey, reporting reasons for not vaccinating their horses. The study also investigated scenarios in which respondents felt they might consider vaccinating their horses. Self-reported barriers to uptake of the Hendra virus vaccine by horse owners (N = 150) included concerns about vaccine safety, cost, and effectiveness. Reduction in vaccination costs and perception of immediacy of Hendra virus risk were reported as being likely to change future behaviour. However, the data also indicated that horse owners generally would not reconsider vaccinating their horses if advised by their veterinarian. While changes to vaccine costs and the availability data supporting vaccine safety and efficacy may encourage more horse owners to vaccinate, this study highlights the importance of protecting the relationship between veterinarians and horse owners within the risk management strategies around Hendra virus. Interactions and trust between veterinarians and animal owners has important implications for management of and

  9. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C

    2017-09-01

    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  10. The origin of ambling horses.

    PubMed

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-08

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnesium toxicosis in two horses.

    PubMed

    Henninger, R W; Horst, J

    1997-07-01

    Magnesium sulfate, a saline laxative, is often used for treatment of intestinal impactions in horses. Clinical signs of hypermagnesemia are an uncommon complication following oral administration of magnesium sulfate. Overdose of magnesium sulfate in combination with renal insufficiency, hypocalcemia, or compromise of intestinal integrity may predispose horses to magnesium toxicosis. Establishment of diuresis with fluids and IV administration of calcium may provide successful treatment of magnesium toxicosis in horses.

  12. Phenotypic characterisation of cell populations in the brains of horses experimentally infected with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Delcambre, G H; Liu, J; Streit, W J; Shaw, G P J; Vallario, K; Herrington, J; Wenzlow, N; Barr, K L; Long, M T

    2017-05-04

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito borne member of the Flaviviridae, is one of the most commonly diagnosed agents of viral encephalitis in horses and people worldwide. A cassette of markers for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and an archive of tissues from experimental infections in the horse were used to investigate the equine neuroimmune response to WNV meningoencephalomyelitis to phenotype the early response to WNV infection in the horse. Quantitative analysis using archived tissue from experimentally infected horses. The thalamus and hindbrain from 2 groups of 6 horses were compared and consisted of a culture positive tissues from WNV experimentally horses, in the other, normal horses. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from the thalamus and hindbrain were immunolabeled for microglia, astrocytes, B cells, macrophages/neutrophils, CD3(+) T cells. Fresh frozen tissues were immunolabeled for CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte cell markers. Cell counts were obtained using a computer software program. Differences, after meeting assumptions of abnormality, were computed using a general linear model with a Tukey test (P<0.05) for pairwise comparisons. In WNV-challenged horses, Iba-1(+) microglia, CD3(+) T lymphocyte and MAC387(+) macrophage staining were significantly increased. The T cell response for the WNV-challenged horses was mixed, composed of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. A limited astrocyte response was also observed in WNV-challenged horses, and MAC387(+) and B cells were the least abundant cell populations. The results of this study were limited by a single collection time post-infection. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of cellular phenotypes is needed for naturally infected horses. Unfortunately, in clinical horses, there is high variability of sampling in terms of days post-infection and tissue handling. The data show that WNV-challenged horses recruit a mixed T cell population at the onset of neurologic disease. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  13. E5 nucleotide polymorphisms suggest quasispecies occurrence in BPV-1 sub-clinically infected horses.

    PubMed

    Savini, Federica; Federica, Savini; Gallina, Laura; Laura, Gallina; Prosperi, Alice; Alice, Prosperi; Battilani, Mara; Mara, Battilani; Bettini, Giuliano; Giuliano, Bettini; Scagliarini, Alessandra; Alessandra, Scagliarini

    2015-10-01

    BPV-1 is known as the main causative agent of equine sarcoid, but the virus has also been detected in skin and blood of healthy horses. Previous reports demonstrated the presence of E5 variants in sarcoids of donkeys and horses; we investigated whether this genetic variability might be also found in BPV-1, PBMC associated, of sub-clinically infected horses. With this aim, we analyzed the E5 gene of 21 BPV-1 strains from diseased and sub-clinically infected horses. Our analyses lead us to demonstrate that multiple sequence variants can be present in the blood of sub-clinically infected horses, with alternative bases corresponding to either synonymous or non-synonymous codons in the E5 oncogene sequences. The results give support to the proposed existence of "equine adapted" BPV-1 strains with the occurrence of viral variants, resembling quasispecies, in clinically healthy horses with viremia.

  14. Rhabdomyosarcoma in 8 horses.

    PubMed

    Castleman, W L; Toplon, D E; Clark, C K; Heskett, T W; Farina, L L; Lynch, T M; Bryant, U K; Del Piero, F; Murphy, B; Edwards, J F

    2011-11-01

    This multi-institutional report describes 8 cases of rhabdomyosarcoma in horses. Four neoplasms were in the tongue and other areas of the mouth or head, 2 were in the abdominal wall, and 1 each was in right shoulder muscles and heart. Four rhabdomyosarcomas that were less than 10 cm in diameter were treated by surgical excision or radiation with no recurrence. Two neoplasms greater than 10 cm in diameter in the abdominal wall and the right shoulder were considered inoperable and led to decisions to euthanize the horses. Two neoplasms were incidental findings at necropsy. All the neoplasms were classified as embryonal except for 1 pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma. These 8 cases were evaluated with 9 published case reports of equine rhabdomyosarcoma. For all cases, the most common sites were limb muscles (5/17) and tongue (4/17). Metastasis was reported in 4 of the previously published cases; none was found in this study.

  15. Laminitis in the horse.

    PubMed

    Hood, D M

    1999-08-01

    This article serves as an introduction to this issue on laminitis. As such, it contains the general perspectives and terminology that will be used in all subsequent articles. This article separates the clinical problem of laminitis into developmental, acute, subacute, and chronic phases and defines the criteria, duration, clinical goals, and implications of these phases. The basis for the significance of laminitis to the horse industry and the horseman is reviewed. Lastly, the organization of this issue is described.

  16. Immunodeficiency disorders in horses.

    PubMed

    Crisman, Mark V; Scarratt, W Kent

    2008-08-01

    Immunodeficiencies are characterized as primary (genetic) or secondary (acquired). Primary immunodeficiencies are relatively uncommon; however, clinically, they present a significant challenge to the practitioner, especially if the underlying disorder goes unrecognized. Secondary immunodeficiencies may present at any age, but failure of passive transfer in neonatal foals is most commonly encountered. This article provides a general overview of clinical signs and diagnosis of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies currently recognized in horses.

  17. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of neuroaxonal dystrophy in Quarter Horses.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Monica; Finno, Carrie J; Higgins, Robert J; Puschner, Birgit; Gericota, Barbara; Gohil, Kishorchandra; LeCouteur, Richard A; Madigan, John E

    2011-09-15

    To describe epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of neuroaxonal dystrophy in Quarter Horses (QHs) on a single farm. Prospective case series. Animals-148 horses. Neurologic, pathological, and toxicological evaluations were completed in selected neurologically affected horses over a 2-year period. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. 87 QHs and 1 QH-crossbred horse were affected. Most (50/88 [56.8%]) affected horses were 1 to 2 years old (median age, 2 years [range, 2 months to 34 years]). Neurologic deficits included obtundation (53/88 [60%] horses), decreased to absent menace response (33/88 [37.5%]), proprioceptive positioning deficits, wide-based stance, ataxia, and dysmetria (88/88 [100%]). Most (78/88 [88.6%]) horses had mild ataxia, but some (10/88 [11.4%]) had moderate to severe ataxia. Low serum concentrations of vitamin E (≤ 2 mg/L) were detected in 3 index case horses and 16 of 17 randomly selected horses (13/14 affected and 3/3 unaffected) during study year 1. Dietary vitamin E supplementation did not improve neurologic deficits in affected horses; vitamin E administration in pregnant mares appeared to decrease but not prevent disease development among offspring born the following year. Lesions detected at necropsy included bilaterally symmetric neuroaxonal degeneration with axonal spheroids in the nucleus gracilis, nucleus cuneatus medialis, nucleus cuneatus lateralis, and nucleus thoracicus (5/5 horses). Neuroaxonal dystrophy should be considered in evaluation of young horses with ataxia and proprioceptive positioning deficits. Vitamin E deficiency may contribute to disease severity.

  18. Immunological response and markers of cell damage in seropositive horses for Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Do Carmo, Guilherme M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Klauck, Vanderlei; Pazinato, Rafael; Moura, Anderson B; Duarte, Thiago; Duarte, Marta M M F; Bochi, Guilherme V; Moresco, Rafael N; Stefani, Lenita M

    2015-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important parasitic disease affecting several species of mammals, but little is known about this disease in horses. This study aimed to investigate the levels of several immunological variables and markers of cell damage in the serum of seropositive horses for Toxoplasma gondii. Sera samples of adult horses from the Santa Catarina State, Brazil used on a previous study were divided into groups according to their antibody levels for T. gondii determined by immunofluorescence assay, i.e. 20 samples from seronegative horses (Group A - control), 20 samples from horses with titers of 1:64 (Group B), 20 samples of horses with titers of 1:256 (Group C), and five samples from horses with titers of 1:1024 (Group D). Positive animals (Groups B, C, and D) had higher levels of immunoglobulins (IgM and IgG), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-4, and IL-6) and protein C-reactive protein, as well as lower levels of IL-10 (anti-inflammatory cytokine) when compared to seronegative horses (Group A). The nitric oxide levels were also elevated in seropositive horses. Therefore, we have found humoral and cellular immune responses in seropositive horses, and a correlation between high antibody levels and inflammatory mediators. Markers of cell injury by lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein oxidation (AOPP) were elevated in animals seropositives for T. gondii when compared to seronegatives. Therefore, seropositive horses to T. gondii can keep active immune responses against the parasite. As a consequence with chronicity of disease, they show cellular lesions that may lead to tissue damage with the appearance of clinical disease.

  19. Efficacy of a single-formula acupuncture treatment for horses with palmar heel pain

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Katherine A.; Manning, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is used without strong scientific evidence to treat many diseases of the horse, including palmar heel pain. Research is needed to provide evidence for the application of these treatments. Within the confines of our study, acupuncture did not reliably modulate palmar heel pain in horses. PMID:26663921

  20. Ultrasonographically visible hepatic location in clinically normal horses.

    PubMed

    Johns, I C; Miles, A

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound is widely used for evaluating horses with suspected liver dysfunction. Although a change in size is considered suggestive of pathology, no clear guidelines exist to define the hepatic ultrasonographically visible locations (HUVL) in horses. The aim of the study was to describe the HUVL in normal horses and determine whether this is altered by signalment, height, weight and body condition score (BCS). Prospective observational study. Bilateral ultrasonographic evaluation was performed in 58 clinically normal horses with no history of hepatic disease. The most cranial/caudal intercostal spaces (ICS), total number of ICS in which the liver was visualised and the ventral extent of the liver were recorded. Liver was visualised on the right in 56/58 horses (97%), the left in 41/58 (71%) and on both sides in 39/58 (67%). The most cranial ICS was 5 (right) or 4 (left) and the most caudal was 16 (right) or 11 (left). Liver was visualised in ICS 0-11 (right) and ICS 0-5 (left). Liver was not visualised ventral to the costochondral junction. There was no significant effect of sex, breed, height, weight or BCS on HUVL. Liver was visible in significantly fewer ICS on the right in horses aged 24 years and older (median ICS 3.5) compared with younger horses (median ICS 7; P = 0.016). These findings suggest that the liver should be consistently visualised on the right side, but absence of ultrasonographically visible liver on the left is unlikely to be clinically relevant. Liver dimensions may be decreased in older horses. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of pimobendan in healthy mature horses.

    PubMed

    Afonso, T; Giguère, S; Rapoport, G; Barton, M H; Coleman, A E

    2016-05-01

    Pimobendan is an inodilator used in dogs for the management of heart failure due to myxomatous valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy. The lack of data regarding the effects of pimobendan in horses prevents the rational use of this drug. To determine the cardiovascular effects of pimobendan in healthy mature horses. Randomised experimental study. Five horses were fasted overnight prior to receiving i.v. pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg bwt), intragastric (i.g.) pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg bwt) or i.g. placebo with a washout period of one week between each administration. Horses were instrumented for the measurement of right ventricular (RV) minimum pressure, RV maximum pressure, RV end diastolic pressure, and maximum rate of increase and decrease in RV pressure before and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after drug administration. Arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output and heart rate were measured at the same time points. Data were expressed as a maximum percentage of change over baseline values. There were no adverse effects associated with administration of pimobendan. The percentage increase in heart rate was significantly greater for horses given pimobendan i.g. (33 ± 4%) and i.v. (36 ± 14%) than for those given a placebo (-2 ± 7%). The percentage increase in maximum rate of increase in RV pressure (35 ± 36%) and the percentage decrease in minimum pressure (47 ± 24%) and end diastolic pressure (34 ± 13%) were significantly greater in horses given pimobendan i.v. than in those given placebo. Other variables measured were not significantly different between treatment groups. Pimobendan administered i.v. has positive chronotropic and inotropic effects in healthy mature horses and warrants further investigation for the treatment of heart failure in horses. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  2. [HYPP--hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in horses].

    PubMed

    Zeilmann, M

    1993-12-01

    A literature review of the clinical syndrome HYPP (Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) affecting Quarter Horses is given. HYPP is characterized by sporadic attacks of muscle tremors, weakness and/or collapse, lasting for variable periods of time. Diagnosis is based on physical findings in association with hyperkalemia. In horses with HYPP, the regulation of ion transport through the sodium channels in the muscle cells occasionally fails, causing uncontrollable muscle twitching. Further investigations into molecular genetics reveals a mutation in the gene responsible for sodium and potassium regulation. The identification of this gene mutation is the basis for the blood test used to diagnose HYPP. HYPP is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Treatment of HYPP attacks by intravenous application of calcium gluconate, bicarbonate and glucose results in rapid recovery. Consequent dietary management and daily administration of acetazolamide effectively controls the disease.

  3. Electrophysiological studies in American Quarter horses with neuroaxonal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Finno, Carrie J; Aleman, Monica; Ofri, Ron; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Madigan, John E; Winfield, Laramie; Bannasch, Danika L

    2012-09-01

    Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) is a disease characterized by the sudden onset of neurologic signs in horses ranging from 4 to 36 months of age. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM), a disease that has been associated with low vitamin E concentrations, is considered a more advanced form of NAD. The objective of this report is to describe the electrophysiological features of NAD/EDM in American Quarter horses (QHs). HORSES: Six NAD/EDM-affected QHs and six unaffected QHs were evaluated by ophthalmic examination and electroretinography. Five of the NAD/EDM-affected QH and five unaffected QHs were also evaluated by electroencephalography (EEG). Ophthalmic examination, ERGs, and EEGs were unremarkable in NAD/EDM cases. Neuroaxonal dystrophy/EDM does not appear to cause clinical signs of ocular disease or functional ERG/EEG deficits in QHs. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Feedtrough dirt as a source of Clostridium botulinum type C intoxication in a group of farm horses

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Sebastian E.; Bell, Roxy J.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Schuh, JoAnne C.L.; Harland, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Four horses from the same farm developed clinical signs of botulism during the winter months; three of these horses died. One horse survived an initial attack and recovered over a three-week period, but died during a second attack. The horse that survived took six weeks to recover. Clinical and postmortem examination ruled out other causes of disease. Confirmation of the diagnosis was made by isolation of Clostridium botulinum type C toxin from the dirt in the bottom of an oak feedtrough used by all horses, and from the colonic contents of one of the horses that died. To our knowledge, this is the second case of C. botulinum type C intoxication reported in horses in North America. In both cases, soil and sand near aquatic environments were identified as the source of toxin. PMID:17423488

  5. Using the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) to Assess Pain Associated with Acute Laminitis in Horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Stucke, Diana; Dai, Francesca; Minero, Michela; Leach, Matthew C; Lebelt, Dirk

    2016-08-03

    Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain, both acutely and chronically. The Obel grading system is the most widely accepted method for describing the severity of laminitis by equine practitioners, however this method requires movement (walk and trot) of the horse, causing further intense pain. The recently developed Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, may offer a more effective means of assessing the pain associated with acute laminitis. The aims of this study were: to investigate whether HGS can be usefully applied to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, and to examine if scoring HGS using videos produced similar results as those obtained from still images. Ten horses, referred as acute laminitis cases with no prior treatment, were included in the study. Each horse was assessed using the Obel and HGS (from images and videos) scales: at the admission (before any treatment) and at seven days after the initial evaluation and treatment. The results of this study suggest that HGS is a potentially effective method to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, as horses showing high HGS scores also exhibited higher Obel scores and veterinarians classified them in a more severe painful state. Furthermore, the inter-observer reliability of the HGS total score was good for both still images and video evaluation. There was no significant difference in HGS total scores between the still images and videos, suggesting that there is a possibility of applying the HGS in clinical practice, by observing the horse for a short time. However, further validation studies are needed prior to applying the HGS in a clinical setting.

  6. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-02-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (P<0.001) whose differences might be attributed to the ecology of vector ticks and climate conditions. Using 2 nested PCR, none of the samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi. Thus, a positive ELISA result can indicate only that the tested horse was previously exposed to B. burgdorferi, with no certainty over the time of exposure. Since global warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed.

  7. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (P<0.001) whose differences might be attributed to the ecology of vector ticks and climate conditions. Using 2 nested PCR, none of the samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi. Thus, a positive ELISA result can indicate only that the tested horse was previously exposed to B. burgdorferi, with no certainty over the time of exposure. Since global warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed. PMID:26951987

  8. Acute phase proteins in Andalusian horses infected with Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T. equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response.

  9. Two-Dice Horse Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  10. Two-Dice Horse Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  11. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7–319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8–8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8–926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17–0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34–2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak

  12. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  13. Hospital-based study of dental pathology and faecal particle size distribution in horses with large colon impaction.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Helga; Van der Stede, Yves; De Vlamynck, Caroline; Muurling, Floor; De Clercq, Dominique; van Loon, Gunther; Vlaminck, Lieven

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if horses with large colon impaction were more severely affected by oral pathology than control cases and to relate faecal particle size distribution to dental pathology in both study groups. A prospective study included 39 horses with large colon impaction and 72 control horses from a hospital-based population. An oral pathology score (OPscore) and periodontal disease index (PDI) were assigned to all horses and faecal samples were collected for estimating faecal particle size and analysis of particle size distribution. Horses with large colon impactions were not more severely affected by oral pathology than control horses for both OPscore (P = 0.2) and PDI (P = 0.3). Faecal particle size estimates were significantly higher in control animals (P <0.001). No significant association was found between faecal particle size estimates and OPscores in horses with large colon impaction or control horses. In horses with large colon impaction, faecal particle size estimates increased with increasing PDI (P = 0.05). No associations were found between dental pathology and faecal particle size estimates. Horses developing large colon impaction did not have worse dentition than control horses.

  14. Equine recurrent uveitis--a spontaneous horse model of uveitis.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Cornelia A; Hauck, Stefanie M; Amann, Barbara; Pompetzki, Dirk; Altmann, Frank; Raith, Albert; Schmalzl, Thomas; Stangassinger, Manfred; Ueffing, Marius

    2008-01-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is an autoimmune disease that occurs with a high prevalence (10%) in horses. ERU represents the only reliable spontaneous model for human autoimmune uveitis. We already identified and characterized novel autoantigens (malate dehydrogenase, recoverin, CRALBP) by analyzing the autoantibody-binding pattern of horses affected by spontaneous recurrent uveitis (ERU) to the retinal proteome. CRALBP also seems to be relevant to human autoimmune uveitis. Proteomic screening of vitreous and retinal samples from ERU diseased cases in comparison to healthy controls has led to the identification of a series of differentially regulated proteins, which are functionally linked to the immune system and the maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier.

  15. Circulating microRNA profiles of Hendra virus infection in horses.

    PubMed

    Cowled, Christopher; Foo, Chwan-Hong; Deffrasnes, Celine; Rootes, Christina L; Williams, David T; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa; Bean, Andrew G D; Stewart, Cameron R

    2017-08-07

    Hendra virus (HeV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen harbored by Australian mainland flying foxes. HeV infection can cause lethal disease in humans and horses, and to date all cases of human HeV disease have resulted from contact with infected horses. Currently, diagnosis of acute HeV infections in horses relies on the productive phase of infection when virus shedding may occur. An assay that identifies infected horses during the preclinical phase of infection would reduce the risk of zoonotic viral transmission during management of HeV outbreaks. Having previously shown that the host microRNA (miR)-146a is upregulated in the blood of HeV-infected horses days prior to the detection of viremia, we have profiled miRNAs at the transcriptome-wide level to comprehensively assess differences between infected and uninfected horses. Next-generation sequencing and the miRDeep2 algorithm identified 742 mature miRNA transcripts corresponding to 593 miRNAs in whole blood of six horses (three HeV-infected, three uninfected). Thirty seven miRNAs were differentially expressed in infected horses, two of which were validated by qRT-PCR. This study describes a methodology for the transcriptome-wide profiling of miRNAs in whole blood and supports the notion that measuring host miRNA expression levels may aid infectious disease diagnosis in the future.

  16. Demographics, management, and welfare of nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed

    Christie, Julie L; Hewson, Caroline J; Riley, Christopher B; Mcniven, Mary A; Dohoo, Ian R; Bate, Luis A

    2004-12-01

    There are no detailed, representative, horse-level data about equine management practices in different parts of Canada. To help address this, the demographics, management, and welfare of 312 nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island were examined in a randomized, horse-level survey during summer 2002. Owners completed a pretested questionnaire, and a veterinarian examined each horse. Owners were experienced caregivers and the horses were generally in good condition. Areas for improvement included parasite control, dental and hoof care, and tail docking. The mean fecal egg count was 428 eggs per gram; 76% of owners never removed manure from the pasture. Sixty-two percent of horses had never had a veterinary dental examination. Many horses had hoof defects (excessively long hooves, 26.8%; hoof wall breaks, 32.0%; and white line disease, 8.5%). Many (54.9%) draft horses had docked tails. These results suggest owners might benefit their horses by receiving education in aspects of equine care.

  17. Clinical nutrition of adult horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, S L

    1990-08-01

    Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old.

  18. Hay Days: The Horse in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    "The Goldfinch" introduces young children to various facets of Iowa history. Each issue has a specific topic, and a number of articles covering different aspects of the topic being addressed. This particular issue focuses on horses. Featured articles discuss historical uses of horses, an Iowa child who owns a quarter horse, show horses,…

  19. Pain Management in Horses.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Alonso

    2017-04-01

    There has been great progress in the understanding of basic neurobiologic mechanisms of pain, but this body of knowledge has not yet translated into new and improved analgesics. Progress has been made regarding pain assessment in horses, but more work is needed until sensitive and accurate pain assessment tools are available for use in clinical practice. This review summarizes and updates the knowledge concerning the cornerstones of pain medicine (understand, assess, prevent, and treat). It highlights the importance of understanding pain mechanisms and expressions to enable a rational approach to pain assessment, prevention, and management in the equine patient.

  20. Horse Hoof Protectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

  1. Horse Hoof Protectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Power Pads, shown here, were designed to support and cushion horses' hooves while walking, rurning, and jumping, thus reducing the risk of injury. The pads utilize magnets implanted in the pads to increase blood circulation, not only reducing the chance of injury, but also speeding up the healing process if an injury does occur. Marshall Space Flight Center materials engineer Deborah Dianne Schmidt and materials technician Anthony Schaffer contributed to the design by providing fatigue stress analysis to the prototypes, thus helping determine the best configuration and maximum durability.

  2. Flood injury in horses.

    PubMed

    McConnico, Rebecca S

    2007-05-01

    There is no way to prepare for every situation that arises in a disaster. By working closely with other producers and agricultural leaders, however, horse owners can lessen the impact of a disaster on their operation. Preparation and detailed planning are the most important aspects of flood-related injury prevention. Encouraging animal owners and caretakers to have an evacuation plan and dispersing knowledge about local and regional disaster authorities are critical for a successful disaster response. Educational programs on future disaster response empower communities to care for their people and animals responsibly.

  3. Sacroiliac injuries in horses.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Jennifer; Brounts, Sabrina H

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of sacroiliac joint injuries. These injuries can be acute or chronic and can involve soft tissue structures surrounding the joint or the bony structures of the joint. The several diagnostic modalities for sacroiliac injuries vary in usefulness and accessibility. Treatment of sacroiliac problems is usually supportive and nonspecific and includes the use of antiinflammatory medications and an appropriate exercise regimen. The prognosis depends on the cause, but severe injuries can limit a horse's future athletic activity.

  4. Summary of current knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the horse population within Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Robust demographic information is important to understanding the risk of introduction and spread of exotic diseases as well as the development of effective disease control strategies, but is often based on datasets collected for other purposes. Thus, it is important to validate, or at least cross-reference these datasets to other sources to assess whether they are being used appropriately. The aim of this study was to use horse location data collected from different contributing industry sectors ("Stakeholder horse data") to calibrate the spatial distribution of horses as indicated by owner locations registered in the National Equine Database (the NED). Results A conservative estimate for the accurately geo-located NED horse population within GB is approximately 840,000 horses. This is likely to be an underestimate because of the exclusion of horses due to age or location criteria. In both datasets, horse density was higher in England and Wales than in Scotland. The high density of horses located in urban areas as indicated in the NED is consistent with previous reports indicating that owner location cannot always be viewed as a direct substitute for horse location. Otherwise, at a regional resolution, there are few differences between the datasets. There are inevitable biases in the stakeholder data, and leisure horses that are unaffiliated to major stakeholders are not included in these data. Despite this, the similarity in distributions of these datasets is re-assuring, suggesting that there are few regional biases in the NED. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that stakeholder data could be used to monitor possible changes in horse demographics. Given such changes in horse demographics and the advantages of stakeholder data (which include annual updates and accurate horse location), it may be appropriate to use these data for future disease modelling in conjunction with, if not in place of the NED. PMID:22475060

  5. Summary of current knowledge of the size and spatial distribution of the horse population within Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Boden, Lisa A; Parkin, Tim D H; Yates, Julia; Mellor, Dominic; Kao, Rowland R

    2012-04-04

    Robust demographic information is important to understanding the risk of introduction and spread of exotic diseases as well as the development of effective disease control strategies, but is often based on datasets collected for other purposes. Thus, it is important to validate, or at least cross-reference these datasets to other sources to assess whether they are being used appropriately. The aim of this study was to use horse location data collected from different contributing industry sectors ("Stakeholder horse data") to calibrate the spatial distribution of horses as indicated by owner locations registered in the National Equine Database (the NED). A conservative estimate for the accurately geo-located NED horse population within GB is approximately 840,000 horses. This is likely to be an underestimate because of the exclusion of horses due to age or location criteria. In both datasets, horse density was higher in England and Wales than in Scotland. The high density of horses located in urban areas as indicated in the NED is consistent with previous reports indicating that owner location cannot always be viewed as a direct substitute for horse location. Otherwise, at a regional resolution, there are few differences between the datasets. There are inevitable biases in the stakeholder data, and leisure horses that are unaffiliated to major stakeholders are not included in these data. Despite this, the similarity in distributions of these datasets is re-assuring, suggesting that there are few regional biases in the NED. Our analyses suggest that stakeholder data could be used to monitor possible changes in horse demographics. Given such changes in horse demographics and the advantages of stakeholder data (which include annual updates and accurate horse location), it may be appropriate to use these data for future disease modelling in conjunction with, if not in place of the NED.

  6. Acylcarnitines profile best predicts survival in horses with atypical myopathy.

    PubMed

    Boemer, François; Detilleux, Johann; Cello, Christophe; Amory, Hélène; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel; Richard, Eric; van Galen, Gaby; van Loon, Gunther; Lefère, Laurence; Votion, Dominique-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Equine atypical myopathy (AM) is caused by hypoglycin A intoxication and is characterized by a high fatality rate. Predictive estimation of survival in AM horses is necessary to prevent unnecessary suffering of animals that are unlikely to survive and to focus supportive therapy on horses with a possible favourable prognosis of survival. We hypothesized that outcome may be predicted early in the course of disease based on the assumption that the acylcarnitine profile reflects the derangement of muscle energetics. We developed a statistical model to prognosticate the risk of death of diseased animals and found that estimation of outcome may be drawn from three acylcarnitines (C2, C10:2 and C18 -carnitines) with a high sensitivity and specificity. The calculation of the prognosis of survival makes it possible to distinguish the horses that will survive from those that will die despite severe signs of acute rhabdomyolysis in both groups.

  7. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Can the microbiome of the horse be altered to improve digestion?

    PubMed

    Coverdale, J A

    2016-06-01

    Intensive management practices in the horse industry present a unique challenge to the microbiome of the large intestine. Common management practices such as high-concentrate diets, low forage quality, meal feeding, and confinement housing have an impact on intestinal function, specifically large intestinal fermentation. The microbiome of the equine large intestine is a complex and diverse ecosystem, and disruption of microbiota and their environment can lead to increased incidence of gastrointestinal disorder. Digestion in the horse can be improved through a variety of approaches such as feedstuff selection, forage quality, feeding management, and inclusion of digestive aids. These digestive aids, such as prebiotics and probiotics, have been used to improve digestibility of equine diets and stabilize the microbiome of the large intestine. Probiotics, or direct-fed microbials, have been widely used in horses for treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal disease. The introduction of these live, beneficial microorganisms orally into the intestinal tract has yielded variable results. However, it is difficult to compare data due to variations in choice of organism, dosage, and basal diet. Although there are still many unanswered questions about the mode of action of successful probiotics, evidence indicates competitive inhibition and enhanced immunity. Lactic acid bacteria such as , and and yeast have all successfully been used in the horse. Use of these products has resulted in improved fiber digestibility in horses offered both high-starch and high-fiber diets. When high-concentrate diets were fed, probiotic supplementation helped maintain cecal pH, decreased lactic acid concentrations, and enhanced populations of cellulolytic bacteria. Similarly, use of prebiotic preparations containing fructooligosaccharide (FOS) or mannanoligosaccharides have improved DM, CP, and NDF digestibility when added to high-fiber diets. Furthermore, use of FOS in horses reduced

  8. Prevalence of serum precipitating antibodies in horses to fungal and thermophilic actinomycete antigens: effects of environmental challenge.

    PubMed

    Madelin, T M; Clarke, A F; Mair, T S

    1991-07-01

    Sera from 54 two- to three-year-old Thoroughbred horses from an English racing stable were examined for precipitins to antigen extracts prepared from 18 species of moulds (fungi and thermophilic actinomycetes) isolated from the same stable. Twenty-seven horses exhibited serum precipitins to one or more antigens; sixteen of the mould antigens elicited positive reactions in sera from one or more horses. Significantly more precipitins occurred in sera of those horses stabled in a barn than among those stabled in individual boxes. This indicated a possible association between type of housing, level of exposure to airborne moulds and presence of serum precipitins. None of the horses had overt respiratory disease. This study agrees with reports of the presence of serum precipitating antibodies to mould antigens in clinically healthy horses and confirms that serological tests, therefore, are of little value in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or 'heaves'.

  9. The 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia: lessons learned for international trade in horses.

    PubMed

    Watson, J; Daniels, P; Kirkland, P; Carroll, A; Jeggo, M

    2011-04-01

    In August 2007 Australia experienced its first outbreak of equine influenza. The disease occurred first in a quarantine station for imported horses near Sydney and subsequently escaped into the general horse population. After an extensive campaign the disease was eradicated and Australia is again recognised as free of this disease. Equine influenza was then, and is now, recognised to be the major disease risk associated with live horse imports into Australia and measures designed to mitigate this risk formed the basis of the quarantine protocols then in place. Subsequent investigations into the cause of the outbreak identified failures in compliance with these quarantine requirements as a contributing factor. It is also likely that the immunity of horses vaccinated as part of the import protocol was less than optimal, and that this had a significant role to play in the escape of the disease from quarantine.

  10. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Witonsky, Sharon G; Ellison, Siobhan; Yang, Jibing; Gogal, Robert M; Lawler, Heather; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sriranganathan, Namalwar; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Lindsay, David S

    2008-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection is 1 of the most common neurologic diseases in horses in the United States. The mechanisms by which most horses resist disease, as well as the possible mechanisms by which the immune system may be suppressed in horses that develop EPM, are not known. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether horses experimentally infected with S. neurona developed suppressed immune responses. Thirteen horses that were negative for S. neurona antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or infected (n = 8) treatment groups. Neurologic exams and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were performed prior to, and following, S. neurona infection. Prior to, and at multiple time points following infection, immune parameters were determined. All 8 S. neurona-infected horses developed clinical signs consistent with EPM, and had S. neurona antibodies in the serum and CSF. Both infected and control horses had increased percentages (P < 0.05) of B cells at 28 days postinfection. Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection.

  11. Seroprevalence of horse (Equus caballus) brucellosis on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    ARDO, Mohammed B.; ABUBAKAR, Dauda M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was conducted on the seroprevalence of horse brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria where horses are reared under a free range management system on cattle farms. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of brucella antibodies in horses as well as the distribution of the infection according to sex and age. A total of 100 horses were sampled, 25 each from four locations where horses were concentrated on the plateau: Gembu, Nguroje, Dorofi, and Mayo Ndaga. Sixty-two of the horses were males, and 38 were females. Eighty of the horses were adults, while 20 were young. All horses were reared under a free range management system together with cattle. The overall seroprevalence rate was 16 (16%) according to the RBPT and 6 (6%) according to the SAT. The seroprevalence rates were 19.40% (12/62) according to the RBPT and 6.50% (4/62) according to the SAT in the males and 10.50% (4/38) according to the RBPT and 5.30% (2/38) according to the SAT in the females. The prevalence was highest in Nguroje (8/25, 32%) followed by Gembu (5/25, 20%), Dorofi (3/25, 12%) and Mayo Ndaga (0%). Adult horses showed a seroprevalence of 18.8% (n=15) according to the RBPT and 7.5% (n=1) according to the SAT. Young horses had a seroprevalence rate of only 5% (n=1) according to the RBPT and 0% (n=0) according to the SAT. There was no statistically significance association with location, sex, and age (P>0.05). From this result, it can be concluded that brucellosis in horses on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria was essentially a disease of adult horses and more prevalent in male horses than female horses. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the disease status in lowland areas of the state where horses are reared on zero grazing or are tethered and also to determine the involvement of other species and humans. PMID:27073329

  12. Nutrition of critically ill horses.

    PubMed

    Carr, Elizabeth A; Holcombe, Susan J

    2009-04-01

    Nutritional supplementation is becoming the standard of practice in equine medicine, although there are minimal data on nutritional support in critically ill horses and its association or effect on morbidity and mortality or length of hospital stay. Horses can be fed orally and when that is not possible, intravenously or parenterally. Enteral feeding is less expensive, more physiologic, improves immunity, and is easier and safer. This article reviews available information on the development of a nutritional plan for critically ill horses, and describes methods for and complications of enteral and parenteral feeding.

  13. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.

    PubMed

    Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation.

  14. A comparison of the occurrence of common dental abnormalities in stabled and free-grazing horses.

    PubMed

    Masey O'Neill, H V; Keen, J; Dumbell, L

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain evidence on the prevalence of dental abnormalities in stable-kept horses in comparison with free-living horses. It is expected that free-living horses that graze for as much as 16 h/day will have fewer dental abnormalities than stable-kept horses. In this study, the latter group was fed a diet that was based on a relatively high-energy, cereal-based feed. This was thought to be a representative of common practice in domesticated, stable-kept horses. Compound diets such as this have previously been shown to increase the frequency of chewing cycles and decrease mediolateral excursion. The occurrence of 10 named dental abnormalities present in the dentition of 60 Thoroughbred-type horses was recorded. Half of the population was at grass all year round in New South Wales, Australia. The remainder were stabled for 24 h/day in Gloucestershire, UK. All horses were between 5 and 15 years of age. The same, experienced, equine dental technician examined all horses using a full-mouth speculum and produced a routine dental chart. Stable-kept horses had a significantly higher total occurrence of abnormalities (P < 0.001) than free-living horses. The stable-kept group had a significantly higher prevalence of exaggerated transverse ridging across the occlusal surface of the cheek teeth, focal or ramped overgrowths of the cheek teeth and periodontal disease (P < 0.01 in all cases). All horses in both groups had some occurrence of sharp edges of the buccal and lingual edges of the cheek teeth. The results are in agreement with anecdotal evidence that a fibre-based, grazed diet results in fewer dental abnormalities. However, sharp edges may occur even with what is perceived as a 'natural' diet.

  15. Suspected acorn toxicity in nine horses.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Naylor, R J; Knowles, E J; Mair, T S; Cahalan, S D; Fews, D; Dunkel, B

    2015-09-01

    Acorn toxicity has been anecdotally reported to cause fatal colitis and colic in horses but reports in the scientific literature are sparse. This study reports the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and outcome of 9 cases with suspected acorn toxicity admitted to 2 referral hospitals. Retrospective case series. Case records from 2004 to 2013 were reviewed. Horses were included in the study if they met 3 of 4 criteria: exposure to acorns; clinical and laboratory data suggesting alimentary or renal dysfunction; acorn husks in the faeces or gastrointestinal tract; and necropsy and histopathological findings consistent with acorn toxicity. Data collected included case history, clinical presentation, clinicopathological data, ultrasonographic findings, case progression, and necropsy and histopathological findings. Nine horses met the inclusion criteria. Five cases presenting with haemorrhagic diarrhoea deteriorated rapidly and were subjected to euthanasia or died. Four cases showed signs of colic with gas distension, displacement of the large colon and diarrhoea. Three of these (33%) survived with medical management, the fourth was subjected to euthanasia. Post mortem examination of 6 cases demonstrated submucosal oedema of the large intestine and caecum (n = 6), acute tubular nephrosis (n = 6), diffuse necrohaemorrhagic and ulcerative typhlocolitis and enteritis (n = 4), and small intestinal oedema (n = 3). Acorn ingestion may be associated with typhylocolitis leading to diarrhoea, colic and acute renal tubular nephrosis. Recovery is possible in mildly affected cases; more severe cases show hypovolaemia, intractable pain, renal dysfunction and cardiovascular failure, and often succumb to the disease process. Disease is only seen in a small proportion of the population exposed to acorns and there seems to be an increased occurrence in certain years. Further investigation into factors predisposing to disease is required, but limiting exposure to acorns in the autumn seems

  16. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.

    2006-07-12

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented.

  17. Advanced glycation endproducts in horses with insulin-induced laminitis.

    PubMed

    de Laat, M A; Kyaw-Tanner, M T; Sillence, M N; McGowan, C M; Pollitt, C C

    2012-01-15

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, inflammatory conditions and diabetic complications. An interaction of AGEs with their receptor (RAGE) results in increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing damage to susceptible tissues. Laminitis, a debilitating foot condition of horses, occurs in association with endocrine dysfunction and the potential involvement of AGE and RAGE in the pathogenesis of the disease has not been previously investigated. Glucose transport in lamellar tissue is thought to be largely insulin-independent (GLUT-1), which may make the lamellae susceptible to protein glycosylation and oxidative stress during periods of increased glucose metabolism. Archived lamellar tissue from horses with insulin-induced laminitis (n=4), normal control horses (n=4) and horses in the developmental stages (6h, 12h and 24h) of the disease (n=12) was assessed for AGE accumulation and the presence of oxidative protein damage and cellular lipid peroxidation. The equine-specific RAGE gene was identified in lamellar tissue, sequenced and is now available on GenBank. Lamellar glucose transporter (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4) gene expression was assessed quantitatively with qRT-PCR in laminitic and control horses and horses in the mid-developmental time-point (24 h) of the disease. Significant AGE accumulation had occurred by the onset of insulin-induced laminitis (48 h) but not at earlier time-points, or in control horses. Evidence of oxidative stress was not found in any group. The equine-specific RAGE gene was not expressed differently in treated and control animals, nor was the insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT-4. However, the glucose transporter GLUT-1 was increased in lamellar tissue in the developmental stages of insulin-induced laminitis compared to control horses and the insulin-independent nature of the lamellae may facilitate AGE formation. However, due to the lack of

  18. Horse gram- an underutilized nutraceutical pulse crop: a review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Saroj Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Horse gram is an underutilized pulse crop grown in wide range of adverse climatic conditions. It occupies an important place in human nutrition and has rich source of protein, minerals, and vitamins. Besides nutritional importance, it has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases due to presence of non-nutritive bioactive substances. These bioactive substances such as phytic acid, phenolic acid, fiber, enzymatic/proteinase inhibitors have significant metabolic and/or physiological effects. The importance of horse gram was well recognized by the folk/alternative/traditional medicine as a potential therapeutic agent to treat kidney stones, urinary diseases, piles, common cold, throat infection, fever etc. The inception of nutraceutical concept and increasing health consciousness the demand of nutraceutical and functional food is increased. In recent years, isolation and utilization of potential antioxidants from legumes including horse gram are increased as it decreases the risk of intestinal diseases, diabetes, coronary heart disease, prevention of dental caries etc. Keeping in view the increasing demand of food having nutraceutical values, the present review ascribed with recent scientific knowledge towards the possibilities of exploring the horse gram, as a source of food and nutraceuticals compounds.

  19. [Leukoencephalomalacia in two horses--moldy corn poisoning in Germany?].

    PubMed

    Wohlsein, P; Hinrichs, U; Brandt, K; Kurtz, H

    1995-12-01

    Moldy corn poisoning is a mycotoxicosis of Fusarium sp. causing a disease termed equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM). This article reviews the literature on ELEM and describes two cases with clinical signs and morphological findings comparable with fusariotoxicosis. Since in both cases neither a fungus nor a toxin proof were performed, the different causes of leukoencephalomalacia in horses are discussed.

  20. Mercury toxicosis caused by ingestion of a blistering compound in a horse.

    PubMed

    Guglick, M A; MacAllister, C G; Chandra, A M; Edwards, W C; Qualls, C W; Stephens, D H

    1995-01-15

    Mercury toxicosis by ingestion was diagnosed in a 3-year-old Quarter Horse mare with a history of anorexia and signs of abdominal discomfort. Ten and 9 days prior to admission, an inorganic mercuric blistering agent has been applied for topical treatment of dorsal metacarpal disease. At referral, signs of depression, dependent edema, pollakiuria, nonproductive cough, and oral ulceration were noticed. Laboratory data were consistent with renal dysfunction. Mercury content of blood and urine was high, confirming the diagnosis. The horse responded to intensive care, consisting primarily of IV fluid treatment, and mercury-chelating agents. However, acute laminitis developed, and the owners elected to euthanatize the horse 18 days after mercury exposure. Necropsy findings included renal tubulonephrosis and ulcerative colitis and enteritis. Mercury concentration was highest in kidney and liver tissues. The potential for mercury toxicosis in horses currently exists, and although the prognosis is grave, some horses may recover with appropriate treatment and long-term supportive medical care.

  1. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota of Mongolian and Thoroughbred Horses by High-throughput Sequencing of the V4 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yiping; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Huang, Jinlong; Shiraigo, Wunierfu; Yang, Lihua; Zhao, Qinan; Ren, Xiujuan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2016-01-01

    progression of gastrointestinal disease in horses. PMID:26954132

  2. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota of Mongolian and Thoroughbred Horses by High-throughput Sequencing of the V4 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yiping; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Huang, Jinlong; Shiraigo, Wunierfu; Yang, Lihua; Zhao, Qinan; Ren, Xiujuan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2016-09-01

    progression of gastrointestinal disease in horses.

  3. Serum lipid and lipoprotein patterns of Iranian horses.

    PubMed

    Asadi, F; Asadian, P; Shahriari, A; Pourkabir, M; Kazemi, A

    2011-12-01

    Patterns of serum biochemical parameters vary among horse breeds. The objective of the present study was to compare serum lipoproteins of Iranian Caspian ponies with those of other horses (Arabs and Thoroughbreds) in the Iranian region. Serum lipoprotein values were determined by agar-agarose gel electrophoresis and measured by scan densitometry. Moreover, serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were determined and the results were analysed by one-way analysis of variance. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol values were 1.13 +/- 0.23 and 2.38 +/- 0.18 mmol/l in Caspian ponies, 1.96 +/- 0.49 and 1.92 +/- 0.25 mmol/l in Arab horses and 1.38 +/- 0.26 and 2.17 +/- 0.53 mmol/l in Thoroughbred horses. The relative percentages of alpha- (72.63 +/- 17.76%) and beta-lipoproteins (29.10 +/- 5.49%) in serum electrophoretic tracings from Caspian ponies were not significantly different from those of other horses (p > 0.05). The lipoprotein phenotype in Caspian ponies may be useful for evaluating metabolic diseases.

  4. My Kingdom for a Horse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

  5. My Kingdom for a Horse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

  6. West Nile virus Epidemic in Horses, Tuscany Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Autorino, Gian Luca; Battisti, Antonio; Deubel, Vincent; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Forletta, Riccardo; Giovannini, Armando; Lelli, Rossella; Murri, Severine; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2002-01-01

    During the late summer of 1998, veterinary authorities in Tuscany, Italy, received reports of cases of neurologic disease among horses residing in a large wetland area located in the provinces of Florence and Pistoia. West Nile virus was isolated from two of the six horses that died or were euthanized. A retrospective epidemiologic study identified 14 clinical neurologic cases that occurred from August 20 to October 6 (attack rate of 2.8%). A serologic survey conducted over a 700-km2 area in stables with and without apparent clinical cases confirmed a wider spread of the infection, with an overall seroprevalence rate of 38% in the affected area. No significant differences in age-specific prevalence were observed, suggesting that the horses residing in the area had not been exposed previously to West Nile virus and supporting the hypothesis of its introduction in the wetland area during the first half of 1998. PMID:12498650

  7. Abortion in a horse following Neorickettsia risticii infection.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Elizabeth A; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Craig, Linden E

    2008-11-01

    A pregnant 18-year-old Quarterhorse mare presented with fever, anorexia, tachycardia, tachypnea, and gastrointestinal hypermotility at day 68 of gestation. Potomac horse fever was diagnosed based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood and a high antibody titer to Neorickettsia risticii. The mare made a rapid clinical recovery following antibiotic therapy, but aborted 98 days later. Necropsy on the aborted fetus revealed lymphohistiocytic colitis, lymphadenitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. The placenta was grossly and histologically normal. Formalin-fixed lymph node, thymus, liver, and colon taken from the aborted fetus were positive by PCR for N. risticii DNA. Potomac horse fever is a common disease in horses that may result in delayed abortion. The microscopic lesions in the fetus are characteristic, and the diagnosis can be confirmed by PCR on formalin-fixed tissues.

  8. Inactivated and adjuvanted vaccine for the control of the African horse sickness virus serotype 9 infection: evaluation of efficacy in horses and guinea-pig model.

    PubMed

    Lelli, Rossella; Molini, Umberto; Ronchi, Gaetano Federico; Rossi, Emanuela; Franchi, Paola; Ulisse, Simonetta; Armillotta, Gisella; Capista, Sara; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Di Ventura, Mauro; Pini, Attilio

    2013-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a non-contagious viral disease of solipeds transmitted by Culicoides. The disease is endemic in most African countries. Past experience has shown that Italy is a country exposed to emerging infectious diseases endemic to Africa; an incursion of AHS virus together with the widespread presence of Culicoides vectors could be the cause of a serious epidemic emergency. A live attenuated vaccine containing seven of the nine viral serotypes, serotype 5 and 9 are excluded, is commercially available from Onderstepoort Biological Products. However, the use of live vaccines is a matter of endless disputes, and therefore inactivated or recombinant alternative products have been investigated over the years. Since research on AHS is hampered by the use of horses to evaluate vaccine potency, in a previous experiment serological response to serotypes 5 and 9 was assayed in guinea-pigs and horses. A durable and comparable serological response was observed in the two animal species. In the present study antibody response in horses and guinea-pigs, immunised with the inactivated-adjuvanted vaccine formulated with serotype 9, was tested over a period of 12 months. When immunity was challenged, horses were protected from infection and disease. Antibody response in horses and guinea-pigs compared favourably.

  9. Horse domestication and conservation genetics of Przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences.

    PubMed

    Lau, Allison N; Peng, Lei; Goto, Hiroki; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2009-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domestication-specific differences between the two. To investigate the genetic relationship of Przewalski's horse to the domestic horse and to address whether evolution of the domestic horse is driven by males or females, five homologous introns (a total of approximately 3 kb) were sequenced on the X and Y chromosomes in two Przewalski's horses and three breeds of domestic horses: Arabian horse, Mongolian domestic horse, and Dartmoor pony. Five autosomal introns (a total of approximately 6 kb) were sequenced for these horses as well. The sequences of sex chromosomal and autosomal introns were used to determine nucleotide diversity and the forces driving evolution in these species. As a result, X chromosomal and autosomal data do not place Przewalski's horses in a separate clade within phylogenetic trees for horses, suggesting a close relationship between domestic and Przewalski's horses. It was also found that there was a lack of nucleotide diversity on the Y chromosome and higher nucleotide diversity than expected on the X chromosome in domestic horses as compared with the Y chromosome and autosomes. This supports the hypothesis that very few male horses along with numerous female horses founded the various domestic horse breeds. Patterns of nucleotide diversity among different types of chromosomes were distinct for Przewalski's in contrast to domestic horses, supporting unique evolutionary histories of the two species.

  10. The earliest horse harnessing and milking.

    PubMed

    Outram, Alan K; Stear, Natalie A; Bendrey, Robin; Olsen, Sandra; Kasparov, Alexei; Zaibert, Victor; Thorpe, Nick; Evershed, Richard P

    2009-03-06

    Horse domestication revolutionized transport, communications, and warfare in prehistory, yet the identification of early domestication processes has been problematic. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence demonstrating domestication in the Eneolithic Botai Culture of Kazakhstan, dating to about 3500 B.C.E. Metrical analysis of horse metacarpals shows that Botai horses resemble Bronze Age domestic horses rather than Paleolithic wild horses from the same region. Pathological characteristics indicate that some Botai horses were bridled, perhaps ridden. Organic residue analysis, using delta13C and deltaD values of fatty acids, reveals processing of mare's milk and carcass products in ceramics, indicating a developed domestic economy encompassing secondary products.

  11. Whole genome sequence and analysis of the Marwari horse breed and its genetic origin.

    PubMed

    Jun, JeHoon; Cho, Yun Sung; Hu, Haejin; Kim, Hak-Min; Jho, Sungwoong; Gadhvi, Priyvrat; Park, Kyung Mi; Lim, Jeongheui; Paek, Woon Kee; Han, Kyudong; Manica, Andrea; Edwards, Jeremy S; Bhak, Jong

    2014-01-01

    The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of the earliest domesticated species and has played an important role in the development of human societies over the past 5,000 years. In this study, we characterized the genome of the Marwari horse, a rare breed with unique phenotypic characteristics, including inwardly turned ear tips. It is thought to have originated from the crossbreeding of local Indian ponies with Arabian horses beginning in the 12th century. We generated 101 Gb (~30 × coverage) of whole genome sequences from a Marwari horse using the Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencer. The sequences were mapped to the horse reference genome at a mapping rate of ~98% and with ~95% of the genome having at least 10 × coverage. A total of 5.9 million single nucleotide variations, 0.6 million small insertions or deletions, and 2,569 copy number variation blocks were identified. We confirmed a strong Arabian and Mongolian component in the Marwari genome. Novel variants from the Marwari sequences were annotated, and were found to be enriched in olfactory functions. Additionally, we suggest a potential functional genetic variant in the TSHZ1 gene (p.Ala344>Val) associated with the inward-turning ear tip shape of the Marwari horses. Here, we present an analysis of the Marwari horse genome. This is the first genomic data for an Asian breed, and is an invaluable resource for future studies of genetic variation associated with phenotypes and diseases in horses.

  12. Endotoxin concentrations within the breathing zone of horses are higher in stables than on pasture.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Annerose; Derksen, Frederik J; Edward Robinson, N

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory airway disease is common in stabled horses, with a prevalence of 17.3% in Michigan pleasure horses. Stable dust is rich in endotoxin, which may induce neutrophilic airway inflammation. Climatological conditions (ambient temperature and relative humidity) may influence endotoxin concentrations in pastures. The aim of this project was to determine if endotoxin levels in the breathing zone of horses in stables were higher than of horses on pasture, and if the endotoxin on pasture was associated with climatological conditions. Endotoxin exposure of six horses that were stabled or on pasture was determined by a Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Climatological data were obtained from the US National Climatic Data Center. Endotoxin exposure was significantly higher (about 8-fold) in stables than on pasture. On pasture, endotoxin varied widely, despite constant climatological conditions. It was concluded that stabled horses are exposed to higher endotoxin concentrations than horses on pastures. Local endotoxin concentrations may be more important than ambient climatological conditions in determining endotoxin exposure of individual horses. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Hegedüs, Ramón; Gerics, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Akesson, Susanne

    2010-06-07

    White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid-horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection-polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent.

  14. Comparison of prevalence factors in horses with and without seropositivity to Neospora hughesi and/or Sarcocystis neurona.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, Nicola; Tamez-Trevino, Eva; White, Alexandria; Vangeem, Joshua; Packham, Andrea; Conrad, Patricia A; Kass, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a commonly diagnosed neurological disease of horses in North America and is caused by infection with Sarcocystis neurona or Neospora hughesi. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence factors among horses seropositive or seronegative to N. hughesi and/or S. neurona. A total of 3123 submissions were included in the study, with horses originating from 49 States. Thirty-eight animals from 21 States tested seropositive for N. hughesi only, 840 horses from 40 States were seropositive for S. neurona only, 25 horses from 14 States were seropositive for both protozoa, and 2220 horses from 49 States tested seronegative for both parasites. Significant associations were found between geographical location (State), month of submission, breed and serological status.

  15. CT features of alveolitis and sinusitis in horses.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Wolfgang; Frame, E Mairi; Willmann, Michael; Simhofer, Hubert; Malleczek, Dieter; Kneissl, Sibylle M; Mayrhofer, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Sinusitis is a common disorder in horses and may result from trauma, dental diseases, or space-occupying lesions. Radiography can only provide a limited amount of information. Computed tomography (CT) has been documented as an alternative imaging method. Eighteen horses (mostly Warmblood) with signs of chronic sinusitis were examined preoperatively with CT to assist in diagnosis of the underlying cause. There was a group of common CT features in horses with dental disease and sinusitis. The first molar was the most frequently affected maxillary cheek tooth. Hypoattenuation of the cementum, destruction of the enamel, and filling of the infundibular cavity with gas were the most frequent CT findings associated with caries. Gas bubbles within the bulging root area or fragmentation of the root in combination with swelling of the adjacent sinus lining were the most important CT features of dental decay. CT findings associated with sinusitis included excessive thickening of the respiratory epithelium in the rostral maxillary sinus; the caudal maxillary sinus was less often involved. The infraorbital canal, the nasomaxillary duct, and the frontomaxillary aperture were usually involved. The maxillary bone, however, especially the facial crest, was involved in nearly every horse, being characterized by endosteal sclerosis, thickening, periosteal reaction, and deformation leading to facial swelling in chronic infections. CT images allowed identification of involvement of individual teeth more clearly to reveal the diseased one for treatment. Three-dimensional imaging allowed improved understanding of the extent and severity of the pathologic change.

  16. [Electrophoretic studies of serum protein fractions in horses with laminitis].

    PubMed

    Edinger, H; Miller, I; Stanek, C; Gemeiner, M

    1992-10-01

    The spectrum of serum proteins was evaluated in 46 horses affected with spontaneous laminitis and correlations between the severity of the disease and changes of the protein pattern were analyzed. The investigation was made in two groups; group A consisted of 21 horses of various breeds (warmblood, thoroughbred, standardbred) and group B of 25 ponys. Each group was subdivided according to the severity of the disease, using the OBEL-grade (OG) classification system. Serum proteins were separated by different one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic methods. Sera analysed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis showed a significant difference in the alpha 1-globulin fraction between OG II and OG IV affected horses. An increasing severity of the disease was correlated with a decrease of the alpha 1-globulins. The other protein fractions didn't show a uniform tendency. In group B there was a significant difference in the alpha 1-globulin fractions of OG II and OG III and in the beta 2-globulin fractions of OG I and OG II affected ponys. The acute phase proteins C3c, C4, Hp and fibronectin could be determined in a preliminary study in horse serum using the cross-reactivity of antibodies against the homologous human proteins.

  17. First molecular identification of the vertebrate hosts of Culicoides imicola in Europe and a review of its blood-feeding patterns worldwide: implications for the transmission of bluetongue disease and African horse sickness.

    PubMed

    Martínez-DE LA Puente, J; Navarro, J; Ferraguti, M; Soriguer, R; Figuerola, J

    2017-07-27

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that affect wildlife, livestock and, occasionally, humans. Culicoides imicola (Kieffer, 1913) is considered to be the main vector of the pathogens that cause bluetongue disease (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in southern Europe. The study of blood-feeding patterns in Culicoides is an essential step towards understanding the epidemiology of these pathogens. Molecular tools that increase the accuracy and sensitivity of traditional methods have been developed to identify the hosts of potential insect vectors. However, to the present group's knowledge, molecular studies that identify the hosts of C. imicola in Europe are lacking. The present study genetically characterizes the barcoding region of C. imicola trapped on farms in southern Spain and identifies its vertebrate hosts in the area. The report also reviews available information on the blood-feeding patterns of C. imicola worldwide. Culicoides imicola from Spain feed on blood of six mammals that include species known to be hosts of the BT and AHS viruses. This study provides evidence of the importance of livestock as sources of bloodmeals for C. imicola and the relevance of this species in the transmission of BT and AHS viruses in Europe. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Historical aspects of Potomac horse fever in Ontario (1924–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Baird, John D.; Arroyo, Luis G.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 1924 Dr. Frank W. Schofield conducted investigations into an endemic disease of horses in the Kent and Essex counties of Ontario. According to farmers in these counties the disease had existed in this region for at least 50 years previously. The clinical, pathological, histopathological, and epidemiological findings outlined in Schofield’s detailed report strongly suggest that this endemic disease was what was designated in 1979 as “Potomac horse fever” (PHF). This assumption is further substantiated by transmission experiments involving horses and laboratory animals that were conducted by Schofield utilizing horse feces, whole blood, and mayflies. The aim of this paper is to present Schofield’s detailed investigations and findings and to compare these with PHF research conducted from 1979 to 2010 that ultimately led to the discovery of Neorickettsia risticii as the etiological agent and to elucidation of the organism’s complex life cycle. PMID:24155447

  19. Historical aspects of Potomac horse fever in Ontario (1924-2010).

    PubMed

    Baird, John D; Arroyo, Luis G

    2013-06-01

    In the summer of 1924 Dr. Frank W. Schofield conducted investigations into an endemic disease of horses in the Kent and Essex counties of Ontario. According to farmers in these counties the disease had existed in this region for at least 50 years previously. The clinical, pathological, histopathological, and epidemiological findings outlined in Schofield's detailed report strongly suggest that this endemic disease was what was designated in 1979 as "Potomac horse fever" (PHF). This assumption is further substantiated by transmission experiments involving horses and laboratory animals that were conducted by Schofield utilizing horse feces, whole blood, and mayflies. The aim of this paper is to present Schofield's detailed investigations and findings and to compare these with PHF research conducted from 1979 to 2010 that ultimately led to the discovery of Neorickettsia risticii as the etiological agent and to elucidation of the organism's complex life cycle.

  20. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  1. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  2. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.

    2011-05-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed.

  3. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT IN 1018 ASYMPTOMATIC HORSES: A MULTI-INSTITUTION STUDY.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Kneissl, Sibylle; Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Zwick, Timo; Zekas, Lisa; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bienert-Zeit, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    Published descriptions of nonseptic arthritis of the equine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare and large studies investigating variations in the TMJ for asymptomatic horses are lacking. The objectives of this cross-sectional, retrospective, multi-institutional study were to describe anatomical variations in the TMJ detected using computed tomography (CT) in an equid population asymptomatic for TMJ disease and determine whether these variations were associated with patient signalment, reason for CT examination, or CT slice width. Medical records at eight hospitals were searched for horses that had head/neck CT scans and no clinical signs of TMJ disease. Age, breed, sex, clinical presentation, and CT slice width data were recorded. Alterations in CT contour and density of the mandibular condyles, mandibular fossae, and TMJ intra-articular discs were described for each horse. Generalized logistic regression was used to test associations between anatomical variations and horse age. A total of 1018 horses were sampled. Anatomical variations were found in TMJ CT images for 40% of horses and 29% of joints. These were dichotomous with regard to age. Horses <1 year old commonly had alterations in the shape and density of the mandibular condyle. Older horses commonly had spherical hypodensities within the mandibular condyles consistent with bone cysts; and hyperdense regions of the intra-articular disc consistent with dystrophic mineralization. Findings indicated that TMJ anatomic variations were common in CT images of younger and older horses asymptomatic for TMJ disease. Future studies are needed to more definitively characterize these CT variations using gross pathology and histopathology. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  4. Long-term follow-up of Norwegian horses affected with acquired equine polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hanche-Olsen, S; Kielland, C; Ihler, C F; Hultin Jäderlund, K

    2017-09-01

    Acquired equine polyneuropathy (AEP), a neurological disease clinically characterised by knuckling of metatarsophalangeal joints, has been described in numerous Nordic horses during the last 20 years. Although clinical recovery has been reported, large-scale data on long-term follow-up of survivors have been lacking. To describe long-term survival of AEP affected horses registered in Norway, with a focus on athletic performance and possible residual clinical signs connected to the disease. A retrospective cohort study. The study includes 143 horses recorded with AEP in Norway from 2000 to 2012, with the follow-up period continuing until 2015. Participating owners of survivors completed a standardised questionnaire, providing information on disease and convalescence, management, performance-level and possible residual clinical signs. To investigate the follow-up of survivors, we performed 2 multivariable linear regression models. The follow-up time of survivors was 1.0-14.5 years (median 5.3, interquartile range 2.5-7.2). Fifty-seven horses survived and all but 3 horses returned to previous or higher level of performance. However, possible disease-related residual clinical signs were reported in 14/57 horses. Forty-nine of the survivors were in athletic use at time of contact. The majority of survivors were categorised with low severity-grades at time of diagnosis and the initial grade was significantly associated with time to resumed training. Only 3 horses had experienced relapse/new attack during the follow-up period. Athletic performance was judged by owners, which renders a possible source of bias. Although AEP is a potential fatal disease, most survivors will recover and return to minimum previous level of athletic performance. Some horses display residual clinical signs, but often without negative effect on performance and relapse of disease is rare. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Comparative skeletal muscle histopathologic and ultrastructural features in two forms of polysaccharide storage myopathy in horses.

    PubMed

    McCue, M E; Armién, A G; Lucio, M; Mickelson, J R; Valberg, S J

    2009-11-01

    Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) has been found in more than 35 different horse breeds through identification of abnormal storage of polysaccharide in muscle biopsies. A dominant mutation in the glycogen synthase 1 gene (GYS1) accounts for a substantial proportion of PSSM cases in at least 17 breeds, including Quarter Horses, but some horses diagnosed with PSSM by muscle histopathologic analysis are negative for the mutation. We hypothesized that a second distinct form of glycogen storage disease exists in GYS1-negative horses with PSSM. The objectives of this study were to compare the histopathologic features, ultrastructure of polysaccharide, signalment, history, and presenting complaints of GYS1-negative Quarter Horses and related breeds with PSSM to those of GYS1-positive horses with PSSM. The total histopathologic score in frozen sections of skeletal muscle stained with hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and amylase-PAS stains from 53 GYS1-negative horses did not differ from that of 52 GYS1-positive horses. Abnormal polysaccharide was fine granular or homogenous in appearance (49/53; 92%), often amylase-sensitive (28/53; 53%), more commonly located under the sarcolemma, and consisting of beta glycogen particles in GYS1-negative horses. However, in GYS1-positive horses, abnormal polysaccharide was usually coarse granular (50/52; 96%), amylase-resistant (51/52; 98%), more commonly cytoplasmic, and consisting of beta glycogen particles or, in some myofibers, filamentous material surrounded by beta glycogen particles. Retrospective analysis found that GYS1-negative horses (n = 43) were younger at presentation (4.9 +/- 0.6 years vs. 6.7 +/- 0.3 years for GYS1-positive horses) and were more likely to be intact males than GYS1-positive horses (n = 160). We concluded that 2 forms of PSSM exist and often have distinctive abnormal polysaccharide. However, because evaluation of the histologic appearance of polysaccharide can be subjective and

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the proximal metacarpus in Quarter Horses used for cutting: Retrospective analysis of 32 horses 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Barrett, M F; Manchon, P T; Hersman, J; Kawcak, C E

    2017-08-18

    Injury to the proximal suspensory ligament is a common cause of lameness in cutting horses. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging of lesions responsible for lameness can provide ambiguous results. MRI provides the most comprehensive diagnostic imaging evaluation of lesions specifically affecting cutting horses. To describe the distribution and severity of bone and soft tissue lesions present in the proximal metacarpus of Quarter Horse cutting horses and to assess the impact of these lesions on return to competition. Retrospective case series. Retrospective analysis of 32 cutting horses referred for MRI of the proximal metacarpus between 2009 and 2012 with a 2-year follow-up period. MRI studies were evaluated by a board-certified veterinary radiologist; the severity of lesions was graded from 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). A total of 20 right and 24 left forelimbs (12 bilateral studies) of 32 horses were evaluated. The most common findings were: third metacarpal (McIII) sclerosis at the proximal suspensory ligament (PSL) origin (42/44), McIII resorption at the PSL origin (32/44), PSL dorsal margin fibre irregularity (30/44) and McIII bone contusion (22/39). Of the 30 horses, 22 horses successfully returned to competition, irrespective of severity of injury. Strong correlation exists between the degree of resorption in the palmar cortex of proximal McIII, degree of McIII sclerosis and severity of dorsal margin fibre irregularity. Statistical significance was limited by small study population. Further analysis of prognosis was limited by availability of comprehensive medical records. Cutting horses with proximal metacarpal pain have significant pathological change within the proximal suspensory ligament and its enthesis on the palmar cortex of McIII. Severity of lesions and degree of lameness at the time of diagnosis does not influence return to performance. Accurate diagnosis of proximal metacarpal lesions based on MRI offers clinicians the capacity to select

  7. Increased presence of T lymphocytes in central nervous system of EPM affected horses.

    PubMed

    Scott, Patricia; Witonsky, Sharon; Robertson, John; Daft, Barbara

    2005-12-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), caused by Sarcocystis neurona infection in the central nervous system (CNS), affects up to 1% of all horses during their lifetimes. Neither the protective immune response nor the immunopathology associated with the disease is well understood. To begin to clarify the pathogenesis of the disease, immunohistochemical staining for B and T lymphocytes was performed on spinal cord sections obtained from 17 horses, all of which were all positive for S. neurona based on immunohistochemical staining. Fifteen of the 17 horses included in the study were killed due to neurologic dysfunction; 2 of the 17 horses were killed because of fractures. All 17 horses had histologic changes consistent with S. neurona infection. A significantly greater number of T cells were seen in sections from S. neurona-infected versus control horses. Because this was a small descriptive study, we were not able to determine the mechanisms of enhanced T-cell recruitment in the sections from the S. neurona-infected horses.

  8. Vaccination of horses with Lyme vaccines for dogs induces short-lasting antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Cassandra; Asbie, Sanda; Rohde, Jennifer; Glaser, Amy; Wagner, Bettina

    2017-07-24

    Borrelia burgdorferi can induce Lyme disease. Approved Lyme vaccines for horses are currently not available. In an effort to protect horses, veterinarians are using Lyme vaccines licensed for dogs. However, data to assess the response of horses to, or determine the efficacy of this off-label vaccine use are missing. Here, antibodies against outer surface protein A (OspA), OspC, and OspF were quantified in diagnostic serum submissions from horses with a history of vaccination with canine Lyme vaccines. The results suggested that many horses respond with low and often short-lasting antibody responses. Subsequently, four experimental vaccination trials were performed. First, we investigated antibody responses to three canine vaccines in B. burgdorferi-naïve horses. One killed bacterin vaccine induced antibodies against OspC. OspA antibodies were low for all three vaccines and lasted less than 16weeks. The second trial tested the impact of the vaccine dose using the OspA/OspC inducing bacterin vaccine in horses. A 2mL dose produced higher OspA and OspC antibody values than a 1mL dose. However, the antibody response again quickly declined, independent of dose. Third, the horses were vaccinated with 2 doses of a recombinant OspA vaccine. Previous vaccination and/or environmental exposure enhanced the magnitude and longevity of the OspA antibody response to about 20weeks. Last, the influence of intramuscular versus subcutaneous vaccine administration was investigated for the recombinant OspA vaccine. OspA antibody responses were not influenced by injection route. The current work highlights that commercial Lyme vaccines for dogs induce only transient antibody responses in horses which can also be of low magnitude. Protection from infection with B. burgdorferi should not be automatically assumed after vaccinating horses with Lyme vaccines for dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurotoxicosis in horses associated with consumption of Trema micrantha.

    PubMed

    Lorenzett, M P; Pereira, P R; Bassuino, D M; Konradt, G; Panziera, W; Bianchi, M V; Argenta, F F; Hammerschmitt, M E; Caprioli, R A; de Barros, C S L; Pavarini, S P; Driemeier, D

    2017-08-14

    Trema micrantha is a tree widely distributed throughout the Americas. The tree produces highly palatable leaves that have been associated with natural poisoning in goats, sheep and horses, in which hepatic necrosis and hepatic encephalopathy have been observed. This study describes malacia and haemorrhage in the central nervous system (CNS) due to T. micrantha consumption, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions. Retrospective case series. A total of 14 horses with a history of neurological signs and spontaneous consumption of T. micrantha leaves were submitted to necropsy and multiple samples were collected for histopathology. Details of clinical history and signs of the horses were obtained through inquiries to the owners and attending veterinarians. All the 14 horses had neurological signs of ataxia, severe sialorrhoea, involuntary running movements, sternal and lateral recumbency, and death after a clinical course that lasted from 24 h to 9 days. For a few days prior to onset of clinical signs, all horses had spontaneously consumed, potentially toxic doses of T. micrantha leaves. All 14 brains had diffuse yellowish discoloration affecting the rhombencephalon, mesencephalon, diencephalon, telencephalon and corpus striatum. In all cases, the most severe lesions were observed in the pons. Spinal cord lesions were observed affecting the lumbar intumescence, which was swollen with darken and depressed areas at the dorsal and ventral horns, and at the sacral level, which on cut surface displayed a friable and yellowish grey matter. The lesions observed grossly in brain and spinal cord consisted microscopically of severe vasculitis and liquefactive necrosis of white and grey matter of the brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. This is a small retrospective series relying on clinical observations reported by owners and attending veterinarians. The mechanism of action of the plant toxin in the CNS is still unidentified. T. micrantha poisoning in horses causes

  10. Osteomyelitis in horses.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Laurie R

    2006-08-01

    Much has been learned in the past decade about osteomyelitis. The inhibitory mechanisms of the "biofilm slime" layer that is formed by bacterial extracapsular exopolysaccharides and binds to bone, joints, and implants are now better understood than in the past. The surface colonization of bacteria that occurs within these biofilms is a biologic phenomenon that is somewhat unique to orthopedic infections. This survival strategy of bacteria is effective, and it is important for veterinarians who treat osteomyelitis to be aware of current diagnostic and therapeutic treatment modalities. The practitioner should be aware of the most common bacteria associated with osteomyelitis and the traditional treatments that are still used. Current therapeutic treatment modalities, such as antibiotic- impregnated polymethylmethacrylate, antibiotic-impregnated plaster of Paris, and regional perfusion, have become routine, however, and have been responsible for improving the prevention and outcome of osteomyelitis in the horse. It is the intent of this article to make equine veterinarians aware of current information as well as the future treatments of osteomyelitis.

  11. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  12. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  13. Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses

    PubMed Central

    Ohmes, Cameon M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; Beard, Laurie A.; Vander Werf, Karie A.; Bianco, Alex W.; Giger, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses. PMID:24489393

  14. Infection of dogs with equine influenza virus: evidence for transmission from horses during the Australian outbreak.

    PubMed

    Crispe, E; Finlaison, D S; Hurt, A C; Kirkland, P D

    2011-07-01

    During the equine influenza (EI) outbreak, respiratory disease was observed in dogs that were in close proximity to infected horses. Investigations were undertaken to exclude influenza virus infection. Of the 23 dogs that were seropositive in tests using the influenza A/Sydney/2007 virus as the test antigen, 10 showed clinical signs. EI virus appeared to be readily transmitted to dogs that were held in close proximity to infected horses, but there was no evidence of lateral transmission of the virus to other dogs that did not have contact with or were not held in close proximity to horses.

  15. Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Horses Presented for Coggins Testing in Southwest Virginia and Change in Positive Test Results Approximately 1 Year Later.

    PubMed

    Funk, R A; Pleasant, R S; Witonsky, S G; Reeder, D S; Werre, S R; Hodgson, D R

    2016-07-01

    Lyme disease can affect people, dogs, and horses, but it remains poorly understood, especially in the horse. Determining the seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in horses in different geographic areas will enable better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease, thus improving diagnosis and treatment of affected animals. To determine the seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi in horses in southwest Virginia. Horses presented for routine Coggins testing from January 2013 to January 2014 had additional blood drawn for Lyme Multiplex Assay testing. Of 492 samples collected, 250 samples were analyzed using the Lyme Multiplex Assay. Of the 83 horses that had positive test results to at least 1 outer surface protein (Osp), 63 were available for follow-up testing 5-17 months later (June 2014). Thirty-three percent of horses had positive results for antibodies to at least 1 Osp. Horses with a positive outer surface protein F (OspF) result were older (14.5 ± 0.79) than horses with a negative OspF result (11.6 ± 0.53). Of the horses available for follow-up testing, 63% had the same result as that of the initial test. There was no difference in test result between initial and follow-up testing. Horses seropositive to B. burgdorferi are common in Virginia, and older horses are more likely to have a positive test result for OspF than younger horses. Follow-up testing indicated that the majority of horses that were positive on initial testing did not have a different test result 5-17 months later. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Where are the horses? With the sheep or cows? Uncertain host location, vector-feeding preferences and the risk of African horse sickness transmission in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Robin, Charlotte A.; Newton, J. Richard; Gubbins, Simon; Wood, James L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, provides an insightful example because: (i) the patterns of risk are expected to be influenced by the presence of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts (cattle and sheep) and (ii) incomplete information on the spatial distribution of horses is available because the GB National Equine Database records owner, rather than horse, locations. Here, we combine land-use data with available horse owner distributions and, using a Bayesian approach, infer a realistic distribution for the location of horses. We estimate the risk of an outbreak of AHS in GB, using the basic reproduction number (R0), and demonstrate that mapping owner addresses as a proxy for horse location significantly underestimates the risk. We clarify the role of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts by showing that the risk of disease in the presence of many hosts (susceptible and non-susceptible) can be ultimately reduced to two fundamental factors: first, the abundance of vectors and how this depends on host density, and, second, the differential feeding preference of vectors among animal species. PMID:23594817

  17. Where are the horses? With the sheep or cows? Uncertain host location, vector-feeding preferences and the risk of African horse sickness transmission in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Robin, Charlotte A; Newton, J Richard; Gubbins, Simon; Wood, James L N

    2013-06-06

    Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, provides an insightful example because: (i) the patterns of risk are expected to be influenced by the presence of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts (cattle and sheep) and (ii) incomplete information on the spatial distribution of horses is available because the GB National Equine Database records owner, rather than horse, locations. Here, we combine land-use data with available horse owner distributions and, using a Bayesian approach, infer a realistic distribution for the location of horses. We estimate the risk of an outbreak of AHS in GB, using the basic reproduction number (R0), and demonstrate that mapping owner addresses as a proxy for horse location significantly underestimates the risk. We clarify the role of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts by showing that the risk of disease in the presence of many hosts (susceptible and non-susceptible) can be ultimately reduced to two fundamental factors: first, the abundance of vectors and how this depends on host density, and, second, the differential feeding preference of vectors among animal species.

  18. Horner's syndrome in ten horses

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sherril L.; Cochrane, Susan M.; Smith-Maxie, Laura

    1992-01-01

    Ten cases of equine Horner's syndrome were reviewed. None of the clinical signs in this series were transient (<48 hours). Sweating and ptosis were consistently observed by the attending clinician in over half of the affected horses. Enophthalmos and prolapse of the third eyelid were not reported consistently. The average duration of the clinical signs was 4.94 months and ranged from 14 days to 15 months. Eight of the ten horses developed associated complications, some of which affected performance. Airway obstruction and impedance of passage of a fiberoptic endoscope due to nasal mucosal edema occurred in five horses. Facial paralysis (4/10) and laryngeal hemiplegia (2/10), which are not direct features of Horner's syndrome, were also observed. PMID:17424002

  19. Of ghosts, horses, and psychopaths.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Recognition and respect for the cultures of Native Americans constitutes a basic requirement for cancer care and education approaches. This reflection shares the insights gained in fieldwork excavations in a pre-Apache archeological site on the Cibaque reservation. Despite the ghost pollution associated with contact with the dead, the Apache invited me to be a sponsor for a young girl's coming of age ceremony. I owed this gracious invitation to the wild horses, for the Apache had observed the horses' responses to my calls. Since horses are considered spiritually sensitive animals, their acceptance was an indicator of my resistance to ghost pollution. Therefore, I was a strong contender as a sponsor. My days among the tribe made me a better listener and observer, and thus a better physician to the cancer patients I continue to serve as a radiologist.

  20. Faecal microbiota characterisation of horses using 16 rdna barcoded pyrosequencing, and carriage rate of clostridium difficile at hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Cristina; Taminiau, Bernard; Brévers, Bastien; Avesani, Véronique; Van Broeck, Johan; Leroux, Aurélia; Gallot, Marjorie; Bruwier, Antoine; Amory, Hélene; Delmée, Michel; Daube, Georges

    2015-09-16

    The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been identified as an important cause of diarrhoea in horses. This study provides further information on the nature of the bacterial communities present in horses developing an episode of diarrhoea. The prevalence of C. difficile in hospitalised horses at the time of admission is also reported. Bacterial diversity of the gut microbiota in diarrhoea is lower than that in non-diarrhoeic horses in terms of species richness (p-value <0.002) and in population evenness (p-value: 0.02). Statistical differences for Actinobacillus, Porphyromonas, RC9 group, Roseburia and Ruminococcaceae were revealed. Fusobacteria was found in horses with diarrhoea but not in any of the horses with non-diarrheic faeces. In contrast, Akkermansia was among the three predominant taxa in all of the horses studied. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in the total samples of hospitalised horses at admission was 3.7 % (5/134), with five different PCR-ribotypes identified, including PCR-ribotype 014. Two colonised horses displayed a decreased bacterial species richness compared to the remaining subjects studied, which shared the same Bacteroides genus. However, none of the positive animals had diarrhoea at the moment of sampling. The abundance of some taxa in the faecal microbiota of diarrhoeic horses can be a result of microbiome dysbiosis, and therefore a cause of intestinal disease, or some of these taxa may act as equine enteric pathogens. Clostridium difficile colonisation seems to be transient in all of the horses studied, without overgrowth to trigger infection. A large proportion of the sequences were unclassified, showing the complexity of horses' faecal microbiota.

  1. Distribution of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib into aqueous humor of horses.

    PubMed

    Hilton, H G; Magdesian, K G; Groth, A D; Knych, H; Stanley, S D; Hollingsworth, S R

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used systemically for the treatment of inflammatory ocular disease in horses. However, little information exists regarding the ocular penetration of this class of drugs in the horse. To determine the distribution of orally administered flunixin meglumine and firocoxib into the aqueous humor of horses. Fifteen healthy adult horses with no evidence of ophthalmic disease. Horses were randomly assigned to a control group and 2 treatment groups of equal sizes (n = 5). Horses assigned to the treatment groups received an NSAID (flunixin meglumine, 1.1 mg/kg PO q24h or firocoxib, 0.1 mg/kg PO q24h for 7 days). Horses in the control group received no medications. Concentrations of flunixin meglumine and firocoxib in serum and aqueous humor and prostaglandin (PG) E(2) in aqueous humor were determined on days 1, 3, and 5 and aqueous : serum ratios were calculated. Firocoxib penetrated the aqueous humor to a significantly greater extent than did flunixin meglumine at days 3 and 5. Aqueous : serum ratios were 3.59 ± 3.32 and 11.99 ± 4.62% for flunixin meglumine and firocoxib, respectively. Ocular PGE(2) concentrations showed no differences at any time point among study groups. Both flunixin meglumine and firocoxib penetrated into the aqueous humor of horses. This study suggests that orally administered firocoxib penetrates the aqueous humor better than orally administered flunixin meglumine at label dosages in the absence of ocular inflammation. Firocoxib should be considered for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic lesions in horses at risk for the development of adverse effects associated with nonselective NSAID administration. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Postanesthetic Poliomyelomalacia in a Horse

    PubMed Central

    Zink, M. Christine

    1985-01-01

    A clinically normal horse was anesthetized preparatory to surgery in dorsal recumbency for removal of a retained testicle. After recovery from the anesthetic, the horse was weak in the hind legs, subsequently deteriorated and became unable to rise and died on the eighth day after surgery. On microscopic examination, extensive poliomalacia of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord was found. It is postulated that this lesion was a result of ischemic insult to the spinal cord during anesthesia and several possible pathogeneses are discussed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422571

  3. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of horses.

    PubMed Central

    Allam, N. M.; Lemcke, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Ten mycoplasmas were isolated from 130 nasopharyngeal swabs from thoroughbred horses with acute respiratory disease and three from 198 apparently normal horses. Two mycoplasmas were isolated from 21 tracheal swabs taken at necropsy. These mycoplasmas, together with six isolated from the equine respiratory tract by other workers, were subjected to biochemical and serological tests. Other properties examined in certain representative strains were appearance under the electron microscope, ability to adsorb or agglutinate the erythrocytes of various animal species and the electrophoretic pattern of the cell proteins. On the basis of these test, mycoplasmas from the equine respiratory tract were divided into seven species. Three species belonged to the genus Acholeplasma, members of which do not require sterol for growth, and were identified as A. laidlawii, A. oculi (formerly A. oculusi) originally isolated from the eyes of goats, and a recently named species A. equifoetale, previously isolated from aborted equine fetuses. Of the four sterol-dependent Mycoplasma species, one was indentified as M. pulmonis, a common rodent pathogen. Another cross-reacted serologically with M. felis and should probably be classified as that species. The other two species probably represent new species peculiar to the horse. One of these, represented by the strains N3 and N11, ferments glucose and is serologically distinct from 19 recognized species of glucose-utilizing mycoplasmas and from two species which do not metabolize either glucose or arginine. The other species, represented by four strains, hydrolyses arginine and, because it is serologically distinct from all the named arginine-hydrolysing Mycoplasma species, the name M. equirhinis sp.nov. is proposed for it. Of the seven species, only M. pulmonis and the glucose-utilizing species represented by N3 and N11 were found exclusively in horses with acute respiratory disease. A. oculi was isolated from an apparently normal horse. The

  4. Prevalence of β2-Toxigenic Clostridium perfringens in Horses with Intestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Herholz, Cornelia; Miserez, Raymond; Nicolet, Jacques; Frey, Joachim; Popoff, Michel; Gibert, Maryse; Gerber, Heinz; Straub, Reto

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of a new, yet unassigned toxin type of Clostridium perfringens containing the genes for the α-toxin and the recently described β2-toxin in horses with intestinal disorders is reported. The study included 18 horses suffering from typical typhlocolitis, 7 horses with atypical typhlocolitis, 16 horses with other intestinal disorders, and 58 horses without intestinal disease. In total, 20 samples of ingesta of the small and large intestines, five biopsy specimens of the intestinal wall, and 74 fecal samples were analyzed bacteriologically. C. perfringens isolates were typed for the presence of the α-, β-, β2-, and ɛ-toxin and enterotoxin genes by PCR, including a newly developed PCR for the detection of the β2-toxin gene cpb2. β2-Toxigenic C. perfringens was detected in samples from 13 of 25 (52%) horses with typical or atypical typhlocolitis, with a particularly high incidence in specimens of ingesta and biopsy specimens (75%), whereas only 6 of 16 specimens from horses with other intestinal diseases yielded β2-toxigenic C. perfringens. No β2-toxigenic C. perfringens was found in the samples from the 58 control horses, of which only one fecal sample contained C. perfringens type A. Among the samples from the 15 horses with fatal cases of typical and atypical typhlocolitis 9 (60%) were positive for β2-toxigenic C. perfringens, whereas samples from only 4 of the 10 (40%) animals with nonfatal cases of infection were positive. We found an interesting correlation between the antibiotic-treated horses which were positive for β2-toxigenic C. perfringens and lethal progression of the disease. No C. perfringens strains isolated in this study contained genes for the β- and ɛ-toxins and enterotoxin. The high incidence of β2-toxigenic C. perfringens in samples of ingesta, biopsy specimens of the intestinal wall, and feces from horses suffering or dying from typhlocolitis together with the absence of this organism in healthy horses provides strong

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in horses: useful beyond orthopedic injuries?

    PubMed

    De Schauwer, Catharina; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Van Soom, Ann; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-12-01

    In the past decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have received much attention in equine veterinary medicine. The first therapeutic use of equine MSC was reported in 2003. Since then, the clinical application of MSC has been exploding with thousands of horses now treated worldwide. At present, MSC are mainly used in veterinary medicine to treat musculoskeletal diseases based on their ability to differentiate into various tissues of mesodermal origin. This is in marked contrast to human medicine, where MSC therapies are primarily focused on immune-mediated, inflammatory, and ischemic diseases. In this review, both orthopedic as well as non-orthopedic clinical applications of equine MSC are discussed. A brief overview is provided on the potential of MSC for non-orthopedic injuries with emphasis on those diseases, which occur in both humans and horses.

  6. Dispersion of horse allergen from stables and areas with horses into homes.

    PubMed

    Emenius, G; Merritt, A-S; Härfast, B

    2009-01-01

    To protect susceptible subjects from exposure to horse allergen, a Swedish national report recommended a distance of at least 500 m between homes and stables and other areas with horses. The aim of this project was to study indoor and outdoor levels of horse allergen in relation to distance from stables and horse tracks. Indoor and outdoor samples were collected with Petri dishes at 49 sites in different housing areas and near to a track for trotting horses. In the apartments, Petri dishes were placed on a bookshelf in the living room at a height of approximately 1.5 m. Outdoors, cages containing Petri dishes were attached to tree branches at various distances from the horse track. Six of 45 indoor samples had detectable levels of horse allergen, 3 of those despite the fact that no family member had had any contact with horses, and 16 of 26 outdoor samples were positive. Outdoors, allergen levels drop quickly when the distance from stables or horses increases. Further, the allergen level found at a distance of 45 m from a horse track was around 1% of the allergen level found at 1 m from the track. Allergens dispersed from horses decline rapidly outdoors and are barely found indoors in homes. We support the view that indirect exposure to horses such as exposure from clothing of horse riders, should be taken into account when measures to protect susceptible people from undesired exposure to horse allergens are taken. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Demonstration of Usutu virus antibodies in horses, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Ljubo; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana; Listes, Eddy; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Ljubin-Sternak, Suncanica; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Listes, Irena; Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Savini, Giovanni

    2013-10-01

    We report the first serological evidence of Usutu virus (USUV) infection in horses in Croatia. During 2011, 1380 horse serum samples from healthy animals were collected from six northern Croatian counties. All samples were first screened for West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sixty-nine WNV ELISA-reactive samples were further tested for WNV antibodies by a virus neutralization assay (VN assay) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), and USUV by a VN assay and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies by PRNT. During the same period, 306 human serum samples from patients coming for routine testing with no symptoms of acute febrile disease were tested for USUV IgG using ELISA. Reactive samples were tested for both USUV and WNV using a VN assay. USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected in two of 69 WNV ELISA-reactive horse serum samples. Seropositive animals were found in two different regions of Croatia. One additional sample showed specific WNV-neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized USUV. Only one human sample (0.3%) was reactive to USUV antibodies in an ELISA test. In a confirmatory test, WNV-neutralizing antibodies were detected, indicating cross-reactive antibodies with USUV in ELISA. The exposure to USUV was documented in two WNV ELISA-reactive horses at distant locations. These results indicate the presence of USUV in northern Croatia.

  8. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall be...

  9. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall be...

  10. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall be...

  11. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall be...

  12. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall be...

  13. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  14. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  15. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  16. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  17. Haniwa Figure of a Horse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Tad

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses a "haniwa" figure of a horse to introduce K-3 students to Japanese ceramic sculpture. Includes student objectives and background information on the Kofun Period in Japan (250-552 A.D.). Presents instructional strategies, evaluation criteria, and a photograph of the sculpture. (GEA)

  18. Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus major capsid protein VP2 provides complete clinical protection against challenge.

    PubMed

    Alberca, Berta; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Cabana, Marta; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Viaplana, Elisenda; Frost, Lorraine; Gubbins, Simon; Urniza, Alicia; Mertens, Peter; Castillo-Olivares, Javier

    2014-06-17

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that infects all species of equidae and causes high mortality in horses. Previously, a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing the protein VP2 of AHSV serotype 4 was shown to induce virus neutralising antibodies in horses and protected interferon alpha receptor gene knock-out mice (IFNAR -/-) against virulent AHSV challenge. This study builds on the previous work, examining the protective efficacy of MVA-VP2 vaccination in the natural host of AHSV infection. A study group of 4 horses was vaccinated twice with a recombinant MVA virus expressing the major capsid protein (VP2) of AHSV serotype 9. Vaccinated animals and a control group of unvaccinated horses were then challenged with a virulent strain of AHSV-9. The vaccinated animals were completely protected against clinical disease and also against viraemia as measured by standard end-point dilution assays. In contrast, all control horses presented viraemia after challenge and succumbed to the infection. These results demonstrate the potential of recombinant MVA viruses expressing the outer capsid VP2 of AHSV as a protective vaccine against AHSV infection in the field.

  19. Pathologic findings in reintroduced Przewalski's horses (Equus caballus przewalskii) in southwestern Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Robert, Nadia; Walzer, Christian; Rüegg, Simon R; Kaczensky, Petra; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Stauffer, Christian

    2005-06-01

    The Przewalski's horse (Equus caballus przewalskii) was extinct in the wild by the mid 1960s. The species has survived because of captive breeding only. The Takhin Tal reintroduction project is run by the International Takhi Group; it is one of two projects reintroducing horses to the wild in Mongolia. In 1997 the first harem group was released. The first foals were successfully raised in the wild in 1999. Currently, 63 Przewalski's horses live in Takhin Tal. Little information exists on causes of mortality before the implementation of a disease-monitoring program in 1998. Since 1999, all dead horses recovered (n = 28) have been examined and samples collected and submitted for further investigation. Equine piroplasmosis, a tick-transmitted disease caused by Babesia caballi or Theileria equi, is endemic in Takhin Tal and was identified as the cause of death of four stallions and one stillborn foal. In December 2000, wolf predation was implicated in the loss of several Przewalski's horses. However, thorough clinical, pathologic, and bacteriologic investigations performed on dead and surviving horses of this group revealed lesions compatible with strangles. The extreme Mongolian winter of 2000-2001 is thought to have most probably weakened the horses, making them more susceptible to opportunistic infection and subsequent wolf predation. Other occasional causes of death since 1999 were trauma, exhaustion, wasting, urolithiasis, pneumonia, abortion, and stillbirth. The pathologic examination of the Przewalski's horses did not result in a definitive diagnosis in each case. Several disease factors were found to be important in the initial phase of the reintroduction, which could potentially jeopardize the establishment of a self-sustaining population.

  20. Molecular characterization and multilocus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi among horses in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Zhong, Zhijun; Gong, Chao; Liu, Xuehan; Huang, Xiangming; Xiao, Li; Zhao, Ruoxuan; Wang, Wuyou; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Yue; Hu, Yanchun; Fu, Hualin; He, Min; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Kongju; Peng, Guangneng

    2016-10-25

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most prevalent causative species of diarrhea and enteric diseases in various hosts. E. bieneusi has been identified in humans, mammals, birds, rodents and reptiles in China, but few studies have reported E. bieneusi in horses. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, molecular characteristics and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi among horses in southwestern China. Three hundred and thirty-three fecal specimens were collected from horses on five farms in the Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of southwestern China. The prevalence of E. bieneusi was 22.5 % (75/333), as determined by nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene of E. bieneusi. Altogether, 10 genotypes were identified among the 75 E. bieneusi-positive samples: four of these genotypes were known (horse1, horse2, SC02 and D) and six were novel (SCH1-4 and YNH1-2). Multilocus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3 and MS7) and one minisatellite (MS4) revealed three, two, three and three genotypes at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, all the genotypes of E. bieneusi obtained in this study were clustered into three distinct groups: D, SC02 and SCH1-3 were clustered into group 1 (zoonotic potential); SCH4 was clustered into group 2 (cattle-hosted); whereas horse2, YNH1 and YNH2 were clustered into group 6 (unclear zoonotic potential). This is the first report of E. bieneusi among horses in southwestern China. This is also the first multilocus genotyping analysis using microsatellite and minisatellite markers of E. bieneusi in horses. The presence of genotype D, which was previously identified in humans, and genotypes SC02 and SCH1-3, which belong to potential zoonotic group 1, these results indicate that horses are a potential source of human E. bieneusi infections in China.

  1. Total plasma proANP increases with atrial dilatation in horses.

    PubMed

    Van Der Vekens, N; Hunter, I; Timm, A; Decloedt, A; De Clercq, D; Deprez, P; Goetze, J P; van Loon, G

    2015-12-19

    Equine atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plasma concentrations are correlated with left atrial size. However, species-specific assays are lacking and the results from human assays are poorly reproducible. A new methodology called processing independent analysis (PIA) that measures the total proANP product in plasma has proven to be successful in human medicine, but has never been used in horses. The aims were to establish an equine proANP reference interval by measurement of the total proANP product using PIA and to examine the proANP concentrations in horses with atrial dilatation. Sample stability was studied by comparison of storage at -80°C and -20°C. Plasma samples were obtained from 23 healthy horses, 12 horses with moderate or severe valvular regurgitation without atrial dilatation and 42 horses with valvular regurgitation and atrial dilatation. The proANP concentration was significantly (P<0.001) higher in horses with atrial dilatation (761.4 (442.1-1859.1) pmol/l) than in healthy horses (491.6 (429.5-765.9) pmol/l; P<0.001) or horses with cardiac disease but without atrial dilatation (544.4 (457.0-677.6) pmol/l). A cut-off value (573.8 pmol/l) for detection of atrial dilatation was calculated. Sample storage at -80°C did not differ from sample storage at -20°C. The measurement of total proANP in plasma detects atrial dilatation in horses and may be useful for clinical evaluation in equine medicine.

  2. Cell-mediated immune responses in horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Jennifer A; Ellison, Siobhan E; Guarino, Anthony J; Blagburn, Byron L

    2004-04-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurologic syndrome seen in horses from the Americas and is mainly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Cell-mediated immune responses to mitogens have been shown to be reduced in horses with EPM, although it is not known whether the parasite causes this immunosuppression or if the immunosuppression is required for disease manifestation. Recently, a 29-kDa surface antigen from S. neurona merozoites was identified as being highly immunodominant on Western blot. This antigen has been sequenced and cloned, and the expressed protein has been named SnSAG1. Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from 43 EPM-negative horses and 28 horses with clinical EPM were cocultured with a mitogen or SnSAG1, and lymphocyte blastogenic responses to these antigens was measured by tritiated thymidine uptake. The ability of SnSAG1 to induce gamma-interferon (gammaIFN) production was also investigated with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. There was no significant differences between EPM-positive and -negative horses in lymphocyte responses to ConcanavalinA. However, lymphocytes from EPM-negative horses responded significantly higher to SnSAG1 than lymphocytes from EPM-positive horses. GammaIFN production was detectable by 24 hr in culture in response to SnSAG1 in all EPM-negative horses. There was still no detectable gammaIFN production in EPM-positive horses after 72 hr in culture. It appears that the parasite is also able to induce an immunosuppression toward parasite-derived antigens as parasite-specific responses are decreased.

  3. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively). Morbidity was reported in 7.5% of patients. There were three deaths in Queensland. Helmet use is recommended for non-riders when handling horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Reference values for amino acids and acylcarnitines in peripheral blood in Quarter horses and American Miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Irám Pablo; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor Manuel; Torres-Sepúlveda, María del Rosario; López-Saldaña, Liliana Aracely; Ponce-García, Gustavo; López-Uriarte, Graciela Areli; Ruiz-Herrera, María del Consuelo; Zamora-Ávila, Diana Elisa; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Zacarías; Dávalos-Aranda, Guillermo; Martínez-de-Villarreal, Laura Elia

    2015-09-29

    Free amino acids and acylcarnitines circulating in the blood can be used for diagnosis for metabolic illness and imbalances. To date, the normal reference ranges of amino acids and acylcarnitines in horse peripheral blood have not been established. In this study, the concentrations of 12 amino acids and 26 acylcarnitines were determined by tandem mass spectrometry in complete blood from 100 healthy horses (50 Quarter horses (QH) [23 males and 27 females] and 50 American Miniature horses (AMH) [15 males and 35 females]) with no signs of metabolic disease. The means and standard deviations were determined and data statistically analyzed. Concentrations of short, medium, and long chain acylcarnitines were significantly higher in male AMH than in male QH. The concentrations of the amino acids alanine, arginine, glycine, proline (glycogenic), and leucine (ketogenic) were higher in the QH than in the AMH. Female AMH had higher concentrations of propionylcarnitine, leucine, proline, arginine, and ornithine than female QH. Normal reference ranges of amino acids and acylcarnitines were established for AMH and QH. Significant differences were found in concentration of these compounds between breeds and gender.

  5. Nasal shedding of equine herpesvirus-1 from horses in an outbreak of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Burgess, B A; Tokateloff, N; Manning, S; Lohmann, K; Lunn, D P; Hussey, S B; Morley, P S

    2012-01-01

    There is little information on the duration of nasal shedding of EHV-1 from horses with naturally occurring equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). To evaluate the duration of nasal shedding of EHV-1 in horses affected by EHM. One hundred and four horses naturally exposed to EHV-1, 20 of which had clinical signs of EHM. All horses on affected premises were monitored. Those horses developing EHM were sampled in a longitudinal outbreak investigation. Nasal swabs were collected daily from 16 of 20 horses affected by EHM. A qPCR was performed on 98 of 246 nasal swab samples to determine nasal shedding duration. Historical and clinical information was analyzed to evaluate potential risk factors for developing EHM and duration of shedding during this outbreak. The last day shedding was detected in any horse was Disease Day 9. EHV-1 was detected in two-thirds of horses tested on Disease Days 0-3. The amount of EHV-1 DNA found in nasal swabs varied markedly and was not associated with disease severity or age. The odds of developing EHM were greater for febrile horses (OR = 20.3; 95% CI 3.4-390.3; P = .01) as well as for horses attending the riding clinic (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 0.84-21.65; P = .08). Biosecurity measures should be implemented for a minimum of 14 days beyond the onset of clinical signs of EHM. Animal managers cannot rely on the severity of clinical signs to predict the duration of EHV-1 shedding. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (Ho ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (He ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (Fis ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (Fst  < 0.05). Hierarchical clustering showed a clear distinction between Arabian and Przewalski's horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. Genetic parameters and estimated breeding values of insect bite hypersensitivity in Belgian Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Liesbet M; Janssens, Steven; Brebels, Machteld; Buys, Nadine

    2015-12-01

    Genetic factors involved in susceptibility to insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in Belgian Warmblood horses (BWP) were investigated. Data relating to 3409 horses were collected using a questionnaire, administered to owners during sport competitions, BWP breeding days, breeder visits and after phone calls. Horses were classified as IBH-affected or unaffected, based on two 'disease classifiers': a lifetime record, based on owner information (life_status) and another based on whether or not the horse was showing clinical signs at the time of questioning (clin_status). IBH prevalence was 10% based on life_status, and 6.2% based on clin_status. The heritabilities estimated using threshold animal models varied from 0.65 to 0.78 on the underlying scale (0.18-0.26 on the observed scale). These research findings indicate that susceptibility to IBH is a heritable trait in BWP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A long-term study of 277 cases of equine sinonasal disease. Part 1: details of horses, historical, clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings.

    PubMed

    Tremaine, W H; Dixon, P M

    2001-05-01

    The clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings in equine sinnasal disease were studied. The diagnoses in 277 referred (1984-1996) cases of equine sinonasal disease included the following (% all cases): 67 cases (24.2%) primary sinusitis, 61 (22.0%) dental sinusitis, 37 (13.4%) sinus cysts, 22 (7.9%) sinonasal neoplasia, 21 (7.6%) progressive ethmoid haematoma, 17 (6.1%) sinonasal trauma, 13 (4.7%) sinonasal mycosis, 11 (4.0%) rostral maxillary cheek tooth infection, 7 (2.5%) sinonasal polyps, 7 (2.5%) cases of nasal epidermal inclusion cysts and 14 (5.1%) miscellaneous sinonasal disorders. Many disorders showed similar clinical signs including nasal discharge (present in 88% of all cases) and facial swelling (46%). Most disorders were chronic, with a median duration of signs of 12 weeks (range 3 days- 6 years) prior to referral. Sinus cysts and sinonasal neoplasia were significantly (P<0.05) more frequently associated with gross distortion of the nasal passages and facial bones than the other sinonasal disorders. Endoscopic changes were detected per nasum in 91% of cases, but contributed to the exact diagnosis in only 20%. Radiography revealed abnormalities in 81% of cases but was diagnostically useful in only 36%. Sinoscopy was diagnostically useful in 70% of the 61 cases where used.

  9. [Swiss warmblood horse with symptoms of hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia without mutation in the cyclophylin B gene (PPIB)].

    PubMed

    Rüfenacht, S; Straub, R; Steinmann, B; Winand, N; Bidaut, A; Stoffel, M H; Gerber, V; Wyder, M; Müller, E; Roosje, P J

    2010-04-01

    Hereditary equine dermal asthenia (HERDA) is an autosomal recessive skin disease that affects predominantly Quarter Horses and related breeds. Typical symptoms are easy bruising and hyperextensible skin on the back. The prognosis is guarded, as affected horses cannot be ridden normally and are often euthanised. In the Quarter Horse, HERDA is associated with a mutation in cyclophilin B (PPIB), an enzyme involved in triple helix formation of collagen. Here we describe the case of a Swiss Warmblood filly with symptoms of HERDA without PPIB-mutation and in which we also could exclude Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Type IV, VI, VIIA, VIIB and VIIC (dermatosparaxis type) as etiological diseases.

  10. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... penalties for infractions of the Horse Protection Act; Enhancing the reputation and integrity of the walking... regional economies; and Improving the value of the walking horse breeds. Under these circumstances,...

  11. Investigation of corneal autoantibodies in horses with immune mediated keratitis (IMMK).

    PubMed

    Braus, B K; Miller, I; Kummer, S; Kleinwort, K J H; Hirmer, S; Hauck, S M; McMullen, R J; Kerschbaumer, M; Deeg, C A

    2017-05-01

    Immune mediated keratitis (IMMK) is primarily a non-ulcerative keratitis in horses causing intermittent ocular pain, eventually resulting in visual impairment. Affected horses typically respond to immunomodulatory treatment. However, the underlying cause of the disease remains enigmatic. The current study was undertaken to investigate the presence of autoantibodies in horses with immune mediated keratitis. Using 28 horses with IMMK and 27 healthy controls screening for serum autoantibodies against the corneal proteome using indirect immunofluorescence, one-dimensional (1DE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with subsequent western blot analysis was performed followed by mass spectrometric identification of bands or spots of interest. Indirect immunofluorescence did not reveal a difference in immune response towards corneal proteins between healthy horses and those with IMMK. Using western blot analysis some horses affected by IMMK (4/28) showed a single band (1D) or a single spot (2DE) (5/28) not detected in healthy controls. The corresponding spot was identified as maspin (SERPINB5), a protein responsible for the inhibition of corneal vascularisation, cell migration and cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Tests with a recombinant human protein commercially available did not verify blot findings, but the human protein may not be fully cross-reactive. Still, maspin might play a role in some cases of equine IMMK. Further research is needed to clarify the etiology of this disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. African horse sickness in The Gambia: circulation of a live-attenuated vaccine-derived strain.

    PubMed

    Oura, C A L; Ivens, P A S; Bachanek-Bankowska, K; Bin-Tarif, A; Jallow, D B; Sailleau, C; Maan, S; Mertens, P C; Batten, C A

    2012-03-01

    African horse sickness virus serotype 9 (AHSV-9) has been known for some time to be circulating amongst equids in West Africa without causing any clinical disease in indigenous horse populations. Whether this is due to local breeds of horses being resistant to disease or whether the AHSV-9 strains circulating are avirulent is currently unknown. This study shows that the majority (96%) of horses and donkeys sampled across The Gambia were seropositive for AHS, despite most being unvaccinated and having no previous history of showing clinical signs of AHS. Most young horses (<3 years) were seropositive with neutralizing antibodies specific to AHSV-9. Eight young equids (<3 years) were positive for AHSV-9 by serotype-specific RT-PCR and live AHSV-9 was isolated from two of these horses. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an AHSV-9 strain showing 100% identity to Seg-2 of the AHSV-9 reference strain, indicating that the virus circulating in The Gambia was highly likely to have been derived from a live-attenuated AHSV-9 vaccine strain.

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yeargan, Michelle R.; Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Dubey, Jitender P.; Howe, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a debilitating disease of horses caused by Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. Sera from 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico were tested for anti-protozoal antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on major surface antigens of these two parasites. Antibodies to S. neurona were detected in 240 (48.5%) of the 495 horse sera tested with the rSnSAG2/4/3 trivalent ELISA. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to S. neurona was associated with age, feeding grains and crops, and small herd size. Antibodies to N. hughesi were found in 15 (3.0%) of the 495 horse sera tested with the rNhSAG1 ELISA and confirmed by Western blot of N. hughesi tachyzoite antigen. This is the first report of S. neurona and N. hughesi exposure in horses in Mexico, and it affirms that EPM should be in the differential diagnosis for horses exhibiting signs of neurologic disease in this country. PMID:24016396

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yeargan, Michelle R; Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Dubey, Jitender P; Howe, Daniel K

    2013-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a debilitating disease of horses caused by Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi. Sera from 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico were tested for anti-protozoal antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on major surface antigens of these two parasites. Antibodies to S. neurona were detected in 240 (48.5%) of the 495 horse sera tested with the rSnSAG2/4/3 trivalent ELISA. Multivariate analysis showed that exposure to S. neurona was associated with age, feeding grains and crops, and small herd size. Antibodies to N. hughesi were found in 15 (3.0%) of the 495 horse sera tested with the rNhSAG1 ELISA and confirmed by Western blot of N. hughesi tachyzoite antigen. This is the first report of S. neurona and N. hughesi exposure in horses in Mexico, and it affirms that EPM should be in the differential diagnosis for horses exhibiting signs of neurologic disease in this country. © M.R. Yeargan et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  15. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi infection (strangles) in horses.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Ashley

    2011-03-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (strangles) is a highly contagious upper respiratory infection in horses. The infection is transmitted by inhalation or direct contact with mucopurulent discharge from an infective animal, resulting in fever, depression, and submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph node enlargement that can lead to respiratory distress. Complications include purpura hemorrhagica and metastatic abscessation. Control of outbreaks requires strict isolation protocols and hygiene measures. Detection of carriers is essential for preventing disease recurrence on a farm.

  16. Efficacy of the early administration of valacyclovir hydrochloride for the treatment of neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type-1 infection in horses.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Lara K; Bentz, Bradford G; Gilliam, Lyndi L; Ritchey, Jerry W; Pusterla, Nicola; Eberle, R; Holbrook, Todd C; McFarlane, Dianne; Rezabek, Grant B; Meinkoth, James; Whitfield, Chase; Goad, Carla L; Allen, George P

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether prophylactic administration of valacyclovir hydrochloride versus initiation of treatment at the onset of fever would differentially protect horses from viral replication and clinical disease attributable to equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) infection. ANIMALS 18 aged mares. PROCEDURES Horses were randomly assigned to receive an oral placebo (control), treatment at detection of fever, or prophylactic treatment (initiated 1 day prior to viral challenge) and then inoculated intranasally with a neuropathogenic strain of EHV-1. Placebo or valacyclovir was administered orally for 7 or 14 days after EHV-1 inoculation or detection of fever (3 horses/group). Effects of treatment on viral replication and clinical disease were evaluated. Plasma acyclovir concentrations and viremia were assessed to determine inhibitory concentrations of valacyclovir. RESULTS Valacyclovir administration decreased shedding of virus and viremia, compared with findings for control horses. Rectal temperatures and clinical disease scores in horses that received valacyclovir prophylactically for 2 weeks were lower than those in control horses. The severity of but not the risk for ataxia was decreased by valacyclovir administration. Viremia was decreased when steady-state trough plasma acyclovir concentrations were > 0.8 μg/mL, supporting the time-dependent activity of acyclovir. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Valacyclovir treatment significantly decreased viral replication and signs of disease in EHV-1-infected horses; effects were greatest when treatment was initiated before viral inoculation, but treatment was also effective when initiated as late as 2 days after inoculation. During an outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, antiviral treatment may be initiated in horses at various stages of infection, including horses that have not yet developed signs of viral disease.

  17. Dorsoproximal proximal phalanx osteochondral fragmentation in 117 Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Declercq, J; Martens, A; Maes, D; Boussauw, B; Forsyth, R; Boening, K J

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine clinical and arthroscopic characteristics associated with dorsoproximal proximal phalanx (P1) fragments in Warmblood horses, as well as to examine their histopathological appearance. One hundred sixty-eight fragments were removed from 150 fetlocks of 117 Warmblood horses. Details of signalment and results of clinical examination were collected prior to surgery. After arthroscopic fragment removal and joint evaluation for synovial and/or cartilage abnormalities, the fragments were measured and evaluated histopathologically. The vast majority of the fragments (95.2%) were found medially, without predilection for front or hind limbs. In 10% of the joints, more than one fragment was present. The mean size of the fragments was 6.8 +/- 2.6 mm. Only eight horses presented fetlock-related lameness. Horses of seven years of age and older (OR = 13.32; p = 0.033) and the presence of more than one fragment (OR = 11.12; p = 0.016) were significantly associated with lameness. Arthroscopic evaluation revealed one or more abnormalities in 50.7% of the joints. On histopathology, osteochondral fragments presented as a bony center covered with smooth hyaline cartilage on one side and some fibrous tissue on the other side. No clear histopathological signs were indicating precisely their origin. In Warmblood horses with dorsoproximal P1 fragments, the age (seven years and older) and the presence of more than one fragment in a fetlock significantly increased the risk of lameness. The osteochondral dorsoproximal P1 fragments could be defined as a developmental orthopaedic disease.

  18. 7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHWEST, OLD WHITE HORSE PIKE FORM CIRCLE - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  19. Adrenocortical Insufficiency in Horses and Foals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Kelsey A.; Barton, Michelle H.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The adrenal cortices produce a variety of steroid hormones (corticosteroids) that play vital roles in a number of physiologic processes, including: electrolyte and fluid balance; cardiovascular homeostasis; carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; immune and inflammatory responses; and sexual development and reproductive function. While permanent adrenocortical insufficiency is rare in all species, emerging evidence in both human and equine medicine suggests that transient, reversible adrenocortical dysfunction resulting in cortisol insufficiency frequently develops during critical illness. This syndrome is termed relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) or critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), and can contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality associated with the primary disease. Thus, this review will primarily cover the mechanisms, diagnosis and clinical consequences of adrenocortical insufficiency, with particular focus on our current understanding of RAI/CIRCI in horses and foals. PMID:21392651

  20. Colic in a working horse population in Egypt: Prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Salem, S E; Scantlebury, C E; Ezzat, E; Abdelaal, A M; Archer, D C

    2017-03-01

    Colic is an important health problem in managed horse populations. Currently, there is limited information about colic prevalence and risk factors for colic in working horse populations. To determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, colic in a working horse population in Egypt and to describe management practices in this working horse population. Cross-sectional survey. Owners of 350 working horses were interviewed. Data about their horses, management and colic episodes in the preceding 12 months were collected. Dental examination was conducted on 342 horses and blood samples (n = 100) were collected for immunodiagnosis of tapeworm (Anoplocephala perfoliata) infection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for a history of colic in the preceding 12 months. The 12-month prevalence of colic was 54.6%. Severe and moderate tapeworm infection intensity was identified in 3% and 26% of horses tested, respectively. Horses that had severe dental disease (odds ratio [OR] 6.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-24.3, P<0.001), that displayed stereotypic behaviour (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.15-3.5, P = 0.013), were fed ground corn during the 'dry season' (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.03-2.6, P = 0.035) or that had received an anthelmintic in the previous 6 months (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.3, P = 0.003) were more likely to have a history of colic in the preceding 12 months. Horses fed on rice bran during the 'green season' (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.9, P = 0.015) and that displayed geophagia/coprophagia (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.73, P = 0.001) were less likely to have a history of colic. Colic is common in this working horse population and this study has identified factors associated with altered likelihood of colic. The study provides important information that may be used to inform future prospective studies investigating colic in working horse populations and to assist development of preventive healthcare strategies. The Summary is available in Chinese - see

  1. The current 'state of play' of regenerative medicine in horses: what the horse can tell the human.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger Kw; Garvican, Elaine R; Fortier, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    The horse is an attractive model for many human age-related degenerative diseases of the musculoskeletal system because it is a large animal species that both ages and exercises, and develops naturally occurring injuries with many similarities to the human counterpart. It therefore represents an ideal species to use as a 'proving ground' for new therapies, most notably regenerative medicine. Regenerative techniques using cell-based therapies for the treatment of equine musculoskeletal disease have been in use for over a decade. This review article provides a summary overview of the sources, current challenges and problems surrounding the use of stem cell and non-cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine in horses and is based on presentations from a recent Havemeyer symposium on equine regenerative medicine where speakers are selected from leading authorities in both equine and human regenerative medicine fields from 10 different countries.

  2. Training young horses to social separation: effect of a companion horse on training efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Christensen, J W; Keeling, L J

    2011-09-01

    The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n = 16) were trained first with a companion (P2) and then alone (P1). The training comprised 3 steps whereby distance from the group was gradually increased. The final learning criterion was met when a horse fed calmly alone inside a test arena (Step 3). Horses that were trained in a pair had to succeed in Step 3 together before they repeated the steps alone. Feeding behaviour and heart rate were recorded. There were no significant differences between S1 and P1 horses, indicating that the initial pair-training did not reduce responses in P1 horses. However, heart rate was significantly lower when horses were trained in pairs (P2) compared to when the same horses were subsequently trained alone (P1). It may not be efficient to habituate naïve young horses to social separation initially with a partner as these horses appear to have to relearn being in the test situation alone when switching to the individual training. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Repellent effect of topical deltamethrin on blood feeding by Culicoides on horses.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Archer, D; McGowan, C; Garros, C; Gardès, L; Baylis, M

    2015-05-30

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vectorborne disease spread by Culicoides biting midges. The UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs currently suggests using topical deltamethrin for AHS control; however, no data are available regarding its efficacy in the horse. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of topical deltamethrin on blood feeding by Culicoides on horses and to investigate which Culicoides species blood fed on horses. Three pairs of horses were placed in partially enclosed cages that allowed samples representing the Culicoides interacting with individual horses to be sampled. Four data collection sessions were completed before one horse from each pair was topically treated with 10 ml of 1 per cent deltamethrin solution and another four sessions were then carried out. Collected Culicoides were identified and each biting midge examined to see if it had blood fed. The most abundant species collected were C. chiopterus, C. dewulfi, C. obsoletus and C. scoticus (44.3 per cent) and either C. pulicaris or C. punctatus (34.7 per cent). These species were also more likely to have blood fed than other species, supporting their potential role as AHS vectors if the virus were to reach the UK. There was no significant effect of treatment on blood feeding by Culicoides. The results do not support the use of topical deltamethrin to prevent blood feeding by Culicoides on individual horses; however, the study does not investigate the effect that the widespread use of topical deltamethrin might have on vector numbers or disease transmission from viraemic individuals during an outbreak of AHS. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Right atrial and right ventricular ultrasound-guided biopsy technique in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Decloedt, A; de Clercq, D; Ven, S; van der Vekens, N; Chiers, K; van Loon, G

    2016-05-01

    Endomyocardial biopsies could be a valuable tool in equine cardiology for diagnosing myocardial disease, which is probably underdiagnosed in horses because of lack of specific diagnostic measures and limitations of currently available diagnostic methods. To describe a technique for serial right atrial and right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy in standing horses using a percutaneous approach through the jugular vein. Prospective study. Biopsy was performed in 10 healthy standing horses sedated with detomidine, under continuous electrocardiography monitoring. A 10 cm (n = 6), 45 cm (n = 1) or 98 cm (n = 3) introducer sheath was inserted into the right jugular vein. Under echocardiographic guidance, a biopsy forceps was introduced through the sheath into the right ventricle and right atrium and endomyocardial biopsies were acquired. In all horses, 3 right ventricular biopsies were obtained from the right ventricular apex and 3 right atrial biopsies were obtained from the dorsal right atrial wall near the tuberculum intervenosum. The presence of myocardial tissue was confirmed by histology. All horses showed atrial and ventricular premature depolarisations associated with acquisition of the biopsies. In 9 horses, the arrhythmia disappeared after retraction of the forceps and introducer sheath. In one horse, ventricular premature depolarisations disappeared only after 8 h. No other complications were observed. Endomyocardial biopsy of the right atrium and right ventricle could be performed in standing horses using a percutaneous approach through the jugular vein and was not associated with complications other than temporary arrhythmias. This technique may be useful for research purposes or as a diagnostic tool, although further research is needed to establish the safety of the technique in clinical patients with myocardial disease. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Morphometric magnetic resonance imaging and genetic testing in cerebellar abiotrophy in Arabian horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebellar abiotrophy (CA) is a rare but significant disease in Arabian horses caused by progressive death of the Purkinje cells resulting in cerebellar ataxia characterized by a typical head tremor, jerky head movements and lack of menace response. The specific role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to support clinical diagnosis has been discussed. However, as yet MR imaging has only been described in one equine CA case. The role of MR morphometry in this regard is currently unknown. Due to the hereditary nature of the disease, genetic testing can support the diagnosis of CA. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform MR morphometric analysis and genetic testing in four CA-affected Arabian horses and one German Riding Pony with purebred Arabian bloodlines in the third generation. Results CA was diagnosed pathohistologically in the five affected horses (2 months - 3 years) supported by clinical signs, necropsy, and genetic testing which confirmed the TOE1:g.2171G>A SNP genotype A/A in all CA-affected horses. On MR images morphometric analysis of the relative cerebellar size and relative cerebellar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space were compared to control images of 15 unaffected horses. It was demonstrated that in MR morphometric analyses, CA affected horses displayed a relatively smaller cerebellum compared to the entire brain mass than control animals (P = 0.0088). The relative cerebellar CSF space was larger in affected horses (P = 0.0017). Using a cut off value of 11.0% for relative cerebellar CSF space, the parameter differentiated between CA-affected horses and controls with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93.3%. Conclusions In conclusion, morphometric MRI and genetic analysis could be helpful to support the diagnosis of CA in vivo. PMID:23702154

  6. Whole-Genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a quarter Horse mare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. Results Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse's genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. Conclusions This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids. PMID:22340285

  7. Cytokine Gene Expression in Response to SnSAG1 in Horses with Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Jennifer A.; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Moyana, Edith M.; Guarino, Anthony J.; Ellison, Siobhan E.; Bird, R. Curtis; Blagburn, Byron L.

    2005-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurologic syndrome seen in horses from the Americas and is mainly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Recently, a 29-kDa surface antigen from S. neurona merozoites was identified as being highly immunodominant on a Western blot. This antigen has been sequenced and cloned, and the expressed protein has been named SnSAG1. In a previous study, cell-mediated immune responses to SnSAG1 were shown to be statistically significantly reduced in horses with EPM in comparison to EPM-negative control horses. It therefore appears as though the parasite is able to induce immunosuppression towards parasite-derived antigens as parasite-specific responses are decreased. Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from 21 EPM (cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] Western blot)-negative horses with no clinical signs and 21 horses with clinical signs of EPM (CSF Western blot positive) were cocultured with SnSAG1 for 48 and 72 h, and the effect on cytokine production was investigated by means of reverse transcriptase PCR. Cytokines assayed include gamma interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-6. β-Actin was used as the housekeeping gene. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test of the findings indicated that there was a statistically significant decrease in IFN-γ production after 48 h in culture for samples from horses with clinical disease. There was also a statistically significant increase in IL-4 production after 72 h in culture for samples from horses with EPM. These results further support the notion that this parasite is able to subvert the immune system in horses with clinical disease. PMID:15879026

  8. Cytokine gene expression in response to SnSAG1 in horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Jennifer A; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Moyana, Edith M; Guarino, Anthony J; Ellison, Siobhan E; Bird, R Curtis; Blagburn, Byron L

    2005-05-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurologic syndrome seen in horses from the Americas and is mainly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. Recently, a 29-kDa surface antigen from S. neurona merozoites was identified as being highly immunodominant on a Western blot. This antigen has been sequenced and cloned, and the expressed protein has been named SnSAG1. In a previous study, cell-mediated immune responses to SnSAG1 were shown to be statistically significantly reduced in horses with EPM in comparison to EPM-negative control horses. It therefore appears as though the parasite is able to induce immunosuppression towards parasite-derived antigens as parasite-specific responses are decreased. Isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes from 21 EPM (cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] Western blot)-negative horses with no clinical signs and 21 horses with clinical signs of EPM (CSF Western blot positive) were cocultured with SnSAG1 for 48 and 72 h, and the effect on cytokine production was investigated by means of reverse transcriptase PCR. Cytokines assayed include gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-6. beta-Actin was used as the housekeeping gene. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test of the findings indicated that there was a statistically significant decrease in IFN-gamma production after 48 h in culture for samples from horses with clinical disease. There was also a statistically significant increase in IL-4 production after 72 h in culture for samples from horses with EPM. These results further support the notion that this parasite is able to subvert the immune system in horses with clinical disease.

  9. Expression of surface platelet receptors (CD62P and CD41/61) in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

    PubMed

    Iwaszko-Simonik, Alicja; Niedzwiedz, Artur; Graczyk, Stanislaw; Slowikowska, Malwina; Pliszczak-Krol, Aleksandra

    2015-03-15

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is an allergic disease of horses similar to human asthma, which is characterized by airway inflammation and activation of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets. Platelet activation and an increase in circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates may lead to airway remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate platelet status in RAO-affected horses based on the platelet morphology and platelet surface expression of CD41/61 and CD62P. Ten RAO-affected horses and ten healthy horses were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained to determine the platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR). Expression of CD62P and CD41/61 was detected by flow cytometry on activated platelets. The median PLT was significantly reduced in horses with RAO compared to the controls. The MPV and the P-LCR values were significantly higher in RAO horses than controls. Expression of CD41/61 on platelets was increased in RAO horses, while CD62P expression was reduced. This study demonstrated the morphological changes in platelets and expression of platelet surface receptors. Despite the decrease of CD62P expression, the observed increased surface expression of CD41/61 on platelets in horses with RAO may contribute to the formation of platelet aggregates in their respiratory system.

  10. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story…

  11. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum Penalties for Violations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are amending the horse protection...

  12. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001) while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options. PMID:27004819

  13. Effect of body weight on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in miniature horses and quarter horses.

    PubMed

    Lee, C D; Maxwell, L K

    2014-02-01

    In most species, large variations in body size necessitate dose adjustments based on an allometric function of body weight. Despite the substantial disparity in body size between miniature horses and light-breed horses, there are no studies investigating appropriate dosing of any veterinary drug in miniature horses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miniature horses should receive a different dosage of flunixin meglumine than that used typically in light-breed horses. A standard dose of flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously to eight horses of each breed, and three-compartmental analysis was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters between breed groups. The total body clearance of flunixin was 0.97 ± 0.30 mL/min/kg in miniature horses and 1.04 ± 0.27 mL/min/kg in quarter horses. There were no significant differences between miniature horses and quarter horses in total body clearance, the terminal elimination rate, area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state or the volume of the central compartment for flunixin (P > 0.05). Therefore, flunixin meglumine may be administered to miniature horses at the same dosage as is used in light-breed horses.

  14. Sarcocystis neurona-specific immunoglobulin G in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of horses administered S neurona vaccine.

    PubMed

    Witonsky, Sharon; Morrow, Jennifer K; Leger, Clare; Dascanio, John; Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia; Palmer, Wally; Kline, Kristen; Cook, Anne

    2004-01-01

    A vaccine against Sarcocystis neurona, which induces equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), has received conditional licensure in the United States. A major concern is whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) response elicited by the vaccine will compromise the use of Western blotting (WB) as a diagnostic tool in vaccinated horses with neurologic disease. Our goals were to determine if vaccination (1) causes seroconversion: (2) causes at least a transient increase in S neurona-specific IgG in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); and (3) induces an IgG response that can be differentiated from that induced by natural exposure. Horses included in the study (n = 29) were older than 6 months with no evidence of neurologic disease. The presence or absence of anti-S neurona antibodies in the serum of each horse was determined by WB analysis. Seropositive horses had CSF collected and submitted for cytology, CSF index, and WB analysis. The vaccine was administered to all the horses and boostered 3-4 weeks later. On day 14 after the 2nd administration, serum and CSF were collected and analyzed. Eighty-nine percent (8 of 9) of the initial seronegative horses seroconverted after vaccination, of which 57% (4 of 7) had anti-S neurona IgG in their CSE Eighty percent (16 of 20) of the seropositive horses had an increase in serum S neurona IgG after vaccination. Of the 6 of 20 horses that were initially seropositive/CSF negative, 2 were borderline positive for anti-S neurona IgG in the CSF, 2 tested positive, and 2 were excluded because the CSF sample had been contaminated by blood. There were no WB banding patterns that distinguished samples from horses that seroconverted due to vaccination versus natural exposure. Caution must be used in interpreting WB analysis from neurologic horses that have been recently vaccinated for EPM.

  15. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  16. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G; Lear, Teri L; Adelson, David L; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-10-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  17. Seroprevalence study of Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) in Australian weanling horses using serotype-specific ERBV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Horsington, Jacquelyn; Hartley, Carol A; Gilkerson, James R

    2013-09-01

    Respiratory infections are a major burden in the performance horse industry. Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) has been isolated from horses displaying clinical respiratory disease, and ERBV-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in 50-80% of horses in reported surveys. Current ERBV isolation and detection methods may underestimate the number of ERBV-positive animals and do not identify multiple serotype infections. The aim of the current study was to develop a serotyping ERBV antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and examine the seroprevalence of ERBV in a group of Australian weanling horses. ELISAs with high sensitivity and specificity were developed. The seroprevalence of ERBV in the weanling horses was high (74-86%); ERBV-3 antibodies were most prevalent (58-62%) and ERBV-2 antibodies were least prevalent (10-16%). Many horses were seropositive to 2 or more serotypes. All 3 serotypes of ERBV were detected, and concurrent positivity to multiple serotypes was common.

  18. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N. F.; Damaty, Hend M. El

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horse naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5%) have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8%) were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25%) followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20%) and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%). Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion: S. equi easily

  19. Some nutritional problems of horses.

    PubMed

    Hintz, H F; Kallfelz, F A

    1981-07-01

    The effects of overfeeding, calcium-phosphorus imbalance, misuse of supplements and false advertising on equine nutrition are discussed. Overfeeding is known to cause disorders in several species but, although a similar relationship has been suggested on clinical evidence, no controlled trials on horses have been reported. It has also been suggested that overfeeding is a problem only for those horses with a genetic predisposition to skeletal problems. The importance of adequate calcium and phosphorus levels has been known for many years but severe cases of calcium deficiency still occur. Client education is important and should not be neglected. Excessive use of supplements containing high levels of trace minerals (eg, iodine and selenium) or fat soluble vitamins (eg, vitamin A and vitamin D) can be harmful. Some manufacturers advertise supplements in terms which may inadvertently or intentionally misrepresent their products. Supplements should, therefore, be selected carefully to ensure that they meet the particular requirements of the individual.

  20. Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse.

    PubMed

    Cothran, E G; Canelon, J L; Luis, C; Conant, E; Juras, R

    2011-10-07

    Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds. We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.

  1. Antibodies to elastin peptides in sera of Warmblood horses at different ages.

    PubMed

    van Brantegem, L; de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Duchateau, L; Govaere, J; Ferraro, G L; Ducatelle, R

    2007-09-01

    Early diagnosis and monitoring progression of chronic diseases in elastin-rich tissues, such as chronic progressive lymphoedema in draught horses and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still a real challenge in the horse. Use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-elastin antibody (AEAb) levels might be useful to assess the status of such diseases. Baseline levels, representing physiological breakdown of elastin in normal horses, are not available at present. Levels of AEAb in healthy horses are generally low and follow the same age-related pattern as found in man. Therefore, elevation of AEAb levels in serum can be used to evaluate pathological elastin breakdown in elastin-rich tissues. Sera of 84 clinically healthy Warmblood horses were evaluated for the presence of AEAbs by means of a modified version of an ELISA technique used in man. The horses were divided in 5 age groups: A) < 4 months; B) 4-23 months; C) 2-3 years; D) 4-10 years; and E) > 11 years. Antibodies to elastin were found in all equine serum samples tested. Their levels were lowest in Group A, low in Groups B and E and highest in animals age 2-10 years. Measuring AEAbs in serum of horses by an ELISA technique proved to be possible and levels were stable during well-defined life stages. Changes in AEAb levels are expected to be useful for early diagnosis and for monitoring progression of diseases that affect elastin-rich tissues, such as chronic progressive lymphoedema and COPD.

  2. Radiation therapy in the horse.

    PubMed

    Théon, A P

    1998-12-01

    This article covers the principles and applications of radiation therapy in horses. The goal in treating tumors by irradiation is tumor control with minimum treatment complications. Various treatment techniques are available to achieve this goal. The prognosis depends on many factors such as the extent and location of the tumor, tumor type and tumor cell proliferation. Radiation therapy is a very effective treatment modality for equine tumors but logistical reasons limit its impact in equine oncology.

  3. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    PubMed

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  4. Cytological and microbiological findings in guttural pouch lavages of clinically normal horses with head restraint.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, O A; Cuenca, R; Mayayo, E; Guarro, J; Santamaria, J; Stchigel, A M

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the cytological and microbiological contents of guttural pouch washes of ten randomly selected horses restrained so as to prevent them lowering their heads, and to assess the possible effects on the guttural pouch environment in these horses. Cytological and microbiological studies were performed on guttural pouch washes of ten clinically normal horses restrained in a standing position so as to prevent them from lowering their heads below normal, as would happen during transportation on long journeys. They were restrained for 12 or 24 h and cytological, bacteriological and mycological findings in guttural pouch washes were recorded. The cytological gradings and neutrophil concentrations of guttural pouch washings were higher in horses that had their heads restrained for a longer period. Washings from these horses were more likely to contain cultivable bacteria and were the only washes yielding potentially pathogenic bacterial species. Variation in the cytological differential counts and bacterial cultures of guttural pouch lavages may be found in clinically normal horses which have had their heads restrained in an elevated position for periods from 12 to 24 h. This should be considered when examining this site and care must be taken when interpreting cytology of guttural pouch lavages in samples taken after transportation for more than 12 h. Restriction of head movement could also affect the normal pouch enviroment and predispose it to disease.

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in recreational horses in two metropolitan cities of Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayinmode, A B; Oluwayelu, D O; Sule, W F; Obebe, O O

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite is a known etiological factor of reproductive problems and encephalomyelitis in animals and humans. This study investigated the seroprevalence of T gondii infection in recreational horses in two metropolitan cities of southwestern Nigeria. Serum samples were randomly collected from a total of 157 horses in Lagos and Ibadan. Samples were assayed for the presence of T gondii antibodies using the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT). A total of 22 (14%) of the 157 sampled horses were positive for T gondii antibodies by MAT with titers of 1:20 in 12 samples (54.5%), 1:40 in 8 samples (36.4%), 1:80 in 1 sample (4.1%) and 1:160 in 1 sample (4.1%). Seroprevalence varied among gender, breeds, age groups and sampling locations but there was no statistically significant association (p < 0.05) of any of the factors to T. gondii infection. This study showed that recreational horses in southwestern Nigeria are exposed to T. gondii and appropriate measures should be adopted to prevent and control the infection in horses in this region. The zoonotic implication of the disease is also discussed. This is probably the first report on seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in horses in southwestern Nigeria.

  6. Evidence of Positive Selection for a Glycogen Synthase (GYS1) Mutation in Domestic Horse Populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A dominantly inherited gain-of-function mutation in the glycogen synthase (GYS1) gene, resulting in excess skeletal muscle glycogen, has been identified in more than 30 horse breeds. This mutation is associated with the disease Equine Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy Type 1, yet persists at high frequency in some breeds. Under historical conditions of daily work and limited feed, excess muscle glycogen may have been advantageous, driving the increase in frequency of this allele. Fine-scale DNA sequencing in 80 horses and genotype assays in 279 horses revealed a paucity of haplotypes carrying the mutant allele when compared with the wild-type allele. Additionally, we found increased linkage disequilibrium, measured by relative extended haplotype homozygosity, in haplotypes carrying the mutation compared with haplotypes carrying the wild-type allele. Coalescent simulations of Belgian horse populations demonstrated that the high frequency and extended haplotype associated with the GYS1 mutation were unlikely to have arisen under neutrality or due to population demography. In contrast, in Quarter Horses, elevated relative extended haplotype homozygosity was associated with multiple haplotypes and may be the result of recent population expansion or a popular sire effect. These data suggest that the GYS1 mutation underwent historical selection in the Belgian, but not in the Quarter Horse. PMID:24215078

  7. Serological evidence of equine influenza virus in horse stables in Kaduna, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    MESEKO, Clement A.; EHIZIBOLO, David O.; NWOKIKE, Edith C.; WUNGAK, Yiltawe S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Equine influenza virus (EIV) is a major cause of acute respiratory diseases in horses in most parts of the world that results in severe economic losses. Information on the epidemiology of EIV in tropical Africa is scanty. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the presence of influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) in 284 horse sera in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria. The ELISA-positive sera were further examined for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies to two strains each of H3N8 and H7N3 subtypes of influenza A virus. The results showed that antibodies against influenza A virus nucleoprotein were detected in 60.9% (173 of 284) of horses examined by NP-ELISA. Equine H3 and H7 subtypes were detected in 60% (21 of 35) and 20% (7 of 35) of horse sera respectively across the stables. Adequate quarantine of all imported horses, a national equine influenza surveillance plan and an appropriate EIV control program in Nigeria are recommended to safeguard the large horse population. PMID:27703404

  8. Incarceration of the small intestine by the epiploic foramen in fifteen horses.

    PubMed

    Vasey, J R

    1988-04-01

    In 15 horses with acute abdominal disease, a diagnosis of incarceration of small intestine through the epiploic foramen was made, either at the time of exploratory celiotomy or at necropsy.The horses exhibited signs of moderate to severe abdominal pain and were suffering from hypovolaemic and/or endotoxic shock. Nasogastric intubation produced either gas or fluid, the pH of which was in the range of 5 to 7.2, indicating reflux of small intestinal content into the stomach. Consistent physical findings included absence of gut sounds on auscultation, dilated small intestine palpable on rectal examination, and serosanguineous or xanthochromic fluid from abdominal paracentesis.A ventral midline laparotomy was performed on 11 horses. The incarcerated bowel, which involved the distal jejunum and ileum in 14 horses and jejunum in one horse, varied in length from 26 cm to 13 meters. Reduction of the incarceration was accomplished by gentle traction of the efferent and/or afferent intestine. Infarcted segments of the small intestine were exteriorized, resected, and an end-to-end jejunal anastomosis or an end-to-side jejunocecal anastomosis was performed. A successful postoperative recovery was achieved in three horses.

  9. The role of leptospirosis in reproductive disorders in horses.

    PubMed

    Hamond, Camila; Pinna, Aline; Martins, Gabriel; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance and has a worldwide distribution. This infection displays clear seasonal nature in some regions of the tropics, where the rainy season is marked by high temperatures. Household and wild animals carry leptospires and contribute to their dissemination in nature. Transmission mainly occurs by contact with water contaminated with the urine of infected animals, and consequently, it is quite widespread especially in times of rain, since many areas are subject to flooding and have poor sanitation. Serological tests demonstrate that Leptospira sp. infection in horses occurs worldwide and that the predominant serovar may vary depending on the region or infection sources. Besides systemic and ocular manifestations, leptospirosis in horses has been recognized as an important disease of the reproductive system, since it leads to the birth of weak foals, stillbirths or neonatal mortality, and mainly to abortion, usually after the sixth month of pregnancy. In this context, this review aims to gather and discuss information about the role of leptospirosis in reproductive disorders in horses.

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of osteochondrosis in 309 Spanish Purebred horses.

    PubMed

    Boado, A; López-Sanromán, F J

    2016-01-01

    Articular osteochondrosis (OC) is commonly reported in horses but there are no reports of its prevalence in the Spanish Purebred (SP). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of OC of the tarsocrural, dorsal metacarpo-metatarsophalangeal and femoropatellar joints in the SP in a retrospective study. The data were obtained from the radiographs of 309 SP horses and the prevalence and characteristics of lesions were calculated. Osteochondral lesions at predilected sites were diagnosed in 48.8% of the horses. It was more common to find the presence of fragments (28.8%) than flattening of the subchondral bone contour (20.1%). The percentage with abnormal articular margins was 1.3% for the femoropatellar joint, 33.3% for the tarsocrural and 25% for the dorsal fetlock region, where flattening was more common than the presence of fragments; in the tarsus and stifle, fragments were more common. The severity of the disease in the dorsal fetlock area was higher in hindlimbs than in forelimbs. Femoropatellar lesions were rare. Osteochondrosis is a common disease in the SP and this study provides information about the prevalence of osteochondrosis lesions in the breed and the interrelationships between the joints.

  11. Hepatic and pulmonary enzyme activities in horses.

    PubMed

    Lakritz, J; Winder, B S; Noorouz-Zadeh, J; Huang, T L; Buckpitt, A R; Hammock, B D; Plopper, C G

    2000-02-01

    To determine hepatic and pulmonary phase-I and phase-II enzyme activities in horses. Pulmonary and hepatic tissues from 22 horses that were 4 months to 32 years old. Pulmonary and hepatic tissues from horses were used to prepare cytosolic (glutathione S-transferase and soluble epoxide hydrolase) and microsomal (cytochrome P450 monooxygenases) enzymes. Rates of microsomal metabolism of ethoxyresorufin, pentoxyresorufin, and naphthalene were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Activities of glutathione S-transferase and soluble epoxide hydrolase were determined spectrophotometrically. Cytochrome P450 content was determined by carbon monoxide bound-difference spectrum of dithionite-reduced microsomes. Activity was expressed relative to total protein concentration. Microsomal protein and cytochromeP450 contents were detectable in all horses and did not vary with age. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin metabolism was detected in all horses; by comparison, pulmonary metabolism of ethoxyresorufin and hepatic and pulmonary metabolism of pentoxyresorufin were detected at lower rates. Rate of hepatic naphthalene metabolism remained constant with increasing age, whereas rate of pulmonary naphthalene metabolism was significantly lower in weanlings (ie, horses 4 to 6 months old), compared with adult horses. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity (cytosol) increased with age; however, these changes were not significant. Pulmonary glutathione S-transferase activity (cytosol) was significantly lower in weanlings than adult horses. Hepatic and pulmonary soluble epoxide hydrolase did not vary with age of horses. Activity of cytochrome P450 isoforms that metabolize naphthalene and glutathione S-transferases in lungs are significantly lower in weanlings than adult horses, which suggests reduced ability of young horses to metabolize xenobiotics by this organ.

  12. Connective tissue growth factor in tear film of the horse: detection, identification and origin.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, F J; Brooks, D E; Schultz, G S; Blalock, T D; Andrew, S E; Komaromy, A M; Cutler, T J; Lassaline, M E; Kallberg, M E; Van Setten, G B

    2004-02-01

    Healing of corneal ulcers in horses is often associated with profound corneal stromal fibrosis and scar formation resulting in visual impairment. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a fibrogenic cytokine involved in wound healing and scarring. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CTGF was present in the tear fluid of normal horse eyes and the eyes of horses with corneal ulcers in order to evaluate the role of CTGF in corneal wound healing and corneal scar formation. Tear fluid samples were collected from 65 eyes of 44 horses; 32 samples from normal eyes, 21 samples from eyes with corneal ulceration, and 12 samples from the unaffected contralateral eyes of horses with ulcers. CTGF levels in the tears were determined by enzyme immunoassay using goat IgG against human CTGF. Antigenetic similarity of human and horse CTGF was established in a bio-equivalence assay. The identity of horse CTGF was confirmed by western blot. Lacrimal and nictitating membrane glands were investigated by immunohistochemistry in the attempt to clarify the origin of tear fluid CTGF. CTGF was detected in tear film of 23 normal unaffected eyes (72%) and 8 normal contralateral eyes (67%), with the mean CTGF levels (+/- SEM) being 51.5+/-19.2 and 13.4+/-3.9 ng/ml respectively. CTGF was found in 8 eyes with corneal ulcers (38%) with the mean CTGF concentration of 26.3+/-14.8 ng/ml. Western blot identified the protein detected as CTGF. The identification of CTGF in lacrimal glands suggests a major role of these glands in the presence of CTGF in tears. CTGF is present in horse tear fluid and derives, at least partly, from the lacrimal gland. Equine CTGF has strong antigenic similarity with human CTGF. Corneal disease leads to a decrease of CTGF concentrations in tears. The possible role of CTGF in the healing process of ocular surface requires further investigation.

  13. Experimental Induction of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Horses with the Gammaherpesvirus Equine Herpesvirus 5

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kurt J.; Robinson, N. Edward; Lim, Ailam; Brandenberger, Christina; Maes, Roger; Behan, Ashley; Bolin, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (γHV) are implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in humans and murine models of lung fibrosis, however there is little direct experimental evidence that such viruses induce lung fibrosis in the natural host. The equine γHV EHV 5 is associated with equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF), a progressive fibrosing lung disease in its natural host, the horse. Experimental reproduction of EMPF has not been attempted to date. We hypothesized that inoculation of EHV 5 isolated from cases of EMPF into the lungs of clinically normal horses would induce lung fibrosis similar to EMPF. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured in the horses before and after inoculation with EHV 5. PCR and virus isolation was used to detect EHV 5 in antemortem blood and BAL samples, and in tissues collected postmortem. Nodular pulmonary fibrosis and induction of myofibroblasts occurred in EHV 5 inoculated horses. Mean lung collagen in EHV 5 inoculated horses (80 µg/mg) was significantly increased compared to control horses (26 µg/mg) (p < 0.5), as was interstitial collagen (32.6% ± 1.2% vs 23% ± 1.4%) (mean ± SEM; p < 0.001). Virus was difficult to detect in infected horses throughout the experiment, although EHV 5 antigen was detected in the lung by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that the γHV EHV 5 can induce lung fibrosis in the horse, and hypothesize that induction of fibrosis occurs while the virus is latent within the lung. This is the first example of a γHV inducing lung fibrosis in the natural host. PMID:24147074

  14. A histamine release assay to identify sensitization to Culicoides allergens in horses with skin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bettina; Childs, Bronwen A; Erb, Hollis N

    2008-12-15

    Skin hypersensitivity is an allergic disease induced in horses by allergens of Culicoides midges. The condition is typically diagnosed by clinical signs and in some horses in combination with allergy testing such as intradermal skin testing or serological allergen-specific IgE determination. Here, we describe an alternative method for allergy testing: a histamine release assay (HRA) that combines the functional aspects of skin testing with the convenience of submitting a blood sample. The assay is based on the principle that crosslinking of allergen-specific IgE bound via high-affinity IgE receptors to the surfaces of mast cells and basophils induces the release of inflammatory mediators. One of these mediators is histamine. The histamine was then detected by a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histamine assay was used to test 33 horses with skin hypersensitivity and 20 clinically healthy control animals for histamine release from their peripheral blood basophils after stimulation with Culicoides allergen extract or monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. An increased histamine release was observed in the horses with skin hypersensitivity compared to the control group after allergen-specific stimulation with Culicoides extract (p=0.023). In contrast, stimulation with anti-IgE induced similar amounts of released histamine in both groups (p=0.46). For further evaluation of the HRA, we prepared a receiver operating-characteristic (ROC) curve and performed a likelihood-ratio analysis for assay interpretation. Our results suggested that the assay is a valuable diagnostic tool to identify sensitization to Culicoides allergens in horses. Because some of the clinically healthy horses also showed sensitization to Culicoides extract, the assay cannot be used to distinguish allergic from non-allergic animals. The observation that sensitization is sometimes detectable in non-affected animals suggested that clinically healthy horses use immune mechanisms to control the

  15. Prevalence, risk factors and clinical signs predictive for equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in aged horses.

    PubMed

    McGowan, T W; Pinchbeck, G P; McGowan, C M

    2013-01-01

    Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is an ageing-related neurodegenerative disorder. The prevalence and risk factors for PPID using seasonally adjusted basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations in aged horses have not been previously reported. To determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical signs predictive for PPID in a population of horses aged ≥ 15 years in Queensland, Australia. Owner-reported data was obtained using a postal questionnaire distributed to an equestrian group. A subgroup of surveyed owners were visited and a veterinary physical examination performed on all horses aged ≥ 15 years. Blood samples were analysed for basal plasma alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and ACTH concentrations, routine haematology and selected biochemistry. Aged horses with elevations above seasonally adjusted cut-off values for basal plasma ACTH were considered positive for PPID. Positive horses were compared with their aged counterparts to determine risk factors and clinical signs associated with PPID. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction was prevalent in aged horses (21.2%) despite owners infrequently reporting it as a known or diagnosed disease or disorder. Numerous clinical or historical signs were associated with an increased risk of PPID in the univariable model, but only age (odds ratio (OR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.25, P<0.001) and owner-reported history of hirsutism (OR 7.80; 95% CI 3.67-16.57, P<0.001) remained in the final multivariable model. There were no routine haematological or biochemical variables supportive of a diagnosis of PPID. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction occurs commonly in aged horses despite under-recognition by owners. The increased risk of PPID with age supports that this is an ageing associated condition. Aged horses with clinical or historical signs consistent with PPID, especially owner-reported hirsutism (delayed shedding and/or long hair coat), should be tested and

  16. Experimental induction of pulmonary fibrosis in horses with the gammaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 5.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kurt J; Robinson, N Edward; Lim, Ailam; Brandenberger, Christina; Maes, Roger; Behan, Ashley; Bolin, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (γHV) are implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in humans and murine models of lung fibrosis, however there is little direct experimental evidence that such viruses induce lung fibrosis in the natural host. The equine γHV EHV 5 is associated with equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF), a progressive fibrosing lung disease in its natural host, the horse. Experimental reproduction of EMPF has not been attempted to date. We hypothesized that inoculation of EHV 5 isolated from cases of EMPF into the lungs of clinically normal horses would induce lung fibrosis similar to EMPF. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured in the horses before and after inoculation with EHV 5. PCR and virus isolation was used to detect EHV 5 in antemortem blood and BAL samples, and in tissues collected postmortem. Nodular pulmonary fibrosis and induction of myofibroblasts occurred in EHV 5 inoculated horses. Mean lung collagen in EHV 5 inoculated horses (80 µg/mg) was significantly increased compared to control horses (26 µg/mg) (p < 0.5), as was interstitial collagen (32.6% ± 1.2% vs 23% ± 1.4%) (mean ± SEM; p < 0.001). Virus was difficult to detect in infected horses throughout the experiment, although EHV 5 antigen was detected in the lung by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that the γHV EHV 5 can induce lung fibrosis in the horse, and hypothesize that induction of fibrosis occurs while the virus is latent within the lung. This is the first example of a γHV inducing lung fibrosis in the natural host.

  17. Whole genome sequence and analysis of the Marwari horse breed and its genetic origin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of the earliest domesticated species and has played an important role in the development of human societies over the past 5,000 years. In this study, we characterized the genome of the Marwari horse, a rare breed with unique phenotypic characteristics, including inwardly turned ear tips. It is thought to have originated from the crossbreeding of local Indian ponies with Arabian horses beginning in the 12th century. Results We generated 101 Gb (~30 × coverage) of whole genome sequences from a Marwari horse using the Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencer. The sequences were mapped to the horse reference genome at a mapping rate of ~98% and with ~95% of the genome having at least 10 × coverage. A total of 5.9 million single nucleotide variations, 0.6 million small insertions or deletions, and 2,569 copy number variation blocks were identified. We confirmed a strong Arabian and Mongolian component in the Marwari genome. Novel variants from the Marwari sequences were annotated, and were found to be enriched in olfactory functions. Additionally, we suggest a potential functional genetic variant in the TSHZ1 gene (p.Ala344>Val) associated with the inward-turning ear tip shape of the Marwari horses. Conclusions Here, we present an analysis of the Marwari horse genome. This is the first genomic data for an Asian breed, and is an invaluable resource for future studies of genetic variation associated with phenotypes and diseases in horses. PMID:25521865

  18. Heel bulb lacerations in horses: 101 cases (1988-1994).

    PubMed

    Janicek, John C; Dabareiner, Robin M; Honnas, Clifford M; Crabill, Mark A

    2005-02-01

    To determine clinical history, structures involved, treatment, and outcome of lacerations of the heel bulb and proximal phalangeal region (pastern) in horses. Retrospective study. 101 horses. Medical records of horses with lacerations of the heel bulb and pastern were reviewed, and follow-up information was obtained. 75 horses were Quarter Horses. Most horses were not treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to referral. Mean +/- SD time from injury to referral was 24 +/- 45 hours (range, 1 to 168 hours). Lacerations were most frequently caused by contact with wire or metal objects. In 17 horses, lacerations involved synovial structures; the distal interphalangeal joint was most commonly affected. One horse was euthanatized after initial examination. Wound treatment consisted of cleansing, lavage, debridement, lavage of affected synovial structures, suturing of fresh wounds, and application of a foot bandage or cast. Fifty-six horses were treated with systemically administered antimicrobial drugs. Follow-up information was collected for 61 horses. Fifty-one horses returned to their intended use and had no further complications; 10 horses had complications associated with the wound, and of those horses, 5 were euthanatized and 1 horse died from an unrelated cause. Horses with lacerations that involved synovial structures had worse outcomes than horses with lacerations that did not involve synovial structures. Horses that sustain heel bulb lacerations can successfully return to their intended use. Involvement of the distal interphalangeal joint is associated with poor prognosis.

  19. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables

    PubMed Central

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary A new web tool for equine activities, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. The aim of the safety section of the web tool was to raise awareness of safety issues in daily horse stable activities. This section contains a safety checklist, stable safety map and good practices to support human health and horse welfare and to prevent injuries in horse-related activities. Reviews of the literature and statistics, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were utilized in designing the web tool. Abstract Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general. PMID:26569319

  20. A Survey on Transport Management Practices Associated with Injuries and Health Problems in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Padalino, Barbara; Raidal, Sharanne L.; Hall, Evelyn; Knight, Peter; Celi, Pietro; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary

    2016-01-01

    An online survey was conducted to determine associations between transport management and transport-related injuries and diseases in horses in Australia. The survey was composed of three sections: respondents’ demographic information, transport management strategies or procedures (before, during and after transportation) and transport diseases experienced in the previous two year period. Univariate and multivariate modelling was performed exploring associations between variables (respondents’ details and transport management strategies) and the following transport-related diseases as outcomes: traumatic injuries, diarrhoea, heat stroke, muscular problems, laminitis, transport pneumonia and colic. The survey generated 797 responses. Traumatic injuries were the most common transport-related problem, with a reported incidence of 45.0%. Younger respondents (<40 years old) caring for large numbers of horses (>30 in a week) were more likely to report transport-related injuries. Injury risk was also linked to the use of protections and tranquilizers prior to transport, and checking horses after the journey. Diarrhoea (20.0%) and heat stroke (10.5%) were reported more by amateur than professional horse carers. Increased risk of heat stroke was linked to the restriction of hay and water prior to transportation. Muscular problems (13.0%) appeared to be exacerbated when horse health was not assessed before journey; whilst the risk of laminitis (2.9%) was around three fold greater when post transport recovery strategies were not applied. Associations were made between transport pneumonia (9.2%) and duration of journey, and with activity (horses involved in racing at greater risk). No associations were seen between the incidence of colic (10.3%) and the variables examined. Study findings should be interpreted with caution as they represent participant perceptions and recall. Nevertheless, results support many current recommendations for safe transportation of horses. They

  1. Prognostic indicators for horses with duodenitis-proximal jejunitis. 75 horses (1985-1989).

    PubMed

    Seahorn, T L; Cornick, J L; Cohen, N D

    1992-01-01

    The medical records of 75 horses with duodenitis-proximal jejunitis (DPJ) were reviewed. Ages, physical parameters, laboratory values, and treatment data were compared between horses surviving DPJ and horses not surviving DPJ (Table 1). Fifty of 75 horses (66.6%) survived. Sixty-six horses (88.0%) were managed with medical treatment alone and nine horses (12.0%) were managed with medical treatment plus surgical intervention. Using a logistic regression model, the association of each of the 19 physical and laboratory parameters with death was evaluated retrospectively in the 75 horses. Three parameters (anion gap, abdominal fluid total protein concentration, and volume of gastric fluid for the first 24 hours of hospitalization) were significantly associated with death by univariate analysis. Using a stepwise multiple logistic regression, two parameters remained significantly associated with death (P < 0.05), anion gap and abdominal fluid total protein concentration.

  2. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.

  3. A GYS1 gene mutation is highly associated with polysaccharide storage myopathy in Cob Normand draught horses.

    PubMed

    Herszberg, B; McCue, M E; Larcher, T; Mata, X; Vaiman, A; Chaffaux, S; Chérel, Y; Valberg, S J; Mickelson, J R; Guérin, G

    2009-02-01

    Glycogen storage diseases or glycogenoses are inherited diseases caused by abnormalities of enzymes that regulate the synthesis or degradation of glycogen. Deleterious mutations in many genes of the glyco(geno)lytic or the glycogenesis pathways can potentially cause a glycogenosis, and currently mutations in fourteen different genes are known to cause animal or human glycogenoses, resulting in myopathies and/or hepatic disorders. The genetic bases of two forms of glycogenosis are currently known in horses. A fatal neonatal polysystemic type IV glycogenosis, inherited recessively in affected Quarter Horse foals, is due to a mutation in the glycogen branching enzyme gene (GBE1). A second type of glycogenosis, termed polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM), is observed in adult Quarter Horses and other breeds. A severe form of PSSM also occurs in draught horses. A mutation in the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) was recently reported to be highly associated with PSSM in Quarter Horses and Belgian draught horses. This GYS1 point mutation appears to cause a gain-of-function of the enzyme and to result in the accumulation of a glycogen-like, less-branched polysaccharide in skeletal muscle. It is inherited as a dominant trait. The aim of this work was to test for possible associations between genetic polymorphisms in four candidate genes of the glycogen pathway or the GYS1 mutation in Cob Normand draught horses diagnosed with PSSM by muscle biopsy.

  4. [Antibody titers against Borrelia in horses in serum and in eyes and occurrence of equine recurrent uveitis].

    PubMed

    Gerhards, H; Wollanke, B

    1996-08-01

    In Germany very little is known about antibody titers against Borrelia burgdorferi in the horse. In the USA there exist some studies on the titer levels and symptoms due to borrelia infections. Beside lameness, fever, polyarthritis, pneumonia and dullness there is a study showing a connection between panuveitis and Borrelia infection in the horse. In human medicine the infection with Borrelia burgdorferi becomes more and more important. Uveitis and other eye diseases due to Borrelia burgdorferi are proved and documented. The goal of this study was to find a connection between antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and cases of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU). The antibody titer against Borrelia burgdorferi was determined by IFT in 153 horses with no sign of disease of the eye and in 79 horses with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU). 48% of all horses were found to be positive (titer 1:64 or higher). In addition 22 sera were tested in western-blot for antibody titers. There was no significant correlation between signs of ERU and increased antibody titers against Borrelia burgdorferi (p > 0.05). No clinical signs were seen in horses with elevated titers. No correlation between the age of the horses and the antibody level could be found. There was a connection between the antibody titer and the month of examination (p < 0.05). Highest titer levels were seen in May and November. This is both one month later than the activity of the transmitting ticks (I. ricinus).

  5. Equine laminitis: comparative histopathology 48 hours after experimental induction with insulin or alimentary oligofructose in standardbred horses.

    PubMed

    de Laat, M A; van Eps, A W; McGowan, C M; Sillence, M N; Pollitt, C C

    2011-11-01

    Laminitis has many triggers and comparing the histopathology of lesions induced by different causes may help to establish whether a common mechanism or multiple pathologies are involved. The aim of this study was to describe the microscopical lesions and to quantify morphometric changes in the lamellae of horses with insulin-induced (n=4) and oligofructose (OF)-induced laminitis (n=4) compared with normal controls (n=4). Archived lamellar samples collected during two previous studies were used. Laminitis was induced within 48 h in standardbred horses with either a euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC) technique or, in a separate experiment, with an overdose of alimentary OF. Normal tissue was obtained from control horses in the EHC experiment that received a balanced electrolyte solution intravenously for 48 h. Six measurements of lamellar length and width were recorded for each hoof. Leucocyte infiltration was assessed by immunolocalization of calprotectin. All control horses exhibited normal lamellar architecture, whereas treated horses developed clinical and histopathological changes consistent with laminitis. Laminitic samples displayed lengthening and narrowing of secondary epidermal lamellae (SELs), rounded epidermal basal cell (EBC) nuclei, mitosis and apoptosis. In the fore feet of laminitic horses, the length from the end of the keratinized axis to the axial tip of the primary epidermal lamellae (PELs) was increased (P<0.05). SELs were significantly longer (P<0.05) and narrower (P<0.05) in the treated horses compared with controls. The two treated groups did not differ from each other in SEL length or width. Calprotectin expression was absent in control horses, moderate in hyperinsulinaemic horses and marked in OF-treated horses. Laminitis induced experimentally with insulin or OF results in comparable lengthening and narrowing of the SELs and elongation of the axial end of the PELs at 48 h. Immunolocalization of calprotectin indicated that

  6. Comparative analysis of cytokine gene expression in cerebrospinal fluid of horses without neurologic signs or with selected neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, Nicola; Wilson, W David; Conrad, Patricia A; Mapes, Samantha; Leutenegger, Christian M

    2006-08-01

    To determine gene transcription for cytokines in nucleated cells in CSF of horses without neurologic signs or with cervical stenotic myelopathy (CSM), West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), or spinal cord trauma. 41 horses (no neurologic signs [n = 12], CSM [8], WNV encephalitis [9], EPM [6], and spinal cord trauma [6]). Total RNA was extracted from nucleated cells and converted into cDNA. Gene expression was measured by use of real-time PCR assay and final quantitation via the comparative threshold cycle method. Cytokine genes expressed by nucleated cells of horses without neurologic signs comprised a balance between proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-10 and transforming growth factor [TGF]-beta), and Th1 mediators (interferon [IFN]-gamma). Cells of horses with CSM mainly expressed genes for TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, and IL-10. Cells of horses with WNV encephalitis mainly expressed genes for IL-6 and TGF-beta. Cells of horses with EPM mainly had expression of genes for IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and TGF-beta. Cells from horses with spinal cord trauma had expression mainly for IL-6; IFN-gamma; TGF-beta; and less frequently, IL-2, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. Interleukin-8 gene expression was only detected in CSF of horses with infectious diseases. Despite the small number of CSF samples for each group, results suggest distinct gene signatures expressed by nucleated cells in the CSF of horses without neurologic signs versus horses with inflammatory or traumatic neurologic disorders.

  7. Development of a Luminex-Based DIVA Assay for Serological Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus in Horses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Nieto-Pelegrín, E; Beck, C; Rivera-Arroyo, B; Lecollinet, S; Sailleau, C; Zientara, S; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-08-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is considered a fatal re-emergent vector-borne disease of horses. In the absence of any effective treatment for AHS, vaccination remains the most effective form of disease control. The new generation of vaccines, such as one based on purified, inactivated AHS virus (AHSV, serotype 4), which does not induce antibodies against non-structural protein 3 (NS3), enables the development of diagnostic methods that differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA assays). As detecting AHS in AHSV-free countries may lead to restrictions on international animal movements and thereby cause significant economic damage, these DIVA assays are crucial for reducing movement restrictions. In this article, we describe a Luminex-based multiplex assay for DIVA diagnosis of AHS, and we validate it in a duplex format to detect antibodies against structural protein 7 (VP7) and NS3 in serum samples from horses vaccinated with inactivated AHSV4 vaccine or infected with a live virus of the same serotype. Results of the Luminex-based assay for detecting anti-NS3 antibodies showed good positive correlation with results from an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thus, the Luminex-based technique described here may allow multiplex DIVA antibody detection in a single sample in less than 2 h, and it may prove adaptable for the development of robust, multiplex serological assays.

  8. Movement asymmetry in working polo horses.

    PubMed

    Pfau, T; Parkes, R S; Burden, E R; Bell, N; Fairhurst, H; Witte, T H

    2016-07-01

    The high, repetitive demands imposed on polo horses in training and competition may predispose them to musculoskeletal injuries and lameness. To quantify movement symmetry and lameness in a population of polo horses, and to investigate the existence of a relationship with age. Convenience sampled cross-sectional study. Sixty polo horses were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to the poll, and between the tubera sacrale. Six movement symmetry measures were calculated for vertical head and pelvic displacement during in-hand trot and compared with values for perfect symmetry, compared between left and right limb lame horses, and compared with published thresholds for lameness. Regression lines were calculated as a function of age of horse. Based on 2 different sets of published asymmetry thresholds 52-53% of the horses were quantified with head movement asymmetry and 27-50% with pelvic movement asymmetry resulting in 60-67% of horses being classified with movement asymmetry outside published guideline values for either the forelimbs, hindlimbs or both. Neither forelimb nor hindlimb asymmetries were preferentially left or right sided, with directional asymmetry values across all horses not different from perfect symmetry and absolute values not different between left and right lame horses (P values >0.6 for all forelimb symmetry measures and >0.2 for all hindlimb symmetry measures). None of the symmetry parameters increased or decreased significantly with age. A large proportion of polo horses show gait asymmetries consistent with previously defined thresholds for lameness. These do not appear to be lateralised or associated with age. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  9. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  10. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other person...

  11. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two...

  12. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  13. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  14. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be landed...

  15. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  16. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  17. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  18. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be landed...

  19. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be landed...

  20. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person other...

  1. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world shall...

  2. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  3. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person other...

  4. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be landed...

  5. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...

  6. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...

  7. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two...

  8. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two...

  9. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...

  10. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  11. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world shall...

  12. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two...

  13. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two...

  14. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  15. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person other...

  16. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  17. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  18. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse Valley...

  19. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  20. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be landed...

  1. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other person...

  2. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  3. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  4. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...

  5. Transient Horner's syndrome following routine intravenous injections in two horses.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, R W; Sweeney, C R

    1984-10-01

    Horner's syndrome developed in 2 horses after routine jugular venipuncture. Signs included unilateral sweating of the face in both horses and ptosis in 1 horse. The signs resolved within 14 hours. Signs of a perivascular injection did not develop in either horse. Although Horner's syndrome has been reported after perivascular jugular injections these cases illustrate that the syndrome may develop following routine intravenous injections.

  6. Factors associated with Culicoides Obsoletus complex spp.-specific IgE reactivity in Icelandic horses and Shetland ponies.

    PubMed

    Schurink, Anouk; van der Meide, Nathalie M A; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Ducro, Bart J; Tijhaar, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common allergic skin disease in horses, caused by biting insects of the Culicoides spp. In The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. of the Obsoletus complex are the most important midges involved in IBH. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify associations between several endogenous (host) and exogenous (environmental) factors and immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity against Obsoletus complex-derived whole body extract or seven recombinant allergens, measured by ELISA. Data from 143 Icelandic horses and 177 Shetland ponies were analysed using multivariable models. In addition, the relationship between IgE reactivity and severity of clinical signs in IBH-affected horses was examined. Positive correlations were found between Obsoletus complex-specific IgE and severity of clinical signs. Disease status (IBH affected or control), breed and the interaction between IBH status and breed were significantly associated with IgE reactivity against several Obsoletus complex allergens. Significantly greater IgE reactivity was seen in IBH-affected horses compared to controls. The differences in IgE values between cases and controls were most pronounced in Icelandic horses. Shetland pony controls had significantly greater IgE reactivity compared to Icelandic horse controls, while differences in IgE values comparing Shetland pony cases and Icelandic horse cases were not significant. Severity of clinical signs and IgE reactivity in IBH-affected horses against several Obsoletus complex allergens appeared to be related. Consideration of the factors associated with Obsoletus complex-specific IgE in horses might further improve interpretation and accuracy of IgE ELISA test results within these breeds, although further research is required.

  7. Viraemic frequencies and seroprevalence of non-primate hepacivirus and equine pegiviruses in horses and other mammalian species.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Sinéad; Kapoor, Amit; Schneider, Bradley S; Wolfe, Nathan D; Culshaw, Geoff; Corcoran, Brendan; Durham, Andy E; Burden, Faith; McGorum, Bruce C; Simmonds, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV), equine pegivirus (EPgV) and Theiler's disease associated virus (TDAV) are newly discovered members of two genera in the Flaviviridae family, Hepacivirus and Pegivirus respectively, that include human hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV). To investigate their epidemiology, persistence and clinical features of infection, large cohorts of horses and other mammalian species were screened for NPHV, EPgV and TDAV viraemia and for past exposure through serological assays for NPHV and EPgV-specific antibodies. NPHV antibodies were detected in 43% of 328 horses screened for antibodies to NS3 and core antibodies, of which three were viraemic by PCR. All five horses that were stablemates of a viraemic horse were seropositive, as was a dog on the same farm. With this single exception, all other species were negative for NPHV antibodies and viraemia: donkeys (n=100), dogs (n=112), cats (n=131), non-human primates (n=164) and humans (n=362). EPgV antibodies to NS3 were detected in 66.5% of horses, including 10 of the 12 horses that had EPgV viraemia. All donkey samples were negative for EPgV antibody and RNA. All horse and donkey samples were negative for TDAV RNA. By comparing viraemia frequencies in horses with and without liver disease, no evidence was obtained that supported an association between active NPHV and EPgV infections with hepatopathy. The study demonstrates that NPHV and EPgV infections are widespread and enzootic in the study horse population and confirms that NPHV and potentially EPgV have higher frequencies of viral clearance than HCV and HPgV infections in humans. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. Anaphylactoid reaction caused by sodium ceftriaxone in two horses experimentally infected by Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Basile, Roberta Carvalho; Rivera, Gabriela Gomes; Del Rio, Lara Antoniassi; de Bonis, Talissa Camargo Mantovani; do Amaral, Gabriel Paiva Domingues; Giangrecco, Edson; Ferraz, Guilherme; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Canola, Paulo Aléscio; Queiroz Neto, Antonio

    2015-08-12

    Lyme borreliosis is a disease transmitted by ticks to mammals, especially in horses and humans. Caused by a spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, it can result in lameness, arthritis, carditis, dermatitis and neurological signs. Anaphylactoid reactions are severe responses caused by direct action of substances (drugs, toxins), which can pose risks to life. Still poorly documented in horses, these reactions are caused by the effects of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, kinins and arachidonic acid metabolites. The last two are the most clinically relevant for the species. The simultaneous occurrence of anaphylactoid reaction in two horses experimentally infected by Borrelia burgdorferi undergoing intravenous treatment with ceftriaxone sodium is reported. It was administered 4.7 × 10(8) spirochetes intradermal and subcutaneous applications in both horses to evaluate clinical aspects of the Lyme disease, 95 days before the application of sodium ceftriaxone. During the administration, one horse (a gelding) showed immediate and severe anaphylactoid symptoms such as urticaria, dyspnea, tachycardia, and eyelid edema, which were controlled by injecting dexamethasone. After 1 day, it expressed signs of abdominal discomfort, caused by severe bloat, which was treated surgically via celiotomy. Subsequently, this gelding had piroplasmosis and severe anemia, requiring treatment with an antimicrobial and blood transfusion. Second horse (a mare) showed signs of hypotension during the application of the antibiotic, which disappeared only when the application was interrupted. Days after the event, the mare developed moderate large colon bloat, which was treated with medication only. Subsequently the mare was evolved into the prodromal phase of laminitis in one of the forelimbs, which was treated for 10 days with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and rheology modifying drugs and cryotherapy. From the two cases presented here, it does appear that sodium ceftriaxone can induce

  9. FEASIBILITY AND SAFETY OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND IN THE DISTAL LIMB OF SIX HORSES.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Gabriela S; Campbell, Nigel; Nixon, Britton; Tsuruta, James K; Dayton, Paul A; Jennings, Samuel; Redding, W Rich; Lustgarten, Meghann

    2016-05-01

    Vascular alterations play important roles in many orthopedic diseases such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis, and synovitis in both human and equine athletes. Understanding these alterations could enhance diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) could be a valuable method for evaluation of blood flow and perfusion of these processes in the equine distal limb, however no reports were found describing feasibility or safety of the technique. The goal of this prospective, experimental study was to describe the feasibility and safety of distal limb CEUS in a sample of six horses. For each horse, CEUS of the distal limb was performed after intravenous injections of 5 and 10 ml, as well as intra-arterial injections of 0.5 and 1 ml contrast medium. Vital parameters were monitored and CEUS images were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively for degree of contrast enhancement. None of the horses had clinically significant changes in their vital parameters after contrast medium injection. One horse had a transient increase in respiratory rate, and several horses had mild increases of systolic blood pressure of short duration after intravenous, but not after intra-arterial injections. Intra-arterial injection was possible in all horses and resulted in significantly improved contrast enhancement both quantitatively (P = 0.027) and qualitatively (P = 0.019). Findings from this study indicated that CEUS is a feasible and safe diagnostic test for evaluation of the equine distal limb. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical utility of this test for horses with musculoskeletal diseases. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. An Ecotype of Neorickettsia risticii Causing Potomac Horse Fever in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qingming; Bekebrede, Hannah; Sharma, Pratibha; Arroyo, Luis G.; Baird, John D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neorickettsia (formerly Ehrlichia) risticii is an obligatory intracellular bacterium of digenetic trematodes. When a horse accidentally ingests aquatic insects containing encysted trematodes infected with N. risticii, the bacterium is transmitted from trematodes to horse cells and causes an acute and often fatal disease called Potomac horse fever (PHF). Since the discovery of N. risticii in the United States in 1984, using immunofluorescence and PCR assays, PHF has been increasingly recognized throughout North America and South America. However, so far, there exist only a few stable N. risticii culture isolates, all of which are from horses within the United States, and the strain diversity and environmental spreading and distribution of pathogenic N. risticii strains remain poorly understood. This paper reports the isolation of N. risticii from the blood of a horse with acute PHF in Ontario, Canada. Intracellular N. risticii colonies were detected in P388D1 cells after 47 days of culturing and 8 days after the addition of rapamycin. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequences of major surface proteins P51 and Ssa1 showed that this isolate is distinct from any previously sequenced strains but closely related to midwestern U.S. strains. This is the first Canadian strain cultured, and a new method was developed to reactivate dormant N. risticii to improve culture isolation. IMPORTANCE Neorickettsia risticii is an environmental bacterium that lives inside flukes that are parasitic to aquatic snails, insects, and bats. When a horse accidentally ingests insects harboring flukes infected with N. risticii, the bacterium is transmitted to the horse and causes an acute and often fatal disease called Potomac horse fever. Although the disease has been increasingly recognized throughout North and South America, N. risticii has not been cultured outside the United States. This paper reports the first Canadian strain cultured and a new method to

  11. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-24

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

  13. Neuro-ophthalmology in horses.

    PubMed

    Irby, Nita L

    2011-12-01

    A complete neuro-ophthalmologic assessment is relatively simple, requires minimal instrumentation and should be performed as part of every complete ophthalmic and neurologic examination. This article has summarized the tests that comprise and the species-specific details of the complete neuro-ophthalmologic of the equine patient. Selected causes of sudden blindness in the horse were summarized and some common neuro-ophthalmic conditions with significant ophthalmic consequences, such as facial nerve paralysis, were discussed. Split-lid tarsorrhaphies, which are indicated but rarely used in cases of facial nerve paralysis were strongly recommended for all facial paralysis cases and were described in detail.

  14. Unilateral choristoma of the nictitating membrane in a horse.

    PubMed

    Gornik, Kara R; Pirie, Christopher G; Beamer, Gillian L

    2015-01-15

    A 2-year-old Morgan mare was evaluated because of a corneal ulceration. An irregular, deep stromal corneal ulcer in an area of malacia was noted in the left eye. Hypopyon was present in the ventral portion of the anterior chamber with moderate aqueous flare. The nictitating membrane of the left eye had hairs originating from its leading edge that contacted the corneal surface. General anesthesia was induced, and a bulbar pedicle conjunctival graft was performed. The conjunctiva at the leading edge of the nictitating membrane, including the aberrant hair follicles, was excised. Microscopically, a nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium, sebaceous glands, and hair shafts were present, confirming a choristoma of pilosebaceous origin at the leading edge of the nictitating membrane. Six weeks after surgery, the horse had no signs of discomfort, with no regrowth of the hairs; no loss of vision was evident. Ocular choristomas develop secondary to defective fetal cellular differentiation and are rarely reported in the equine literature. The choristoma in this horse contained ectopic hair follicles with hair growth as well as sebaceous glands. This finding emphasizes the importance of a thorough adnexal examination in horses with corneal disease.

  15. Kaulath, a new fungal fermented food from horse gram.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Minakshee; Vasantha, K Y; Sreerama, Y N; Haware, Devendra J; Singh, R P; Sattur, A P

    2015-12-01

    Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) is used in the traditional method for treatmentof several health complications. It is also known that fermentation of such substrates yields a number of compounds that enhance the overall activities against several disease states. Solid state fermentation of horse gram using Penicillium camemberti showed an inhibition of pancreatic lipase and alpha glucosidase activities. The fermented material, termed Kaulath, showed 60 % increase in fat content. A reduction in sodium and increased levels of potassium and calcium was observed in Kaulath. In addition, a higher free radical scavenging activity was noted in this product compared to unfermented horse gram. Anti-nutritional factors, such as phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors showed a reduction in Kaulath. Furthermore, Kaulath, upto 1 g per kg body weight, did not exhibit any mortality or toxic effects in experimental rats after 14 days of administration. The hematological and clinical parameters were within safe limits between the groups, supported by the histopathology of liver and kidney. These results indicate potential food use of Kaulath in diets and as functional ingredients in formulated foods.

  16. Epidemiological survey of equine influenza in horses in India.

    PubMed

    Mavadiya, S V; Raval, S K; Mehta, S A; Kanani, A N; Vagh, A A; Tank, P H; Patel, P R

    2012-12-01

    A highly contagious virus infection in horses, influenza is the single most important equine respiratory disease in the world. This paper presents details of a one-year study (1 June 2008 to 31 May 2009) to determine the prevalence of equine influenza in the horses of Gujarat State in India. The prevalence of equine influenza A/equi-2 was 12.02%, but none of the samples were positive for equine influenza A/equi-1. The prevalence of equine influenza (A/equi-2) was 15.38%, 11.94%, 10.18%, and 9.09% in horses of the Kathiyawari breed, a non-descript breed, the Marwari breed and the Indian Thoroughbred breed, respectively. The highest prevalence of influenza was observed in yearlings (17.48%) and prevalence was at its highest in the month of April (28.89%). The prevalence rate in males, females and geldings was 11.95%, 10.38% and 8.47%, respectively. The mortality rate and case fatality rate were 1.28% and 10.64%, respectively.

  17. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse...

  18. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse...

  19. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse...

  20. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse...

  1. Epidemiology of shivering (shivers) in horses.

    PubMed

    Draper, A C E; Bender, J B; Firshman, A M; Baird, J D; Reed, S; Mayhew, I G; Valberg, S J

    2015-03-01

    Investigating the epidemiology of shivering in horses. The purpose of this study was to characterise the signalment, clinical signs and management factors associated with shivering (also known as shivers), a relatively rare, poorly defined movement disorder in horses. Web-based case series survey and case-control study. A Web-based survey was used to obtain information from owners, worldwide, who suspected that their horse had shivering. Survey respondents were asked to answer standardised questions and to provide a video of the horse. Authors reviewed the surveys and videos, and horses were diagnosed with shivering if they displayed normal forward walking, with difficulty during manual lifting of the hoof and backward walking due to hyperflexion or hyperextension of the pelvic limbs. Cases confirmed by video were designated 'confirmed shivering', while those with compatible clinical signs but lacking video confirmation were designated 'suspected shivering'. Owners of confirmed shivering horses were asked to provide information on 2 horses without signs of shivering (control group). Three hundred and five surveys and 70 videos were received; 27 horses were confirmed shivering (50 controls), 67 were suspected shivering and the rest had a variety of other movement disorders. Suspected shivering horses resembled confirmed shivering cases, except that the suspected shivering group contained fewer draught breeds and fewer horses with exercise intolerance. Confirmed shivering signs often began at <5 years of age and progressed in 74% of cases. Owner-reported additional clinical signs in confirmed cases included muscle twitching (85%), muscle atrophy (44%), reduced strength (33%) and exercise intolerance (33%). Shivering horses were significantly taller (confirmed shivering, mean ∼173 cm; control horses, ∼163 cm) with a higher male:female ratio (confirmed shivering, 3.2:1 vs. control, 1.7:1). No potential triggering factors or effective treatments were reported

  2. Application of real-time PCR and ELISA assays for equine influenza virus to determine the duration of viral RNA shedding and onset of antibody response in naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Read, A J; Finlaison, D S; Gu, X; Davis, R J; Arzey, K E; Kirkland, P D

    2011-07-01

    During the equine influenza (EI) outbreak, two assays were used in parallel to diagnose the disease, to demonstrate freedom from infection in disease control zones and ultimately to demonstrate that EI virus had been eliminated from the Australian horse population. A longitudinal study of a population of naturally infected horses was established to determine the performance characteristics of these assays.

  3. An animal location-based habitat suitability model for bighorn sheep and wild horses in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Montana, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wockner, Gary; Singer, Francis J.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    epizootic die-off (Singer and others, 2001). Since all bighorn sheep populations are potentially vulnerable to disease epizootics, managing for larger populations of 200–300 animals appears to increase the potential for long-term persistence (Berger, 1990; Singer and others, 2001). Wild horses are not prone to rapid disease die-offs. However, minimum goals for genetic viability in the Pryor Mountain wild horses ( Ne > 50) require that at least 160 animals be present on the range (Singer and others, 2000). Since the Ne > 50 goal is set for the breeding of domestic animals, and since the vagaries of drought, severe winters, predation, and other stochastic events cause stress in wild animals, larger goals for Ne (e.g. Ne > 100) for wild horses are even more desirable (USDI, BLM, 1999; Gross, 2000). Expanding the area of the wild horse range is one option, but the prospects for expanding the range do not appear to be great (L. Coates-Markle, BLM, oral comm.). A second option would be to increase the amount of useable habitat for horses on the existing range. One goal of this modeling effort was to use GIS-based habitat analyses to determine the reason wild horses are not using some areas of the range, and to explore the potential for making some of these areas useable. The National Park Service (NPS) has shown considerable interest in management actions within BICA that will increase the range, useable habitat, and population size of bighorn sheep. There has also been interest expressed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and wild horse advocates to improve the useable habitat for wild horses and to possibly increase the size of the horse range.

  4. Morphology of the occlusal surfaces of premolar and molar teeth as an indicator of age in the horse.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, J L; Allen, A L

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of cheek tooth occlusal surface morphology as an indicator of age in the horse using a blinded cross-sectional design. Twenty horses of varying age, breed and sex were used. Horses of known age (foaling date) were euthanized for reasons other than dental disease. Following disarticulation of the head and sectioning of the mandibles, cheek teeth were cleaned using running water and photographs were taken of each arcade. Using a computer-based program, the total surface area of each premolar and molar, the outer enamel ridge perimeter distance, infundibular surface areas and perimeter distances were measured. Further anatomical data were calculated from these measurements and a statistical analysis of the relationship between horse age and cheek tooth occlusal morphology was performed. Results indicated that multiple anatomical regions within the occlusal surface of the equine cheek tooth can be used as an indicator of age. There are important differences between mandibular and maxillary teeth as well as between teeth in the same dental arcade. Horse size is also of significance. The mesial infundibular surface area as a percentage of the total surface area of tooth 111, and the mesiodistal length of 1/2/3/4 09 teeth, most closely approximates age within our mathematical model. Cheek tooth morphological data can be used to predict age in horses that possess all their permanent dentition. In cases in which the age of horses cannot be accurately determined from incisor examination, cheek teeth may be used.

  5. A Nonsense Variant in the ST14 Gene in Akhal-Teke Horses with Naked Foal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Anina; Hiemesch, Theresa; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Neuditschko, Markus; Bachmann, Iris; Rieder, Stefan; Mikko, Sofia; Penedo, M. Cecilia; Tarasova, Nadja; Vitková, Martina; Sirtori, Nicolò; Roccabianca, Paola; Leeb, Tosso; Welle, Monika M.

    2017-01-01

    Naked foal syndrome (NFS) is a genodermatosis in the Akhal-Teke horse breed. We provide the first scientific description of this phenotype. Affected horses have almost no hair and show a mild ichthyosis. So far, all known NFS affected horses died between a few weeks and 3 yr of age. It is not clear whether a specific pathology caused the premature deaths. NFS is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait. We mapped the disease causing genetic variant to two segments on chromosomes 7 and 27 in the equine genome. Whole genome sequencing of two affected horses, two obligate carriers, and 75 control horses from other breeds revealed a single nonsynonymous genetic variant on the chromosome 7 segment that was perfectly associated with NFS. The affected horses were homozygous for ST14:c.388G>T, a nonsense variant that truncates >80% of the open reading frame of the ST14 gene (p.Glu130*). The variant leads to partial nonsense-mediated decay of the mutant transcript. Genetic variants in the ST14 gene are responsible for autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 11 in humans. Thus, the identified equine ST14:c.388G>T variant is an excellent candidate causative variant for NFS, and the affected horses represent a large animal model for a known human genodermatosis. Our findings will enable genetic testing to avoid the nonintentional breeding of NFS-affected foals. PMID:28235824

  6. High subclinical West Nile virus incidence among nonvaccinated horses in northern California associated with low vector abundance and infection.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Carrie F; Reisen, William K; Armijos, M Veronica; Maclachlan, N James; Scott, Thomas W

    2008-01-01

    Although horse cases frequently are reported during West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks, few investigations have focused on the epidemiology of this transmission. From April to October 2003 to 2005, mosquito abundance and infection were monitored 3 days per week at an equine research facility at the University of California, Davis. Thirty-two nonvaccinated horses enrolled as controls in a vaccine study were bled monthly, and their serum was tested for evidence of WNV infection by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). In 2004, one positive Culex pipiens pool was associated with a single horse that presented with confirmed WNV disease in late September. The annual incidence of clinical and subclinical WNV infection in the nonvaccinated horses was 16%, with an apparent to inapparent ratio of 1:4 among infected horses. In 2005, two Culex tarsalis and two Cx. pipiens WNV-positive pools were associated with an equine infection incidence of 62%, with an apparent to inapparent ratio of 1:17. The majority (79%) of 70 blood-engorged Cx. pipiens fed on birds and the remaining on equines (21%). Conversely, Cx. tarsalis fed primarily on equines (n = 23, 74%), followed by birds (n = 7, 23%) and 1 (3%) fed on a lagomorph. These data indicated that nonvaccinated horses were a sensitive indicator of WNV activity and that their risk of infection was associated with the presence of infection in Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis, which served as both enzootic and bridge vectors amplifying WNV among birds and transmitting WNV to horses.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: A case-control study of Californian horses.

    PubMed

    James, K E; Smith, W A; Packham, A E; Conrad, P A; Pusterla, N

    2017-06-01

    While toxoplasmosis is not commonly considered a clinical disease of equines, previous seroprevalence studies have reported differing background rates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible associations between T. gondii seroprevalence and clinical signs of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses. Using a case-control study design, 720 Californian horses with neurologic signs compatible with EPM were compared to healthy, non-neurologic horses for the presence of T. gondii antibodies (using indirect fluorescent antibody tests [IFAT]). Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence among cases and controls was determined at standard serum cut-offs: 40, 80, 160, 320, and 640. At a T. gondii titre cut-off of 320, horses with clinical signs compatible with EPM had 3.55 times the odds of a seropositive test compared to those without clinical signs (P<0.01) when adjusted for covariates. When restricted to the autumn season and at the same titre cut-off, an EPM suspect horse had 6.4 times the odds of testing seropositive to T. gondii, compared to non-neurologic horses. The association between high T. gondii titres and clinical signs compatible with EPM is potentially reflective of toxoplasmosis in equines. Serologic testing of cerebrospinal fluid and isolation of T. gondii in EPM suspect cases should be considered. Future studies investigating the relationship between T. gondii and EPM are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Serological and clinical proof of freedom from Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) in imported and domestic horses in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Doherr, M G; Perler, L; Zanoni, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Since 1991, no cases of Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) have been reported in Switzerland. Risk factors for introduction of the virus into Switzerland are still present or have even increased as frequent inapparent infections, large numbers of imported horses, (since 2003) absence of compulsory testing prior to importation, EIA cases in surrounding Europe, possible illegal importation of horses, frequent short-term stays, poor knowledge of the disease among horse owners and even veterinarians. The aim of this study was to provide evidence of freedom from EIA in imported and domestic horses in Switzerland. The serum samples from 434 horses imported since 2003 as well as from 232 domestic horses fifteen years of age or older (since older horses have naturally had a longer time of being exposed to the risk of infection) were analysed using a commercially available ELISA test. All samples were seronegative, indicating that the maximum possible prevalence that could have been missed with this sample was 0.5% (95% confidence).

  9. Exogenous L-lactate clearance in adult horses.

    PubMed

    De Pedro, Pedro; Wilkins, Pamela A; McMichael, Maureen A; Dirikolu, Levent; Lascola, Kara M; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Boston, Raymond C

    2012-10-01

    To determine endogenous production of L-lactate and the clearance of exogenous sodium L-lactate (ExLC) in healthy adult horses. A sodium L-lactate solution (1 mmol/kg body weight qs to 500 mL final volume in 0.9% NaCl) was adminstered IV over 15 minutes. Blood samples for L-lactate concentration [LAC] measurement were collected immediately prior to infusion, at 5, 10, and 15 minutes during infusion and at 1 minute intervals for 15 minutes, at 30, 45, 60, 120, and 180 minutes postinfusion. Disposition modeling and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using proprietary software. University Teaching Hospital. Six clinically healthy adult horses. Median (range) baseline [LAC] was 0.43 (0.20-0.72) mmol/L for samples obtained every 3 hours over the 24 hours prior to ExLC and demonstrated variability primarily associated with horse. Median [LAC] immediately prior to ExLC was 0.43 (0.35-0.52) mmol/L. A 2-compartment model was used to specify the pharmacokinetic parameters. Median (range) ExLC was 1.05 (0.073-1.75) L·h(-1) ·kg(-1) and t(1/2) β was 29.54 (20.8-38.6) min. Median lactate production based on basal [LAC] immediately prior to ExLC was was 0.49 (0.31-0.93) mmol·h(-1) ·kg(-1) . ExLC in healthy adult horses is greater than that of hyperlactemic human patients but similar to normolactemic-sick human patients examined using the same model, supporting development of species, and disease specific ExLC parameters. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  10. Detection and comparison of nitric oxide in clinically normal horses and those with naturally acquired small intestinal strangulation obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, M H; Oliver, J L; Seahorn, T L; Hosgood, G; Moore, R M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) is present in clinically normal horses under basal conditions and if it increases secondary to naturally acquired small intestinal strangulation obstruction. Thirty-one horses were used; 20 horses with naturally acquired small intestinal strangulation obstruction and 11 clinically normal horses with no signs of gastrointestinal tract disease. Jugular venous blood, abdominal fluid, and urine were collected for NO quantification. Plasma, abdominal fluid, and urine were stored at -70 degrees C until analyzed for NO using a chemiluminescent method. Biopsy specimens collected from the affected jejunal segment, during anesthesia or after immediately after euthanasia, or from the midjejunum of control horses, were divided into subsections for fixation in zinc formalin and cryopreservation in OCT gel. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NADPH) diaphorase histochemical stains were performed on cryopreserved tissues and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine immunohistochemical stains were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. There were significantly greater plasma and abdominal fluid NO concentrations in affected horses as compared with controls, but there were no significant differences between horses for urine NO concentrations. There was a significant decrease in NADPH diaphorase stain in mucosal epithelium, vasculature, and leukocytes, and in submucosal plexi in affected horses compared with control horses. There was a significant increase in iNOS staining in mucosal and submucosal leukocytes and in mucosal leukocyte nitrotyrosine staining of the affected compared with control horses. Endothelial NOS and neuronal NOS are present under basal conditions in the jejunum of horses and probably mediate physiologic or cytoprotective effects. Plasma and abdominal fluid, but not urine, NO concentrations increase subsequent to small intestinal strangulation

  11. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. L. Ixodid ticks infesting horses and donkeys.

    PubMed

    Horak, Ivan G; Heyne, Heloise; Halajian, Ali; Booysen, Shalaine; Smit, Willem J

    2017-02-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the species spectrum of ixodid ticks that infest horses and donkeys in South Africa and to identify those species that act as vectors of disease to domestic livestock. Ticks were collected opportunistically from 391 horses countrywide by their owners or grooms, or by veterinary students and staff at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria. Ticks were also collected from 76 donkeys in Limpopo Province, 2 in Gauteng Province and 1 in North West province. All the ticks were identified by means of a stereoscopic microscope. Horses were infested with 17 tick species, 72.1% with Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, 19.4% with Amblyomma hebraeum and 15.6% with Rhipicephalus decoloratus. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi was recovered from horses in all nine provinces of South Africa and R. decoloratus in eight provinces. Donkeys were infested with eight tick species, and 81.6% were infested with R. evertsi evertsi, 23.7% with A. hebraeum and 10.5% with R. decoloratus. Several tick species collected from the horses and donkeys are the vectors of economically important diseases of livestock. Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi is the vector of Theileria equi, the causative organism of equine piroplasmosis. It also transmits Anaplasma marginale, the causative organism of anaplasmosis in cattle. Amblyomma hebraeum is the vector of Ehrlichia ruminantium, the causative organism of heartwater in cattle, sheep and goats, whereas R. decoloratus transmits Babesia bigemina, the causative organism of babesiosis in cattle.

  12. Brazilian borreliosis with special emphasis on humans and horses.

    PubMed

    Basile, Roberta Carvalho; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Mantovani, Elenice; Bonoldi, Virgínia Nazário; Macoris, Delphim da Graça; Queiroz-Neto, Antonio de

    Borreliosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a cosmopolitan zoonosis studied worldwide; it is called Lyme disease in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere and Lyme-like or Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome in Brazil. However, despite the increasing number of suspect cases, this disease is still neglected in Brazil by the medical and veterinary communities. Brazilian Lyme-like borreliosis likely involves capybaras as reservoirs and Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks as vectors. Thus, domestic animals can serve as key carriers in pathogen dissemination. This zoonosis has been little studied in horses in Brazil. The first survey was performed in the state of Rio de Janeiro, and this Brazilian Borreliosis exhibits many differences from the disease widely described in the Northern Hemisphere. The etiological agent shows different morphological and genetic characteristics, the disease has a higher recurrence rate after treatment with antibiotics, and the pathogen stimulates intense symptoms such as a broader immune response in humans. Additionally, the Brazilian zoonosis is not transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus complex. With respect to clinical manifestations, Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome has been reported to cause neurological, cardiac, ophthalmic, muscle, and joint alterations in humans. These symptoms can possibly occur in horses. Here, we present a current panel of studies involving the disease in humans and equines, particularly in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Transmission and control of African horse sickness in The Netherlands: a model analysis.

    PubMed

    Backer, Jantien A; Nodelijk, Gonnie

    2011-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine viral disease that is spread by Culicoides spp. Since the closely related disease bluetongue established itself in The Netherlands in 2006, AHS is considered a potential threat for the Dutch horse population. A vector-host model that incorporates the current knowledge of the infection biology is used to explore the effect of different parameters on whether and how the disease will spread, and to assess the effect of control measures. The time of introduction is an important determinant whether and how the disease will spread, depending on temperature and vector season. Given an introduction in the most favourable and constant circumstances, our results identify the vector-to-host ratio as the most important factor, because of its high variability over the country. Furthermore, a higher temperature accelerates the epidemic, while a higher horse density increases the extent of the epidemic. Due to the short infectious period in horses, the obvious clinical signs and the presence of non-susceptible hosts, AHS is expected to invade and spread less easily than bluetongue. Moreover, detection is presumed to be earlier, which allows control measures to be targeted towards elimination of infection sources. We argue that recommended control measures are euthanasia of infected horses with severe clinical signs and vector control in infected herds, protecting horses from midge bites in neighbouring herds, and (prioritized) vaccination of herds farther away, provided that transport regulations are strictly applied. The largest lack of knowledge is the competence and host preference of the different Culicoides species present in temperate regions.

  14. Transmission and Control of African Horse Sickness in The Netherlands: A Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Backer, Jantien A.; Nodelijk, Gonnie

    2011-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine viral disease that is spread by Culicoides spp. Since the closely related disease bluetongue established itself in The Netherlands in 2006, AHS is considered a potential threat for the Dutch horse population. A vector-host model that incorporates the current knowledge of the infection biology is used to explore the effect of different parameters on whether and how the disease will spread, and to assess the effect of control measures. The time of introduction is an important determinant whether and how the disease will spread, depending on temperature and vector season. Given an introduction in the most favourable and constant circumstances, our results identify the vector-to-host ratio as the most important factor, because of its high variability over the country. Furthermore, a higher temperature accelerates the epidemic, while a higher horse density increases the extent of the epidemic. Due to the short infectious period in horses, the obvious clinical signs and the presence of non-susceptible hosts, AHS is expected to invade and spread less easily than bluetongue. Moreover, detection is presumed to be earlier, which allows control measures to be targeted towards elimination of infection sources. We argue that recommended control measures are euthanasia of infected horses with severe clinical signs and vector control in infected herds, protecting horses from midge bites in neighbouring herds, and (prioritized) vaccination of herds farther away, provided that transport regulations are strictly applied. The largest lack of knowledge is the competence and host preference of the different Culicoides species present in temperate regions. PMID:21850252

  15. Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary

    2004-11-05

    Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-pha