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Sample records for horticulture

  1. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, James

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist vocational instructors in preparing students for entry-level employment in the field of horticulture and getting them ready for advanced training in the workplace. The package contains a validated competency/skill and task list, an instructor's guide, and an annotated bibliography. The following…

  2. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitken, James

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist vocational instructors in preparing students for entry-level employment in the field of horticulture and getting them ready for advanced training in the workplace. The package contains a validated competency/skill and task list, an instructor's guide, and an annotated bibliography. The following…

  3. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  4. Basic Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, Barbra Farabough

    This learning packet contains teaching suggestions and student learning materials for a course in basic horticulture aimed at preparing students for employment in a number of horticulture areas. The packet includes nine sections and twenty instructional units. Following the standard format established for Oklahoma vocational education materials in…

  5. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  6. Lunar horticulture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  7. Heartland Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poquette, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    Midwestern gardeners are legendary for enduring and outwitting winter, with its heavy snowpack and recurring freezes and thaws. Most of them also reckon with a relatively short growing period. All of them find their horticultural plans complicated by hot, humid summers. In fact, the Midwest deals with four seasons dictating special considerations…

  8. Heartland Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poquette, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    Midwestern gardeners are legendary for enduring and outwitting winter, with its heavy snowpack and recurring freezes and thaws. Most of them also reckon with a relatively short growing period. All of them find their horticultural plans complicated by hot, humid summers. In fact, the Midwest deals with four seasons dictating special considerations…

  9. SOEP: Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Chris; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Theme articles on horticulture discuss how students develop basic skills in supervised occupational experience programs, how to develop a good program without additional funding, describe a program at a junior college, and outline a program preparing students for job entry or higher education. (JOW)

  10. Ornamental Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 32 curriculum modules in this packet for ornamental horticulture instruction contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A listing of…

  11. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horticultural Review allows extensive reviews of the state of the knowledge on certain topics or crops. Elderberry: Botany, Horticulture, Potential, is outlined with an Introduction, Botany, Horticulture, Propagation, Uses and Conclusion sections. This review compiles literature from around the w...

  12. Introduction to Horticulture. Teacher Edition. Horticulture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is designed to provide a core of instruction for the many different fields in agricultural/horticultural education. This course contains 21 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to horticulture; beginning a career in horticulture; hand and power tools; introduction to safety; growing facilities;…

  13. Introduction to Horticulture. Teacher Edition. Horticulture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is designed to provide a core of instruction for the many different fields in agricultural/horticultural education. This course contains 21 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to horticulture; beginning a career in horticulture; hand and power tools; introduction to safety; growing facilities;…

  14. Horticulture and the FFA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Clifford L.

    1975-01-01

    The article offers teachers of vocational horticulture a number of specific suggestions for organizing FFA horticulture chapters that will appeal to urban and suburban students and that will improve the quality of their learning. (AJ)

  15. [Theme: Horticulture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A series of articles discusses requirements for optimum growth of horticulture education programs. Includes beginning a program, simulating working conditions, the need for mechanical skills, starting a business, and other areas to be considered for a successful horticultural program. (JOW)

  16. Agriculture Education. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in ornamental horticulture. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) horticulture and job opportunities, (2) preparing soil mixtures, (3) control, (4) plant propagation, (5) plant…

  17. Horticultural Mechanics Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, W. Edward

    1974-01-01

    Ornamental horticulture teachers and managers of ornamental horticulture businesses were surveyed to determine which agricultural mechanics knowledges and skills are needed for entry-level employment in nursery, greenhouse, turf, and landscape management, which are common to the four areas, and the appropriate grade level at which they should be…

  18. Competencies in Ornamental Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Curtis E.

    1974-01-01

    Based on the author's dissertation, this article pertains to the identification of competencies for ornamental horticulture workers in Oregon. Findings were based on interviews with 56 ornamental horticulture business employers regarding 100 competencies. The method used can serve as a model for obtaining occupational information to develop and…

  19. Environmental Horticulture Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard environmental horticulture curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the environmental horticulture field. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  20. Horticultural Mechanics Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, W. Edward

    1974-01-01

    Ornamental horticulture teachers and managers of ornamental horticulture businesses were surveyed to determine which agricultural mechanics knowledges and skills are needed for entry-level employment in nursery, greenhouse, turf, and landscape management, which are common to the four areas, and the appropriate grade level at which they should be…

  1. Theme: Staying Current--Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shry, Carroll L., Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This theme issue on staying current in horticulture includes articles on sex equity in horticulture, Future Farmers of America, career opportunities in horticulture, staying current with your school district's needs, staying current in horticulture instruction, staying current with landscape trade associations, emphasizing the basics in vocational…

  2. Horticulture/Floriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in floriculture and horticulture. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the Future Farmers of America, floriculture, merchandising and selling, retail flower shop management, advertising, inventory, indentification of common floral…

  3. Horticulture/Floriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehigh County Area Vocational-Technical School, Schnecksville, PA.

    This brochure describes the philosophy and scope of a secondary-level course in floriculture and horticulture. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: the Future Farmers of America, floriculture, merchandising and selling, retail flower shop management, advertising, inventory, indentification of common floral…

  4. GROWING HORTICULTURAL PLANTS. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS GUIDE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP THE UNDERSTANDINGS AND ABILITIES REQUIRED TO GROW HIGH-QUALITY HORTICULTURAL PLANTS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) ECONOMIC…

  5. Competency-Based Horticulture: Floriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This competency-based horticulture curriculum guide is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary horticulture teachers with a task-oriented program in floriculture. It contains a master resource list, a listing of floriculture resources available from various states, and 89 competency task sheets organized into nine competency areas. These…

  6. Competency-Based Horticulture. Floriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    One of two competency-based horticulture curriculum guides developed by an Illinois project, this Floriculture guide provides the classroom teacher with specific tasks determined by state industry personnel to be necessary for entry-level job placement. It is intended for horticulture education at the senior high school and two year college level.…

  7. Competency-Based Horticulture: Floriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This competency-based horticulture curriculum guide is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary horticulture teachers with a task-oriented program in floriculture. It contains a master resource list, a listing of floriculture resources available from various states, and 89 competency task sheets organized into nine competency areas. These…

  8. Contests In Conservation and Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Growing interest in conservation and horticulture in New York State has caused the addition of these specialized areas to the annual statewide agricultural education contests. Contest categories in both areas are listed. (MF)

  9. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  10. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  11. Horticulture I--Course No. 6841. Horticulture II--Course No. 6842. Agricultural Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed to help horticulture teachers in North Carolina high schools plan and deliver instruction. The guide contains a list of the 39 competencies included in Horticulture I and the 44 competencies included in Horticulture II. It also contains five units of instruction for Horticulture I and eight units for Horticulture…

  12. Secondary Vocational Horticulture Programs--An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Michael F.; Smith, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine characteristics of secondary horticulture teachers, the structure of horticulture departments, funding sources, nature and scope of facilities, types of supervised occupational experience programs in which horticulture students participated, and curriculum characteristics of vocational horticulture…

  13. Urban Horticulture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 4-year program in urban horticulture. The guide consists of a course description; general course…

  14. Urban Horticulture: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This guide, which was written as an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System, outlines the suggested scope and sequence of a 4-year program in urban horticulture. The guide consists of a course description; general course…

  15. Competencies Needed by Workers in Horticultural Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaas, Duane; Kahler, Alan A.

    This study was undertaken to identify occupational areas in the horticultural industry and to identify, describe, and categorize the mental and physical skills needed by workers in horticultural occupations. Competency lists were developed for these occupational areas: arborist services, farm and garden supply centers, golf course management,…

  16. Introduction to Horticulture. Unit A-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    Intended to provide about 10 hours of instruction to first-year vocational agriculture students, this instructional unit introduces students to the horticulture industry, provides a broad background of horticultural practices, and covers many skills that can be directly applied by students in their projects. Topics of the individual sections of…

  17. Competency-Based Horticulture: Turfgrass Maintenance Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This competency-based horticulture curriculum guide is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary horticulture teachers with a task-oriented program for training turfgrass maintenance workers. It contains a master resource list, a listing of turfgrass maintenance resources available from various states, and 59 competency task sheets organized…

  18. Introduction to Horticulture. Unit A-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    Intended to provide about 10 hours of instruction to first-year vocational agriculture students, this instructional unit introduces students to the horticulture industry, provides a broad background of horticultural practices, and covers many skills that can be directly applied by students in their projects. Topics of the individual sections of…

  19. Learning by Doing in Ornamental Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrick, Glenn H.

    1977-01-01

    An instructor in the Horticulture Department of the Milwaukee Area Technical College describes their work experience program which simulates closely the occupational conditions of the horticulture industry. The new campus gives students practice in landscape skills and an internship program places students with suitable employers. (MF)

  20. Competency-Based Horticulture: Gardening--Groundskeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This competency-based horticulture curriculum guide is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary horticulture teachers with a task-oriented program in gardening/groundskeeping. It contains a master resource list, a listing of gardening/groundskeeping resources available from various states, and 87 competency task sheets organized into 10…

  1. Competency-Based Horticulture. Gardening/Groundskeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    One of two competency-based horticulture curriculum guides developed by an Illinois project, this Gardening/Groundskeeping guide provides the classroom teacher with specific tasks determined by state industry personnel to be necessary for entry-level job placement. It is intended for horticulture education at the senior high school and two-year…

  2. Competency-Based Horticulture. Gardening/Groundskeeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    One of two competency-based horticulture curriculum guides developed by an Illinois project, this Gardening/Groundskeeping guide provides the classroom teacher with specific tasks determined by state industry personnel to be necessary for entry-level job placement. It is intended for horticulture education at the senior high school and two-year…

  3. CVAE-VEH Horticulture Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide consists of 14 units for use in teaching a high school level horticulture course. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: opportunities in horticultural occupations; plant classification and identification; structures and equipment used in producing greenhouse, ornamental, and nursery plants; greenhouse…

  4. CVAE-VEH Horticulture Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide consists of 14 units for use in teaching a high school level horticulture course. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: opportunities in horticultural occupations; plant classification and identification; structures and equipment used in producing greenhouse, ornamental, and nursery plants; greenhouse…

  5. Horticulture Therapy Activities for Exceptional Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airhart, Douglas L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Tennessee Technological University's Program of Special Education sponsors a "Super Saturday" of enrichment activities for gifted and talented students as well as students with learning disabilities. A session on horticulture was planned and arranged by students in a class on horticultural therapy who designed learning activities of…

  6. Competency-Based Horticulture: Turfgrass Maintenance Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, IL.

    This competency-based horticulture curriculum guide is designed to provide secondary and postsecondary horticulture teachers with a task-oriented program for training turfgrass maintenance workers. It contains a master resource list, a listing of turfgrass maintenance resources available from various states, and 59 competency task sheets organized…

  7. A Comprehensive Horticulture Curriculum Guide for New Jersey Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Cook Coll.

    A horticultural core curriculum and draft copies of three horticultural cluster curricula are provided. Materials related to the curriculum development project appear first. The core curriculum is designed to provide broad initial instruction in horticulture for students in the first year of a secondary-level vocational horticulture program. The…

  8. A Comprehensive Horticulture Curriculum Guide for New Jersey Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Cook Coll.

    A horticultural core curriculum and draft copies of three horticultural cluster curricula are provided. Materials related to the curriculum development project appear first. The core curriculum is designed to provide broad initial instruction in horticulture for students in the first year of a secondary-level vocational horticulture program. The…

  9. Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Ashleigh Barbee, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  10. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Junxiang; Nageswaran, Divyashree; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors of many horticultural crops are attributed to the overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegetables. Not only do carotenoids give horticultural crops their visual appeal, they also enhance nutritional value and health benefits for humans. As a result, carotenoid research in horticultural crops has grown exponentially over the last decade. These investigations have advanced our fundamental understanding of carotenoid metabolism and regulation in plants. In this review, we provide an overview of carotenoid biosynthesis, degradation, and accumulation in horticultural crops and highlight recent achievements in our understanding of carotenoid metabolic regulation in vegetables, fruits, and flowers. PMID:26504578

  11. EXPLORING OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF OCCUPATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE. IT IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF RESEARCH FROM STATE STUDIES. SUGGESTIONS FOR…

  12. Professional Horticulture Competencies for Entry Level and Experienced Vocational Horticulture Teachers in Pennsylvania. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, A. Ronald

    The purpose of this study was to identify the professional horticultural competencies that vocational horticultural teachers must perform successfully and to distinguish between those competencies needed by entry level teachers and those needed by experienced teachers. A secondary purpose was to examine differences in the ratings of the…

  13. Horticulture for Secondary Level Handicapped Adolescents: The Cherokee County Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Greg H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The Cherokee County (Alabama) horticulture training program provides 40 mildly mentally retarded adolescents with vocational training in a marketable skills. The broad spectrum of vocational skills makes horticulture ideal for the handicapped. (DB)

  14. Horticulture in Prevocational Training for the EMR Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relf, P. D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This article reviews the benefits of horticulture as a training tool for the retarded and offers suggested means of expanding horticulture learning experiences to the retarded child in a prevocational setting. (CT)

  15. Horticultural Careers for Persons with Mental Retardation. Expanding Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehart-Bennett, Mary E.; Relf, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Horticulture careers provide therapeutic, rewarding employment for persons with mental retardation. Rehabilitation experts should become aware of the potential employment opportunities in horticulture so that individuals with disabilities can receive the training and job placement support they need. (Author)

  16. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives. 1... (continued) § 1.199-6 Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives. (a) In general. A patron who receives a... horticultural cooperative (cooperative) (as defined in paragraph (f) of this section) is allowed a...

  17. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives. 1... (continued) § 1.199-6 Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives. (a) In general. A patron who receives a... horticultural cooperative (cooperative) (as defined in paragraph (f) of this section) is allowed a...

  18. Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains guidesheets for the ornamental horticulture production occupations. Each guidesheet provides a job-relevant task; performance objective, with task, performance standard, source of standard, and conditions for performance of task; enabling objectives; a list of resources; teaching activities; a criterion-referenced…

  19. Horticulture-Agriculture Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This document, which lists the horticultural-agricultural technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  20. Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Properties for Horticultural Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels are commonly employed to ensure hydration of the growth media and minimize crop losses during the crop production and postproduction phases in horticulture. However, studies of the effect of these materials have shown that they have a minimal effect on crop life and q...

  1. Carotenoid metabolism and regulation in horticultural crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of pigments widely distributed in nature. The vivid yellow, orange, and red colors in many horticultural crops attribute to overaccumulation of carotenoids, which contribute to a critical agronomic trait for flowers and an important quality trait for fruits and vegeta...

  2. Ornamental Horticulture. A Curriculum Guide. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Agricultural Education Section.

    Developed as part of a larger project to revise the total agricultural education curriculum in South Carolina, this curriculum guide for a 2-year ornamental horticulture course contains six functional units, each with several sub-units, and six horizontal supportive units. Each unit includes behavioral objectives, learning activities, topic…

  3. Horticulture Therapy Activities for Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doutt, Kathleen M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The Tennessee Technological University offers an enrichment program (consisting of a summer session and three Saturdays) in which gifted children and children with learning disabilities are grouped together for activities. Horticulture is one of the few enrichment activities adaptable to both groups. Children are allowed to engage in the same…

  4. Horticulture Therapy Activities for Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doutt, Kathleen M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The Tennessee Technological University offers an enrichment program (consisting of a summer session and three Saturdays) in which gifted children and children with learning disabilities are grouped together for activities. Horticulture is one of the few enrichment activities adaptable to both groups. Children are allowed to engage in the same…

  5. Agriculture: Horticulture. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This agricultural curriculum guide on horticulture for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery…

  6. Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains guidesheets for the ornamental horticulture production occupations. Each guidesheet provides a job-relevant task; performance objective, with task, performance standard, source of standard, and conditions for performance of task; enabling objectives; a list of resources; teaching activities; a criterion-referenced…

  7. Ornamental Horticulture: Program Planning Guide: Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Roger R.; Stitt, Thomas R.

    The program planning guide for ornamental horticulture was written to assist Applied Biological and Agricultural Occupations (ABAO) teachers in enriching existing programs and/or to provide the basis for expansion of offerings to include additional materials for the cluster areas of arboriculture, floriculture, greenhouse operation and management,…

  8. Horticulture Therapy Curriculum Development. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sally; And Others

    This final report includes two major components: a narrative describing a project at Edmonds Community College, Washington, to develop a horticultural therapy curriculum and descriptions of six courses developed or revised during the project. The narrative reports the development of a supplementary interdisciplinary certification program to train…

  9. Using Horticulture As Therapy in Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, George; Dillon, Roy D.

    1974-01-01

    Horticultural activities to bring about desired changes in individual behavior are being developed in many psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation centers, senior citizen homes, correctional institutions, and centers for the mentally handicapped. The authors provide some examples of greenhouse-oriented projects appropriate for therapy. (EA)

  10. Using Horticulture As Therapy in Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, George; Dillon, Roy D.

    1974-01-01

    Horticultural activities to bring about desired changes in individual behavior are being developed in many psychiatric hospitals, rehabilitation centers, senior citizen homes, correctional institutions, and centers for the mentally handicapped. The authors provide some examples of greenhouse-oriented projects appropriate for therapy. (EA)

  11. Marketing time predicts naturalization of horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Robert W; Liu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Horticulture is an important source of naturalized plants, but our knowledge about naturalization frequencies and potential patterns of naturalization in horticultural plants is limited. We analyzed a unique set of data derived from the detailed sales catalogs (1887-1930) of the most important early Florida, USA, plant nursery (Royal Palm Nursery) to detect naturalization patterns of these horticultural plants in the state. Of the 1903 nonnative species sold by the nursery, 15% naturalized. The probability of plants becoming naturalized increases significantly with the number of years the plants were marketed. Plants that became invasive and naturalized were sold for an average of 19.6 and 14.8 years, respectively, compared to 6.8 years for non-naturalized plants, and the naturalization of plants sold for 30 years or more is 70%. Unexpectedly, plants that were sold earlier were less likely to naturalize than those sold later. The nursery's inexperience, which caused them to grow and market many plants unsuited to Florida during their early period, may account for this pattern. Plants with pantropical distributions and those native to both Africa and Asia were more likely to naturalize (42%), than were plants native to other smaller regions, suggesting that plants with large native ranges were more likely to naturalize. Naturalization percentages also differed according to plant life form, with the most naturalization occurring in aquatic herbs (36.8%) and vines (30.8%). Plants belonging to the families Araceae, Apocynaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Oleaceae, and Verbenaceae had higher than expected naturalization. Information theoretic model selection indicated that the number of years a plant was sold, alone or together with the first year a plant was sold, was the strongest predictor of naturalization. Because continued importation and marketing of nonnative horticultural plants will lead to additional plant naturalization and invasion, a comprehensive approach

  12. Horticultural therapy: the garden benefits everyone.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J

    1998-10-01

    Horticulture therapy (HT) is an applied adjuctive therapy, using plants and gardening materials, to help the client with mental illness to improve social skills, self-esteem, and use of leisure time. HT provides a nonthreatening context for the development of a therapeutic alliance between client and nursing student. HT provides a group experience for the student nurse, allowing the promotion of therapeutic community, assessment of patient status, and management of a therapy session from start to finish via the nursing process.

  13. Temporal and spatial control of gene expression in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, Manjul; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Soriano, Leonardo; Kandel, Raju; Grosser, Jude W

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology provides plant breeders an additional tool to improve various traits desired by growers and consumers of horticultural crops. It also provides genetic solutions to major problems affecting horticultural crops and can be a means for rapid improvement of a cultivar. With the availability of a number of horticultural genome sequences, it has become relatively easier to utilize these resources to identify DNA sequences for both basic and applied research. Promoters play a key role in plant gene expression and the regulation of gene expression. In recent years, rapid progress has been made on the isolation and evaluation of plant-derived promoters and their use in horticultural crops, as more and more species become amenable to genetic transformation. Our understanding of the tools and techniques of horticultural plant biotechnology has now evolved from a discovery phase to an implementation phase. The availability of a large number of promoters derived from horticultural plants opens up the field for utilization of native sequences and improving crops using precision breeding. In this review, we look at the temporal and spatial control of gene expression in horticultural crops and the usage of a variety of promoters either isolated from horticultural crops or used in horticultural crop improvement. PMID:26504550

  14. Horticultural Related Occupations. VEH Horticulture Related. Curriculum Guide for Agribusiness 161.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for teachers to use in developing a 1- or 2-year course in horticulture-related occupations for at-risk and special education students. It is one of 28 semester courses in agricultural science and technology for Texas high schools. The program prepares low-achieving students with employability skills that…

  15. Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Aubry

    These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

  16. Status of global strategies for horticultural fruit crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the International Horticultural Congress of 2014, a workshop discussed the advances of the development of global conservation strategies for some of the horticultural crops mentioned in International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) Annex 1. While global co...

  17. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives. 1... (continued) § 1.199-6 Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives. (a) In general. A patron who receives a qualified payment (as defined in paragraph (e) of this section) from a specified agricultural or...

  18. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... X's gross receipts from the sale of its patrons' corn qualify as domestic production gross receipts... in the marketing of agricultural and/or horticultural products described in paragraph (f) of this... States (as defined in § 1.199-3(h)) any agricultural or horticultural products marketed by the...

  19. An Analysis of Tasks Performed in the Ornamental Horticulture Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Arthur L.; Drake, William E.

    This publication is the result of a detailed task analysis study of the ornamental horticulture industry in New York State. Nine types of horticulture businesses identified were: (1) retail florists, (2) farm and garden supply store, (3) landscape services, (4) greenhouse production, (5) nursery production, (6) turf production, (7) arborist…

  20. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This secondary horticulture curriculum guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in eight sections: (1) Human Relations, (2) Business Operations, (3) Greenhouse, (4) Retail Flowershop Operation, (5) Landscape Nursery, (6) Lawn Maintenance, (7)…

  1. Asia’s Indigenous Horticultural Crops: An Introduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop diversity is an urgent issue today in horticulture, which is faced with an erosion of crop variability as monoculture systems dominate crop production throughout the world, particularly in Europe and North America. At the same time there is great interest in indigenous horticultural crops aroun...

  2. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This secondary horticulture curriculum guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in thirteen sections: (1) Orientation and Careers, (2) Leadership and Future Farmers of America, (3) Supervised Occupational Experience Program, (4) Plant…

  3. Environmental Horticulture. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachler, Mike; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of environmental horticulture, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to address the needs of the horticulture field. Section 1 contains general information:…

  4. Healing, health, and horticulture: introduction to the workshop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present-day emphasis of horticulture and health is an extension of ancient and medieval traditions. The relationship of healing and the horticultural arts predates written history and relates to ancient wisdom, custom, and folklore. Plants and health have been of great concern for humankind cons...

  5. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This secondary horticulture curriculum guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in thirteen sections: (1) Orientation and Careers, (2) Leadership and Future Farmers of America, (3) Supervised Occupational Experience Program, (4) Plant…

  6. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This second horticulture guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in eight sections: (1) Leadership, (2) Supervised Occupational Experience, (3) Plant Propagation, (4) Soil and Plant Growth Media, (5) Fertilizers, (6) Greenhouse, (7) Plant…

  7. Improvement of horticultural crops for abiotic stress tolerance. An Introduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global warming and climate change have been widely accepted as facts. The changing environments pose serious challenges to global agriculture and place unprecedented pressures on the sustainability of horticulture industry. Adapting horticulture to future conditions is essential to meet the need o...

  8. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This second horticulture guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in eight sections: (1) Leadership, (2) Supervised Occupational Experience, (3) Plant Propagation, (4) Soil and Plant Growth Media, (5) Fertilizers, (6) Greenhouse, (7) Plant…

  9. Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Aubry

    These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

  10. A Curriculum Guide for Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations. South Carolina Guide for Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations. Addendum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    A curriculum for the jobs of specialty grower, plant propagator, and horticultural worker I and II is provided in this guide. It contains curriculum guidesheets for seven duties: performing administrative functions; preparing soil and growing media; propagating horticultural plants; growing plants; performing maintenance operations; harvesting…

  11. Workload composition of the organic horticulture.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, R F; Ribeiro, I A V; Tereso, M J A

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed the characterization of the physical workload of the organic horticulture by determining the frequency of exposure of operators to some activity categories. To do this, an adaptation of the PATH method (Posture, Activities, Tools and Handling) was done to be used in the context of agriculture work. The approach included an evaluation of physical effort demanded to perform the tasks in the work systems from an systematic sampling of work situations from a synchronized monitoring of the heart rate; a characterization of posture repertoire adopted by workers by adapting the OWAS method; an identification of pain body areas using the Corlett diagram; and a subjective evaluation of perceived effort using the RPE Borg scale. The results of the individual assessments were cross correlated and explained from an observation of the work activity. Postural demands were more significant than cardiovascular demands for the studied tasks, and correlated positively with the expressions of bodily discomfort. It is expected that, besides the knowledge obtained of the physical effort demanded by organic horticulture, this project will be useful for the development of new technologies directed to minimize the difficulties of the human work and to raise the work productivity.

  12. The social dimensions of therapeutic horticulture.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly

    2017-02-22

    Harnessing nature to promote mental health is increasingly seen as a sustainable solution to healthcare across the industrialised world. The benefits of these approaches to well-being include reduced symptoms of anxiety, depression and improved social functioning. Many studies assume that contact with nature is the main therapeutic component of these interventions yet 'green care' programmes typically include activities not based on 'nature' that may contribute to positive outcomes. This study explored the views of service users participating in a Therapeutic Horticultural programme on what factors promoted their engagement in the project, to identify variables other than 'nature' that may be responsible for successful engagement in these programmes. A secondary aim was to assess the significance 'nature' plays including, for example whether a prior interest in horticultural-related activities, such as gardening, is significant. Two focus groups were held with mental health service users (n = 15) attending a gardening project in south-east England. Findings revealed that the social element of the project was the key facilitator to engagement; the flexible structure of the gardening project was also significant and allowed service users to feel empowered. 'Nature' evoked a sense of calm and provided participants with a non-threatening space that was engaging.

  13. For the Horticulture Teacher--A Personal In-Service Program Can Keep You Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karns, Christine D.

    1980-01-01

    To keep current with industry changes, the vocational horticulture instructor can join horticulture industry associations, utilize horticulture outlets for field trips, use horticulture experts as resource persons, work in the industry, participate in university-sponsored inservice programs, attend industry association workshops and seminars, and…

  14. Utilization of geothermal hot water for controlled horticulture

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, F.; Suda, U.; Shibata, T.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-surface radiator tubes and underground radiator pipes are used, so that the geothermal hot water is circulated twice in a horticulture facility to extend the available thermal range. Means of minimizing the unevenness of ground temperature is then investigated. The purpose is to seek optimal temperature conditions to use geothermal hot water for controlled horticulture in snowy and cold areas. For the experiment, insofar as practical, highly economical equipment and materials were employed. In addition, the facility was such that it could be easily set up by a horticulture producer.

  15. Air pollution and horticulture: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    MacLean, D.C.

    1983-10-01

    An overview is presented of some of the general effects of pollutants on plants, as well as an approach for assessing these effects. The nature of effects can range from no effects at low doses to a reduced growth or yield at higher atmospheric concentrations. In addition to the dose of the pollutant, the degree of response is governed by a number of internal and external factors. Relative number and size of stomata have marked effect on pollutant uptake by the plant; therefore, environmental conditions exert a strong influence on pollutant-induced responses. Future research should focus on determining if the pollutant doses that now occur in areas of horticultural production cause effects and, if so, whether the effects constitute injury.

  16. Perceptions of the Value of Extended Service in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Larae; Miller, Larry E.

    1983-01-01

    This study suggests the need for several improvements in the summer vocational horticulture education programs. Knowledge of the summer program, its aims, and the teacher's responsibilities appears to be lacking in the groups studied. (SSH)

  17. Perceptions of the Value of Extended Service in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Larae; Miller, Larry E.

    1983-01-01

    This study suggests the need for several improvements in the summer vocational horticulture education programs. Knowledge of the summer program, its aims, and the teacher's responsibilities appears to be lacking in the groups studied. (SSH)

  18. Core I Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs. Units D-F.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are part of a series of 10 units designed for use in metropolitan agriculture/horticulture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on horticulture/agricultural mechanics are safety in horticulture/agriculture; identifying, fitting, and using hand tools; using and…

  19. Heterosis for horticultural traits in broccoli.

    PubMed

    Hale, Anna L; Farnham, Mark W; Nzaramba, M Ndambe; Kimbeng, Collins A

    2007-08-01

    Over the last three decades, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., Italica Group) hybrids made by crossing two inbred lines replaced open-pollinated populations to become the predominant type of cultivar. The change to hybrids evolved with little or no understanding of heterosis or hybrid vigor in this crop. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine levels of heterosis expressed by a set of hybrids derived by crossing relatively elite, modern inbreds (n = 9). An additional objective was to determine if PCR-based marker derived genetic similarities among the parents can be useful to predict heterosis in this crop. Thirty-six hybrids derived from a diallel mating design involving nine parents were evaluated for five horticultural characters including the head characteristics of head weight, head stem diameter, and maturity (e.g., days from transplant to harvest), and the plant vigor characteristics of plant height, and plant width in four environments. A total of 409 polymorphic markers were generated by 24 AFLP, 23 SRAP and 17 SSR primer combinations. Euclidean distances between parents were determined based on phenotypic traits. About half of the hybrids exhibited highparent heterosis for head weight (1-30 g) and stem diameter (0.2-3.5 cm) when averaged across environments. Almost all hybrids showed highparent heterosis for plant height (1-10 cm) and width (2-13 cm). Unlike other traits, there was negative heterosis for maturity, indicating that heterosis for this character in hybrids is expressed as earliness. Genetic similarity estimates among the nine parental lines ranged from 0.43 to 0.71 and were significantly and negatively correlated with highparent heterosis for all traits except for stem diameter and days from transplant to harvest. Euclidean distances were not correlated with heterosis. With modern broccoli inbreds, less heterosis was observed for head characteristics than for traits that measured plant vigor. In addition, genetic similarity

  20. An Analysis of the Horticulture Equipment and Services Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbage, Monroe; Lechner, Donald L.

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the horticulture equipment and services occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Fourteen duties are…

  1. Developing a national strategic plan for consumer horticulture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumer Horticulture encompasses a wide-array of activities that are practiced by and of interest to the gardening public, garden-focused non-governmental organizations, and gardening-related industries. In a previous publication, we described the current lack of funding support for research, exten...

  2. Audio-Tutorial Horticulture Learning Units. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Robert J.

    The four units in this workbook (units 2, 3, 5, and 9) are part of a larger 14-unit course in horticulture. The topics are plant classification, the plant cell, complex compounds, and vegetative growth and development. Student learning in these fields is frequently low in the traditional lecture-laboratory setting. These materials are designed for…

  3. Insects and Diseases. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on insects and diseases is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The five sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline steps and factors for consideration. Topics covered include…

  4. Maintaining the Landscape. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on maintaining the landscape is one of five developed for classroom use in teaching the landscape/nursery area of horticulture. The five sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline steps and factors for consideration. Topics covered include…

  5. Effects of Horticulture Therapy on Engagement and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigliotti, Christina M.; Jarrott, Shannon E.

    2005-01-01

    Implementing generationally appropriate activities for persons with dementia is a challenging task. Horticulture therapy (HT) addresses this challenge through the use of plants to facilitate holistic outcomes. Utilizing the model of environmental press, the current study sought to analyse adult day service (ADS) participants' responses to HT as…

  6. Horticultural management of solar greenhouses in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.

    1980-01-01

    A manual on horticultural management of solar greenhouses in the Northeast is presented. The information it contains represents a combination of a number of people's experiences who have been operating solar greenhouses in the Northeast for a year or more. The focus of this manual is on how to produce food in a solar greenhouse using biological and ecological management methods.

  7. Documenting Student Performance through Effective Performance Assessments: Workshop Summary. Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Agricultural Education Curriculum Materials Service.

    This document contains materials about and from a workshop that was conducted to help Ohio horticulture teachers learn to document student competence through effective performance assessments. The document begins with background information about the workshop and a list of workshop objectives. Presented next is a key to the 40 performance…

  8. Turf Identification. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This compentency-based curriculum unit on turf identification is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The three sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline steps and factors for consideration. Topics covered include…

  9. Planting Turf. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on planting turf is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The eight sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline steps and factors for consideration. Topics covered include…

  10. Audio-Tutorial Horticulture Learning Units. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Robert J.

    The four units in this workbook (units 2, 3, 5, and 9) are part of a larger 14-unit course in horticulture. The topics are plant classification, the plant cell, complex compounds, and vegetative growth and development. Student learning in these fields is frequently low in the traditional lecture-laboratory setting. These materials are designed for…

  11. Vocational Instructional Materials in Horticulture for Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, James I.

    This resource catalog of horticulture curriculum materials for students with special needs is divided into twenty-seven instructional areas: aboriculture; annuals; entomology; floral crops production; floral design and flower shop operations; garden center; greenhouse; ground covers and hedges; herbs; house plants; landscape construction and…

  12. Soils and Fertilizers. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on soils and fertilizers is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The four sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline taking soil samples, testing samples, preparing soil for…

  13. Effects of Horticulture Therapy on Engagement and Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigliotti, Christina M.; Jarrott, Shannon E.

    2005-01-01

    Implementing generationally appropriate activities for persons with dementia is a challenging task. Horticulture therapy (HT) addresses this challenge through the use of plants to facilitate holistic outcomes. Utilizing the model of environmental press, the current study sought to analyse adult day service (ADS) participants' responses to HT as…

  14. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Horticulture (Program CIP: 01.0601--Horticulture Serv. Op. & Mgmt., Gen.). Secondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for horticulture I and II. Presented first are a program description and…

  15. Efficiency, sufficiency, and recent change in Newfoundland subsistence horticulture

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, J.T.

    1986-09-01

    Traditional Newfoundland horticulture has been a subordinate and compensatory element of the subsistence sphere in a plural economy centered on fishing. Criticized as inefficient and ruinous to the land, this tuber-rootbrassica gardening has in fact been a valuable contribution to diet, is relatively efficient, and compensates for the inadequacies of land and weather. Field data from the Great Northern Peninsula, where some traditional practices persist, demonstrate that the practices conserve time and labor, and substitute massive applications of materials to assure a yield sufficient for household needs. The inefficiency in the tradition may be understood as a response to the constraints upon household labor and follows a kind of Leibig's law of the minimum. Recent changes in gardening practices reveal the dynamics of horticulture in the household's mixed economic strategy. As cash and land have become more common, they have been used to further reduce time while maintaining sufficiency.

  16. Application of Genomic In Situ Hybridization in Horticultural Science

    PubMed Central

    Ramzan, Fahad; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2017-01-01

    Molecular cytogenetic techniques, such as in situ hybridization methods, are admirable tools to analyze the genomic structure and function, chromosome constituents, recombination patterns, alien gene introgression, genome evolution, aneuploidy, and polyploidy and also genome constitution visualization and chromosome discrimination from different genomes in allopolyploids of various horticultural crops. Using GISH advancement as multicolor detection is a significant approach to analyze the small and numerous chromosomes in fruit species, for example, Diospyros hybrids. This analytical technique has proved to be the most exact and effective way for hybrid status confirmation and helps remarkably to distinguish donor parental genomes in hybrids such as Clivia, Rhododendron, and Lycoris ornamental hybrids. The genome characterization facilitates in hybrid selection having potential desirable characteristics during the early hybridization breeding, as this technique expedites to detect introgressed sequence chromosomes. This review study epitomizes applications and advancements of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) techniques in horticultural plants. PMID:28459054

  17. Remedial measures to reduce air pollution losses in horticulture

    SciTech Connect

    Kender, W.J.; Forsline, P.L.

    1983-10-01

    Since air pollution injury to horticulture plants has not been controlled by reduction at the source, other methods of protection must, therefore, be considered. Factors influencing air pollution injury to plants are discussed. Several environmental, soil, and physiological factors influence plant response to air pollutants. Regulation of these factors may lead to the ability to reduce the plant's sensitivity to injurious gases. The effects of nutrients on the response of plants of air pollutants are described, especially the effects of nitrogen. Cultural practices, chemical protectants, cultivar sensitivity and plant breeding, all of which affect the damage caused by gaseous air pollutants, are described. Detailed and complete economic studies are needed to document losses caused by air pollutants to assess their impacts on horticulture.

  18. Accelerator radiocarbon dating of evidence for prehistoric horticulture in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conard, N.; Asch, D.L.; Asch, N.B.; Elmore, D.; Gove, H.; Rubin, M.; Brown, J.A.; Wiant, M.D.; Farnsworth, K.B.; Cook, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of direct detection radiocarbon dating, which uses an accelerator as part of a highly selective mass spectrometer, it is now possible to determine the age of milligram samples of organic materials1-5. One application of accelerator dating is in evaluating scanty, sometimes controversial evidence for early horticulture throughout the world. We have now used the technique to date small samples of carbonized, cultivated plant remains from archaeological sites in Illinois. The results, reported here, establish (1) that squash was introduced by 7,000 yr ago, 2,500 yr before eastern North American records previously reported; (2) that horticulture involving indigenous plants had begun by 4,000 BP in eastern North America with domestication of Iva annua, a small-seeded annual; (3) that anomalous discoveries of Archaic period maize represent contaminants; and (4) that introduction of maize by initial Middle Woodland times (~2,000 BP) is questionable.

  19. Horticulture: the font for the baptism of genetics.

    PubMed

    Olby, R C

    2000-10-01

    This year marks the centenary of the rediscovery of the laws of heredity, and their introduction to the English-speaking world. Here I introduce the main events and the characters who figure in this story before turning to the task of this essay--to ask why it was that support in England for the emerging science of genetics, or Mendelism as it was then called, came chiefly from horticulture, and was only belatedly accepted into the mainstream of British academic biology.

  20. Horticultural therapy in dementia care: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Blake, Marianne; Mitchell, Gary

    2016-01-20

    Aim To present a narrative review of the empirical literature on the use of horticultural therapy in dementia care. Method A comprehensive literature search, conducted in December 2014, resulted in the selection of 15 primary research articles for review. Of these, three used qualitative methods, five used quantitative methods and seven used mixed methodology. The articles were critically appraised, and the narrative synthesis used a thematic approach whereby prominent themes from the articles were grouped to form representative themes. Findings Three main themes emerged from the narrative synthesis: the emotional health of people living with dementia, their perceived self-identity and their levels of engagement. Conclusion Horticultural therapy can be beneficial. At a macro-level, it is an inexpensive therapy that does not require specialist training to deliver. At a micro-level, it enhances the wellbeing of people living with dementia. Recommendations are made to promote access to appropriate horticultural therapy for people living with dementia, and for further research in this area.

  1. Core I Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs. Units G-J.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethridge, Jim; And Others

    These units of instructional materials and teaching aids are the final four of a series of 10 designed for use in metropolitan agriculture/horticulture programs for students in grades 9 and 10. Covered in the unit on growing and managing horticultural crops are watering plants; pruning, pinching, and planting plants; using plant production…

  2. Developing a High School Program in Ornamental Horticulture. Volume I, Nursery Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Howard C.; And Others

    This manual is one of a 3-volume series prepared to guide the high school vocational agriculture teacher in teaching ornamental horticulture. Chapter I introduces the reader to ornamental horticulture and gives examples of how the subject can be integrated into an existing agriculture curriculum. Chapter II is devoted to the public relations…

  3. USING SOIL AND OTHER PLANT GROWING MEDIA EFFECTIVELY. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP THE APPRECIATIONS, UNDERSTANDINGS, AND ABILITIES NEEDED TO USE PLANT GROWING MEDIA IN GROWING HORTICULTURAL PLANTS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES.…

  4. Past and future climate patterns affecting temperate, sub-tropical and tropical horticultural crop production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perennial horticultural crop production will be impacted by climate change effects on temperature, water availability, solar radiation, air pollution, and carbon dioxide. Horticultural crop value is derived from both the quantity and the quality of the harvested product; both of which are affected ...

  5. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. 1.501(c)(5)-1 Section 1.501(c)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section 501...

  6. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. 1.501(c)(5)-1 Section 1.501(c)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section 501...

  7. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. 1.501(c)(5)-1 Section 1.501(c)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section 501...

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. 1.501(c)(5)-1 Section 1.501(c)(5)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. (a) The organizations contemplated by section 501...

  9. Orchard Management: Horticultural Practices for Peace Corps Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development and Resources Corp.

    This manual is intended for use by Peace Corps volunteers as a resource for gaining an understanding and knowledge of basic horticultural principles and practices of orchard management. Addressed in the individual units of instructional text are orchard soils; botany of horticultural plants; insect and disease control in orchards; pome, stone,…

  10. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.112 General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.” Section 3(f) of the Act defines as...

  11. V-TECS Criterion-Referenced Test Item Bank for Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) criterion-referenced test item bank provides 325 multiple-choice items and 18 matching items for ornamental horticulture production occupations. Job titles covered are specialty grower, plant propagator, and horticultural worker I and II. The following information is provided in…

  12. EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS CONDUCTED IN VOCATIONAL HORTICULTURE PROGRAMS IN OHIO HIGH SCHOOLS IN 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIRODE, BERNARD R.

    A STUDY OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPERIENCES FOR VOCATIONAL HORTICULTURE STUDENTS WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE KINDS OF HORTICULTURE PROGRAMS AND THE TYPES AND SCOPE OF EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS OFFERED AND OBTAIN TEACHER APPRAISALS OF THE EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS WHICH SHOULD BE REQUIRED AND THE FACILITIES NEEDED TO PROVIDE SATISFACTORY PROGRAMS. OF 25 SCHOOLS…

  13. 78 FR 11725 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Indonesia Importation of Horticultural Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Products, Animals and Animal Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... horticultural products, animals and animal products. That request may be found at www.wto.org , contained in a... by Indonesia on the importation of horticultural products, animals and animal products into Indonesia...

  14. 78 FR 27279 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Indonesia-Importation of Horticultural Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Horticultural Products, Animals, and Animal Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... products, animals, and animal products. In particular, Indonesia imposes non-automatic import licensing regimes for horticultural products and for animals and animal products pursuant to which an importer must...

  15. Adventitious Root Formation of Forest Trees and Horticultural Plants - From Genes to Applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adventitious root formation is a key step in the clonal propagation of forest trees and horticultural crops. Difficulties in forming adventitious roots (ARs) on stem cuttings and plants produced in vitro hinders the propagation of elite trees and efficient production of many horticultural plant spec...

  16. Clustering Module in OLAP for Horticultural Crops using SpagoBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, D.; Sitanggang, I. S.

    2017-03-01

    Horticultural crops data are organized by the Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia. The data are presented annually in a tabular form and result a large data set. This situation makes users difficult to obtain summaries of horticultural crops data. This study aims to develop a clustering module in the SOLAP system for the distribution of horticultural crops in Indonesia and to visualize the results of clustering in a map using SpagoBI. The algorithm used for clustering is K-Means. Horticultural crops data include vegetables, ornamental plants, medicinal plants, and fruits from 2000 to 2013. The clustering module displays clustering results of horticultural crops in the form of text and table on SpagoBI. This module can also visualize the distribution of horticultural crops in the form of map on the HTML page. The application is expected to be useful for users in order to easily obtain summaries of the horticultural crops distribution data and its clusters. The summaries and clusters can be beneficial for the stakeholders to determine potential areas in Indonesia for horticultural crops.

  17. Horticulture hybrid cultivars and exotic plant invasion: A case study of Wisteria (Fabaceae)

    Treesearch

    J.L. Trusty; B.G. Lockaby; W.C. Zipperer; L.R. Goertzen

    2008-01-01

    Ornamental plant horticulture has had a long history in the USA, beginning with the first botanical garden started by John Bartram in Philadelphia in 1728 (Hedrick, 1988). From this modest start, the nursery and horticulture business in the USA was flourishing by the early 19th century. The growth and sale of useful and attractive plant species inspired American plant...

  18. Participation of Minority Youth in Urban Horticulture: A New York City High School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the experience-based urban Vocational Horticulture Project sponsored by the Central Diesel School of Brooklyn, New York, and involving the National Park Service and the Cornell Cooperative Extension Service. The program prepares minority youth for entry-level employment in ornamental horticulture or in forestry and wildlife…

  19. The Challenge--To Meet The Needs of the Rapidly Expanding Horticulture Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Russell C.

    1977-01-01

    A horticulture instructor outlines various methods of getting information from the horticulture industry for use in planning instructional programs to fill industry needs. He suggests that student learning packets to implement the program could be developed with the assistance of industry. (MF)

  20. Horticulture III, IV, and V. Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the horticulture program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for horticulture III, IV, and V. For each task, applicable information pertaining to performance and enabling objectives,…

  1. Participation of Minority Youth in Urban Horticulture: A New York City High School Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the experience-based urban Vocational Horticulture Project sponsored by the Central Diesel School of Brooklyn, New York, and involving the National Park Service and the Cornell Cooperative Extension Service. The program prepares minority youth for entry-level employment in ornamental horticulture or in forestry and wildlife…

  2. A Content Analysis of U.S. Botanical and Horticultural Library Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Michele M.

    The purpose of this study was to provide an introductory analysis of the content of the Web sites of botanical and horticultural libraries in the United States to determine what types of resources and information is included, whether or not information is organized and accessible, and to what extent botanical and horticultural libraries are using…

  3. OPERATING, REPAIRING, AND MAINTAINING SMALL POWER EQUIPMENT. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP A PROFICIENCY IN THE OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SMALL POWER EQUIPMENT USED IN HORTICULTURAL ENTERPRISES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES.…

  4. Current and potential trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current status of trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes is examined, including trends, strengths and weaknesses. A strategy is proposed to take advantage of the best future opportunities for increasing trade in irradiated horticultural products. This will be do...

  5. Impact of Horticultural Therapy on Psychosocial Functioning among Urban Jail Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jay Stone; Remy, Linda L.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the impact of a horticultural therapy program on 48 county jail inmates. Examines the changes in psychosocial functioning of the participants while in treatment and in post-release. Explores the clinical relevance of horticultural therapy in cultivating healthy self-development. (MKA)

  6. Horticultural therapy--the role gardening plays in healing.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M E

    1979-05-01

    Horticultural therapy is an adjunct therapy--to be used in addition to occupational and physical therapies, and combining means used by both. It is meant to increase the motivation of the physically and/or mentally handicapped, while at the same time stimulating the five senses and furnishing a means of self-gratification and self esteem. Now that neurologically orientated psychologists are identifying schizophrenia as being biologically based and capable of being reversed with exercise, it is time to study the many benefits of gardening as a therapy method.

  7. Geoinformation evaluation of soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and the Republic of Adygea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, I. Yu.; Dragavtseva, I. A.; Mironenko, N. Ya.; Sergeeva, N. N.; Domozhirova, V. V.; Morenets, A. S.; Ovechkin, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    A geoinformation database for assessing soil resource potential for horticulture in Krasnodar region and Adygea has been developed. The results of geoinformation analysis indicate that only 55-60% of soils in these regions are suitable for growing horticultural crops without limitations; about 35-40% of the total soil area is unsuitable for horticultural purposes. For plum trees, the area of unsuitable soils is somewhat lower than for other horticultural crops. Geographically, the areas of soils suitable and unsuitable for horticulture are close to one another. The thickness of the loose earthy soil material, the gravel content, the degree of salinization, the soil texture, and the degree of soil hydromorphism are the major soil properties imposing considerable limitations for the development of fruit-growing industry in the studied regions. The highest portions of soils suitable for horticulture are found in Eiskii, Kushchevskii, Krylovskii, Shcherbinovskii, and Novokubanskii districts of Krasnodar region. The development of horticulture in Tuapsinskii, Slavyanskii, and Primorsko-Akhtarskii districts is limited because of the unsuitability of soils for this purpose. About 8% of the existing orchards are found on soils recognized as unsuitable for horticulture, and only about 20% of the existing orchards are found on soils suitable for fruit growing without limitations. About 70% of the existing fruit orchards are located on degraded soils or on soils with certain limitations for horticulture. The profitability of fruit orchards on such soils is lower than that of the orchards planted on soils without limitations for horticulture. This information is necessary for the adequate economic evaluation of the degree of soil degradation.

  8. Therapeutic horticulture in clinical depression: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil W; Kirkevold, Marit

    2009-01-01

    Clinically depressed persons suffer from impaired mood and distortion of cognition. This study assessed changes in depression severity and perceived attentional capacity of clinically depressed adults (N=18) during a 12-week therapeutic horticulture program. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Attentional Function Index (AFI) were administered at baseline, twice during (4 and 8 weeks), and immediately after the intervention (12 weeks), and at a 3-month follow-up. Experiences of being away and fascination related to the intervention were measured at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The mean BDI score declined 9.7 points from pretest (27.3) to posttest (p < .001) and were clinically relevant (deltaBDI > or =6) for 72% of the cases. The mean AFI score increased 10.2 points from pretest (68.8) to posttest (p = .06). The greatest change in BDI and AFI scores occurred in the initial weeks of the intervention. The reduction in BDI scores remained significant and clinically relevant at the 3-month follow-up (N=16). The decline in depression severity during the intervention correlated strongly with the degree to which the participants found that it captured their attention. Therapeutic horticulture may decrease depression severity and improve perceived attentional capacity by engaging effortless attention and interrupting rumination.

  9. Physiological relaxation induced by horticultural activity: transplanting work using flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite increasing attention and a growing volume of research data, little physiological evidence is available on the benefits of horticultural activity and the different effects on individuals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological effects of horticultural activity and to examine how differences in personality alter these effects. Results The effects of transplanting real flowers (horticultural activity) and handling artificial flowers (control activity) on human physiological activity were compared. On the first day, eight participants engaged in horticultural activity and another eight in the control activity. On the second day, participants switched roles. Participants’ physiological conditions during each activity were assessed by measuring the heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV). Psychological responses, which were measured using a semantic differential rating scale, showed that the horticultural activity promoted comfortable, soothed, and natural feelings, compared to the control activity. Analysis of physiological responses using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that sympathetic nervous activity significantly decreased in the late time period (11 to 15 minutes) of horticultural activity only in the type A group. Conclusions This study supports the fact that the horticultural activity can enhance psychological and physiological relaxation effects, although these physiological effects can differ among individuals with different personalities. PMID:24112302

  10. Physiological relaxation induced by horticultural activity: transplanting work using flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-sun; Park, Bum-jin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Kun-tae; Ku, Ja-hyeong; Lee, Jun-woo; Oh, Kyung-ok; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2013-10-10

    Despite increasing attention and a growing volume of research data, little physiological evidence is available on the benefits of horticultural activity and the different effects on individuals. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological effects of horticultural activity and to examine how differences in personality alter these effects. The effects of transplanting real flowers (horticultural activity) and handling artificial flowers (control activity) on human physiological activity were compared. On the first day, eight participants engaged in horticultural activity and another eight in the control activity. On the second day, participants switched roles. Participants' physiological conditions during each activity were assessed by measuring the heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV). Psychological responses, which were measured using a semantic differential rating scale, showed that the horticultural activity promoted comfortable, soothed, and natural feelings, compared to the control activity. Analysis of physiological responses using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that sympathetic nervous activity significantly decreased in the late time period (11 to 15 minutes) of horticultural activity only in the type A group. This study supports the fact that the horticultural activity can enhance psychological and physiological relaxation effects, although these physiological effects can differ among individuals with different personalities.

  11. Horticulture in Portugal 1850-1900: The role of science and public utility in shaping knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Duarte; Simões, Ana

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we address the emergence of horticultural practice, agents, spaces and institutions in the two urban settings of Lisbon and Porto, in Portugal, during the second half of the nineteenth century. We do so by following the networking activities of two players: the self-made horticulturist and entrepreneur José Marques Loureiro, who created, in Porto, a commercial horticultural establishment and founded the Journal of Practical Horticulture; and the agronomist Francisco Simões Margiochi, head of the gardens and green grounds department of the municipality, who created the first course on gardening and horticulture, and founded the Royal Horticultural Society, both in Lisbon. Their joint activities were aimed at establishing horticulture as an applied science and to cater simultaneously to an extended audience of citizens. They enable us to enrich the narratives on the emergence and development of horticulture in Europe by calling attention to the participation in circulatory extended networks of actors who are often absent from these accounts. Additionally, they allow a comparative assessment of the outcome of their actions at the national level, and to understand their results in terms consonant with recent historiographical trends on the co-construction of centres and peripheries. AML - Arquivo Municipal de Lisboa (Municipal Archive of Lisbon).; ANTT - Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (National Archives at Torre do Tombo).; AHCPL - Arquivo Histórico da Casa Pia de Lisboa (Historical Archive of the Casa Pia of Lisbon).; JHP - Jornal de Horticultura Practica (Journal of Practical Horticulture). Online at: http://www.fc.up.pt/fa/?p=nav&f=html.fbib-Periodico-oa&item=378 ; BSNHP - Boletim da Sociedade Nacional de Horticultura de Portugal (Bulletin of the National Society of Horticulture of Portugal).

  12. A prospective study of existential issues in therapeutic horticulture for clinical depression.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil Wilhelm; Kirkevold, Marit

    2011-01-01

    Two studies with single-group design (Study 1 N = 18, Study 2 N = 28) addressed whether horticultural activities ameliorate depression severity and existential issues. Measures were obtained before and after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture program and at 3-month follow-up. In both studies, depression severity declined significantly during the intervention and remained low at the follow-up. In both studies the existential outcomes did not change significantly; however, the change that did occur during the intervention correlated (rho > .43) with change in depression severity. Participants' open-ended accounts described the therapeutic horticulture experience as meaningful and influential for their view of life.

  13. Tribromophenol and pentachlorophenol uptake from sawdust to horticultural products.

    PubMed

    Mardones, C; Von Baer, D; Silva, J; Ruff, A; Gutierrez, L; Berg, A

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a study of the uptake of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and its metabolite pentachloroanisole (PCA) from contaminated sawdust from the forest industry in horticultural products such as apples, raspberries, and fodder maize for cattle feed. The samples were obtained from Bio-Bio Province in South Chile between 2002 and 2006. The analytical parameters of the methodology applied to the different matrices are presented and discussed. The chromatographic method was applied to determine the residues in 413 horticultural product samples. Eleven per cent of fodder maize samples showed detectable or quantifiable levels of PCP, TBP or PCA, 3% of samples presented quantifiable levels, although the concentrations surpassed the maximum allowed concentrations for vegetables (>10 microg kg(-1)) in only two samples. Traces of TBP were detected in eight samples, PCA was detected in 15, and PCP in 14 samples. Based on these results, a risk analysis was performed, indicating a low probability, 0.4% for PCA, 1.6% for TBP and 1.9% for PCP, to find concentrations higher than the allowed maximum. For apples and raspberries, no residues of these compounds were detected. These results indicate that those cultivars directly exposed to sawdust, like fodder maize, could contain detectable residues in several samples. To confirm this observation, a field assay was performed on fodder maize cultivated in the presence of sawdust artificially contaminated with 30 mg of TBP and/or PCP under controlled conditions. The results showed that under the experimental conditions used in the study, TBP can be transferred from sawdust to the plant, with an uptake rate of 0.04% from the TBP applied initially with sawdust but not to the corn ear. Also, the degradation of PCP to PCA was observed in the soil.

  14. Level of environmental threat posed by horticultural trade in Cactaceae.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Richardson, David M; Wilson, John R U

    2017-10-01

    Ornamental horticulture has been identified as an important threat to plant biodiversity and is a major pathway for plant invasions worldwide. In this context, the family Cactaceae is particularly challenging because it is considered the fifth most threatened large taxonomic group in the world; several species are among the most widespread and damaging invasive species; and Cactaceae is one of the most popular horticultural plant groups. Based on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna and the 11 largest online auction sites selling cacti, we documented the international cactus trade. To provide an in-depth look at the dynamics of the industry, we surveyed the businesses involved in the cactus trade in South Africa (a hotspot of cactus trade and invasions). We purchased seeds of every available species and used DNA barcoding to identify species to the genus level. Although <20% of this trade involved threatened species and <3% involved known invasive species, many species were identified by a common name. However, only 0.02% of the globally traded cacti were collected from wild populations. Despite a large commercial network, all South African imports (of which 15% and 1.5% were of species listed as threatened and invasive, respectively) came from the same source. With DNA barcoding, we identified 24% of the species to genus level. Based on our results, we believe that if trade restrictions are placed on the small proportion of cacti that are invasive and there is no major increase in harvesting of native populations, then the commercial trade in cactus poses a negligible environmental threat. However, there are currently no effective methods for easily identifying which cacti are traded, and both the illicit harvesting of cacti from the wild and the informal trade in invasive taxa pose on-going conservation challenges. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Evaluating and optimizing horticultural regimes in space plant growth facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Y.; Chetirkin, R.; Wheeler, R.; Sager, J.

    In designing innovative Space Plant Growth Facilities (SPGF) for long duration space f ightl various limitations must be addressed including onboard resources: volume, energy consumption, heat transfer and crew labor expenditure. The required accuracy in evaluating onboard resources by using the equivalent mass methodology and applying it to the design of such facilities is not precise. This is due to the uncertainty of the structure and not completely understanding of the properties of all associated hardware, including the technology in these systems. We present a simple criteria of optimization for horticultural regimes in SPGF: Qmax = max [M · (EBI) 2 / (V · E · T) ], where M is the crop harvest in terms of total dry biomass in the plant growth system; EBI is the edible biomass index (harvest index), V is a volume occupied by the crop; E is the crop light energy supply during growth; T is the crop growth duration. The criterion reflects directly on the consumption of onboard resources for crop production. We analyzed the efficiency of plant crops and the environmental parameters by examining the criteria for 15 salad and 12 wheat crops from the data in the ALS database at Kennedy Space Center. Some following conclusion have been established: 1. The technology involved in growing salad crops on a cylindrical type surface provides a more meaningful Q-criterion; 2. Wheat crops were less efficient than leafy greens (salad crops) when examining resource utilization; 3. By increasing light intensity of the crop the efficiency of the resource utilization could decrease. Using the existing databases and Q-criteria we have found that the criteria can be used in optimizing design and horticultural regimes in the SPGF.

  16. Green Chemistry in Protected Horticulture: The Use of Peroxyacetic Acid as a Sustainable Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Gilda; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Global reduction of chemical deposition into the environment is necessary. In protected horticulture, different strategies with biodegradable products are used to control pathogens. This review presents the available tools, especially for the management of protected horticultural species, including vegetables and ornamental plants. An analysis of the potential for degradable products that control pathogens and also encourage other productive factors, such as oxygen in the root system, is presented. Biosecurity in fertigation management of protected horticulture is conducted by using peroxyacetic acid mixtures that serve three basic principles: first, the manufacture of these products does not involve polluting processes; second, they have the same function as other chemicals, and third, after use and management there is no toxic residue left in the environment. The sustainability of protected horticulture depends on the development and introduction of technologies for implementation in the field. PMID:20559497

  17. Genome-editing technologies and their potential application in horticultural crop breeding

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jin-Song; Ding, Jing; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Plant breeding, one of the oldest agricultural activities, parallels human civilization. Many crops have been domesticated to satisfy human's food and aesthetical needs, including numerous specialty horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, ornamental flowers, shrubs, and trees. Crop varieties originated through selection during early human civilization. Other technologies, such as various forms of hybridization, mutation, and transgenics, have also been invented and applied to crop breeding over the past centuries. The progress made in these breeding technologies, especially the modern biotechnology-based breeding technologies, has had a great impact on crop breeding as well as on our lives. Here, we first review the developmental process and applications of these technologies in horticultural crop breeding. Then, we mainly describe the principles of the latest genome-editing technologies and discuss their potential applications in the genetic improvement of horticultural crops. The advantages and challenges of genome-editing technologies in horticultural crop breeding are also discussed. PMID:26504570

  18. Green chemistry in protected horticulture: the use of peroxyacetic acid as a sustainable strategy.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Gilda; Urrestarazu, Miguel

    2010-05-03

    Global reduction of chemical deposition into the environment is necessary. In protected horticulture, different strategies with biodegradable products are used to control pathogens. This review presents the available tools, especially for the management of protected horticultural species, including vegetables and ornamental plants. An analysis of the potential for degradable products that control pathogens and also encourage other productive factors, such as oxygen in the root system, is presented. Biosecurity in fertigation management of protected horticulture is conducted by using peroxyacetic acid mixtures that serve three basic principles: first, the manufacture of these products does not involve polluting processes; second, they have the same function as other chemicals, and third, after use and management there is no toxic residue left in the environment. The sustainability of protected horticulture depends on the development and introduction of technologies for implementation in the field.

  19. Biosynthesis and molecular actions of specialized 1,4-naphthoquinone natural products produced by horticultural plants

    PubMed Central

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Rhodes, David

    2016-01-01

    The 1,4-naphthoquinones (1,4-NQs) are a diverse group of natural products found in every kingdom of life. Plants, including many horticultural species, collectively synthesize hundreds of specialized 1,4-NQs with ecological roles in plant–plant (allelopathy), plant–insect and plant–microbe interactions. Numerous horticultural plants producing 1,4-NQs have also served as sources of traditional medicines for hundreds of years. As a result, horticultural species have been at the forefront of many basic studies conducted to understand the metabolism and function of specialized plant 1,4-NQs. Several 1,4-NQ natural products derived from horticultural plants have also emerged as promising scaffolds for developing new drugs. In this review, the current understanding of the core metabolic pathways leading to plant 1,4-NQs is provided with additional emphasis on downstream natural products originating from horticultural species. An overview on the biochemical mechanisms of action, both from an ecological and pharmacological perspective, of 1,4-NQs derived from horticultural plants is also provided. In addition, future directions for improving basic knowledge about plant 1,4-NQ metabolism are discussed. PMID:27688890

  20. "A triumph of brains over brute": women and science at the Horticultural College, Swanley, 1890-1910.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Donald L

    2013-03-01

    The founding of Britain's first horticultural college in 1889 advanced a scientific and coeducational response to three troubling national concerns: a major agricultural depression; the economic distress of single, unemployed women; and imperatives to develop the colonies. Buoyed by the technical instruction and women's movements, the Horticultural College and Produce Company, Limited, at Swanley, Kent, crystallized a transformation in the horticultural profession in which new science-based, formalized study threatened an earlier emphasis on practical apprenticeship training, with the effect of opening male-dominated trades to women practitioners. By 1903, the college closed its doors to male students, and new pathways were forged for women students interested in pursuing further scientific study. Resistance to the Horticultural College's model of science-based women's horticultural education positioned science and women as contested subjects throughout this period of horticulture's expansion in the academy.

  1. Effect of horticultural therapy on wellbeing among dementia day care programme participants: A mixed-methods study (Innovative Practice).

    PubMed

    Hall, Jodi; Mitchell, Gary; Webber, Catherine; Johnson, Karen

    2016-04-11

    Fourteen people attending an adult day programme were recruited to a structured horticultural therapy programme which took place over 10 weeks. The effects were assessed using Dementia Care Mapping and questionnaires completed by family carers. High levels of wellbeing were observed while the participants were engaged in horticultural therapy, and these were sustained once the programme was completed. This study adds to the growing evidence on the benefits of horticultural therapy for people with dementia who have enjoyed gardening in the past.

  2. Infertility among women working in horticulture. A follow-up study in the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register.

    PubMed

    Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hannerz, Harald; Feveile, Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burr, Hermann

    2009-04-01

    The possible association between employment in horticulture with potential exposure to pesticides and female infertility was examined by identification of women with hospital contact due to infertility and working in horticulture through the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register. This follow-up study gave a standardized incidence ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32) for treatment of infertility in women working in horticulture compared with the standard population and did not confirm that women working in the horticultural industry are at increased risk for infertility.

  3. Development of a sensor node for precision horticulture.

    PubMed

    López, Juan A; Soto, Fulgencio; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Suardiaz, Juan; Vera, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote) for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon) crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications.

  4. Conflict and compliance: Christianity and the occult in horticultural exporting.

    PubMed

    Dolan, C S

    1999-03-01

    The introduction of export horticulture in Meru District, Kenya, brought about disadvantageous effects on female farmers. Their workload increased while their earnings did not. Women reacted by turning to Christianity for support, and resorted to traditional witchcraft to regain control. In this article, Christianity and witchcraft are presented as ways of expressing discontent with the prevailing social norms, and as means to reclaim autonomy and security within their households. Since Kenyan women are entailed to meet the standards of being a good Christian wife, in which women are submissive to their husbands, the church became a means of escaping the confinements of their marriage. In Meru, Christian conversion offers a means of coping with life and an opportunity to interact with other women who share the same experience. Another strategy adopted by women is witchcraft, a traditional relic wherein women give "potions" to their husbands to induce psychosis and eventually death, which would then leave control of the household to the woman. In conclusion, the case presented here demonstrates how failure to recognize cultural dynamics leads to gender inequity and worsens women's well being, as well as men's security.

  5. Development of a Sensor Node for Precision Horticulture

    PubMed Central

    López, Juan A.; Soto, Fulgencio; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Suardiaz, Juan; Vera, Juan A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote) for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon) crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications. PMID:22412309

  6. Evaluating and optimizing horticultural regimes in space plant growth facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkovich, Y. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    In designing innovative space plant growth facilities (SPGF) for long duration space flight, various limitations must be addressed including onboard resources: volume, energy consumption, heat transfer and crew labor expenditure. The required accuracy in evaluating on board resources by using the equivalent mass methodology and applying it to the design of such facilities is not precise. This is due to the uncertainty of the structure and not completely understanding the properties of all associated hardware, including the technology in these systems. We present a simple criteria of optimization for horticultural regimes in SPGF: Qmax = max [M x (EBI)2/(V x E x T], where M is the crop harvest in terms of total dry biomass in the plant growth system; EBI is the edible biomass index (harvest index), V is volume occupied by the crop; E is the crop light energy supply during growth; T is the crop growth duration. The criterion reflects directly on the consumption of onboard resources for crop production. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating and optimizing horticultural regimes in space plant growth facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkovich, Y. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    In designing innovative space plant growth facilities (SPGF) for long duration space flight, various limitations must be addressed including onboard resources: volume, energy consumption, heat transfer and crew labor expenditure. The required accuracy in evaluating on board resources by using the equivalent mass methodology and applying it to the design of such facilities is not precise. This is due to the uncertainty of the structure and not completely understanding the properties of all associated hardware, including the technology in these systems. We present a simple criteria of optimization for horticultural regimes in SPGF: Qmax = max [M x (EBI)2/(V x E x T], where M is the crop harvest in terms of total dry biomass in the plant growth system; EBI is the edible biomass index (harvest index), V is volume occupied by the crop; E is the crop light energy supply during growth; T is the crop growth duration. The criterion reflects directly on the consumption of onboard resources for crop production. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating and optimizing horticultural regimes in space plant growth facilities.

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Y A; Chetirkin, P V; Wheeler, R M; Sager, J C

    2004-01-01

    In designing innovative space plant growth facilities (SPGF) for long duration space flight, various limitations must be addressed including onboard resources: volume, energy consumption, heat transfer and crew labor expenditure. The required accuracy in evaluating on board resources by using the equivalent mass methodology and applying it to the design of such facilities is not precise. This is due to the uncertainty of the structure and not completely understanding the properties of all associated hardware, including the technology in these systems. We present a simple criteria of optimization for horticultural regimes in SPGF: Qmax = max [M x (EBI)2/(V x E x T], where M is the crop harvest in terms of total dry biomass in the plant growth system; EBI is the edible biomass index (harvest index), V is volume occupied by the crop; E is the crop light energy supply during growth; T is the crop growth duration. The criterion reflects directly on the consumption of onboard resources for crop production. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational health and safety of workers in agriculture and horticulture.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, P

    2000-01-01

    Working in agriculture and horticulture gives considerable job satisfaction. The tasks are often interesting; you can see the result of your own work, watch your crop grow and mature; you have an affinity with nature and can follow the changes in the seasons. However, today it is a dangerous work environment fraught with occupational injuries and diseases due to hazardous situations and to physiological, physical, biological, chemical, psychological, and sociological factors. The ongoing rapid development may, on the other hand, bring about many changes during the next decades with more farmers and growers switching to organic production. Moreover, increased awareness of animal welfare also may lead to improved working conditions. Large-scale operations with fewer family-operated agricultural businesses might mean fewer injuries among children and older farmers. A consequence of large-scale operations may also be better regulation of working conditions. The greater use of automation technology eliminates many harmful working postures and movements when milking cows and carrying out other tasks. Information technology offers people the opportunity to gain more knowledge about their work. Labeling food produced in a worker-friendly work environment may give the consumers a chance to be involved in the process.

  10. Nutrient composition of strawberry genotypes cultivated in a horticulture farm.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ashrafi; Begum, Parveen; Salma Zannat, M; Hafizur Rahman, Md; Ahsan, Monira; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-05-15

    This article decribes the nutrient composition of four strawberry genotypes cultivated at the Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University horticulture farm in Dhaka (Bangladesh). AOAC and standard validated methods were employed to analyse the nutrient composition. Protein, fat and ash contents were found to be vary significantly (LSD<0.05), while the variation in moisture (LSD<1.33), dietary fibre (LSD<0.15) and total sugar (LSD<0.09) were found to be insignificant among the genotypes. Vitamin C content ranged from 26.46 mg to 37.77 mg per 100g edible strawberries (LSD<0.060). Amount of carotenoids were found to be very low being in a range of 0.99-3.30 μg per 100g edible fruit. Analysis of mineral revealed that strawberry genotypes contained a wide array of minerals including Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe; most of which varied significantly (LSD<0.05) among the genotypes. Strawberries could be a potential dietary supplement for vitamin C along with minerals, particularly for the children who do not like local fruits, but love to eat the colourful strawberries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Warmer apparatus for horticulture facilities utilizing solar heat

    SciTech Connect

    Kamanaka, R.

    1984-06-19

    A heat exchange apparatus which utilizes the solar heat, hot spring water or underground water comprises a cylindrical main body, an internal cylinder placed in the main body, a blower provided in an upper part of the internal cylinder, an air intake, a number of radially arranged air exhaust tubes, ring shaped upper and lower heat exchange compartments, and chambers formed between heat exchange compartments, on and under the upper and lower heat exchange compartment, upper and lower chambers are connected by coil tubes placed in heat exchange compartments, the outer coil tubes and inner coil tubes are successively connected so that each of connected coil tubes has the same overall length, which improves efficiency of heat exchange between air and water which are caused to move in a counterflow fashion. Such a heat exchange apparatus or its modification is utilized in a warmer apparatus for horticulture facilities utilizing solar heat comprising a sensor device provided in a greenhouse to detect the greenhouse temperature, a heat exchange device of a water-air counter-flow type functioning to collect and discharge heat provided with a control unit regulating various devices, a circulating pump and linked heat storage tanks serving as heat stocking means with a change-over valve to change the flow of water and sensors to detect water temperature are provided to pipings connecting said heat exchange device and heat storage tanks.

  12. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Horticulture Technology Cluster (Program CIP: 01.0601--Horticulture Serv. Op. & Mgmt., Gen.) (Program CIP: 01.0605--Landscaping Op. & Mgmt.). Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the horticulture technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a framework of programs and courses, description of the programs, and suggested course sequences for…

  13. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Horticulture Technology Cluster (Program CIP: 01.0601--Horticulture Serv. Op. & Mgmt., Gen.) (Program CIP: 01.0605--Landscaping Op. & Mgmt.). Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which is intended for use by community and junior colleges throughout Mississippi, contains curriculum frameworks for the course sequences in the horticulture technology programs cluster. Presented in the introductory section are a framework of programs and courses, description of the programs, and suggested course sequences for…

  14. Benefits of sensory garden and horticultural activities in dementia care: a modified scoping review.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marianne T; Kirkevold, Marit

    2014-10-01

    To provide a review on the benefits associated with the use of sensory gardens and horticultural activities in dementia care. Maintaining quality of life is important in dementia care. Sensory gardens and horticultural activities are increasingly used in dementia care, yet their benefits are uncertain. A modified scoping review with descriptive analysis of selected empirical studies. Systematic searches in Amed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Embase and Scopus were used. Search terms were the free-text concepts 'healing garden', 'horticultural therapy', 'restorative garden' and 'wander garden' which were combined with dementia and Alzheimer. Sixteen studies were included with included participants ranging from eight to 129 participants. Research designs were case studies (n = 2), survey (n = 1), intervention studies with pretest/post-test design (n = 11) and randomised controlled studies (n = 2). Of these 16 studies, eight examined the benefits of sensory gardens, seven examined horticultural therapy or therapeutic horticulture and one examined the use of plants indoors. This study offers a review of the research addressing benefits of sensory gardens, therapeutic horticulture, horticultural therapy and other purposeful use of plants in dementia care. The reported findings are mainly on issues related to behaviour, affect and well-being. The findings are in general mutually supportive, however, with some contradictory findings. In addition, sleep pattern, well-being and functional level seem to improve. These types of nonpharmacological interventions may improve well-being and affect and reduce the occurrence of disruptive behaviour. Additionally, the use of psychotropic drugs, incidents of serious falls, sleep and sleep pattern also seem to improve. To further improve the use of the existing or planned gardens, an educational programme for staff that also includes skill training is recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of horticulture therapy on nursing home older adults in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ya-Fang; Chen, Kuei-Min

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to test the effects of horticulture therapy on activities of daily living, happiness, meaning of life, and interpersonal intimacy of nursing home older adults in southern Taiwan. A quasi-experimental study was applied. Eighty-five older adults aged 65 or older who lived in nursing homes in southern Taiwan were recruited conveniently. All participants completed the study: experimental group (n = 41) and control group (n = 44). The experimental group received horticulture therapy for 1 h once a week for 8 weeks, while the control group continued their routine daily activities. The following questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention period: (1) Barthel Index (BI), (2) Chinese Happiness Inventory short version (CHI), (3) Meaning of Life Scale (MLS), and (4) Interpersonal Intimacy Scale (IIS). The BI, CHI, MLS, and IIS scores significantly improved in the experimental group (p < .05). After 8 weeks of horticulture therapy, the BI, CHI, and IIS scores of experimental group participants were significantly better than the scores of control group participants (p < .05); however, the MLS scores of two groups showed no significant differences (p = .738). Horticulture therapy improved activities of daily living, happiness, and interpersonal intimacy of older adults in nursing homes. We recommend that nursing homes recruit and train personnel to lead horticultural therapy and to incorporate the therapy as routine daily activities in the facilities.

  16. Grafting: A Technique to Modify Ion Accumulation in Horticultural Crops

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Muhammad A.; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Kong, Qiusheng; Cheng, Fei; Ahmed, Waqar; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Grafting is a centuries-old technique used in plants to obtain economic benefits. Grafting increases nutrient uptake and utilization efficiency in a number of plant species, including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Selected rootstocks of the same species or close relatives are utilized in grafting. Rootstocks absorb more water and ions than self-rooted plants and transport these water and ions to the aboveground scion. Ion uptake is regulated by a complex communication mechanism between the scion and rootstock. Sugars, hormones, and miRNAs function as long-distance signaling molecules and regulate ion uptake and ion homeostasis by affecting the activity of ion transporters. This review summarizes available information on the effect of rootstock on nutrient uptake and utilization and the mechanisms involved. Information on specific nutrient-efficient rootstocks for different crops of commercial importance is also provided. Several other important approaches, such as interstocking (during double grafting), inarching, use of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, use of plant growth substances (e.g., auxin and melatonin), and use of genetically engineered rootstocks and scions (transgrafting), are highlighted; these approaches can be combined with grafting to enhance nutrient uptake and utilization in commercially important plant species. Whether the rootstock and scion affect each other's soil microbiota and their effect on the nutrient absorption of rootstocks remain largely unknown. Similarly, the physiological and molecular bases of grafting, crease formation, and incompatibility are not fully identified and require investigation. Grafting in horticultural crops can help reveal the basic biology of grafting, the reasons for incompatibility, sensing, and signaling of nutrients, ion uptake and transport, and the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation and restriction in rootstocks. Ion transporter and miRNA-regulated nutrient

  17. The horticultural trade and ornamental plant invasions in Britain.

    PubMed

    Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Touza, Julia; Perrings, Charles; Williamson, Mark

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental horticulture has been recognized as the main pathway for plant invasions worldwide. We examined the link between propagule pressure created by the presence of ornamental plants in the market and their ability to escape from cultivation and establish in the wild. A random sample of 534 non-native ornamental species on sale in nineteenth century Britain showed that 27% of these species were recorded growing outside cultivation and 30% of those were established. Species that had escaped from cultivation were more frequently on sale both in the nineteenth century and today than nonescaping species. We used logit regression models to identify biological and socioeconomic variables that affect species' abilities to escape cultivation and become established. Frequencies in the market in the nineteenth century and today were good explanatory variables that distinguished escaping from nonescaping species, whereas for the transition from casual to established status these two socioeconomic variables were either absent or only of weak significance. Biological characteristics that increased the probability that a species would escape from cultivation were species height, a European native range, and being an annual. Climbing plants and species intolerant of low temperatures were less likely to escape. In contrast, the establishment probability was greater if the species belonged to a genus native to Britain and increased as the number of continents in a plant's native range increased. Annual plants had a reduced probability of establishment. Market presence, prices, and the date of introduction are among the socioeconomic factors that have had important effects on the observed course of invasions.

  18. Genetic mapping of QTLs controlling horticultural traits in diploid roses.

    PubMed

    Dugo, M L; Satovic, Z; Millán, T; Cubero, J I; Rubiales, D; Cabrera, A; Torres, A M

    2005-08-01

    A segregating progeny set of 96 F1 diploid hybrids (2n = 2x = 14) between "Blush Noisette" (D10), one of the first seedlings from the original "Champneys' Pink Cluster", and Rosa wichurana (E15), was used to construct a genetic linkage map of the rose genome following a "pseudo-testcross" mapping strategy. A total of 133 markers (130 RAPD, one morphological and two microsatellites) were located on the 14 linkage groups (LGs) of the D10 and E15 maps, covering total map lengths of 388 and 260 cM, respectively. Due to the presence of common biparental markers the homology of four LGs between parental maps (D10-1/E15-1 to D10-4/E15-4) could be inferred. Four horticulturally interesting quantitative traits, flower size (FS), days to flowering (DF), leaf size (LS), and resistance to powdery mildew (PM) were analysed in the progeny in order to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling these traits. A total of 13 putative QTLs (LOD > 3.0) were identified, four for FS, two for flowering time, five for LS, and two for resistance to PM. Possible homologies between QTLs detected in the D10 and E15 maps could be established between Fs1 and Fs3, Fs2 and Fs4, and Ls1 and Ls3. Screening for pairwise epistatic interactions between loci revealed additional, epistatic QTLs (EQTLs) for DF and LS that were not detected in the original QTL analysis. The genetic maps developed in this study will be useful to add new markers and locate genes for important traits in the genus providing a practical resource for marker-assisted selection programs in roses.

  19. Grafting: A Technique to Modify Ion Accumulation in Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Muhammad A; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Kong, Qiusheng; Cheng, Fei; Ahmed, Waqar; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Grafting is a centuries-old technique used in plants to obtain economic benefits. Grafting increases nutrient uptake and utilization efficiency in a number of plant species, including fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals. Selected rootstocks of the same species or close relatives are utilized in grafting. Rootstocks absorb more water and ions than self-rooted plants and transport these water and ions to the aboveground scion. Ion uptake is regulated by a complex communication mechanism between the scion and rootstock. Sugars, hormones, and miRNAs function as long-distance signaling molecules and regulate ion uptake and ion homeostasis by affecting the activity of ion transporters. This review summarizes available information on the effect of rootstock on nutrient uptake and utilization and the mechanisms involved. Information on specific nutrient-efficient rootstocks for different crops of commercial importance is also provided. Several other important approaches, such as interstocking (during double grafting), inarching, use of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, use of plant growth substances (e.g., auxin and melatonin), and use of genetically engineered rootstocks and scions (transgrafting), are highlighted; these approaches can be combined with grafting to enhance nutrient uptake and utilization in commercially important plant species. Whether the rootstock and scion affect each other's soil microbiota and their effect on the nutrient absorption of rootstocks remain largely unknown. Similarly, the physiological and molecular bases of grafting, crease formation, and incompatibility are not fully identified and require investigation. Grafting in horticultural crops can help reveal the basic biology of grafting, the reasons for incompatibility, sensing, and signaling of nutrients, ion uptake and transport, and the mechanism of heavy metal accumulation and restriction in rootstocks. Ion transporter and miRNA-regulated nutrient

  20. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR TEACHERS OF ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE IN THE MIDWESTERN SECTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEMP, PAUL E.

    A RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT, DESIGNED TO RETRAIN TEACHERS, DEVELOP ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS, AND STIMULATE THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOCATIONAL ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE PROGRAMS IN THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES, INCLUDED TRAINING, SERVICE, AND EVALUATION ACTIVITIES. THIRTY TEACHERS SELECTED FROM 75 APPLICANTS ATTENDED A SUMMER…

  1. 78 FR 55769 - North China Horticulture, Inc., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION North China Horticulture, Inc., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading September 6, 2013... information concerning the securities of North China Horticulture, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  2. Pesticide Exposure and Health Problems Among Female Horticulture Workers in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mrema, Ezra Jonathan; Ngowi, Aiwerasia Vera; Kishinhi, Stephen Simon; Mamuya, Simon Henry

    2017-01-01

    Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty. Women working in horticulture in Tanzania usually have low levels of education and income and lack decision-making power even on matters relating to their own health. This contributes to pesticide exposure and other health challenges. Because of multiple factors, some of which act as study confounders, few studies on exposure to pesticides and health effects have been conducted among women. This review identified factors that contribute to the increased health effects among women working in the horticultural industry and how these effects relate to pesticide exposure. PMID:28690397

  3. Pesticide Exposure and Health Problems Among Female Horticulture Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mrema, Ezra Jonathan; Ngowi, Aiwerasia Vera; Kishinhi, Stephen Simon; Mamuya, Simon Henry

    2017-01-01

    Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty. Women working in horticulture in Tanzania usually have low levels of education and income and lack decision-making power even on matters relating to their own health. This contributes to pesticide exposure and other health challenges. Because of multiple factors, some of which act as study confounders, few studies on exposure to pesticides and health effects have been conducted among women. This review identified factors that contribute to the increased health effects among women working in the horticultural industry and how these effects relate to pesticide exposure.

  4. Environmental performance and spillover effects on productivity: evidence from horticultural firms.

    PubMed

    Galdeano-Gómez, Emilio; Céspedes-Lorente, José; Martínez-Del-Río, Javier

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of environmental investment and related spillover effects on productivity in the agricultural sector by using a panel data of horticultural firms in Andalusia (Southern Spain). The results indicate a positive relationship between firm investment in environmental practices and productivity improvement, also showing the presence of positive environmental spillovers. In a second-stage of analysis, the incidence of environmental factors in firm specific individual technical efficiency is estimated. This analysis also shows the link between environmental knowledge diffusion and horticultural firms' performance.

  5. Evaluation of Resistance of Horticultural Plants to Destabilizing Effects Based on Analysis of Leaf Reflection Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkov, A. N.; Borzykh, N. V.; Butenko, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    The influences of thermal effects and salinization on visible and near-IR reflection spectra of horticultural plant leaves with different drought and salt resistance are examined. An integral criterion for evaluating the susceptibility of the plants to stressors is based on measuring the distance between reflectance curves.

  6. An Introduction to the Sexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants. Ornamental Horticulture I, Lesson Plan No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ideoka, Keith

    Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…

  7. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  8. Host range determination and fungicide resistance assessment of Phytophthora lateralis isolates from horticultural nurseries in Oregon

    Treesearch

    Franziska Rupp; Ebba K. Peterson; Joyce Eberhart; Jennifer L. Parke

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora lateralis causes root rot of Port-Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana; POC) in native forests of northwest California and southwest Oregon and in landscape plantings of horticultural Chamaecyparis cultivars in the western US and Europe. In spring 2015, following observations of mortality...

  9. Use of Problem-Based Learning in the Teaching and Learning of Horticultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Lord; Dowsett, Eric; Sullivan, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Problem-based learning (PBL), a relatively novel teaching and learning process in horticulture, was investigated. Proper application of PBL can potentially create a learning context that enhances student learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Students worked on two complex ill-structured problems: (1) to produce fresh baby greens for a…

  10. Primary-care based participatory rehabilitation: users' views of a horticultural and arts project.

    PubMed

    Barley, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Susan; Sikorski, Jim

    2012-02-01

    Participation in horticulture and arts may improve wellbeing in those with mental and physical illness. To conduct an in-depth exploration of the views and experience of participants of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project (Sydenham Garden). Qualitative interview study of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project in South London. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (referred to as 'coworkers') of Sydenham Garden. Seven were female. Participants were aged between 38 and 91 years and had a range of severe mental and physical health problems; most had depression. The interviews were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Data were overwhelmingly positive concerning participation. Coworkers considered participation in the project to promote wellbeing by providing purposeful and enjoyable activity and interest, improving mood and self-perceptions, and providing an escape from life's pressures. Being outdoors was considered therapeutic. The most-valued aspect of participation was the social contact derived as a result of it. Many of the coworkers who were interviewed developed transferable skills, including nationally recognised qualifications, which they valued highly. Delivery of horticultural therapy and participatory arts is a feasible model for improving wellbeing in patients in primary care who have serious illness. Longer-term studies are needed to address what happens to people after leaving such projects.

  11. Agriculture--Horticulture. Kit No. 36. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claudia

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on horticulture are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focus on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  12. Insights from Spanish-Speaking Employees in the Iowa Horticultural Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justen, Emilie; Haynes, Cynthia; VanDerZanden, Ann Marie; Grudens-Schuck, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the needs of Latino workers can help improve working conditions, job satisfaction, and productivity of both employees and the companies hiring Latino workers. The study reported here assessed educational needs, communication gaps, and technical skills of Latino workers working in the horticultural industry in Iowa--an ethnic group that…

  13. Insights from Spanish-Speaking Employees in the Iowa Horticultural Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justen, Emilie; Haynes, Cynthia; VanDerZanden, Ann Marie; Grudens-Schuck, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the needs of Latino workers can help improve working conditions, job satisfaction, and productivity of both employees and the companies hiring Latino workers. The study reported here assessed educational needs, communication gaps, and technical skills of Latino workers working in the horticultural industry in Iowa--an ethnic group that…

  14. Larvae of five horticulturally important species of Chrysopodes (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): shared generic features, descriptions and keys

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patrícia S.; Tauber, Catherine A.; Albuquerque, Gilberto S.; Tauber, Maurice J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An expanded list of generic level larval characteristics is presented for Chrysopodes; it includes a reinterpretation of the mesothoracic and metathoracic structure and setation. Keys, descriptions and images of Semaphoront A (first instar) and Semaphoront B (second and third instars) are offered for identifying five species of Chrysopodes (Chrysopodes) that are commonly reported from horticultural habitats in the Neotropical region. PMID:23653514

  15. Nebraska Vocational Agribusiness Curriculum for City Schools. Horticulture. Agricultural Mechanics. A Curriculum Guide. 11th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Designed for use with high school juniors, this agribusiness curriculum for city schools contains thirty-two units of instruction in the areas of horticulture and agricultural mechanics. Among the units included in the curriculum are (1) Planting Media, (2) Fertilizer, (3) Plant Classification, (4) Turf Grass Management, (5) Landscape Design, (6)…

  16. An Introduction to the Sexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants. Ornamental Horticulture I, Lesson Plan No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ideoka, Keith

    Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…

  17. Winter-injury following horticultural treatments to overcome juvenility in citrus seedlings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus seedling juvenility delays new hybrid evaluation, slows cultivar release, and slows introgression of new traits. A horticultural program reported to overcome citrus juvenility was tested at the Whitmore Citrus Research Foundation farm (Lake County), using replicated Hirado Buntan x Clementine...

  18. Project PLANTWORK: A Horticulture Employment Initiative for Workers with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Therapy and Rehabilitation through Horticulture, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD.

    Intended for persons establishing job development programs for developmentally disabled individuals, this training manual details the structure and procedures of Project PLANTWORK, a 21-month demonstration program which placed approximately 70 workers with developmental disabilities into employment in horticulture industry firms or into…

  19. Treated sewage effluent (water) potential to be used for horticultural production in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emongor, V. E.; Ramolemana, G. M.

    Botswana being semi-arid and arid country, the provision of drinking water and water for agricultural production is becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. Measures that can augment the available sources of water or measures that can reduce the demand on potable water should be given serious consideration. Horticulturists have incorporated new technology into many of their production programs, which has enabled them to grow more horticultural crops with less water; however, more effort is needed. Techniques such as drip irrigation, sensors, growing plants with low water requirements, timing and scheduling of irrigation to the growth needs of the plant, mulching, and establishing a minimum water quality standard for horticultural crops must be used to stretch agricultural water supplies. Recycling agricultural water and using treated municipal sewage effluent is a viable option for increasing horticultures’ future water supply in Botswana. Agriculture wastewater and sewage effluents often contain significant quantities of heavy metals and other substances that may be toxic to people but beneficial to horticultural crops. However, before sewage effluent can be used for commercial production of vegetables and fruits, research must be undertaken to determine whether there is accumulation of heavy metals and faecal coliforms in the edible portion of the horticultural produce which may be detrimental to human health 15-20 years later. Research must be undertaken to assess the impact of sewage effluent on soil physical, chemical properties and environment after continued use.

  20. Use of Problem-Based Learning in the Teaching and Learning of Horticultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Lord; Dowsett, Eric; Sullivan, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Problem-based learning (PBL), a relatively novel teaching and learning process in horticulture, was investigated. Proper application of PBL can potentially create a learning context that enhances student learning. Design/Methodology/Approach: Students worked on two complex ill-structured problems: (1) to produce fresh baby greens for a…

  1. Evaluation of biochar-anaerobic potato digestate mixtures as renewable components of horticultural potting media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various formulations are used in horticultural potting media, with sphagnum peat moss, vermiculite and perlite currently among the most common components. We are examining a dried anaerobic digestate remaining after the fermentation of potato processing wastes to replace organic components such as p...

  2. Chemical and physical properties of Paulownia elongata biochar modified with oxidants for horticultural applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Treatment of biochar with oxidants such as acids and hydrogen peroxide has been shown to alter porosity, increase adsorption of chemicals, and introduce functional groups on the biochar surfaces, all of which are desirable for their use in horticultural applications. Biochar was produced from the py...

  3. Asian germplasm in American horticulture: new thoughts on an old theme

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    North American horticulture cultivates an astonishing diversity of ornamental species, from nearly every floristic region, but its landscapes are dominated by temperate species drawn from the Eastern Asiatic floristic region. The East Asiatic floristic region is one of the most diverse in the world...

  4. Core II Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs. Units G-L.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This second volume of a 2-volume curriculum guide contains 12 problem areas selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for 10th-grade or second-year students enrolled in a metropolitan agriculture program. The 12 problem areas are divided into 5 units: Growing and Managing Horticultural Crops (4 problem areas),…

  5. Teaching STEM through Horticulture: Implementing an Edible Plant Curriculum at a STEM-Centric Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Leila A.; Hughes, Harrison; Balgopal, Meena M.

    2016-01-01

    School gardens are ideal places for students to ask and answer questions about science. This paper describes a case study of two 3rd grade teachers and two STEM coordinators who were recruited to implement and evaluate a horticultural-based curriculum developed for this study. Informed by the Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform model we conducted a…

  6. COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DILLON, ROY D.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

  7. Horticulture Materials for Agricultural Education Programs. Core Agricultural Education Curriculum, Central Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education.

    This curriculum guide contains five units with relevant problem areas for horticulture. These problem areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. Each problem area includes some or all of the following components: related problem…

  8. Horticulture Mechanics Course Outline. Teacher Education Series, Vol. 15, No. 1t.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lee P.; And Others

    The document provides 17 outlines of brief instructional units in mechanics, which are intended for incorporation into an existing program of study in ornamental horticulture at the secondary or postsecondary level. To facilitate the flexible use of the outlines, a grid is presented on which seven occupational areas (such as aboriculture,…

  9. CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Genome Engineering for Improvement of Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Karkute, Suhas G; Singh, Achuit K; Gupta, Om P; Singh, Prabhakar M; Singh, Bijendra

    2017-01-01

    Horticultural crops are an important part of agriculture for food as well as nutritional security. However, several pests and diseases along with adverse abiotic environmental factors pose a severe threat to these crops by affecting their quality and productivity. This warrants the effective and accelerated breeding programs by utilizing innovative biotechnological tools that can tackle aforementioned issues. The recent technique of genome editing by Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has greatly advanced the breeding for crop improvement due to its simplicity and high efficiency over other nucleases such as Zinc Finger Nucleases and Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases. CRISPR/Cas9 tool contains a non-specific Cas9 nuclease and a single guide RNA that directs Cas9 to the specific genomic location creating double-strand breaks and subsequent repair process creates insertion or deletion mutations. This is currently the widely adopted tool for reverse genetics, and crop improvement in large number of agricultural crops. The use of CRISPR/Cas9 in horticultural crops is limited to few crops due to lack of availability of regeneration protocols and sufficient sequence information in many horticultural crops. In this review, the present status of applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 in horticultural crops was discussed along with the challenges and future potential for possible improvement of these crops for their yield, quality, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress.

  10. Agriculture--Horticulture. Kit No. 36. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claudia

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on horticulture are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focus on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  11. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Forms for Ornamental Horticulture. (Revised) Master Set. 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, R. W.; And Others

    The worksheets have been developed for use with any production occupational or work experience record book for high school vocational agriculture programs. Separate units have been developed for each of 11 areas in ornamental horticulture, so the student and teacher can select the appropriate one, or several, for the experiences planned by the…

  12. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  13. Teaching STEM through Horticulture: Implementing an Edible Plant Curriculum at a STEM-Centric Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Leila A.; Hughes, Harrison; Balgopal, Meena M.

    2016-01-01

    School gardens are ideal places for students to ask and answer questions about science. This paper describes a case study of two 3rd grade teachers and two STEM coordinators who were recruited to implement and evaluate a horticultural-based curriculum developed for this study. Informed by the Teacher-Centered Systemic Reform model we conducted a…

  14. Botanical and Horticultural Libraries in the U.S.: A Survey of CBHL Member Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clewis, Beth

    1989-01-01

    Describes a questionnaire survey that identified characteristics of members of the Council on Botanical and Horticultural Libraries, Inc. Results discussed include types of libraries; regional distribution; clientele; services offered by libraries; use of online bibliographic databases; backgrounds of professional staff; collections and subject…

  15. Use of Hay, Green, and Plastic Mulches to Suppress Nutsedge in Horticultural Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purple and yellow nutsedges (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus, respectively) are among the most serious weed problems in Florida, Caribbean, and other parts of the world. They have been reported to cause yield losses of 20-89% in various horticultural crops. Production systems based on plastic mul...

  16. An Analysis of Agriculture and Horticulture Programs at Illinois Public Community Colleges. Accountability Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    Prepared as part of a state program review, this report presents results from a review undertaken of all agriculture and horticulture programs at Illinois public community colleges for fiscal year 1995. The first part focuses on the four agricultural programs reviewed: Agricultural Business and Management; Agricultural Production, Workers, and…

  17. Nebraska Vocational Agribusiness Curriculum for City Schools. Horticulture. Agricultural Mechanics. A Curriculum Guide. 11th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Designed for use with high school juniors, this agribusiness curriculum for city schools contains thirty-two units of instruction in the areas of horticulture and agricultural mechanics. Among the units included in the curriculum are (1) Planting Media, (2) Fertilizer, (3) Plant Classification, (4) Turf Grass Management, (5) Landscape Design, (6)…

  18. Horticultural Performance of Eight American Elderberry Genotypes at Three Missouri Locations

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, A.L.; Byers, P.L.; Avery, J.D.; Kaps, M.; Gu, S.

    2016-01-01

    American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) is being increasingly cultivated in North America for its edible and medicinal fruit and flowers, yet remains largely undeveloped as a horticultural crop. Productive genotypes with desirable horticultural attributes, including disease and insect resistance, precocity, uniform fruit ripening, and large berry size are needed in order to advance the commercial production of elderberries. A four-year study of eight elderberry genotypes was established in 2008 at three diverse Missouri (USA) locations. Phenology, plant morphology, pest susceptibility, productivity, and fruit characteristics data were collected over three growing seasons, 2009–2011. Significant differences for most phenological, horticultural, and fruit juice characteristics were observed among the three sites, three years, and eight genotypes. The genotype ‘Ozark’ was the earliest to break bud, produced fruit with high levels of soluble solids, and out-yielded most other genotypes at the three sites over the three-year study. None of the new genotypes produced berries as large as or larger than the standard ‘York’ which is known for its large fruit. Some of the genotypes tested, especially ‘Ozark’ show promise as potential cultivars and as breeding stock for further development of elderberry as a commercially-viable horticultural crop. PMID:27158183

  19. Insecticide dissipation from soil and plant surfaces in tropical horticulture of southern Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, Ingrid; Laabs, Volker; Atcha-Ahowé, Cyrien; James, Braima; Amelung, Wulf

    2009-06-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, horticulture provides livelihood opportunities for millions of people, especially in urban and peri-urban areas. Although the vegetable agroecosystems are often characterized by intensive pesticide use, risks resulting therefrom are largely unknown under tropical horticultural conditions. The objective of this study therefore was to study the fate of pesticides in two representative horticultural soils (Acrisol and Arenosol) and plants (Solanum macrocarpon L.) after field application and thus to gain first insight on environmental persistence and dispersion of typical insecticides used in vegetable horticulture in Benin, West Africa. On plant surfaces, dissipation was rapid with half lives ranging from 2 to 87 h (alpha-endosulfan < beta-endosulfan < deltamethrin). Soil dissipation was considerably slower than dissipation from plant surfaces with half-lives ranging from 3 (diazinon) to 74 d (total endosulfan), but persistence of pesticides in soil was still reduced compared to temperate climates. Nevertheless, for deltamethrin and endosulfan, a tendency for mid-term accumulation in soil upon repeated applications was observed. The soil and plant surface concentrations of the metabolite endosulfan sulfate increased during the entire trial period, indicating that this compound is a potential long-term pollutant even in tropical environments.

  20. The Power of Peer Reviewing to Enhance Writing in Horticulture: Greenhouse Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil O.; Flash, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Peer review is not included in undergraduate horticultural curricula. Our research objectives in an 8- year study, which ranged from 2000 to 2007 in two sections (2000-2002 non-peer reviewed and 2003-2007 peer-reviewed) of Greenhouse Management students at the University of Minnesota were to determine whether iterative peer reviews would result in…

  1. Primary-care based participatory rehabilitation: users’ views of a horticultural and arts project

    PubMed Central

    Barley, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Susan; Sikorski, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Background Participation in horticulture and arts may improve wellbeing in those with mental and physical illness. Aim To conduct an in-depth exploration of the views and experience of participants of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project (Sydenham Garden). Design and setting Qualitative interview study of a primary-care-based horticultural and participatory arts rehabilitation project in South London. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (referred to as ‘coworkers’) of Sydenham Garden. Seven were female. Participants were aged between 38 and 91 years and had a range of severe mental and physical health problems; most had depression. The interviews were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results Data were overwhelmingly positive concerning participation. Coworkers considered participation in the project to promote wellbeing by providing purposeful and enjoyable activity and interest, improving mood and self-perceptions, and providing an escape from life’s pressures. Being outdoors was considered therapeutic. The most-valued aspect of participation was the social contact derived as a result of it. Many of the coworkers who were interviewed developed transferable skills, including nationally recognised qualifications, which they valued highly. Conclusion Delivery of horticultural therapy and participatory arts is a feasible model for improving wellbeing in patients in primary care who have serious illness. Longer-term studies are needed to address what happens to people after leaving such projects. PMID:22520790

  2. Effects of Horticultural Therapy on Psychosocial Health in Older Nursing Home Residents: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Min; Ji, Jeng-Yi

    2015-09-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of horticultural therapy on psychosocial health in older nursing home residents. A combined quantitative and qualitative design was adopted. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 10 older residents from a nursing home in Taichung, Taiwan. Participants joined a 10-week indoor horticultural program once a week, with each session lasting for about 1.5 hours. A single-group design with multiple measurements was adopted for the quantitative component of this study. Interviews held 1-2 days before the intervention (T0) were used to collect baseline data. The two outcome variables of this study, depression and loneliness, were reassessed during the 5th (T1) and 10th (T2) weeks of the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the mean differences among T0, T1, and T2 measures. After the 10-week program, qualitative data were collected by asking participants to share their program participation experiences. The results of generalized estimating equation showed significant improvements in depression and loneliness. Four categories emerged from the qualitative data content analysis: social connection, anticipation and hope, sense of achievement, and companionship. Given the beneficial effects of the horticulture therapy, the inclusion of horticultural activities in nursing home activity programs is recommended.

  3. The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. Methods We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n = 1,468). A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n = 783,817). Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. Results Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR) of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31) and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49) compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96) and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4). Conclusions The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to

  4. The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Pernille; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Andersen, Helle Raun; Baelum, Jesper; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2011-11-14

    Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n=1,468). A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n=783,817). Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR) of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31) and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49) compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96) and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4). The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to pesticides by working in horticulture.

  5. Soil microbial community analysis of between no-till and tillage in a controlled horticultural field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung Koo; Kim, Min Keun; Seo, Youn Won; Choi, Kyung Ju; Lee, Seong Tae; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Lee, Young Han

    2012-04-01

    The present study evaluated the changes of soil microbial communities that were subjected to no-till and compared the results to those subject to tillage for organic farming in a controlled horticultural field by fatty acid methyl ester. Fungi (P < 0.001), gram-positive bacteria (P < 0.001), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (P < 0.01), and actinomycetes (P < 0.01) in the no-till soils were significantly larger than those in the tillage soils. The no-till in the subsoil had a significantly lower ratio of cy17:0 to 16:1ω7c compared to that of tillage, indicating that microbial stress decreased because the soils were not disturbed (P < 0.05). Fungi should be considered as a potential factor responsible for the obvious microbial community differentiation that was observed between the no-till and tillage areas in a controlled horticultural field.

  6. Current and potential trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos-Griffin, Emilia; Hallman, Guy J.; Griffin, Robert L.

    2012-08-01

    The current status of trade in horticultural products irradiated for phytosanitary purposes is examined, including trends, strengths and weaknesses. A strategy is proposed to take advantage of the best future opportunities for increasing trade in irradiated horticultural products by identifying best possibilities for expanding both the number and volume of commodities for irradiation and then applying appropriate business criteria in a general analysis of the commodities, commercial scenarios, and geographic regions where the greatest potential exists for expansion. The results show that fresh fruits such as mango, papaya, citrus, grapes, and vegetables such as tomatoes, onions, asparagus, garlic, and peppers from Asia and the Americas show the greatest potential. Substantial opportunities for additional growth exist, especially as regulatory conditions become more favorable.

  7. Kasza: design of a closed water system for the greenhouse horticulture.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Raphaël T; Voogt, Wim; Pickhardt, Pieter W

    2008-01-01

    The need for a closed and sustainable water system in greenhouse areas is stimulated by the implementation in the Netherlands of the European Framework Directive. The Dutch national project Kasza: Design of a Closed Water System for the Greenhouse Horticulture will provide information how the water system in a greenhouse horticulture area can be closed. In this paper the conceptual design of two systems to close the water cycle in a greenhouse area is described. The first system with reverse osmosis system can be used in areas where desalination is required in order to be able to use the recycle water for irrigation of all crops. The second system with advanced oxidation using UV and peroxide can be applied in areas with more salt tolerant crops and good (low sodium) water sources for irrigation. Both systems are financially feasible in new greenhouse areas with substantial available recycle water. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  8. Reduction of energy usage in postharvest horticulture through management of ethylene.

    PubMed

    Wills, Ron B H; Golding, John B

    2015-05-01

    Cool chain management is the preferred technology to extend the postharvest life of horticultural produce, but with rising energy costs and community pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there is a need to use less energy-intensive technologies. Minimising the level of ethylene around horticultural produce inhibits ripening and senescence and therefore has the potential to reduce the use of refrigeration. The long-distance transport of bananas within Australia and from Central America to Europe is used as a case study to show that the need for refrigeration could be reduced if the appropriate concentrations of ethylene were maintained around fruit during transit. Data are also presented to show a similar benefit of ethylene control with green beans, as well as another study showing that apples treated with the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene could be stored at a higher temperature without loss of quality to the consumer. The range of technologies available to manage ethylene levels is discussed.

  9. Comparing responses to horticultural-based and traditional activities in dementia care programs.

    PubMed

    Jarrott, Shannon E; Gigliotti, Christina M

    2010-12-01

    Engaging persons with dementia in meaningful activities supports well-being; however, care staff are challenged to implement age- and ability-appropriate activities in a group setting. We compared a randomly assigned treatment group, who received horticultural therapy-based (HT-based) programming to a comparison group, who engaged in traditional activities (TA) programming, on engagement and affect. Horticultural therapy-based programming was implemented twice weekly at 4 treatment sites for 6 weeks, while regular TA were observed at comparison sites. Results revealed no differences between groups on affective domains. Levels of adaptive behavior differed between the groups, with the treatment group demonstrating higher levels of active, passive, and other engagement and the comparison group demonstrating higher levels of self-engagement. Our results highlight the value of HT-based programs and the importance of simultaneously capturing participants' affective and behavioral responses. Theoretical and practical considerations about the facilitation of and context in which the programming occurs are discussed.

  10. Characterization and evaluation of five jaboticaba accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami, Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit of five Jaboticaba (Myrciaria caulifloria) cultivars ‘MC-05-06’, ‘MC-05-14’, ‘MC-05-12’, ‘MC-06-15,’ and ‘MC-06-14’ were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clona...

  11. Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues.

    PubMed

    Choy, Sing Ying; Wang, Ke; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ben; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Horticultural waste was co-composted with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues individually to evaluate the effects of these easily available organic wastes in Singapore on the composting process and product quality. Each co-composting material was mixed with horticultural waste in the wet weight ratio of 1:1 and composted for 46 days. Results showed that all co-composting materials accelerated the degradation of total carbon and resulted in higher nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the final product compared with horticultural waste alone. Mixture with fruit peels achieved the fastest total carbon loss; however, did not reach the minimum required temperature for pathogen destruction. The end product was found to be the best source for K and had a higher pH that could be used for the remediation of acidic soil. Food waste resulted in the highest available nitrate (NO3-N) content in the end product, but caused high salt content, total coliforms, and slower total carbon loss initially. Soybean residues were found to be the best co-composting material to produce compost with high N, P, and K when compared with other materials due to the highest temperature, fastest total carbon loss, fastest reduction in C/N ratio, and best conservation of nutrients.

  12. Investigation of 10 herbicides in surface waters of a horticultural production catchment in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Allinson, Graeme; Bui, AnhDuyen; Zhang, Pei; Rose, Gavin; Wightwick, Adam M; Allinson, Mayumi; Pettigrove, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Herbicides are regularly applied in horticultural production systems and may migrate off-site, potentially posing an ecological risk to surface waterways. However, few studies have investigated the levels and potential ecotoxicological impact of herbicides in horticultural catchments in southern Australia. This study investigated the presence of 10 herbicides at 18 sites during a 5-month period in horticulturally important areas of the Yarra Valley in southeastern Australia. Seven of the 10 herbicides were detected in the streams, in 39 % of spot water samples, in 25 % of surface sediment samples, and in >70 % of the passive sampler systems deployed. Few samples contained residues of ≥2 herbicides. Simazine was the herbicide most frequently detected in water, sediment, and passive sampler samples and had the highest concentrations in water (0.67 μg/L) and sediment (260 μg/kg dry weight). Generally the concentrations of the herbicides detected were several orders of magnitude lower than reported ecotoxicological effect values, including those for aquatic plants and algae, suggesting that concentrations of individual chemicals in the catchment were unlikely to pose an ecological risk. However, little is known about the combined effects of simultaneous, low-level exposure of multiple herbicides of the same mode of action on Australian aquatic organisms nor their contribution when found in mixtures with other pesticides. Further research is required to adequately assess the risk of pesticides in Victorian aquatic environments.

  13. Environmental fate of fungicides in surface waters of a horticultural-production catchment in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wightwick, Adam M; Bui, Anh Duyen; Zhang, Pei; Rose, Gavin; Allinson, Mayumi; Myers, Jackie H; Reichman, Suzanne M; Menzies, Neal W; Pettigrove, Vincent; Allinson, Graeme

    2012-04-01

    Fungicides are regularly applied in horticultural production systems and may migrate off-site, potentially posing an ecological risk to surface waterways. However, few studies have investigated the fate of fungicides in horticultural catchments. This study investigated the presence of 24 fungicides at 18 sites during a 5-month period within a horticultural catchment in southeastern Australia. Seventeen of the 24 fungicides were detected in the waterways, with fungicides detected in 63% of spot water samples, 44% of surface sediment samples, and 44% of the passive sampler systems deployed. One third of the water samples contained residues of two or more fungicides. Myclobutanil, trifloxystrobin, pyrimethanil, difenoconazole, and metalaxyl were the fungicides most frequently detected, being present in 16-38% of the spot water samples. Iprodione, myclobutanil, pyrimethanil, cyproconazole, trifloxystrobin, and fenarimol were found at the highest concentrations in the water samples (> 0.2 μg/l). Relatively high concentrations of myclobutanil and pyrimethanil (≥ 120 μg/kg dry weight) were detected in the sediment samples. Generally the concentrations of the fungicides detected were several orders of magnitude lower than reported ecotoxicological effect values, suggesting that concentrations of individual fungicides in the catchment were unlikely to pose an ecological risk. However, there is little information on the effects of fungicides, especially fungi and microbes, on aquatic ecosystems. There is also little known about the combined effects of simultaneous low-level exposure of multiple fungicides to aquatic organisms. Further research is required to adequately assess the risk of fungicides in aquatic environments.

  14. Genetic engineering strategies for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and quality enhancement in horticultural crops: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Nehanjali; Singh, Kunwar Harendra; Sharma, Deepika; Singh, Lal; Kumar, Pankaj; Nanjundan, J; Khan, Yasin Jeshima; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar; Thakur, Ajay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Genetic engineering technique offers myriads of applications in improvement of horticultural crops for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and produce quality enhancement. During last two decades, a large number of transgenic horticultural crops has been developed and more are underway. A number of genes including natural and synthetic Cry genes, protease inhibitors, trypsin inhibitors and cystatin genes have been used to incorporate insect and nematode resistance. For providing protection against fungal and bacterial diseases, various genes like chitinase, glucanase, osmotin, defensin and pathogenesis-related genes are being transferred to many horticultural crops world over. RNAi technique has been found quite successful in inducing virus resistance in horticultural crops in addition to coat protein genes. Abiotic stresses such as drought, heat and salinity adversely affect production and productivity of horticultural crops and a number of genes encoding for biosynthesis of stress protecting compounds including mannitol, glycine betaine and heat shock proteins have been employed for abiotic stress tolerance besides various transcription factors like DREB1, MAPK, WRKY, etc. Antisense gene and RNAi technologies have revolutionized the pace of improvement of horticultural crops, particularly ornamentals for color modification, increasing shelf-life and reducing post-harvest losses. Precise genome editing tools, particularly CRISPR/Cas9, have been efficiently applied in tomato, petunia, citrus, grape, potato and apple for gene mutation, repression, activation and epigenome editing. This review provides comprehensive overview to draw the attention of researchers for better understanding of genetic engineering advancements in imparting biotic and abiotic stress tolerance as well as on improving various traits related to quality, texture, plant architecture modification, increasing shelf-life, etc. in different horticultural crops.

  15. Polyethylene film incorporation into the horticultural soil of small periurban production units in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Laura; Berenstein, Giselle; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2015-08-01

    Horticulture makes intensive use of soil and extensive use of polyethylene (PE) sheeting and pesticides, producing an environment where the dynamics between soil and plastics can affect pesticide fate. We have determined that the presence of plastic residues in the horticultural soil of small production units equals 10% of the soil area, being meso and macro-sections the predominant fragment sizes. All soil samples were taken from different plots located in Cuartel V, Moreno district, in the suburbs of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Laboratory experiments were conducted to see the relations among pesticide, soil and PE film. Endosulfan recovery from LDPE films (25μm and 100μm) was studied, observing evidence that indicated migration to the inside of the plastic matrix. To further analyze the dynamics of pesticide migration to soil and atmosphere, experiments using chlorpyrifos, procymidone and trifluralin were performed in soil-plastic-atmosphere microenvironments, showing that up to 24h significant amounts of pesticides moved away from the PE film. To determine whether PE residues could act as potential pesticide collector in soil, column elution experiments were done using chlorpyrifos, procymidone and trifluralin. Results showed an important pesticide accumulation in the mulch film (584μg-2284μg pesticide/g plastic) compared to soil (13μg-32μg pesticide/g soil). Finally, chemical and photochemical degradation of deltamethrin adsorbed in PE film was studied, finding a protective effect on hydrolysis but no protective effect on photodegradation. We believe that a deeper understanding of the dynamics among soil, plastic and pesticides in horticultural productive systems may contribute to alert for the implications of PE use for plastic sheeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perception and Understanding of Invasive Alien Species Issues by Nature Conservation and Horticulture Professionals in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  17. Perception and understanding of invasive alien species issues by nature conservation and horticulture professionals in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  18. Pesticide impact study in the peri-urban horticultural area of Gran La Plata, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mac Loughlin, Tomás M; Peluso, Leticia; Marino, Damián J G

    2017-11-15

    Vegetable production systems are characterized by intense pesticide use, yet the effects on the surrounding environment are largely unknown and need to be studied. Given this knowledge gap, the objective of this work is to determine the impact of horticulture on a representative watercourse by conducting an integrated study of the occurrence and concentration of pesticides in bottom sediments and their relation to lethal and sublethal effects on benthic fauna. Two sampling campaigns were conducted during seasons of low and high pesticide application in five sites along the Carnaval creek, located in the peri-urban area of La Plata City (Buenos Aires, Argentina). The samples were tested for 36 pesticide compounds by GC-MS and LC-MS, and whole-sediment laboratory toxicity tests were performed using the native amphipod Hyalella curvispina. The results showed a general but variable distribution in the concentrations detected along the stream. For each sampling campaign (first/second), the total pesticide loads, measured as the sum of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, were 1080/2329, 3715/88, and 367/5ngg(-1) dw, respectively. Lethal and sublethal effects were observed in both sampling campaigns. In order to correlate both sets of results, data were assessed by multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis. The observed toxicity was considered to be mainly due to insecticides; thus, horticultural practices have an impact on nearby watercourses and can potentially endanger the benthic fauna. This is the first study in Argentina to assess the impact of pesticides on aquatic environments close to horticultural production areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Therapeutic horticulture in clinical depression: a prospective study of active components.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil W; Kirkevold, Marit

    2010-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to assess change in depression severity, perceived attentional capacity and rumination (brooding) in individuals with clinical depression during a therapeutic horticulture programme and to investigate if the changes were mediated by experiences of being away and fascination. Individuals with clinical depression suffer from distortion of attention and rumination. Interventions can help to disrupt maladaptive rumination and promote restoration of depleted attentional capacity. A single-group study was conducted with a convenience sample of 28 people with clinical depression in 2009. Data were collected before, twice during, and immediately after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture programme, and at 3-month follow-up. Assessment instruments were the Beck Depression Inventory, Attentional Function Index, Brooding Scale, and Being Away and Fascination subscales from the Perceived Restorativeness Scale. Mean Beck Depression Inventory scores declined by 4.5 points during the intervention (F = 5.49, P = 0.002). The decline was clinically relevant for 50% of participants. Attentional Function Index scores increased (F = 4.14, P = 0.009), while Brooding scores decreased (F = 4.51, P = 0.015). The changes in Beck Depression Inventory and Attentional Function Index scores were mediated by increases in Being Away and Fascination, and decline in Beck Depression Inventory scores was also mediated by decline in Brooding. Participants maintained their improvements in Beck Depression Inventory scores at 3-month follow-up. Being away and fascination appear to work as active components in a therapeutic horticulture intervention for clinical depression.

  20. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 4--A Case Study of Illinois Projects in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Colin; Ethridge, James

    As part of Project IMPACT's efforts to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a case study was made of Illinois Projects in Horticulture. Fourteen horticulture projects in high schools and junior colleges were discovered through a previous study, personal interviews with two University of…

  1. Development of Procedures for Assessing the Impact of Vocational Education Research and Development on Vocational Education (Project IMPACT). Volume 4--A Case Study of Illinois Projects in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Colin; Ethridge, James

    As part of Project IMPACT's efforts to identify and develop procedures for complying with the impact requirements of Public Law 94-482, a case study was made of Illinois Projects in Horticulture. Fourteen horticulture projects in high schools and junior colleges were discovered through a previous study, personal interviews with two University of…

  2. Determinants of recycling common types of plastic product waste in environmental horticulture industry: The case of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ting; Klepacka, Anna M; Florkowski, Wojciech J; Braman, Kristine

    2016-02-01

    Environmental horticulture firms provide a variety of commercial/residential landscape products and services encompassing ornamental plant production, design, installation, and maintenance. The companies generate tons of waste including plastic containers, trays, and greenhouse/field covers, creating the need to reduce and utilize plastic waste. Based on survey data collected in Georgia in 2013, this paper investigates determinants of the environmental horticulture firms' recycling decision (plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly). Our findings indicate that the decision to discard vs. recycle plastic containers, flats, and greenhouse poly is significantly influenced by firm scope, size, location, and partnership with recycling providers, as well as whether recycling providers offer additional waste pickup services. Insights from this study are of use to local governments and environmental organizations interested in increasing horticultural firm participation in recycling programs and lowering the volume of plastic destined for landfills.

  3. The use of sewage sludge and horticultural waste to develop artificial soil for plant cultivation in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Stabnikova, O; Goh, W-K; Ding, H-B; Tay, J-H; Wang, J-Y

    2005-06-01

    Greenhouse pot experiments were performed with Ipomoea aquatica (Kang Kong) to evaluate artificial soil produced from poor fertility subsoil, horticultural compost, and sewage sludge. The addition of horticultural compost and sewage sludge to subsoil substantially improved plant growth, improved the physical properties of subsoil and enriched subsoil by essential nutrients for plants. The effect was enhanced when the two ingredients were added to subsoil together. The highest yield of biomass of I. aquatica was observed in artificial soil prepared by mixing subsoil with 4% (wet weight/wet weight) of horticultural compost and 2% (dry weight/wet weight) of sewage sludge. The contents of heavy metals in plants, grown in the artificial soil, were significantly lower than toxic levels. The artificial soil could be recommended for urban landscaping and gardening in Singapore.

  4. Object oriented classification of high resolution data for inventory of horticultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbar, R.; Ravishankar, H. M.; Trivedi, S.; Subramoniam, S. R.; Uday, R.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    High resolution satellite images are associated with large variance and thus, per pixel classifiers often result in poor accuracy especially in delineation of horticultural crops. In this context, object oriented techniques are powerful and promising methods for classification. In the present study, a semi-automatic object oriented feature extraction model has been used for delineation of horticultural fruit and plantation crops using Erdas Objective Imagine. Multi-resolution data from Resourcesat LISS-IV and Cartosat-1 have been used as source data in the feature extraction model. Spectral and textural information along with NDVI were used as inputs for generation of Spectral Feature Probability (SFP) layers using sample training pixels. The SFP layers were then converted into raster objects using threshold and clump function resulting in pixel probability layer. A set of raster and vector operators was employed in the subsequent steps for generating thematic layer in the vector format. This semi-automatic feature extraction model was employed for classification of major fruit and plantations crops viz., mango, banana, citrus, coffee and coconut grown under different agro-climatic conditions. In general, the classification accuracy of about 75-80 per cent was achieved for these crops using object based classification alone and the same was further improved using minimal visual editing of misclassified areas. A comparison of on-screen visual interpretation with object oriented approach showed good agreement. It was observed that old and mature plantations were classified more accurately while young and recently planted ones (3 years or less) showed poor classification accuracy due to mixed spectral signature, wider spacing and poor stands of plantations. The results indicated the potential use of object oriented approach for classification of high resolution data for delineation of horticultural fruit and plantation crops. The present methodology is applicable at

  5. Light-emitting diode technology status and directions: Opportunities for horticultural lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Pattison, P. Morgan; Krames, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, light-emitting diode (LED) technology has advanced rapidly over the last decade, primarily driven by display and general illumination applications ("solid-state lighting (SSL) for humans"). These advancements have made LED lighting technically and economically advantageous not only for these applications, but also, as an indirect benefit, for adjacent applications such as horticultural lighting ("SSL for plants"). Moreover, LED technology has much room for continued improvement. In the near-term, these improvements will continue to be driven by SSL for humans (with indirect benefit to SSL for plants), the most important of which can be anticipated.

  6. Light-emitting diode technology status and directions: Opportunities for horticultural lighting

    DOE PAGES

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Pattison, P. Morgan; Krames, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, light-emitting diode (LED) technology has advanced rapidly over the last decade, primarily driven by display and general illumination applications ("solid-state lighting (SSL) for humans"). These advancements have made LED lighting technically and economically advantageous not only for these applications, but also, as an indirect benefit, for adjacent applications such as horticultural lighting ("SSL for plants"). Moreover, LED technology has much room for continued improvement. In the near-term, these improvements will continue to be driven by SSL for humans (with indirect benefit to SSL for plants), the most important of which can be anticipated.

  7. DNA damage in horticultural farmers: a pilot study showing an association with organophosphate pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Kathryn M; Williams, Faith M; Egea González, Francisco J; Glass, Richard; Rushton, Steve; Blain, Peter G; Mutch, Elaine

    2009-11-01

    A study of horticultural farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and controls investigated the relationships between OP exposure, DNA damage and oxidative stress. Blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels determined exposure and 8-hydroxy-29- deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) indicated oxidative stress status. The farmers had approximately 30% lower AChE activity and increased DAP levels compared with the controls, reflecting moderate OP exposure. They had higher DNA damage than the controls and there was a significant positive relationship between DAP and DNA damage with greater than 95% power. The farmers also had a significant positive relationship between urinary DAP and 8OHdG levels.

  8. The Effect of Horticultural Therapy on the Quality of Life of Palliative Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Lai, Claudia Kam-Yuk; Lau, Carmen Ka-Yan; Kan, Wai Yin; Lam, Wai Man; Fung, Connie Yuen Yee

    2017-01-27

    Palliative care patients experienced a variety of needs and perceived their quality of life as being only fair. This study adopted a single group repeated-measure design to investigate the effect of horticultural therapy on the quality of life of palliative care patients using the Quality of Life Concern in End of Life Questionnaire. Significant differences in the domains of "existential distress" and "health care concern" were observed immediately post-intervention and at four weeks post-intervention, respectively. No other significant differences were seen in the other domains or in the total mean score of the outcome measure.

  9. Breeding better cultivars, faster: applications of new technologies for the rapid deployment of superior horticultural tree crops

    PubMed Central

    van Nocker, Steve; Gardiner, Susan E

    2014-01-01

    Woody perennial plants, including trees that produce fruits and nuts of horticultural value, typically have long breeding cycles, and development and introduction of improved cultivars by plant breeders may require many breeding cycles and dozens of years. However, recent advances in biotechnologies and genomics have the potential to accelerate cultivar development greatly in all crops. This mini-review summarizes approaches to reduce the number and the duration of breeding cycles for horticultural tree crops, and outlines the challenges that remain to implement these into efficient breeding pipelines. PMID:26504538

  10. Economic and technical feasibility of utilizing fish waste as organic nutrients for farm/horticultural use. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gargasz, R.E.; Pye, E.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the technical and economic viability of utilizing fish wastes and other organic residues as organic peat nutrients for agriculture/horticulture applications are presented. The project tasks included: (1) Reputable analysis of the waste products to determine the primary plant nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash as well as trace elements; (2) Technical feasibility of reducing these organic wastes into nutrients, valuable and assimilable by agricultural or horticultural crops or as a high protein animal feed; and (3) The economic viability of commercializing, manufacturing, and marketing these waste products as a specialty plant growth substance/high protein feed supplement.

  11. Planting hope in loss and grief: self-care applications of horticultural therapy for grief caregivers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yeh-Jen; Lin, Chi Yun; Li, Yu-Chan

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the Taiwan Association for Care and Counseling for Loss organized a workshop about Horticultural Therapy, conducted as a participatory action research (PAR). Nineteen grief caregivers participated. Specific goals were designed according to a survey of participant expectations and focus-group discussions. The workshop content included lectures and interactive activities. Results demonstrated that most participants displayed an increased awareness of personal loss and meaning in grief, indicating that horticulture and nature appreciation might relieve individual grief and stress. The report introduces the rationale, evolution, execution, and results of the program development.

  12. Impact of intensive horticulture practices on groundwater content of nitrates, sodium, potassium, and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Melo, Armindo; Pinto, Edgar; Aguiar, Ana; Mansilha, Catarina; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2012-07-01

    A monitoring program of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, sodium, and pesticides was carried out in water samples from an intensive horticulture area in a vulnerable zone from north of Portugal. Eight collecting points were selected and water-analyzed in five sampling campaigns, during 1 year. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis, were used in order to understand the impact of intensive horticulture practices on dug and drilled wells groundwater and to study variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. PCA performed on pesticide data matrix yielded seven significant PCs explaining 77.67% of the data variance. Although PCA rendered considerable data reduction, it could not clearly group and distinguish the sample types. However, a visible differentiation between the water samples was obtained. Cluster and discriminant analysis grouped the eight collecting points into three clusters of similar characteristics pertaining to water contamination, indicating that it is necessary to improve the use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Inorganic fertilizers such as potassium nitrate were suspected to be the most important factors for nitrate contamination since highly significant Pearson correlation (r = 0.691, P < 0.01) was obtained between groundwater nitrate and potassium contents. Water from dug wells is especially prone to contamination from the grower and their closer neighbor's practices. Water from drilled wells is also contaminated from distant practices.

  13. Eats roots and leaves. Can edible horticultural crops address dietary calcium, magnesium and potassium deficiencies?

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J

    2010-11-01

    Human individuals require at least 20 inorganic elements ('minerals') for normal functioning. However, much of the world's population is probably deficient in one or more essential minerals and at increased risk of physiological disorders. Addressing these 'hidden hungers' is a challenge for the nutrition and agriculture sectors. Mineral deficiencies among populations are typically identified from dietary surveys because (1) minerals are acquired primarily from dietary sources and (2) (bio)assays of mineral status can be unreliable. While dietary surveys are likely to under-report energy intakes, surveys show that 9% of all UK and US adults consume Ca and Mg, and 14% of adults consume K, at quantities below the UK lower reference nutrient intake, and are therefore at risk of deficiency. Low dietary Ca, Mg and K intakes can be caused by energy-malnourishment and by cultural and economic factors driving dietary conservatism. For example, cereal grains routinely displace vegetables and fruits in the diet. Cereal grains have low concentrations of several minerals, notably Ca, as a consequence of their physiology. Low grain mineral concentrations are compounded when cereal crops are grown in soils of low mineral phytoavailability and when grain is processed. In this paper, the impact of increased vegetable consumption and horticultural biofortification, i.e. enhancing crop mineral content through breeding and agronomy, on intakes of the major minerals Ca, Mg and K is assessed. Despite low energy intake from horticultural crops generally, increased vegetable consumption and biofortification would significantly improve dietary intakes of Ca, Mg and K.

  14. Community response of insects associated with eastern hemlock to imidacloprid and horticultural oil treatments.

    PubMed

    Dilling, Carla; Lambdin, Paris; Grant, Jerome; Rhea, Rusty

    2009-02-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an invasive species reducing the populations of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis L. Carrière, throughout the eastern United States. Systemic imidacloprid and horticultural oil are the primary chemicals used to control infestations of this invasive pest; however, the impact of these two chemicals on nontarget canopy insects is unknown. This study was initiated in November 2005 to assess the effects of (1) imidacloprid soil drench, (2) imidacloprid soil injection, (3) imidacloprid tree injections, and (4) horticultural oil applications on multiple levels of organization (composition, overall specimen abundance and species richness, guild specimen abundance and species richness, and individual species) within the phytophagous and transient canopy insect community. Community composition differed significantly among treatments based on analysis of similarity. Mean species richness and specimen abundance were significantly reduced by one or more treatments. Soil drench applications significantly reduced species richness for the detritivore and phytophaga guilds. Furthermore, specimen abundance for species in the detritivore, fungivore, phytophaga, scavenger, and transient phytophaga guilds was significantly lower in the soil drench treatment. This trend was consistent in all insect guilds examined, with the exception of the hematophaga guild that was not significantly lower than for species on the control trees. Of the 293 species documented to be associated with eastern hemlocks, 33 species were found to be directly effected by one or more of the chemical treatments.

  15. RNA Silencing in Plants: Mechanisms, Technologies and Applications in Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qigao; Liu, Qing; Smith, Neil A; Liang, Guolu; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the fundamental nature of a molecular process or a biological pathway is often a catalyst for the development of new technologies in biology. Indeed, studies from late 1990s to early 2000s have uncovered multiple overlapping but functionally distinct RNA silencing pathways in plants, including the posttranscriptional microRNA and small interfering RNA pathways and the transcriptional RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. These findings have in turn been exploited for developing artificial RNA silencing technologies such as hairpin RNA, artificial microRNA, intrinsic direct repeat, 3' UTR inverted repeat, artificial trans-acting siRNA, and virus-induced gene silencing technologies. Some of these RNA silencing technologies, such as the hairpin RNA technology, have already been widely used for genetic improvement of crop plants in agriculture. For horticultural plants, RNA silencing technologies have been used to increase disease and pest resistance, alter plant architecture and flowering time, improve commercial traits of fruits and flowers, enhance nutritional values, remove toxic compounds and allergens, and develop high-value industrial products. In this article we aim to provide an overview of the RNA silencing pathways in plants, summarize the existing RNA silencing technologies, and review the current progress in applying these technologies for the improvement of agricultural crops particularly horticultural crops.

  16. RNA Silencing in Plants: Mechanisms, Technologies and Applications in Horticultural Crops

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qigao; Liu, Qing; Smith, Neil A.; Liang, Guolu; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental nature of a molecular process or a biological pathway is often a catalyst for the development of new technologies in biology. Indeed, studies from late 1990s to early 2000s have uncovered multiple overlapping but functionally distinct RNA silencing pathways in plants, including the posttranscriptional microRNA and small interfering RNA pathways and the transcriptional RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway. These findings have in turn been exploited for developing artificial RNA silencing technologies such as hairpin RNA, artificial microRNA, intrinsic direct repeat, 3’ UTR inverted repeat, artificial trans-acting siRNA, and virus-induced gene silencing technologies. Some of these RNA silencing technologies, such as the hairpin RNA technology, have already been widely used for genetic improvement of crop plants in agriculture. For horticultural plants, RNA silencing technologies have been used to increase disease and pest resistance, alter plant architecture and flowering time, improve commercial traits of fruits and flowers, enhance nutritional values, remove toxic compounds and allergens, and develop high-value industrial products. In this article we aim to provide an overview of the RNA silencing pathways in plants, summarize the existing RNA silencing technologies, and review the current progress in applying these technologies for the improvement of agricultural crops particularly horticultural crops. PMID:28217004

  17. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture.

  18. CmMDb: A Versatile Database for Cucumis melo Microsatellite Markers and Other Horticulture Crop Research

    PubMed Central

    Bhawna; Chaduvula, Pavan K.; Bonthala, Venkata S.; Manjusha, Verma; Siddiq, Ebrahimali A.; Polumetla, Ananda K.; Prasad, Gajula M. N. V.

    2015-01-01

    Cucumis melo L. that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family ranks among one of the highest valued horticulture crops being cultivated across the globe. Besides its economical and medicinal importance, Cucumis melo L. is a valuable resource and model system for the evolutionary studies of cucurbit family. However, very limited numbers of molecular markers were reported for Cucumis melo L. so far that limits the pace of functional genomic research in melon and other similar horticulture crops. We developed the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of Cucumis melo L. and comprehensive web resource that aids in variety identification and physical mapping of Cucurbitaceae family. The Cucumis melo L. microsatellite database (CmMDb: http://65.181.125.102/cmmdb2/index.html) encompasses 39,072 SSR markers along with its motif repeat, motif length, motif sequence, marker ID, motif type and chromosomal locations. The database is featured with novel automated primer designing facility to meet the needs of wet lab researchers. CmMDb is a freely available web resource that facilitates the researchers to select the most appropriate markers for marker-assisted selection in melons and to improve breeding strategies. PMID:25885062

  19. CmMDb: a versatile database for Cucumis melo microsatellite markers and other horticulture crop research.

    PubMed

    Bhawna; Chaduvula, Pavan K; Bonthala, Venkata S; Manjusha, Verma; Siddiq, Ebrahimali A; Polumetla, Ananda K; Prasad, Gajula M N V

    2015-01-01

    Cucumis melo L. that belongs to Cucurbitaceae family ranks among one of the highest valued horticulture crops being cultivated across the globe. Besides its economical and medicinal importance, Cucumis melo L. is a valuable resource and model system for the evolutionary studies of cucurbit family. However, very limited numbers of molecular markers were reported for Cucumis melo L. so far that limits the pace of functional genomic research in melon and other similar horticulture crops. We developed the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of Cucumis melo L. and comprehensive web resource that aids in variety identification and physical mapping of Cucurbitaceae family. The Cucumis melo L. microsatellite database (CmMDb: http://65.181.125.102/cmmdb2/index.html) encompasses 39,072 SSR markers along with its motif repeat, motif length, motif sequence, marker ID, motif type and chromosomal locations. The database is featured with novel automated primer designing facility to meet the needs of wet lab researchers. CmMDb is a freely available web resource that facilitates the researchers to select the most appropriate markers for marker-assisted selection in melons and to improve breeding strategies.

  20. Prevalence of sensitization to the predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris as a new occupational allergen in horticulture.

    PubMed

    Groenewoud, G C M; de Graaf in 't Veld, C; vVan Oorschot-van Nes, A J; de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; van Toorenenbergen, A W; Burdorf, A; de Groot, H; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2002-07-01

    Protection against thrips, a common pest in bell pepper horticulture is effectively possible without pesticides by using the commercially available predatory mite Amblyzeius cucumeris (Ac). The prevalence of sensitization to Ac among exposed greenhouse employees and its clinical relevance was studied. Four hundred and seventytwo employees were asked to fill in a questionnaire and were tested on location. Next to RAST, skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed with common inhalant allergens, the storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tp) which serves as a temporary food source during the cultivation process and Ac. Furthermore, nasal challenge tests with Ac were carried out in 23 sensitized employees. SPTs positive to Ac were found in 109 employees (23%). Work-related symptoms were reported by 76.1%. Sensitization to Tp was found in 62 employees of whom 48 were also sensitized to Ac. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergy to inhalant allergens appeared to be an important risk factor for sensitization to Ac. Employees with rhinitis symptoms showed a significantly higher response to all Ac doses during the nasal challenge test compared with employees without rhinitis symptoms. The predatory mite Ac is a new occupational allergen in horticulture which can cause an IgE-mediated allergy in exposed employees. It is biologically active on the mucous membranes of the nose and therefore clinically relevant for the development of work-related symptoms.

  1. Sickness absenteeism and associated factors among horticulture employees in lume district, southeast Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Sebsibe; Ebrahim, Kamil; Gizaw, Zemichael

    2015-01-01

    Sickness absenteeism is the major occupational health problem in developing countries where the majority of working population are engaged in hazardous sectors, such as agriculture. However, there is a dearth of studies clarifying the situation in most of Subsaharan African countries, like Ethiopia. The present study determined the magnitude of sickness absenteeism and associated factors among horticulture employees in Lume District, southeast Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among horticulture employees in Lume District, southeast Ethiopia from March to May 2014. Stratified sampling followed by simple random sampling techniques was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariable analyses were employed to see the effect of explanatory variables on dependent variable. The magnitude of sickness absenteeism was 58.8 % [95 % CI: (54.9, 62.5)] in the past three months. Absence of periodic medical checkup, working for more than 48 h per week, working overtime, job dissatisfaction, and job stress were factors significantly associated with sickness absenteeism. In this study a relatively higher rate of sickness absenteeism was reported compared to other studies. Interventions to reduce sickness absenteeism should focus on areas, such as periodic medical checkup, monitoring work schedules, improving employees' job satisfaction, and managing job stress.

  2. Production of pathogen-free horticultural crops by cryotherapy of in vitro-grown shoot tips.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chaohong; Wang, Renrui; Li, Jingwei; Wang, Biao; Yin, Zhenfang; Cui, Zhenhua; Li, Baiquan; Bi, Wenlu; Zhang, Zhibo; Li, Mingfu; Wang, Qiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Horticultural crops are economically valuable for sustainable agricultural production. Plant diseases caused by Pathogens including virus, phytoplasma and bacterium have been a great threat to production of horticultural crops. The efficient use of pathogen-free plant materials has overcome the menace of plant diseases and has sustained crop production. Cryotherapy of shoot tips, a novel application of cryopreservation technique, has become a new plant biotechnology tool for plant pathogen eradication. When compared with the traditional methods, cryotherapy of shoot tips produces high frequency of pathogen-free plants, which is independent of shoot tip size and cryogenic methods. Cryotherapy of shoot tips has six major steps to produce pathogen-free plants: (1) introduction of infected plant materials into in vitro cultures; (2) excision of shoot tips; (3) cryotherapy; (4) post-culture for plant regeneration; (5) indexing of pathogens in regenerated plants after cryotherapy; and (6) establishment of pathogen-free nuclear stock plants. The key steps 2, 3, and 4 are similar to cryopreservation, and play a major role in obtaining high pathogen eradication frequency.

  3. Windrow composting as horticultural waste management strategy - A case study in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gavilanes-Terán, Irene; Jara-Samaniego, Janneth; Idrovo-Novillo, Julio; Bustamante, Ma Angeles; Moral, Raúl; Paredes, Concepción

    2016-02-01

    In Ecuador, enormous quantities of vegetable wastes are produced annually from the horticultural industries. Composting can be a feasible treatment to stabilise horticultural wastes and, thus, to improve their properties for use as organic fertilisers. In this study, two different piles were prepared, using laying hen manure and sawdust mixed with broccoli or tomato waste, respectively, and composted by the turned windrow composting system. Throughout the composting process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and physico-chemical and chemical properties and the degree of maturity were determined. Also, principal component analysis was used to interpret the data set of compost characteristics. In both piles, the temperature exceeded 55°C for more than 2weeks, which ensured maximum pathogen reduction. Organic matter (OM) losses followed a first-order kinetic equation in both piles. The final composts showed a suitable degree of stability and maturity and an absence of phytotoxins, as observed in the evolution and final values of the total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (Corg/NT<20), water-soluble organic carbon (Cw<1.7%), germination index (GI>50%) and cation exchange capacity (CEC>67meq (100g OM)(-1)). As well, the evolution of different humification indexes during composting was a good indicator of the OM humification process. The type of vegetable waste used influenced OM and NT mineralisation and the final properties of the composts, showing the mixture with tomato waste a higher fertilising capacity and less environmental problems.

  4. Upgrading of the STP Uithoorn: treatment of nutrient rich wastewater from horticulture.

    PubMed

    Piekema, P; Neef, R

    2005-01-01

    The STP Uithoorn will be upgraded to accommodate the treatment of wastewater from a growing population and to meet more stringent nutrient discharge limits in 2006. In 2003 a system choice and preliminary design was made for the upgrading. A special feature is the nutrient rich wastewater flow from the rapidly developing horticulture in the area. Since the future loads from horticulture are highly uncertain, flexibility of the STP after upgrading is an important issue. A three stage system was selected: improved physical-chemical primary treatment, secondary treatment by activated sludge, and tertiary treatment by denitrifying filters. In this way an important part of the existing infrastructure can be reused, and flexibility is assured by constructing the tertiary treatment in modules and by providing a wide range of operational control possibilities. In this paper the process of system choice and selection of type of tertiary treatment are described, as well as the optimisation of the existing treatment. In order to determine the feasibility of allowing a high loading rate on the existing secondary clarifiers, a two-dimensional hydraulic model of the clarification process was used.

  5. A prospective study of group cohesiveness in therapeutic horticulture for clinical depression.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Marianne Thorsen; Hartig, Terry; Patil, Grete Grindal; Martinsen, Egil W; Kirkevold, Marit

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in psychological distress and social participation in adults diagnosed with clinical depression during and after participating in a therapeutic horticulture programme, and to investigate if the changes covaried with levels of group cohesiveness during the intervention. An intervention with a single-group design was repeated with different samples in successive years (pooled n = 46). In each year, five groups of 3-7 participants went through the intervention. Data were collected before, twice during, and immediately after a 12-week therapeutic horticulture programme, as well as at 3-months' follow up. Mental health assessments included the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Subscale of Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Positive Affect Scale from the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Therapeutic Factors Inventory-Cohesiveness Scale. The analysis of the pooled data confirmed significant beneficial change in all mental health variables during the intervention. Change from baseline in depression severity persisted at 3-months' follow up. Increased social activity after the intervention was reported for 38% of the participants. The groups quickly established strong cohesiveness, and this continued to increase during the intervention. The average level of group cohesiveness correlated positively, but not significantly, with change in all mental health outcome variables.

  6. The CAP Approach to Modifying Vocational Programs for Handicapped Students. Vol. 1: Agriculture with an Example in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, Lloyd W.; Morehouse, Nancy

    This combination teaching guide and student workbook, the first in a five-volume series (see note), presents an approach to teaching horticulture for handicapped students. The guide discusses a functional approach to modifying agriculture programs to accomodate cognitive, affective, and psychomotor (CAP) domain handicaps. The discussion centers on…

  7. USING AND CARING FOR ORNAMENTAL PLANT MATERIALS AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES. HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NO. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PREPARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE HAS AS ITS MAJOR OBJECTIVE TO DEVELOP THE ABILITIES NEEDED TO USE, CARE FOR, AND MAINTAIN ORNAMENTAL PLANT MATERIALS AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES. IT WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. SUBJECT MATTER…

  8. Extending the Use of Bioplastic Granules for the Application of Trichoderma Biocontrol Isolates in Flori/Horticulture and Turfgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioplastic materials are gaining increasing interest in a variety of different industrial and domestic applications. Beside its usage as mulching films and plant clips in horticulture, no other agricultural applications have been proposed. In 2009 we demonstrated that granules made of the bioplastic...

  9. Extending the uses of bioplastic granules for the application of Trichoderma biocontrol isolates in flori/horticulture and turf grass.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioplastic materials are gaining increasing interest in a variety of different industrial and domestic applications. Beside its usage as mulching films and plant clips in horticulture, no other agricultural applications have been proposed. In 2009 we demonstrated that granules made of the bioplastic...

  10. Horticultural performance and elemental concentration of 'Fuji' grafted on Geneva apple rootstocks under New York climatic conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was carried out to determine the horticultural performance and leaf and fruit elemental nutrients of 48 apple rootstocks grafted on ‘Fuji’ cultivar, and grown on a commercial farm in the Hudson Valley (Milton, NY) from 2005 to 2015. Tree circumference was measured at the end of each year,...

  11. The Effects of Task Instruction Sheets on the Performance of Vocational Horticulture Students. Summary of Research, 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Dennis C.; Newcomb, L. H.

    A study investigated the effect that task instruction sheets had on the performance of vocational horticulture students when being taught a unit on poinsettia production. Using a post-test only control group design, researchers administered a 35-item multiple choice test on poinsettia production to 207 students in 12 randomly selected eleventh…

  12. Institutional Effectiveness Assessment Process, 1993-94 Executive Summary. Hospitality and Service Occupations Division, Landscape and Environmental Horticulture Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Seattle Community Coll., Washington.

    A study was conducted to determine current and former students' and local employers' satisfaction with South Seattle Community College's (SSCC's) Landscape and Environmental Horticulture Department. Specifically, the study gathered data on four outcomes: that students receive an education allowing them to meet goals; that students be satisfied…

  13. Morphological and physio-chemical characterization of five Canistel accessions at the subtropical horticulture research station in Miami Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit of five canistel cultivars, 'Fairchild','E11', 'Keisau', 'TREC#3' and 'TREC 3680' were evaluated and characterized at the National Germplasm Repository, Subtropical horticulture Research Station (SHRS) Miami, Florida. Thirty fruits were harvested from clonal accessions during July and August, ...

  14. The Melwood Manual: A Planning and Operations Manual for Horticultural Training and Work Co-op Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwood Horticultural Training Center, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD.

    This manual is intended as a resource for anyone involved in planning, developing, and/or operating a horticultural training or work co-op program for the handicapped. Following an introductory chapter, the manual is divided into three parts with the greatest weight given to the second part. Part I elaborates on development of the horticulture…

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of biochars produced from coppiced wood of thirteen tree species for use in horticultural substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seven-year-old coppiced shoots from thirteen species of native and non-native trees and shrubs were harvested, dried, and were pyrolyzed to produce biochars for potential use in horticultural substrates. Several chemical and physical characteristics of the biochars were determined. There were slight...

  16. The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcher, Carrie Lynn

    2005-08-01

    Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called "Hands-On Hortscience" which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0

  17. The first initiative of DNA barcoding of ornamental plants from Egypt and potential applications in horticulture industry

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Ali, Hayssam M.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding relies on short and standardized gene regions to identify species. The agricultural and horticultural applications of barcoding such as for marketplace regulation and copyright protection remain poorly explored. This study examines the effectiveness of the standard plant barcode markers (matK and rbcL) for the identification of plant species in private and public nurseries in northern Egypt. These two markers were sequenced from 225 specimens of 161 species and 62 plant families of horticultural importance. The sequence recovery was similar for rbcL (96.4%) and matK (84%), but the number of specimens assigned correctly to the respective genera and species was lower for rbcL (75% and 29%) than matK (85% and 40%). The combination of rbcL and matK brought the number of correct generic and species assignments to 83.4% and 40%, respectively. Individually, the efficiency of both markers varied among different plant families; for example, all palm specimens (Arecaceae) were correctly assigned to species while only one individual of Asteraceae was correctly assigned to species. Further, barcodes reliably assigned ornamental horticultural and medicinal plants correctly to genus while they showed a lower or no success in assigning these plants to species and cultivars. For future, we recommend the combination of a complementary barcode (e.g. ITS or trnH-psbA) with rbcL + matK to increase the performance of taxa identification. By aiding species identification of horticultural crops and ornamental palms, the analysis of the barcode regions will have large impact on horticultural industry. PMID:28199378

  18. The first initiative of DNA barcoding of ornamental plants from Egypt and potential applications in horticulture industry.

    PubMed

    O Elansary, Hosam; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Ali, Hayssam M; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding relies on short and standardized gene regions to identify species. The agricultural and horticultural applications of barcoding such as for marketplace regulation and copyright protection remain poorly explored. This study examines the effectiveness of the standard plant barcode markers (matK and rbcL) for the identification of plant species in private and public nurseries in northern Egypt. These two markers were sequenced from 225 specimens of 161 species and 62 plant families of horticultural importance. The sequence recovery was similar for rbcL (96.4%) and matK (84%), but the number of specimens assigned correctly to the respective genera and species was lower for rbcL (75% and 29%) than matK (85% and 40%). The combination of rbcL and matK brought the number of correct generic and species assignments to 83.4% and 40%, respectively. Individually, the efficiency of both markers varied among different plant families; for example, all palm specimens (Arecaceae) were correctly assigned to species while only one individual of Asteraceae was correctly assigned to species. Further, barcodes reliably assigned ornamental horticultural and medicinal plants correctly to genus while they showed a lower or no success in assigning these plants to species and cultivars. For future, we recommend the combination of a complementary barcode (e.g. ITS or trnH-psbA) with rbcL + matK to increase the performance of taxa identification. By aiding species identification of horticultural crops and ornamental palms, the analysis of the barcode regions will have large impact on horticultural industry.

  19. Japanese plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.) and phytochemicals--breeding, horticultural practice, postharvest storage, processing and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Kent J; Topp, Bruce; Russell, Dougal; Stanley, Roger; Netzel, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Previous reviews of plum phytochemical content and health benefits have concentrated on the European plum, Prunus domestica L. However, the potential bioactivity of red- and dark red-fleshed Japanese plums, Prunus salicina Lindl., so-called blood plums, appears to warrant a significant increase in exposure, as indicated in a recent review of the whole Prunus genus. Furthermore, Japanese plums are the predominant plum produced on an international basis. In this review the nutrient and phytochemical content, breeding, horticultural practice, postharvest treatment and processing as well as bioactivity (emphasising in vivo studies) of Japanese plum are considered, with a focus on the anthocyanin content that distinguishes the blood plums. © 2014 State of Queensland Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Nitrification of leachates from manure composting under field conditions and their use in horticulture.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Rafaela; Magrí, Albert; Marfà, Oriol

    2015-10-01

    This work aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of nitrification applied to the treatment of leachates formed during composting of cattle and pig manure in order to promote their further use as liquid fertilizer in horticulture. Nitrification trials were successfully conducted in summer and winter seasons under Mediterranean climate conditions. Subsequently, effect of using the nitrified effluents as nutritive solution in the fertigation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was assessed in terms of productivity and nutrient uptake. Similar productivities were obtained when using the nitrified effluents and a standard nutritive solution. However, results also evidenced high nutrient uptake, which indicates that dosage should be adjusted to culture requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advantages of diffuse light for horticultural production and perspectives for further research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Yang, Qichang

    2015-01-01

    Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light, which is well established due to diffuse light penetrates deeper into the canopy and photosynthetic rate of a single leaf shows a non-linear response to the light flux density. Diffuse light also results in a more even horizontal and temporal light distribution in the canopy, which plays substantial role for crop photosynthesis enhancement as well as production improvement. Here we show some of the recent findings about the effect of diffuse light on light distribution over the canopy and its direct and indirect effects on crop photosynthesis and plant growth, and suggest some perspectives for further research which could strengthen the scientific understanding of diffuse light modulate plant processes and its application in horticultural production. PMID:26388890

  2. New technologies accelerate the exploration of non-coding RNAs in horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Degao; Mewalal, Ritesh; Hu, Rongbin; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), that is, RNAs not translated into proteins, are crucial regulators of a variety of biological processes in plants. While protein-encoding genes have been relatively well-annotated in sequenced genomes, accounting for a small portion of the genome space in plants, the universe of plant ncRNAs is rapidly expanding. Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have generated a great momentum for discovery and functional characterization of ncRNAs. Here we summarize the classification and known biological functions of plant ncRNAs, review the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and ribosome profiling technology to ncRNA discovery in horticultural plants and discuss the application of new technologies, especially the new genome-editing tool clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) systems, to functional characterization of plant ncRNAs.

  3. Aqueous chlorine dioxide treatment of horticultural produce: Effects on microbial safety and produce quality - A review.

    PubMed

    Praeger, Ulrike; Herppich, Werner B; Hassenberg, Karin

    2016-05-19

    Microbial load on fresh fruit and vegetables causes decay and losses after harvest and may lead to foodborne illness in case of contamination with human pathogens on raw consumed produces. Washing with tap water only marginally reduces microorganisms attached to produce surfaces. Chlorine is widely used for decontamination on fresh horticultural produces. However, due to harmful by-products and the questionable efficacy it has become increasingly challenged. During the last 20 years, the interest to study ClO2 treatments as an alternative sanitation agent for industrially prepared fresh produce has largely increased. For a wide range of commodities, the application of gaseous ClO2 has meanwhile been investigated. In addition, since several years, the interest in aqueous ClO2 treatments has further risen because of the better manageability in postharvest processing lines compared to gaseous application. This article critically evaluated the effects of postharvest application of aqueous ClO2, either alone or in combination with other treatments, on microbial loads for various horticultural produces. In laboratory investigations, application of aqueous ClO2 at concentrations between 3 and 100 ppm effectively reduced counts of natural or inoculated microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and mold) in the range of 1 and 5 log. However, various effects of ClO2 treatments on produce quality have been described. These mainly comprise implication on sensory and visual attributes. In this context, there is increasing focus on the potential impacts of aqueous ClO2 on relevant nutritional components of produces such as organic acids or phenolic substances.

  4. GiNA, an Efficient and High-Throughput Software for Horticultural Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Garcia, Luis; Covarrubias-Pazaran, Giovanny; Schlautman, Brandon; Zalapa, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for trait phenotyping have been a bottleneck for research in many crop species due to their intensive labor, high cost, complex implementation, lack of reproducibility and propensity to subjective bias. Recently, multiple high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed, but most of them are expensive, species-dependent, complex to use, and available only for major crops. To overcome such limitations, we present the open-source software GiNA, which is a simple and free tool for measuring horticultural traits such as shape- and color-related parameters of fruits, vegetables, and seeds. GiNA is multiplatform software available in both R and MATLAB® programming languages and uses conventional images from digital cameras with minimal requirements. It can process up to 11 different horticultural morphological traits such as length, width, two-dimensional area, volume, projected skin, surface area, RGB color, among other parameters. Different validation tests produced highly consistent results under different lighting conditions and camera setups making GiNA a very reliable platform for high-throughput phenotyping. In addition, five-fold cross validation between manually generated and GiNA measurements for length and width in cranberry fruits were 0.97 and 0.92. In addition, the same strategy yielded prediction accuracies above 0.83 for color estimates produced from images of cranberries analyzed with GiNA compared to total anthocyanin content (TAcy) of the same fruits measured with the standard methodology of the industry. Our platform provides a scalable, easy-to-use and affordable tool for massive acquisition of phenotypic data of fruits, seeds, and vegetables. PMID:27529547

  5. Horticultural activity predicts later localized limb status in a contemporary pre-industrial population.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Jonathan; Trumble, Benjamin C; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Modern humans may have gracile skeletons due to low physical activity levels and mechanical loading. Tests using pre-historic skeletons are limited by the inability to assess behavior directly, while modern industrialized societies possess few socio-ecological features typical of human evolutionary history. Among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists, we test whether greater activity levels and, thus, increased loading earlier in life are associated with greater later-life bone status and diminished age-related bone loss. We used quantitative ultrasonography to assess radial and tibial status among adults aged 20+ years (mean ± SD age = 49 ± 15; 52% female). We conducted systematic behavioral observations to assess earlier-life activity patterns (mean time lag between behavioural observation and ultrasound = 12 years). For a subset of participants, physical activity was again measured later in life, via accelerometry, to determine whether earlier-life time use is associated with later-life activity levels. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected during medical exams. Structural decline with age is reduced for the tibia (female: -0.25 SDs/decade; male: 0.05 SDs/decade) versus radius (female: -0.56 SDs/decade; male: -0.20 SDs/decade), which is expected if greater loading mitigates bone loss. Time allocation to horticulture, but not hunting, positively predicts later-life radial status (βHorticulture  = 0.48, p = 0.01), whereas tibial status is not significantly predicted by subsistence or sedentary leisure participation. Patterns of activity- and age-related change in bone status indicate localized osteogenic responses to loading, and are generally consistent with the logic of bone functional adaptation. Nonmechanical factors related to subsistence lifestyle moderate the association between activity patterns and bone structure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Age-independent increases in male salivary testosterone during horticultural activity among Tsimane forager-farmers

    PubMed Central

    TRUMBLE, BENJAMIN C; CUMMINGS, DANIEL K; O’CONNOR, KATHLEEN A; HOLMAN, DARRYL J; SMITH, ERIC A; KAPLAN, HILLARD S; GURVEN, MICHAEL D

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone plays an important role in mediating male reproductive trade-offs in many vertebrate species, augmenting muscle and influencing behavior necessary for male-male competition and mating-effort. Among humans, testosterone may also play a key role in facilitating male provisioning of offspring as muscular and neuromuscular performance are deeply influenced by acute changes in testosterone. This study examines acute changes in salivary testosterone among 63 Tsimane men ranging in age from 16–80 (mean 38.2) years during one-hour bouts of tree-chopping while clearing horticultural plots. The Tsimane forager-horticulturalists living in the Bolivian Amazon experience high energy expenditure associated with food production, have high levels of parasites and pathogens, and display significantly lower baseline salivary testosterone than age-matched US males. Mixed-effects models controlling for BMI and time of specimen collection reveal increased salivary testosterone (p<0.001) equivalent to a 48.6% rise, after one hour of tree chopping. Age had no effect on baseline (p=0.656) or change in testosterone (p=0.530); self-reported illness did not modify testosterone change (p=0.488). A comparison of these results to the relative change in testosterone during a competitive soccer tournament in the same population reveals larger relative changes in testosterone following resource production (tree chopping), compared to competition (soccer). These findings highlight the importance of moving beyond a unidimensional focus on changes in testosterone and male-male aggression to investigate the importance of testosterone-behavior interactions across additional male fitness-related activities. Acutely increased testosterone during muscularly intensive horticultural food production may facilitate male productivity and provisioning. PMID:24187482

  7. Untangling the reticulate history of species complexes and horticultural breeds in Abelia (Caprifoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Landrein, Sven; Buerki, Sven; Wang, Hua-Feng; Clarkson, James J

    2017-08-01

    The genetic and morphological consequences of natural selection and selective breeding are explored in the genus Abelia . The genus consists of ornamental shrubs endemic to China, which have been bred to create attractive and diverse cultivars. DNA fingerprinting (AFLP) and DNA sequence data are used to investigate the genetic diversity among 46 accessions of Abelia (22 natural taxa and 24 horticultural breeds). In the cultivated varieties these data are used to explore taxon boundaries, hybridisation and backcrossing. The genetic analysis dataset is also used to investigate morphological variation within natural species complexes and subsequently to inform a taxonomic treatment. Abelia comprises five species: A. forrestii , A. schumannii , A. macrotera , A. uniflora and A. chinensis and has a total of 11 varieties. Abelia uniflora and A. macrotera do not occur in sympatry and are disjunctly distributed to the east and west of the A. chinensis distribution range. Abelia chinensis is widespread in eastern China and creates hybrids and introgressive taxa, including A. uniflora , along the contact zones with the previous taxa. Abelia `Maurice Foster' is a horticultural variety collected from wild stocks in Sichuan (China). Bayesian clustering methods (inferred in STRUCTURE based on AFLP data) indicate admixture between A. macrotera and A. schumannii in this variety. Hybridization probably occurred in the wild where these progenitor taxa co-occur and naturally form hybrids. AFLP results also reveal that a few diagnostic morphological characters such as sepal number or inflorescence structure were transferred between natural species and this is mirrored by taxa such as in Abelia `Saxon Gold' and A. forrestii . Studying both natural and cultivated species from the same group has helped understanding both differentiation mechanisms and how to improve cultivated plants in the future by studying which morphological characters are transferred between species and which taxa

  8. GiNA, an Efficient and High-Throughput Software for Horticultural Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Garcia, Luis; Covarrubias-Pazaran, Giovanny; Schlautman, Brandon; Zalapa, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods for trait phenotyping have been a bottleneck for research in many crop species due to their intensive labor, high cost, complex implementation, lack of reproducibility and propensity to subjective bias. Recently, multiple high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed, but most of them are expensive, species-dependent, complex to use, and available only for major crops. To overcome such limitations, we present the open-source software GiNA, which is a simple and free tool for measuring horticultural traits such as shape- and color-related parameters of fruits, vegetables, and seeds. GiNA is multiplatform software available in both R and MATLAB® programming languages and uses conventional images from digital cameras with minimal requirements. It can process up to 11 different horticultural morphological traits such as length, width, two-dimensional area, volume, projected skin, surface area, RGB color, among other parameters. Different validation tests produced highly consistent results under different lighting conditions and camera setups making GiNA a very reliable platform for high-throughput phenotyping. In addition, five-fold cross validation between manually generated and GiNA measurements for length and width in cranberry fruits were 0.97 and 0.92. In addition, the same strategy yielded prediction accuracies above 0.83 for color estimates produced from images of cranberries analyzed with GiNA compared to total anthocyanin content (TAcy) of the same fruits measured with the standard methodology of the industry. Our platform provides a scalable, easy-to-use and affordable tool for massive acquisition of phenotypic data of fruits, seeds, and vegetables.

  9. Co-composting of invasive Acacia longifolia with pine bark for horticultural use.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale co-composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species with pine bark waste from the lumber industry, in a blend ratio of 60:40 (v:v), was investigated and compared with previous research on the composting of Acacia without additional feedstock, to determine the potential process and end-product quality benefits of co-composting with bark. Pile temperatures rose rapidly to >70 °C and were maintained at >60 °C for several months. Acacia and bark biomass contained a large fraction of mineralizable organic matter (OM) equivalent to approximately 600 g kg(-1) of initial OM. Bark was more recalcitrant to biodegradation compared with Acacia, which degraded at twice the rate of bark. Therefore, incorporating the bark increased the final amount of compost produced compared with composting Acacia residues without bark. The relatively high C/N ratio of the composting matrix (C/N=56) and NH3 volatilization explained the limited increases in NH4+-N content, whereas concentrations of conservative nutrient elements (e.g. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) increased in proportion to OM mineralization, enriching the compost as a nutrient source for horticultural use. Nitrogen concentrations also increased to a small extent, but were much more dynamic and losses, probably associated with N volatilization mechanisms, were difficult to actively control. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilized end-product, such as pH, electrical conductivity and OM content, were improved with the addition of bark to Acacia biomass, and the final compost characteristics were suitable for use for soil improvement and also as horticultural substrate components.

  10. Asymmetric introgression in the horticultural living fossil cycas sect. Asiorientales using a genome-wide scanning approach.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Chung; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chang, Chun-Wen; Wan, Yu-Ting; Lai, Shih-Jie; Huang, Shong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2013-04-15

    The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct.

  11. Asymmetric Introgression in the Horticultural Living Fossil Cycas Sect. Asiorientales Using a Genome-Wide Scanning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Yu-Chung; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chang, Chun-Wen; Wan, Yu-Ting; Lai, Shih-Jie; Huang, Shong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2013-01-01

    The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct. PMID:23591840

  12. Co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes: management aspects and the horticultural value of the resulting composts.

    PubMed

    Aviani, I; Laor, Y; Medina, Sh; Krassnovsky, A; Raviv, M

    2010-09-01

    Successful co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes (OMW) and obtaining a product of horticultural value may increase the viability of this recycling approach. Two composting cycles were performed, in which olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) were used to form five mixtures, wetted either with fresh water or with olive mill wastewater (OMWW). Up to approximately 0.3m(3) of OMWW could be applied to each m(3) of the raw materials without negatively affecting the chemical, physical and horticultural properties of the resulted composts. A growing media composed of perlite amended with 25-33% OMW-composts showed higher suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis as compared to equivalent perlite:peat moss mixtures. The yields of tomato plants grown in peat moss amended with 20% (v:v) of OMW-composts were not significantly different than plants grown in unamended peat. The viability of co-composting as a treatment approach for OMWW is discussed in the context of management aspects and the horticultural value of the final product.

  13. Starch grains reveal early root crop horticulture in the Panamanian tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Piperno, D R; Ranere, A J; Holst, I; Hansell, P

    2000-10-19

    Native American populations are known to have cultivated a large number of plants and domesticated them for their starch-rich underground organs. Suggestions that the likely source of many of these crops, the tropical forest, was an early and influential centre of plant husbandry have long been controversial because the organic remains of roots and tubers are poorly preserved in archaeological sediments from the humid tropics. Here we report the occurrence of starch grains identifiable as manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), yams (Dioscorea sp.) and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea L.) on assemblages of plant milling stones from preceramic horizons at the Aguadulce Shelter, Panama, dated between 7,000 and 5,000 years before present (BP). The artefacts also contain maize starch (Zea mays L.), indicating that early horticultural systems in this region were mixtures of root and seed crops. The data provide the earliest direct evidence for root crop cultivation in the Americas, and support an ancient and independent emergence of plant domestication in the lowland Neotropical forest.

  14. Plastid genomics in horticultural species: importance and applications for plant population genetics, evolution, and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Marcelo; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Fraga, Hugo P; Guerra, Miguel P

    2015-01-01

    During the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, plastids, and mitochondria arose from an endosymbiotic process, which determined the presence of three genetic compartments into the incipient plant cell. After that, these three genetic materials from host and symbiont suffered several rearrangements, bringing on a complex interaction between nuclear and organellar gene products. Nowadays, plastids harbor a small genome with ∼130 genes in a 100-220 kb sequence in higher plants. Plastid genes are mostly highly conserved between plant species, being useful for phylogenetic analysis in higher taxa. However, intergenic spacers have a relatively higher mutation rate and are important markers to phylogeographical and plant population genetics analyses. The predominant uniparental inheritance of plastids is like a highly desirable feature for phylogeny studies. Moreover, the gene content and genome rearrangements are efficient tools to capture and understand evolutionary events between different plant species. Currently, genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages as high-level of foreign protein expression, marker gene excision, gene expression in operon and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Therefore, plastid genome can be used for adding new characteristics related to synthesis of metabolic compounds, biopharmaceutical, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we describe the importance and applications of plastid genome as tools for genetic and evolutionary studies, and plastid transformation focusing on increasing the performance of horticultural species in the field.

  15. Assessing eco-efficiency and the determinants of horticultural family-farming in southeast Spain.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Durán, Ángeles; Galdeano-Gómez, Emilio; Pérez-Mesa, Juan C; Piedra-Muñoz, Laura

    2017-09-20

    Eco-efficiency is currently receiving ever increasing interest as an indicator of sustainability, as it links environmental and economic performances in productive activities. In agriculture these indicators and their determinants prove relevant due to the close ties in this activity between the use of often limited natural resources and the provision of basic goods for society. The present paper analyzes eco-efficiency at micro-level, focusing on small-scale family farms as the principal decision-making units (DMUs) of horticulture in southeast Spain, which represents over 30% of fresh vegetables produced in the country. To this end, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) framework is applied, computing several combinations of environmental pressures (water usage, phytosanitary contamination, waste management, etc.) and economic value added. In a second stage we analyze the influence of family farms' socio-economic and environmental features on eco-efficiency indicators, as endogenous variables, by using truncated regression and bootstrapping techniques. The results show major inefficiency in aspects such as waste management, among others, while there is relatively minor inefficiency in water usage and nitrogen balance. On the other hand, features such as product specialization, adoption of quality certifications, and belonging to a cooperative all have a positive influence on eco-efficiency. These results are deemed to be of interest to agri-food systems structured on small-scale producers, and they may prove useful to policy-makers as regards managing public environmental programs in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Entomofauna associated to horticultural crops under organic and conventional practices in Córdoba, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zalazar, Laura; Salvo, Adriana

    2007-01-01

    Farming practices and the addition of chemical synthetic substances in conventional agroecosystems are detrimental mainly to natural enemies of phytophagous insects, diminishing the natural regulation of pest insects. On the other hand, in organic agriculture, biological processes and care of the environment are favoured, hence an increase in insect biodiversity is predicted in this type of systems. In this work, abundance, richness of insects and proportion of functional groups were compared through a single quantitative sampling of insects in horticultural crop fields, three under organic and three under conventional management practices. Insect species richness, total and for guilds (phytophagous and entomophagous insects) were significantly higher in organic orchards, and also was the abundance of entomophagous insects. Richness and abundance of all insect orders (with exception of Homoptera abundance), were higher in orchards under organic management, being significative the differences for richness of Coleoptera and richness and abundance of Hymenoptera. Similar tendencies were observed in data obtained through sweep net in weeds. These results suggest that organic practices increase the diversity of species, particularly that of natural enemies.

  17. Effects of walnut husk washing waters and their phenolic constituents on horticultural species.

    PubMed

    Ciniglia, Claudia; Sansone, Clementina; Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra; d'Ischia, Marco

    2012-09-01

    The reuse of wastewaters for agricultural purposes is a common practice in many countries and is increasingly recommended by organizations that promote sustainable development. Yet, it is restricted by the potential negative impact of these materials on soil and crops. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the environmental impact of walnut husk washing waters (WHWW) and their organic fractions, in order to conceive their agricultural exploitation. Phytotoxicity tests and morphological investigations on representative plant species of horticultural interest indicated that WHWW and their organic fractions can elicit a concentration-dependent stimulating effect on the growth of radish, lettuce cv. cavolo Napoli with effects up to 165 %. An opposite inhibitory effect up to 70 % was observed on spinach and lettuce cv. Gentilina. Proapoptotic effects were observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide assay in the species inhibited by WHWW treatment. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the WHWW revealed the presence of a main component which was extracted selectively in organic solvents and purified by preparative chromatography. Complete spectral analysis allowed identification as 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone, commonly known as regiolone. Regiolone exhibited the same concentration-dependent activity on root elongation with a stimulation in the case of radish up to 135 % with respect to control. These results open perspectives in the exploitation of WHWW and the main phenolic constituent readily available by a straightforward isolation procedure as a natural fertilizer for specific crops.

  18. Assessment of Primary Production of Horticultural Safety Management Systems of Mushroom Farms in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dzingirayi, Garikayi; Korsten, Lise

    2016-07-01

    Growing global consumer concern over food safety in the fresh produce industry requires producers to implement necessary quality assurance systems. Varying effectiveness has been noted in how countries and food companies interpret and implement food safety standards. A diagnostic instrument (DI) for global fresh produce industries was developed to measure the compliancy of companies with implemented food safety standards. The DI is made up of indicators and descriptive grids for context factors and control and assurance activities to measure food safety output. The instrument can be used in primary production to assess food safety performance. This study applied the DI to measure food safety standard compliancy of mushroom farming in South Africa. Ten farms representing almost half of the industry farms and more than 80% of production were independently assessed for their horticultural safety management system (HSMS) compliance via in-depth interviews with each farm's quality assurance personnel. The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and are represented in frequency tables. The diagnosis revealed that the mushroom farming industry had an average food safety output. The farms were implementing an average-toadvanced HSMS and operating in a medium-risk context. Insufficient performance areas in HSMSs included inadequate hazard analysis and analysis of control points, low specificity of pesticide assessment, and inadequate control of suppliers and incoming materials. Recommendations to the industry and current shortcomings are suggested for realization of an improved industry-wide food safety assurance system.

  19. Clostridium species strain BOH3 tolerates and transforms inhibitors from horticulture waste hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu; He, Jianzhong

    2017-08-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to biofuels is impeded by the toxic effects of inhibitors that are generated during pretreatment and hydrolysis processes. Here we describe a wild-type Clostridium sp. strain BOH3 with high tolerance to the lignocellulose-derived inhibitors and its capability to transform these inhibitors. Strain BOH3 is capable of tolerating over 60 mM furfural, 60 mM hydroxymethylfurfural, and 6.6 mM vanillin, respectively, and is able to convert 53.74 ± 0.37 mM furfural into furfuryl alcohol within 90 h. The high furfural tolerance and its biotransformation by strain BOH3, which is correlated to the high transcription levels of two short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases, enable strain BOH3 to produce 5.15 ± 0.52 g/L butanol from dilute sulfuric acid pretreated horticultural waste hydrolysate (HWH) that bypassed the detoxification step. The capability of strain BOH3 to produce butanol from un-detoxified HWH lays the foundation of cost-effective biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials.

  20. An overlooked horticultural crop, Smyrnium olusatrum, as a potential source of compounds effective against African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Papa, Fabrizio; Iannarelli, Romilde; Ngahang Kamte, Stephane L; Vittori, Sauro; Benelli, Giovanni; Maggi, Filippo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2017-04-01

    Among natural products, sesquiterpenes have shown promising inhibitory effects against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite causing human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Smyrnium olusatrum (Apiaceae), also known as Alexanders or wild celery, is a neglected horticultural crop characterized by oxygenated sesquiterpenes containing a furan ring. In the present work we explored the potential of its essential oils obtained from different organs and the main oxygenated sesquiterpenes, namely isofuranodiene, germacrone and β-acetoxyfuranoeudesm-4(15)-ene, as inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei. All essential oils effectively inhibited the growth of parasite showing IC50 values of 1.9-4.0μg/ml. Among the main essential oil constituents, isofuranodiene exhibited a significant and selective inhibitory activity against T. brucei (IC50 of 0.6μg/ml, SI=30), with β-acetoxyfuranoeudesm-4(15)-ene giving a moderate potentiating effect. These results shed light on the possible application of isofuranodiene as an antiprotozoal agent to be included in combination treatments aimed not only at curing patients but also at preventing the diffusion of HAT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of High-Value Nanoparticles via Biogenic Processes Using Aquacultural and Horticultural Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Purabi R; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B; Poinern, Gerrard E J

    2017-07-25

    The quantities of organic waste produced globally by aquacultural and horticulture are extremely large and offer an attractive renewable source of biomolecules and bioactive compounds. The availability of such large and diverse sources of waste materials creates a unique opportunity to develop new recycling and food waste utilisation strategies. The aim of this review is to report the current status of research in the emerging field of producing high-value nanoparticles from food waste. Eco-friendly biogenic processes are quite rapid, and are usually carried out at normal room temperature and pressure. These alternative clean technologies do not rely on the use of the toxic chemicals and solvents commonly associated with traditional nanoparticle manufacturing processes. The relatively small number of research articles in the field have been surveyed and evaluated. Among the diversity of waste types, promising candidates and their ability to produce various high-value nanoparticles are discussed. Experimental parameters, nanoparticle characteristics and potential applications for nanoparticles in pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications are discussed. In spite of the advantages, there are a number of challenges, including nanoparticle reproducibility and understanding the formation mechanisms between different food waste products. Thus, there is considerable scope and opportunity for further research in this emerging field.

  2. Production of High-Value Nanoparticles via Biogenic Processes Using Aquacultural and Horticultural Food Waste

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B.; Poinern, Gerrard E. J.

    2017-01-01

    The quantities of organic waste produced globally by aquacultural and horticulture are extremely large and offer an attractive renewable source of biomolecules and bioactive compounds. The availability of such large and diverse sources of waste materials creates a unique opportunity to develop new recycling and food waste utilisation strategies. The aim of this review is to report the current status of research in the emerging field of producing high-value nanoparticles from food waste. Eco-friendly biogenic processes are quite rapid, and are usually carried out at normal room temperature and pressure. These alternative clean technologies do not rely on the use of the toxic chemicals and solvents commonly associated with traditional nanoparticle manufacturing processes. The relatively small number of research articles in the field have been surveyed and evaluated. Among the diversity of waste types, promising candidates and their ability to produce various high-value nanoparticles are discussed. Experimental parameters, nanoparticle characteristics and potential applications for nanoparticles in pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications are discussed. In spite of the advantages, there are a number of challenges, including nanoparticle reproducibility and understanding the formation mechanisms between different food waste products. Thus, there is considerable scope and opportunity for further research in this emerging field. PMID:28773212

  3. Plastid genomics in horticultural species: importance and applications for plant population genetics, evolution, and biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Marcelo; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Fraga, Hugo P.; Guerra, Miguel P.

    2015-01-01

    During the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, plastids, and mitochondria arose from an endosymbiotic process, which determined the presence of three genetic compartments into the incipient plant cell. After that, these three genetic materials from host and symbiont suffered several rearrangements, bringing on a complex interaction between nuclear and organellar gene products. Nowadays, plastids harbor a small genome with ∼130 genes in a 100–220 kb sequence in higher plants. Plastid genes are mostly highly conserved between plant species, being useful for phylogenetic analysis in higher taxa. However, intergenic spacers have a relatively higher mutation rate and are important markers to phylogeographical and plant population genetics analyses. The predominant uniparental inheritance of plastids is like a highly desirable feature for phylogeny studies. Moreover, the gene content and genome rearrangements are efficient tools to capture and understand evolutionary events between different plant species. Currently, genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages as high-level of foreign protein expression, marker gene excision, gene expression in operon and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Therefore, plastid genome can be used for adding new characteristics related to synthesis of metabolic compounds, biopharmaceutical, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we describe the importance and applications of plastid genome as tools for genetic and evolutionary studies, and plastid transformation focusing on increasing the performance of horticultural species in the field. PMID:26284102

  4. Horticultural characteristics of transgenic tobacco expressing the rolC gene from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Scorza, R.; Zimmerman, T.W.; Cordts, J.M.; Footen, K.J. ); Ravelonandro, M. . Station de Pathologie Vegetale)

    1994-09-01

    Wisconsin 38 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf discs were transformed with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 101 carrying the rolC gene from A. rhizogenes and NPT II and GUS genes. Shoots that regenerated on kanamycin-containing medium were confirmed as transgenic through GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blot analyses, and transmission of the foreign genes through the sexual cycle. Transgenic plants were as short as half the height of control plants; were earlier flowering by up to 35 days; and had smaller leaves, shorter internodes, smaller seed capsules, fewer seeds, smaller flowers, and reduced pollen viability. The number of seed capsules, leaf number, and specific root length were similar between transgenic and control plants. Transgenic clones varied in the expression of the rolC-induced growth alterations as did the first generation of seedlings from these clones. Such differences suggested the potential for selecting for different levels of expression. Transformation with the rolC gene presents a potentially useful method of genetically modifying horticultural crops, particularly for flowering date, height, and leaf and flower size. Chemical names used: neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS).

  5. Cultivations...and potting on a strategic plan for a social and horticultural therapy program.

    PubMed

    Smilski, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This research endeavored to develop a strategic growth plan for St. Ann's Garden Club (SAGC), a Non-Profit Social and Horticultural Therapy program, located at Providence Farm in Duncan, British Columbia. SAGC is a day program for older adults with mental illness and/or drug/alcohol addiction. The aim of the program is to be sustainable within the context of stakeholders needs, preferences, and resources and therefore they sought a strategic analysis prior to launching a growth strategy. SAGC has valuable intangible resources that contribute to strong core competencies and effectiveness despite facing many program issues requiring change in order for them to be sustainable. These same issues are shared by many public and non-profit health and wellness programs as they struggle to remain relevant in today's changing healthscape. To adequately focus the study and provide sound direction, the strategic analysis highlighted SAGC's environment, opportunities, issues, priorities, and requirements and was conducted through multiple iterations of the action research cycle. Data was gathered using surveys, interviews, and a focus group. The findings supported a capital campaign to build as new larger clubhouse and establish a more diverse sustainable funding base. Using a resource based perspective, a three year strategic plan was formulated for SAGC to help them cultivate growth and sustainability.

  6. Effect of Trichoderma on horticultural seedlings' growth promotion depending on inoculum and substrate type.

    PubMed

    Marín-Guirao, J I; Rodríguez-Romera, P; Lupión-Rodríguez, B; Camacho-Ferre, F; Tello-Marquina, J C

    2016-10-01

    The biostimulant effect of Trichoderma spp. on horticultural crops are highly variable. Thus, practical use of Trichoderma sp. requires feasible formulated products and suitable substrates. This study evaluates the survival and the growth-promotion effect of a Trichoderma saturnisporum rice formulation compared with a nonformulated conidia suspension (seven treatments in total), on tomato, pepper and cucumber seedlings grown in two substrates: (i) rich in organic matter (OM) and (ii) mineral substrate without OM. The results showed beneficial effects on seedling growth in the OM-rich substrate when T. saturnisporum rice formulation (mainly at maximum concentration) was applied, but the effects were opposite when the mineral substrate without OM was used. The effects were closely linked to the level of inoculum in the substrate, which was greater upon application of the formulated inoculum as opposed to the nonformulated one. The use of rice to prepare the inoculum of T. saturnisporum seems to be promising for seedling growth in the nursery when it is applied in a substrate that is rich in organic matter, but it must be considered that under certain conditions of food shortage, Trichoderma sp. could show pathogenicity to seedlings. This study provides evidence of the complexity inherent in the use of micro-organisms in agriculture, while also confirming that the activity of the biofertilizers based on Trichoderma depends on the type of inoculum and its concentration, as well as the properties of the medium in which the fungi develop. Further studies assessing the effectiveness or possible pathogenicity of Trichoderma in different soils under greenhouse conditions must be addressed. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Phenotypic plasticity of stem water potential correlates with crop load in horticultural trees.

    PubMed

    Sadras, Victor O; Trentacoste, Eduardo R

    2011-05-01

    Conceptual models accounting for the influence of source:sink ratio on water relations of trees are theoretically relevant from a physiological perspective and practically important for irrigation scheduling. Midday stem water potential of horticultural trees often declines with increasing crop load but the actual response depends on environmental, management and plant factors. Here we advance a quantitative synthesis of the response of stem water potential to crop load from the perspective of phenotypic plasticity, defined as 'the amount by which the expression of individual characteristics of a genotype are changed by different environments'. Data sets of stem water potential for contrasting crop loads were compiled for apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh.), olive (Olea europea L.), peach (Prunus persica L.), pear (Pyrus communis L.) and plum (Prunus domestica L.). Phenotypic plasticity of stem water potential was calculated as the slope of the linear regression between stem water potential for each crop load and the environmental mean of stem water potential across crop loads. Regression lines for trees with different crop load diverged with decreasing environmental mean stem water potential. For the pooled data, plasticity of stem water potential was a linear function of relative crop load. This represents a significant shift in perspective: the effect of crop load on the trait per se (stem water potential) is environmentally contingent, but the effect of crop load on the plasticity of the trait is not. We conclude that research on the effects of crop load on tree water relations would return more robust results if plant traits are considered from the dual perspective of the trait per se and its plasticity.

  8. Survey of organochlorine pesticides in horticultural soils and there grown Cucurbitaceae.

    PubMed

    Hilber, Isabel; Mäder, Paul; Schulin, Rainer; Wyss, Gabriela S

    2008-10-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCP) are still found in food and feed crops although they were applied about 40 years ago. There is a considerable knowledge gap concerning the extent of soil and crop contamination by OCP. We performed two surveys in 2002 and 2005 to assess the loads of OCP in 41 Swiss horticultural fields under organic and conventional production and corresponding Cucurbitaceae fruits (cucumbers, zucchini, and pumpkin), whereas these fields stay for intensive agricultural production in Europe. In addition, soil organic carbon, texture, and pH were measured also. OCP were detected in 27 out of 41 fields (65.9%). The farming practice had no influence on the contamination or level of OCP in soil. The sum of OCP-loads per field ranged from <0.01 to 1.3mgkg(-1) dry soil and pentachloroaniline (PCA, 2.1mgkg(-1)), p,p'-DDT (0.5mgkg(-1)), and p,p'-DDE and dieldrin (0.4mgkg(-1)) were the most detected pesticides over all investigated soils. PCA (up to 0.02mgkg(-1)), dieldrin (up to 0.04mgkg(-1)), alpha-chlordane and cis-heptachloroepoxide (<0.01mgkg(-1)) were detected in five cucumber samples out of 41 Cucurbitaceae samples. Statistical analysis revealed no significant influence of the measured soil properties on the OCP-load of soils and cucumbers, although there is evidence that the bioavailability of OCP in soils to Cucurbitaceae plants was influenced by the sorption of the compounds to soil organic matter and by the polarity of the pesticide molecules. It is suggested, that OCP contamination is widespread in all European regions with intensive plant production and associated pesticide use, and deserves more attention with respect to save food production.

  9. Effects of ozone treatment on Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in relation to horticultural product quality.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Deana; Fan, Lihua; McRae, Ken; Walker, Brad; MacKay, Ron; Doucette, Craig

    2009-08-01

    Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are fungal pathogens that cause the decay of many fruits and vegetables. Ozone may be used as an antimicrobial agent to control the decay. The effect of gaseous ozone on spore viability of B. cinerea and mycelial growth of B. cinerea and S. sclerotiorum were investigated. Spore viability of B. cinerea was reduced by over 99.5% (P < 0.01) and height of the aerial mycelium was reduced from 4.7 mm in the control to less than 1 mm after exposure to 450 or 600 ppb ozone for 48 h at 20 degrees C. Sporulation of B. cinerea was also substantially inhibited by ozone treatments. However, ozone had no significant effect on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum in vitro. Decay and quality parameters including color, chlorophyll fluorescence (CF), and ozone injury were further assessed for various horticultural commodities (apple, grape, highbush blueberry, and carrot) treated with 450 ppb of ozone for 48 h at 20 degrees C over a period of 12 d. Lesion size and height of the aerial mycelium were significantly reduced by the ozone treatment on carrots inoculated with mycelial agar plugs of B. cinerea or S. sclerotiorum. Lesion size was also reduced on treated apples inoculated with 5 x 10(6) spores/mL of B. cinerea, and decay incidence of treated grapes was reduced. The 450 ppb ozone for 48 h treatment had no significant effect on color of carrots and apples or on CF of apples and grapes. Ozone, an environmentally sound antimicrobial agent, inactivates microorganisms through oxidization and residual ozone spontaneously decomposes to nontoxic products. It may be applied to fruits and vegetables to reduce decay and extend shelf life.

  10. Agroindustrial compost as a peat alternative in the horticultural industry of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gavilanes-Terán, Irene; Jara-Samaniego, Janneth; Idrovo-Novillo, Julio; Bustamante, Ma Angeles; Pérez-Murcia, Ma Dolores; Pérez-Espinosa, Aurelia; López, Marga; Paredes, Concepción

    2017-01-15

    This work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using different agroindustrial composts in the production of horticultural seedlings, thereby replacing part of the peat in the growing media. Three vegetable species differing in salt sensitivity - tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Malpica) (the least sensitive), courgette (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Mastil F1) (moderately sensitive) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Largo de Reus Pairal) (the most sensitive) - were grown in nine media containing three composts, prepared by co-composting vegetable waste (flower, broccoli or tomato waste) with laying hen manure and sawdust, as well as peat in various ratios. The proportions of the three composts in the mixtures elaborated with peat were 25%, 50% and 75% (v/v). A substrate of 100% peat was used as control. The experiment was arranged in a completely-randomised design, with two replicates per treatment, under greenhouse conditions. Prior to sowing, some physical, physico-chemical and chemical properties of the growing media were determined and the seed germination and fresh and dry weights of the aerial parts and roots of the seedlings were also measured, as well as the mineral composition of the aerial parts of the plants. In most cases, the addition of compost to the growing media produced an increase in the pH, salt content and macronutrient concentrations, in comparison to peat, whereas the physical properties of the compost based-substrates had values very similar to those of an ideal substrate. Also, multivariate analysis showed that the media prepared with flower waste compost, at all concentrations, and the medium with tomato waste compost at 25% were the most suitable substrates for the three plant species tested.

  11. Spent mushroom substrates as component of growing media for germination and growth of horticultural plants.

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Paredes, C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Bustamante, M A; Moral, R

    2009-09-01

    This research work was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of using spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in the production of horticultural seedlings replacing part of the peat in the growing media. Three vegetable species with different salt sensitivities, the less sensitive being tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Muchamiel), the moderately salt-sensitive being courgette (Cucurbita pepo L. var. Afrodite F1) and the most salt-sensitive being pepper (Capsicum annum L. var. Lamuyo F1) were grown in 12 media containing SMS of two types of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (SMS-AB) and Pleurotus ostreatus (SMS-PO)) or a mixture of both 50% (v/v) (SMS-50), as well as peat in various ratios. The proportions of each residue in the mixtures elaborated with peat were 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% v/v residue. A substrate of 100% peat was used as control. The experiment was arranged in a completely-randomised design with two replicates per treatment under greenhouse conditions. Prior to sowing, some physical, physico-chemical and chemical properties of the growing media were determined and seed germination and fresh weight of seedling were also measured. In most of the cases, the addition of SMS to the growing media produced an increase in the pH values, salt contents, macro and micronutrient concentrations and a decrease in the water holding capacity contents in comparison to peat, whereas great differences were found in the air capacity values between SMS-based substrates and peat. Up to 75% SMS can be used in mixtures with peat for seed germination of the plant species studied. Regarding the most suitable SMS-based substrates for plant growth, any substrate could be used for tomato seedling production. However, all SMS-AB-based substrates and the media containing low dose of SMS-PO and SMS-50 were adequate for growth of courgette and pepper.

  12. Multiple QTL for Horticultural Traits and Quantitative Resistance to Phytophthora infestans Linked on Solanum habrochaites Chromosome 11

    PubMed Central

    Haggard, J. Erron; Johnson, Emily B.; St. Clair, Dina A.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, a Phytophthora infestans resistance QTL from Solanum habrochaites chromosome 11 was introgressed into cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum). Fine mapping of this resistance QTL using near-isogenic lines (NILs) revealed some co-located QTL with undesirable effects on plant size, canopy density, and fruit size traits. Subsequently, higher-resolution mapping with sub-NILs detected multiple P. infestans resistance QTL within this 9.4-cM region of chromosome 11. In our present study, these same sub-NILs were also evaluated for 17 horticultural traits, including yield, maturity, fruit size and shape, fruit quality, and plant architecture traits in replicated field experiments over 2 years. The horticultural trait QTL originally detected by fine mapping each fractionated into two or more QTL at higher resolution. A total of 34 QTL were detected across all traits, with 14% exhibiting significant QTL × environment interactions (QTL × E). QTL for many traits were co-located, suggesting either pleiotropic effects or tight linkage among genes controlling these traits. Recombination in the pericentromeric region of the introgression between markers TG147 and At4g10050 was suppressed to approximately 29.7 Mbp per cM, relative to the genomewide average of 750 kbp per cM. The genetic architecture of many of the horticultural and P. infestans resistance traits that mapped within this chromosome 11 S. habrochaites region is complex. Complicating factors included fractionation of QTL, pleiotropy or tight linkage of QTL for multiple traits, pericentromeric chromosomal location(s), and/or QTL × E. High-resolution mapping of QTL in this region would be needed to determine which specific target QTL could be useful in breeding cultivated tomato. PMID:25504736

  13. How healthy is urban horticulture in high traffic areas? Trace metal concentrations in vegetable crops from plantings within inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Säumel, Ina; Kotsyuk, Iryna; Hölscher, Marie; Lenkereit, Claudia; Weber, Frauke; Kowarik, Ingo

    2012-06-01

    Food production by urban dwellers is of growing importance in developing and developed countries. Urban horticulture is associated with health risks as crops in urban settings are generally exposed to higher levels of pollutants than those in rural areas. We determined the concentration of trace metals in the biomass of different horticultural crops grown in the inner city of Berlin, Germany, and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. We revealed significant differences in trace metal concentrations depending on local traffic, crop species, planting style and building structures, but not on vegetable type. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass. The presence of buildings and large masses of vegetation as barriers between crops and roads reduced trace metal content in the biomass. Based on this we discuss consequences for urban horticulture, risk assessment, and planting and monitoring guidelines for cultivation and consumption of crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disruption of pheromone communication of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using microencapsulated sex pheromones formulated with horticultural oil.

    PubMed

    Wins-Purdy, A H; Judd, G J R; Evenden, M L

    2007-10-01

    Sprayable, microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulations represent a promising tool for achieving mating disruption, yet often lack sustained effectiveness in the field, making repeated applications necessary. This study evaluated the impact of adding Purespray Green horticultural oil as an adjuvant to 3M MEC-LR, an MEC formulation of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, on disruption of mate-finding behavior in Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) in small-plot trials in experimental apple orchards. Treatments consisting of MEC-LR in water, MEC-LR in water + 2% (vol:vol) Purespray Green, and a water control were applied to plots of apple using an airblast sprayer at a rate of 100 g of pheromone/ha. Disruption caused by foliar treatments was evaluated over a 7-wk period using mark-release recapture experiments in the field and concurrent bioassays in a flight tunnel. Disruption of orientation to 2-d-old, calling, virgin females was used as a measure of treatment effect in all experiments. Both pheromone alone and pheromone + oil treatments significantly disrupted male mate-finding behavior for a period of > or =21 d in flight tunnel assays and > or =42 d in mark-recapture field trials. The addition of oil did not significantly enhance the disruption activity nor increase the longevity of the MEC pheromone formulation. Our results show the compatibility of spraying MEC pheromone with a horticultural oil, and techniques for applying an oil-pheromone formulation to maximize the control impact of this combination are discussed.

  15. Biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides in a group of horticultural greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Michèle; Carrier, Gaétan; Brunet, Robert C; Dumas, Pierre; Noisel, Nolwenn

    2006-07-01

    Exposure to selected organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), malathion, diazinon and acephate, was evaluated in a group of horticultural greenhouse workers. This was achieved through measurements of the cumulative urinary excretion time courses of specific and non-specific biomarkers over a 24 h period following the onset of work exposure. For malathion, the absorbed daily doses were estimated from the 24 h cumulative urinary amounts of the specific mono- and di-carboxylic acid metabolites (the sum of MCA and DCA) through the use of a kinetic model. The observed 24 h urinary levels were also compared with a biological reference value (BRV) of 57 nmol kg(-1) of body weight established in a previous work on the basis of a human no-observed-effect level exposure dose. Excretion values were found to be 2.5% or less of the BRV, suggesting a negligible health risk. Both median and 95th percentile concentrations of DCA (n = 57 samples) were, however, slightly higher than the baseline values determined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the US civilian population (MCA was not analyzed by the CDC). The cumulative urinary excretion time course of the methyl phosphoric (MP) derivatives, which are metabolites of malathion but also of several other OPs, was also determined. Though relatively low, the MP levels were from 3 to 31 times higher than would be expected on the basis of the malathion specific MCA and DCA excretions, indicating that MP excretions stem from sources other than malathion exposure. Accordingly, only the time courses of MCA and DCA excretion rate (nmol h(-1)) were compatible with the time of work exposure. Urinary biomarkers of exposure to diazinon and acephate were also measured. Urinary concentrations were essentially below or equal to the analytical limit of detection of 1 microg l(-1) for 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (n = 54) and of 0.8 microg l(-1) for acephate and methamidophos (n = 59): values within the baseline range

  16. The ozone component of global changes: Potential effects on agricultural and horticultural plant yield, product quality and interactions with invasive species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The performance and quality of agricultural and horticultural plants in many regions of the world are adversely affected by current and anticipated concentrations of ground-level, tropospheric ozone (O3). Numerous studies with a variety of plant species and experimental approaches lead to similar ...

  17. AN IN-DEPTH STUDY TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER THERE IS A NEED IN THE STATE OF UTAH FOR A POST HIGH SCHOOL PROGRAM IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DIRKSEN, DENNIS A.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE TO DETERMINE (1) KINDS OF JOBS AND NUMBER OF PEOPLE ASSOCIATED WITH ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE IN UTAH, (2) SKILLS AND INFORMATION NEEDED BY NURSERY WORKERS, (3) TRAINING PROGRAMS ALREADY ESTABLISHED IN THE NATION, (4) NEEDS OF GOLF COURSES, AND (5) THE USE OF DATA IN DEVELOPING A TRAINING PROGRAM. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE…

  18. The Education of Ornamental Horticulture Technicians in Ohio, a Research Report of a Ph.D. Dissertation. Research Series in Agricultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert H.; Woodin, Ralph J.

    The primary purposes of this study were to determine occupational opportunities for ornamental horticulture technicians in Ohio and to propose curriculums for training them. In the first phase, data were collected by questionnaire from 64.8 percent of 962 potential Ohio employers which was a 50 percent random sample of 1900 employers. In the…

  19. Use of the Nitrogen Index to assess nitrate leaching and water drainage from plastic-mulched horticultural cropping systems of Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water quality in Florida is significantly impacted by nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in a large part of the state, where there is a close interaction between surface water and groundwater that has a high water table. Horticultural crops are planted across large areas of Florida, including area...

  20. Assessment of the tung tree (Vernicia fordii) germplasm collection and latest cultivar release at the USDA-ARS Southern Horticultural Research Unit in Poplarville, MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tung trees (Vernicia fordii, syn Aleurites fordii) and tung oil production have a long history in the gulf coast region. The Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory (TCSHL) in Poplarville, MS was formerly the USDA Tung Oil Research Station in the 1940s, 50s and 60s and still maintains an exte...

  1. Chemical constituents with anti-allergic activity from the root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Tamura, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Makoto; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-04-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from the dried root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, showed potent anti-allergic effect as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 26 compounds, including a new norneolignan glycoside, paeonibenzofuran (1), together with 25 known ones (2-26). The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated compounds, mudanpioside E (5) with paeoniflorin-type skeleton and quercetin (16) showed potent inhibitory activity against a degranulation marker, β-hexosaminidase release with IC50 values of 40.34 and 25.05 μM, respectively. A primary structure-activity relationship of these components was discussed.

  2. From Blue to Green: The Development and Implementation of a Therapeutic Horticulture Program for Residents of a Battered Women's Shelter.

    PubMed

    Renzetti, Claire M; Follingstad, Diane R

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutic services to clients is influenced by service providers' understanding of the "fit" of a specific program with their service mandate as well as their perceptions of the potential benefits of the program. This article discusses the development and implementation of a therapeutic horticulture (TH) program at a battered women's shelter that serves 17 counties in Central Kentucky. Through semistructured interviews, we gauge the shelter staff's perceptions of the relationship of the TH program to the shelter's overall mission; their sense of the program's benefits for residents, for the shelter as a community organization, and for themselves; and their concerns about the TH program. We consider how these findings may impact future programming at the shelter, and we discuss plans for further evaluation of the TH program in terms of its impact on shelter residents' long-term outcomes.

  3. Horticultural and gathering practices complement each other: a case study in a rural population of Northwestern Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Eyssartier, Cecilia; Ladio, Ana H; Lozada, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    We investigated gathering and cultivating practices and how they complement each other in a rural population of Northwestern Patagonia. We analyzed plant diversity, species similarity, biogeographic origin, and plant use by means of semi-structured interviews and field visits. Pichi Leufu inhabitants used 173 species: 138 cultivated plants, mainly for edible purposes, and 45 wild species principally for medicinal use. Most cultivated species were exotic (91.3%), whereas gathered plants were both native and exotic. While locals maintained vegetable gardens, the adoption of greenhouses improved conditions for certain crops. The integration of novel practices with ancestral knowledge suggests resilient processes in this community, probably reflected in the dynamics of current horticultural and gathering practices, which complement each other.

  4. Comparative assessment of migrant farm worker health in conventional and organic horticultural systems in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Hounsome, Barry; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2008-02-25

    This study describes the self-reported health and well-being status of field and packhouse workers in UK vegetable horticulture, and tests the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the self-reported health of workers on organic and conventional horticultural farms. The majority of those sampled were migrant workers (93%) from Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and the Ukraine. More than 95% of the respondents were aged 18-34 and recruited through university agricultural faculties in East European or employed via UK agencies. The health of 605 farm workers (395 males and 210 females) was measured through the use of four standard health instruments. Farm workers' health was significantly poorer than published national norms for three different health instruments (Short Form 36, EuroQol EQ-5D and the Visual Analogue Scale). There were no significant differences in the health status of farm workers between conventional and organic farms for any of these three instruments. However, organic farm workers scored higher on a fourth health instrument the Short Depression Happiness Scale (SDHS) indicating that workers on organic farms were happier than their counterparts working on conventional farms. Multiple regression analysis suggested that the difference in the SDHS score for organic and conventional farms is closely related to the range and number of tasks the workers performed each day. These findings suggest that a great deal of improvement in the self-reported health of farmers will need to occur before organic farms meet the requirements of the 'Principle of Health' as described by IFOAM. Ensuring that farm workers have a varied range of tasks could be a cost effective means of improving self-reported health status in both organic and conventional farming systems.

  5. QTL mapping and epistatic interaction analysis in asparagus bean for several characterized and novel horticulturally important traits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata. ssp sesquipedalis) is a subspecies and special vegetable type of cowpea (Vigna. unguiculata L. Walp.) important in Asia. Genetic basis of horticulturally important traits of asparagus bean is still poorly understood, hindering the utilization of targeted, DNA marker-assisted breeding in this crop. Here we report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic interactions for four horticultural traits, namely, days to first flowering (FLD), nodes to first flower (NFF), leaf senescence (LS) and pod number per plant (PN) using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of asparagus bean. Results A similar genetic mode of one major QTL plus a few minor QTLs was found to dominate each of the four traits, with the number of QTLs for individual traits ranging from three to four. These QTLs were distributed on 7 of the 11 chromosomes. Major QTLs for FLD, NFF and LS were co-localized on LG 11, indicative of tight linkage. Genome wide epistasis analysis detected two and one interactive locus pairs that significantly affect FLD and LS, respectively, and the epistatic QTLs for FLD appeared to work in different ways. Synteny based comparison of QTL locations revealed conservation of chromosome regions controlling these traits in related legume crops. Conclusion Major, minor, and epistatic QTLs were found to contribute to the inheritance of the FLD, NFF, LS, and PN. Positions of many of these QTLs are conserved among closely related legume species, indicating common mechanisms they share. To our best knowledge, this is the first QTL mapping report using an asparagus bean × asparagus bean intervarietal population and provides marker-trait associations for marker-assisted approaches to selection. PMID:23375055

  6. Phenology, natural enemies, and efficacy of horticultural oil for control of Chionaspis heterophyllae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Christmas tree plantations.

    PubMed

    Fondren, Kirsten M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2005-10-01

    Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD(10 degrees C)). Second-generation egg hatch began at approximately 1230-1300 DD(10 degrees C), and continued for approximately 3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees C). Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees). Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.

  7. Hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique for accurate measurement of the optical properties of horticultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Haiyan

    Hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique is promising for determining the optical properties and quality attributes of horticultural and food products. However, considerable challenges still exist for accurate determination of spectral absorption and scattering properties from intact horticultural products. The objective of this research was, therefore, to develop and optimize hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique for accurate measurement of the optical properties of horticultural products. Monte Carlo simulations and experiments for model samples of known optical properties were performed to optimize the inverse algorithm of a single-layer diffusion model and the optical designs, for extracting the absorption (micro a) and reduced scattering (micros') coefficients from spatially-resolved reflectance profiles. The logarithm and integral data transformation and the relative weighting methods were found to greatly improve the parameter estimation accuracy with the relative errors of 10.4%, 10.7%, and 11.4% for micro a, and 6.6%, 7.0%, and 7.1% for micros', respectively. More accurate measurements of optical properties were obtained when the light beam was of Gaussian type with the diameter of less than 1 mm, and the minimum and maximum source-detector distances were 1.5 mm and 10--20 transport mean free paths, respectively. An optical property measuring prototype was built, based on the optimization results, and evaluated for automatic measurement of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for the wavelengths of 500--1,000 nm. The instrument was used to measure the optical properties, and assess quality/maturity, of 500 'Redstar' peaches and 1039 'Golden Delicious' (GD) and 1040 'Delicious' (RD) apples. A separate study was also conducted on confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopic image analysis and compression test of fruit tissue specimens to measure the structural and mechanical properties of 'Golden

  8. Horticultural therapy--aspects of land use for the mentally handicapped. A system of planning for the requirements of the mentally handicapped gardener.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, T; Underhill, C

    1979-01-01

    An increasing number of facilities for the mentally handicapped use horticulture, agriculture and gardening in their training programmes. This paper contains a review of: (1) some aspects of land use as a medium for leisure, rehabilitation, therapy and training for the mentally handicapped, (2) employment, both sheltered and open, in land use as reflected in a recent survey, (3) the variety of knowledge available through the medium of land use. The main emphasis of the paper deals with: (1) the need for planning, (2) a suggested planning system that assists the instructor in understanding the requirements of the mentally handicapped gardener when he approaches a given job, (3) some problems peculiar to land use work with the mentally handicapped. In conclusion the authors briefly examine: (1) the need for assessment, (2) the need to distinguish between production and training, (3) suggestions towards an expansion of the planning system to take in other areas of the horticultural unit than were originally described, (4) social activities connected with the horticultural activities described, (5) the hierarchy identified through the use of a particular planning system.

  9. 'The nourishing soil of the soul': The role of horticultural therapy in promoting well-being in community-dwelling people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Noone, Sarah; Innes, Anthea; Kelly, Fiona; Mayers, Andrew

    2015-12-23

    Two-thirds of people with dementia reside in their own homes; however, support for community-dwelling people with dementia to continue to participate in everyday activities is often lacking, resulting in feelings of depression and isolation among people living with the condition. Engagement in outdoor activities such as gardening can potentially counteract these negative experiences by enabling people with dementia to interact with nature, helping to improve their physical and psychological well-being. Additionally, the collaborative nature of community gardening may encourage the development of a sense of community, thereby enhancing social integration. Despite increasing evidence supporting its therapeutic value for people with dementia in residential care, the benefits of horticultural therapy have yet to be transposed into a community setting. This paper will examine the theoretical support for the application of horticultural therapy in dementia care, before exploring the potential of horticultural therapy as a means of facilitating improved physical and psychological well-being and social integration for people living with dementia within the community.

  10. A synthesis of AOT40-based response functions and critical levels of ozone for agricultural and horticultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, G.; Buse, A.; Gimeno, B.; Bermejo, V.; Holland, M.; Emberson, L.; Pleijel, H.

    Crop-response data from over 700 published papers and conference proceedings have been analysed with the aim of establishing ozone dose-response functions for a wide range of European agricultural and horticultural crops. Data that met rigorous selection criteria (e.g. field-based, ozone concentrations within European range, full season exposure period) were used to derive AOT40-yield response functions for 19 crops by first converting the published ozone concentration data into AOT40 (AOT40 is the hourly mean ozone concentration accumulated over a threshold ozone concentration of 40 ppb during daylight hours, units ppm h). For any individual crop, there were no significant differences in the linear response functions derived for experiments conducted in the USA or Europe, or for individual cultivars. Three statistically independent groups were identified: ozone sensitive crops (wheat, water melon, pulses, cotton, turnip, tomato, onion, soybean and lettuce); moderately sensitive crops (sugar beet, potato, oilseed rape, tobacco, rice, maize, grape and broccoli) and ozone resistant (barley and fruit represented by plum and strawberry). Critical levels of a 3 month AOT40 of 3 ppm h and a 3.5 month AOT40 of 6 ppm h were derived from the functions for wheat and tomato, respectively.

  11. Electroencephalogram, cognitive state, psychological disorders, clinical symptom, and oxidative stress in horticulture farmers exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bayrami, Mansour; Hashemi, Touraj; Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Ashayeri, Hassan; Faraji, Fardin; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the toxicity of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in exposed farmers for electroencephalography, cognitive state, psychological disorders, clinical symptom, oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase, and DNA damage. A comparative cross-sectional analysis was carried out in 40 horticulture farmers who were exposed to OPs in comparison to a control group containing 40 healthy subjects with the same age and sex and education level. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, DNA damage, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total thiol molecules, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in the blood of subjects. Clinical examination and complete blood test were undertaken in order to record any abnormal sign or symptoms. Cognitive function, psychological symptoms, and psychological distress were examined and recorded. Comparing with controls, the farmers showed higher blood levels of SOD and LPO while their TAC decreased. Farmers showed clinical symptoms such as eczema, breathing muscle weakness, nausea, and saliva secretion. Regarding cognitive function, the orientation, registration, attention and calculation, recall, and language were not significantly different in farmers and controls. Among examinations for psychological distress, only labeled somatization was significantly higher in farmers. The present findings indicate that oxidative stress and inhibition of AChE can be seen in chronically OP-exposed people but incidence of neuropsychological disorders seems a complex multivariate phenomenon that might be seen in long-term high-dose exposure situations. Use of supplementary antioxidants would be useful in the treatment of farmers.

  12. Horticultural waste as the substrate for cellulase and hemicellulase production by Trichoderma reesei under solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Fengxue; Geng, Anli

    2010-09-01

    Horticultural waste in wood chips form collected from a landscape company in Singapore was utilized as the substrate for the production of cellulase and hemicellulase under solid-state fermentation by Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. The effects of substrate pretreatment methods, substrate particle size, incubation temperature and time, initial medium pH value, and moisture content on cellulase and hemicellulase production were investigated. Enzyme complex was obtained at the optimal conditions. This enzyme mixture contained FPase (15.0 U/g substrate dry matter, SDM), CMCase (90.5 U/g SDM), beta-glucosidase (61.6 U/g SDM), xylanase (52.1 U/g SDM), and beta-xylosidase (10.4 U/g SDM). The soluble protein concentration in the enzyme complex was 26.1 mg/g SDM. The potential of the crude enzyme complex produced was demonstrated by the hydrolysis of wood chips, wood dust, palm oil fiber, and waste newspaper. The performance of the crude enzyme complex was better than the commercial enzyme blend.

  13. Efficacy of several insecticides alone and with horticultural mineral oils on light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Taverner, Peter D; Sutton, Clay; Cunningham, Nancy M; Dyson, Chris; Lucas, Nola; Myers, Scott W

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the research was to identify efficacious and less environmentally harmful treatments than the standard chlorpyrifos sprays used for the control light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on nursery stock. A series of dip experiments showed a range of responses when comparing the efficacy of insecticides on egg hatch of E. postvittana. The insecticides that compared most favorably with chlorpyrifos were lamda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, and thiacloprid. Indoxacarb, novaluron, and spinosad caused significant mortality only when combined with All Seasons mineral oil. All Seasons, showed ovicidal properties when evaluated alone and demonstrated adjuvant properties when combined with the above-mentioned insecticides, except gamma-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid. Several other horticultural mineral oils performed similarly, except the efficacy of spinosad varied with the oil product used, suggesting that the oil type selected is important for some insecticide and oil combinations. Several insecticides evaluated in this study are likely candidates for further work to develop treatments against E. postvittana eggs on nursery plants. Mineral oils are ovicidal and combinations with insecticides are likely to be advantageous.

  14. Spatial and temporal analysis of the microbial community in slow sand filters used for treating horticultural irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Bado, Leo A; Pettitt, Tim R; Parsons, Nick; Petch, Geoff M; Morgan, J Alun W; Whipps, John M

    2003-04-01

    An experimental slow sand filter (SSF) was constructed to study the spatial and temporal structure of a bacterial community suppressive to an oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora cryptogea. Passage of water through the mature sand column resulted in complete removal of zoospores of the plant pathogen. To monitor global changes in the microbial community, bacterial and fungal numbers were estimated on selective media, direct viable counts of fungal spores were made, and the ATP content was measured. PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the dynamics of the bacterial community in detail. The top layer (1 cm) of the SSF column was dominated by a variable and active microbial population, whereas the middle (50 cm) and bottom (80 cm) layers were dominated by less active and diverse bacterial populations. The major changes in the microbial populations occurred during the first week of filter operation, and these populations then remained to the end of the study. Spatial and temporal nonlinear mapping of the DGGE bands provided a useful visual representation of the similarities between SSF samples. According to the DGGE profile, less than 2% of the dominating bands present in the SSF column were represented in the culturable population. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands from all depths of the SSF column indicated that a range of bacteria were present, with 16S rRNA gene sequences similar to groups such as Bacillus megaterium, Cytophaga, Desulfovibrio, Legionella, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Sphingomonas, and an uncharacterized environmental clone. This study describes the characterization of the performance, and microbial composition, of SSFs used for the treatment of water for use in the horticultural industry. Utilization of naturally suppressive population of microorganisms either directly or by manipulation of the environment in an SSF may provide a more reproducible control method for the future.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of the Microbial Community in Slow Sand Filters Used for Treating Horticultural Irrigation Water

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Bado, Leo A.; Pettitt, Tim R.; Parsons, Nick; Petch, Geoff M.; Morgan, J. Alun W.; Whipps, John M.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental slow sand filter (SSF) was constructed to study the spatial and temporal structure of a bacterial community suppressive to an oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora cryptogea. Passage of water through the mature sand column resulted in complete removal of zoospores of the plant pathogen. To monitor global changes in the microbial community, bacterial and fungal numbers were estimated on selective media, direct viable counts of fungal spores were made, and the ATP content was measured. PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the dynamics of the bacterial community in detail. The top layer (1 cm) of the SSF column was dominated by a variable and active microbial population, whereas the middle (50 cm) and bottom (80 cm) layers were dominated by less active and diverse bacterial populations. The major changes in the microbial populations occurred during the first week of filter operation, and these populations then remained to the end of the study. Spatial and temporal nonlinear mapping of the DGGE bands provided a useful visual representation of the similarities between SSF samples. According to the DGGE profile, less than 2% of the dominating bands present in the SSF column were represented in the culturable population. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands from all depths of the SSF column indicated that a range of bacteria were present, with 16S rRNA gene sequences similar to groups such as Bacillus megaterium, Cytophaga, Desulfovibrio, Legionella, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Sphingomonas, and an uncharacterized environmental clone. This study describes the characterization of the performance, and microbial composition, of SSFs used for the treatment of water for use in the horticultural industry. Utilization of naturally suppressive population of microorganisms either directly or by manipulation of the environment in an SSF may provide a more reproducible control method for the future. PMID

  16. Reflecting photonics: reaching new audiences through new partnerships - IYL 2015 and the Royal Horticultural Society Flower Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, Matthew T.; John, Pearl V.; Standen, Deanna; Wheeler, Natalie V.; van Putten, Lieke D.; Soper, Nathan; Parsonage, Tina L.; Wong, Nicholas H. L.; Brambilla, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    The `Reflecting Photonics' show garden was exhibited at the 2015 Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Flower Show in Tatton Park, UK, to celebrate the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies. Elks-Smith Garden Design alongside landscapers `Turf N' Earth' collaborated with researchers, marketing and outreach professionals from the University of Southampton to design, construct and exhibit a photonics-themed garden. The garden and supporting exhibition united science and art to reach new audiences - particularly family groups alongside other key influencers to the young - and showcased the world-leading research in optical fibers at the university in an accessible manner. Researchers and a publicity professional, funded by the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Photonics, developed an integrated approach to the event's public engagement and marketing. The overarching aim was to influence a positive change in the attitude of the garden visitors towards physics and photonics, with additional focus on promoting careers for women in STEM. The show garden won an RHS Gold Medal award and the coveted `People's Choice Award' for the best large garden. The project subsequently won the South East England Physics Network Public Engagement Innovation Project Award. Approximately 80,000 visitors saw the garden, with a further three million television viewers on a popular British gardening show. There were also over 75,400 Tweet impressions on social media. This paper discusses the project aims, explores the design of the garden and its relationship with the research, describes the work of the public engagement team, and outlines the impact of the event.

  17. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan

    PubMed Central

    Lust, Teresa A.; Paris, Harry S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. Findings The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria. Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo. The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. PMID:27343231

  18. Linkage relationships among multiple QTL for horticultural traits and late blight (P. infestans) resistance on chromosome 5 introgressed from wild tomato Solanum habrochaites.

    PubMed

    Haggard, J Erron; Johnson, Emily B; St Clair, Dina A

    2013-12-09

    When the allele of a wild species at a quantitative trait locus (QTL) conferring a desirable trait is introduced into cultivated species, undesirable effects on other traits may occur. These negative phenotypic effects may result from the presence of wild alleles at other closely linked loci that are transferred along with the desired QTL allele (i.e., linkage drag) and/or from pleiotropic effects of the desired allele. Previously, a QTL for resistance to Phytophthora infestans on chromosome 5 of Solanum habrochaites was mapped and introgressed into cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum). Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were generated and used for fine-mapping of this resistance QTL, which revealed coincident or linked QTL with undesirable effects on yield, maturity, fruit size, and plant architecture traits. Subsequent higher-resolution mapping with chromosome 5 sub-NILs revealed the presence of multiple P. infestans resistance QTL within this 12.3 cM region. In our present study, these sub-NILs were also evaluated for 17 horticultural traits, including yield, maturity, fruit size and shape, fruit quality, and plant architecture traits in replicated field experiments over the course of two years. Each previously detected single horticultural trait QTL fractionated into two or more QTL. A total of 41 QTL were detected across all traits, with ∼30% exhibiting significant QTL × environment interactions. Colocation of QTL for multiple traits suggests either pleiotropy or tightly linked genes control these traits. The complex genetic architecture of horticultural and P. infestans resistance trait QTL within this S. habrochaites region of chromosome 5 presents challenges and opportunities for breeding efforts in cultivated tomato.

  19. The use of wavelength-selective plastic cladding materials in horticulture: understanding of crop and fungal responses through the assessment of biological spectral weighting functions.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nigel D; Jacobson, Rob J; Taylor, Anna; Wargent, Jason J; Moore, Jason P

    2005-01-01

    Plant responses to light spectral quality can be exploited to deliver a range of agronomically desirable end points in protected crops. This can be achieved using plastics with specific spectral properties as crop covers. We have studied the responses of a range of crops to plastics that have either (a) increased transmission of UV compared with standard horticultural covers, (b) decreased transmission of UV or (c) increased the ratio of red (R) : far-red (FR) radiation. Both the UV-transparent and R : FR increasing films reduced leaf area and biomass, offering potential alternatives to chemical growth regulators. The UV-opaque film increased growth, but while this may be useful in some crops, there were trade-offs with elements of quality, such as pigmentation and taste. UV manipulation may also influence disease control. Increasing UV inhibited not only the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea but also the disease biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Unlike B. cinerea, T. harzianum was highly sensitive to UV-A radiation. These fungal responses and those for plant growth in the growth room and the field under different plastics are analyzed in terms of alternative biological spectral weighting functions (BSWF). The role of BSWF in assessing general patterns of response to UV modification in horticulture is also discussed.

  20. Nutrient removal from horticultural wastewater by benthic filamentous algae Klebsormidium sp., Stigeoclonium spp. and their communities: From laboratory flask to outdoor Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS).

    PubMed

    Liu, Junzhuo; Danneels, Bram; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Benthic filamentous algae have evident advantages in wastewater treatment over unicellular microalgae, including the ease in harvesting and resistance to predation. To assess the potentials of benthic filamentous algae in treating horticultural wastewater under natural conditions in Belgium, three strains and their mixture with naturally wastewater-borne microalgae were cultivated in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks in laboratory as well as in 1 m(2) scale outdoor Algal Turf Scrubber (ATS) with different flow rates. Stigeoclonium competed well with the natural wastewater-borne microalgae and contributed to most of the biomass production both in Erlenmeyer flasks and outdoor ATS at flow rates of 2-6 L min(-1) (water velocity 3-9 cm s(-1)), while Klebsormidium was not suitable for growing in horticultural wastewater under the tested conditions. Flow rate had great effects on biomass production and nitrogen removal, while phosphorus removal was less influenced by flow rate due to other mechanisms than assimilation by algae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The ozone component of global change: potential effects on agricultural and horticultural plant yield, product quality and interactions with invasive species.

    PubMed

    Booker, Fitzgerald; Muntifering, Russell; McGrath, Margaret; Burkey, Kent; Decoteau, Dennis; Fiscus, Edwin; Manning, William; Krupa, Sagar; Chappelka, Arthur; Grantz, David

    2009-04-01

    The productivity, product quality and competitive ability of important agricultural and horticultural plants in many regions of the world may be adversely affected by current and anticipated concentrations of ground-level ozone (O3). Exposure to elevated O3 typically results in suppressed photosynthesis, accelerated senescence, decreased growth and lower yields. Various approaches used to evaluate O3 effects generally concur that current yield losses range from 5% to 15% among sensitive plants. There is, however, considerable genetic variability in plant responses to O3. To illustrate this, we show that ambient O3 concentrations in the eastern United States cause substantially different levels of damage to otherwise similar snap bean cultivars. Largely undesirable effects of O3 can also occur in seed and fruit chemistry as well as in forage nutritive value, with consequences for animal production. Ozone may alter herbicide efficacy and foster establishment of some invasive species. We conclude that current and projected levels of O3 in many regions worldwide are toxic to sensitive plants of agricultural and horticultural significance. Plant breeding that incorporates O3 sensitivity into selection strategies will be increasingly necessary to achieve sustainable production with changing atmospheric composition, while reductions in O3 precursor emissions will likely benefit world food production and reduce atmospheric concentrations of an important greenhouse gas.

  2. Pig manure vermicompost as a component of a horticultural bedding plant medium: effects on physicochemical properties and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, R M; Edwards, C A; Subler, S; Metzger, J D

    2001-05-01

    This experiment was designed to characterize the physical, chemical and microbial properties of a standard commercial horticultural, greenhouse container, bedding plant medium (Metro-Mix 360), that had been substituted with a range of increasing concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% by volume) of pig manure vermicompost and to relate these properties to plant growth responses. The growth trials used tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), grown in the substituted media for 31 days under glasshouse conditions, with seedling growth recorded in 20 pots for each treatment. Half of the tomato seedlings (10 pots per treatment) were watered daily with liquid inorganic fertilizer while the other half received water only. The percentage total porosity, percentage air space, pH and ammonium concentrations of the container medium all decreased significantly, after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with equivalent amounts of pig manure vermicompost; whereas bulk density, container capacity, electrical conductivity, overall microbial activity and nitrate concentrations, all increased with increasing substitutions of vermicompost. The growth of tomato seedlings in the potting mixtures containing 100% pig manure vermicompost was reduced, possibly as a result of high soluble salt concentrations in the vermicompost and poorer porosity and aeration. The growth of tomato seedlings was greatest after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with between 25% and 50% pig manure vermicompost, with more growth occurring in combinations of pig manure vermicompost treated regularly with a liquid fertilizer solution than in those with no fertilizer applied. Some of the growth enhancement in these mixtures seemed to be related to the combined effects of improved porosity, aeration and water retention in the medium and the high nitrate content of the substrate, which produced an increased uptake of nitrogen by the plant tissues, resulting in increased plant growth. When the tomato seedlings were

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Utsala; Augé, Robert M; Butler, David M

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C) amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies), plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies), and weeds (88 studies) compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies) compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59 to 94%). Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50 to 94%) and amendment types (53 to 97%), except when amendments were applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m(-2). The ASD effect ranged from 15 to 56% for nematode suppression and 32 to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30%) compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants. We

  4. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Utsala; Augé, Robert M.; Butler, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C) amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies), plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies), and weeds (88 studies) compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies) compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59 to 94%). Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50 to 94%) and amendment types (53 to 97%), except when amendments were applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m-2. The ASD effect ranged from 15 to 56% for nematode suppression and 32 to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30%) compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants. We

  5. CLUSTERS OF TASKS PERFORMED BY WASHINGTON STATE FARM OPERATORS ENGAGED IN SEVEN TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION--GRAIN, DAIRY, FORESTRY, LIVESTOCK, POULTRY, HORTICULTURE, AND GENERAL FARMING. REPORT NO. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO OBTAIN UP-TO-DATE FACTS ABOUT CLUSTERS OF TASKS PERFORMED BY WASHINGTON STATE FARM OPERATORS ENGAGED PRIMARILY IN PRODUCING GRAIN, LIVESTOCK, DAIRY COMMODITIES, POULTRY, FOREST PRODUCTS, HORTICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND GENERAL FARMING COMMODITIES. FROM A RANDOM SAMPLE OF 267 FARMERS REPRESENTING THOSE CATEGORIES…

  6. A SURVEY OF DEPARTMENTS OF VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN DELAWARE TO ASCERTAIN THE EMPHASIS BEING GIVEN TO THE AREAS OF ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE, FLORICULTURE, AND TURF IN THE COURSE OF STUDY AND THE PHYSICAL FACILITIES AVAILABLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARWICK, RALPH P.

    IN ORDER TO DETERMINE WHAT TEACHING UNITS WERE INCLUDED IN THE STATE'S VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE PROGRAMS AND THE FACILITIES AVAILABLE TO AID INSTRUCTION IN THESE AREAS, 18 HIGH SCHOOLS IN DELAWARE WERE SURVEYED. IN 11 SCHOOLS THE VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENTS WERE INCLUDING ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE, SEVEN WERE INCLUDING FLORICULTURE, AND 10 WERE…

  7. Horticulture of Ribes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Ribes L., known as currants and gooseberries, contains more than 150 diverse species indigenous throughout the northern hemisphere and along the Rocky Mountain, Sierra Nevada, and Sierra Madres in North America through mountain ranges of Central America to the Andes in South America. Begin...

  8. Horticulture: Grounds Maintenance Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, James; And Others

    The unit of individualized learning activities is designed to provide training in grounds maintenance. The materials in the unit are divided into two sections. The developmental or preliminary phase (15 pages) is for use by the instructor and includes brief descriptions of the job and of the student population, along with listings of the specific…

  9. Human perspectives in horticulture

    Treesearch

    Charles A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    Gardening produces not only vegetables and flowers, but also social and behavioral benefits. In low-income housing sites in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, gardening programs have resulted in reduced vandalism, new neighborliness, cleaned and painted buildings and streets, and other improvements. The human response to plants, and the qualities of plants that...

  10. Experiments in Horticultural Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbel, Illil

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the use of temperature and light to change the usual intervals for plant germinating, sprouting, and flowering. Provides simple experimental procedures and discussions regarding photoperiodism, forced branching before spring, and various types of seed dormancy, including physical dormancy, physiological dormancy, and double dormancy.…

  11. Experiments in Horticultural Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbel, Illil

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the use of temperature and light to change the usual intervals for plant germinating, sprouting, and flowering. Provides simple experimental procedures and discussions regarding photoperiodism, forced branching before spring, and various types of seed dormancy, including physical dormancy, physiological dormancy, and double dormancy.…

  12. Horticultural Practices. Activity Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bania, Kent; Cummings, John, Ed.

    The 88 activity guides in this document are intended to supplement the initial or organized instruction of the agricultural teacher at the secondary educational level. Some of the activities require one student to complete, others may need two or more students working in a team. Some activities also require followup checking within a few days to…

  13. Southern Horticultural Lab Update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This publication is a new quarterly update for members of the Mississippi Nursery and Landscape Association that is published quarterly in their association newsletter. Two other versions of this newsletter are being submitted to the Louisiana Nursery and Landscape Association (LALNLA) and the Alaba...

  14. Effects of exercise and horticultural intervention on the brain and mental health in older adults with depressive symptoms and memory problems: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial [UMIN000018547].

    PubMed

    Makizako, Hyuma; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-04

    Depressive symptoms and memory problems are significant risk factors for dementia. Exercise can reduce depressive symptoms and improve cognitive function in older people. In addition, the benefits of horticultural activity on physical and mental well-being have been demonstrated in people with dementia. Although evidence of such non-pharmacological interventions is mounting, no studies have examined whether physical exercise and horticultural activity exert a positive impact on brain and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms) in non-demented older adults at high risk of cognitive impairment and depression. Therefore, we propose a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and efficiency of physical exercise and horticultural activity in improving brain and mental health in community-dwelling older adults with memory problems and depressive symptoms. The 20-week randomized controlled trial will include 90 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older with memory problems and depressive symptoms. Participants will be randomized to one of three experiments: exercise, horticultural activity, or educational control group, using a 1:1:1 allocation ratio. The combined exercise program and horticultural activity program will consist of 20 weekly 90-minute sessions. Participants in the exercise group will practice aerobic exercise, muscle strength training, postural balance retraining, and dual-task training. The horticultural activity program will include crop-related activities, such as field cultivation, growing, and harvesting. Participants in the educational control group will attend two 90-minute educational classes during the 6-month trial period. Depressive symptoms and memory performance will be measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, and the Logical Memory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised will be used to measure depressive symptoms and memory performance as primary outcomes, at baseline (prior to randomization), immediately

  15. Italian horticultural and culinary records of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbitaceae) and emergence of the zucchini in 19th-century Milan.

    PubMed

    Lust, Teresa A; Paris, Harry S

    2016-07-01

    Summer squash, the young fruits of Cucurbita pepo, are a common, high-value fruit vegetable. Of the summer squash, the zucchini, C. pepo subsp. pepo Zucchini Group, is by far the most cosmopolitan. The zucchini is easily distinguished from other summer squash by its uniformly cylindrical shape and intense colour. The zucchini is a relatively new cultivar-group of C. pepo, the earliest known evidence for its existence having been a description in a book on horticulture published in Milan in 1901. For this study, Italian-language books on agriculture and cookery dating from the 16th to 19th centuries have been collected and searched in an effort to follow the horticultural development and culinary use of young Cucurbita fruits in Italy. The results indicate that Cucurbita fruits, both young and mature, entered Italian kitchens by the mid-16th century. A half-century later, round and elongate young fruits of C. pepo were addressed as separate cookery items and the latter had largely replaced the centuries-old culinary use of young, elongate bottle gourds, Lagenaria siceraria Allusion to a particular, extant cultivar of the longest fruited C. pepo, the Cocozelle Group, dates to 1811 and derives from the environs of Naples. The Italian diminutive word zucchini arose by the beginning of the 19th century in Tuscany and referred to small, mature, desiccated bottle gourds used as containers to store tobacco. By the 1840s, the Tuscan word zucchini was appropriated to young, primarily elongate fruits of C. pepo The Zucchini Group traces its origins to the environs of Milan, perhaps as early as 1850. The word zucchini and the horticultural product zucchini arose contemporaneously but independently. The results confirm that the Zucchini Group is the youngest of the four cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. pepo but it emerged approximately a half-century earlier than previously known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  16. Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) From Different Composts: Comparative Study Of Properties And Allelochemical Effects On Horticultural Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traversa, A.; Loffredo, E.; Gattullo, C. E.; Senesi, N.

    2009-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) from compost has a major role in numerous chemical and biological processes occurring in the bulk substrate or compost amended soil, and can exert allelochemical effects on plant germination and growth. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate comparatively the main properties of three DOM fractions isolated from a green compost (DOMGC), a mixed compost (DOMMC) and a green coffee compost (DOMGCC), and (ii) to evaluate their allelochemical effects on the germination and early growth of two horticultural plants of worldwide interest such as tomato and lettuce. The DOM was extracted from each compost with distilled water (1/10 w/v) under mechanical shaking for 15 min. The suspension was then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 15 min and filtered sequentially through filters with decreasing particle size retention (from 11 to 0.45 μm). Each DOM sample was characterized by means of pH, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC), E4/E6 ratio, fluorescence and FT IR spectroscopies and HPLC analysis. Comparative evaluation of the three DOM samples indicated the occurrence of significant differences among them. In particular, the pH value was similar and close to neutrality for DOMMC and DOMGC, whereas it resulted alkaline (pH 8.3) for DOMGCC. The EC values were also similar (about 3.2 mS/cm) for DOMMC and DOMGC and almost half value for DOMGCC. The TOC content, the E4/E6 ratio, the ɛ280 value and the humification index followed the same order: DOMGCC>DOMMC>DOMGC. The fluorescence analysis of the three DOM samples showed the presence of a common fluorophore unit associated to simple aromatic units such as phenolic-like, hydroxy-substituted benzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives. The peak wavelengths observed in the fluorescence emission, excitation and synchronous scan spectra of DOMGCC were generally higher than those of the two other DOM samples, which can be ascribed to a more extended aromatic system of the former. The FT

  17. Impacts of horticultural mineral oils and two insecticide practices on population fluctuation of Diaphorina citri and spread of Huanglongbing in a citrus orchard in Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Abang, Fatimah; Beattie, Andrew; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng; Wong, Sing King

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the incidence and spread of the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB) in relation to the vector Diaphorina citri population fluctuation were studied from January 1999 to December 2001 seasons in a 0.8 ha citrus orchard at Jemukan (1° 33'N, 110° 41'E), Southwest Sarawak in Malaysia. In relation to insecticide and horticultural mineral oils (HMOs) use, levels of HLB infection rose quite rapidly over the next 3 years in the unsprayed control and less rapidly in the other treatments such as imidacloprid, nC24HMO, and triazophos/cypermethrin/chlorpyrifos. Levels of HLB as determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were 42.2%, 9.4%, 11.4%, and 22.7%, respectively. The effects of nC(24)HMO and conventional pesticides on the citrus psyllid population and parasitoids in citrus orchard were also determined.

  18. Impacts of Horticultural Mineral Oils and Two Insecticide Practices on Population Fluctuation of Diaphorina citri and Spread of Huanglongbing in a Citrus Orchard in Sarawak

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Stephen Chan Teck; Abang, Fatimah; Beattie, Andrew; Kueh, Roland Jui Heng; Wong, Sing King

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the incidence and spread of the citrus disease huanglongbing (HLB) in relation to the vector Diaphorina citri population fluctuation were studied from January 1999 to December 2001 seasons in a 0.8 ha citrus orchard at Jemukan (1° 33′N, 110° 41′E), Southwest Sarawak in Malaysia. In relation to insecticide and horticultural mineral oils (HMOs) use, levels of HLB infection rose quite rapidly over the next 3 years in the unsprayed control and less rapidly in the other treatments such as imidacloprid, nC24HMO, and triazophos/cypermethrin/chlorpyrifos. Levels of HLB as determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were 42.2%, 9.4%, 11.4%, and 22.7%, respectively. The effects of nC24HMO and conventional pesticides on the citrus psyllid population and parasitoids in citrus orchard were also determined. PMID:22629178

  19. Antifungal effect of gaseous nitric oxide on mycelium growth, sporulation and spore germination of the postharvest horticulture pathogens, Aspergillus niger, Monilinia fructicola and Penicillium italicum.

    PubMed

    Lazar, E E; Wills, R B H; Ho, B T; Harris, A M; Spohr, L J

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the antifungal activity of nitric oxide (NO) against the growth of the postharvest horticulture pathogens Aspergillus niger, Monilinia fructicola and Penicillium italicum under in vitro conditions. Different volumes of NO gas were injected into the Petri dish headspace to obtain the desired concentrations of 50-500 microl l(-1). The growth of the fungi was measured for 8 days of incubation in air at 25 degrees C. All concentrations of NO were found to produce an antifungal effect on spore germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of the three fungi, with the most effective concentration for A. niger and P. italicum being 100 and 500 microl l(-1) for M. fructicola. Short-term exposure to a low concentration of NO gas was able to inhibit the subsequent growth of A. niger, M. fructicola and P. italicum. NO gas has potential use as a natural fungicide to inhibit microbial growth on postharvest fruit and vegetables.

  20. Horticultural, systems-engineering and economic evaluations of short-term plant storage techniques as a labor management tool for vegetable grafting nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Jun; Lewis, Myles; Spalholz, Hans; Tronstad, Russell

    2017-01-01

    This transdisciplinary study has a three-fold systems approach in evaluating a horticultural technology: 1) horticultural evaluations, 2) economic and resource analyses, and 3) systems engineering analyses, using low temperature storage as an example technology. Vegetable grafting is a technique to produce value-added seedlings but requires labor intensive nursery operations. Low temperature storage of seedlings for a short period of time can reduce peak production, but has not been evaluated at the extent demonstrated in this paper. Seedlings of 22 genotypes of Cucurbitaceae (cucurbit family) and Solanaceae (nightshade family) were evaluated for storability under selected temperatures and photosynthetic photon flux. Storability of Cucurbitaceous seedlings varied between 2 to 4 weeks at 12°C and 13 μmol m-2 s-1. Solanaceous seedlings were generally storable for 4 weeks at 12°C and 13 μmol m-2 s-1, but tomato seedlings could be stored for 4 weeks at 10°C and 5 μmol m-2 s-1. Capital and weekly operational costs of a low temperature storage system with a design that meets environmental requirements were estimated as $671 to $708 per m2 footprint and $0.79 to $2.21 per m2 footprint per week, respectively. Electricity costs per plant was less than 0.1 cents for 2 to 4 weeks of storage. Using a schedule-optimization heuristic and a logistics simulator previously developed for grafting nursery operations, six production scenarios consisting of two crops (tomato or watermelon) and three production peak patterns were examined to evaluate the impact of including low temperature storage. While the overall average costs of grafting labor were not significantly different, maximum labor demand and grafting labor cost during the peak production week were reduced by 31% to 50% and 14% to 30% by using storage, respectively. Therefore, low temperature storage can be an effective means to address the issue of labor management in grafting nurseries. PMID:28182757

  1. Horticultural, systems-engineering and economic evaluations of short-term plant storage techniques as a labor management tool for vegetable grafting nurseries.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Chieri; Meng, Chao; Son, Young-Jun; Lewis, Myles; Spalholz, Hans; Tronstad, Russell

    2017-01-01

    This transdisciplinary study has a three-fold systems approach in evaluating a horticultural technology: 1) horticultural evaluations, 2) economic and resource analyses, and 3) systems engineering analyses, using low temperature storage as an example technology. Vegetable grafting is a technique to produce value-added seedlings but requires labor intensive nursery operations. Low temperature storage of seedlings for a short period of time can reduce peak production, but has not been evaluated at the extent demonstrated in this paper. Seedlings of 22 genotypes of Cucurbitaceae (cucurbit family) and Solanaceae (nightshade family) were evaluated for storability under selected temperatures and photosynthetic photon flux. Storability of Cucurbitaceous seedlings varied between 2 to 4 weeks at 12°C and 13 μmol m-2 s-1. Solanaceous seedlings were generally storable for 4 weeks at 12°C and 13 μmol m-2 s-1, but tomato seedlings could be stored for 4 weeks at 10°C and 5 μmol m-2 s-1. Capital and weekly operational costs of a low temperature storage system with a design that meets environmental requirements were estimated as $671 to $708 per m2 footprint and $0.79 to $2.21 per m2 footprint per week, respectively. Electricity costs per plant was less than 0.1 cents for 2 to 4 weeks of storage. Using a schedule-optimization heuristic and a logistics simulator previously developed for grafting nursery operations, six production scenarios consisting of two crops (tomato or watermelon) and three production peak patterns were examined to evaluate the impact of including low temperature storage. While the overall average costs of grafting labor were not significantly different, maximum labor demand and grafting labor cost during the peak production week were reduced by 31% to 50% and 14% to 30% by using storage, respectively. Therefore, low temperature storage can be an effective means to address the issue of labor management in grafting nurseries.

  2. Mechanisms of pheromone communication disruption in Choristoneura rosaceana exposed to microencapsulated (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate formulated with and without horticultural oil.

    PubMed

    Wins-Purdy, Andreas H; Judd, Gary J R; Evenden, Maya L

    2008-08-01

    Flight tunnel and electrophysiological assays with male Choristoneura rosaceana Harris (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were conducted to investigate the non-competitive mechanisms of communication disruption caused by microencapsulated (MEC) (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (3M MEC-LR) formulated with and without horticultural oil (Purespray Green). Male C. rosaceana were exposed for 1 h by resting on metal surfaces sprayed with either water, 2% oil in water, MEC-LR in water, or MEC-LR + 2% oil in water. In one experiment, sprayed surfaces were allowed to age up to 47 days in a laboratory fume hood prior to moth exposure to examine the effect of ageing on the disruptive efficacy of the formulations. In flight tunnel assays with calling females, males exposed to MEC or MEC + oil treatments for 1 h were significantly disrupted up to 1 h after exposure, and both treatments were effective for 47 days. Electroantennograms revealed no reduction in antennal sensitivity when measured 75 s after a 1-h exposure. Collectively, these results support habituation as a key mechanism of communication disruption for C. rosaceana exposed to the MEC formulations tested here. Male proximity to the pheromone-treated surfaces appears to be important in maintaining a disruptive effect as MEC treatments age and pheromone release rates decline. The addition of 2% oil increased the number of microcapsules deposited on sprayed surfaces and caused a moderate but significant increase in the disruptive effect of the MEC formulation. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie disruption by MEC formulations, and how an adjuvant like horticultural oil may enhance these mechanisms, may lead to improvements in this technology.

  3. Horticultural therapy as a measure for recovery support of regional community in the disaster area: a preliminary experiment for forty five women who living certain region in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kotozaki, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    Three years have passed since the earthquake, in the coastal areas in the disaster area, by population transfer or the like from the temporary housing, the importance of the regeneration and revitalization of the local community has been pointed out. This study performed a preliminary study to aim at the psychological inspection about an effect of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction support of the disaster area. Forty five women who are living in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture participated in this study. They experienced the Great East Japan earthquake in 2011 and suffered some kind of damage caused by the earthquake. The participants were assigned to two groups, the intervention group and the control group, via a random draw using a computer. The HI group attended the horticultural therapy intervention (HT intervention) sessions for 16 weeks. The HT intervention was designed in collaboration with a horticultural therapist and clinical psychologists. This intervention comprised a total of 16 weekly sessions (120 min each) at the community center and 15 minutes per day at participants' homes. We used five psychological measures for an intervention evaluation. The HI group showed a significant increase in post- intervention SCI-2 total scores, post- intervention SCI-2 membership scores, post-intervention SCI-2 influence scores, post- intervention SCI-2 meeting needs scores, post- intervention SCI-2 shared emotional connection scores, and post- intervention RSES score. We believe that these results suggest the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction.

  4. Tri-Tek (Petroleum Horticultural Oil) and Beauveria bassiana: Use in Eradication Strategies for Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species in UK Glasshouses

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Collins, Debbie A.

    2015-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of global importance on both outdoor and glasshouse crops. To date, B. tabaci has not become established in the UK. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Mediterranean species is now the most prevalent Bemisia species entering the UK. Increasing neonicotinoid resistance is becoming increasingly widespread and problematic with this species. As a result, this continues to pose problems for eradication strategies. The current study investigates the efficacy of Tri-Tek (a petroleum horticultural oil awaiting UK registration) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana to act as control agents against Mediterranean species in UK glasshouses. Tri-Tek provided 100% egg mortality compared to 74% for B. bassiana. When tested against second instar larvae, mortalities of 69% and 65% respectively were achieved. Both products can be successfully “tank-mixed”. A tank-mix application provided 95.5% mortality of second instar larvae under glasshouse conditions. The potential integration of both products into current Bemisia eradication strategies in UK glasshouses is discussed. PMID:26463071

  5. Assessment of pesticide contamination in soil samples from an intensive horticulture area, using ultrasonic extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F

    2005-03-15

    In order to reduce the amount of sample to be collected and the time consumed in the analytical process, a broad range of analytes should be preferably considered in the same analytical procedure. A suitable methodology for pesticide residue analysis in soil samples was developed based on ultrasonic extraction (USE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For this study, different classes of pesticides were selected, both recent and old persistent molecules: parent compounds and degradation products, namely organochlorine, organophosphorous and pyrethroid insecticides, triazine and acetanilide herbicides and other miscellaneous pesticides. Pesticide residues could be detected in the low- to sub-ppb range (0.05-7.0mugkg(-1)) with good precision (7.5-20.5%, average 13.7% R.S.D.) and extraction efficiency (69-118%, average 88%) for the great majority of analytes. This methodology has been applied in a monitoring program of soil samples from an intensive horticulture area in Póvoa de Varzim, North of Portugal. The pesticides detected in four sampling programs (2001/2002) were the following: lindane, dieldrin, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, atrazine, desethylatrazine, alachlor, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, pendimethalin, procymidone and chlorfenvinphos. Pesticide contamination was investigated at three depths and in different soil and crop types to assess the influence of soil characteristics and trends over time.

  6. Treatment Effect of Antipsychotics in Combination with Horticultural Therapy on Patients with Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, Shunhong; WAN, Hengjing; LU, Zhide; WU, Huiping; ZHANG, Qun; QIAN, Xiaoqiong; YE, Chenyu

    2016-01-01

    Background As a newly developed treatment method for schizophrenia, horticultural therapy is gaining more attention. However, there is as of now little research investigating this topic as well as a general lack of studies adopting into standard treatment plans. Aims Investigate treatment effect of horticultural therapy on patients with schizophrenia and its possibility of standardized application in psychiatric hospitals. Methods 110 patients with schizophrenia who met the inclusion criteria and provided informed consent were selected from the rehabilitation ward of the Minhang District Mental Health Center from September 2015 to December 2015. We used random-number methods to classify patients into either the intervention group or the control group. While the two groups both received normal medications, the intervention group also attended horticultural therapy. Patients in the intervention group were led by a rehabilitation therapist who had obtained the level II psychological counselor qualification (the standard qualification for counselors in China). The treatment period lasted for 12 weeks. Treatment was held 3 times every week and each session lasted for 90 minutes. The specific contents included ridging, planting, watering, fertilizing and pruning of flowers; plowing, sowing, watering, fertilizing, weeding and catching pests for gardens; appreciating, collecting vegetables, cooking and tasting for flowers and grasses. During the final 10 minutes of every session, patients mutually expressed their thoughts and experiences and the rehabilitation therapist concluded the session. The two groups were measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline, the end of the 4th week and the end of the 12th week. Results There was no statistically significant difference in gender, age, course of disease, marital status, mean dosage of antipsychotic medications and PANSS score before the intervention among two groups. The PANSS score in the

  7. Tri-Tek (Petroleum Horticultural Oil) and Beauveria bassiana: Use in Eradication Strategies for Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species in UK Glasshouses.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Collins, Debbie A

    2015-02-12

    The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest of global importance on both outdoor and glasshouse crops. To date, B. tabaci has not become established in the UK. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Mediterranean species is now the most prevalent Bemisia species entering the UK. Increasing neonicotinoid resistance is becoming increasingly widespread and problematic with this species. As a result, this continues to pose problems for eradication strategies. The current study investigates the efficacy of Tri-Tek (a petroleum horticultural oil awaiting UK registration) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana to act as control agents against Mediterranean species in UK glasshouses. Tri-Tek provided 100% egg mortality compared to 74% for B. bassiana. When tested against second instar larvae, mortalities of 69% and 65% respectively were achieved. Both products can be successfully "tank-mixed". A tank-mix application provided 95.5% mortality of second instar larvae under glasshouse conditions. The potential integration of both products into current Bemisia eradication strategies in UK glasshouses is discussed.

  8. Relationships between past and present pesticide applications and pollution at a watershed outlet: The case of a horticultural catchment in Martinique, French West Indies.

    PubMed

    Mottes, Charles; Lesueur Jannoyer, Magalie; Le Bail, Marianne; Guéné, Mathilde; Carles, Céline; Malézieux, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The understanding of factors affecting pesticide transfers to catchment outlet is still at a very early stage in tropical context, and especially on tropical volcanic context. We performed on-farm pesticide use surveys during 87 weeks and monitored pesticides in water weekly during 67 weeks at the outlet of a small catchment in Martinique. We identified three types of pollution. First, we showed long-term chronic pollution by chlordecone, diuron and metolachlor resulting from horticultural practices applied 5-20 years ago (quantification frequency higher than 80%). Second, we showed peak pollution. High amounts of propiconazole and fosthiazate applied at low frequencies caused river pollution peaks for weeks following a single application. Low amounts of diquat and diazinon applied at low frequencies also caused pollution peaks. The high amounts of glyphosate applied at high frequency resulted into pollution peaks by glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in 6 and 20% of the weeks. Any intensification of their uses will result in higher pollution levels. Third, relatively low amounts of glufosinate-ammonium, difenoconazol, spinosad and metaldehyde were applied at high frequencies. Unexpectedly, such pesticides remained barely detected (<1.5%) or undetected in water samples. We showed that AMPA, fosthiazate and propiconazole have serious leaching potential. They might result in future chronic pollution of shallow aquifers alimenting surface water. We prove that to avoid the past errors and decrease the risk of long-term pollution of water resources, it is urgent to reduce or stop the use of pesticides with leaching potential by changing agricultural practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial and seasonal variations of pesticide contamination in agricultural soils and crops sample from an intensive horticulture area of Hohhot, North-West China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fujin; He, Jiang; Yao, Yiping; Hou, Dekun; Jiang, Cai; Zhang, Xinxin; Di, Caixia; Otgonbayar, Khureldavaa

    2013-08-01

    The spatial variability and temporal trend in concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), in soils and agricultural corps were investigated on an intensive horticulture area in Hohhot, North-West China, from 2008 to 2011. The most frequently found and abundant pesticides were the metabolites of DDT (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD). Total DDT concentrations ranged from ND (not detectable) to 507.41 ng/g and were higher than the concentration of total HCHs measured for the range of 4.84-281.44 ng/g. There were significantly positive correlations between the ∑DDT and ∑HCH concentrations (r (2)>0.74) in soils, but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of OCPs in soils and clay content while a relatively strong correlation was found between total OCP concentrations and total organic carbon (TOC). β-HCH was the main isomer of HCHs, and was detected in all samples; the maximum proportion of β-HCH compared to ∑HCHs (mean value 54%) was found, suggesting its persistence. The α/γ-HCH ratio was between 0.89 and 5.39, which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in N1, N3 and N9 were found, reflecting the fresh input of DDTs, while the relatively high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicated the agricultural application of dicofol. Ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) in soils do not indicate recent inputs of DDT into Hohhot farmland soil environment. Seasonal variations of OCPs featured higher concentrations in autumn and lower concentrations in spring. This was likely associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization and application of dicofol in late spring.

  10. Genome-Wide Differentiation of Various Melon Horticultural Groups for Use in GWAS for Fruit Firmness and Construction of a High Resolution Genetic Map

    PubMed Central

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Tomason, Yan R.; Abburi, Venkata L.; Alvarado, Alejandra; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Vajja, Venkata G.; Salazar, Germania; Panicker, Girish K.; Levi, Amnon; Wechter, William P.; McCreight, James D.; Korol, Abraham B.; Ronin, Yefim; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Reddy, Umesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a phenotypically diverse eudicot diploid (2n = 2x = 24) has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and show wide variation for fruit firmness, an important trait for transportation and shelf life. We generated 13,789 SNP markers using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and anchored them to chromosomes to understand genome-wide fixation indices (Fst) between various melon morphotypes and genomewide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. The FST between accessions of cantalupensis and inodorus was 0.23. The FST between cantalupensis and various agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.19–0.53 and between inodorus and agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.21–0.59 indicating sporadic to wide ranging introgression. The EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm was used for estimation of 1436 haplotypes. Average genome-wide LD decay for the melon genome was noted to be 9.27 Kb. In the current research, we focused on the genome-wide divergence underlying diverse melon horticultural groups. A high-resolution genetic map with 7153 loci was constructed. Genome-wide segregation distortion and recombination rate across various chromosomes were characterized. Melon has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and wide variation for fruit firmness, a very important trait for transportation and shelf life. Various levels of QTLs were identified with high to moderate stringency and linked to fruit firmness using both genome-wide association study (GWAS) and biparental mapping. Gene annotation revealed some of the SNPs are located in β-D-xylosidase, glyoxysomal malate synthase, chloroplastic anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase, and histidine kinase, the genes that were previously characterized for fruit ripening and softening in other crops. PMID:27713759

  11. Horticultural therapy: a pilot study on modulating cortisol levels and indices of substance craving, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and quality of life in veterans.

    PubMed

    Detweiler, Mark B; Self, Jennifer A; Lane, Sandra; Spencer, Luise; Lutgens, Brian; Kim, Dong-Yun; Halling, Mary H; Rudder, Tammie C; Lehmann, Lauren P

    2015-01-01

    Horticultural therapy (HT) is a subgroup of occupational therapy (OT). Both HT and OT have been successful as adjunctive treatment modalities in substance abuse treatment. Studies have indicated that gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress. The study intended to assess the effect of HT versus nonhorticultural OT on cortisol levels, depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol cravings, and quality of life. The research team designed a randomized pilot study. The study was open for participation from July 2012-October 2012. It took place during multiple occurrences of a 28-d treatment programs for substance use disorder at a Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants • Participants were 49 veterans, averaging 46.4 y old (SD = 11.9); the dropout rate was 37%. Participants were randomly assigned to the HT or the OT group. They attended supervised HT and OT groups 5 h/d for 3 wk. Outcome Measures • Pre- and posttreatment, participants completed the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF), the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire (ACQ-NOW), the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Civilian Version (PCLC), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Salivary cortisol samples were taken at wk 1, 2, and 3. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (F2,20 = 0.878) revealed that the HT performed was associated with a 12% reduction in salivary cortisol levels from wk 1 to wk 3, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .43). Separate 1-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) revealed no statistically significant differences in the self-administered tests, although both the Q-LES-Q-SF and CES-D showed a trend toward improving quality of life and depressive symptoms in the HT group compared with the OT group. Additional analysis of the nonbiologic tests suggests that most participants in the HT and OT had some benefit from the

  12. Evolution of water repellency of organic growing media used in Horticulture and consequences on hysteretic behaviours of the water retention curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Jean-Charles; Qi, Guifang; Charpentier, Sylvain; Boivin, Pascal

    2010-05-01

    Most of growing media used in horticulture (particularly peat substrates) shows hysteresis phenomena during desiccation and rehydration cycles, which greatly affects their hydraulic properties. The origins of these properties have often been related to one or several of the specific mechanisms such as the non-geometrical uniformity of the pores (also called ‘ink bottle' effect), presence of trapped air, shrinkage-swelling phenomena, and changes in water repellency. However, recent results showed that changes in wettability during desiccation and rehydration could be considered as one of the main factors leading to hysteretic behaviour in these materials with high organic matter contents (Naasz et al., 2008). The general objective was to estimate the evolutions of changes in water repellency on the water retention properties and associated hysteresis phenomena in relation to the intensity and the number of drying/wetting cycles. For this, simultaneous shrinkage/swelling and water retention curves were obtained using method previously developed for soil shrinkage analysis by Boivin (2006) that we have adapted for growing media and to their physical behaviours during rewetting. The experiment was performed in a climatic chamber at 20°C. A cylinder with the growing medium tested was placed on a porous ceramic disk which is used to control the pressure and to full/empty water of the sample. The whole of the device was then placed on a balance to record the water loss/storage with time; whereas linear displacement transducers were used to measure the changes in sample height and diameter upon drying and wetting in the axial and radial directions. Ceramic cups (2 cm long and 0.21 cm diameter) connected to pressure transducers were inserted in the middle of the samples to record the water pressure head. In parallell, contact angles were measured by direct droplet method at different steps during the drying/rewetting cycles. First results obtained on weakly decomposed

  13. Horticulture. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Wooster. Agricultural Technical Inst.

    This tech prep competency profile (TCP), which was developed by a consortium of Ohio educators and business/industry representatives, lists the competencies that have been identified as necessary for employment in the following occupations: nursery technician; golf course superintendent; landscape designer/manager; lawn care specialist; tree care…

  14. Microbiological Horticultural Internship Final Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Shane R.; Spencer, Lashelle (Editor)

    2017-01-01

    GMO dwarf plum (Prunus domestica) is being evaluated as a candidate food crop for long duration space flight missions. A project was undertaken to develop a protocol for transferring selected genetic lines of GMO plum (previously maintained in pots and propagated by cuttings at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida) into in vitro tissue culture. In vitro culture may reduce the space, materials, and labor required to maintain the current lines of GMO plum and better preserve them for future study. Fresh plant material from three selected GMO plum lines (NASA-5, NASA-10, and NASA-11) and a non-modified control line (Control-5) were processed aseptically into in vitro culture on four separate occasions. The impact of multiple treatments on the successful growth of GMO plum tissue in vitro were tested: Parent explant tissue type (leaf petioles, stem nodes containing buds and internodes without buds), tissue sterilization method [soaking in 10 bleach only (5 min for petioles or 10 min for nodesinternodes), or soaking in 70 EtOH (30 sec) followed by 10 bleach (5 min for petioles and 10 min for nodesinternodes)], and media type [three Murashige and Skoog-based medias (SGM, SRM, and SRM+2,4-D) and one recipe containing woody plant media (WPM)]. 22.2 of the plates containing tissue sterilized with bleach alone developed microbial contamination after two weeks, while only 11.8 of plates containing tissue sterilized sequentially with EtOH and bleach developed contamination. Node bud tissue from all four genetic lines of plum produced leafy plantlets on SGM and SRM media after 4-6 weeks. The most numerous and well-developed plantlets were present on SGM. Upon reaching suitable size, plantlets were transferred to larger media containers for further growth. Some node bud growth occurred on SRM+2,4-D and WPM 2.5 weeks after plating, however as of yet no pieces on SRM+2,4-D have adequate development for transferring. Tissue pieces from NASA-5 plated on WPM are developing leaves and will be ready for transferring soon. Petioles and internode tissue lacking bud meristem failed to produce any plantlets on any plates, however petioles developed large masses of undifferentiated callus tissue on SRM+2,4-D media. These callused pieces were then transferred to SRM+TDZ media, which resulted in even larger callus growth but no differentiation. All four selected plum lines were successfully transitioned into in vitro culture. Nodes from NASA-5 and NASA-10 lines produced the most numerous and well-developed leafy plantlets in vitro, while those from NASA-11 and Control-5 were generally smaller, slower growing and less numerous. The best method overall was to use young stem node tissue with buds, surface sterilize the pieces sequentially with 70 EtOH and 10 bleach, and then plate them onto SGM media. Future areas of study will include introducing additional genetic lines of GMO plum into in vitro culture, attempting to induce shoot growth in petiole callus tissue, testing methods (such as cold storage) that extend the time interval between transferring explants into new media, and testing viability of plantlets transferred from in vitro culture back to traditional pot culture.

  15. Bitter Gourd: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bitter gourd fruits are a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals and have the highest nutritive value among cucurbits. Moreover, the crude protein content (11.4-20.9 g.kg-1) of bitter gourd fruits is higher than that of tomato and cucumber. This book chapter focuses on the ...

  16. Transgenic horticultural crops in Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modern biotechnology applications, including genetic engineering, are a powerful tool to complement the conventional methods of crop improvement. Asia currently has three countries cultivating biotech/transgenic crops – China, India, and the Philippines, but only China commercially grows a transgen...

  17. Technology base for microgravity horticulture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Magnuson, J. W.; Scruby, R. R.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced microgravity plant biology research and life support system development for the spacecraft environment are critically hampered by the lack of a technology base. This inadequacy stems primarily from the fact that microgravity results in a lack of convective currents and phase separation as compared to the one gravity environment. A program plan is being initiated to develop this technology base. This program will provide an iterative flight development effort that will be closely integrated with both basic science investigations and advanced life support system development efforts incorporating biological processes. The critical considerations include optimum illumination methods, root aeration, root and shoot support, and heat rejection and gas exchange in the plant canopy.

  18. Nickel: Impact on horticultural characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge by practitioners regarding the potential impact of nickel nutritional physiology on pecan orchard profitability is a limiting factor in optimization of physiological efficiency of orchard enterprises. Knowledge by farmers and extension specialists about the role of nickel, a newly recogni...

  19. Exploring Careers in Ornamental Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati Public Schools, OH.

    The career exploration program for grades 9 through 10, as part of a comprehensive K through 10 career development program, attempts to develop an awareness of and appreciation for work, extend knowledge of the variety of career opportunities, and provide experiences in career areas of individual interest. The document, a collection of materials…

  20. Horticulture. Tech Prep Competency Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Wooster. Agricultural Technical Inst.

    This tech prep competency profile (TCP), which was developed by a consortium of Ohio educators and business/industry representatives, lists the competencies that have been identified as necessary for employment in the following occupations: nursery technician; golf course superintendent; landscape designer/manager; lawn care specialist; tree care…

  1. Horticulture. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This list consists of essential competencies from the following specialized Ohio Competency Analysis Profiles: Floriculutre and Greenhouse Worker; Nursery and Garden Center Worker; and Turf and Landscape Worker. Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency…

  2. Selenium Enrichment of Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Puccinelli, Martina; Malorgio, Fernando; Pezzarossa, Beatrice

    2017-06-04

    The ability of some crops to accumulate selenium (Se) is crucial for human nutrition and health. Selenium has been identified as a cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which is a catalyzer in the reduction of peroxides that can damage cells and tissues, and can act as an antioxidant. Plants are the first link in the food chain, which ends with humans. Increasing the Se quantity in plant products, including leafy and fruity vegetables, and fruit crops, without exceeding the toxic threshold, is thus a good way to increase animal and human Se intake, with positive effects on long-term health. In many Se-enriched plants, most Se is in its major organic form. Given that this form is more available to humans and more efficient in increasing the selenium content than inorganic forms, the consumption of Se-enriched plants appears to be beneficial. An antioxidant effect of Se has been detected in Se-enriched vegetables and fruit crops due to an improved antioxidative status and to a reduced biosynthesis of ethylene, which is the hormone with a primary role in plant senescence and fruit ripening. This thus highlights the possible positive effect of Se in preserving a longer shelf-life and longer-lasting quality.

  3. 2005 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Secondary Horticulture. (Program CIP: 01.0601 - Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Operations, General)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Curriculum Unit, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Secondary vocational-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  4. Organic Horticulture in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrocco, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    This report is based on five years experience working with primary and secondary school teachers in Italy to develop organic farming as an activity for students. The tasks involved were intended to develop our students' environmental awareness, allow them to produce food organically and show that market gardening could be a productive hobby. In…

  5. Biological/Horticultural Internship Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Shane R.; Spencer, Lashelle (Editor)

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine water use requirements of genetically modified (GMO) dwarf plum. GMO plum and unmodified standard plum plants were grown in a controlled environment chamber under varying CO2 concentrations (400 ppm, 1500 ppm, and 5000 ppm). Pepper plants were also grown in the chamber for additional comparison. Leaf stomatal conductance, biomass accumulation, soil moisture and pot weights were measured; Stomatal conductance of GMO plum and pepper plants decreased at sustained elevated CO2 concentrations. The stomatal conductance rates of the standard plums, however, increased at sustained elevated CO2 concentrations. Further data analysis (statistical analysis, biomass, soil moisture and pot weight measurements) is ongoing and required to gain better understanding of the data. An additional proof-of-concept study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of grafting unmodified standard plum scions onto genetically modified rootstocks as a propagation method. Bud grafts were performed on three GMO plum rootstocks: NASA-5, NASA-10, and NASA-11. All of the standard plum buds grafted onto NASA-5 and NASA-10 rootstocks began growing, indicating that this grafting method is highly successful for the formation of a graft union and initial bud growth. However, bud growth during stem elongation was curtailed on several grafts due to a combination of nutritional deficiency and physical damage/obstruction of the grafted tissues. Bud growth on the NASA-5 rootstock occurred sooner than in grafts on the NASA-10 rootstock, while only one bud graft has shown growth on the NASA-11 rootstock thus far. These marked differences in the onset of bud growth suggest genotypic differences between the rootstocks may affect bud graft vigor. Mature standard plum scions grown on the NASA-5 rootstock appeared to retain most or all of the physical characteristics of the standard plum donor plant.

  6. Rhubarb botany, horticulture, and genetic resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhubarb (Rheum spp.) is native to areas around the Tibetan Plateau and has been cultivated for medicinal purposes for approximately 4,000 years. The roots (rhizomes) of species in this genus are rich in anthraquinones and other biochemicals that may show promise in treating or preventing cancer, dia...

  7. Transgenic horticultural crops: challenges and opportunities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    At the dawn of the twenty-first century, food insecurity and malnutrition continue to plague humankind, especially in third-world countries. It has been estimated that world food supplies must increase by up to 50% over the next 20 years due to population growth, even while farming land is being ra...

  8. Organic Horticulture in the Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrocco, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    This report is based on five years experience working with primary and secondary school teachers in Italy to develop organic farming as an activity for students. The tasks involved were intended to develop our students' environmental awareness, allow them to produce food organically and show that market gardening could be a productive hobby. In…

  9. Thrips management program for horticultural crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article presents a systems approach for managing key thrips pests including western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) and chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) known to cause millions of dollars loss annually. Thrips small size (1-2 mm), thigmotactic behavior, high reproductive rate an...

  10. Horticulture Rediscovered: The Flowering of American Schoolyards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Maureen

    This paper discusses the benefits of having gardens at schools. School gardens are a practical and effective way to connect children with nature, teach hands-on science and environmental education, and beautify barren school grounds. In order for all United States schools to establish gardens, school ground improvement must become an important…

  11. Competence Development of Entrepreneurs in Innovative Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martin; Lans, Thomas; Verstegen, Jos; Biemans, Harm; Meijer, Ypie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the learning of entrepreneurs in authentic learning environments. The research questions are: How do entrepreneurs assess their compentencies, and how do employees and external consultants assess the compentencies of these entrepreneurs? What are the competence strengths and weaknesses of…

  12. My journey from horticulture to plant biology.

    PubMed

    Zeevaart, Jan A D

    2009-01-01

    The author describes the circumstances and opportunities that led him to higher education and to pursue a research career in plant biology. He acknowledges the important roles a few individuals played in guiding him in his career. His early work on flowering was followed by studies on the physiological roles and the metabolism of gibberellins and abscisic acid. He describes how collaborations and technical developments advanced his research from measuring hormones by bioassay to their identification and quantification by mass spectrometry and cloning of hormone biosynthetic genes.

  13. Integrated architectures for a horticultural application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, Natalie R.; Rodrigo, T. Surangi

    1998-10-01

    For many applications, which involve the processing and handling of highly variable natural products, conventional automation techniques are inadequate. Field applications involving the processing and handling of these products have the additional complication of dealing with a dynamically changing environment. Automated systems for these applications must be capable of sensing the variability of each product item and adjusting the way each product item is processed to accommodate that variability. For automation to be feasible, both fast processing of sensor information and fast determination of how product items are handled, is vital. The combination of sensor equipped mobile robotic systems with artificial intelligence techniques is a potential solution for the automation of many of these applications. The aim of this research is to develop a software architecture which incorporates robotic task planning and control for a variety of applications involving the processing of naturally varying products. In this paper we discuss the results from the initial laboratory trials for an asparagus harvesting application.

  14. COURSE OUTLINE FOR HORTICULTURE-SERVICE OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PUBLICATION OF THIS AND OTHER DOCUMENTS IN THE SERIES ON OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS WAS THE RESULT OF AN EFFORT TO ASSIST STATE AND LOCAL LEADERS IN DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMS. PRIME CONSIDERATION WAS GIVEN TO DATA FROM SEVERAL STATE STUDIES AND DEVELOPMENT WAS BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. THE PURPOSE OF THE COURSE IS TO ASSIST HIGH…

  15. Horticultural traits associated with cacao accessions recommended for Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important agricultural product from which the international chocolate industry is based upon. Increasing demand for chocolate, especially in emerging markets in Asia, coupled with reduced worldwide production has led to shortfalls in cacao ‘bean’ supplies. Deficits...

  16. Potential for engineering horticultural crops with high-antioxidant capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cellular oxidation index has emerged as an important determinant in defining the fate of a living cell and its susceptibility to disease. Oxidative stress targets include oxidation of DNA, protein and lipids, causing cellular oncogenesis, chronic diseases and premature senescence. That dietary inte...

  17. Residual pyrethroids in fresh horticultural products in Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aldana-Madrid, Maria L; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Silveira-Gramont, Maria I; Rodríguez-Olibarría, Guillermo; Grajeda-Cota, Patricia; Zuno-Floriano, Fabiola G; Miller, Marion G

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the presence of cyhialothrin, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin in vegetables produced and consumed in Sonora, Mexico. A total of 345 samples were collected from cluster sampling of markets and fields. Approximately 9% of the samples tested positive for pyrethroids (residue range 0.004-0.573 mg kg(-1)). Based on the results, the potential toxicological risk of human exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides measured in vegetables appears to be minimal, with the estimated exposure being 1,000 times lower than admissible levels.

  18. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... account by the patron for purposes of section 199. (m) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this section: Example 1. (i) Cooperative X markets corn grown by its members within the United... section 199(d)(3) and this section. Example 2. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that...

  19. Salinity-induced enhancement of horticultural crop quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most arid or semi-arid areas of modern irrigated agriculture are subjected to growing water security uncertainties. Surface and subsurface water allocation is a complex system of competing and interacting demands from agricultural, urban, industrial,environmental, tribal and recreational groups. Agr...

  20. Use of cryotherapy to eradicate pathogens from horticultural crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryotherapy is a method by which pathogens are eliminated from infected plant materials through the process of exposing the shoot tips to cryogenic temperatures and then recovering them. It has been successfully implemented in potato, sweet potato, grapevine, raspberry, Prunus, and other fruit crops...

  1. Effects of outplanting horticultural species on soil CO2 efflux

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is widely thought to be the main driving factor behind global climate change. Much of the work on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and methods of carbon (C) sequestration has been conducted in row crop and forest systems; however, virt...

  2. Soil carbon as affected by horticultural species and growth media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) are widely believed to be a main contributing factor to climate change. United States agriculture is one of the largest contributors of GHG emissions, trailing only energy production, which leads scientists to believe that emissions fro...

  3. Core IV Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemp, Paul; And Others

    This core curriculum guide consists of materials for use in presenting a 13-unit vocational agriculture course geared toward high school students living in metropolitan areas. Addressed in the individual units of the course are the following topics: employment in agricultural occupations, supervised occupational experience, leadership in…

  4. EFFICACY OF NOVEL WATER DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES IN HORTICULTURAL NUTRIENT RECYCLING.

    PubMed

    Heungens, K; Clierinck, M; Inghelbrecht, S; Vissers, M

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponic systems used for growing potted ornamentals in greenhouses are commonly ebb-and-flow irrigation systems. The drainage water is usually recycled to save water and nutrients. To avoid the spread of pathogens in these closed irrigation systems, disinfection of the recycled water is standard practice. Growers can use slow sand filtration or UV-radiation techniques, but these methods are often either not sulted for specific problems or they require an excessively large investment. The objective of this study was to test less expensive but effective alternative disinfection systems. The efficacy of five disinfection systems against fungi and oomycetes was determined: Aqua-Hort (based on Cu-ions), Reciclean (performic acid), D1-OX Forte (CIO2), ECA (electrochemically activated water = anodic oxidation: hypochlorite and free radicals) and Newtec (also anodic oxidation). These five systems and a no-sterilization control were integrated in small closed ebb-and-flow circuits with nutrient solution reservoirs of 400 L each. Activity against Fusarium was excellent with ECA, good with Newtec and DI-OX Forte, moderate with high doses of Reciclean (250 ppm H2O2 and poor with the Aqua-Hort. There was no Pythium in the ECA and Newtec systems, while still so in the Aqua-Hort system, even at high doses (up to 7 ppm Cu++). Although the Reciclean (up to 100 ppm H2O2) and Aqua-Hort systems did not perform well against the pathogens, they did very well against algae; especially Reciclean was also useful against duckweed in water and liverwort on soil substrates. Concentrations of total Cl were elevated in water, substrate and plants after treatments with ECA and Newtec; other accumulations were Cu (Aqua-Hort), Na and SO4 (DI-OX Forte). However, only on a limited number of plant species these accumulations produced phytotoxic effects.

  5. Citrus production systems to survive greening – horticultural practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit yield is a critical component in the long-term profitability of citrus growers in Florida. Increasingly, two factors outside the control of the growers are forcing Florida citrus growers to re-evaluate the sustainability of their current operations. These factors are: 1) impact of canker and ...

  6. Mode of action of air pollutants in injuring horticultural plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, T.W.; Kobriger, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    An attempt has been made to condense the great volume of literature for many different air pollutants and from many different plant systems. Only those responses that have been reported for several species are emphasized and the discussion is limited to responses obtained with intact plants. The general outline provides a focus; uptake becomes the crucial aspect of whether or not plants are injured by air pollutants. Pollutants must get into the plant to cause injury and the primary portal of entry is through the open stomata. Once into the plant, pollutants alter biochemical reactions, resulting in cell injury and causing economic losses for horticulturists. The authors have developed this outline for the pollutants sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), hydrogen fluoride (HF), ozone (O/sub 3/), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), which are the most common and and most damaging gaseous pollutants in the ambient environment.

  7. 2008 Mississippi Curriculum Framework: Postsecondary Irrigation Management Technology. (Program CIP:01.0699 - Applied Horticulture/Horticultural Business Services, Other)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    As the world economy continues to evolve, businesses and industries must adopt new practices and processes in order to survive. Quality and cost control, work teams and participatory management, and an infusion of technology are transforming the way people work and do business. Employees are now expected to read, write, and communicate…

  8. Agriculture, Levels 1-4. Agriculture & Commercial Horticulture, Levels 1-4. Commercial Horticulture, Levels 1-3. Environmental Conservation, Levels 2-4. National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technology Education Council, London (England).

    Britain's National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work qualifications that measure what an employee or potential employee can do as well as how much he or she knows and understands about a particular job. Used as written proof of usable workplace skills that can be put to profitable use by an employer, NVQs range from basic Level 1, for…

  9. A simple method for screening antimicrobial compounds with application to horticultural crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is often difficult to extrapolate information obtained under laboratory conditions to the field. This is especially true in the case of translating reactions between microorganisms grown in a Petri dish with experimental antimicrobials, and using these experimental compounds in commercial applic...

  10. Evaluation of potato anaerobic digestate as a renewable alternative to peat moss in horticultural substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato peels and other low-value wastes from potato processing are currently being used as cattle feed or fermented to produce fuel-grade ethanol. The anaerobic fermentation of food wastes, including potato processing wastes, produces biogas (principally methane), which can be used directly for heat...

  11. Influence of organic amendments on soil quality potential indicators in an urban horticultural system.

    PubMed

    González, Mirta; Gomez, Elena; Comese, Romina; Quesada, Mariano; Conti, Marta

    2010-11-01

    The short-term response of some soil physical, chemical and biological properties, and the growth of beet, to the application of vermicompost-compost mix and/or bone meal at different doses in an organic system was evaluated in the present work. Fractions of soil organic matter after amendment application were also evaluated. Though no differences were found in oxidizable carbon, the particulate organic carbon was incremented in treatments with the application of vermicompost-compost mix (VC) and the combination of compost and bone meal (VC-BM). When analyzing the fulvic, humic and humin fractions, the highest fulvic acids were found in vermi-compost and bone meal mix, at the higher dose (VC2-BM2). In general, the addition of compost and/or bone meal stimulated microbial respiration. The treatments produced a slight but significant increase in electrical conductivity, thought it was still far from limits that involve risk of salinization. An increment in extractable P was found in all the treatments with amendment application with the exception of bone meal applied at the lower dose (1kgm(-2)). The cation exchange capacity showed a significant increment in VC2-BM2. A single application of VC at dose of 2kgm(-2) was enough to significantly reduce bulk density. An increment in kg dry matter m(-2) of beet was observed in all the treatments, but it only was significant in VC2-BM2. However, the highest N and P concentration was found in beet aerial tissues from the treatments with the higher dose of the compost-vermicompost mix (VC2 and VC2-BM2). Particulate organic carbon, fulvic acid fraction, C from respiration, and bulk density were the soil properties that showed a positive change after amendment application. Treatment combining vermicompost-compost and bone meal (VC2-BM2) seemed to be the best option to achieve an improvement both in soil and crop production and quality.

  12. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(5)-1 - Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... those engaged in such pursuits, the improvement of the grade of their products, and the development of a... otherwise exempt from tax under section 501(a) are taxable upon their unrelated business taxable income. See...

  13. Climate change and shifts in spring phenology of three horticultural woody perennials in northeastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, David W.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Lakso, Alan N.; Otsuki, Yuka; Pool, Robert M.; Shaulis, Nelson J.

    2005-05-01

    We evaluated spring phenology changes from 1965 to 2001 in northeastern USA utilizing a unique data set from 72 locations with genetically identical lilac plants (Syringa chinensis, clone “Red Rothomagensis”). We also utilized a previously validated lilac-honeysuckle “spring index” model to reconstruct a more complete record of first leaf date (FLD) and first flower date (FFD) for the region from historical weather data. In addition, we examined mid-bloom dates for apple (Malus domestica) and grape (Vitis vinifera) collected at several sites in the region during approximately the same time period. Almost all lilac sites with significant linear trends for FLD or FFD versus year had negative slopes (advanced development). Regression analysis of pooled data for the 72 sites indicated an advance of -0.092 day/year for FFD (P=0.003). The slope for FLD was also negative (-0.048 day/year), but not significant (P=0.234). The simulated data from the “spring index” model, which relies on local daily temperature records, indicated highly significant (P<0.001) negative slopes of -0.210 and -0.123 day/year for FLD and FFD, respectively. Data collected for apple and grape also indicated advance spring development, with slopes for mid-bloom date versus year of -0.20 day/year (P=0.01) and -0.146 (P=0.14), respectively. Collectively, these results indicate an advance in spring phenology ranging from 2 to 8 days for these woody perennials in northeastern USA for the period 1965 to 2001, qualitatively consistent with a warming trend, and consistent with phenology shifts reported for other mid- and high-latitude regions.

  14. GiNA, an efficient and high-throughput software for horticultural phenotyping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional methods for trait phenotyping have been a bottleneck for research in many crop species due to their intensive labor, high cost, complex implementation, lack of reproducibility and propensity to subjective bias. Recently, multiple high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed,...

  15. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2–6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non-suppressive soils, but the former showed a higher degree of similarity between both suppressive soils than the later. PMID:26925080

  16. Role of ethylene receptors during senescence and ripening in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Choudhary, Divya; Singh, Virendra P.; Arora, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    The past two decades have been rewarding in terms of deciphering the ethylene signal transduction and functional validation of the ethylene receptor and downstream genes involved in the cascade. Our knowledge of ethylene receptors and its signal transduction pathway provides us a robust platform where we can think of manipulating and regulating ethylene sensitivity by the use of genetic engineering and making transgenic. This review focuses on ethylene perception, receptor mediated regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, role of ethylene receptors in flower senescence, fruit ripening and other effects induced by ethylene. The expression behavior of the receptor and downstream molecules in climacteric and non climacteric crops is also elaborated upon. Possible strategies and recent advances in altering the ethylene sensitivity of plants using ethylene receptor genes in an attempt to modulate the regulation and sensitivity to ethylene have also been discussed. Not only will these transgenic plants be a boon to post-harvest physiology and crop improvement but, it will also help us in discovering the mechanism of regulation of ethylene sensitivity. PMID:22751331

  17. Spread of Botrytis cinerea Strains with Multiple Fungicide Resistance in German Horticulture

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Sabrina; Weber, Roland W. S.; Rieger, Daniel; Detzel, Peter; Hahn, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a major plant pathogen, causing gray mold rot in a variety of cultures. Repeated fungicide applications are common but have resulted in the development of fungal populations with resistance to one or more fungicides. In this study, we have monitored fungicide resistance frequencies and the occurrence of multiple resistance in Botrytis isolates from raspberries, strawberries, grapes, stone fruits and ornamental flowers in Germany in 2010 to 2015. High frequencies of resistance to all classes of botryticides was common in all cultures, and isolates with multiple fungicide resistance represented a major part of the populations. A monitoring in a raspberry field over six seasons revealed a continuous increase in resistance frequencies and the emergence of multiresistant Botrytis strains. In a cherry orchard and a vineyard, evidence of the immigration of multiresistant strains from the outside was obtained. Inoculation experiments with fungicide-treated leaves in the laboratory and with strawberry plants cultivated in the greenhouse or outdoors revealed a nearly complete loss of fungicide efficacy against multiresistant strains. B. cinerea field strains carrying multiple resistance mutations against all classes of site-specific fungicides were found to show similar fitness as sensitive field strains under laboratory conditions, based on their vegetative growth, reproduction, stress resistance, virulence and competitiveness in mixed infection experiments. Our data indicate an alarming increase in the occurrence of multiresistance in B. cinerea populations from different cultures, which presents a major threat to the chemical control of gray mold. PMID:28096799

  18. Development of a multichannel hyperspectral imaging probe for property and quality assessment of horticultural products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reports on the development, calibration and evaluation of a new multipurpose, multichannel hyperspectral imaging probe for property and quality assessment of food products. The new multichannel probe consists of a 910-miscrometer fiber as a point light source and 30 light receiving fibers...

  19. Cranberry SSR multiplexing panels for DNA horticultural fingerprinting and genetic studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is in need of inexpensive high-throughput DNA fingerprinting methods for genetic research and germplasm purity testing for agricultural purposes. Therefore, we designed and validated 16-multiplexing panels containing 61 evenly distributed simple sequence (SSR) marke...

  20. Climate suitability and human influences combined explain the range expansion of an invasive horticultural plant

    Treesearch

    Carolyn M. Beans; Francis F. Kilkenny; Laura F. Galloway

    2012-01-01

    Ecological niche models are commonly used to identify regions at risk of species invasions. Relying on climate alone may limit a model's success when additional variables contribute to invasion. While a climate-based model may predict the future spread of an invasive plant, we hypothesized that a model that combined climate with human influences would most...

  1. No Flower Shall Wither; or, Horticulture in the Kingdom of the Frogs. The Cutting Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clabaugh, Gary K.

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated educators, struggling with the mandates of "No Child Left Behind" will immediately identify with the hero of this allegory. Horace is a small frog, who has a passion for gardening, and watching flowers bloom. As soon as he comes of age, Horace decides to pursue his great love of nurturing tender blooming things. He studies, diligently,…

  2. How to Write "How-to" Books with High School Ecology & Horticulture Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Maya; Shajira, Natasya; Daisey, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    It is essential for students to think clearly about fundamental biological concepts. One of the benefits of writing is that it promotes and enhances thinking. If students can write clearly, they are thinking clearly. Writing helps to connect new knowledge with prior knowledge and promotes the construction of knowledge. Writing-to-learn activities…

  3. 26 CFR 1.48-10 - Single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... single purpose hog-raising facility will not qualify if it is used to raise dairy cows, but a structure... this section. (iii) If the structure is a dairy facility, it will qualify if it is used for: (A... feeding dairy cattle, and (B) housing equipment (including any replacements) necessary for...

  4. 26 CFR 1.48-10 - Single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... single purpose hog-raising facility will not qualify if it is used to raise dairy cows, but a structure... this section. (iii) If the structure is a dairy facility, it will qualify if it is used for: (A... feeding dairy cattle, and (B) housing equipment (including any replacements) necessary for...

  5. 26 CFR 1.48-10 - Single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... single purpose hog-raising facility will not qualify if it is used to raise dairy cows, but a structure... this section. (iii) If the structure is a dairy facility, it will qualify if it is used for: (A... feeding dairy cattle, and (B) housing equipment (including any replacements) necessary for...

  6. Changes in long bone diaphyseal strength with horticultural intensification in west-central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Bridges, P S; Blitz, J H; Solano, M C

    2000-06-01

    This study examines changes in long bone diaphyseal strength in west-central Illinois from the Middle Woodland through the Mississippian periods. Significant differences occur between the Middle Woodland and the Late Woodland periods, at the time when use of native seed crops intensifies. In females, both humeral and femoral strength increases, which may be related to their role in growing and processing these crops. In males, right arm strength declines, which may be tied in part to the replacement of the atlatl by the bow. Fewer significant changes occur between the earlier and later Late Woodland periods, at the time when maize is introduced as a dietary staple, possibly because maize is at first grown as only one of a series of other starchy seeds. Finally, in the Mississippian period, when maize use intensifies, female left arm strength declines. This may be because maize is easier to process than native seeds, or it may reflect innovations in processing technology in the Mississippian period. External dimensions and shape indices, in part, reflect the trends seen in biomechanical strength. Comparisons are made to similar studies in other regions. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Predicting potential global distributions of two Miscanthus grasses: implications for horticulture, biofuel production, and biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Hager, Heather A; Sinasac, Sarah E; Gedalof, Ze'ev; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    In many regions, large proportions of the naturalized and invasive non-native floras were originally introduced deliberately by humans. Pest risk assessments are now used in many jurisdictions to regulate the importation of species and usually include an estimation of the potential distribution in the import area. Two species of Asian grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus and M. sinensis) that were originally introduced to North America as ornamental plants have since escaped cultivation. These species and their hybrid offspring are now receiving attention for large-scale production as biofuel crops in North America and elsewhere. We evaluated their potential global climate suitability for cultivation and potential invasion using the niche model CLIMEX and evaluated the models' sensitivity to the parameter values. We then compared the sensitivity of projections of future climatically suitable area under two climate models and two emissions scenarios. The models indicate that the species have been introduced to most of the potential global climatically suitable areas in the northern but not the southern hemisphere. The more narrowly distributed species (M. sacchariflorus) is more sensitive to changes in model parameters, which could have implications for modelling species of conservation concern. Climate projections indicate likely contractions in potential range in the south, but expansions in the north, particularly in introduced areas where biomass production trials are under way. Climate sensitivity analysis shows that projections differ more between the selected climate change models than between the selected emissions scenarios. Local-scale assessments are required to overlay suitable habitat with climate projections to estimate areas of cultivation potential and invasion risk.

  8. Biotech/GM crops in horticulture: plum cv. HoneySweet resistant to plum pox virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. By 2011, genetically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha. Only 114.507 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.490 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Currently, developing c...

  9. "mus co shee": Indigenous Plant Foods and Horticultural Imperialism in the Canadian Sub-Arctic.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    The 17th-century arrival of the Hudson's Bay Company in Rupert's Land disrupted Mushkegowuk (Cree) hunter-gatherer society by replacing the collection of indigenous plant foods with a British planted-food model. Within a hundred years of British contact, new foodways relied upon hunting and gardening, bringing a loss in heritage plant food knowledge. Mushkegowuk living in the sub-arctic today have minimal knowledge of edible indigenous plants. Dependence on limited local gardening or imported grocery store vegetables has affected diet, nutrition, and cultural systems. In addition to exploring plant food gathering and gardening history in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, this paper demonstrates how re-discovering lost foodway knowledge can contribute to the health and well-being of those living in the far north.

  10. Nucleotide polymorphism affecting FLC expression underpins heading date variation in horticultural brassicas.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Judith A; Soumpourou, Eleni; Lister, Clare; Ligthart, Jan-Dick; Kennedy, Sue; Dean, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    Variation in flowering time and response to overwintering has been exploited to breed brassica vegetables that can be harvested year-round. Our knowledge of flowering time control now enables the investigation of the molecular basis of this important variation. Here, we show that a major determinant of heading date variation in Brassica oleracea is from variation in vernalization response through allelic variation at FLOWERING LOCUS C.C2 (BoFLC4). We characterize two alleles of BoFLC.C2 that are both functional and confer a requirement for vernalization, but they show distinct expression dynamics in response to cold. Complementation experiments in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the allelic variation results from cis polymorphism at BoFLC.C2, which quantitatively influences the degree of cold-induced epigenetic silencing. This results in one allelic variant conferring consistently later heading under both glasshouse and field conditions through reduced environmental sensitivity. Our results suggest that breeding of brassica varieties for commercially valuable variation in heading date has been achieved through the selection of cis polymorphism at FLC, similar to that underpinning natural variation in A. thaliana. This understanding will allow for the selection of alleles with distinct sensitivities to cold and robust heading dates under variable climatic conditions, and will facilitate the breeding of varieties more resistant to climate change.

  11. Predicting Potential Global Distributions of Two Miscanthus Grasses: Implications for Horticulture, Biofuel Production, and Biological Invasions

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Heather A.; Sinasac, Sarah E.; Gedalof, Ze’ev; Newman, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    In many regions, large proportions of the naturalized and invasive non-native floras were originally introduced deliberately by humans. Pest risk assessments are now used in many jurisdictions to regulate the importation of species and usually include an estimation of the potential distribution in the import area. Two species of Asian grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus and M. sinensis) that were originally introduced to North America as ornamental plants have since escaped cultivation. These species and their hybrid offspring are now receiving attention for large-scale production as biofuel crops in North America and elsewhere. We evaluated their potential global climate suitability for cultivation and potential invasion using the niche model CLIMEX and evaluated the models’ sensitivity to the parameter values. We then compared the sensitivity of projections of future climatically suitable area under two climate models and two emissions scenarios. The models indicate that the species have been introduced to most of the potential global climatically suitable areas in the northern but not the southern hemisphere. The more narrowly distributed species (M. sacchariflorus) is more sensitive to changes in model parameters, which could have implications for modelling species of conservation concern. Climate projections indicate likely contractions in potential range in the south, but expansions in the north, particularly in introduced areas where biomass production trials are under way. Climate sensitivity analysis shows that projections differ more between the selected climate change models than between the selected emissions scenarios. Local-scale assessments are required to overlay suitable habitat with climate projections to estimate areas of cultivation potential and invasion risk. PMID:24945154

  12. Novel Wireless Sensor System for Monitoring Oxygen, Temperature and Respiration Rate of Horticultural Crops Post Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Edwards, Gareth; Green, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In order to design optimal packages, it is of pivotal importance to determine the rate at which harvested fresh fruits and vegetables consume oxygen. The respiration rate of oxygen (RRO2) is determined by measuring the consumed oxygen per hour per kg plant material, and the rate is highly influenced by temperature and gas composition. Traditionally, RRO2 has been determined at discrete time intervals. In this study, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) were used to determine RRO2 continuously in plant material (fresh cut broccoli florets) at 5 °C, 10 °C and 20 °C and at modified gas compositions (decreasing oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide levels). Furthermore, the WSN enabled concomitant determination of oxygen and temperature in the very close vicinity of the plant material. This information proved a very close relationship between changes in temperature and respiration rate. The applied WSNs were unable to determine oxygen levels lower than 5% and carbon dioxide was not determined. Despite these drawbacks in relation to respiration analysis, the WSNs offer a new possibility to do continuous measurement of RRO2 in post harvest research, thereby investigating the close relation between temperature and RRO2. The conclusions are that WSNs have the potential to be used as a monitor of RRO2 of plant material after harvest, during storage and packaging, thereby leading to optimized consumer products. PMID:22164085

  13. Core III Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs. Units A-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This first volume of a two-volume curriculum guide contains 11 problem areas selected for study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in a metropolitan agricultural program. The 11 problem areas are divided into eight units: Orientation to Agricultural Occupations (Gaining Employment), Supervised…

  14. The genetic basis of fruit morphology in horticultural crops: lessons from tomato and melon.

    PubMed

    Monforte, Antonio J; Diaz, Aurora; Caño-Delgado, Ana; van der Knaap, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Fruits represent an important part of the human diet and show extensive variation in size and shape between and within cultivated species. The genetic basis of such variation has been studied most extensively in tomato, where currently six quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involving these traits have been fine-mapped and the genes underlying the QTLs identified. The genes responsible for the cloned QTLs belong to families with a few to many members. FASCIATED is encoded by a member of the YABBY family, CNR/FW2.2 by a member of the Cell Number Regulator family, SlKLUH/FW3.2 by a cytochrome P450 of the 78A class (CYP78A), LOCULE NUMBER by a member of the WOX family including WUSCHEL, OVATE by a member of the Ovate Family Proteins (OFP), and SUN by a member of the IQ domain family. A high portion of the history and current diversity in fruit morphology among tomato cultivars can be explained by modifications at four of these cloned QTLs. In melon, a number of QTLs involved in fruit morphology have been mapped, but the molecular basis for these QTLs is unknown. In the present review, we examine the current knowledge on the molecular basis of fruit morphology in tomato and transfer that information in order to define candidate genes of melon fruit shape and size QTLs. We hypothesize that different members of the gene families identified in tomato may have a role in the regulation of fruit morphology in other species. We anchored the published melon QTL map on the genome sequence and identified the melon family members of the six cloned tomato QTLs in the genome. We investigated the co-localization of melon fruit morphology QTLs and the candidate genes. We found that QTLs for fruit weight co-localized frequently with members of the CNR/FW2.2 and KLUH/FW3.2 families, as well as co-localizations between OFP family members and fruit-shape QTLs, making this family the most suitable to explain fruit shape variation among melon accessions.

  15. Planning the National Agricultural Library's Multimedia CD-ROM "Ornamental Horticulture."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Pamela R.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of issues involved in planning a multimedia CD-ROM product explains the selection of authoring tools, the design of a user interface, expert systems, text conversion and capture (including scanning and optical character recognition), and problems associated with image files. The use of audio is also discussed, and a 14-item glossary is…

  16. Gardening under cover: a northwest horticultural guide to solar greenhouses, coldframes and cloches

    SciTech Connect

    Head, W.

    1985-01-01

    Gardening in a solar greenhouse, coldframe, or cloche, which is a simple protective covering placed over a garden bed, is discussed, including the construction of two different types of cloche, identification of herbs and flowers, suitable for a solar greenhouse, forcing spring bulbs, and pests and diseases commonly found on plants growing in cold frames and greenhouses. (LEW)

  17. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2-6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non-suppressive soils, but the former showed a higher degree of similarity between both suppressive soils than the later.

  18. Spread of Botrytis cinerea Strains with Multiple Fungicide Resistance in German Horticulture.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Sabrina; Weber, Roland W S; Rieger, Daniel; Detzel, Peter; Hahn, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a major plant pathogen, causing gray mold rot in a variety of cultures. Repeated fungicide applications are common but have resulted in the development of fungal populations with resistance to one or more fungicides. In this study, we have monitored fungicide resistance frequencies and the occurrence of multiple resistance in Botrytis isolates from raspberries, strawberries, grapes, stone fruits and ornamental flowers in Germany in 2010 to 2015. High frequencies of resistance to all classes of botryticides was common in all cultures, and isolates with multiple fungicide resistance represented a major part of the populations. A monitoring in a raspberry field over six seasons revealed a continuous increase in resistance frequencies and the emergence of multiresistant Botrytis strains. In a cherry orchard and a vineyard, evidence of the immigration of multiresistant strains from the outside was obtained. Inoculation experiments with fungicide-treated leaves in the laboratory and with strawberry plants cultivated in the greenhouse or outdoors revealed a nearly complete loss of fungicide efficacy against multiresistant strains. B. cinerea field strains carrying multiple resistance mutations against all classes of site-specific fungicides were found to show similar fitness as sensitive field strains under laboratory conditions, based on their vegetative growth, reproduction, stress resistance, virulence and competitiveness in mixed infection experiments. Our data indicate an alarming increase in the occurrence of multiresistance in B. cinerea populations from different cultures, which presents a major threat to the chemical control of gray mold.

  19. Gasified rice hull biochar affects nutrition and growth of five horticulture crops in container culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphate fertilizers used in the production of greenhouse crops can be problematic if released into the environment. Furthermore, the price of phosphate is increasing as demand increases and world supplies decrease. The objective of this research was to determine if gasified rice hull biochar (GR...

  20. Horticulture take-home messages. Grower Day Summary: 2011 International HLB Meeting, Orlando, Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2nd International Research Conference on Huanglongbing covered 3 full days, with 400 participants from 20 countries. There were 75 oral presentations, 96 posters, and I took 20 pages of notes. Urgency of HLB as a threat to citrus production and the engine of substantial grower investment has fu...

  1. Micropropagation of Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew. - a tree of arid horticulture.

    PubMed

    Deora, N S; Shekhawat, N S

    1995-12-01

    A method for micropropagation of mature trees of Capparis decidua was developed. Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal explants on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium+0.1mgl(-1) NAA+5.0mgl(-1)BAP+additives (50mgl(-1) ascorbic acid and25 mgl(-1) each of adenine sulphate, L-arginine and citric acid) at 28 ± 2°C, 12 h/dphotoperiod and 35-40 μmol m(-2)s(-1) photon flux density. The shoots were multiplied by (i) subculture of nodal shoot segments onto MS +0.1 mgl(--1) IAA+1.0mgl(-1) BAPH+additives, and (ii) repeated transfer of original explant onto MS+ 0.1mgl(-1) IAA+mg l(-1) BAP+additives, at intervals of 3 weeks. Sixty to 70% of the shoots rooted when pulse treated with 100 mg l(-1) IBA in half strength MS liquid medium for 4h, and then transferred onto hormone-free half-strength agar-gelled MS basal saltmedium. Incubation in dark at 33 ± 2°C for 6d favoured root induction. In vitro hardened plants were transferred to pots.

  2. Public tolerance to defoliation and flower distortion in a public horticulture garden.

    PubMed

    Sadof, Clifford S; Sclar, D Casey

    2002-04-01

    Surveys of visitor and grower perception of live potted plant quality were conducted in various locations in a large public display garden. Canna lily, Canna x generalis L.H.Bailey, was used to examine effects of defoliation by Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, on public perception. Chrysanthemums, Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat., were used to identify visitor and grower tolerance to flower distortion caused by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on single and multiple flowered plants. On average, the maximum amount of defoliation or flower distortion tolerated by any respondent was low (< or = 10% for canna and < or = 25% for chrysanthemum). The level of acceptable injury was influenced by factors intrinsic to both the respondents and the plants themselves. Tolerance to injury was negatively associated with the risk aversion of the respondents. Visitors were less tolerant of injury on plants they considered for purchase than those that they would view at the garden. Similarly, grower tolerance was lower than that of visitors because producing substandard plants could put their professional reputation at risk. Factors that distracted visitor attention (e.g., presence of flowers and higher levels of background injury) increased their tolerance to plant injury. Visitors tolerated greater levels of flower distortion on multiple flowering chrysanthemum than on those with single flowers. We suggest that tolerance to insect pests can be increased by designing plantings that distract viewers from injured plant parts.

  3. Multi-year net ecosystem carbon balance at a horticulture-extracted restored peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Kelly; Strachan, Ian; Strack, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Restoration of previously extracted peatlands is essential to minimize the impact of drainage and peat removal. Best practices restoration methods have been developed that include ditch blocking, site leveling and reintroducing bog vegetation using the moss layer transfer technique. A long term goal of restoration is the return to a peat accumulating ecosystem. Bois-des-Bel is a cool-temperate bog, located in eastern Quebec, Canada, that was vacuum harvested until 1980 and restored in 1999. While several studies have used discrete (chamber) methods to determine the net carbon exchange from rewetted or restored peatlands, ours appears to be the first to have multiple complete years of net ecosystem carbon exchange from a restored northern peatland. An eddy covariance flux tower instrumented with a sonic anemometer and open-path CO2/H2O and CH4 analyzers was operated continuously over three years to produce a robust estimate of net carbon sequestration. Our initial results indicate that this restored peatland was a consistent moderate annual net sink for CO2, a moderate source of CH4 and had low losses of dissolved organic carbon compared to undisturbed northern latitude peatlands. Closed chambers combined with a fast response CO2/H2O/CH4 analyzer were used to investigate ecohydrological controls on net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and CH4 flux from the restored fields and remnant ditches at the site. CH4 release was found to be an order of magnitude higher in the ditches compared to the fields, with non-vegetated ditch showing a greater range in flux compared to areas invaded by Typha latifolia. Bubble magnitude and count were highest in the non-vegetated ditch, followed by Typha plots and were undetectable in the restored fields. The latter may be partially attributed to the high cover of Eriophorum vaginatum in the restored fields, plants that have aerenchymous tissue, as well as a much deeper water table level. While the non-vegetated ditch areas were a steady small source of CO2, NEE in the Typha plots showed significantly greater CO2 uptake capacity relative to any other restored plant community. High productivity combined with reduced CH4 flux suggests that Typha may be playing a key role in reducing the overall impact of the remnant ditches on the net ecosystem carbon balance. A preliminary footprint analysis suggests that ecosystem-level CH4 flux is being primarily driven by release from hotspots while the majority of the tower source area is a very small source of methane.

  4. Mediterranean fruit fly on Mimusops zeyheri indigenous to South Africa: a threat to the horticulture industry.

    PubMed

    Dube, Zakheleni P; Mashela, Phatu W; Mathabatha, Raesibe V

    2016-08-01

    Claims abound that the Transvaal red milkwood, Mimusops zeyheri, indigenous to areas with tropical and subtropical commercial fruit trees and fruiting vegetables in South Africa, is relatively pest free owing to its copious concentrations of latex in the above-ground organs. On account of observed fruit fly damage symptoms, a study was conducted to determine whether M. zeyheri was a host to the notorious quarantined Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Fruit samples were kept for 16-21 days in plastic pots containing moist steam-pasteurised growing medium with tops covered with a mesh sheath capable of retaining emerging flies. Microscopic diagnosis of the trapped flies suggested that the morphological characteristics were congruent with those of C. capitata, which was confirmed through cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequence alignment with a 100% bootstrap value and 99% confidence probability when compared with those from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database. This study demonstrated that M. zeyheri is a host of C. capitata. Therefore, C. capitata from infestation reservoirs of M. zeyheri fruit trees could be a major threat to the tropical and subtropical fruit industries in South Africa owing to the fruit-bearing nature of the new host. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Use of Dehydrated Agar to Estimate Microbial Water Quality for Horticulture Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Meador, Dustin P; Fisher, Paul R; Guy, Charles L; Harmon, Philip F; Peres, Natalia A; Teplitski, Max

    2016-07-01

    Petrifilms are dehydrated agar culture plates that have been used to quantify colony forming units (CFU) mL of either aerobic bacteria (Petrifilm-AC) or fungus (Petrifilm-YM), depending on substrate composition. Microbes in irrigation systems can indicate biofilm risk and potential clogging of irrigation emitters. The research objective was to compare counts on Petrifilms versus traditional, hydrated-agar plates using samples collected from recirculated irrigation waters and cultures of isolated known species. The estimated count (in CFU mL) from a recirculated irrigation sample after 7 d of incubation on Petrifilm-YM was only 5.5% of the count quantified using sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with chloramphenicol after 14 d. In a separate experiment with a known species, Petrifilm-YM did not successfully culture zoospores of . Isolates of viable zoospores were cultured successfully on potato-dextrose agar (PDA), with comparable counts with a vegetable juice medium supplemented with the antibiotics pimaricin, ampicillin, rifamycin, pentochloronitrobenzene and hymexazol (PARP-H). The quantification of pv. Begoniaceae on Petrifilm-AC was not significantly different ( < 0.05) than on PDA, but was lower than on Reasoner and Goldrich agar (R2A) or with a hemocytometer. The current formulation of Petrifilm-YM is unlikely to be a useful monitoring method for plant pathogens in irrigation water because of the inability to successfully culture oomycetes. However, Petrifilm-AC was an effective method to quantify bacteria and can provide an easy-to-use on-farm tool to monitor biofilm risk and microbial density. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Exposure assessment using human biomonitoring for glyphosate and fluroxypyr users in amenity horticulture.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Alison; Jones, Kate; Galea, Karen S; Basinas, Ioannis; Kenny, Laura; McGowan, Padraic; Coggins, Marie

    2017-08-01

    Pesticides and their potential adverse health effects are of great concern and there is a dearth of knowledge regarding occupational exposure to pesticides among amenity horticulturalists. This study aims to measure occupational exposures to amenity horticuturalists using pesticides containing the active ingredients, glyphosate and fluroxypyr by urinary biomonitoring. A total of 40 work tasks involving glyphosate and fluroxypyr were surveyed over the period of June - October 2015. Workers used a variety of pesticide application methods; manual knapsack sprayers, controlled droplet applicators, pressurised lance applicators and boom sprayers. Pesticide concentrations were measured in urine samples collected pre and post work tasks using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Differences in pesticide urinary concentrations pre and post work task, and across applications methods were analysed using paired t-tests and linear regression. Pesticide urinary concentrations were higher than those reported for environmental exposures and comparable to those reported in some agricultural studies. Log-transformed pesticide concentrations were statistically significantly higher in post-work samples compared to those in pre-work samples (paired t-test, p<0.001; for both μgL(-1) and μmol/mol creatinine). Urinary pesticide concentrations in post-work samples had a geometric mean (geometric standard deviation) of 0.66 (1.11) μgL(-1) for glyphosate and 0.29 (1.69) μgL(-1) for fluroxypyr. Linear regression revealed a statistically significant positive association to exist between the time-interval between samples and the log-transformed adjusted (i.e. post- minus pre-task) pesticide urinary concentrations (β=0.0039; p<0.0001). Amenity horticulturists can be exposed to pesticides during tasks involving these products. Further research is required to evaluate routes of exposure among this occupational group. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE WITH A FOCUS ON CALIFORNIA. (R823342)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. Arsenic speciation and localization in horticultural produce grown in a historically impacted mining region.

    PubMed

    Norton, Gareth; Deacon, Claire; Mestrot, Adrien; Feldmann, Joerg; Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina; Meharg, Andrew A

    2013-06-18

    A field and market basket study (~1300 samples) of locally grown fruits and vegetables from historically mined regions of southwest (SW) England (Cornwall and Devon), and as reference, a market basket study of similarly locally grown produce from the northeast (NE) of Scotland (Aberdeenshire) was conducted to determine the concentration of total and inorganic arsenic present in produce from these two geogenically different areas of the U.K. On average 98.5% of the total arsenic found was present in the inorganic form. For both the market basket and the field survey, the highest total arsenic was present in open leaf structure produce (i.e., kale, chard, lettuce, greens, and spinach) being most likely to soil/dust contamination of the open leaf structure. The concentration of total arsenic in potatoes, swedes, and carrots was lower in peeled produce compared to unpeeled produce. For baked potatoes, the concentration of total arsenic in the skin was higher compared to the total arsenic concentration of the potato flesh, this difference in localization being confirmed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS). For all above ground produce (e.g., apples), peeling did not have a significant effect on the concentration of total arsenic present.

  9. 26 CFR 1.48-10 - Single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Type of animal involved; (B) Number of, and consumption rate for, each animal; (C) Climate of area; (D.... A change in the use of an agricultural structure from one species of livestock to another will cause the structure to fail the exclusive use test when the change occurs. Thus, for example, a hog-raising...

  10. 26 CFR 1.48-10 - Single purpose agricultural or horticultural structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Type of animal involved; (B) Number of, and consumption rate for, each animal; (C) Climate of area; (D.... A change in the use of an agricultural structure from one species of livestock to another will cause the structure to fail the exclusive use test when the change occurs. Thus, for example, a hog-raising...

  11. Associations between male testosterone and immune function in a pathogenically stressed forager-horticultural population.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Blackwell, Aaron D; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Suarez, Ivan Maldonado; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Despite well-known fitness advantages to males who produce and maintain high endogenous testosterone levels, such phenotypes may be costly if testosterone-mediated investment in reproductive effort trade-off against investment in somatic maintenance. Previous studies of androgen-mediated trade-offs in human immune function find mixed results, in part because most studies either focus on a few indicators of immunity, are confounded by phenotypic correlation, or are observational. Here the association between male endogenous testosterone and 13 circulating cytokines are examined before and after ex vivo antigen stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in a high pathogen population of Bolivian forager-horticulturalists. A Milliplex 13-plex cytokine panel measured cytokine concentration in whole blood samples from 109 Tsimane men aged 40-89 (median = 50 years) before and after antigen stimulation with PHA and LPS. Urinary testosterone was measured via enzyme immunoassay, demographic, and anthropometric data were collected as part of the Tsimane Health and Life History Project. Higher endogenous testosterone was associated with down-regulated responses in all cytokines after PHA stimulation (but significantly in only 2/13 cytokines), controlling for age and body mass index. In contrast, testosterone was not significantly associated with down-regulation of cytokines after LPS stimulation. MANOVAs indicate that men with higher testosterone showed reduced cytokine responses to PHA compared with LPS (p = 0.0098). Endogenous testosterone appears to be immunomodulatory rather than immunosuppressive. Potentially costlier forms of immune activation like those induced by PHA (largely T-cell biased immune activation) are down-regulated in men with higher testosterone, but testosterone has less impact on potentially less costly immune activation following LPS stimulation (largely B-cell mediated immunity). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Role of ethylene receptors during senescence and ripening in horticultural crops.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Choudhary, Divya; Singh, Virendra P; Arora, Ajay

    2012-07-01

    The past two decades have been rewarding in terms of deciphering the ethylene signal transduction and functional validation of the ethylene receptor and downstream genes involved in the cascade. Our knowledge of ethylene receptors and its signal transduction pathway provides us a robust platform where we can think of manipulating and regulating ethylene sensitivity by the use of genetic engineering and making transgenic. This review focuses on ethylene perception, receptor mediated regulation of ethylene biosynthesis, role of ethylene receptors in flower senescence, fruit ripening and other effects induced by ethylene. The expression behavior of the receptor and downstream molecules in climacteric and non climacteric crops is also elaborated upon. Possible strategies and recent advances in altering the ethylene sensitivity of plants using ethylene receptor genes in an attempt to modulate the regulation and sensitivity to ethylene have also been discussed. Not only will these transgenic plants be a boon to post-harvest physiology and crop improvement but, it will also help us in discovering the mechanism of regulation of ethylene sensitivity.

  13. Setting ozone critical levels for protecting horticultural Mediterranean crops: case study of tomato.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, I; Calvo, E; Gerosa, G; Bermejo, V; Marzuoli, R; Calatayud, V; Alonso, R

    2014-02-01

    Seven experiments carried out in Italy and Spain have been used to parameterising a stomatal conductance model and establishing exposure- and dose-response relationships for yield and quality of tomato with the main goal of setting O3 critical levels (CLe). CLe with confidence intervals, between brackets, were set at an accumulated hourly O3 exposure over 40 nl l(-1), AOT40 = 8.4 (1.2, 15.6) ppm h and a phytotoxic ozone dose above a threshold of 6 nmol m(-2) s(-1), POD6 = 2.7 (0.8, 4.6) mmol m(-2) for yield and AOT40 = 18.7 (8.5, 28.8) ppm h and POD6 = 4.1 (2.0, 6.2) mmol m(-2) for quality, both indices performing equally well. CLe confidence intervals provide information on the quality of the dataset and should be included in future calculations of O3 CLe for improving current methodologies. These CLe, derived for sensitive tomato cultivars, should not be applied for quantifying O3-induced losses at the risk of making important overestimations of the economical losses associated with O3 pollution.

  14. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE WITH A FOCUS ON CALIFORNIA. (R823342)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Phytosanitary irradiation for fresh horticultural commodities: generic treatments, current issues, and next steps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytosanitary treatments such as irradiation disinfest host commodities of quarantine insect pests before they are exported to areas where the pests do not occur, and are often the simplest approach to overcome regulatory trade barriers and gain market access. The United States, Australia and the In...

  16. Core III Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs. Units J-M.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This second volume of a two-volume curriculum guide contains 11 problem areas selected for study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th grade or third-year students enrolled in a metropolitan agricultural program. The 11 problem areas are divided into four units: Soil Science and Conservation of Natural Resources (Understanding Soils,…

  17. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  18. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  19. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  20. 29 CFR 780.112 - General meaning of “agriculture or horticultural commodities.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mineral wealth or other natural resources, or by uncultivated natural growth. For example, peat humus or peat moss is not an agricultural commodity. Wirtz v. Ti Ti Peat Humus Co., 373 f(2d) 209 (C.A.4)....

  1. Climate change and shifts in spring phenology of three horticultural woody perennials in northeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David W; Schwartz, Mark D; Lakso, Alan N; Otsuki, Yuka; Pool, Robert M; Shaulis, Nelson J

    2005-05-01

    We evaluated spring phenology changes from 1965 to 2001 in northeastern USA utilizing a unique data set from 72 locations with genetically identical lilac plants (Syringa chinensis, clone "Red Rothomagensis"). We also utilized a previously validated lilac-honeysuckle "spring index" model to reconstruct a more complete record of first leaf date (FLD) and first flower date (FFD) for the region from historical weather data. In addition, we examined mid-bloom dates for apple (Malus domestica) and grape (Vitis vinifera) collected at several sites in the region during approximately the same time period. Almost all lilac sites with significant linear trends for FLD or FFD versus year had negative slopes (advanced development). Regression analysis of pooled data for the 72 sites indicated an advance of -0.092 day/year for FFD (P=0.003). The slope for FLD was also negative (-0.048 day/year), but not significant (P=0.234). The simulated data from the "spring index" model, which relies on local daily temperature records, indicated highly significant (P<0.001) negative slopes of -0.210 and -0.123 day/year for FLD and FFD, respectively. Data collected for apple and grape also indicated advance spring development, with slopes for mid-bloom date versus year of -0.20 day/year (P=0.01) and -0.146 (P=0.14), respectively. Collectively, these results indicate an advance in spring phenology ranging from 2 to 8 days for these woody perennials in northeastern USA for the period 1965 to 2001, qualitatively consistent with a warming trend, and consistent with phenology shifts reported for other mid- and high-latitude regions.

  2. How to Write "How-to" Books with High School Ecology & Horticulture Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Maya; Shajira, Natasya; Daisey, Peggy

    2003-01-01

    It is essential for students to think clearly about fundamental biological concepts. One of the benefits of writing is that it promotes and enhances thinking. If students can write clearly, they are thinking clearly. Writing helps to connect new knowledge with prior knowledge and promotes the construction of knowledge. Writing-to-learn activities…

  3. Performance Testing of Thermal Cutting Systems for Sweet Pepper Harvesting Robot in Greenhouse Horticulture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachche, Shivaji; Oka, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes design of end-effector and prototype of thermal cutting system for harvesting sweet peppers. The design consists of two parallel gripper bars mounted on a frame connected by specially designed notch plate and operated by servo motor. Based on voltage and current, two different types of thermal cutting system prototypes; electric arc and temperature arc respectively were developed and tested for performance. In electric arc, a special electric device was developed to obtain high voltage to perform cutting operation. At higher voltage, electrodes generate thermal arc which helps to cut stem of sweet pepper. In temperature arc, nichrome wire was mounted between two electrodes and current was provided directly to electrodes which results in generation of high temperature arc between two electrodes that help to perform cutting operation. In both prototypes, diameters of basic elements were varied and the effect of this variation on cutting operation was investigated. The temperature arc thermal system was found significantly suitable for cutting operation than electric arc thermal system. In temperature arc thermal cutting system, 0.5 mm nichrome wire shows significant results by accomplishing harvesting operation in 1.5 seconds. Also, thermal cutting system found suitable to increase shelf life of fruits by avoiding virus and fungal transformation during cutting process and sealing the fruit stem. The harvested sweet peppers by thermal cutting system can be preserved at normal room temperature for more than 15 days without any contamination.

  4. Estimating the extent and structure of trade in horticultural orchids via social media.

    PubMed

    Hinsley, Amy; Lee, Tamsin E; Harrison, Joseph R; Roberts, David L

    2016-10-01

    The wildlife trade is a lucrative industry involving thousands of animal and plant species. The increasing use of the internet for both legal and illegal wildlife trade is well documented, but there is evidence that trade may be emerging on new online technologies such as social media. Using the orchid trade as a case study, we conducted the first systematic survey of wildlife trade on an international social-media website. We focused on themed forums (groups), where people with similar interests can interact by uploading images or text (posts) that are visible to other group members. We used social-network analysis to examine the ties between 150 of these orchid-themed groups to determine the structure of the network. We found 4 communities of closely linked groups based around shared language. Most trade occurred in a community that consisted of English-speaking and Southeast Asian groups. In addition to the network analysis, we randomly sampled 30 groups from the whole network to assess the prevalence of trade in cultivated and wild plants. Of 55,805 posts recorded over 12 weeks, 8.9% contained plants for sale, and 22-46% of these posts pertained to wild-collected orchids. Although total numbers of posts about trade were relatively small, the large proportion of posts advertising wild orchids for sale supports calls for better monitoring of social media for trade in wild-collected plants. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Organic horticulture, compost, and season-extending tunnels: Food Safety and crop quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumer demand for fresh, local, organic produce continues to increase in the U.S. and internationally. Consumers and growers often form direct market links that reinforce consumer confidence that produce contains no pesticide or agrichemical residues and is at its peak quality, flavor, and freshn...

  6. The importance of determining carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas mitigation potential in ornamental horticulture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past three decades, one issue which has received significant attention from the scientific community is climate change and the possible impacts on the global environment. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, along with other trace gases [i.e., methane (CH4) and nitrous ...

  7. [Professional risk assessment for modern pesticides during their application in the horticulture].

    PubMed

    Semenenko, V M; Korshun, M M

    2014-01-01

    The work conditions on application of modern pesticides Masai, Regalis and Bellis for apple orchards protection have been researched. We show that total risk of hazard influence of tebufenpyrad, prohexadione-calcium, pyraclostrobin and boscalid on agricultural workers under condition of complex entry in body through skin and respiratory tracts is permissible. We proved that application of studied preparations is not dangerous for workers in case of abidance of agrotechnical and hygienic regulations.

  8. The mechanisms of plant stress mitigation by kaolin-based particle films and its applications in horticultural and agricultural crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kaolin-based particle films have utility in reducing insect, heat, light, and uv stress in plants due to the reflective nature of the particles. Particle films with a residue density of 1 to 3 g/ square meter have been evaluated in a range of crops and agricultural environments. The particle film ...

  9. The South Florida Avocado Breeding Program at USDA-Agricultural Research Service Subtropical Horticulture Research Station (USDA-ARS SHRS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    USDA-ARS SHRS is part of the USDA National Germplasm Repository system and houses collections of tropical and subtropical fruit trees such as mango, lychee, and avocado. In addition to maintaining the germplasm collections, our mission is to also identify genetic diversity in the collections, to ev...

  10. Application of the “4R” nutrient stewardship concept to horticultural crops: getting nutrients in the “right” place

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 4R nutrient stewardship concept was introduced in 2009 by International Plant Nutrition Institute to define the right source, rate, time, and place to apply fertilizers to produce not only the most economical outcome in any given crop but to also to provide desirable social and environmental ben...

  11. The Potential Impact on Farmer Health of Enhanced Export Horticultural Trade between the U.K. and Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T.; Nyeko, Philip; Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2009-01-01

    The export of vegetables from African countries to European markets presents consumers with an ethical dilemma: should they support local, but relatively well-off farmers, or poorer farmers from distant countries? This paper considers the issue of farm worker health in the U.K. and Uganda, and considers the dilemma facing U.K. consumers if Uganda achieves their aim of exporting more vegetables to the U.K. Self-reported health scores of 1,200 farm workers in the U.K. and Uganda were measured with the internationally recognised SF-36 questionnaire and compared to an international population norm. The age-corrected health status of U.K. farm workers was significantly lower than the population norm, whereas Ugandans scored significantly higher (indicating good health) for physical health and lower for mental health. If Ugandan produce enters U.K. markets, then consumers may wish to consider both the potential benefits that enhanced trade could offer Ugandan farmers compared with its impacts on U.K. workers. PMID:19543406

  12. Scanning genomic areas under selection sweep and association mapping as tools to identify horticultural important genes in watermelon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) contains 88% water, sugars, and several important health-related compounds, including lycopene, citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. The current genetic diversity study uses microsatellites with known map positions to identify genomic regions that under...

  13. Three Members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Cryptic Species Complex Occur Sympatrically in Argentine Horticultural Crops.

    PubMed

    Alemandri, V; Vaghi Medina, C G; Dumón, A D; Argüello Caro, E B; Mattio, M F; García Medina, S; López Lambertini, P M; Truol, G

    2015-04-01

    The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a cryptic species complex that attacks >600 different species of plants and transmits several plant viruses causing severe economic losses. Until 2010, the B. tabaci complex comprised 24 distinct putative species. Recently, at least 15 new species have been reported. The objective of this study was to identify B. tabaci species present in bean, melon, and tomato crops in Argentina by applying phylogenetic analyses and pairwise comparison of genetic distances of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) sequences. The 39 proposed whitefly species were identified with both analyses, and the presence in Argentina of one indigenous species, New World 2 (NW2), and two introduced species, Middle East-Asia Minor one (MEAM1) and Mediterranean, was confirmed. Common bean crop presented the three whitefly species detected, with NW2, MEAM1, and Mediterranean being present all together under field conditions. Also, Mediterranean was the only species identified in tomato, whereas MEAM1 was found in melon. To the best of our knowledge, Mediterranean is a recent invasive species in open-field agriculture in the American continent and in greenhouse tomato in Argentina. Additionally, we provide the first report of MEAM1 in common bean and melon. These findings raise several questions on the future scenario of B. tabaci and the viruses it transmits in Argentina. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Student Performance Objectives and Selected References for Teaching Ornamental Horticulture. Final Report. Vol. III of III Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eddie A.; And Others

    Each volume of this three-volume set is divided into two major sections. The first section presents the narrative report of a study designed to assist Michigan vocational agriculture teachers in implementing local competency-based vocational agriculture programs by (1) developing student performance objectives; (2) identifying up-to-date reference…

  15. Horticultural technique for rearing and redistribution of the sessile biological control agent, Rhizaspidiotus donacis on its host plant, Arundo donax

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arundo donax, giant reed, is an invasive weed in the riparian habitats of the Rio Grande Basin. A biological control program using specialist insects from the native range in Mediterranean Europe, including the arundo scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis, has been implemented. The arundo scale is a sessile...

  16. Redbay ambrosia beetle/Laurel wilt: Overview of projects at the USDA-ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ABSTRACT Laurel wilt, a deadly fungal disease of avocado and other trees in the Lauraceae, is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). First detected near Savannah, GA in 2002, the beetle and its obligatory pathogen have since spread to South Carolina and Florida. Currently, t...

  17. A review of elevated atmospheric CO2 effects on plant growth and water relations: implications for horticulture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Empirical records provide incontestable evidence for the global rise in CO2 concentration in the earth's atmosphere. Plant growth can be stimulated by elevation of CO2; photosynthesis increases and economic yield is often enhanced. The application of more CO2 can increase plant water use efficiency ...

  18. Genetic diversity and association mapping of bacterial blight and other horticulturally important traits with microsatellite markers in pomegranate from India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nripendra Vikram; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Ramajayam, D; Kumar, Ravinder; Chandra, Ram; Sharma, Kuldeep Kumar; Sharma, Jyotsana; Babu, K Dhinesh; Pal, Ram Krishna; Mundewadikar, Dhananjay M; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Cantrell, Robert; Nimmakayala, Padma; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-08-01

    This genetic diversity study aimed to estimate the population structure and explore the use of association mapping strategies to identify linked markers for bacterial resistance, growth and fruit quality in pomegranate collections from India. In total, 88 accessions including 37 cultivated types were investigated. A total of 112 alleles were amplified by use of 44 publicly available microsatellites for estimating molecular genetic diversity and population structure. Neighbor-joining analysis, model-based population structure and principal component analysis corroborated the genetic relationships among wild-type and cultivated pomegranate collections from India. Our study placed all 88 germplasm into four clusters. We identified a cultivated clade of pomegranates in close proximity to Daru types of wild-type pomegranates that grow naturally near the foothills of the Himalayas. Admixture analysis sorted various lineages of cultivated pomegranates to their respective ancestral forms. We identified four linked markers for fruit weight, titratable acidity and bacterial blight severity. PGCT001 was found associated with both fruit weight and bacterial blight, and the association with fruit weight during both seasons analyzed was significant after Bonferroni correction. This research demonstrates effectiveness of microsatellites to resolve population structure among the wild and cultivar collection of pomegranates and future use for association mapping studies.

  19. Surgical management of cutaneous infection caused by atypical mycobacteria after penetrating injury: the hidden dangers of horticulture.

    PubMed

    Holland, J; Smith, C; Childs, P A; Holland, A J

    1997-02-01

    We identified two patients in a 12-month period who presented with cutaneous infection and secondary lymph node involvement from atypical mycobacterial infection after minor gardening injuries. One patient had a coinfection with Nocardia asteroides. Both patients required multiple surgical interventions, despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, before resolution of the disease. The course of the infection was characterized by chronic relapses with complete healing at 12 to 18 months after the original injury. The identification and management of this clinical problem are reviewed.

  20. Spatial assessment of soil organic carbon and physicochemical properties in a horticultural orchard at arid zone of India using geostatistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akath; Santra, Priyabrata; Kumar, Mahesh; Panwar, Navraten; Meghwal, P R

    2016-09-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a major indicator of long-term sustenance of agricultural production system. Apart from sustaining productivity, SOC plays a crucial role in context of climate change. Keeping in mind these potentials, spatial variation of SOC contents of a fruit orchard comprising several arid fruit plantations located at arid region of India is assessed in this study through geostatistical approaches. For this purpose, surface and subsurface soil samples from 175 locations from a fruit orchard spreading over 14.33 ha area were collected along with geographical coordinates. SOC content and soil physicochemical properties of collected soil samples were determined followed by geostatistical analysis for mapping purposes. Average SOC stock density of the orchard was 14.48 Mg ha(-1) for 0- to 30-cm soil layer ranging from 9.01 Mg ha(-1) in Carissa carandas to 19.52 Mg ha(-1) in Prosopis cineraria block. Range of spatial variation of SOC content was found about 100 m, while two other soil physicochemical properties, e.g., pH and electrical conductivity (EC) also showed similar spatial trend. This indicated that minimum sampling distance for future SOC mapping programme may be kept lower than 100 m for better accuracy. Ordinary kriging technique satisfactorily predicted SOC contents (in percent) at unsampled locations with root-mean-squared residual (RMSR) of 0.35-0.37. Co-kriging approach was found slightly superior (RMSR = 0.26-0.28) than ordinary kriging for spatial prediction of SOC contents because of significant correlations of SOC contents with pH and EC. Uncertainty of SOC estimation was also presented in terms of 90 % confidence interval. Spatial estimates of SOC stock through ordinary kriging or co-kriging approach were also found with low uncertainty of estimation than non-spatial estimates, e.g., arithmetic averaging approach. Among different fruit block plantations of the orchard, the block with Prosopis cineraria ('khejri') has higher SOC stock density than others.

  1. Iron-[S,S']-EDDS (FeEDDS) Chelate as an Iron Source for Horticultural Crop Production: Marigold Growth and Nutrition, Spectral Properties, and Photodegradation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aminopolycarboxylic acid (APCA) complexones, commonly referred to as ligands or chelating agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) are commonly used in soluble fertilizers to supply copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and/or zinc (Zn) to p...

  2. Genome-wide association of 10 horticultural traits with expressed sequence tag-derived SNP markers in a collection of lettuce lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic diversity, population structure, and genome-wide marker-trait association analyses were conducted on a special collection of 298 homozygous lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) lines. Each of these lines was derived from a single plant that had been genotyped with 384 SNP makers using LSGermOPA. They...

  3. Effects on Flavor. In E.A. Yahia, Ed., Modified and Controlled Atmospheres for the Storage, Transportation, and Packaging of Horticultural Commodities. Boca Ratan, FL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The flavor of fresh fruits and vegetables is an important factor in determining quality and consumer satisfaction. However, there is often dissatisfaction among consumers concerning the flavor of fruits and vegetables. First time purchases are usually based on appearance and firmness, but repeat b...

  4. Pesticide knowledge and practice among horticultural workers in the Lâm Đồng region, Vietnam: A case study of chrysanthemum and strawberries.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Michael; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Fevery, Davina; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-04-15

    In Vietnam, large amounts of pesticides are being used in agriculture. Next to benefits for agriculture, pesticides impose a huge threat to the environment when they are used in the wrong way. The objective of this work was to determine the level of knowledge and awareness of the smallholder farmers towards the use of pesticides in Vietnam, Dà Lat region. Based on the collected data, an occupational and environmental risk assessment was performed. The results indicate that the majority of the pesticide operators in the strawberry and chrysanthemum crops have a rather high education. Pesticide knowledge, on the other hand, is usually gained through experience with pests and diseases. Only 30% of the farmers consulted a pesticide specialist or government stewardship for information on (new) pesticide products. Pesticide usage is rather high with application frequencies up to once every three days during the wet season. Pesticide packages are stored to be incinerated (51%) or to be thrown away with the garbage/taken to the landfill (37%). Only a small percentage disposes the packages into the local river (2%). The use of personal protection equipment is well established. Occupational risk assessment showed that the re-entry worker is exposed to a high risk. While a general awareness of the hazard of pesticides to human health and the environment is present, practical implementation of this awareness, however, is still limited in strawberry and chrysanthemum crop. The environmental risk evaluation indicated plant protection products of which the use should be limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Horticultural Activities on Preschool-Aged Children's Peer Interaction and Task Engagement in an Inclusive Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedeman-Rouse, Teri

    2012-01-01

    There is great concern by teachers, school administrators and parents regarding the increase in the number of preschool-aged students who exhibit challenging behavior in early childhood settings (Benedict, Horner & Squires 2007), need for early intervention procedures that focus on young children who may be at risk for developing patterns of…

  6. The Influence of Horticultural Activities on Preschool-Aged Children's Peer Interaction and Task Engagement in an Inclusive Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedeman-Rouse, Teri

    2012-01-01

    There is great concern by teachers, school administrators and parents regarding the increase in the number of preschool-aged students who exhibit challenging behavior in early childhood settings (Benedict, Horner & Squires 2007), need for early intervention procedures that focus on young children who may be at risk for developing patterns of…

  7. Genome-wide differentiation of various melon horticultural groups for use in genome wide association study for fruit firmness and construction of a high resolution genetic map

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We generated 13,789 single nucleotide plymorphism (SNP) markers from 97 melon accessions using genotyping by sequencing and anchored them to chromosomes to understand genome-wide fixation index between various melon morphotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay for inodorus and cantalupensis, th...

  8. Progress toward increasing intake of dietary nutrients from vegetables and fruits: The case for a greater role for the horticultural sciences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diet is implicated globally in the cause and severity of many diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and diabetes, and a large body of medical evidence indicates that consumption of healthier foods can alleviate both the incidence and severity of not only these diseases, but also obesity, which ...

  9. Development of Competency-Based Vocational Agricultural Instructional Materials for Handicapped Students Enrolled in Regular Agriculture Programs Other Than Horticulture. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, Connie D.; And Others

    This report includes a description of a project to develop and field-test competency-based instructional materials for handicapped students enrolled in regular vocational agriculture programs; a list of project advisory personnel; the clusters of skills identified as appropriate for handicapped students enrolled in courses in dairy production,…

  10. Cultural plant propagation center: Things to consider

    Treesearch

    John W. Jr. Bartok

    2005-01-01

    There are many career opportunities in horticulture, plant science, and other agricultural disciplines. Horticulture is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture. Students that gain experience in greenhouse techniques have an advantage when applying for a job.

  11. 75 FR 56975 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Review of Information Concerning a Petition To List All Live...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ..., horticulture, forestry, or to wildlife or the wildlife resources of the United States. An injurious wildlife... wildlife resources, to human beings, or to the interests of forestry, horticulture, or agriculture of the...

  12. Agricultural Change and the Rise of the British Strawberry Industry, 1920-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleja, E. J.; Ilbery, B.; Mills, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on structural change within the UK horticultural sector. This paper examines long-term changes, over a 90-year period, in one particular part of the UK horticultural sector: strawberries. It follows its growth from being a minor crop in 1920 to becoming the biggest grossing horticultural crop in 2009. Using a…

  13. Agricultural Change and the Rise of the British Strawberry Industry, 1920-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleja, E. J.; Ilbery, B.; Mills, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on structural change within the UK horticultural sector. This paper examines long-term changes, over a 90-year period, in one particular part of the UK horticultural sector: strawberries. It follows its growth from being a minor crop in 1920 to becoming the biggest grossing horticultural crop in 2009. Using a…

  14. Extension Specialists: A Self-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, John M.

    1985-01-01

    To document perceived changes in the role of the extension horticulture specialist, a national survey of state horticulture specialists was conducted in 1983. Extension specialists in horticulture appear to be moving away from the traditional activities of farm visits and personal interaction with individual producers. (CT)

  15. A Changing Program in Greenville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The vocational agriculture program at Greenville (South Carolina) High School centers around ornamental horticulture and jobs related to horticulture. Activities in the Future Farmers of America chapter program of work in ornamental horticulture account for the department's success in holding students. (MF)

  16. Agricultural Manpower Project Update. Preliminary [Report]. (A Review of Existing and Projected Job Titles in Montana Agricultural Production, Agricultural Supplies and Services, Ag Mechanics, Ornamental Horticulture, Ag Resources, Ag Products, and Forestry Businesses).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amberson, Max L.; And Others

    To determine the nature and extent of rural youth and adult educational and employment opportunities, this study assessed existing and projected job titles in agricultural production and the agribusiness sector of Montana's economy. Using job position taxonomies identified by the United States Office of Education, two survey instruments were…

  17. The Special Education Prevocational Level Manual: Project V.I.E.W. (Vocational Instruction and Experience Workshop). Assembly Skills, Woodworking Skills, Graphic Arts Skills, Measurement Skills, Plastic Skills, Horticulture Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Valley Regional High School District, Closter, NJ.

    Designed as a guideline for teachers and child study teams in a prevocational program for handicapped students, the manual presents goals, objectives and sample activities including the elements of career awareness, prevocational instruction, job simulation, and readiness for formal vocational instruction. Six sections are addressed: (1) assembly…

  18. The present state of research and exploitation of biotech (GM) crops in horticulture: results of research on plum cv. 'HoneySweet' resistant to plum pox virus (Sharka) and the deregulation of this cultivar in the CR & Europe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gentically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha in 2011. Only 114.57 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.90 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. Currently, developing count...

  19. The Special Education Prevocational Level Manual: Project V.I.E.W. (Vocational Instruction and Experience Workshop). Assembly Skills, Woodworking Skills, Graphic Arts Skills, Measurement Skills, Plastic Skills, Horticulture Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Valley Regional High School District, Closter, NJ.

    Designed as a guideline for teachers and child study teams in a prevocational program for handicapped students, the manual presents goals, objectives and sample activities including the elements of career awareness, prevocational instruction, job simulation, and readiness for formal vocational instruction. Six sections are addressed: (1) assembly…

  20. Report to Congress on Implementation of Army Directive on Army National Cemeteries Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-17

    Cemeteries Administration, in cemetery caretaking, supervision, and  heavy equipment training.   Expanded the training for the  Horticultural  Branch by...sending branch personnel  to professional  horticultural  training seminars and  horticultural  and forestry  trade conventions.   Oversaw the fielding and