Mathew, A.S; Chauhan, M.G.; Shah, B.K.
The antifeedant and anthelmintic activities of crude extracts of the shells of Anacardium occidentale were studied by comparing it's activity with the activity of Azadirachta indica A Juss (Kernel), a commercial standard. The test extracts of A. occidentale in petroleum ether, dichloromethane: methanol showed better activities compared to A. Indica. To Study the anthelmintic activity, the addition of piperine to the formulation significantly enhances the activity. The phytochemical investigation of test extracts showed the presence of phenols namely cordol, cardanol and anacardic acid by TLC studies. The most potent extracts are non toxic to mice. PMID:22556881
de Oliveira, Juliana Medeiros; Morrone, Maurílio da Silva; Albanus, Ricardo D'Oliveira; Amarante, Maria do Socorro Medeiros; Camillo, Christina da Silva; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Dalmolin, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira
In tropical America, principally in Northeastern Brazil, the leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale is traditionally used for treatment of different diseases. However, chemical and biological properties and activities of Anacardium occidentale are poorly investigated and known. Here, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities “in vitro” of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale. Our results show that leaf extract exhibits antioxidant activity when used to treat RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant effects were observed by decrease in oxidative damage in macrophage cells treated with 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL of leaf extract. Moreover, leaf extract reversed oxidative damage and inflammatory parameters induced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Leaf extract at 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL was able to inhibit release of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated cells. Taken together, our results indicate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale and reveal the positive effects that intake of these products can mediate in biological system. PMID:28904552
Okonkwo, T. J. N.; Okorie, O.; Okonta, J. M.; Okonkwo, C. J.
The extracts of Anacardium occidentale have been used in the management of different cardiovascular disorders in Nigeria. These have necessitated the assessment of the toxicity of this plant extract in sub-chronic administration. The inner stem bark of Anacardium occidentale was extracted with 80 % methanol and quantitatively analysed for antinutrients and some heavy metals. The phytochemical compositions and acute toxicity of the extract were determined also. Toxicity profiles of the extract on some liver function parameters were evaluated following a sub-chronic oral administration at doses of 1.44 and 2.87 g/kg. The phytochemical screening of extract revealed the presence of high amount of tannins, moderate saponins and trace of free reducing sugars. The antinutrient levels were 5.75 % (tannins), 2.50 % (oxalates), 2.00 % (saponins), 0.25 % (phytate) and 0.03 % (cyanide). The quantity of iron detected from dried crude was 8.92 mg/100 g, while lead and cadmium were non-detectable. The extract had LD50of 2.154g/kg p.o. in mice. Sub-chronic administration of the extract significantly increased the serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate aminotransaminase, which are indicative of liver damage. The serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and total protein of the treated animals were not significantly increased. The effects of sub-chronically administered extract on hepatocytes were minimal as the serum alkaline phosphatase; total bilirubin and total protein levels in treated animals were not significant (p< 0.05). Thus, sub-chronic administrations of Anacardium occidentale inner stem bark extract did not significantly (p< 0.05) depress the function of hepatocytes in Wistar rats. PMID:21188045
Sheny, D. S.; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph
An environment friendly approach for the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) using dried leaf powder of Anacardium occidentale is reported. The formation of Pt NPs is monitored using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR spectra reveal that proteins are bound to Pt nanoparticles. TEM images show irregular rod shaped particles which are crystalline. The quantity of leaf powder plays a vital role in determining the size of particles. Synthesized NPs exhibit good catalytic activity in the reduction of aromatic nitrocompound. The effective thermal conductivity of synthesized Pt/water nanofluid has been measured and found to be enhanced to a good extent.
Behravan, Effat; Heidari, Mahmoud Reza; Heidari, Mohammad; Fatemi, Ghasem; Etemad, Leila; Taghipour, Gholamhossein; Abbasifard, Mitra
In traditional Iranian medicine, the core of the fruit of Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut) has been used in the management of the pain. In this study gastric ulcerogenicity effect of the percolated extract of A. occidentale was investigated in rats. The extract or indomethacin (200, 300, 400 and 800 mg/kg) was administrated orally. In the control group normal saline (5 ml/kg) was used. After getting extract, indomethacin or normal saline, animals were slaughtered. The stomachs were detached and 10ml of 2% formalin injected in to the stomach for fixing the internal coat of the gastric wall. The stomachs were then slitted open near the bigger curvature and lacerations in the glandular part were evaluated. The ulcer index was determined using j-score. Data demonstrated that the oral dose of 200mg/kg of the extract did not provoke any ulcerogenic consequence in the rat's stomach. Gastric ulcerginicity of the extract at the doses of 300, 400 and 800 mg/kg was less than the similar doses of indomethacin (p<0.01). Therefore, A. occidentale is an appropriate plant for ongoing search for establishing an analgesic agent with low gastro-intestinal side effects for clinical use.
Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Atchudan, Raji; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok
In the present work, reductive-degradation of azo dyes such as congo red (CR) and methyl orange (MO) was manifested using Anacardium occidentale testa derived silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a catalyst. The formation of highly stable AgNPs were visually confirmed by the appearance of yellow color and further substantiated by the existence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak around 425nm. The effect of A. occidentale concentration, reaction time and pH in the formations of AgNPs was corroborated by UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic results proved that phytoconstituents of A. occidentale testa acts as a capping agent and thereby protects the AgNPs from aggregation. The crystalline nature of the AgNPs was validated from the XRD patterns. The average size of synthesized AgNPs was 25nm, with distorted spherical shape was ascribed from the high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HR-TEM) images. Due to the high stability of the as-synthesized AgNPs, they were utilized for the degradation of carcinogenic azo dyes such as CR and MO using NaBH4 and its catalytic activity was studied via UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results proved that extraordinary catalytic activity of synthesized AgNPs towards the reductive-degradation of both CR and MO.
Viswanath, Vinod; Leo, Vincent Vineeth; Prabha, S Sabna; Prabhakumari, C; Potty, V P; Jisha, M S
The chemical nature of the polyphenols of cashew kernel testa has been determined. Testa contains tannins, which present large molecular complexity and has an ancient use as tanning agents. The use of tannins extracted from cashew testa, considered in many places as a waste, grants an extra value to the cashew. In this work we have analysed through high performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermo gravimetric analysis the average molecular weight, main functional groups and thermal properties of tannins extracted from Anacardium occidentale L. The results of these analyses are compared with the commercial grade tannic acid. The FT-IR spectra showed bands characteristic of C = C, C-C and OH bonds. This important bioactive compound present in the cashew nut kernel testa was suggested as an interesting economical source of antioxidants for use in the food and nutraceutical industry.
da Silveira Nogueira Lima, Raquel; Rabelo Lima, Jacira; Ribeiro De Salis, Celio; de Azevedo Moreira, Renato
The potential of bioaffinity as a tool for the study of biological-recognition mechanisms is gaining increasing value. The search continues for alternative products that can be obtained from renewable sources, such as the bark exudate gum from the cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.), which grows wild in many tropical and subtropical countries. Its potential use as a chromatographic matrix and/or for bioaffinity ligand for proteins (lectins) has been investigated. The crude gum was cross-linked in order to obtain a kind of chromatographic matrix (gel). To evaluate the gum's ability to retain glycoproteins (lectins), affinity chromatography was performed and, in addition, the reological behaviour of the gum was characterized.
Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy
A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.
Tchikaya, Francis Olivier; Bantsielé, Guy Bernard; Kouakou-Siransy, Gisèle; Datté, Jacques Yao; Yapo, Paul Angoue; Zirihi, Noel Guedé; Offoumou, Michel Atté
Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Anacardiaceae) is a plant largely used in Africa for the treatment of different diseases. In Côte d'Ivoire it's commonly used for the treatment of hypertension. The present study was carried out in order to assess the effects of Anacardium occidentale extract (ANOE) on cardiovascular parameters in animal models. A mercury manometer kymograph of Ludwig was used to measure the blood pressure of normotensive rabbits in control conditions (normal physiological solution) and under the influence of ANOE. The contractile activity of an isolated rat heart was also measured in control conditions and under the influence of ANOE in different physiological media using a modified Langendhorff (1895) apparatus. The aqueous Anacardium occidentale (ANOE) bark extract applied intravenously in different doses (12, 40, 90, and 167 mg/kg b.w.), produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure of previously normotensive rabbits (up to 89% vs control). Atropine (1 mg/ml) pre-treatment failed to reverse the hypotensive effects elicited by the extract. ANOE applied to isolated rat heart preparations in different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10 µg/ml) induced negative inotropic and chronotropic effects. Atropine pre-treatment of heart preparations (0.1 µg/ml) failed to reverse the negative effects induced by ANOE. The extract's action on heart contractile activity studied in modified culture media further confirmed its cardio-inhibitory effects. ANOE induced strong hypotensive and cardio-inhibitory effects in animal models.
Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O
The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation.
Agboton, C; Onzo, A; Ouessou, F I; Goergen, G; Vidal, S; Tamò, M
Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in Benin. However, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. In Benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. The present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. The survey was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 in 22 cashew orchards (5 young and 17 mature) distributed over three major agroecological zones where cashew is most produced in the country. Insects were collected using chemical knock-down technique and visual observation followed by capture with sweep net. In addition, infested plant organs were sampled and incubated to collect emerging insects. In total, 262 insect species were recorded and identified. Among them, the wood borer Apate terebrans Pallas, the leafminer Eteoryctis gemoniella Stainton, and the mirid bugs Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter., and Helopeltis anacardii Miller., appeared as the most important insect species attacking cashew in Benin. Beneficial insects encountered included some predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. Few vertebrate predators were also recorded on the trees. Differences in agroecological conditions or in field cleanliness did not affect the number of insect species encountered in the cashew orchards. The results of this study represent an important baseline data for the design and implementation of strategies for cashew protection in Benin.
Alvarenga, Tavane A; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; de Souza, Julia M; Tavares, Denise C; Andrade E Silva, Márcio L; Cunha, Wilson R; Groppo, Milton; Januário, Ana H; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Pauletti, Patrícia M
Bioassay-guided study of the ethanol extract from the cashew Anacardium occidentale furnished cardol triene (1), cardol diene (2), anacardic acid triene (3), cardol monoene (4), anacardic acid diene (5), 2-methylcardol triene (6), and 2-methylcardol diene (7). 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments and HRMS analysis confirmed the structures of compounds 1-7. Compounds 2 and 7 were active against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms in vitro, with LC50 values of 32.2 and 14.5 μM and selectivity indices of 6.1 and 21.2, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy of the tegument of male worms in the presence of compound 7 at 25 μM after 24 h of incubation showed severe damage as well as peeling and reduction in the number of spine tubercles. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed swollen mitochondrial membrane, vacuoles, and altered tegument in worms incubated with compound 2 (25 μM after 24 h). Worms incubated with compound 7 (25 μM after 24 h) had lysed interstitial tissue, degenerated mitochondria, and drastically altered tegument. Together, the results indicated that compound 7 presents promising in vitro schistosomicidal activity.
Sheny, D S; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph
A rapid, one pot and biogenic fabrication of Pd nanoparticles is reported. Pd nanoparticles of size below 5 nm size are synthesized using the dried leaf powder of Anacardium occidentale. Rapid reduction results in the formation of spherical particles. The nanoparticles are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-visible and FTIR analysis. The absorption spectra have continua which are characteristic of Pd nanoparticles. The broad nature of the XRD pattern arising due to reflections from the (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) planes indicate crystallinity of the nanoparticles with face centered cubic (fcc) structure. The morphology and shape of the nanoparticles are obtained by analyzing TEM images. Most of the nanoparticles are spherical with size in the range 2.5 and 4.5 nm. FTIR spectra of dried Pd nanoparticles, native and treated dried leaf powder have been analyzed to find out the biomolecule responsible for the reduction of Pd(2+) and capping of the palladium nanoparticles. The possible mechanism of formation of the nanoparticles is suggested.
Rico, Ricard; Bulló, Mònica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi
The total dietary fiber, sugar, protein, lipid profile, sodium, and energy contents of 11 raw cashew kernel (Anacardium occidentale L.) samples from India, Brazil, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mozambique, and Vietnam were determined. Total fat was the major component accounting for 48.3% of the total weight, of which 79.7% were unsaturated FA (fatty acids), 20.1% saturated FA, and 0.2% trans FA. Proteins, with 21.3 g/100 g, were ranked second followed by carbohydrates (20.5 g/100 g). The average sodium content was 144 mg/kg. Fourteen FA were identified among which oleic acid was the most abundant with a contribution of 60.7% to the total fat, followed by linoleic (17.77%), palmitic (10.2%), and stearic (8.93%) acids. The mean energy content was 2525 kJ/100g. Furthermore, the sterol profile and content, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals of four raw cashew kernel samples from Brazil, India, Ivory Coast, and Vietnam were determined. β-Sitosterol with 2380 ± 4 mg/kg fat was the most occurring sterol. Glutamic acid, with 4.60 g/100 g, was the amino acid with highest presence, whereas tryptophan with 0.32 g/100 g was the one with lower presence. Vitamin E with an average contribution of 5.80 mg/100 g was the most abundant vitamin. Potassium with a mean value of 6225 mg/kg was the mineral with highest amount in cashew samples.
Carvalho, Ana Laura Nicoletti; Annoni, Raquel; Silva, Paula Regina Pereira; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Mauad, Thais
Anacardium occidentale Linn. (cashew) is a Brazilian plant that is usually consumed in natura and is used in folk medicine. Anacardic acids (AAs) in the cashew nut shell liquid are biologically active as gastroprotectors, inhibitors of the activity of various deleterious enzymes, antitumor agents and antioxidants. Yet, there are no reports of toxicity testing to guarantee their use in vivo models. We evaluated AAs biosafety by measuring the acute, subacute and mutagenic effects of AAs administration in BALB/c mice. In acute tests, BALB/c mice received a single oral dose of 2000 mg/kg, whereas animals in subacute tests received 300, 600 and 1000 mg/kg for 30 days. Hematological, biochemical and histological analyses were performed in all animals. Mutagenicity was measured with the acute micronucleus test 24h after oral administration of 250 mg/kg AAs. Our results showed that the AAs acute minimum lethal dose in BALB/c mice is higher than 2000 mg/kg since this concentration did not produce any symptoms. In subacute tests, females which received the highest doses (600 or 1000 mg/kg) were more susceptible, which was seen by slightly decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels coupled with a moderate increase in urea. Anacardic acids did not produce any mutagenic effects. The data indicate that doses less than 300 mg/kg did not produce biochemical and hematological alterations in BALB/c mice. Additional studies must be conducted to investigate the pharmacological potential of this natural substance in order to ensure their safe use in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anand, Geethashri; Ravinanthan, Manikandan; Basaviah, Ravishankar; Shetty, A. Veena
Background: Oral health is an integral and important component of general health. Infectious diseases such as caries, periodontal, and gingivitis indicate the onset of imbalance in homeostasis between oral micro biota and host. The present day medicaments used in oral health care have numerous side effects. The uses of herbal plants as an alternative have gained popularity due to side effects of antibiotics and emergence of multidrug resistant strains. Anacardium occidentale (cashew) and Mangifera indica (mango) have been used as traditional oral health care measures in India since time immemorial. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of cashew and mango leaves were obtained by maceration method. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by clear zone produced by these plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in agar plate method, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC), and suppression of biofilm. The cytotoxic effects of plants extract was determined by microculture tetrazolium assay on human gingival fibroblast and Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cell lines. Results: Cashew and mango leaf extract significantly (P < 0.05) produced larger zone of inhibition against test pathogens when compared to povidone-iodine-based mouth rinses. Although the MIC and MBC/MFC values of mouth rinses were effective in lower concentrations; plant extracts significantly (P < 0.001) suppressed the biofilms of oral pathogens. The leaf extracts were less cytotoxic (P < 0.001) compared to mouth rinses. Conclusions: Plant extracts are superior to the mouth rinses and have a promising role in future oral health care. PMID:25709341
Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro da; Lima, Andréa da Silva; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Rodrigues, Maria do Carmo Passos; Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane de; Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado de
The purpose of this work was to develop three mixed drinks based on caja (Spondias mombin L.) and cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale) pulps, added prebiotic ingredients and to evaluate their chemical, physicochemical and sensory properties. Four formulations with combinations of two pulp fruit, sucrose and prebiotic ingredients (Standard inulin, inulin high performance-HP-and fructooligosaccharides FOS) were developed. The mixed drinks were submitted the following analysis pH, acidity, soluble solids, sugars, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total polyphenols and acceptance ratings of the sensory attributes such as: consistency, sweetness and overall impression, attitude and consumers purchase preference. The pH, total soluble solids and polyphenol results showed difference (p < or = 0.01) significant, while for the analysis of total acidity, sugars, ascorbic acid and carotenoids, it was not observed significant difference. The sensory attributes evaluates showed results ranging in scale between "I did not like or disliked "and" liked "(average 5.80 to 7.06). The attributes sweetness, consistency and attitude of buying showed no difference (p > 0.05) between drinks, however, differed significantly (p < or = 0.05) for the attribute of overall impression. The drink with FOS showed a similar acceptance when compared to traditional (sucrose) drink, showing an option of meeting the functional food expectations of consumers, who seek healthy, nutritious and tasty foods.
Schweiggert, Ralf M; Vargas, Ester; Conrad, Jürgen; Hempel, Judith; Gras, Claudia C; Ziegler, Jochen U; Mayer, Angelika; Jiménez, Víctor; Esquivel, Patricia; Carle, Reinhold
Pigment profiles of yellow-, orange-, and red-peeled cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples were investigated. Among 15 identified carotenoids and carotenoid esters, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin palmitate were the most abundant in peels and pulp of all samples. Total carotenoid concentrations in the pulp of yellow- and red-peeled cashew apples were low (0.69-0.73 mg/100g FW) compared to that of orange-peeled samples (2.2mg/100g FW). The color difference between the equally carotenoid-rich yellow and red colored samples indicated the presence of a further non-carotenoid pigment type in red peels. Among four detected anthocyanins, the major anthocyanin was unambiguously identified as 7-O-methylcyanidin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside by NMR spectroscopy. Red and yellow peel color was chiefly determined by the presence and absence of anthocyanins, respectively, while the orange appearance of the peel was mainly caused by increased carotenoid concentrations. Thus, orange-peeled fruits represent a rich source of provitamin A (ca. 124 μg retinol-activity-equivalents/100g pulp, FW).
Khan, Irfan Newaz; Habib, Md. Razibul; Rahman, Md. Mominur; Mannan, Adnan; Sarker, Md. Mominul Islam; Hawlader, Sourav
Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formed xin blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs have certain limitations which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether herbal preparations possess thrombolytic activity or not. An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of four aqueous herbal extracts viz., O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica, A. occidentale along with Streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. The percentage (%) clot lysis was statistically significant (p<0.0001) when compared with vehicle control. Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, O. sanctum, C. longa, A. indica & A. occidentale showed moderate clot lysis activity (30.01 ± 6.168%, 32.94 ± 3.663%, 27.47 ± 6.943%, 33.79 ± 2.926% respectively) whereas standard streptokinase showed 86.2 ± 10.7 % clot lysis effect. From our study we found that all the herbs showed reasonable % of clot lysis. These herbal extracts possess thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active component(s) of these extracts for clot lysis are yet to be discovered PMID:24826011
Voigt, Eduardo Luiz; Almeida, Tânia Dias; Chagas, Roberta Magalhães; Ponte, Luiz Ferreira Aguiar; Viégas, Ricardo Almeida; Silveira, Joaquim Albenísio Gomes
Seedling establishment is a critical process to crop productivity, especially under saline conditions. This work was carried out to investigate the hypothesis that reserve mobilization is coordinated with salt-induced inhibition of seedling growth due to changes in source-sink relations. To test this hypothesis, cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale) were sown in vermiculite irrigated daily with distilled water (control) or 50mM NaCl and they were evaluated at discrete developmental stages from the seed germination until the whole seedling establishment. The salt treatment coordinately delayed the seedling growth and the cotyledonary reserve mobilization. However, these effects were more pronounced at late seedling establishment than in earlier stages. The storage protein mobilization was affected by salt stress before the lipid and starch breakdown. The globulin fraction represented the most important storage proteins of cashew cotyledons, and its mobilization was markedly delayed by NaCl along the seedling establishment. Free amino acids were mostly retained in the cotyledons of salt-treated seedlings when the mobilization of storage proteins, lipids and starch was strongly delayed. Proline was not considerably accumulated in the cotyledons of cashew seedlings as a response to NaCl salinity. According to these results it is noteworthy that the salt-induced inhibition of seedling growth is narrowly coordinated with the delay of reserve mobilization and the accumulation of hydrolysis products in cotyledons. Also, it was evidenced that free amino acids, especially those related to nitrogen transport, are potential signals involved in the regulation of storage protein hydrolysis during cashew seedling establishment under NaCl salinity.
Taiwo, Bamigboye J; Fatokun, Amos A; Olubiyi, Olujide O; Bamigboye-Taiwo, Olukemi T; van Heerden, Fanie R; Wright, Colin W
Cancer is now the second-leading cause of mortality and morbidity, behind only heart disease, necessitating urgent development of (chemo)therapeutic interventions to stem the growing burden of cancer cases and cancer death. Plants represent a credible source of promising drug leads in this regard, with a long history of proven use in the indigenous treatment of cancer. This study therefore investigated Anacardium occidentale, one of the plants in a Nigerian Traditional Medicine formulation commonly used to manage cancerous diseases, for cytotoxic activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation, spectroscopy, Alamar blue fluorescence-based viability assay in cultured HeLa cells and microscopy were used. Four compounds, zoapatanolide A (1), agathisflavone (2), 1,2-bis(2,6-dimethoxy-4-methoxycarbonylphenyl)ethane (anacardicin, 3) and methyl gallate (4), were isolated, with the most potent being zoapatanolide A with an IC50 value of 36.2±9.8µM in the viability assay. To gain an insight into the likely molecular basis of their observed cytotoxic effects, Autodock Vina binding free energies of each of the isolated compounds with seven molecular targets implicated in cancer development (MAPK8, MAPK10, MAP3K12, MAPK3, MAPK1, MAPK7 and VEGF), were calculated. Pearson correlation coefficients were obtained with experimentally-determined IC50 in the Alamar blue viability assay. While these compounds were not as potent as a standard anticancer compound, doxorubicin, the results provide reasonable evidence that the plant species contains compounds with cytotoxic activity. This study provides some evidence of why this plant is used ethnobotanically in anticancer herbal formulations and justifies investigating Nigerian medicinal plants highlighted in recent ethnobotanical surveys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Araújo, I M S; Zampa, M F; Moura, J B; dos Santos, J R; Eaton, P; Zucolotto, V; Veras, L M C; de Paula, R C M; Feitosa, J P A; Leite, J R S A; Eiras, C
The search for bioactive molecules to be employed as recognition elements in biosensors has stimulated researchers to pore over the rich Brazilian biodiversity. In this sense, we introduce the use of natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) as an active biomaterial to be used in the form of layer-by-layer films, in conjunction with phthalocyanines, which were tested as electrochemical sensors for dopamine detection. We investigated the effects of chemical composition of cashew gum from two different regions of Brazil (Piauí and Ceará states) on the physico-chemical characteristics of these nanostructures. The morphology of the nanostructures containing cashew gum was studied by atomic force microscopy which indicates that smooth films punctuated by globular features were formed that showed low roughness values. The results indicate that, independent of the origin, cashew gum stands out as an excellent film forming material with potential application in nanobiomedical devices as electrochemical sensors.
Maciel, Maria Inês Sucupira; de Mendonça Cavalcanti, Maria do Socorro; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; de Almeida Catanho, Maria Teresa Jansem; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso
Lectins, proteins that recognize carbohydrates, have been immobilized on inert supports and used in the screening or purification of glycoproteins. Anacardium occidentale bark infusion has been used as a hypoglycemic agent in Brazil. The toxicity of natural products may be evaluated determining their capability to alter the biodistribution of technetium-99M ((99m)Tc). This work reports the isolation and characterization of a lectin from A. occidentale bark (AnocBL), its evaluation as an affinity support for glycoprotein isolation and lectin effect on the uptake of (99m)Tc by rat adipocytes. AnocBL was isolated from 80 % ammonium sulphate supernatant by affinity chromatography on fetuin-agarose. SDS-PAGE showed a single protein band of 47 kDa. The monossacharide L-arabinose and the glycoproteins fetuin, asialofetuin, ovomucoid, casein, thyroglobulin, peroxidase, fetal bovine serum and IgG inhibited the activity. The lectin activity was stable until 70 °C and at a pH range of 3.0-7.5. AnocBL-Sepharose column bound fetuin indicating that the lectin matrix may be used to obtain glycoconjugates of biotechnological interest. In vitro assay revealed that glucose and insulin increase (99m)Tc uptake by rat adipocytes. AnocBL decreases (99m)Tc uptake, and this effect was not detected in the presence of glucose. Fetuin inhibited AnocBL effect in all insulin concentrations.
Chikezie, Paul Chidoka
Background: The exploitation and utilization of vast varieties of herbal extracts may serve as alternative measures to deter aggregation of deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (deoxyHbS) molecules. Objective: The present in vitro study ascertained the capacity of three medicinal plants, namely, Anacardium occidentale, Psidium guajava, and Terminalia catappa, to alter polymerization of HbS. Materials and Methods: Spectrophotometric method was used to monitor the level of polymerization of hemolysate HbS molecules treated with sodium metabisulfite (Na2 S2 O5) at a regular interval of 30 s for a period of 180 s in the presence of separate aqueous extracts of A. occidentale, P. guajava, and T. catappa. At time intervals of 30 s, the level of polymerization was expressed as percentage of absorbance relative to the control sample at the 180th s. Results: Although extracts of the three medicinal plants caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction in polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules, the corresponding capacity in this regard diminished with increase in incubation time. Aqueous extract of P. guajava exhibited the highest capacity to reduced polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules. Whereas at t > 60 s, extract concentration of 400 mg% of A. occidentale activated polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules by 6.23±1.34, 14.53±1.67, 21.15±1.89, and 24.42±1.09%, 800 mg% of T. catappa at t > 30 s gave values of 2.50±1.93, 5.09±1.96, 10.00±0.99, 15.38±1.33, and 17.31±0.97%. Conclusion: The capacity of the three medicinal plants to interfere with polymerization of deoxyHbS molecules depended on the duration of incubation and concentration of the extracts. PMID:21716622
Cunha, Aline G; Brito, Edy S; Moura, Carlos F H; Ribeiro, Paulo R V; Miranda, Maria Raquel A
Cashew immature and ripe peduncles (Anacardium occidentale L.) from orange- and red-colored clones CCP 76 and BRS 189, respectively, were prepared as juice or fibrous fraction and submitted to UPLC-MS analyses, while the soluble fraction was also submitted to enzymatic evaluation. Cinnamoyl glucoside was present in ripe juice samples from both cashew clones, while monogalloyl diglucoside and digalloyl glucoside were present in immature juice samples from both cashew clones. Four compounds were found at immature fiber of both clones, anacardic acids (1, 2, 3) and GA19. The phenolic biosynthetic pathway was evaluated in juice samples and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity decreased significantly during the development, although it was much higher in ripe CCP 76. UDP-glycosyltransferases activity differed between clones, however its product cinnamoyl glucoside was a possible chemical marker of ripe juice samples from both clones. Flavonol synthase showed the highest specific activity in both cashew clones and its product, flavonols were identified in cashew apple at immature and ripe stages.
De Lima, S G; Feitosa, C M; Citó, A M G L; Moita Neto, J M; Lopes, J A D; Leite, A S; Brito, M C; Dantas, S M M; Cavalcante, A A C Melo
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) represents one of the major cheapest sources of non-isoprenoid phenolic lipids, which have a variety of biological properties: they can act as molluscicides, insecticides, fungicides, have anti-termite properties, have medicinal applications, and demonstrate antioxidant activity in vitro. Immature cashew nut-shell liquid (iCNSL) is a unique natural source of unsaturated long-chain phenols. Their use has stimulated much research in order to prepare drug analogues for application in several fields. The objective of the present study was to determine whether iCNSL has antioxidant properties when used in strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to measure the inhibitory activity of acetylcholinesterase. The constituents were identified using thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance. The iCNSL contains anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and 2-methyl cardol. Immature cashew nut oil contains triacylglycerols, fatty acids, alkyl-substituted phenols, and cholesterol. The main constituents of the free fatty acids are palmitic (C(16:0)) and oleic acid (C(18:1)). iCNSL has excellent protective activities in strains of S. cerevisiae against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide and inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity. iCNSL may have an important role in protecting DNA against damage induced by reactive oxygen species, as well as hydrogen peroxide, generated by intra- and extracellular mechanisms.
Tedong, Leonard; Madiraju, Padma; Martineau, Louis C; Vallerand, Diane; Arnason, John T; Desire, Dzeufiet D P; Lavoie, Louis; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Haddad, Pierre S
Products of cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) are used in traditional medicine for various ailments, including diabetes. The anti-diabetic properties of cashew plant parts were studied using differentiated C2C12 myoblasts (myotubes) and rat liver mitochondria. Hydroethanolic extract of cashew seed (CSE) and its active component, anacardic acid (AA), stimulated glucose transport into C2C12 myotubes in a concentration-dependent manner. Extracts of other parts (leaves, bark and apple) of cashew plant were inactive. Significant synergistic effect on glucose uptake with insulin was noticed at 100 μg/mL CSE. CSE and AA caused activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in C2C12 myotubes after 6 h of incubation. No significant effect was noticed on Akt and insulin receptor phosphorylation. Both CSE and AA exerted significant uncoupling of succinate-stimulated respiration in rat liver mitochondria. Activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase by CSE and AA likely increases plasma membrane glucose transporters, resulting in elevated glucose uptake. In addition, the dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation may enhance glycolysis and contribute to increased glucose uptake. These results collectively suggest that CSE may be a potential anti-diabetic nutraceutical. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Tripathy, Asima; Samanta, Luna; Das, Sachidananda; Parida, Sarat K; Marai, Neetisheel; Hazra, Rupenansu K; Mallavdani, U V; Kar, Santanu K; Mahapatra, Namita
Larvicidal activity of methanolic plant extracts of Lantana cramera (P1) root and Anacardium occidentale (P2) leaf was investigated against the larvae of the three mosquito species (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti reared in the laboratory), and the respective glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was analyzed as an index of protection against the extracts. The LC50 (extract concentration that shows 50% mortality) values of P1 extract for An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 132.55, 27.82, and 11.68 ppm, respectively, whereas those of P2 extract were 56.81, 912, and 10.79 ppm, respectively. In general, in the untreated groups, the level of GST activity was significantly higher in Ae. aegypti in comparison with An. stephesi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. However, the enzyme activity failed to show any response when treated with either of the plant extracts in Ae. aegypti. However, an increase in the GST activity was recorded in extract-treated larvae of both An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The results of the current study suggest that both the plant extracts show species-specific mosquitocidal potential. Induction of GST activities in survived An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae suggests the role of this enzyme in conferring resistance to the plant extracts.
Singh, Bimala; Kale, R K; Rao, A R
Cashew nut shell oil has been reported to possess tumour promoting property. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the modulatory effect of cashew nut (Anlacardium occidentale) kernel oil on antioxidant potential in liver of Swiss albino mice and also to see whether it has tumour promoting ability like the shell oil. The animals were treated orally with two doses (50 and 100 microl/animal/day) of kernel oil of cashew nut for 10 days. The kernel oil was found to enhance the specific activities of SOD, catalase, GST, methylglyoxalase I and levels of GSH. These results suggested that cashew nut kernel oil had an ability to increase the antioxidant status of animals. The decreased level of lipid peroxidation supported this possibility. The tumour promoting property of the kernel oil was also examined and found that cashew nut kernel oil did not exhibit any solitary carcinogenic activity.
Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret
Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100 mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518
Smith, R L; Malaluan, R M; Setianto, W B; Inomata, H; Arai, K
Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) represents the largest readily available bioresource of alkenyl phenolic compounds. In this work, separation of CNSL from the pericarp of the cashew nut with supercritical carbon dioxide was studied. In the initial extractions with CO(2) at 40-60 degrees C and at pressures from 14.7 to 29.4 MPa, low yields were obtained. However, when the extractions were performed with one or more intermediate depressurization steps, the yield of CNSL increased to as high as 94%. Most of the oil did not separate from the shell during the depressurization step, but was obtained during the subsequent repressurization. The CNSL extract had a clear light brownish pink color and exhibited no evidence of polymerization or degradation. The pressure profile extraction method proposed in this work increases the possible CNSL extraction yields and greatly reduces the amount of CO(2) required for CNSL separation.
Patel, Rajesh N; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu; Ganesh, Anuradda
This work investigated the extraction of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)). Effects of process parameters such as extraction pressure, temperature and flow rate of SC-CO(2) were investigated. The yield of CNSL increased with increase in pressure, temperature and mass flow rate of SC-CO(2). However, under different operating conditions, the composition of CNSL varied. The study of physical properties and chemical composition of the oil obtained through super critical fluid extraction (SCFE) showed better quality as compared to the CNSL obtained through thermal route. Experimental results were compared with diffusion based mass transfer model. Based on this simple model, extraction time was optimized.
Trevisan, M T S; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W
In this study the content of anacardic acids, cardanols and cardols in cashew apple, nut (raw and roasted) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) were analysed. The higher amounts (353.6 g/kg) of the major alkyl phenols, anacardic acids were detected in CNSL followed by cashew fibre 6.1 g/kg) while the lowest (0.65 g/kg) amounts were detected in roasted cashew nut. Cashew apple and fibre contained anacardic acids exclusively, whereas CNSL also contained an abundance of cardanols and cardols. Cashew nut (raw and roasted) also contained low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols. Cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes and the individual anacardic acids, major cardanols and cardols were purified to homogeneity from these fractions by semi-preparative HPLC and definitively identified by nano-ESI-MS-MS, GC-MS and NMR analyses. The hexane extracts (10 mg/ml) of all cashew products tested plus CNSL, displayed significant antioxidant capacity. Cashew nut shell liquid was the more efficient (inhibition=100%) followed by the hexane extract of cashew fibre (94%) and apple (53%). The antioxidant capacity correlated significantly (P<0.05) with the concentration of alkyl phenols in the extracts. A mixture of anacardic acids (10.0 mg/ml) showed the higher antioxidant capacity (IC50=0.60 mM) compared to cardols and cardanols (IC50>4.0 mM). The data shows that of these substances, anacardic-1 was by far the more potent antioxidant (IC50=0.27 mM) compared to cardol-1 (IC50=1.71 mM) and cardanol-1 (IC50>4.0 mM). The antioxidant capacity of anacardic acid-1 is more related to inhibition of superoxide generation (IC50=0.04 mM) and xanthine oxidase (IC50=0.30 mM) than to scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. At present a substantial amount of cashew fibre is mostly used in formulations of animal or poultry feeds. The data presented in this study, indicates that this waste product along with CNSL, both of which contain high contents of anacardic acids, could be better utilized in functional food formulations and may represent a cheap source of cancer chemopreventive agents.
Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Monaghan, Erin K; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Robotham, Jason M; O'Donnell, Susan E; Gerber, Mary Susan; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K
Cashew nut seeds were subjected to processing including autoclaving (121 degrees C for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min), blanching (100 degrees C for 1, 4, 7, and 10 min), microwave heating (1 and 2 min each at 500 and 1000 W), dry roasting (140 degrees C for 20 and 30 min; 170 degrees C for 15 and 20 min; and 200 degrees C for 10 and 15 min), gamma-irradiation (1, 5, 10, and 25 kGy), and pH (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13). Proteins from unprocessed and processed cashew nut seeds were probed for stability using anti-Ana o 2 rabbit polyclonal antibodies and mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3 as detection agents. Results indicate that Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3 are stable regardless of the processing method to which the nut seeds are subjected.
Neto, V Q; Narain, N; Silva, J B; Bora, P S
The functional properties viz. solubility, water and oil absorption, emulsifying and foaming capacities of the protein isolates prepared from raw and heat processed cashew nut kernels were evaluated. Protein solubility vs. pH profile showed the isoelectric point at pH 5 for both isolates. The isolate prepared from raw cashew nuts showed superior solubility at and above isoelectric point pH. The water and oil absorption capacities of the proteins were slightly improved by heat treatment of cashew nut kernels. The emulsifying capacity of the isolates showed solubility dependent behavior and was better for raw cashew nut protein isolate at pH 5 and above. However, heat treated cashew nut protein isolate presented better foaming capacity at pH 7 and 8 but both isolates showed extremely low foam stability as compared to that of egg albumin.
Owumi, Solomon E; Fatoki, John O; Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A
Occupational exposures to environmental toxicants have been associated with the onset of skin lesions-including cancers. Identification and reduction of exposure to such compounds is an important public health goal. We examined the effect of cashew shell oil (CSO), used in skin tattooing for its potential to induce skin transformation in rats. Corn oil and CSO (25, 50, and 100%) were topically applied to depilated sections of Wistar' rat skin (groups: I-IV) for six weeks. Effect of treatments on serum transaminases activity, histological changes in hepatocytes and induction of micronuclei in the bone marrow were examined. In addition, CSO-induced hepatocyte proliferation was also quantified. All animals survived the course of the study. Reduced percentage change in body weight and physical trauma were observed in CSO-treated rat. The effects were more prominent in Group IV (100% CSO). Relative liver weights and number of hepatocytes (cells/mm(2)) increased significantly in groups II-IV relative to control (p < 0.05). Serum transaminases activities were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected in treated groups. Hepatic histopathology revealed moderate sinusoidal congestion (group II), in addition to portal congestion in (group III), with mononuclear cellular infiltration (group IV) animals. In addition, CSO induced significant micronuclei formation of polychromatic erythrocyte (mPCEs) in the rat bone marrow (p < 0.05) when compared with control. Topical application of CSO disrupted skin cells integrity resulting in physical trauma. In addition, CSO appears to be clastogenic and induces hepatocyte proliferation. Occupational exposure to CSO especially for engraving tattoos in humans should be discouraged and further studies need to be conducted.
Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Peterson, W Rich; Roux, Kenneth H
The allergens associated with cashew food allergy have not been well-characterized. We sought to identify the major allergens in cashew nut by performing IgE immunoblots to dissociated and reduced or nonreduced cashew protein extracts, followed by sequencing of the peptides of interest. Sera from 15 subjects with life-threatening reactions to cashews and 8 subjects who tolerate cashews but have life-threatening reactions to other tree nuts were compared. An aqueous cashew protein extract containing albumin/globulin was separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and subjected to IgE immunoblotting using patient sera. Selected IgE reactive bands were subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Each of the 15 sera from cashew-allergic subjects showed IgE binding to the cashew protein extract. The dominant IgE-binding antigens in the reduced preparations included peptides in the 31-35 kD range, consistent with the large subunits of the major storage 13S globulin (legumin-like protein). Low-molecular-weight polypeptides of the 2S albumin family, with similarity to the major walnut allergen Jug r 1, also bound IgE. The sera from eight patients who tolerate cashew but displayed allergies to other tree nuts showed only minimal or no IgE binding to cashew. Cashew food allergy is associated with the presence of IgE directed against the major seed storage proteins in cashew, including the 13S globulin (legumin group) and 2S albumins, both of which represent major allergen classes in several plant seeds. Thus, the legumin-group proteins and 2S albumins are again identified as major food allergens, which will help further research into seed protein allergenicity.
Trox, Jennifer; Vadivel, Vellingiri; Vetter, Walter; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Scherbaum, Veronika; Gola, Ute; Nohr, Donatus; Biesalski, Hans Konrad
In the present study, the effects of various conventional shelling methods (oil-bath roasting, direct steam roasting, drying, and open pan roasting) as well as a novel "Flores" hand-cracking method on the levels of bioactive compounds of cashew nut kernels were investigated. The raw cashew nut kernels were found to possess appreciable levels of certain bioactive compounds such as beta-carotene (9.57 microg/100 g of DM), lutein (30.29 microg/100 g of DM), zeaxanthin (0.56 microg/100 g of DM), alpha-tocopherol (0.29 mg/100 g of DM), gamma-tocopherol (1.10 mg/100 g of DM), thiamin (1.08 mg/100 g of DM), stearic acid (4.96 g/100 g of DM), oleic acid (21.87 g/100 g of DM), and linoleic acid (5.55 g/100 g of DM). All of the conventional shelling methods including oil-bath roasting, steam roasting, drying, and open pan roasting revealed a significant reduction, whereas the Flores hand-cracking method exhibited similar levels of carotenoids, thiamin, and unsaturated fatty acids in cashew nuts when compared to raw unprocessed samples.
Comstock, Sarah S; Robotham, Jason M; Tawde, Pallavi; Kshirsagar, Harshal; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S
Cashew apple juice has the potential to be a natural source of vitamin C and sugar in processed foods. The juice of the cashew apple is obtained by pressing the fleshy peduncle or receptacle, which forms a rounded apple that sits above the true fruit, the cashew nut. Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the United States. To determine if cashew apple juice contains cashew nut allergens, immunoblotting was performed using a cashew apple juice 6X concentrate that was extracted and further concentrated through dialysis, lyophilization, and resuspension. Serum IgE of individuals allergic to cashew nut bound proteins in the cashew apple juice concentrate extract. For some serum samples, IgE reactivity could be inhibited by preincubation of the serum with cashew nut extract, suggesting the presence of cashew nut-related allergens. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for cashew nut allergens, the concentrate was found to contain Ana o 1 (vicilin) and Ana o 2 (legumin). Neither IgE from cashew nut allergic sera nor the monoclonal antibodies bound any peptides in 5 kDa filtered cashew apple juice concentrate. The cashew apple juice concentrate used in these studies contains proteins with IgE-reactive epitopes, including cashew nut legumin and vicilin. No IgE-binding peptides remained after 5 kDa filtration of the concentrate.
Sampaio, Karina L; Garruti, Deborah S; Franco, Maria Regina B; Janzantti, Natalia S; Da Silva, Maria Aparecida Ap
There is a considerable loss of volatile compounds during the thermal concentration of cashew apple juice, damaging product quality, and as yet there is little research on the subject. Thus the purpose of this research was to identify the aroma volatiles evaporated off from cashew apple juice and recovered in the water phase during concentration of this beverage in an industrial plant. Water phase volatiles were extracted using dichloromethane, concentrated under a nitrogen flow, separated by gas chromatography (GC) and identified by GC-mass spectrometry. In order to determine the contribution of each volatile to the cashew aroma, five trained judges evaluated the GC effluents using the Osme GC-olfactometry technique. 71 volatiles were identified; of these, 47 were odour active. Alcohols were preferentially recovered in the cashew water phase, notably heptanol, trans-3-hexen-1-ol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, representing 42% of the total chromatogram area and imparting green grass and fruity aroma notes to the water phase. Esters represented 21% of the total chromatogram area, especially ethyl 2-hydroxyhexanoate, ethyl trans-2-butenoate and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and were responsible for the fruity/cashew-like aroma of the water phase. On the other hand, 3-methylbutanoic and 2-methylbutanoic acids were the volatiles that presented the greatest odour impact in the GC effluents of the water phase. Overall, the results of the present study strongly indicated that further concentration of the esters recovered in the water phase, either by partial distillation or by alternative technologies such as pervaporation, could generate a higher-quality natural cashew apple essence. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Melo-Cavalcante, Ana Amélia de Carvalho; Dantas, Sandra Maria Mendes de Moura; Leite, Aracelli de Sousa; Matos, Leomá Albuquerque; e Sousa, João Marcelo de Castro; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; da Silva, Juliana
Cashew apple juice and cajuina (processed juice) are drinks widely consumed in northeast Brazil. In vitro studies have shown that both juices have antimutagenic activity as well as antioxidant effects. These juices contain vitamins, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. This in vivo study assessed the antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic effects of both drinks against genotoxicity and mutagenicity induced by cyclophosphamide. The comet, micronucleus, and chromosome aberrations tests were used. Male Swiss mice were divided into 6 groups (5 animals per group) and received the following by gavage, 0.15 mL/10 g body weight: group 1, water; group 2, cashew apple juice; group 3, cajuina juice; group 4, cashew apple juice and cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg); group 5, cajuina juice and cyclophosphamide; group 6: cyclophosphamide. Both drinks significantly reduced DNA damage of peripheral blood cells (P<.001), with modulation percentages of 60.82% (cashew apple juice) and 82.19% (cajuina) when compared with the cyclophosphamide group. Cashew apple juice and cajuina modulated cyclophosphamide-induced micronucleus frequency, with up to 80.0% inhibition. Cashew apple juice and cajuina decreased the average number of cells with chromosome aberrations in bone marrow of mice by 53% and 65%, respectively. These findings demonstrate the high antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic potential of cashew apple juice and cajuina in vivo, which can be related to the antioxidant compounds found in both drinks.
Wang, Fang; Robotham, Jason M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H
We recently cloned and described a vicilin and showed it to be a major cashew allergen. Additional IgE-reactive cashew peptides of the legumin group and 2S albumin families have also been reported. Here, we attempt to clone, express and characterize a second major cashew allergen. A cashew cDNA library was screened with human IgE and rabbit IgG anti-cashew extract antisera, and a reactive nonvicilin clone was sequenced and expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Immunoblotting was used to screen for reactivity with patients' sera, and inhibition of immunoblotting was used to identify the corresponding native peptides in cashew nut extract. The identified allergen was subjected to linear epitope mapping using SPOTs solid-phase synthetic peptide technology. Sequence analysis showed the selected clone, designated Ana o 2, to encode for a member of the legumin family (an 11S globulin) of seed storage proteins. By IgE immunoblotting, 13 of 21 sera (62%) from cashew-allergic patients were reactive. Immunoblot inhibition data showed that the native Ana o 2 constitutes a major band at approximately 33 kD and a minor band at approximately 53 kD. Probing of overlapping synthetic peptides with pooled human cashew-allergic sera identified 22 reactive peptides, 7 of which gave strong signals. Several Ana o 2 epitopes were shown to overlap those of the peanut legumin group allergen, Ara h 3, in position but with little sequence similarity. Greater positional overlap and identity was observed between Ana o 2 and soybean glycinin epitopes. We conclude that this legumin-like protein is a major allergen in cashew nut. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
de Brito, Edy Sousa; de Araújo, Manuela Cristina Pessanha; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James
Liquid chromatography, with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI/MS), was used to identify and quantify flavonoids in cashew apple. One anthocyanin and thirteen glycosylated flavonols were detected in a methanol–water extract. Among them, the 3-O-galactoside, 3-O-glucoside, 3-O-rhamnoside, 3-O-xylopyranoside, 3-O-arabinopyranoside and 3-O-arabinofuranoside of quercetin and myricetin, as well as kaempferol 3-O-glucoside were identified by direct comparison with standards or positively identified flavonoids in cranberry. The anthocyanin was the 3-O-hexoside of methyl-cyanidin. Trace amounts of delphinidin and rhamnetin were detected in the hydrolyzed extract, suggesting their glycosides were present, but undetectable, in the original extract. The concentrations of the 14 flavonoids in the tested sample were determined. This is the first report of these flavonoids in cashew apple. PMID:25544795
da Silveira Vasconcelos, Mirele; Gomes-Rochette, Neuza F; de Oliveira, Maria Liduína M; Nunes-Pinheiro, Diana Célia S; Tomé, Adriana R; Maia de Sousa, Francisco Yuri; Pinheiro, Francisco Geraldo M; Moura, Carlos Farley H; Miranda, Maria Raquel A; Mota, Erika Freitas
Cashew apple is a tropical pseudofruit consumed as juice due to its excellent nutritional and sensory properties. In spite of being well known for its important antioxidant properties, the cashew apple has not been thoroughly investigated for its therapeutic potential. Thereby, this study evaluated the antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing activities of cashew apple juice. Juices from ripe and immature cashew apples were analyzed for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing properties. Those were evaluated in murine models of xylene-induced ear edema and wound excision. Swiss mice were treated with cashew juice by gavage. Edema thickness was measured and skin lesions were analyzed by planimetry and histology. Both antioxidant content and total antioxidant activity were higher in ripe cashew apple juice (RCAJ) than in unripe cashew apple juice (UNCAJ). The UNCAJ presented the main anti-inflammatory activity by a significant inhibition of ear edema (66.5%) when compared to RCAJ (10%). Moreover, UNCAJ also showed the best result for wound contraction (86.31%) compared to RCAJ (67.54%). Despite of higher antioxidant capacity, RCAJ did not promote better anti-inflammatory, and healing responses, which may be explained by the fact that treatment increased antioxidants level leading to a redox “imbalance” turning down the inflammatory response modulation exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results suggest that UNCAJ presents a greater therapeutic activity due to a synergistic effect of its phytochemical components, which improve the immunological mechanisms as well as an optimal balance between ROS and antioxidants leading to a better wound healing process. PMID:25819683
da Silveira Vasconcelos, Mirele; Gomes-Rochette, Neuza F; de Oliveira, Maria Liduína M; Nunes-Pinheiro, Diana Célia S; Tomé, Adriana R; Maia de Sousa, Francisco Yuri; Pinheiro, Francisco Geraldo M; Moura, Carlos Farley H; Miranda, Maria Raquel A; Mota, Erika Freitas; de Melo, Dirce Fernandes
Cashew apple is a tropical pseudofruit consumed as juice due to its excellent nutritional and sensory properties. In spite of being well known for its important antioxidant properties, the cashew apple has not been thoroughly investigated for its therapeutic potential. Thereby, this study evaluated the antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing activities of cashew apple juice. Juices from ripe and immature cashew apples were analyzed for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing properties. Those were evaluated in murine models of xylene-induced ear edema and wound excision. Swiss mice were treated with cashew juice by gavage. Edema thickness was measured and skin lesions were analyzed by planimetry and histology. Both antioxidant content and total antioxidant activity were higher in ripe cashew apple juice (RCAJ) than in unripe cashew apple juice (UNCAJ). The UNCAJ presented the main anti-inflammatory activity by a significant inhibition of ear edema (66.5%) when compared to RCAJ (10%). Moreover, UNCAJ also showed the best result for wound contraction (86.31%) compared to RCAJ (67.54%). Despite of higher antioxidant capacity, RCAJ did not promote better anti-inflammatory, and healing responses, which may be explained by the fact that treatment increased antioxidants level leading to a redox "imbalance" turning down the inflammatory response modulation exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results suggest that UNCAJ presents a greater therapeutic activity due to a synergistic effect of its phytochemical components, which improve the immunological mechanisms as well as an optimal balance between ROS and antioxidants leading to a better wound healing process. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.
Wei, Yanhong; Sathe, Shridhar K; Teuber, Suzanne S; Roux, Kenneth H
Trace amounts of cashew nut protein can provoke severe allergic reactions in sensitive patients. Consequently, commercial food processors and regulatory agencies must be vigilant to prevent cashew nut cross-contamination among foods and ensure proper labeling. Toward this end, we have developed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) to detect the predominant cashew protein fraction (anacardein or cashew major protein, CMP) that can be extracted in aqueous buffer from food matrixes. Protein G-purified goat antiwhole cashew extract IgG and rabbit anti-CMP IgG were used as capture and secondary antibodies, respectively. Immunoadsorption against several nut and seed proteins significantly minimized the inherent cross-reactivity of these reagents. Food samples spiked with cashew flour and CMP were extracted and tested in a sandwich ELISA where standard curves were based on reactivity with CMP. The assay was optimized to detect as little as 20 ng/mL (0.02 ppm) of CMP and was successfully used to quantify CMP, and thus cashew, in various food matrixes.
Morais, Talita C; Pinto, Natália B; Carvalho, Karine Maria M B; Rios, Jeison B; Ricardo, Nagila Maria P S; Trevisan, Maria Teresa S; Rao, Vietla S; Santos, Flávia A
Cashew nut-shell liquid and the contained anacardic acids (AAs) have been shown to possess antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitory, anti-Helicobacter pylori and antitumor properties. Despite these known effects, hitherto there were no published reports on their likely gastroprotective effects. The present study was designed to verify whether AAs afford gastroprotection against the ethanol-induced gastric damage and to examine the underlying mechanism(s). Gastric damage was induced by intragastric administration of 0.2mL of ethanol (96%). Mice in groups were pretreated orally with AAs (10, 30 and 100mg/kg), misoprostol (50 microg/kg), or vehicle (2% Tween 80 in saline, 10mL/kg), 45min before ethanol administration. They were sacrificed 30min later, the stomachs excised, and the mucosal lesion area (mm(2)) measured by planimetry. Gastroprotection was assessed in relation to inhibition of gastric lesion area. To study the gastroprotective mechanism(s), its relations to capsaicin-sensitive fibers, endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels were analysed. Treatments effects on ethanol-associated oxidative stress markers GSH, MDA, catalase, SOD, and total nitrate/nitrite levels as an index of NO were measured in gastric tissue. Besides, the effects of AAs on gastric secretory volume and total acidity were analysed in 4-h pylorus-ligated rat. AAs afforded a dose-related gastroprotection against the ethanol damage and further prevented the ethanol-induced changes in the levels of GSH, MDA, catalase, SOD and nitrate/nitrite. However, they failed to modify the gastric secretion or the total acidity. It was observed that the gastroprotection by AAs was greatly reduced in animals pretreated with capsazepine, indomethacin, l-NAME or glibenclamide. These results suggest that AAs afford gastroprotection principally through an antioxidant mechanism. Other complementary mechanisms include the activation of capsaicin-sensitive gastric afferents, stimulation of endogenous prostaglandins and nitric oxide, and opening of K(+)(ATP) channels. These combined effects are likely to be accompanied by an increase in gastric microcirculation.
Reitsma, Marit; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; Sforza, Stefano; van der Valk, Johanna P M; van Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Savelkoul, Huub F J; de Jong, Nicolette W; Wichers, Harry J
In this study a fast and simple purification procedure for the three known allergens from cashew (7S globulin Ana o 1, 11S globulin Ana o 2, and 2S albumin Ana o 3) is described. The purified allergens are characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, glycoprotein stain, and protein identification. The purified proteins still bind IgE, and this IgE binding varied between different pools of patient serum. Ana o 1 was found to be a glycoprotein. Ana o 3 has been studied more in detail to identify both the small and large subunits, both displaying microheterogeneity, and epitope mapping of Ana o 3 has been performed.
Robotham, Jason M; Wang, Fang; Seamon, Vanessa; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Sampson, Hugh A; Beyer, Kirsten; Seavy, Margaret; Roux, Kenneth H
Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy in the United States. We have previously cloned and characterized major cashew allergens belonging to the vicilin and legumin families of seed storage proteins. Here we set out to describe a third major cashew allergen, a 2S albumin. The recombinant cashew 2S albumin was amplified from a cDNA library by means of PCR, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Immunoblotting was used to screen for reactivity with patients' sera, and inhibition immunoblotting was used to identify the corresponding native cashew nut proteins. The mass of affinity-purified native allergen was determined by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. Patients' sera were used to probe solid-phase 2S albumin peptides to identify linear epitopes. The cloned allergen, designated Ana o 3, was identified as 2S albumin. MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy of native Ana o 3 yielded a molecular mass of 12,598 d. Immunoblot analysis showed 21 (81%) of 26 sera from patients with cashew allergy were reactive. Three native Ana o 3 large-subunit isoforms with molecular weights ranging from approximately 6 to 10 kd were identified. Probing of overlapping synthetic Ana o 3 peptides with patients' sera identified 16 reactive peptides, 4 of which gave strong signals and one of which positionally overlaps linear epitopes in mustard and walnut allergenic 2S albumins. The overlapping cashew and walnut epitopes also share considerable homology. We conclude that this 2S albumin protein is a major allergen in cashew nut and demonstrates a possible basis for cross-reactivity with walnut 2S albumin.
Sharma, A; Mathur, R; Dixit, V P
Administration of S. anacardium nut shell extract to cholesterol fed rabbits resulted in a significant reduction in serum cholesterol (-73.3%) and serum LDL-Chol. (-80%). The extract feeding also prevented the accumulation of cholesterol/triglycerides in liver, heart muscle and aorta and caused a regression of plaques (75.3-83.5%). These results indicate that S. anacardium is hypocholesterolemic in action and prevents cholesterol induced atheroma. Possible mechanism of action is discussed.
Hansson, David; Menkis, Audrius; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Thelander, Mattias; Olson, Ke; Stenlid, Jan; Karlsson, Magnus; Broberg, Anders
Investigation of the production of secondary metabolites of Heterobasidion occidentale led to the isolation and identification of six sesquiterpenes (illudolone A and B, illudolactone A and B, deoxyfomannosin A and B) along with the well-known sesquiterpene fomannosin and the previously described benzohydrofuran fomannoxin. The structures and relative configurations of the compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis as well as by HRMS. Their absolute configuration and biosynthesis were suggested and discussed in relation to fomannosin. Four compounds showed growth inhibiting activity against several basidiomycetes, Phlebiopsis gigantea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium and H. occidentale, and toxicity towards the moss Physcomitrella patens. In addition, one compound displayed activity against the bacterium Variovorax paradoxus as well as against the ascomycete Fusarium oxysporum.
In vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (Anacardium occidentale L.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.
de Lima, Ana Cristina Silva; Soares, Denise Josino; da Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; de Abreu Menezes, Eveline
Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. As a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fraction were 15% and 11.5% and for zinc this level was 3.7%. Regarding the cashew apple fibre, the bioaccessible fraction for these minerals was lower than 5%. The ascorbic acid, total extractable polyphenols and total antioxidant activity bioaccessible fraction for whole cashew apple juice showed bioaccessibility percentages of 26.2%, 39% and 27%, respectively, while for the cashew apple fibre, low bioaccessibles levels were found. The bioacessible percentage of zinc, ascorbic acid and total extractable polyphenols were higher in cashew apple juice than cashew apple fibre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Urzêda, Márcio A.; Marcussi, Silvana; Silva Pereira, Luciana L.; França, Suzelei C.; Pereira, Ana Maria S.; Pereira, Paulo S.; da Silva, Saulo L.; Guimarães, César L. S.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Couto, Lucélio B.
The antihyperglycemic effects of several plant extracts and herbal formulations which are used as antidiabetic formulations have been described and confirmed to date. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Anacardium humile. Although the treatment of diabetic animals with A. humile did not alter body weight significantly, a reduction of the other evaluated parameters was observed. Animals treated with A. humile did not show variation of insulin levels, possibly triggered by a mechanism of blood glucose reduction. Levels of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) decreased in treated animals, suggesting a protective effect on liver. Levels of cholesterol were also reduced, indicating the efficacy of the extract in reestablishing the balance of nutrients. Moreover, a kidney protection may have been achieved due to the partial reestablishment of blood glucose homeostasis, while no nephrotoxicity could be detected for A. humile. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of A. humile extracts in the treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, A. humile aqueous extract, popularly known and used by diabetic patients, induced an improvement in the biochemical parameters evaluated during and following treatment of diabetic rats. Thus, a better characterization of the medicinal potential of this plant will be able to provide a better understanding of its mechanisms of action in these pathological processes. PMID:23737820
Sharma, Arti; Verma, Pramod Kumar; Dixit, V P
To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg.kg(-1).day(-1), 200 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) and 300 mg.kg(-1).day(-1) for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. The sperm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids. The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats.
Joseph, Joice P; Raval, Sunant K; Sadariya, Kamlesh A; Jhala, Mayur; Kumar, Pranay
The objective of the study was to determine the anticancerous efficacy of Ayurvedic preparation made of Semecarpus anacardium (SA) nuts. Five groups of rats were used for the study. Group I served as water control. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was induced in groups II, III and IV animals using N-nitrosodiethylamine as inducing agent followed by phenobarbitone as promoter for 13 weeks. Group-II animals were kept untreated as hepatocellular carcinoma control. Group-III animals were treated with Ayurvedic milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium nuts at dose mentioned in Ashtangahridaya, an authentic book of Ayurveda for 49 days and group-IV animals were treated with doxorubicin as reference drug at dose of 1mg/kg twice a week for 7 weeks. Group V animals were kept as drug (SA nut milk extract) control for studying the effect of nut milk extract on normal rats. After 154 days of experiment, all animals were subjected to screening for HCC by estimation of liver enzymes, HCC marker (alpha-2 macroglobulin) and histopathology. Both liver enzymes and HCC marker were increased in hepatocellular carcinoma control along with neoplastic changes in liver and were decreased in Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract treated group. The Ayurvedic drug showed positive correlation with the action of doxorubicin. This study demonstrated the efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma either alone or along with chemotherapy.
Premalatha, B; Sujatha, V; Sachdanandam, P
The herbal remedy extended by Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against Aflatoxin B1 mediated hepatocellular carcinoma was established by studies on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. Since some definite correlation exists between tumour progression and the activities of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes, assessment of alterations in their activity can be used as successful markers of diagnosis and prognosis. The present work compares the activities of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma bearing rats with drug-treated animals. An overall increase in glycolytic enzymes namely hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, and aldolase with a subsequent reduction in gluconeogenic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase was observed in plasma and liver homogenates of hepatocellular carcinoma bearing rats. The administration of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract caused a significant decrease in the activity of glycolytic enzymes and an increase in gluconeogenic enzymes' activities to near normal values in drug-treated animals. Copyright 1997 The Italian Pharmacological Society.
Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam
To explore the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium (S. anacardium)on altered glucose metabolism in diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by feeding rats with high fat diet followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg/kg b.w.). Seven days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received nut milk extract of S. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The effect of nut milk extract of S. anacardium on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glucose metabolising enzymes and GSK were studied. Treatment with SA extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and increase in plasma insulin levels and also increase in HOMA - β and decrease in HOMA -IR. The drug significantly increased the activity of glycolytic enzymes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and increased the glycogen content in liver of diabetic rats while reducing the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes. The drug also effectively ameliorated the alterations in GSK-3 mRNA expression. Overall, the present study demonstrates the possible mechanism of glucose regulation of S. anacardium suggestive of its therapeutic potential for the management of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.) are a serious toxic plant problem for cattle in western North America. There are two chemotypes in the tall larkspur Delphinium occidentale, a more toxic chemotype and a less toxic chemotype. These chemotypes differ in the composition and concentrations of key alkaloids. ...
Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Renny, Chris Maria; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam
Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) was evaluated for its antidiabetic role in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by feeding high-fat diet for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 35 mg/kg body weight. Diabetic rats were treated with SA orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. SA significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the blood glucose levels and decreased the levels of HbA1c and the glucose intolerance. SA treatment significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the increase in lipid profile. The levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine were restored to near normal levels when compared with control diabetic rats. The histopathological abnormalities were also found to be normalized after treatment with SA nut milk extract. The potential antihyperglycemic action of SA is plausibly due to its underlying antioxidant role.
Barbosa-Filho, Valter M; Waczuk, Emily P; Leite, Nadghia F; Menezes, Irwin RA; da Costa, José GM; Lacerda, Sírleis R; Adedara, Isaac A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Posser, Thais; Kamdem, Jean P
Background The challenge of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of new infections have generated considerable interest in the exploration of natural products from plant origins as combination therapy. In this context, crude ethanolic extract (CEE), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), and methanolic fraction (MF) from Anacardium microcarpum were tested alone or in combination with antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Antibiotic resistance-modifying activity was performed using the microdilution method by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, phytochemical prospecting analyses of tested samples were carried out. Results Our results indicated that all the extracts showed low antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant strains (MIC =512 μg/mL). However, addition of CEE, EAF, and MF to the growth medium at the subinhibitory concentration (MIC/8=64 μg/mL) significantly modulated amikacin- and gentamicin-resistant E. coli 06. CEE and EAF also demonstrated a significant (P<0.001) synergism with imipenem against S. aureus. In contrast, MF antagonized the antibacterial effect of ciprofloxacin and gentamicin against P. aeruginosa 03 and S. aureus 10, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including phenols, flavonoids, xanthones, chalcones, and tannin pyrogallates. Conclusion Taken together, our results suggest that A. microcarpum is a natural resource with resistance-modifying antibacterial activity that needs to be further investigated to overcome the present resistant-infection problem. PMID:26604695
llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya
Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802
Verma, Nibha; Vinayak, Manjula
Antioxidants are substances that fight against ROS (reactive oxygen species) and protect the cells from their damaging effects. Production of ROS during cellular metabolism is balanced by their removal by antioxidants. Any condition leading to increased levels of ROS results in oxidative stress, which promotes a large number of human diseases, including cancer. Therefore antioxidants may be regarded as potential anticarcinogens, as they may slow down or prevent development of cancer by reducing oxidative stress. Fruits and vegetables are rich source of antioxidants. Moreover, a number of phytochemicals present in medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant activity. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of nuts of the medicinal plant Semecarpus anacardium in AKR mouse liver during the development of lymphoma. Antioxidant action was monitored by the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase. The effect of S. anacardium was also studied by observing the activity of LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), an enzyme of anaerobic metabolism. LDH activity serves as a tumour marker. The activities of antioxidant enzymes decreased gradually as lymphoma developed in mouse. However, LDH activity increased progressively. Administration of the aqueous extract of S. anacardium to lymphoma-transplanted mouse led to an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, whereas LDH activity decreased significantly, indicating a decrease in carcinogenesis. The aqueous extract was found to be more effective than doxorubicin, a classical anticarcinogenic drug, with respect to its action on antioxidant enzymes and LDH in the liver of mice with developing lymphomas.
Iyappan, Kuttalam; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Sangeethapriya, Vilvanathan; Gayathri, Vinaya Subramani; Suguna, Lonchin
Preservation or curing of hides and skins is performed as the primary step of leather processing. Common salt is employed as the conventional agent for curing purpose. Use of salt enhances the pollution load of tannery effluent which becomes highly contaminated with increased total dissolved solids and chlorides. To overcome this hurdle, researchers are in constant search of alternative preservation techniques which are either totally void of salt or use only a meager amount of salt. In the present study, we had explored the possibility of using Semecarpus anacardium nut extract as an alternative to salt for the curing process by assessing different parameters like hair slip, putrefaction odor, volatile nitrogen content, moisture content, bacterial count, and shrinkage temperature in comparison to the salt curing method. The antibacterial property of the plant extract was also investigated. The results obtained substantiated that the nut extract of S. anacardium effectively could preserve the skins for more than a month, by its antibacterial activity along with the dehydrating property of acetone.
Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Calligaro, Simone; Blasone, Giacomo; Guarnieri, Alberto; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio
Digital elevation models (DEMs) of glaciated terrain are commonly used to measure changes in geometry and hence infer the mass balance of glaciers. Different tools and methods exist to obtain information about the 3D geometry of terrain. Recent improvements on the quality and performance of digital cameras for close-range photogrammetry, and the development of automatic digital photogrammetric processing makes the 'structure from motion' photogrammetric technique (SfM) competitive for high quality 3D models production, compared to efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding survey technologies such as airborn and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The purpose of this work is to test the SfM approach, using a consumer-grade SLR camera and the low-cost computer vision-based software package Agisoft Photoscan (Agisoft LLC), to monitor the mass balance of Montasio Occidentale glacier, a 0.07km2, low-altitude, debris-covered glacier located in the Eastern Italian Alps. The quality of the 3D models produced by the SfM process has been assessed by comparison with digital terrain models obtained through TLS surveys carried out at the same dates. TLS technique has indeed proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier in the last years. Our results shows that the photogrammetric approach can produce point cloud densities comparable to those derived from TLS measurements. Furthermore, the horizontal and vertical accuracies are also of the same order of magnitude as for TLS (centimetric to decimetric). The effect of different landscape characteristics (e.g. distance from the camera or terrain gradient) and of different substrata (rock, debris, ice, snow and firn) was also evaluated in terms of SfM reconstruction's accuracy vs. TLS. Given the good results obtained on the Montasio Occidentale glacier, it can be concluded that the terrestrial photogrammetry, with the advantageous features of portability, ease of use and above all low costs
Tripathi, Yamini B; Pandey, Nidhi; Tripathi, Deepshikha; Tripathi, Pratibha
The oily fraction (non polar fraction-NPF) of S. anacardium (SA) significantly increased the expression of protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) in macrophages in concentration dependent manner, which was similar to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) response. Further, H-7 (1-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-2-methylpiperazine), an inhibitor of PKC significantly inhibited this NPF mediated response in a concentration dependent manner. In the post treatment kinetics, H-7 showed this inhibition only up to 6 min post NPF/PMA addition, but in similar condition, quercetin, a flavone with reported antioxidant property, showed this inhibition only up to 2 min. The results clearly suggest that oily fraction of SA nuts enhances the expression of PKC protein, which may be responsible for its reported pro-inflammatory property.
In vitro acaricidal properties of Semecarpus anacardium fruit and Datura stramonium leaf extracts against acaricide susceptible (IVRI-I line) and resistant (IVRI-V line) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.
Ghosh, Srikant; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Kumar, K G Ajith; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S
In an attempt to identify plants having anti-tick properties, the 95% ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Semecarpus anacardium and leaves of Datura stramonium were evaluated against reference tick lines of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The 95% ethanolic extracts of S. anacardium and D. stramonium caused 50% and 20% mortality, respectively, within 72 h of treatment by adult immersion test. The LC90 value of the ethanolic fruit extract of S. anacardium was determined as 13.5% (CI 12.05-15.12). The extract was also found efficacious (73.3%±3.3%) against the multi-acaricide-resistant IVRI-V line of R.(B.) microplus. The S. anacardium extract significantly affected the reproductive physiology of treated ticks by inhibiting the oviposition and was found safe. The HPTLC fingerprinting profile revealed the presence of pyrocatechol as a marker compound. The acaricidal property of S. anacardium against chemical acaricide-resistant R. (B.) microplus was discussed.
Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Moorthy, Balaji T; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanatham, Sachdanandam
Semecarpus anacardium, known as marking nut, has been used in indigenous system of medicine against various ailments. To evaluate the antilipidemic and anti-inflammatory effect of S. anacardium Linn. nut milk extract (SA) in Type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by feeding them with a high fat diet followed by i.p. of 35 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were treated with the drugs, SA (200 mg/kg body weight) and metformin (500 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. Antilipidemic effect of the drug was established by studying the lipoprotein alterations and also the alterations in the lipid profile and lipid metabolizing enzymes in the experimental group of rats. The effect of the drug on the expression of PPAR γ was also studied. To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of the drug, the levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 and also C-reactive protein were determined. Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg orally significantly (p < 0.05) reduced and normalized the alterations in the lipid metabolism in diabetic rats effectively than metformin. SA treatment significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mRNA expression of PPAR γ, thereby establishing the antilipidemic effect of the drug. The increase in the levels of inflammatory cytokines were significantly (p < 0.05) brought down to near normal levels on treatment with the drug SA. The present study thereby establishes the antilipidemic and anti-inflammatory effect of the drug. Thus, by decreasing the alterations in the lipid metabolism and inflammatory status, the drug can effectively improve the insulin sensitivity in rats and can serve as an excellent drug in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in toxicity between Tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) and Duncecap larkspur (D. occidentale) were genetically inherent within the species, or due to environmental influences unique to the different regions where they grow. There was no difference in the concentration of the toxic alkaloids between the two species when grown in common gardens. However, both species had higher concentration of toxic alkaloids when grown in the southern Rocky Mountain region which is characterized by summer monsoonal thunderstorms, compared to summer drought in the north. In a unique occurrence where Duncecap larkspur grew beside Tall larkspur, toxic alkaloids were very low in Duncecap larkspur, but total alkaloid concentration was often higher than in Tall larkspur.
Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.
Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183
Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Sekar, Ashwini; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam
Semecarpus anacardium commonly known as marking nut has been used in the Siddha system of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of the drug was evaluated in Type 2 diabetic rats induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 35 mg/kg body weight. Three days after STZ induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA) orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, Hb, HbA1c levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were measured, and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were observed. SA significantly (p < .05) reduced and normalized blood glucose levels and also decreased the levels of HbA1c as compared with that of HFD STZ control group. SA treatment also significantly (p < .05) increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes while decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation. The potential antihyperglycemic action and antioxidant role might be due to the presence of flavonoids in the drug.
Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vani, S; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam
Endogenous fluorescence has been proposed as a means of aiding the diagnosis of various malignancies. It has been suggested that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of malignancies. Hence, the present study was designed to explore the spectrofluorimetric analysis of blood components as a marker for the analysis of mammary carcinoma treatment and also to bring about the protective effect of the drug Semecarpus anacardium on oxidative stress mediated damage of erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectra of the blood components were studied and also the level of lipid per oxides and antioxidant enzymes status in erythrocytes were determined in DMBA induced mammary carcinoma rats treated with Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy of blood components are altered under cancer conditions and the drug effectively ameliorated these alterations in mammary carcinoma induced rats. The drug also effectively reduced the oxidative stress induced erythrocyte damage thereby restoring the erythrocytes antioxidant status. These results suggest that erythrocytes may be the carriers of fluorophors that accumulate in cancer tissue and hence acts as new biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment.
Netto, Mariote S B; Lima, Waléria G; Correia, Kamila C; da Silva, Christiana F B; Thon, Michael; Martins, Ricardo B; Miller, Robert N G; Michereff, Sami J; Câmara, Marcos P S
Netto, M. S. B., Lima, W. G., Correia, K. C., da Silva, C. F. B., Thon, M., Martins, R. B., Miller, R. N. G., Michereff, S. J., and Câmara, M. P. S. 2016. Analysis of phylogeny, distribution, and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with gummosis of Anacardium in Brazil, with a new species of Lasiodiplodia. We identified Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with gummosis on Anacardium in Brazil. Isolates were sampled and identified on the basis morphology and phylogeny, through analysis of a partial translation elongation factor 1-α sequence, ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers, and β-tubulin gene sequence. Ten taxa were identified, namely, Lasiodiplodia brasiliense, L. euphorbicola, L. gonubiensis, L. iraniensis, L. jatrophicola, L. gravistriata sp. nov., L. pseudotheobromae, L. theobromae, Neofusicoccum batangarum, and Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum. Lasiodiplodia theobromae has been previously reported in cashew and is the most prevalent species observed. All the other species are reported here for the first time on this host. All species of Botryosphaeriaceae were pathogenic on detached green cashew shoots. Differences in aggressiveness were observed among the species, with N. batangarum, L. iraniensis, L. jatrophicola, and L. gravistriata characterized as the most aggressive species, whilst L. euphorbicola and L. pseudotheobromae were identified as the least aggressive.
Background Western clover (Trifolium occidentale) is a perennial herb with characteristics compatible for its development as an attractive model species for genomics studies relating to the forage legume, white clover (Trifolium repens). Its characteristics such as a small diploid genome, self-fertility and ancestral contribution of one of the genomes of T. repens, facilitates its use as a model for genetic analysis of plants transformed with legume or novel genes. Results In this study, a reproducible transformation protocol was established following screening of T. occidentale accessions originating from England, Ireland, France, Spain and Portugal. The protocol is based upon infection of cotyledonary explants dissected from mature seed with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 carrying vectors which contain the bar selection marker gene. Transformation frequencies of up to 7.5% were achieved in 9 of the 17 accessions tested. Transformed plants were verified by PCR and expression of the gusA reporter gene, while integration of the T-DNA was confirmed by Southern blot hybridisation and segregation of progeny in the T1 generation. Conclusions Development of this protocol provides a valuable contribution toward establishing T. occidentale as a model species for white clover. This presents opportunities for further improvement in white clover through the application of biotechnology. PMID:23841995
... marmelos Indian bael Peach. Anacardium occidentale Cashew Oriental. Annona cherimola Cherimoya Mexican, Oriental, Peach. Annona glabra Pond-apple Sapote. Annona muricata Soursop Melon, Oriental, Peach. Annona reticulata Custard apple, Annona Melon, Mexican, Oriental, Peach. Annona squamosa Custard apple Peach...
... marmelos Indian bael Peach. Anacardium occidentale Cashew Oriental. Annona cherimola Cherimoya Mexican, Oriental, Peach. Annona glabra Pond-apple Sapote. Annona muricata Soursop Melon, Oriental, Peach. Annona reticulata Custard apple, Annona Melon, Mexican, Oriental, Peach. Annona squamosa Custard apple Peach...
... marmelos Indian bael Peach. Anacardium occidentale Cashew Oriental. Annona cherimola Cherimoya Mexican, Oriental, Peach. Annona glabra Pond-apple Sapote. Annona muricata Soursop Melon, Oriental, Peach. Annona reticulata Custard apple, Annona Melon, Mexican, Oriental, Peach. Annona squamosa Custard apple Peach...
Consoli, R A; Mendes, N M; Pereira, J P; Santos, B de S; Lamounier, M A
The larvicidal properties of 34 plant extracts were tested against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations; 26.6% of the extracts enhanced larval mortality (alpha = 0.05) at 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata and Vernonia salzmanni). Anacardic acid (A. occidentale) was effective at 10 ppm and A. sativum (crude extract) at 1 ppm.
Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly
Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…
A new species of Taiwanascus, T. samuelsii, was collected from southern parts of Western Ghats on dead branches of Anacardium occidentale and is described. The new cleistothecial ascomycete is different from the type and only species in Taiwanascus, T. tetrasporus, in cleistothecial size, setae, and...
Nyambo, Brigitte; Ligate, Elly
Purpose: To identify and review production and marketing information sources and flows for smallholder cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) growers in Tanzania and recommend systems improvements for better technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: Two-stage purposive samples were drawn. First, two districts in the main cashew producing areas,…
Subramaniam, Suganthi; Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Gomathy, G; Palanvelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachidanandam Tiruvaiyaru
Semecarpus anacardium is a commonly used drug in the Siddha system of medicine for curing various metabolic disorders. The cardio protective effect of the drug in Type 2 diabetes-induced cardiovascular complications was studied in rats by feeding them with a high fat diet for 2 weeks followed by intra peritoneal injection of streptozotocin at a moderate dosage of 2*35 mg/kg/ b.wt 24 hr apart and leaving them for 8 weeks to develop cardiovascular complications. The effect of the drug was studied by analyzing levels of blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, marker enzymes, the antioxidative enzymes and the levels of lipid peroxides in Type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were treated with SA at a dosage of 300 mg/kg/b.wt. for 8 weeks and the results were compared with diabetic rats treated with the combination therapy drugs metformin at a dosage of 100 mg/kg/b.wt and atorvastatin at a dosage of 10 mg/kg/b.wt for 8 weeks. The drug SA significantly decreased the blood glucose levels and also HbA1c levels while improving glucose tolerance at the same time. The levels of marker enzymes and lipid peroxides were significantly increased in diabetic rats when compared with control rats. On the other hand significant decreases in the levels of antioxidative enzymes were observed in diabetic rats. Upon treatment with the drug SA, all of these abnormalities were restored to near normalcy. The present study thereby establishes the protective effect of the drug against diabetes-induced cardiac damage.
Sen, A. B.; Hawking, F.
A simple and convenient in vitro technique is described for the screening of compounds for action against Hymenolepis nana and probably many other intestinal worms. The results obtained from this test are in broad agreement with the findings of clinical experience and of a small series of in vivo tests. Among the substances tested, the most active ones were oil of chenopodium, dichlorophen, extract of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale), antimony potassium tartrate, and BIQ 20 [eicosamethylenebis(isoquinolinium iodide)]. PMID:13750047
Andree, K; Axtner, Jan; Bagley, M J; Barlow, E J; Beebee, T J C; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Bermingham, Eldredge; Boisselier-Dubayle, M C; Bozarth, Christine A; Brooks, Christopher P; Brown, R P; Catanese, Gaetano; Cavers, S; Ceron-Souza, Ivania; Chak, Solomon T C; Chan, M N; Charles-Dominique, P; Chen, C Y; Chen, J D; Chinchilla, Leah; DA Silva, D; Dafreville, S; Daunt, F; Delatte, H; Dorge, T; Duncan, N; Durand, J D; Duvernell, D; Estep, Matt; Fan, Sigang; Fattahi, R; Villela, Oscar Flores; Fong, Yokking; Fréville, H; Funes, Victoria; Gallardo-Escarate, C; Ganeshaiah, K N; Ghaffari, M R; Girod, C; Gomez-Moliner, B J; Gonzalez-Porter, Gracia P; Gosa, A; Govers, F; Guérin, F; Guindo, Diarah; Hailer, Frank; Haye, P A; Hoelmer, Kim A; Hofmann, S; Hong, Yan; Hu, Chaoqun; Huang, S W; Humeau, L; Infante, Carlos; Jackson, S A; Jacobsen, E; Jowkar, A; Kafi, M; Kermani, M J; Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Kyung Seok; Kim, Min-Young; Knibb, W; Koita, Ousmane A; Korpelainen, H; Lambourdiere, J; Lasso, Eloisa; Leblois, R; Lee, Hang; Lee, Seunghwan; Leung, F C C; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Li, Chunhong; Li, Y; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Lizana, M; Loughry, W J; Luo, Peng; Madeira, M J; Mahmoodi, P; Maldonado, Jesús E; Mardi, M; Mendes, O; Miehe, G; Muth, Peter; Nacci, D; Naveen Kumar, L; Ng, Wai-Chuen; Pailler, T; Parzies, Heiko K; Perez, Laura; Pfunder, M; Pietiläinen, M; Pirseyedi, S M; Porta, D; Porta, J; Porta, J M; Quilici, S; Rakotoarivelo, F P; Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Riéra, B; Risterucci, A M; Roberts, D A; Samadi, S; Sarasola-Puente, V; Sarrazin, E; Sarthou, C; Schmidt, Anke; Segovia, N I; Shen, K N; Simiand, C; Sman, Muhammad Hidayat Bin; Solhoy, T; Sommer, Simone; Sumangala, R C; Taubert, Ramona; Tejangkura, T; Telford, A; Testa, A; Tollon-Cordet, C; Tzeng, W N; Uma Shaanker, R; Van Der Lee, T A J; VAN Mourik, Thomas A; Vasudeva, R; Wai, T C; Wang, R L; Welch, Mark E; Weltzien, Eva; Whitehead, A; Woodard, Anastasia; Xia, Jianjun; Zeinolabedini, M; Zhang, Lvping
This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus, Dermatemys mawii, Fundulus heteroclitus, Homalaspis plana, Jumellea rossii, Khaya senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Phytophthora infestans, Piper cordulatum, Pterocarpus indicus, Rana dalmatina, Rosa pulverulenta, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Scomber colias, Semecarpus kathalekanensis, Stichopus monotuberculatus, Striga hermonthica, Tarentola boettgeri and Thermophis baileyi. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aphis gossypii, Sooretamys angouya, Euryoryzomys russatus, Fundulus notatus, Fundulus olivaceus, Fundulus catenatus, Fundulus majalis, Jumellea fragrans, Jumellea triquetra Jumellea recta, Jumellea stenophylla, Liza richardsonii, Piper marginatum, Piper aequale, Piper darienensis, Piper dilatatum, Rana temporaria, Rana iberica, Rana pyrenaica, Semecarpus anacardium, Semecarpus auriculata, Semecarpus travancorica, Spondias acuminata, Holigarna grahamii, Holigarna beddomii, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Tarentola delalandii, Tarentola caboverdianus and Thermophis zhaoermii.
Tyman, John H P; Mehet, Satinderjit K
A study has been made of the semi-synthesis of 1,3-diols (anacardic alcohols) from natural phenolic lipid resources from Anacardium occidentale and Anacardium giganteum which have given C15 and C11 derivatives, respectively. An isomeric 1,3-diol (isoanacardic alcohol) has been obtained from cardanol separated from technical cashew nut-shell liquid. Homologous 1,3-diols have been synthesised from a range of synthetic 2-alkyl-, 3-alkyl- and 4-alkylphenols and from 6-alkylsalicylic acids. The natural 1,2-diol, urushiol, from Rhus vernicifera has been purified. All these lipidic compounds have been studied for their complexation and the potential recovery of boron as boric acid.
Quelemes, Patrick V.; Araruna, Felipe B.; de Faria, Bruna E. F.; Kuckelhaus, Selma A. S.; da Silva, Durcilene A.; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z.; Eiras, Carla; dos S. Soares, Maria José; Leite, José Roberto S. A.
The present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from Anacardium occidentale L. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out based on UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring about 4 nm in size with a uniform dispersal. AgNPs presented antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, in concentrations where no significant cytotoxicity was observed. PMID:23455467
França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D
This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%.
Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz
Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein.
Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S
Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work.
Stasiuk, Maria; Janiszewska, Alicja; Kozubek, Arkadiusz
Phenolic lipids were isolated from rye grains, cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL) from Anacardium occidentale, and fruit bodies of Merrulius tremellosus, and their effects on the electric eel acetylcholinesterase activity and conformation were studied. The observed effect distinctly depended on the chemical structure of the phenolic lipids that were available for interaction with the enzyme. All of the tested compounds reduced the activity of acetylcholinesterase. The degree of inhibition varied, showing a correlation with changes in the conformation of the enzyme tested by the intrinsic fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. PMID:24787269
Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee; Charoensiri, Rin; Yakoh, Kameelah; Kringkasemsee, Aurawan; Insung, Poonsub
Evidence from epidemiological studies has strongly suggested that diets rich in fruits and vegetables play a vital role in disease prevention. The aim of this study was to determine nutrient and antioxidant content for 15 varieties of indigenous vegetables and fruits collected from Southern Thailand. The data indicated that indigenous vegetables provided small to moderate amounts of macronutrients and minerals. The highest content of β-carotene was found in Indian lettuce (Lactuca indica; 3575.54 μg/100 g), whereas water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica; 7439.11 μg/100 g) had the highest lutein content. Ripe cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale; 178.34 mg/100 g) and Spanish joint fir (Gnetum gnemon; 109.43 mg/100 g) were excellent sources of vitamin C. Mon-pu (Glochidion perakense) and young cashew leaves (Anacardium occidentale) were rich sources of β-carotene, lutein, total polyphenol, especially gallic acid, and had relatively high ORAC and FRAP activities. In conclusion, Thai indigenous vegetables provide diverse natural bioactive compounds that may contribute health benefits to the consumer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santos, Jean Carlos; Fernandes, G. Wilson
A large number of insect galls induced by Contarinia sp. (Cecidomyiidae) on cashew plants, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), and induced resistance (hypersensitivity) against galling were observed in five restored different-aged stands in the Amazonian tropical rain forest. We tested three hypotheses: (1) the effect of age-dependent changes on the attack by Contarinia sp. and on induced resistance of A. occidentale to herbivory (plant ontogeny - herbivory hypothesis); (2) the effect of leaf size on the oviposition preference by the gall-midge (plant vigor hypothesis), and (3) whether past attack could influence future attack and induced resistance (attack prediction hypothesis). Tree age positively influenced attack levels and gall density. The leaves of older trees experienced four-fold greater attack and supported two-fold more galls. Hypersensitive response was also positively affected by tree age. This induced resistance was six-fold higher on older trees. Therefore, we suggest that induced resistance in A. occidentale was age-dependent, hence supporting the plant ontogeny - herbivory hypothesis. Higher preference of Contarinia sp. on larger sized leaves of A. occidentale was only observed in old stands, hence providing support for the plant vigor hypothesis. The same trend was observed in hypersensitive response. Only two older plots (5-7-year-old) were better predictors of current attack and resistance of A. occidentale, hence supporting the attack prediction hypothesis. Our results suggest that plant development is an important factor that contributes to the structuring of interactions between host plant and insect herbivores. However, more information about ontogenetic changes and regeneration processes is needed to understand plant-herbivore interactions in the Amazonian forest.
Anato, F M; Sinzogan, A A C; Offenberg, J; Adandonon, A; Wargui, R B; Deguenon, J M; Ayelo, P M; Vayssières, J-F; Kossou, D K
Weaver ants, Oecophylla spp., are known to positively affect cashew, Anacardium occidentale L., raw nut yield, but their effects on the kernels have not been reported. We compared nut size and the proportion of marketable kernels between raw nuts collected from trees with and without ants. Raw nuts collected from trees with weaver ants were 2.9% larger than nuts from control trees (i.e., without weaver ants), leading to 14% higher proportion of marketable kernels. On trees with ants, the kernel: raw nut ratio from nuts damaged by formic acid was 4.8% lower compared with nondamaged nuts from the same trees. Weaver ants provided three benefits to cashew production by increasing yields, yielding larger nuts, and by producing greater proportions of marketable kernel mass.
de Paula, A. A. N.; Martins, J. B. L.; Gargano, R.; dos Santos, M. L.; Romeiro, L. A. S.
The main purpose of this study was the use of natural non-isoprenoid phenolic lipid of cashew nut shell liquid from Anacardium occidentale as lead material for generating new potentially candidates of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Therefore, we studied the electronic structure of 15 molecules derivatives from the cardanol using the following groups: methyl, acetyl, N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N, N-dimethylamine, N, N-diethylamine, piperidine, pyrrolidine, and N-benzylamine. The calculations were performed at RHF level using 6-31G, 6-31G(d), 6-31+G(d) and 6-311G(d,p) basis functions. Among the proposed compounds we found that the structures with substitution by acetyl, N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl, N, N-dimethylamine, and pyrrolidine groups were better correlated to rivastigmine indicating possible activity.
Santos, A A; Ragusa-Netto, J
In this study, we described the food plants available to Blue-and-Yellow Macaws (Ara ararauna), its feeding habits and the relationship between these parameters with feeding niche breadth. We established four transects, each one 12 km long, to sample fruiting plants and the feeding habits of this macaw (monthly 40 h, of observations), at the urban areas of Três Lagoas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). During all studied months, macaws foraged for palm fruits, mainly Syagrus oleracea and Acrocomia aculeata fruit pulp, both available all year, as well as Caryocar brasiliense and Anacardium occidentale seeds, in the wet season. The year-round feeding activity of macaws suggests Três Lagoas city as an adequate feeding area. The permanent availability of plant food resources, potentially, resulted from the diverse fruiting patterns of exotic and, mainly, native plant species, which provided a variety of suitable fruit patches.
Sullivan, J T; Richards, C S; Lloyd, H A; Krishna, G
The components of anacardic acid, (a mixture of 6-n-C (15) alkylsalicylic acids whose side chains vary in degrees of unsaturation) have been isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography from a crude extract of cashew nut shell, Anacardium occidentale, and tested for toxicity to fresh water snails, Biomphalaria glabrata. The triene component is the most toxic form (LC (50) 0.35 ppm), the diene and monoene components are less toxic (LC (50) 0.9 and 1.4 ppm), and the saturated component is relatively nontoxic (LC (50) > 5 ppm). Since decarboxylated anacardic acid (cardanol) and salicylic acid do not kill snails at concentrations up to 5 ppm, it appears that both, carboxyl group and unsaturated side chain are absolutely required for molluscicidal activity. The mechanism of toxicity of anacardic acid to snails is unknown.
Mendes, N M; de Oliveira, A B; Guimarães, J E; Pereira, J P; Katz, N
The molluscicide activity of hexanic extract from Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew) nut shell, of copper (II) complex, of lead (II) complex and anacardic acid has been compared in the laboratory in an attempt to obtain better stability than anacardic acid. This was obtained from the hexanic extract of the cashew nut shell by precipitation with lead (II) hydroxide or cupric sulfate plus sodium hydroxide or (II) cupric hydroxide followed by treatment of lead (II) complex with a diluted solution of sulfuric acid. Ten products of the mixture obtained were tested on adults snails of Biomphalaria glabrata at 1 to 10 ppm. The most active products were copper (II) complex, obtained by cupric sulfate plus sodium hydroxide, and anacardic acid (sodium hydroxide) which presented activity at 4 ppm. The anacardic acid's lead content was above the limits accepted by the United States standards.
Leite, Álvaro J; Costa, Rui R; Costa, Ana M S; Maciel, Jeanny S; Costa, José F G; de Paula, Regina C M; Mano, João F
Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium occidentale trees, was carboxymethylated (CGCm) and oxidized (CGO). These derivatives were characterized by FTIR and zeta potential measurements confirming the success of carboxymethylation and oxidation reactions. Nanostructured multilayered films were then produced through layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in conjugation with chitosan via electrostatic interactions or Schiff bases covalent bonds. The films were analyzed by QCM-D and AFM. CG functionalization increased the film thickness, with the highest thickness being achieved for the lowest oxidation degree. The roughest surface was obtained for the CGO with the highest oxidation degree due to the predominance of covalent Schiff bases. This work shows that nanostructured films can be assembled and stabilized by covalent bonds in alternative to the conventional electrostatic ones. Moreover, the functionalization of CG can increase its feasibility in multilayers films, widening its potential in biomedical, food industry, or environmental applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahata, Denial; Mandal, Santi M; Bharti, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay Krishna; Mandal, Mahitosh; Nag, Ahindra; Nando, Golok B
Cardanol is a non-isoprenoic phenolic lipid-mixture of distilled cashew nut shell liquid obtained from Anacardium occidentale. Herein, cardanol is purified from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and synthesized to new compounds with different azo amphiphiles. These synthesized compounds are allowed to self-assembled in hydrophobic environment and checked antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Self-assembled structure of CABA showed higher antifungal activity (16μg/mL) and chitin-binding ability in comparison to CAP and CANB. Furthermore, the self-assembled azo amphiphiles are immobilized with silver ions to prepare hydrogel which showed eight folds enhanced antifungal activity. Toxicity is reduced by several folds of self-assembled or hydrogel structure in comparison to pure compounds. Thus, the self-assembled structure of amphiphiles and their hydrogels have been found to be new macromolecules of interest with potential use as antifungal drugs.
Schmourlo, Gracilene; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Costa, Sônia S
In the search for bioactive compounds, bioautography and ethanol precipitation of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, etc.) of plant aqueous extracts were associated in an antifungal screening. Thus, the supernatants, precipitates (obtained by ethanol precipitation) and aqueous extracts were investigated of medicinal and fruit bearing plants used against skin diseases by the Brazilian population. The agar diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to assess the activity against three fungi: Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The results, evaluated by the diameter of the inhibition zone of fungal growth, indicate that six plant species, among the 16 investigated, showed significant antifungal activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on plant extracts that showed high efficacy against the tested microorganisms. The most susceptible yeast was Trichophyton rubrum and the best antifungal activity was shown by Xanthosoma sagittifolium supernatant. The bioautography was performed only for the aqueous extracts and supernatants of those plants that showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, using n-butanol/acetic acid/water (BAW) 8:1:1 to develop silica gel TLC plates. Clear inhibition zones were observed for aqueous extracts of Schinus molle (R(f) 0.89) and Schinus terebinthifolius (R(f) 0.80) against Candida albicans, as for supernatant of Anacardium occidentale (R(f) 0.31) against Cryptococcus neoformans. The separation of macromolecules from metabolites, as in the case of Anacardium occidentale, Solanum sp. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium, enhances antifungal activity. In other cases, the antifungal activity is destroyed, as observed for Momordica charantia, Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolius.
Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita
Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.
Mendes, Cíntia; Costa, Joana; Vicente, António A; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel
Cashew plant (Anacardium occidentale L.) is the most relevant species of the Anacardium genus. It presents high economic value since it is widely used in human nutrition and in several industrial applications. Cashew nut is a well-appreciated food (belongs to the tree nut group), being widely consumed as snacks and in processed foods by the majority of world's population. However, cashew nut is also classified as a potent allergenic food known to be responsible for triggering severe and systemic immune reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis) in sensitised/allergic individuals that often demand epinephrine treatment and hospitalisation. So far, three groups of allergenic proteins have been identified and characterised in cashew nut: Ana o 1 and Ana o 2 (cupin superfamily) and Ana o 3 (prolamin superfamily), which are all classified as major allergens. The prevalence of cashew nut allergy seems to be rising in industrialised countries with the increasing consumption of this nut. There is still no cure for cashew nut allergy, as well as for other food allergies; thus, the allergic patients are advised to eliminate it from their diets. Accordingly, when carefully choosing processed foods that are commercially available, the allergic consumers have to rely on proper food labelling. In this sense, the control of labelling compliance is much needed, which has prompted the development of proficient analytical methods for allergen analysis. In the recent years, significant research advances in cashew nut allergy have been accomplished, which are highlighted and discussed in this review.
Yapo, Beda M.; Koffi, Kouassi L.
Investigation on the pectic substances of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apple under different acid-extraction conditions (pH 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) showed that more than 10%–25% of A. occidentale pectins (AOP) could be extracted, depending on the extractant strength. The extracted AOP contained high amounts of galacturonic acid (GalA: 69.9%–84.5%) with some neutral sugars of which rhamnose (Rha: 1.3%–2.5%), arabinose (Ara: 2.6%–5.4%), and galactose (Gal: 4.7%–8.6%) were the main constituents. The degree of methoxylation (DM) was in the range of 28%–46% and was only slightly affected by the extractant strength, thereby indicating isolation of naturally low methoxy pectins (LMP). In terms of gelling capability, AOP yielded firmer Ca2+-mediated LMP gels than commercial citrus LMP with comparable DM. Cashew apple pomace, therefore, appears to be a potentially viable source for possible production of “non-chemically or enzymatically-tailored” LMP. PMID:28234301
In West European countries, as in most modern societies, learning can be divided into three sectors. Informal education occupies the greatest space, both because of its duration and because it extends into every part of life. It happens in many and various ways and circumstances — from learning the language and socialisation in the family environment to the experiences of retirement and the third age. A large number of factors are involved, particularly married life, family responsibilities, work, the influence of mass media and participation in political activities. It is also the area of self-education. Formal education, dispensed by schools and universities, corrects and guides what is learned in the informal sector. It provides part of the necessary learning in the fields of the arts and of the sciences. However, it falls short so far as the evolution of ideas, morals and social behaviour are concerned. It also only imperfectly fulfils its function of democratization, and because of its concentration on matters intellectual, it does not promote the development of the diverse capacities of the whole person. Nonformal education resembles informal education in that it relates to life, and formal education in its structured character. It is the domain of educational innovation, especially in the context of social relationships. Through the harmonious combination of these three sectors of learning, the principles of a global and integrated lifelong education can be implemented.
Kwofie, Emmanuel N.
This is a reflection on certain aspects of sociolinguistic and linguistic problems of French in West Africa, particularly in Senegal and the Ivory Coast. The sociolinguistic section discusses the role French has played in Africa and still plays vis-a-vis African languages and English. Conditions in which French is used and attitudes both of…
Marco, John A M; Kishimba, Michael A
Leaves of Eucalyptus sp., Prunus domestica (plum), and Anacardium occidentale (cashew), as well as roots and leaves of Manihot esculenta (cassava) were used to study the local distribution of pesticides and metabolites from a point source, an old storage site at Vikuge farm in Tanzania. The GPC-cleaned extracts were analyzed by GC-ECD and GC/MS. Eleven organochlorine pesticide residues namely pentachloroanisole, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, delta-HCH and epsilon-HCH were detected in the samples. The concentrations of total DDT were 818 ng/g fw in Eucalyptus sp., 16 ng/g fw in A. occidentale and 4 ng/g fw in P. domestica. In M. esculenta, total DDT ranged from 191 to 586 ng/g fw in roots and 7 to 425 ng/g fw in leaves. The concentrations of total HCH were up to 15 ng/g fw in Eucalyptus sp., while the concentrations of pentachloroanisole were up to 2 ng/g fw in leaves of M. esculenta. There are very strong positive correlations in the concentrations of the detected compounds, suggesting that they have a common source. The low DDE/DDT ratios (0.02-0.07) in all samples indicate input of non-degraded DDT from the source. The high alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH ratios in some samples (>3.1-10) indicate input of technical HCH. The concentrations of total DDT in cassava roots were either very close to, or greater than, the FAO/WHO limit, indicating risks and concern to public health.
Madureira, Ana M; Ramalhete, Cátia; Mulhovo, Silva; Duarte, Aida; Ferreira, Maria-José U
Plants are known to play a crucial role in African traditional medicine for the treatment of infection diseases. To investigate the claimed antimicrobial properties of plants traditionally used in African countries, providing scientific validation for their use. Eighty-three polar and non-polar extracts from 22 medicinal plants were screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Mycobacterium smegmatis using the broth microdilution method. In vitro antibacterial activity against one or more tested bacteria was shown by 83% of the extracts. The highest activity was obtained with the methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Acacia karroo Hayne (Fabaceae) and Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) and the roots of Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol (Euphorbiaceae), against S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 7.5 µg/mL). The same MIC values were exhibited against E. faecalis by the methanol extract of A. occidentale, the dichloromethane and methanol extracts of B. cathartica and the ethyl acetate extract of Momordica balsamina l. (Curcubitaceae) leaves. Gram-negative bacteria were less sensitive; the growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited (MIC = 31 µg/mL) by the n-hexane and methanol extracts of Gomphocarpus fruticosus (l.) Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) fruits and by the dichloromethane extract of Trichilia emetica Vahl (Meliaceae) seeds. Most of the active extracts were rich in fenols/flavonoids. This study supports the use of most of the studied plants in traditional medicine, for the treatment of infectious diseases. Some of them are worthy of further investigation.
Courville, Philippe; Thierry, Jacques; Carioub, Élie
The genus Bullatimorphites, (macroconchs Bullatimorphites, Kheraiceras; microconchs Bomburites, Schwandorfia, Spbaeroptycbius, Treptoceras), is characterized by an ontogenesis with three morphologic phases: serpenticone, sphaerocone and ellipticone. Within the successive populations, the relative development of these morphologies allows the defined species to be placed in an evolutive and stratigraphic lineage. The history of the genus comprises five steps: 1) emergence (Early Middle Bathonian), 2) first gradual evolution (Middle-Upper Bathonian), 3) first morphological diversification (Uppermost Bathonian), 4) second gradual evolution, 5) second morphological diversification and extinction (Lower Callovian). Such events are biostratigraphic datum lines which coincide with the palaeogeographic evolution of the West Peri-Tethyan platforms during the Middle Jurassic.
Deroin, Jean-Paul; Condom, Thomas
This paper reports on small mountain glacier variations in the northern Belledonne region (French Alps). Between 1926 and 2006, the evolution is surveyed using remote-sensing techniques. Then, it is correlated with climate data for the same period. In the late 1920s and in 1980, there was a maximum extent of the glaciers. The 1980 surge is due to high precipitations during the late 1970s, a similar trend being punctually observed in 1993. Between 1980 and 2003, the Rocher Blanc glaciers have strongly receded, their total surface being divided by ten. From 1997 onward, the large retreat can be explained by the increase of the mean daily temperature, especially the minimum daily temperature. Moreover, unusually high temperatures have been registered during the summer 2003 heat wave. Small mountain glaciers appear to be more sensitive to climate change than larger ones. Their surfaces change within 6 to 12 months.
Segall, Marion; Tolley, Krystal A; Vanhooydonck, Bieke; Measey, G John; Herrel, Anthony
Temperature is an extrinsic factor that influences reptile behavior because of its impact on reptile physiology. Understanding the impact of temperature on performance traits is important as it may affect the ecology and fitness of ectothermic animals such as reptiles. Here, we examined the temperature dependence of performance in two species of South African dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion): one adapted to a semi-arid environment and one to a mesic environment. Ecologically relevant performance traits were tested at different temperatures to evaluate their thermal dependence, and temperature-performance breadths for 80% and 90% of each performance trait were calculated. Our results show distinct differences in the thermal dependence of speed- versus force-related performance traits. Moreover, our results show that the semi-arid species is better adapted to higher temperatures and as such has a better chance of coping with the predicted increases in environmental temperature. The mesic area-adapted species seems to be more sensitive to an increase in temperature and could therefore potentially be threatened by the predicted future climate change. However, further studies investigating the potential for acclimation in chameleons are needed to better understand how animals may respond to future climate change.
William J. Otrosina; Matteo. Garbelotto
The genus Heterobasidion includes some of the most important pathogens of conifers in the world, and as such it is one of the most intensely studied genera of fungi. Because of the remarkable paucity of distinguishing morphological traits, the taxonomy of species within this genus has always been problematic. A...
Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza
Anacardium occidentale belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is principally grown in tropical America (Mexico, Peru, Brazil, etc.) and India. Cashew nuts contain low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols that come from an oily liquid present in their shell and that is known as cashew-nut shell liquid. This paper reports the alkyl phenols composition of cold pressed raw and roasted cashew nut oil. First of all, cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes by preparative TLC and definitively identified by GC-MS and GC-FID. Anacardic acids were the major alkylphenols contained in both oils followed by cardol, cardanol and 2-methylcardol compounds, respectively. Raw and roasted oils did not show different compositions except for cardanols. The oil produced from roasted cashew nut reported a higher concentration of cardanols. Furthermore, tocopherols and other minor polar compounds were determined by HPLC-FLD and HPLC-DAD-MS, respectively. Tocopherol content varied in a range of 171.48-29.56mg/100g from raw to roasted cashew nut oil, being β-tocopherol the one which presented a higher decrease (93.68%). Also minor polar compounds in cashew oil decreased after roasting from 346.52 to 262.83mg/kg.
Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro
A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity.
Harsha Raj, M; Yashaswini, B; Rössler, Jochen; Salimath, Bharathi P
TRAIL, an apoptosis inducing cytokine currently in phase II clinical trial, was investigated for its capability to induce apoptosis in six different human tumor cell lines out of which three cell lines showed resistance to TRAIL induced apoptosis. To investigate whether Anacardic acid (A1) an active component of Anacardium occidentale can sensitize the resistant cell lines to TRAIL induced apoptosis, we treated the resistant cells with suboptimal concentration of A1 and showed that it is a potent enhancer of TRAIL induced apoptosis which up-regulates the expression of both DR4 and DR5 receptors, which has been observed in the cellular, protein and mRNA levels. The death receptors upregulation consequent to A1 treatment was corroborated by the activation of p53 as well as phosphorylation of p38 and JNK MAP kinases and concomitant inactivation of NFκβ and ERK signaling cascades. Also, A1 modulated the expression of key apoptotic players like Bax, Bcl-2 and CAD along with the abatement of tumor angiogenesis in vivo in EAT mouse model. Thus, post A1 treatment the TRAIL resistant cells turned into TRAIL sensitive cells. Hence our results demonstrate that A1 can synergize TRAIL induced apoptosis through the upregulation of death receptors and downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins in cancer context.
George, J; Kuttan, R
The petroleum ether extract of cashewnut shell (Anacardium occidentale) was tested for its mutagenic, carcinogenic and cocarcinogenic potency. Mutagenicity tests using Salmonella typhimurium (Ame's test) Strains TA 1535, TA 100 and TA 98 showed that cashewnut shell liquid is non-mutagenic up to a concentration of 0.003% (in 0.1 ml DMSO) with and without metabolic activation (S 9 mixture). Carcinogenicity testing using murine (female Swiss albino mice) two stage skin tumourigenesis model revealed that cashewnut shell liquid has no tumour initiating potency at a concentration of 10% (in 0.2 ml acetone) while it may act as weak promoter (P < 0.05) at a concentration of 5% (in 0.2 ml acetone). Testing for cocarcinogenic potency of cashewnut shell liquid (2% and 5% in 0.2 ml acetone) demonstrated that it has no cocarcinogenic potency on mouse skin tumour model when applied along with 2 x 10(-6)% benzo(a)pyrene in acetone up to a period of 20 weeks.
Balachandran, Vijai Shankar; Jadhav, Swapnil Rohidas; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; John, George
This tutorial review could serve as an introduction of cardanol into the world of soft nanomaterials; it is a biobased lipid-mixture obtained from the plant Anacardium occidentale L. Cardanol is a renewable raw material derived from a byproduct of cashew nut processing industry: Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). Cardanol is a rich mixture of non-isoprenoic phenolic compounds that is a valuable raw material for generating a variety of soft nanomaterials such as nanotubes, nanofibers, gels and surfactants. These nanostructures may then serve as templates for the synthesis of additional nanomaterials. The wealth and diversity of cardanol-derived functional nanomaterials has urged us to present an article that will give readers a taste of a new class of cardanol-derived functional amphiphiles, along with their ability to generate hierarchical functional nanomaterials through non-covalent soft-chemical routes. In this concise review, we discuss selected examples of novel biobased surfactants, glycolipids, and polymers derived from cardanol, and their subsequent self-assembly into functional soft materials.
Suo, Maorong; Isao, Hasegawa; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Shimano, Yasoku; Bi, Changxiao; Kato, Hikaru; Takano, Fumihide; Ohta, Tomihisa
Five new phenolic lipids, 2-(8"Z-eicosenoyl)-6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl) salicylic acid (3), 2-(9"Z-hexadecenoyl)-6-(8'Z, 11'Z-pentadecadienyl) methyl salicylate (5), 2-(10"Z, 13"Z-nonadecadienoyl)-6-(8'Z, 11'Z-pentadecadienyl) salicylic acid (6), 2-(16"Z-pentacosenoyl)-6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl) salicylic acid (7) and 2-(9"Z-octadecenoyl)-6-(8'Z, 11'Z-pentadecadienyl) methyl salicylate (8), and three known compounds, cardols (1), anacardic acid (2) and cardanols (4), were isolated from the nuts of the cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. The structures were established on the basis of detailed MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 highly enhanced both Th-1 (IL-2, IFN-γ) and Th-2 (IL-4, IL-5) cytokine production, and compounds 7 and 8 highly increased cytokine IL-2 and IFN-γ production in response to concanavalin A in cultured murine Peyer's patch cells ex vivo. The isolated compounds showed moderate inhibitory activities on cytochrome CYP3A4 enzyme.
Caballero-George, C; Vanderheyden, P M; Solis, P N; Pieters, L; Shahat, A A; Gupta, M P; Vauquelin, G; Vlietinck, A J
Nineteen plants from the Republic of Panama were selected by their traditional uses in the treatment of hypertension, cardiovascular, mental and feeding disorders and 149 extracts were screened using radioligand-receptor-binding assays. The methanol:dicloromethane extracts of the bark and leaves of Anacardium occidentale L., the leaves of Begonia urophylla Hook., the roots of Bocconia frutescens L., the stems and leaves of Cecropia cf.obtusifolia Bertol., the branches of Clusia coclensis Standl., the bark of Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.)Spreng., the roots of Dimerocostus strobilaceus Kuntze, the bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., the leaves of Persea americana Mill. and the branches of Witheringia solanaceae L'Her. inhibited the [3H]-AT II binding (angiotensin II AT1 receptor) more than 50%. Only extracts of the roots of Dimerocostus strobilaceus Kuntze and the stems of Psychotria elata (Sw.) Hammel were potent inhibitors of the [3H] NPY binding (neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor) more than 50% and the ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Cecropia cf. obtusifolia Bertol., the leaves of Hedyosmum bonplandianum H.B.K., the roots of Bocconia frutescens L., the stem of Cecropia cf. obtusifolia Bertol. and the branches of Psychotria elata (Sw.) Hammel showed high inhibition of the [3H] BQ-123 binding (endothelin-1 ET(A) receptor) in a preliminary screening. These results promote the further investigation of these plants using the same assays.
Paula, Haroldo C B; Oliveira, Erick F; Carneiro, Maria J M; de Paula, Regina C M
Essential oils have many applications in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and food fields, however, their use is limited to the fact that they are very labile, requiring their a priori encapsulation, aiming to preserve their properties.This work reports on the preparation of chitosan-gum nanoparticles loaded with thymol containing Lippia sidoides essential oil, using exudates of Anacardium Occidentale (cashew gum), Sterculia striata (chichá gum), and Anadenanthera macrocarpa trees (angico gum). Nanoparticles were produced by spray drying an emulsion of L. sidoides essential oil and aqueous solution of gums with different chitosan : gum ratios. Samples were characterized by FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy, particle size, volume distribution, and zeta potential. The FTIR spectrum showed the main signals of chitosan and the gums. Data obtained revealed that the samples had sizes in the nano range, varying from 17 nm to 800 nm. The zeta potential varied from + 30 mV to - 40 mV. Nanoparticle loading values varied from 6.7 % to 15.6 %, with an average encapsulating efficiency of 62 %, where the samples with high ratios of cashew gum and chichá gum presented high oil loading values. The data revealed that both the chitosan : gum ratio and polysaccharide characteristics play major roles in nanoencapsulation processes.
Oyedemi, Blessing O.; Ijeh, Ifeoma I.; Ohanyerem, Princemartins E.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.
Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM). The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP) as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH) extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM. PMID:28367491
Barros, Sergio Bitencourt Araújo; Leite, Cleide Maria da Silva; de Brito, Ana Cristina Facundo; Dos Santos Júnior, José Ribeiro; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Eiras, Carla
We take advantage of polyelectrolyte feature exhibited by natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) (CG), found in northeast Brazil, to employ it in the formation of electroactive nanocomposites prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We used polyaniline unmodified (PANI) or modified with phosphonic acid (PA), PANI-PA as cationic polyelectrolyte. On the other hand, the CG or polyvinyl sulfonic (PVS) acids were used as anionic polyelectrolytes. The films were prepared with PANI or PANI-PA intercalated with CG or with PVS alternately resulting in four films with different sequences: PANI/CG PANI-PA/CG, PANI/PVS and PANI-PA/PVS, respectively. Analysis by cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the films showed that the presence of gum increases the stability of the films in acidic medium. The performance of the modified electrode of PANI-PA/CG was evaluated in electro analytical determination of dopamine (DA). The tests showed great sensitivity of the film for this analyte that was detected at 10(-5) mol L(-1).
Fadini, Rodrigo F.; Cintra, Renato
The detection of an organism in a given site is widely used as a state variable in many metapopulation and epidemiological studies. However, failure to detect the species does not necessarily mean that it is absent. Assessing detectability is important for occupancy (presence—absence) surveys; and identifying the factors reducing detectability may help improve survey precision and efficiency. A method was used to estimate the occupancy status of host trees colonized by mistletoe seeds of Psittacanthus plagiophyllus as a function of host covariates: host size and presence of mistletoe infections on the same or on the nearest neighboring host (the cashew tree Anacardium occidentale). The technique also evaluated the effect of taking detectability into account for estimating host occupancy by mistletoe seeds. Individual host trees were surveyed for presence of mistletoe seeds with the aid of two or three observers to estimate detectability and occupancy. Detectability was, on average, 17% higher in focal-host trees with infected neighbors, while decreased about 23 to 50% from smallest to largest hosts. The presence of mistletoe plants in the sample tree had negligible effect on detectability. Failure to detect hosts as occupied decreased occupancy by 2.5% on average, with maximum of 10% for large and isolated hosts. The method presented in this study has potential for use with metapopulation studies of mistletoes, especially those focusing on the seed stage, but also as improvement of accuracy in occupancy models estimates often used for metapopulation dynamics of tree-dwelling plants in general. PMID:25973754
Ali, Hasenah; Houghton, P J; Soumyanath, Amala
Extracts of six selected Malaysian plants with a reputation of usefulness in treating diabetes were examined for alpha-amylase inhibition using an in vitro model. Inhibitory activity studied by two different protocols (with and without pre-incubation) showed that Phyllanthus amarus hexane extract had alpha-amylase inhibitory properties. Hexane and dichloromethane extracts of Anacardium occidentale, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Averrhoa bilimbiPithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa were not active when tested without pre-incubation. Extraction and fractionation of Phyllanthus amarus hexane extract led to the isolation of dotriacontanyl docosanoate, triacontanol and a mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Dotriacontanyl docosanoate and the mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are reported from this plant species for the first time. All compounds were tested in the alpha-amylase inhibition assay and the results revealed that the oleanolic acid and ursolic acid (2:1) mixture was a potent alpha-amylase inhibitor with IC(50)=2.01 microg/ml (4.41 microM) and that it contributes significantly to the alpha-amylase inhibition activity of the extract. Three pure pentacyclic triterpenoids, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and lupeol were shown to inhibit alpha-amylase.
M Ashraf, Shabeeba; Rathinasamy, Krishnan
The cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) from the cashew nut shell of Anacardium occidentale L. has been used to treat skin infections, cracks on soles of feet and cancerous ulcers. In this study, we have purified the technical CNSL, systematically evaluated its anticancer, antibacterial and wound healing activity. The LC-MS data revealed that the purified CNSL contains the compounds, cardanol, anacardic acid and methylcardol. It inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells with an IC50 of 0.004%(v/v) and caused moderate mitotic block with spindle abnormality. It induced apoptosis in HeLa cells and accelerated wound closure in L929 cells. It inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis with an IC50 of 0.35%(v/v) and the treated cells exhibited elongated morphology indicating that suppression of cell division is one of the possible mechanisms of its action. The study suggests that the purified CNSL might have potential applications in anticancer and antibacterial drug development.
Monteiro, Filipa; Romeiras, Maria M.; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sebastiana, Mónica; Baldé, Aladje; Catarino, Luís; Batista, Dora
During the last decades, agricultural land-uses in West Africa were marked by dramatic shifts in the coverage of individual crops. Nowadays, cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is one of the most export-oriented horticulture crops, notably in Guinea-Bissau. Relying heavily on agriculture to increase their income, developing countries have been following a strong trend of moving on from traditional farming systems toward commercial production. Emerging infectious diseases, driven either by adaptation to local conditions or inadvertent importation of plant pathogens, are able to cause tremendous cashew production losses, with economic and social impact of which, in developing countries is often underestimated. Presently, plant genomics with metagenomics as an emergent tool, presents an enormous potential to better characterize diseases by providing extensive knowledge on plant pathogens at a large scale. In this perspective, we address metagenomics as a promising genomic tool to identify cashew fungal associated diseases as well as to discriminate the causal pathogens, aiming at obtaining tools to help design effective strategies for disease control and thus promote the sustainable production of cashew in West African Region. PMID:26175748
Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.
Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625
Olorunsola, Emmanuel O; Bhatia, Partap G; Tytler, Babajide A; Adikwu, Michael U
Characterization of a polymer is essential for determining its suitability for a particular purpose. Thermochemical properties of cashew gum (CSG) extracted from exudates of Anacardium occidentale L. and khaya gum (KYG) extracted from exudates of Khaya senegalensis were determined and compared with those of acacia gum BP (ACG). The polymers were subjected to different thermal and chemical analyses. Exudates of CSG contained higher amount of hydrophilic polymer. The pH of 2% w/v gum dispersions was in the order KYG < CSG < ACG. Calcium was the predominant ion in CSG while potassium was predominant in KYG. The FTIR spectra of CSG and KYG were similar and slightly different from that of ACG. Acacia and khaya gums exhibited the same thermal behaviour which is different from that of CSG. X-ray diffraction revealed that the three gums are the same type of polymer, the major difference being the concentration of metal ions. This work suggests the application of cashew gum for formulation of basic and oxidizable drugs while using khaya gum for acidic drugs.
A detailed record of plants cited during ethnopharmacological surveys, suspected of being toxic or of triggering adverse reactions, may be an auxiliary means to pharmacovigilance of phytomedicines, in that it provides greater knowledge of a "bad side" to plant resources in the Brazilian flora. This study describes 57 plant species of restricted use (abortive, contraceptive, contraindicated for pregnancy, prescribed in lesser doses for children and the elderly, to easy delivery, in addition to poisons to humans and animals) as indicated during ethnopharmacological surveys carried out among three cultures in Brazil (Caboclos-river dwellers, inhabitants of the Amazon forest; the Quilombolas, from the pantanal wetlands; the Krahô Indians, living in the cerrado savannahs). These groups of humans possess notions, to a remarkable extent, of the toxicity, contraindications, and interaction among plants. A bibliographical survey in the Pubmed, Web of Science and Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases has shown that 5 out of the 57 species have some toxic properties described up to the present time, they are: Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul (Moraceae), Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae), Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae), Strychnos pseudoquina A. St.-Hil. (Loganiaceae) and Vernonia brasiliana (L.) Druce (Asteraceae).
Bhatia, Partap G.; Tytler, Babajide A.; Adikwu, Michael U.
Characterization of a polymer is essential for determining its suitability for a particular purpose. Thermochemical properties of cashew gum (CSG) extracted from exudates of Anacardium occidentale L. and khaya gum (KYG) extracted from exudates of Khaya senegalensis were determined and compared with those of acacia gum BP (ACG). The polymers were subjected to different thermal and chemical analyses. Exudates of CSG contained higher amount of hydrophilic polymer. The pH of 2% w/v gum dispersions was in the order KYG < CSG < ACG. Calcium was the predominant ion in CSG while potassium was predominant in KYG. The FTIR spectra of CSG and KYG were similar and slightly different from that of ACG. Acacia and khaya gums exhibited the same thermal behaviour which is different from that of CSG. X-ray diffraction revealed that the three gums are the same type of polymer, the major difference being the concentration of metal ions. This work suggests the application of cashew gum for formulation of basic and oxidizable drugs while using khaya gum for acidic drugs. PMID:27990303
Barros, Sergio Bitencourt Araújo; Leite, Cleide Maria da Silva; de Brito, Ana Cristina Facundo; Dos Santos Júnior, José Ribeiro; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Eiras, Carla
We take advantage of polyelectrolyte feature exhibited by natural cashew gum (Anacardium occidentale L.) (CG), found in northeast Brazil, to employ it in the formation of electroactive nanocomposites prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We used polyaniline unmodified (PANI) or modified with phosphonic acid (PA), PANI-PA as cationic polyelectrolyte. On the other hand, the CG or polyvinyl sulfonic (PVS) acids were used as anionic polyelectrolytes. The films were prepared with PANI or PANI-PA intercalated with CG or with PVS alternately resulting in four films with different sequences: PANI/CG PANI-PA/CG, PANI/PVS and PANI-PA/PVS, respectively. Analysis by cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the films showed that the presence of gum increases the stability of the films in acidic medium. The performance of the modified electrode of PANI-PA/CG was evaluated in electro analytical determination of dopamine (DA). The tests showed great sensitivity of the film for this analyte that was detected at 10−5 mol L−1. PMID:22505924
Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique
The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 μM Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 μM Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Aragão-Neto, Adelmo C; Soares, Paulo A G; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria H M; Carvalho, Elaine J A; Correia, Maria T S; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G
We have evaluated the effect of POLI-CHI hydrogel based on policaju (POLI) from cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) gum and chitosan (CHI), associated or not with Low level laser therapy (LLLT), in wound healing. Sixty male Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: POLI-CHI hydrogel (H); LLLT (L); POLI-CHI with LLLT (HL) and saline control (C). Macroscopic evaluations were carried out using clinical observations and area measurements, as well as microscopic analysis by histological criteria. H and HL presented more esthetical scar tissue and larger wound contraction compared to C. Histopathological analyzes showed: stronger presence of fibrin-leukocyte crust in L and HL at day 3; stronger collagen presence in H, L and HL; weak presence of focal necrosis at 7 and 14days in H; weak neutrophilic exudate in H, L and HL; regression of the vascular neoformation at 7days in H, and modulation of the same in L and HL. These results demonstrated that POLI-CHI contributed to more efficient healing process and modulation of the inflammation; furthermore, the combined use with LLLT subtle potentiated this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In Europe, as opposed to North America, poison-ivy rash is hardly known. For this reason a detailed review of the allergenic members of the Anacardiaceae family is given, and the misleading nomenclature of "poison ivy", "poison oak", and some other species of this family are discussed. An up-to-date representation of the chemical structure of the allergenic substance group (denoted as "Urushiol") from this family is provided as well as botanical information regarding the plants themselves. Prevention of this dangerous sensitization and the therapy of this allergic reaction are discussed. The four cases presented are as follows: a young German woman who became sensitized to poison ivy or poison oak while in the USA and showed a cross reaction to other Rhus species (R. copallina, R. javanica (semialata), R. trichocarpa) as well as to Choerospondias axillaris var. japonica and to mangoes; a landscape gardener with an occupationally acquired allergy to Anacardium occidentale; and two control persons giving positive results to skin tests with Urushiol and Rhus trichocarpa respectively, to which the source of sensitization could not be clarified. Tests with three kinds of pistachio and two native-European Anacardiaceae (Rhus typhina and Cotinus coggygria) yielded negative results in each case. Prophylaxis to sensitization requires familiarity with the numerous Anacardiaceae and derivative products to which one could come in contact. These substances, summarized in a table, include mango, cashew and "sweet pepper".
Luz, D A; Rodrigues, A K O; Silva, F R C; Torres, A E B; Cavalcante, C L; Brito, E S; Azevedo, D C S
Nearly all agroindustrial wastes have appreciable sugar content including cashew apples (Anacardium occidentale, L.), which are an important sub-utilized biomass source in Northeastern Brazil. Adsorption in fixed bed, both in batch and continuous modes, is a low-cost separation technique, which has been widely used in the concentration, separation and purification of bioproducts, such as sugars. The present work is an experimental study aimed at measuring responses in fixed bed, needed for design purposes. Two commercial ion-exchange resins were studied: DOWEX Monosphere 99/Ca and DIAION UBK555. The adsorbents showed linear isotherms for both sugars with marked selectivity for fructose (2.2 for DOWEX and 1.5 for DIAION). A mathematical model was used to estimate kinetic parameters and predict breakthrough behaviour of binary solutions and complex feeds. The kinetics of mass transfer was well described by a linear driving force approximation (LDF) and estimated kinetic constants were around 1 min(-1). The results indicate that the use of independent experiments with synthetic monocomponent solutions leads to reliable parameters, and the model is capable to foresee reasonably well the breakthrough curve of the sugars present in the juice, under different purification conditions. The use of complex feeds led to overshoot behaviour, possibly due to the irreversible adsorption of oligosaccharides.
Fadini, Rodrigo F; Cintra, Renato
The detection of an organism in a given site is widely used as a state variable in many metapopulation and epidemiological studies. However, failure to detect the species does not necessarily mean that it is absent. Assessing detectability is important for occupancy (presence-absence) surveys; and identifying the factors reducing detectability may help improve survey precision and efficiency. A method was used to estimate the occupancy status of host trees colonized by mistletoe seeds of Psittacanthus plagiophyllus as a function of host covariates: host size and presence of mistletoe infections on the same or on the nearest neighboring host (the cashew tree Anacardium occidentale). The technique also evaluated the effect of taking detectability into account for estimating host occupancy by mistletoe seeds. Individual host trees were surveyed for presence of mistletoe seeds with the aid of two or three observers to estimate detectability and occupancy. Detectability was, on average, 17% higher in focal-host trees with infected neighbors, while decreased about 23 to 50% from smallest to largest hosts. The presence of mistletoe plants in the sample tree had negligible effect on detectability. Failure to detect hosts as occupied decreased occupancy by 2.5% on average, with maximum of 10% for large and isolated hosts. The method presented in this study has potential for use with metapopulation studies of mistletoes, especially those focusing on the seed stage, but also as improvement of accuracy in occupancy models estimates often used for metapopulation dynamics of tree-dwelling plants in general.
Gonçalves, J L S; Lopes, R C; Oliveira, D B; Costa, S S; Miranda, M M F S; Romanos, M T V; Santos, N S O; Wigg, M D
Acute diarrhea, especially in children, is a very common disease with worldwide distribution and with a significant public health impact. Rotaviruses have been recognized as the major agents of diarrhea in infants and young children in developed as well as developing countries. In Brazil, diarrhea is one of the principal causes of death, mainly in the infant population. To fight diarrhea, traditional Brazilian medicine uses a great variety of plants. In this work, 12 medicinal plant species were screened for simian (SA-11) and human (HCR3) rotaviruses inhibition in vitro. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, the extracts from Artocarpus integrifolia L. (Moraceae) bark (480 microg/ml) and Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae) leaves (160 microg/ml) had antiviral activity against both viruses. They showed inhibition of 99.2% and 97%, respectively, for human rotavirus, and 96.4% and 96.2% for simian rotavirus. The extracts from Myristica fragrans Houtt (Myristicaceae) seeds (160 microg/ml) and Spongias lutea bark (40 microg/ml) inhibited human rotavirus (90% and 82.2% inhibition, respectively), whereas the extracts from Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) leaves (4 microg/ml) and Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) leaves (8 microg/ml) showed activity only against simian rotavirus (82.2% and 93.8% inhibition, respectively). Our results indicate that the extracts of Artocarpus integrifolia, Myristica fragrans and Spongias lutea can be useful in the treatment of human diarrhea if the etiologic agent is a rotavirus.
Crouzet, Christian; Rochette, Pierre; Ménard, Gilles; Prévot, Michel
The magnetization of the marls and marly limestones from the internal part of the Dauphinoise zone is carried by monoclinic pyrrhotite. Our experiments show the equality of blocking and unblocking temperatures which suggests that magnetic grains are single domain. Thermal demagnetization analysis shows the presence of colinear components of opposite polarity. They are interpreted as partial thermoremanent magnetizations acquired during different polarity periods of the geomagnetic field at the time of the slow cooling of the studied area.
Villeneuve, Michel; El Archi, Abdelkrim; Nzamba, Juste
Until now, no satisfactory geodynamic model has been delivered concerning the three main West African orogens: Panafrican 1 (Bassaride belt), Panafrican 2 (Rokelide belt) and Hercynian (Mauritanide belt). However, since the last synthetic paper ( Villeneuve, 2008), new geological, geophysical and geochronological data, from the Moroccan Sahara to Sierra Leone, allow us to propose a new geodynamical model. It includes the two Panafrican events in a single model very similar to the present western Pacific margin. An old "West African Neoproterozoic ocean" (WANO) was limited by a set of island arcs separated from the West African craton by a series of "back arc basins". The closure of this first round of back arc basins around 650 Ma led to the Bassaride belt (Panafrican 1). Then the WANO was subducting underneath the island arcs (between 650 and 550 Ma) meanwhile a new generation of "back arc basins" opened to the east between the arcs and the craton margin. The closure of the WANO and associated island arcs and back arc basins (550 to 500 Ma) led to the Rokelide belt (Panafrican 2). The Hercynian structures involving a Palaeozoic cover (made with continental material) associated to a "greeenschist facies" metamorphism is ascribed to an intracontinental belt.
McConnell, Grant D., Ed.; Gendron, Jean-Denis, Ed.
The third volume in a series of atlases of language vitality covers 13 countries of West Africa (Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo) and 59 major languages. The atlas consists of four main parts. The first offers comparative data, in bar graph and tabular…
Roumy, Vincent; Gutierrez-Choquevilca, Andréa-Luz; Lopez Mesia, Jean Pierre; Ruiz, Lastenia; Ruiz Macedo, Juan Celidonio; Abedini, Amin; Landoulsi, Ameni; Samaillie, Jennifer; Hennebelle, Thierry; Rivière, Céline; Neut, Christel
Context: Our survey was performed near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings and leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. Inhabitants of various ethnic origins were interviewed, and 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36 sensitive and multi-resistant bacteria or yeast. The study aimed at providing information on antimicrobial plant extract activities and the ethnomedical context of Mestizo riverine populations from Loreto (Peru). Material and Method: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant crude extracts were carried out using the agar dilution method and ranged between 0.075 and 5.0 mg/ml. Results: Of the 40 plants analyzed, 9 species showed MIC ≤0.3 mg/ml (Anacardium occidentale, Couroupita guianensis, Croton lechleri, Davilla rugosa, Erythrina amazonica, Jacaranda copaia subsp. Spectabilis, Oenocarpus bataua, Peperomia macrostachya, and Phyllanthus urinaria) for one or several of the 36 microorganisms and only 6 drug extracts were inactive. Among the 40 plants, 13 were evaluated for the first time for an antibacterial activity. Conclusion: This evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of 40 plants using an approved standard methodology allowed comparing those activities against various microbes to establish antimicrobial spectra of standardized plant extracts, and give support to the traditional use of these plants. It may also help discovering new chemical classes of antimicrobial agents that could serve against multi-resistant bacteria. SUMMARY This study leads us to consider Mestizo ethnomedical practices near Iquitos (Peruvian Amazon) and its surroundings. The plant species reported here are traditionally used for ailments related to microbial infections. 52 selected plants extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against a panel of 36
Peng, Renkang; Lan, La Pham; Christian, Keith
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a very important source of income for more than 200,000 farmer households in Vietnam. The present cashew productivity in Vietnam is low and unstable, and pest damage is partly responsible for this. Cashew farmers rely on pesticides to minimize the damage, resulting in adverse impacts on farm environment and farmers' health. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp) are effective biocontrol agents of a range of cashew insect pests in several cashew-growing countries, and these ants are widely distributed in Vietnam. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of weaver ants in cashew orchards in Vietnam. Field surveys and field experiment were conducted in five cashew orchards from July 2006 to January 2008 in Binh Phuoc, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria Vung Tau provinces, Vietnam. Based on the field surveys, the most important pests that damage flushing foliar and floral shoots and young cashew fruits and nuts were mosquito bugs, brown shoot borers, blue shoot borers, and fruit-nut borers. The damage caused by each of these pests was significantly lower on trees with weaver ants compared with trees without the ants, showing that the ants were able to keep these pest damages under the control threshold. Regular monitoring of the field experiment showed that weaver ants were similar to insecticides for controlling mosquito bugs, blue shoot borers, fruit-nut borers, leaf rollers, and leaf miners. Aphids did not become major pests in plot with weaver ants. To manage insect pest assemblage in cashew orchards, an integrated pest management using weaver ants as a major component is discussed.
Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues
In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl α-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP.
Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E
This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries.
Efficacy of the African weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the control of Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Pseudotheraptus wayi (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in cashew crop in Tanzania.
Olotu, Moses I; du Plessis, Hannalene; Seguni, Zuberi S; Maniania, Nguya K
Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, is an economically important cash crop for more than 300 000 rural households in Tanzania. Its production is, however, severely constrained by infestation by sap-sucking insects such as Helopeltis anacardii, H. schoutedeni and Pseudotheraptus wayi. The African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda, is an effective biocontrol agent of hemipteran pests in coconuts in Tanzania, but its efficacy in the control of Helopeltis spp. and P. wayi in Tanzanian cashew has not been investigated so far. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the efficacy of O. longinoda in the management of these insect pests in the cashew crop at different sites of the Coast region of Tanzania. Colonisation levels of O. longinoda, expressed as weaver ant trails, varied from 57.1 to 60.6% and from 58.3 to 67.5% in 2010 and 2011 respectively. The mean number of leaf nests per tree varied from five to eight nests in 2010 and from five to nine nests in 2011. There was a negative correlation between numbers of nests and pest damage. Oecophylla longinoda-colonised cashew trees had the lowest shoot damage by Helopeltis spp. of 4.8 and 7.5% in 2010 and 2011, respectively, as opposed to uncolonised cashew trees with 36 and 30% in 2010 and 2011 respectively. Similarly, nut damage by P. wayi was lowest in O. longinoda-colonised trees, with only 2.4 and 6.2% in 2010 and 2011 as opposed to uncolonised trees with 26 and 21%. Oecophylla longinoda is an effective biocontrol agent of the sap-sucking pests of cashew in the Coast region of Tanzania and should be considered as an important component of IPM. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Moreira, M A; Souza, N O; Sousa, R S; Freitas, D Q; Lemos, M V; De Paula, D M; Maia, F J N; Lomonaco, D; Mazzetto, S E; Feitosa, V P
Several polyphenols from renewable sources were surveyed for dentin biomodification. However, phenols from cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, Anacardium occidentale) and from Aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva) extract have never been evaluated. The present investigation aimed to compare the dentin collagen crosslinking (biomodification) effectiveness of polyphenols from Aroeira stem bark extract, proanthocyanidins (PACs) from grape-seed extract (Vitis vinifera), cardol and cardanol from CNSL after clinically relevant treatment for one minute. Three-point bending test was used to obtain the elastic modulus of fully demineralized dentin beams before and after biomodification, whilst color change and mass variation were evaluated after four weeks water biodegradation. Color aspect was assessed by optical images after biodegradation whereas collagen cross-linking was investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated-measures two way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). The increase in elastic modulus after biomodification was in the order cardol>cardanol>aroeira=PACs with cardol solution achieving mean 338.2% increase. The mass increase after biomodification followed the same order aforementioned. Nevertheless, after four weeks aging, more hydrophobic agent (cardanol) induced the highest resistance against water biodegradation. Aroeira and cardol attained intermediate outcomes whereas PACs provided the lower resistance. Tannin-based agents (Aroeira and PACs) stained the specimens in dark brown color. No color alteration was observed with cardol and cardanol treatments. All four agents achieved crosslinking in micro-Raman after one minute application. In conclusion, major components of CNSL yield overall best dentin biomodification outcomes when applied for one minute without staining the dentin collagen. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teixeira, Gerlinde; Paschoal, Patrícia Olaya; de Oliveira, Vivian Leite; Pedruzzi, Monique M B; Campos, Sylvia M N; Andrade, Luiz; Nóbrega, Alberto
Diet selection is a complex problem that animals in wildlife have to deal with daily. In their natural environment, these animals meet a great variety of foods some of which they are able and prepared to eat, yet, not all of it is eaten. In addition to the biological factors, some of which we shall discuss deeper in this paper, an important factor in food preference is social contact. Alterations in the physiology of mammals can have profound effects on the choice or preference for certain foods. On the other hand the decline of taste and smell perception in the elderly, the degree of food restriction, the sensorial properties of foods (such as presentation, taste, and smell) can be considered factors that influence feeding behavior leading to aversion. Many species, including man, learn to associate nausea with taste, and as a consequence avoid its specific intake, which has been shown to be persistent. Conditioned taste aversion is a form of associative learning in which animals display an aversion to the taste of a food that has previously been paired with illness. Our group has investigated the pattern of ingestion of foods that are frequently eaten by mice in wildlife and are potentially allergenic to humans in order to study the immunological consequences to these foods such as oral tolerance and inflammatory processes of the gut. We have chosen two seeds, peanuts (Arachis hypogea) and cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale), as our source of antigens as the first is considered to be one of the most potent food allergens and for the second there seems to be very little allergy in the human setting. We used male and female, normal, adult CBA/J, A/J, C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice 2-3 months old and hybrid (C57Bl/6xBalb/c) F1, (Balb/cxC57Bl/6) F1), (C57Bl/6xDBA2) F1 mice. Food preference appeared to be strain-specific. Animals tolerized to a determined seed, then immunized with its protein extract and re-exposed to the seed in natura alter their feeding pattern. We
Giovannini, Peter; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Edwards, Sarah E
Globally 387 million people currently have diabetes and it is projected that this condition will be the 7th leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. As of 2012, its total prevalence in Central America (8.5%) was greater than the prevalence in most Latin American countries and the population of this region widely use herbal medicine. The aim of this study is to review the medicinal plants used to treat diabetes and its sequelae in seven Central American countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. We conducted a literature review and extracted from primary sources the plant use reports in traditional remedies that matched one of the following disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunctions, visual loss, and nerve damage. Use reports were entered in a database and data were analysed in terms of the highest number of use reports for diabetes management and for the different sequelae. We also examined the scientific evidence that might support the local uses of the most reported species. Out of 535 identified species used to manage diabetes and its sequelae, 104 species are used to manage diabetes and we found in vitro and in vivo preclinical experimental evidence of hypoglycaemic effect for 16 of the 20 species reported by at least two sources. However, only seven of these species are reported in more than 3 studies: Momordica charantia L., Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., Tecoma stans (L.) Juss. ex Kunth, Persea americana Mill., Psidium guajava L., Anacardium occidentale L. and Hamelia patens Jacq. Several of the species that are used to manage diabetes in Central America are also used to treat conditions that may arise as its consequence such as kidney disease, urinary problems and skin conditions. This review provides an overview of the medicinal plants used to manage diabetes and its sequelae in Central America and of
Monteiro, Filipa; Vidigal, Patricia; Romeiras, Maria Manuel; Ribeiro, Ana; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Catarino, Luís
During the last decades, agriculture in West Africa has been marked by dramatic shifts with the coverage of single crops, increasing pressure over the available arable land. Yet, West African countries are still striving to achieve sustainable production at an increased scale for global market needs. Market-driven rapid intensification is often a major cause for cropland area expansion at the expense of deforestation and soil degradation, especially to export commodities in times of high prices. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is nowadays an important export-oriented crop, being produced under intensive cultivation regimes in several tropical regions. Particularly, among the main cashew production areas, West Africa is the most recent and dynamic in the world, accounting for 45% of the world cashew nuts production in 2015. Considering its global market values, several developing countries rely on cashew nuts as national economy revenues, namely in Guinea-Bissau. Considering the intensive regime of cashew production in Guinea-Bissau, and as widely recognized, intensive agriculture linked with extensification can negatively impact ecosystems, affecting natural resources availability, soil erosion and arability compromised by excessive salinity. Ultimately this will result in the disruption of carbon - nitrogen cycle, important to the agricultural ecosystem sustainability. As such, tree intercropped with legumes as cover crops, offers a sustainable management of the land area, thus creating substantial benefits both economically and environmentally, as it enhances diversification of products outputs and proving to be more sustainable than forestry and/or agricultural monocultures. Soil fertility improvement is a key entry point for achieving food security, and also increment agriculture commodities of the agro-system. Without using inorganic fertilizers, the green solution for improving soil management is to incorporate adapted multi-purpose legumes as cover crops
Sacconnay, Lionel; Angleviel, Melissa; Randazzo, Giuseppe Marco; Marçal Ferreira Queiroz, Marcos; Ferreira Queiroz, Emerson; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Nurisso, Alessandra
Background The silent-information regulator 2 proteins, otherwise called sirtuins, are currently considered as emerging anti-parasitic targets. Nicotinamide, a pan-sirtuin inhibitor, is known to cause kinetoplast alterations and the arrested growth of T. cruzi, the protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. These observations suggested that sirtuins from this parasite (TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3) could play an important role in the regulation of the parasitic cell cycle. Thus, their inhibition could be exploited for the development of novel anti-trypanosomal compounds. Methods Homology modeling was used to determine the three-dimensional features of the sirtuin TcSir2rp1 from T. cruzi. The apo-form of human SIRT2 and the same structure solved in complex with its co-substrate NAD+ allowed the modeling of TcSir2rp1 in the open and closed conformational states. Molecular docking studies were then carried out. A library composed of fifty natural and diverse compounds that are known to be active against this parasite, was established based on the literature and virtually screened against TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3, which was previously modeled by our group. Results In this study, two conformational states of TcSir2rp1 were described for the first time. The molecular docking results of compounds capable of binding sirtuins proved to be meaningful when the closed conformation of the protein was taken into account for calculations. This specific conformation was then used for the virtual screening of antritrypanosomal phytochemicals against TcSir2rp1 and TcSir2rp3. The calculations identified a limited number of scaffolds extracted from Vismia orientalis, Cussonia zimmermannii, Amomum aculeatum and Anacardium occidentale that potentially interact with both proteins. Conclusions The study provided reliable models for future structure-based drug design projects concerning sirtuins from T. cruzi. Molecular docking studies highlighted not only the advantages of performing in silico
Forest pricing and concession policies: Managing the high forest of west and central Africa. World Bank technical paper; Politique de redevances et de concessions forestieres: gestion des futaies en afrique occidentale et centrale
Grut, M.; Gray, J.A.; Egli, N.
This French edition describes forest revenue systems and concession policies in the tropical moist hardwood forests of West and Central Africa. The paper reviews current issues in silviculture, tenure, concession management, and biological and financial sustainable development. Until the fledgling forestry departments of governments in West and Central Africa are strengthened, the report concludes that a simple system of forest fees should be implemented. The report recommends that such a system emphasize bidding and concession fees.
Forest pricing and concession policies: Managing the high forest of west and Central Africa. World Bank Technical Paper 143; Politique de redevances et de concessions forestires: gestion des futaies en afrique occidentale et centrale
Grut, M.; Gray, J.A.; Egli, N.
This French edition of Forest Pricing and Concession Policies: Managing the High Forest of West and Central Africa describes forest revenue systems and concession policies in the tropical moist hardwood forests of West and Central Africa. Virtually all the forests of Africa are publicly owned by central governments or local communities. Revenues from these forests are generally very low due to low forest fees and low collection rates. The lack of concession fees encourages acquisition and waste rather than management and conservation, leading to the allocation of large areas as logging concessions. This paper reviews current issues in silviculture, tenure, concession management, and biological and financial sustainable development. Until the fledgling forestry departments of governments in West and Central Africa are strengthened, the report concludes that a simple system of forest fees should be implemented. The report recommends that such a system emphasize bidding and concession fees. Three specific options in forest pricing are examined for a proposed system; annual concession rent; annual concession rent set by competitive bidding; logging concessions replaced by forest management concessions.
Bertrand, Jean-Michel; Guillot, François; Leterrier, Jacques; Perruchot, M. P.; Aillères, Laurent; Macaudière, Jean
The "Zone Houillère Briançonnaise" (ZHB) is the westernmost continuous unit of the Pennine domain that overlies the Pennine Front. The ZHB comprises Namurian and Westphalian formations locally overlain by Permian and Triassic cover rocks. As with other basements of the Pennine domain (Briançonnais in France. Grand Saint Bernard in Italy and Switzerland), the ZHB comprises gneissic units, whose age, origin and tectonicsignificance have been discussed for a long time. This study deals with the Sapey gneisses, defined near Modane (Savoie), and the Costa Citrin metagranites (Valle d'Aosta. Italy). The alpine tectonic evolution of the ZHB involves an early thrusting event that produced a non-penetrative foliation in the Carboniferous formations. This foliation occurs only in the vicinity of tectonic contacts between individual slices. The thrusting event is overprinted by a regional large-scale, eastward-verging, deformation event and then by a partly extensional event. Pre-alpine relict amphibolilcfacics mineral assemblages found in the Sapey gneisses confirm that they belong to a poly-metamorphic basement. Ages from U-Pb geochronology on zircons (three samples of different lithology and from different regions) confirm this interpretation. Concordia diagrams evidence that zircons have a Proterozoic inheritance and that minimum ages are older than 360 Ma (lower intercepts with the concordia). By contrast, two samples of the Costa Citrin metagranite yielded well-defined Visean-Namurian ages at 324±17 MA and 323±8 Ma. This old basement age (early Hercynian or older) associated with evidences for a Visean-Namurian magmatic event in the ZHB are consistent with the recent reappraisal of the age of the sedimentary formations of the ZHB (now dated of Namurian to Westphalian). These data support the possible "exotism" of a "Briançonnais" terrane with respect to external domains of the Alps. The ages of the basement (pre-Carboniferous), of the sediments (Visean-Namurian) and of the recorded magmatic event (Visean-Namurian) of the ZHB cannot be related to the late orogenic basin formation and magmatic evolution of the Eastern Massif Central or of the External Basement Massifs during Stephanian times. The significance of the Visean-Namurian plutonism of the Costa Citrin is discussed with respect to other parts of the european hercynian belt. It is interpreted either to be a consequence of a late Hercynian "eastern" subduction or rather, to relate to an early extensional stage during the orogeny.
Saïdi, Fouiâd; Ismaïl, Mohamed Hédi Ben; M'rabet, Ali
Coniacian rudist-buildups have been discovered in the Dernaïa-Tamesmida area (west central Tunisia). They are sedimentologically studied in detail in this paper. Reefs sensu stricto are made up of rudists (Hippuritidae and Radiolitidae) and they show a height:lateral extension ratio of about 1:50. The fore-reef is composed of southwest progradang pelletoid sandwaves, whilst hemipelagic micrite has been deposited in the distal talus. The back-reef lagoons (NE side) include green algae and annelid, miliolid, ostracod and gastropod biotopes. Perilagoonal oolitic bars may border these environments. These reefs evolved in a shallow, relatively open environment. They correspond to barrier-reef complexes which developed at the margin of a generally shallow carbonate ramp. In terms of the sequence stratigraphy, they characterise late low sea levels and especially the high sea levels of the uppermost Turonien-Coniacian depositional sequence.
El Hadi, Hassan; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; Simancas Cabrera, Fernando; González Lodeiro, Francisco; Azor Pérez, Antonio; Jesús Martínez Poyatos, David
The Middle Cambrian calc-alkaline Oued Rhebar volcanic complex (western Meseta, Morocco) compares with rocks originated in orogenic contexts. The La/Nb ratios are relatively high (5.2), suggesting a lithospheric mantle origin. The La/Ta ratios, higher than 26, and the negative Nb anomaly indicate a lithospheric source contaminated by the continental crust. These rocks were generated in the Mesetian Mid-Cambrian rift and would have inherited their orogenic signature from the partial melting of a previously metasomatized mantle. To cite this article: H. El Hadi et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).
Mise en évidence de déformations en faille inverse avec ruptures de surface cosismiques dans des dépôts colluviaux würmiens du versant nord du mont Ventoux (Provence occidentale, France)Evidence of reverse faulting and coseismic surface ruptures in Würm colluvial deposits from the Mt Ventoux northern slope (Western Provence, France)
Dutour, Alain; Philip, Hervé; Jaurand, Erwan; Combes, Philippe
In western Provence (France), brittle deformation of Quaternary age occurring in the vicinity of the Nı̂mes and Durance faults has been linked to palaeoseisms of significant magnitude. Our new observations made on the southern rim of the Tertiary Malaucène Basin, in the continuation of a thrust to the north of Mt Ventoux, present evidence for reverse faulting deformation in deposits of a Würm colluvial fan. The analysis of a trench section provides clear evidence for: (1) the development of two successive surface ruptures and degradation of associated scarps during the Mid-Upper Würm, and, (2) the continuation of the reverse fault within the Oligocene basement. These tectonic events were associated with earthquakes of at least 6 in magnitude. To cite this article: A. Dutour et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 849-856.
Kral, Anita Christine; Hayball, John; Smith, William B
Marking nut Semecarpus anacardium, so-called because it contains a pigment that has been used in the past to mark fabrics, is a known cause of contact hypersensitivity. It may be ingested as an ingredient of some traditional Hindi foods. We describe the first reported case of anaphylaxis to marking nut. PMID:27489793
McCulloh, Katherine A; Johnson, Daniel M; Meinzer, Frederick C; Voelker, Steven L; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Domec, Jean-Christophe
Co-occurring species often have different strategies for tolerating daily cycles of water stress. One underlying parameter that can link together the suite of traits that enables a given strategy is wood density. Here we compare hydraulic traits of two pioneer species from a tropical forest in Panama that differ in wood density: Miconia argentea and Anacardium excelsum. As hypothesized, the higher wood density of Miconia was associated with smaller diameter vessels and fibres, more water stress-resistant leaves and stems, and roughly half the capacitance of the lower wood density Anacardium. However, the scaling of hydraulic parameters such as the increases in leaf area and measures of hydraulic conductivity with stem diameter was remarkably similar between the two species. The collection of traits exhibited by Miconia allowed it to tolerate more water stress than Anacardium, which relied more heavily on its capacitance to buffer daily water potential fluctuations. This work demonstrates the importance of examining a range of hydraulic traits throughout the plant and highlights the spectrum of possible strategies for coping with daily and seasonal water stress cycles.
Robert F. Scharpf; Arthur H. McCain
Eight-year-old Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) were severely infected by dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium occidentale) when planted near infected Digger pine (P. sabiniana) in the foothills of the northern Sierra Nevada, in California. But 6-year-old knobcone x Monterey (P. attenuata x P....
Robert F. Scharpf
Two species of dwarf mistletoe were studied: Arceuthobium abietinum (Engelm.) Hawksworth and Wiens and A. occidentale Engelm. Viability of fresh seeds was high and not significantly influenced by year of collection, where collected, or plant from which collected. Temperature affected viability most noticeably. It also significantly...
Arulkumaran, Shanmugam; Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham
Cancer prevention and treatment using phytochemicals have attracted increased interest. Recent studies have shown that Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk extract (SA), a promising antioxidant and anticancer drug, exerts its anticancer effect through reducing or quenching reactive oxygen species under different conditions. The present study examined whether Phyllanthus emblica Linn fruit, rich in vitamin C content synergistically in combination can enhance both the antioxidant and anticancer activity of S. anacardium nut milk extract in 7, 12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced experimental mammary carcinoma in rat model. Female Sprague Dawley rats of 180 +/- 10 g were categorized into six groups. Three groups were administered DMBA (25mg/rat, orally) dissolved in olive oil to induce mammary carcinoma. One of these groups received Kalpaamruthaa (KA) (300 mg/kg b.wt, orally) and other group received SA (200mg/kg b.wt, orally) for 14 days after 90 days of DMBA induction. A vehicle treated control and drug control groups were also included. The mitochondrial fraction of untreated DMBA-induced mammary gland showed 2.61-fold increase in lipid peroxidation level and abnormal changes in the activities/levels of mitochondrial enzymic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymic (glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E) antioxidants were observed. DMBA treated rats also showed decline in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. In contrast, rats treated with Kalpaamruthaa showed normal lipid peroxide level and antioxidant defenses. The results of the present study highlight the improved antioxidant property of KA than sole treatment of S. anacardium nut milk extract.
de Mendonça, Fernando A C; da Silva, K F S; dos Santos, K K; Ribeiro Júnior, K A L; Sant'Ana, A E G
The insecticidal activities of extracts and oils of seventeen medicinal plants of Brazil have been determined using an Aedes aegypti larvicidal bioassay. Oils from Anacardium occidentalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Carapa guianensis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Ageratum conyzoides showed high activities with LC50 values of 14.5, 41, 57, 98 and 148 microg/l, respectively. The most active ethanolic extract tested was that from the stem of Annona glabra which presented an LC50 value of 27 microg/l. The potential application of cashew nut oil, an industrial by-product with low commercial value, in the control of the vector of dengue and yellow fever, may be proposed.
Guardia di Finanza e ulteriori Officer internazionali dall’Europa occidentale, Europa centrale, Africa, Asia e Medio Oriente. Anche se non... personale di Bouchard era composto da un ufficiale britannico come suo vice e ufficiale alle operazioni, un francese come suo capo di Stato Maggiore...Esperienza personale , posso vedere e sentire una differenza significativa nel ufficiali militari italiani a Roma dal 1998 fino al 2011. 19
formerly Istituto di Geologia Marina) Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Gobetti, 101 40129 Bologna, Italy phone: +39 (051) 6398880 Fax. +39 (051...Geologia Marina,,(formerly Istituto di Geologia Marina),Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche,, Via Gobetti, 101,40129 Bologna, Italy, , 8. PERFORMING...Tesi T. 2004. Dispersione del carbonio organico di origine fluviale sul lato occidentale della piattaforma continentale adriatica. Ciclo del Carbonio
from a discarded tin (Hopkins 1952) ; rot hole in a mangrove (Mattingly in Hopkins 1952); tree holes in Mangifera indica, Parkia filicoidea...Afrique occidentale. Ecologic , repartition, frequence et controle des vecteurs, et observations concernant l’epidemiologie de la fievre jaune. Cah...Entomol. Res. 33: 181-193. I Ronald Press Co., New York, 723 p. Hopkins, G. H. E. 1952. Mosquitoes of bionomics of mosquitoes and taxonomy notes
Background White clover (Trifolium repens) is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH) and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Results T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Conclusions Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens) hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale) to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime), along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a broad adaptive range. PMID
Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Sahi, Shivendra Vikram; Ravikumar, Samandham; Venkatachalam, Perumal
Green nanoparticle synthesis was achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extracts reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments to the anticancer activities to determine the effect of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three medicinal plants on human liver (HepG2) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell lines. The synthesis of AgNPs using Plumbago zeylanica (Pz), Semecarpus anacardium (Sa) and Terminalia arjuna (Ta) plant extracts in the reaction mixture was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy. FTIR results clearly illustrated that the plant extracts containing prominent peaks of functional groups and biomolecules viz., tannins, phenols, flavonoids and triterpenoids those act as capping agents and involved in the stabilization of the synthesised silver nanoparticles. Synthesized AgNPs were spherical and cuboid in shape which is determined by SEM. Average size of the AgNPs were between 80-98, 60-95 and 34-70 nm for PzAgNPs, SaAgNPs and TaAgNPs, respectively. Further, the synthesized AgNPs were characterized by XRD, EDX, DLS and Zeta potential analysis. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxicity against human liver and prostate cancer cell lines. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of HepG2, PC3 and Vero cells were found to be 70.97, 58.61, 96.41; 10.04, 42.77, 83.86; and 28.42, 41.78, 69.48 μg/ml for PzAgNPs, SaAgNPs and TaAgNPs at 48 h incubation. An induction of apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, Hoechst, Rhodamine and AO/EtBr staining. The present results strongly suggested that the AgNPs synthesized using P. zeylanica, S. anacardium and T. arjuna extracts showed potential anticancer activity of HepG2 and PC3 cell lines.
Proença, Sibéli de Fátima Ferraz Simão; Machado, Celina Mattos; Coelho, Raquel de Castro Figueiredo Pereira; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt; Kalinke, Luciana Puchalski
Assessing the quality of life of adult patients with hematological cancer in the 100 days after transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells and verifying whether the variable graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is predictive of worse results. An observational correlational and quantitative study with 36 adult participants diagnosed with hematologic cancer who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from September 2013 to June 2015. The mean age was 37 years, 52.78% were female, and 61.11% were diagnosed with leukemia. Quality of life scores showed a significant impact between pre-transplantation and pre-hospital discharge, and also within the 100 days post-transplantation. The statistical analysis between the scores for the groups with and without GvHD showed a significant difference between the presence of the complication and worse results. Quality of life is altered as a result of hematopoietic stem cells transplantation, especially in patients who have graft-versus-host disease. Avaliar a qualidade de vida de pacientes adultos com câncer hematológico nos 100 dias do transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas e verificar se a variável doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro é preditiva de piores resultados. Estudo observacional, correlacional e quantitativo, com 36 participantes adultos, diagnosticados com câncer hematológico que se submeteram ao transplante de células-tronco hematopoéticas de setembro de 2013 a junho de 2015. A média de idade foi 37 anos, 52,78% eram do sexo feminino, e 61,11% com diagnóstico de leucemia. Os escores de qualidade de vida demonstraram impacto significativo entre o pré-transplante e a pré-alta hospitalar e entre os 100 dias pós-transplante. A análise estatística entre os escores dos grupos com e sem doença do enxerto contra o hospedeiro evidenciou significância entre a presença desta complicação e piores resultados. A qualidade de vida é alterada em decorrência do transplante de c
Hand, Melanie L; Ponting, Rebecca C; Drayton, Michelle C; Lawless, Kahlil A; Cogan, Noel O I; Charles Brummer, E; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Smith, Kevin F; Forster, John W
The combination of homologous, homoeologous and paralogous classes of sequence variation presents major challenges for SNP discovery in outbreeding allopolyploid species. Previous in vitro gene-associated SNP discovery studies in the allotetraploid forage legume white clover (Trifolium repens L.) were vulnerable to such effects, leading to prohibitive levels of attrition during SNP validation. Identification of T. occidentale and T. pallescens as the putative diploid progenitors of white clover has permitted discrimination of the different sequence variant categories. Amplicons from selected abiotic stress tolerance-related genes were obtained using mapping family parents and individuals from each diploid species. Following cloning, progenitor comparison allowed tentative assignment of individual haplotypes to one or other sub-genome, as well as to gene copies within sub-genomes. A high degree of coincidence and identity between SNPs and HSVs was observed. Close similarity was observed between the genome of T. occidentale and one white clover sub-genome, but the affinity between T. pallescens and the other sub-genome was weaker, suggesting that a currently uncharacterised taxon may be the true second progenitor. Selected validated SNPs were attributed to individual sub-genomes by assignment to and naming of homoeologous linkage groups, providing the basis for improved genetic trait-dissection studies. The approach described in this study is broadly applicable to a range of allopolyploid taxa of equivocal ancestry.
Kim, Young-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hee; Landrum, Leslie R
A phylogeny based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from 79 taxa representing much of the diversity of Berberis L. (four major groups and 22 sections) was constructed for the first time. The phylogeny was basically congruent with the previous classification schemes at higher taxonomic levels, such as groups and subgroups. A notable exception is the non-monophyly of the group Occidentales of compound-leaved Berberis (previously separated as Mahonia). At lower levels, however, most of previous sections and subsections were not evident especially in simple-leaved Berberis. Possible relationship between section Horridae (group Occidentales) and the simple-leaved Berberis clade implies paraphyly of the compound-leaved Berberis. A well-known South America-Old World (mainly Asia) disjunctive distribution pattern of the simple-leaved Berberis is explained by a vicariance event occurring in the Cretaceous period. The ITS phylogeny also suggests that a possible connection between the Asian and South American groups through the North American species ( Berberis canadensis or B. fendleri) is highly unlikely.
Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Cazorzi, Federico; Colucci, Renato R.; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Forte, Emanuele
The Montasio Occidentale glacier is a 0.07 km2 wide, avalanche-fed glacier located at very low-altitude (1860-2050 m a.s.l.) in the Eastern Italian Alps. The glacier is still active and shows a detectable mass transfer from the accumulation area to the lower ablation area, which is covered by a thick debris mantle. Geometric changes and mass balance have been monitored starting in 2010, combining glaciological methods and high-resolution geodetic surveying with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The TLS technique has proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier, but presents several limitations as high costs, high level of specialized training and low portability. On the other hand, the recent improvements in close-range photogrammetric techniques like the Structure from Motion (SfM), combined with dense image matching algorithms as Multi View Stereo (MVS), make them competitive for high quality 3D models production. The purpose of this work was to apply ground-based photogrammetric surveys for the monitoring of the annual mass balance and surface processes of Montasio Occidentale glacier. A consumer-grade SLR camera and the SfM-MVS software PhotoScan were used to detect the changes in the surface topography of the glacier from 2012 to 2014. Different data acquisition settings were tested, in order to optimize the quality and the spatial coverage of the 3D glacier model. The accuracy of the image-based 3D models was estimated in stable areas outside the glacier, using the TLS 3D model as reference. A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was carried out in 2014, simultaneously to the photogrammetric survey, that was used to compare the snow height estimations obtained by photogrammetry with those obtained by geophysics. The achieved results indicate that the resolution and accuracy of the 3D models generated by the SfM-MVS technique are comparable with those obtained from TLS surveys. Consequently, almost identical volumetric changes
Casagrande, J. C.; Soares, M. R.; Moraes, M. I. M.
The Brazilian Cerrado is considered priority area for conservation of biodiversity. The biome has covered approximately 33% of the territory of the State of São Paulo, but, currently, there are isolated fragments of Cerrado that correspond to less than 7% of its original area. One of the consequences of the natural vegetation removal and soil degradation is the loss of fertility, reduction the nutrient content. There is limited knowledge of the nutritional requirements of native forest species from Cerrado, especially about micronutrients. The aims of this work are: (i) verify the influence of four levels of Zn in soil and three levels of liming on development of six forest species native to the Cerrado biome; (ii) assess Zn deficiency symptoms in native species of Savannah. The treatments were four levels of Zn (0.0; 2.0; 4.0;-1 6.0 kg ha of Zn) and three levels of base saturation (V% = natural, V% = 50% and V% = 70%), cultivated in green house. The forest species studied have different responses to soil correction and fertilization, and were not observed responses regarding biometric parameters (growth in height and dry matter) with respect to the correction of base saturation and soil fertilization with Zn, for seedlings of Tabebuia aurea, Eugenia dysenterica and Astronium graveolens, showing that these species are highly adapted to the conditions of low fertility and showing efficient physiology for Zn absorption, since there was satisfactory growth in conditions of low base saturation (36%), very low content of Zn in soil (0.3 mg dm-3 ) and ideal supply of other nutrients. The species Andira cuyabensis and Anacardium giganteum responded well to fertilization and soil remediation. The omission of Zn resulted in visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency only for the species Tabebuia aurea, Astronium graveolens and Anacardium giganteum. The content of Zn presented significance interaction between Zn doses and V% for species Hymenaea courbaril, Tabebuia aurea and
Jlalia, Zied; Znaigui, Talel; Smida, Mahmoud
La maltraitance physique des enfants ou le syndrome des enfants battus est responsable de plus de 75.000 décès par an en France. Ce problème de santé publique reste sous diagnostiqué en Tunisie et dans le monde. Le chemin a été laborieux pour la reconnaissance du syndrome des enfants battus dans certaines sociétés même occidentales. Nous avons voulus exposer ce problème aux praticiens afin qu'il soit mieux diagnostiqué et pris en charge. La maltraitance physique des enfants est appelée à tort syndrome de Silverman qui ne regroupe en fait que les lésions squelettiques chez ces enfants tels que les fractures. Mots clés: Fracture, maltraitance, enfant, neuro-radiologie PMID:27642408
Falótico, Tiago; Luncz, Lydia V; Svensson, Magdalena S; Haslam, Michael
Wild capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) at Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil, regularly use stone tools to break open cashew nuts (Anacardium spp.). Here we examine 2 approaches used by the capuchins to position the kidney-shaped cashew nuts on an anvil before striking with a stone tool. Lateral positioning involves placing the nut on its flatter, more stable side, therefore requiring less attention from the monkey during placement. However, the less stable and never previously described arched position, in which the nut is balanced with its curved side uppermost, requires less force to crack the outer shell. We observed cashew nut cracking in a field experimental setting. Only 6 of 20 adults, of both sexes, were observed to deliberately place cashew nuts in an arched position, which may indicate that the technique requires time and experience to learn. We also found that use of the arched position with dry nuts, but not fresh, required, in 63% of the time, an initial processing to remove one of the cashew nut lobes, creating a more stable base for the arch. This relatively rare behaviour appears to have a complex ontogeny, but further studies are required to establish the extent to which social learning is involved.
Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael
Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly.
Luncz, Lydia V.; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael
Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. PMID:27624672
Mahata, C. R.
Response of living bodies to different vastly `diluted' homeopathic medicines are different (rejecting the sceptic's view of `placebo' effect), though they are chemically same. Till now there is no satisfactory answer to how one such medicine differs from another in terms of scientifically measurable parameters. This paper tries to address this basic issue by taking two medicines of the same potency and two different potencies of the same medicine, namely, Arnica Mont 30c, 200c and Anacardium Orient 30c, 200c. These potencies are well above the Avogadro limit. The investigation reported here proceeds with the concept of `induced molecular structure' advanced by a number of scientists. Dielectric dispersion is used as the tool for experimental verification. It is based on the fact that when the exciting frequency of applied electric field equals the characteristic frequency, then macromolecules resonate leading to anomalous dielectric dispersion associated with sharp increase in dielectric loss, the resonance frequencies being different for macromolecules of different structures or dimensions. The results suggest that medicine- and potency-specific attributes are acquired by the vehicle (i.e. water) in the form of macromolecules generated by the potentization process of homeopathy making one medicine structurally different from another.
Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Seth, Ankit; Laloo, Damiki; Singh, Narendra Kumar; Gautam, Dev Nath Singh; Singh, Anil Kumar
Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. Śodhana (detoxification/purification) is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsanābha (Aconitum species), Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, β–asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. Śodhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process. PMID:26283803
Tripathi, Yamini B
Since hyperlipidemia, inflammation and obesity are closely related to atherosclerosis, therefore management of these factors together would be beneficial for overall treatment approach for atherosclerosis. Although, Indian system of medicine, especially Ayurveda has several medicinal plants with proven beneficial claims towards these pathological conditions, but most of them lack enough experimental data. BHUx is a novel polyherbal formulation, consisting of 5 medicinal plants namely Termenalia arjuna, Strychnox nux vomica, Boswellia serrata, Commiphora mukul, and Semecarpus anacardium, which have history of clinical use as single or in other combinations, but these plant fractions were never tried collectively in this ratio as in BHUx, which has been found to be effective on all the etiological factors, together. In this paper, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypo-lipidemic, anti-proliferative properties of BHUx have been studied on several experimental models based on chemical tests, cell culture, in vitro models, and in vivo experiments with normal and transgenic animals. A separate pre-clinical toxicity study has also been carried out to prove its safety margin in therapeutic doses. Further, clinical trail of BHUx is under way, before it comes to market for public use as functional food to maintain healthy heart. This article also review some patent related to the field.
Tošić, Snežana B; Mitić, Snežana S; Velimirović, Dragan S; Stojanović, Gordana S; Pavlović, Aleksandra N; Pecev-Marinković, Emilija T
An inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry method for the speedy simultaneous detection of 19 elements in edible nuts (walnuts: Juglans nigra; almonds: Prunus dulcis; hazelnuts: Corylus avellana; Brazil nuts: Bertholletia excelsa; cashews: Anacardium occidentalle; pistachios: Pistacia vera; and peanuts: Arachis hypogaea) available on the Serbian markets, was optimized and validated through the selection of instrumental parameters and analytical lines free from spectral interference and with the lowest matrix effects. The analysed macro-elements were present in the following descending order: Na > Mg > Ca > K. Of all the trace elements, the tested samples showed the highest content of Fe. The micro-element Se was detected in all the samples of nuts. The toxic elements As, Cd and Pb were either not detected or the contents were below the limit of detection. One-way analysis of variance, Student's t-test, Tukey's HSD post hoc test and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis were applied in the statistical analysis of the results. Based on the detected content of analysed elements it can be concluded that nuts may be a good additional source of minerals as micronutrients. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Smit, H F; Woerdenbag, H J; Singh, R H; Meulenbeld, G J; Labadie, R P; Zwaving, J H
Ayurveda is considered to be the traditional science of health in India and is based on the principle of subjectivity. All matter is composed of five basic elements, which can be perceived by the five sense organs. All food and drugs are classified according to their pharmacological properties, which are derived from these five elements. To investigate which Ayurvedic plants might have cytostatic activity, an Ayurvedic model for the pathogenesis of cancer was made. Based on this, selection criteria were formed, that were used to select plants from a list of Ayurvedic herbal drugs. Some of the selected species could be collected in India and Nepal. The dried material of 14 species was submitted to ethanol (70% v/v) extraction and the extracts were tested for cytotoxicity on COLO 320 tumour cells, using the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The IC50-value, the concentration causing 50% growth inhibition of the tumour cells, was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. Extracts of the flowers of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) and of the nuts of Semecarpus anacardium L.f. (Anacardiaceae) displayed the strongest cytotoxic effect with IC50-values of 1.4 micrograms/ml and 1.6 micrograms/ml, respectively. The extracts of several other plants did not show a cytotoxic effect up to 100 micrograms/ml, the highest concentration tested.
Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N
The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.
Andrade, Juliana Maria de Mello; Biegelmeyer, Renata; Dresch, Roger Remy; Maurmann, Natasha; Pranke, Patrícia; Henriques, Amélia T.
Background: Investigation of selected plant extracts on multi-targets related to neurodegeneration, such as monoamine oxidases (MAO), cholinesterase enzymes, and antioxidant activities (AOA) is a useful tool for identification of new scaffolds. Objective: This work investigated biological effects of three Blechnum methanol extracts from Brazil and chemical profile of the most active sample. Materials and Methods: AOA included scavenging of hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals, also lipid peroxidation inhibition. Enzymatic modulation of Blechnum binervatum, Blechnum brasiliense, and Blechnum occidentale extracts on MAO and cholinesterases was conducted. Moreover, total phenol content was performed with all samples, and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-MS analysis was carried out with B. brasiliense. Possible toxic effects were evaluated on Wistar rats polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) and human stem cells. Results: B. brasiliense extract presented the highest phenolic amount (9.25 g gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract) and lowest IC50 values (112.3 ± 2.61 and 176.1 ± 1.19 μg/mL) against hydroxyl radicals and on lipid peroxidation, respectively, showing strong AO effects. On nitric oxide assay and cholinesterase inhibition, all extracts were considered inactive. MAO-A selective action was evidenced, being B. brasiliense powerful against this enzyme (IC50: 72.7 μg/mL), followed by B. occidentale and B. binervatum (IC50: 130.85 and 165.2 μg/mL). No cytotoxic effects were observed on PMN and human stem cells treated with Blechnum extracts. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of B. brasiliense allowed the identification of chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Conclusion: Our results especially highlight B. brasiliense, with pronounced phenols content and strong effects on selected targets related to neurodegeneration, being characterized as a natural safe source of bioactive hydroxycinnamic acids. SUMMARY Blechnum crude extracts
Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Green-Ruiz, C; Zavala-Nevárez, M; Soto-Jiménez, M
With the purpose of knowing seasonal variations of Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in a river basin with past and present mining activities, elemental concentrations were measured in six fish species and four crustacean species in Baluarte River, from some of the mining sites to the mouth of the river in the Pacific Ocean between May 2005 and March 2006. In fish, highest levels of Cd (0.06 μg g ⁻¹ dry weight) and Cr (0.01 μg g⁻¹) were detected during the dry season in Gobiesox fluviatilis and Agonostomus monticola, respectively; the highest levels of Hg (0.56 μg g⁻¹) were detected during the dry season in Guavina guavina and Mugil curema. In relation to Pb, the highest level (1.65 μg g⁻¹) was detected in A. monticola during the dry season. In crustaceans, highest levels of Cd (0.05 μg g⁻¹) occurred in Macrobrachium occidentale during both seasons; highest concentration of Cr (0.09 μg g⁻¹) was also detected in M. occidentale during the dry season. With respect to Hg, highest level (0.20 μg g⁻¹) was detected during the rainy season in Macrobrachium americanum; for Pb, the highest concentration (2.4 μg g⁻¹) corresponded to Macrobrachium digueti collected in the dry season. Considering average concentrations of trace metals in surficial sediments from all sites, Cd (p<0.025), Cr (p<0.10) and Hg (p<0.15) were significantly higher during the rainy season. Biota sediment accumulation factors above unity were detected mostly in the case of Hg in fish during both seasons. On the basis of the metal levels in fish and crustacean and the provisional tolerable weekly intake of studied elements, people can eat up to 13.99, 0.79 and 2.34 kg of fish in relation to Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively; regarding crustaceans, maximum amounts were 11.33, 2.49 and 2.68 kg of prawns relative to levels of Cd, Hg and Pb, respectively.
Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Albani, Alessandro; Ventricelli, Marialba; Izar, Patricia; Schino, Gabriele; Fragazsy, Dorothy
Cashew nuts are very nutritious but so well defended by caustic chemicals that very few species eat them. We investigated how wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) living at Fazenda Boa Vista (FBV; Piauí, Brazil) process cashew nuts (Anacardium spp.) to avoid the caustic chemicals contained in the seed mesocarp. We recorded the behavior of 23 individuals toward fresh (N = 1282) and dry (N = 477) cashew nuts. Adult capuchins used different sets of behaviors to process nuts: rubbing for fresh nuts and tool use for dry nuts. Moreover, adults succeed to open dry nuts both by using teeth and tools. Age and body mass significantly affected success. Signs of discomfort (e.g., chemical burns, drooling) were rare. Young capuchins do not frequently closely observe adults processing cashew nuts, nor eat bits of nut processed by others. Thus, observing the behavior of skillful group members does not seem important for learning how to process cashew nuts, although being together with group members eating cashews is likely to facilitate interest toward nuts and their inclusion into the diet. These findings differ from those obtained when capuchins crack palm nuts, where observations of others cracking nuts and encounters with the artifacts of cracking produced by others are common and support young individuals' persistent practice at cracking. Cashew nut processing by capuchins in FBV appears to differ from that observed in a conspecific population living 320 km apart, where capuchins use tools to open both fresh and dry nuts. Moreover, in the latter population, chemical burns due to cashew caustic compounds appear to be common. The sources of these differences across populations deserve investigation, especially given that social influences on young monkeys learning to open cashew nuts at FBV seem to be nonspecific. Am. J. Primatol. 78:799-815, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Beckman, Noelle G; Muller-Landau, Helene C
The importance of vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens for plant communities has long been recognized, but their absolute and relative importance in early recruitment of multiple coexisting tropical plant species has not been quantified. Further, little is known about the relationship of fruit traits to seed mortality due to natural enemies in tropical plants. To investigate the influences of vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens on reproduction of seven canopy plant species varying in fruit traits, we quantified reductions in fruit development and seed germination due to vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungal pathogens through experimental removal of these enemies using canopy exclosures, insecticide, and fungicide, respectively. We also measured morphological fruit traits hypothesized to mediate interactions of plants with natural enemies of seeds. Vertebrates, invertebrates, and fungi differentially affected predispersal seed mortality depending on the plant species. Fruit morphology explained some variation among species; species with larger fruit and less physical protection surrounding seeds exhibited greater negative effects of fungi on fruit development and germination and experienced reduced seed survival integrated over fruit development and germination in response to vertebrates. Within species, variation in seed size also contributed to variation in natural enemy effects on seed viability. Further, seedling growth was higher for seeds that developed in vertebrate exclosures for Anacardium excelsum and under the fungicide treatment for Castilla elastica, suggesting that predispersal effects of natural enemies may carry through to the seedling stage. This is the first experimental test of the relative effects of vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens on seed survival in the canopy. This study motivates further investigation to determine the generality of our results for plant communities. If there is strong variation in natural enemy attack
Lindquist, Erin Stewart; Carroll, C Ronald
Recently, the importance of seed predation by crabs on mangrove species distributions and densities has been established by several studies. In a tropical coastal terrestrial forest in Costa Rica, we investigated the relative importance of predation by land crabs, Gecarcinus quadratus, and hermit crabs, Coenobita compressus, on measured forest composition through a series of seed removal and seedling establishment experiments. We also used natural light-gaps and adjacent non-gap sites to test how canopy cover affects crab predation (seed removal) and seedling establishment. We found fewer tree species (S=18) and lower densities (seedlings, saplings, and adults) in the coastal zone within 100 m of coastline, than in the inland zone (S=59). Land crab densities were higher in the coastal zone (3.03+/-1.44 crabs m(-2)) than in the inland zone (0.76+/-0.78 crabs m(-2)), and hermit crabs were not present in the inland zone. Seed removal and seedling mortality also were higher in the coastal zone than in the inland zone, and in the open controls than in the crab exclosures. Mortality of seeds and seedlings was two to six times higher in the controls than exclosures for four of the five experiments. Crabs preferred seeds and younger seedlings over older seedlings but showed no species preferences in the seed (Anacardium excelsum, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, and Terminalia oblonga) and seedling (Pachira quinata and E. cyclocarpum) stages. We conclude that the observed differences in tree densities were caused by differential crab predation pressure along the coastal gradient, while the differences in species composition were due to predator escape (satiation) by seed quantity. Canopy cover did not affect seed removal rates, but did affect seedling survival with higher mortality in the non-gap versus gap environments. In summary, crab predation of seeds and seedlings, and secondarily canopy cover, are important factors affecting tree establishment in terrestrial coastal
Krause, G Heinrich; Grube, Esther; Virgo, Aurelio; Winter, Klaus
Tree seedlings developing in the understory of the tropical forest have to endure short periods of high-light stress when tree-fall gaps are formed, and direct solar radiation, including substantial UV light, reaches the leaves. In experiments simulating the opening of a tree-fall gap, the response of photosynthesis in leaves of shade-acclimated seedlings (Anacardium excelsum, Virola surinamensis, and Calophyllum longifolium) to exposure to direct sunlight (for 20-50 min) was investigated in Panama (9 degrees N). To assess the effects of solar UV-B radiation (280-320 nm), the sunlight was filtered through plastic films that selectively absorbed UV-B or transmitted the complete spectrum. The results document a strong inhibition of CO(2) assimilation by sun exposure. Light-limited and light-saturated rates of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake by the leaves were affected, which apparently occurred independently of a simultaneous inhibition of potential photosystem (PS) II efficiency. The ambient UV-B light substantially contributed to these effects. The photochemical capacity of PSI, measured as absorbance change at 810 nm in saturating far-red light, was not significantly affected by sun exposure of the seedlings. However, a decrease in the efficiency of P700 photooxidation by far-red light was observed, which was strongly promoted by solar UV-B radiation. The decrease in PSI efficiency may result from enhanced charge recombination in the reaction center, which might represent an incipient inactivation of PSI, but contributes to thermal dissipation of excessive light energy and thereby to photoprotection.
Vivero, Rafael José; Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Bejarano, Eduar E; Peña, Horacio Cadena; Estrada, Luis Gregorio; Florez, Fernando; Ortega, Edgar; Aparicio, Yamileth; Muskus, Carlos E
The location of the microhabitats where immature phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia develop is one of the least-known aspects of this group of medically important insects. For this reason strategies of source reduction approach for their control have not been possible in contrast to other insect vectors (such as mosquitoes), because their juvenile stages in terrestrial microhabitats is difficult to detect. Direct examination of soil samples, incubation of substrates and the use of emergence traps were the methods used to identify juvenile stages in 160 soil samples from urban and forest habitats within the foci of Leishmania transmission in Colombia. Immatures collected were identified subsequent from the rearing and emergence of adults using taxonomic keys or the analysis of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I. Plant species associated with the natural breeding sites were identified and physicochemical properties of the soils were analyzed. A total of 38 (23.7%) sampling sites were identified as breeding sites, 142 phlebotomine sand flies were identified, belonging to 13 species of the genus Lutzomyia and two of Brumptomyia. The greatest numbers of immature were found within the tabular roots (51 immature sand flies from eight positive sites) and bases of trees (35 immature sand flies from 11 sites). The characterization and presence of the tree species (mainly Ceiba pentadra, Anacardium excelsum, Pseudosamanea guachapale) and the physicochemical properties (relative humidity and carbon/nitrogen ratio) of the soils associated with these breeding sites are significant factors in explaining the diversity and abundance of phlebotomine sand flies. Immature phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia in Colombia can be found in a wide variety of breeding sites rich in organic matter, high relative humidity and are associated with a typical vegetation of each locality. These results provide new perspectives for the study of the ecology of the
Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish; Venugopalan, Anuradha; Narsimulu, Gumdal; Handa, Rohini; Bichile, Lata; Raut, Ashwinikumar; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Patwardhan, Bhushan
Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) is a popular disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) despite modest efficacy and toxicity. Ayurveda (ancient India medicinal system) physicians treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with allegedly safer herbal formulations. We report a head-to-head comparison in an exploratory drug trial. The objective is to compare standardized Ayurvedic formulations and HCQS in the treatment of RA. One hundred twenty-one patients with active moderately severe RA (ACR 1988 classified) were randomized into a 24-week investigator-blind, parallel efficacy, three-arm (two Ayurvedic and HCQS) multicenter drug trial study; polyherb (Tinospora cordifolia and Zingiber officinale based) and monoherb (Semecarpus anacardium). Study measures included joint counts (pain/tenderness and swelling), pain visual analogue scale, global disease assessments, and health assessment questionnaire. Oral meloxicam (fixed-dosage schedule) was prescribed to all patients during the initial 16 weeks. Patients on prednisolone could continue a fixed stable dose (<7.5 mg daily). Rescue oral use of paracetamol was permitted and monitored. All groups matched well at baseline. An intent-to-treat analysis (ANOVA, significance P < 0.05) did not show significant differences by treatment groups. In the polyherb, monoherb, and HCQS arms, 44%, 36%, and 51%, respectively, showed ACR 20 index improvement. Several efficacy measures improved significantly in the HCQS and polyherb groups with no difference between the groups (corrected P). However, the latter was individually superior to monoherb. Only mild adverse events (gut and skin, and none withdrew) were reported with no differences between the groups. Forty-two patients dropped out. This preliminary drug trial controlled for HCQS demonstrated a standardized Ayurvedic polyherb drug to be effective and safe in controlling active RA. A better-designed study with a longer evaluation period is recommended.
James, Shelley A; Clearwater, Michael J; Meinzer, Frederick C; Goldstein, Guillermo
Robust thermal dissipation sensors of variable length (3 to 30 cm) were developed to overcome limitations to the measurement of radial profiles of sap flow in large-diameter tropical trees with deep sapwood. The effective measuring length of the custom-made sensors was reduced to 1 cm at the tip of a thermally nonconducting shaft, thereby minimizing the influence of nonuniform sap flux density profiles across the sapwood. Sap flow was measured at different depths and circumferential positions in the trunks of four trees at the Parque Natural Metropolitano canopy crane site, Panama City, Republic of Panama. Sap flow was detected to a depth of 24 cm in the trunks of a 1-m-diameter Anacardium excelsum (Bertero & Balb. ex Kunth) Skeels tree and a 0.65-m-diameter Ficus insipida Willd. tree, and to depths of 7 cm in a 0.34-m-diameter Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Cham. trunk, and 17 cm in a 0.47-m-diameter Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin trunk. Sap flux density was maximal in the outermost 4 cm of sapwood and declined with increasing sapwood depth. Considerable variation in sap flux density profiles was observed both within and among the trees. In S. morototoni, radial variation in sap flux density was associated with radial variation in wood properties, particularly vessel lumen area and distribution. High variability in radial and circumferential sap flux density resulted in large errors when measurements of sap flow at a single depth, or a single radial profile, were used to estimate whole-plant water use. Diurnal water use ranged from 750 kg H2O day-1 for A. excelsum to 37 kg H2O day-1 for C. alliodora.
Ida, Takashi Y; Harder, Lawrence D; Kudo, Gaku
The limits on annual seed production have long been characterized as restriction by either pollination success or resource provision to seed development. This expected dichotomy between pollen and resource limitation is based on the assumption that reproductive resources are fixed, which is reasonable for semelparous species. In contrast, iteroparity can ease the constraints on reproductive output per breeding season, if resources can be either mobilized from past storage or borrowed against future performance. For perennial plants, these options allow enhanced reproductive investment in response to unusually good pollination, so that annual seed production may not be pollen or resource limited. We assessed demand-governed reproductive investment by manipulating both resource supply capacity (partial defoliation) and resource demand (pollination quality: fully self-pollination, fully cross-pollination, or combinations of partial self- and cross-pollination within the inflorescence) for a forest herb, Stenanthium occidentale, which is subject to strong pre-dispersal inbreeding depression. Insensitivity to partial defoliation indicated that reproductive output was not source regulated. Instead, demand by developing seeds governs resource distribution, as demonstrated by elevated photosynthate translocation to fruits on fully cross-pollinated plants and the ability of completely defoliated plants to produce seeds. Such contingent resource allocation eliminates a simple dichotomy between pollen receipt and resource availability as limits on annual seed production. Instead, such flexible reproductive investment allows iteroparous perennials to participate maximally in current reproduction (as determined by ovule production) following superior pollination, or to conserve resources for future reproduction following poor pollination.
Sclater, John; Le Pichon, Xavier
Jean Francheteau, pioneering marine geologist and geophysicist, AGU Fellow, and emeritus professor at the University of Brest (Université de Bretagne Occidentale), died on 21 July in St-Renan, Brittany, France, at the age of 67 after a long illness. With his passing, the field of Earth sciences lost a major contributor to the development of a definitive theory of plate tectonics and one of the first to make visual geological observations on the deep seafloor. Such scientific accomplishments, coupled with his personal charm and the ability to collaborate with researchers from many institutions, ensured that he had a huge influence not only on the world of research but also on teaching and the application of ethics to science. Jean arrived at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, Calif., in 1966 after obtaining a diploma in mining engineering at the prestigious Éole Nationale Supérieure de la Métallurgie et de l'Industrie des Mines in Nancy, France. He chose Victor Vacquier as his thesis supervisor and began working in Vic's lab with John Sclater, ostensibly on heat flow measurements.
Dalman, Kerstin; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Olson, Åke; Lind, Mårten; Brandström-Durling, Mikael; Stenlid, Jan
The dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) panels needed for genome wide association (GWA) studies have hitherto been expensive to establish and use on non-model organisms. To overcome this, we used a next generation sequencing approach to both establish SNPs and to determine genotypes. We conducted a GWA study on a fungal species, analysing the virulence of Heterobasidion annosum s.s., a necrotrophic pathogen, on its hosts Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris. From a set of 33,018 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 23 haploid isolates, twelve SNP markers distributed on seven contigs were associated with virulence (P<0.0001). Four of the contigs harbour known virulence genes from other fungal pathogens and the remaining three harbour novel candidate genes. Two contigs link closely to virulence regions recognized previously by QTL mapping in the congeneric hybrid H. irregulare × H. occidentale. Our study demonstrates the efficiency of GWA studies for dissecting important complex traits of small populations of non-model haploid organisms with small genomes. PMID:23341945
Tazerouti, Fadila; Euzet, Louis; Kechemir-Issad, Nadia
A study of the cestodes from the intestinal parasites of torpedinid elasmobranchs off the coast of Algeria, revealed the presence, in Torpedo marmorata Risso, of a species of Calyptrobothrium Monticelli, 1893, which we believe is identical to C. riggii Monticelli, 1893. This species, which has not been re-examined since its original description, is redescribed. We consider that the cestode from T. marmorata, described by Zschokke (1888) under the name of Tetrabothrium longicolle Molin, 1858, is conspecific with C.riggii. In Torpedo nobiliana Bonaparte, from the Mediterranean, we found C. occidentale Linton, 1900 and C. minus Linton, 1907. These two species are redescribed based on the type-material from the North American Atlantic coast, as well as from specimens collected off Sète and Algeria. We place several specimens, previously identified as C. riggii, as conspecific with C. minus. An amended diagnosis for Calyptrobothrium is proposed. We discuss the attribution of Bilocularia hyperapolytica Obersteiner, 1914 from Centrophorus granulosus (Centrophoridae) to Calyptrobothrium. C. chalarosomum Alexander, 1963 from Cephaloscyllium isabellum (Scylliorhinidae) off New-Zealand is excluded from the genus and placed close to Crossobothrium Linton, 1889.
Olsen, J D; Sisson, D V
Larkspur poisoning is a major cause of acute death of cattle on mountain and high plains rangelands of western United States. A nonlethal method to quantify dose response in cattle is needed to better estimate the toxicity of larkspur plants and the response of cattle to larkspur poisoning and to provide a basis for reference during studies. A numerical system of rating the clinical signs of larkspur poisoning was developed and used to describe the response of 10 Hereford cows given a repeated single daily dose of larkspur (Delphinium occidentale x barbeyi) by gavage. Larkspur poisoning resulted from a short-term cumulative effect, and a statistically significant increase in score was essentially maximal by 4 days. At the dose given, this effect did not persist for more than 4 days after cessation of dosing. Poisoning was most severe between 5 and 9 hours after dosing. Early signs of poisoning can be subtle and sometimes brief. The effect of larkspur poisoning can be exacerbated temporarily by exertion. Therefore, cattle could probably repeatedly consume an otherwise toxic daily dose, without manifesting marked signs of poisoning, if consumption decreased to a sufficient degree intermittently at 2- to 4-day intervals.
Rodríguez, Aixa I.; Christiansen, Rodolfo O.; Suvires, Graciela M.; Lince Klinger, Federico; Martinez, M. Patricia
A gravimetric analysis over the Tulum Valley was made. This data was used to reveal the structural setting of the Tulum Fault System situated in the southeastern part of San Juan province in the arid western part of Argentina. This system is the boundary between two geological provinces, the eastern Precordillera Oriental and the Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales. Gravity data was processed using upward continuation and vertical derivative filters and all the results were compared with the geomorphological and the drainage systems maps of the area. Our assessment confirms the presence of two structures in the Pampeano basement with positive anomalies similar to those found in Valdivia and Barboza hills, two important depocenters with low gravimetric gradients separated by a zone with higher gravity anomalies than the depocenters to the east and west. In view of this, a structural map is proposed for the area. This system is important not only because it is the boundary between two geological provinces and has significance regarding regional tectonic issues but also because it controls the surface drainage, soils distribution and groundwater flow of the Tulum basin conditioning the land use distribution.
Carturan, L.; Blasone, G.; Calligaro, S.; Carton, A.; Cazorzi, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.; Moro, D.
Glacial and periglacial environments are highly sensitive to climatic changes. Processes of cryosphere degradation may strongly impact human activities and infrastructures, and need to be monitored for improved understanding and for mitigation/adaptation. Studying glacial and periglacial environments using traditional techniques may be difficult or not feasible, but new remote sensing techniques like terrestrial and aerial laser scanner opened new possibilities for cryospheric studies. This work presents an application of the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) for monitoring the current rapid changes occurring on the Montasio Occidentale glacier (Eastern Italian alps), which is representative of low-altitude, avalanche-fed and debris-cover glaciers. These glaciers are quite common in the Alps but their reaction to climate changes is still poorly known. The mass balance, surface velocity fields, debris cover dynamics and effects of meteorological extremes were investigated by repeat high-resolution TLS scanning from September 2010 to October 2012. The results were encouraging and shed light on the peculiar response of this glacier to climatic changes, on its current dynamics and on the feedback played by the debris cover, which is critical for its preservation. The rapid transformations in act, combined with the unstable ice mass, large amount of loose debris and channeled runoff during intense rainfalls, constitute a potential area for the formation of large debris flows, as shown by field evidences and documented by the recent literature.
Jambert, Corinne; Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Lohou, Fabienne; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Derrien, Solene; Dione, Cheikh; Brosse, Fabien; Gabella, Omar; Pedruzzo Bagazgoitia, Xavier; Durand, Pierre
determine isoprene fluxes with eddy-covariance technique over a mixed (patched maize, manioc and anacardium) agricultural plot. We discuss the influence of meteorological conditions on biogenic emissions (i.e. isoprene fluxes) and on ambient atmospheric chemistry (i.e. isoprene, NOx, O3 and CO concentrations observed on the site). We also studied the impact of remote anthropogenic emissions from cities on the Guinean southern coast on local chemistry.
Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong
The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species
St Jacques, J. M.; Escobar, J.; Velez, M.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Curtis, J. H.
We report here on preliminary results from Laguna San Carlos, (8o 37' 32.44''N, 80o 03' 04.24'' W) a small, shallow (8.3 m) volcanic lake from west-central Panama, a relatively unstudied Pacific coast region that is an important location for paleo-ENSO studies. The circular lake is a closed basin lake with a gradually sloping shoreline located within a caldera. The 300 cm core was taken in 2 m of water during March 2010. The core bottom was resting upon basement granitic rock with feldspar phenocrystals. The chronology is based upon five radiocarbon dates from terrestrial plant and wood remains. Pollen and charcoal were sampled at 10 cm resolution, diatoms at 5 cm and stable isotopes at 1 cm. The pollen profile shows four distinct terrestrial vegetation units. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), from AD 880-1485, the vegetation was sparse with high amounts of grass, Asteraceae and charcoal suggestive of grasslands with high rates of natural disturbance, including fire. With the onset of the Little Ice Age (LIA), during AD 1485-1570, the vegetation transitioned into an open dry forest characterized by Myrica and Anacardium with high seasonality in precipitation. At AD 1570, the climate became wetter as shown by the pollen typical of a moist tropical forest. This lasted until AD 1720 when a period of greater human disturbance began (as shown by increased sedimentation rates), with primary forest taxa cohabiting with grasses and secondary taxa. The first maize pollen appeared at ~AD 1700. The diatom record is dominated by a single eutrophic species, Fragilaria crotonensis; however from AD 880-1150 minor taxa such as Aulacoseira spp., indicative of increased turbulence appeared, supporting the pollen record of open canopy vegetation at this time. The sedimentary carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) shows that the majority of the organic remains in the lake have always come from the surrounding basin. MTM spectral analysis of percent Fragilaria crotonensis, percent carbon
Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Venkatachalam, Perumal
Nanoparticle based drug delivery can rapidly improves the therapeutic potential of anti-cancer agents. The present study focused to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaves (ApAgNPs) and Semecarpus anacardium nuts (SaAgNPs) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in mice model. The physico-chemical properties of synthesized AgNPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum, Zeta potential and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectrum revealed a strong peak at 420nm for both SaAgNPs and ApAgNPs. FTIR results exhibited the presence of possible functional groups in the synthesized AgNPs. TEM analysis determined the hexagonal, and spherical shape of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The XRD and SAED pattern confirmed the crystalline nature and crystalline size of the AgNPs. EDX result clearly showed strong silver signals in the range between 2 and 4keV. Zeta potential measurements indicated a sharp peak at -3.93 and -13.8mV for ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs, respectively. DLS measurement expressed the particle size distribution was 70 and 60nm for ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs, respectively. DEN (20mg/kg b.wt.) was subjected to induce liver cancer in mice for 8weeks and treated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles. Interestingly, ApAgNPs and SaAgNPs treated DEN induced animal groups show a decreased level of aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activity and elevated level of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity over untreated DEN control
Chopra, Arvind; Saluja, Manjit; Tillu, Girish; Venugopalan, Anuradha; Narsimulu, Gumdal; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Patwardhan, Bhushan
Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were "platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris" (formulation B) and "platform combination+Emblica officinale" (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5-2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation). Ninety-two patients with symptomatic OA knees were enrolled in a 6 weeks investigator blind, randomized parallel efficacy 4-arm multicenter drug trial. The 4 arms were (I) formulation B, 2 t.i.d.; (II) formulation B, 2 q.i.d.; (III) platform combination+Sallaki Guggul; (IV) Bhallataka Parpati+formulation C. A detailed enquiry was carried out for adverse events (AE) and drug toxicity as per a priori check list and volunteered information. Laboratory evaluation included detailed hematology and metabolic parameters. Patients were examined at baseline, first and fourth weeks, and on completion. Standard statistical program (SPSS version 12.5) was used for analysis. None of the patients reported serious AE or withdrew due to any drug-related toxicity. Mild gut-related (mostly epigastric burning) AE was reported. A mild increase in liver enzymes [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] without any other hepatic abnormality was reported in 2 patients (group IV). Other laboratory parameters remained normal. The mean improvement in active pain visual analog scale (1.4, CI 0.5-2.22), WOMAC (functional activity questionnaire) pain score (1.37, CI 0.22-2.5), and urinary C-TAX (cartilage collagen breakdown product) assay was maximum (NS) in group IV. Lower dose group I showed numerically superior improvement compared with higher dose group II. The results suggested that despite higher doses, standardized
Guijarro-Castro, C; Sanchez-Zapardiel, E; Munoz, D; Fernandez, O; Leyva, L; Castro-Panete, M J; Picon-Munoz, C; Talise, M; Martinez-Feito, A; Paz-Artal, E
Introduccion. El haplotipo HLA-DRB1*1501 es el marcador genetico que se ha asociado con un riesgo tres veces mayor de padecer esclerosis multiple (EM) en caucasicos occidentales. Recientemente se ha sabido que hay una asociacion entre el mes de nacimiento en abril, el genotipo HLA-DRB1 y el riesgo de EM en paises del norte de Europa y Canada. Esto apoya la teoria de que debe haber una interaccion entre un factor de riesgo estacional con un locus cercano al HLA-DRB1*15 durante la gestacion o cerca del posparto. Sujetos y metodos. Se realizo el genotipado de la presencia y subtipo de HLA-DRB1*1501 en 326 pacientes de dos centros espa˜oles y en 226 controles sin patologia neurologica. Se compararon los meses de nacimiento de la muestra de pacientes con los nacimientos mensuales locales en los mismos periodos. Resultados. Comparados los pacientes con EM que eran portadores del alelo HLA-DRB1*15 (10,3%) frente a los pacientes no portadores (3,8%), significativamente mas pacientes nacian en diciembre (p = 0,0185). Tambien se confirmaba el mismo mes de nacimiento de diciembre entre sanos portadores frente a no portadores de HLA-DRB1*15 y entre pacientes portadores de HLA-DRB1*15 frente a sanos. Conclusiones. El mes de nacimiento, el genotipo HLA-DRB1*15 y el riesgo de presentar EM estan asociados. A diferencia de los resultados obtenidos en paises del norte de Europa, donde esta asociacion se ha encontrado en el mes de abril, en Espa˜a es en diciembre. Se demuestra la interaccion de un factor de riesgo estacional en invierno en el locus HLA-DRB1*15 o cercano a este durante la gestacion o tras el nacimiento.
Durá Travé, Teodoro; San Martín García, Isabel; González Benavides, Aida; Vaquero Iñigo, Ibone; Herranz Aguirre, Mercedes; Iceta Elízaga, Ainhoa
Objetivo: analizar la situación nutricional de los pacientes en el momento del ingreso hospitalario a lo largo de un año natural e identificar a aquellos pacientes y/o grupos de enfermedades con mayor riesgo de malnutrición. Material y métodos: valoración retrospectiva de la situación nutricional de 852 pacientes hospitalizados durante el año 2013 en un hospital pediátrico (462 varones y 390 mujeres). De cada paciente se registraron el sexo, edad, peso y talla, índice de masa corporal (IMC), estancia hospitalaria y diagnóstico según la Clasificación Internacional de las Enfermedades (CIE-10). Resultados: la prevalencia de malnutrición al ingreso era del 8,2%, y la de sobrepeso/obesidad del 18%. Las enfermedades neurológicas (22,9%), junto con las respiratorias (22,9%), infecciosas (18,6%), malformaciones congénitas (11,4%) y genitourinarias (8,6%) representaban el 84,4% de los casos de malnutrición. Conclusiones: la tasa de prevalencia de malnutrición en los pacientes pediátricos al ingreso era del 8,2%; siendo esta cifra prácticamente similar a las publicadas en los países occidentales. Los pacientes con menor edad y afectos de enfermedades neurológicas y/o respiratorias y, especialmente, con enfermedades congénitas tenían un mayor riesgo de presentar malnutrición, siendo preceptivo realizar un cribado nutricional inicial y un seguimiento durante su hospitalización.
Eight zones of Precambrian stromatolites that are useful for local correlation are recognized in the Belt series of the Glacier National Park region, Montana. The zones vary in composition, thickness, and areal extent. Some are widespread and extend into neighboring regions, and others occur only in small areas. Their names are taken from the dominant species that occurs in each zone. The zones are, from youngest to oldest - Conophyton zone 2 Missoula group Collenia symmetrica zone 2 Collenia undosa zone 2 Collenia multiflabella zone Piegan group Conophyton zone 1 Collenia symmetrica zone 1 Collenia undosa zone 1 Ravalli group Collenia frequens zone Only the Conophyton zones have been mapped in the park area. The present study uses a classification based upon the three criteria of (1) mode of growth, (2) gross form of the colony, and (3) nature and orientation of the laminae. The scheme of classification also seems applicable to Paleozoic and later stromatolites. Possibly a consistent pattern of form-genera and form-species may be developed. Four form-genera and seven form-species are recognized in the Belt series of the park region. These are Cryptozoon occidentale Dawson, Collenia undosa Walcott, C. frequens Walcott, C. symmetrica Fenton and Fenton, Newlandia sp., and Conophyton inclinatum n. sp. It is realized that these structures should not be classified according to biological nomenclature. However, biological names are here applied to the structures until a suitable system of classification can be devised. Comparisons of the stromatolites of the Belt series with modern stromatolites on Andros Island, Bahama Islands, and Pleistocene stromatolites from Lake Lahonton, Nev., reveal similarities in structure that appear to be significant as to physical mode of origin.
Martos-Moreno, G.A.; Kopchick, J.J.; Argente, y J.
El incremento universal de la prevalencia de obesidad en niños y adolescentes durante las últimas décadas, junto con la evidencia creciente de que el establecimiento de obesidad en etapas precoces de la vida está asociado con un incremento de la prevalencia de comorbilidades y del riesgo de muerte prematura, con gran repercusión económica en los sistemas sanitarios de los países occidentales, ha impulsado la investigación en este área. Estos estudios han remarcado la importante actividad endocrina del tejido adiposo, ejercida por medio de la síntesis y secreción de un gran número de péptidos y citoquinas, denominados adipoquinas. En esta revisión se resume el estado actual de los conocimientos, así como los estudios más relevantes, en relación con la dinámica de secreción de las principales adipoquinas en niños, centrándose en el control de la homeostasis energética, regulación metabólica (fundamentalmente, metabolismo de los hidratos de carbono) e inflamación. Asímismo, se analizan las particularidades de la síntesis, secreción y acciones de las adipoquinas desde el nacimiento hasta la adolescencia, reseñando el efecto que, sobre ellas, ejerce la instauración de la obesidad. PMID:23228441
Leprêtre, Angélique; Verrier, Fanny; Evain, Mikael; Schnurle, Philippe; Watremez, Louise; Aslanian, Daniel; de Clarens, Philippe; Dias, Nuno; Afilhado, Alexandra; Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Elia; Castilla, Raymi; Moulin, Maryline
The Natal valley (South Mozambique margin) is a key area for the understanding of the SW Indian Ocean history since the Gondwana break-up, and widely, the structure of a margin system at the transition between divergent and strike-slip segments. As one part of the PAMELA project (PAssive Margins Exploration Laboratories), conducted by TOTAL, IFREMER, in collaboration with Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Université Rennes 1, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, CNRS et IFPEN, the Natal Valley and the East Limpopo margin have been explored during the MOZ3/5 cruise (2016), conducted onboard the R/V Pourquoi Pas?, through the acquisition of 7 wide-angle profiles and coincident marine multichannel (720 traces) seismic as well as potential field data. Simultaneously, land seismometers were deployed in the Mozambique coastal plains, extending six of those profiles on land for about 100 km in order to provide information on the onshore-offshore transition. Wide-angle seismic data are of major importance as they can provide constrains on the crustal structure of the margin and the position of the continent-ocean boundary in an area where the crustal nature is poorly known and largely controversial. The aim of this work is to present the first results on the crustal structure from P-waves velocity modeling along two perpendicular MZ1 & MZ7 wide-angle profiles crossing the Natal Valley in an E-W and NNW-SSE direction respectively, which reveal a crust up to 30 km thick below the Natal Valley and thus raises questions of a purely oceanic origin of the Valley. The post-doc of Angélique Leprêtre is co-funded by TOTAL and IFREMER as part of the PAMELA (Passive Margin Exploration Laboratories) scientific project.
Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.
Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural
Verrier, Fanny; Leprêtre, Angélique; Evain, Mikael; Schnurle, Philippe; Watremez, Louise; Aslanian, Daniel; De Clarens, Philippe; Afonso Dias, Nuno; Afilhado, Alexandra; Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Elia; Castilla, Raymi; Moulin, Maryline
The study of South Mozambique passive margin is essential to understand its rifting evolution and better constrain kinematic reconstructions model of the Indian Ocean. MOZ3-5 oceanographic cruises (2016) is part of the PAMELA project (PAssive Margin Exploration LAboratory), conducted by TOTAL, IFREMER, in collaboration with Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Université Rennes 1, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, CNRS et IFPEN. These campaigns allowed the acquisition of wide-angle and multichannel seismic data as well as high resolution bathymetric data, dredges, magnetic and gravimetric data. This work focuses on the deep structure of the northern segment of the Natal Valley which was investigated along a 300 km long E-W seismic transect cross-cutting the Almirante Leite volcanic ridge (MZ2 profile). The wide-angle data set is composed of 23 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometers) and 19 LSS (Land Seismic Station) spaced by about 12 km and 4-5 km respectively. Forward modelling of the wide-angle data led to a preliminary 2D P-waves velocity model revealing the sedimentary architecture, crustal and lithospherical structures and shallow high velocity material at the volcanic ridge. The aim of this work is to present the first results on the crustal structure from P-waves velocity modeling along the profile MZ2, in order to discuss the sedimentary sequences, the geometry and nature of the crust (oceanic or continental) as well as structures associated with volcanism, and to better understand the margin's evolution. The post-doc of Fanny Verrier is co-funded by TOTAL and IFREMER as part of the PAMELA (Passive Margin Exploration Laboratories) scientific project. Moulin, M., Aslanian, D., 2016. PAMELA-MOZ03 cruise, RV Pourquoi pas ?, http://dx.doi.org/10.17600/16001600 Moulin, M., Evain, M., 2016. PAMELA-MOZ05 cruise, RV Pourquoi pas ?, http://dx.doi.org/10.17600/16009500
Bache, F.; Leroy, S.; D'Acremont, E.; Autin, J.; Watremez, L.; Rouzo, S.
, F. Klingelhoefer, C. Labails, L. Matias, H. Nouzé, and M. Rabineau, 2008, Brazilian and African Passive Margins of the Central Segment of the South Atlantic Ocean: Kinematic constraints: Tectonophysics, v. doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.12.016. Autin, J., 2008, Déchirure continentale et segmentation du Golfe d'Aden oriental en contexte de rifting oblique: Ph. D. thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris VI, 310 p. Bache, F., 2008, Evolution Oligo-Miocène des marges du micro océan Liguro Provençal.: Ph. D. thesis, Université de Bretagne Occidentale/CNRS/IFREMER. http://www.ifremer.fr/docelec/notice/2008/notice4768-EN.htm, Brest, 328 p. Boillot, G., J. Girardeau, and J. Kornprobst, 1988, The rifting of the Galicia margin: crustal thinning and emplacement of mantle rocks on the seafloor (ODP Leg 103). In Boillot, G., Winterer, E.L., et al., Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, v. 103, College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), p. 741-756. d'Acremont, E., S. Leroy, M. O. Beslier, N. bellahsen, M. Fournier, C. Robin, M. Maia, and P. Gente, 2005, Structure and evolution of the eastern Gulf of Aden conjugate margins from seismic reflection data: Geophys. J. Int., v. 160, p. 869-890. d'Acremont, E., S. Leroy, M. Maia, P. Patriat, M. O. Beslier, N. Bellahsen, M. Fournier, and P. Gente, 2006, Structure and evolution of the eastern Gulf of Aden: insights from magnetic and gravity data (Encens-Sheba MD117 cruise): Geophys. J. Int., v. 165, p. 786-803. Dupré, S., G. Bertotti, and S. Cloetingh, 2007, Tectonic history along the South Gabon Basin: Anomalous early post-rift subsidence: Mar. Pet. Geol., v. 24, p. 151-172. Labails, C., 2007, La marge sud-marocaine et les premières phases d'ouverture de l'océan Atlantique Central: Ph. D. thesis, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest. Leroy, S., P. Gente, M. Fournier, E. d'Acremont, P. Patriat, M. O. Beslier, N. Bellahsen, M. Maia, A. Blais, J. Perrot, A. Al-Kathiri, S. Merkouriev, J. M. Fleury, P. Y. Ruellan, C. Lepvrier, and P
Donalisio, Maria Rita; Freitas, André Ricardo Ribas; Zuben, Andrea Paula Bruno Von
Arboviruses have been emerging in different parts of the world due to genetic changes in the virus, alteration of the host and vector population dynamics, or because of anthropogenic environmental factors. These viruses' capacity for adaptation is notable, as well as the likelihood of their emergence and establishment in new geographic areas. In Brazilian epidemiologic scenario, the most common arboviruses are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, although others may spread in the country. Little is yet known of the impact of viral co-circulation, which would theoretically result in more intense viremia or other immunological alterations that could trigger autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The impact on morbidity and mortality intensifies as extensive epidemics lead to a high number of affected individuals, severe cases, and implications for health services, mainly due to the absence of treatment, vaccines, and effective prevention and control measures. RESUMO Notifica-se a emergência de arboviroses em diferentes regiões do planeta em decorrência de mudanças genéticas no vírus, alteração da dinâmica populacional de hospedeiros e vetores ou por fatores ambientais de origem antropogênica. É notável a capacidade de adaptação desses vírus e a possibilidade de emergirem e se estabelecerem em novas áreas geográficas. No contexto epidemiológico brasileiro, os arbovírus de maior circulação são DENV, CHIKV e ZIKV, embora existam outros com potencial de disseminação no País. O impacto da cocirculação viral ainda é pouco conhecido, a qual teoricamente resultaria em viremias mais intensas ou outras alterações imunológicas que poderiam ser o gatilho para doenças autoimunes, como a síndrome de Guillain-Barré. O impacto na morbidade e mortalidade se intensifica à medida que extensas epidemias pressupõem grande número de indivíduos acometidos, casos graves e implicações sobre os serviços de saúde, principalmente diante da aus
James, Shelley A; Meinzer, Frederick C; Goldstein, Guillermo; Woodruff, David; Jones, Timothy; Restom, Teresa; Mejia, Monica; Clearwater, Michael; Campanello, Paula
Heat and stable isotope tracers were used to study axial and radial water transport in relation to sapwood anatomical characteristics and internal water storage in four canopy tree species of a seasonally dry tropical forest in Panama. Anatomical characteristics of the wood and radial profiles of sap flow were measured at the base, upper trunk, and crown of a single individual of Anacardium excelsum, Ficus insipida, Schefflera morototoni, and Cordia alliodora during two consecutive dry seasons. Vessel lumen diameter and vessel density did not exhibit a consistent trend axially from the base of the stem to the base of the crown. However, lumen diameter decreased sharply from the base of the crown to the terminal branches. The ratio of vessel lumen area to sapwood cross-sectional area was consistently higher at the base of the crown than at the base of the trunk in A. excelsum, F. insipida and C. alliodora, but no axial trend was apparent in S. morototoni. Radial profiles of the preceding wood anatomical characteristics varied according to species and the height at which the wood samples were obtained. Radial profiles of sap flux density measured with thermal dissipation sensors of variable length near the base of the crown were highly correlated with radial profiles of specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) calculated from xylem anatomical characteristics. The relationship between sap flux density and k(s) was species-independent. Deuterium oxide (D(2)O) injected into the base of the trunk of the four study trees was detected in the water transpired from the upper crown after only 1 day in the 26-m-tall C. alliodora tree, 2 days in the 28-m-tall F. insipida tree, 3 days in the 38-m-tall A. excelsum tree, and 5 days in the 22-m-tall S. morototoni tree. Radial transport of injected D(2)O was detected in A. excelsum, F. insipida and S. morototoni, but not C. alliodora. The rate of axial D(2)O transport, a surrogate for maximum sap velocity, was positively correlated
Pichon, Jean-Marc; Colomb, Aurelie; Gheusi, Francois; Sauvage, Stephane; Pont, Veronique; Tison, Emmanuel; Bordier, Florent; Grignion, Guillaume; Savelli, Jean-Luc; Dulac, Francois; Sciare, Jean; Nicolas, Jose; Bourrianne, Thierry; Bouvier, Laetitia
Important efforts have been put in 2012 in order to implement the infrastructure and instrumentation for a fully equipped background monitoring station at Ersa, Cape Corsica, key location at the crossroads of dusty southerly airmasses and polluted outflows from the European continent. The ERSA observatory is a french initiative within the framework of CHARMEX (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) and CORSICA (Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (http://www2.obs-mip.fr/corsica) . The measurements of the station include real-time measurement of reactive gases (O3, CO, NO, NO2), off-line VOC measurements (cylinders, cartridges), a broad spectrum of aerosol properties (chemical composition, ground optical properties, integrated and space-resolved optical properties , size distribution properties, mass, hygroscopicity as well as dry/wet depositions). Among all the parameters, reactive gases are recognized as precursors of ozone and aerosol. The primarily emitted nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) have a substantial impact on radical chemistry, ozone (O3) formation and aerosol by their atmospheric oxidation to aerosol nitrate. Carbon monoxide (CO) is mostly primarily emitted from combustion processes, but it is also formed in substantial amounts from the oxidation of methane (CH4) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Due to its high global turn-over rates CO is a major O3 precursor, and it has a strong impact on the oxidizing capacity and thus indirectly on the concentration of the climate gas CH4. O3 is a climate gas itself, however, also strongly involved in NO/NO2 partitioning and oxidizing capacity, thus coupling back on several photochemical processes. Accordingly, impacts on climate are multiple and rather complex. The understanding requires high quality, long-term observations of these reactive species. We
Soriano-Maldonado, A; Cuenca-García, M; Moreno, L A; González-Gross, M; Leclercq, C; Androutsos, O; Guerra-Hernández, E J; Castillo, M J; Ruiz, J R
Introducción: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECVs) suponen la principal causa de morbi-mortalidad en los países occidentales. El incremento del colesterol plasmático se ha relacionado con el desarrollo de ECV. El huevo, por su alto contenido en colesterol, ha sido indirectamente relacionado con el riesgo de desarrollar ECVs. Objetivo: Examinar la asociación entre ingesta de huevo y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes, estudiando si dicha relación está influenciada por la actividad física. Método: Se estudiaron 380 adolescentes pertenecientes al estudio HELENA (HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence). La ingesta de alimentos se estimó mediante anamnesis nutricional de dos días no consecutivos. Se midieron indicadores de adiposidad, perfil lipídico, glucosa, insulina, resistencia a la insulina, tensión arterial y capacidad aeróbica. Se calculó un índice integrado de riesgo cardiovascular (IRCV) como medida del perfil cardiovascular global. La actividad física se midió mediante acelerometría. Se examinó el desarrollo madurativo. El estatus socioeconómico y consumo de tabaco se obtuvieron mediante cuestionario. La asociación entre ingesta de huevo y factores de riesgo de ECV se examinó mediante un modelo de regresión multinivel ajustado por factores de confusión. Resultados: La ingesta de huevo no se asoció con perfil lipídico, nivel de adiposidad, tensión arterial, resistencia a la insulina, capacidad aeróbica o IRCV (todos P > 0,05). Esta falta de asociación no estuvo influenciada por el nivel de actividad física. Conclusiones: Estos resultados sugieren que no existe asociación entre ingesta de huevo y perfil lipídico, adiposidad, resistencia a la insulina, tensión arterial, capacidad aeróbica o el IRCV en adolescentes. La actividad física no influencia dicha falta de asociación.
Mathis, Wayne N.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz
Abstract The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A
Senkans, Andrew; Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Elia; Castilla, Raymi
from strike-slip deformation localised along a proposed crustal weakness, represented by the Lurio-Pebane shear zone. A more north-south oriented extension is recorded by the continental breakup and oceanisation. A failed rift is initially formed between the Beira High and the African continent followed by the successful rifting of its southern margin. This study proposes a segmentation of the Central Mozambique margin, with oceanisation first occurring in the Angoche segment. The formation of the first oceanic crust in the Beira segment followed, likely delayed by the formation and failure of the northern Beira High rift. *The PAMELA project (PAssive Margin Exploration Laboratories) is a scientific project led by Ifremer and TOTAL in collaboration with Université Rennes 1, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, CNRS and IFPEN.
Cutillas, Ana Belén; Herrero, Ester; de San Eustaquio, Alba; Zamora, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca
Introducción: Los estudiantes universitarios constituyen un sector de la población potencialmente vulnerable en relación con su estado nutricional. Objetivos: Evaluar la ingesta energética, el perfil calórico de la dieta y la prevalencia de peso insuficiente, sobrepeso y obesidad en estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: El estudio se realizó en 223 estudiantes (53% mujeres) de la Universidad de Murcia (España), edad media 21,4 ± 2,7 años. El consumo de alimentos se estimó mediante registro dietético continuado de 7 días, previamente validado, la ingesta de energía y macronutrientes mediante el software “GRUNUMUR 2.0” y la actividad física por un cuestionario. A partir de las medidas del peso y la altura se calculó el índice de masa corporal [peso (kg)/altura (m)(2)]. Resultados y discusión: El consumo medio de energía fue inferior a las recomendaciones. El perfil calórico de la dieta fue excesivo en proteínas y lípidos, y deficitario en carbohidratos. La prevalencia de sobrepeso fue 9,3% en mujeres y 24,2% en hombres. El 10,2% de las mujeres presentaron peso insuficiente y el 1,1% de los hombres. Sólo el 35,4% del colectivo manifestó realizar actividad física de forma habitual (3-4 horas/semana). Se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre edad y porcentajes de energía procedentes de carbohidratos (negativa) y lípidos (positiva), indicando que los estudiantes de más edad (adultos jóvenes) consumieron dietas más desequilibras que los más jóvenes (adolescentes). Conclusiones: Los estudiantes de la Universidad de Murcia presentan características muy similares a las descritas en otros colectivos universitarios de España y otros países occidentales, bajos consumos de energía, desequilibrios en el perfilcalórico de la dieta y altos porcentajes de sobrepeso. El sedentarismo y el desequilibrio calórico podrían ser los factores determinantes del exceso de peso observado. La edad es una variable significativa en el
Background Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities’ knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including “mwarobaini” (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), “mtopetope” (Annona spp) (20.8%), “mchungwa/mlimau” (Citrus spp) (8.3%), “mvumbashi/uvumbati” (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), “mkorosho” (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), “mwembe” (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), “mpera” (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and “maganda ya nazi” (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in
Del Rio, Paolo; Sozzi, Francesco; Bertocchi, Elisa; Dell'Abate, Paolo; Perrone, Gennaro; Arcuri, Maria Francesca; Sianesi, Mario
I trattamenti antipiastrinici sono comuni nel mondo occidentale ed il rischio di sanguinamento correlato a procedure chirurgiche o comunque invasive è di conseguenza elevato e pertanto abbiamo volute analizzare la correlazione tra la chirurgia del colon.retto ,la terapia antipiastrinica e le complicanze chirurgiche postoperatorie. Sono stati studiati 176 pazienti operati per tumori del colon-retto considerando i seguenti dati:tipo di intervento xchirurgico,l’indice di massa corporea (BMI), il valore dell’emoglobina (Hb); PT preoperatorio e le trasfusioni di sangue pre epost-operatorie e durante lo stesso intervento chirurgico. L’analisi si è concentrata su due gruppi :pazienti sottoposti a trattamento antipiastrinico (ATterapia antiaggregante) e pazienti non trattati ( NAT: non terapia antiaggregante piastrinica). Nei gruppi di pazienti sottoposti a emicolectomia destra, i valori di emoglobina erano più bassi neri pazienti che hanno ricevuto la terapia antitrombotica rispetto ai pazienti che non hanno ricevuto questa terapia, con una significatività statistica (p <0,05); dati analoghi sono stati osservati nei pazienti sottoposti a emicolectomia sinistra. I pazienti dipeso normale trattati con terapia antiaggregante avevano valori più bassi di emoglobina senza significatività statistica (valore di p non significativo). I pazienti in sovrappeso sottoposti a trattamento antiaggregante hanno presentato valori di Hb inferiori a quelli non trattati (p < 0,05). La percentuale di emotrasfusioneè risultata maggiore nei pazienti sottoposti a trattamento antiaggregante (AT) a prescindere dal tipo di interveno chirurgico rispetto al secondo gruppo con significatività statistica. Tra i pazienti normopeso si è registrata una diversa incidenza di trasfusione di sangue nei pazienti trattati con AT (50%) e quelli non trattati (29%) con un significato statistico (p <0,05), mentre i pazienti in sovrappeso non hanno presenato questa significativa differenza. È stata
Le developpement des sciences/technologie a tres clairement contribue a ce que ce dernier domaine de savoirs jouisse d'une place de choix au sein de notre societe. Au-dela des progres de notre civilisation inherents a ce dernier developpement, cette croissance amena avec elle un lot d'ineluctables dommages collateraux, contribuant en corollaire a l'emergence de diverses problematiques environnementales inquietantes pour lesquelles les valeurs ainsi que le mode de fonctionnement de la societe occidentale contemporaine sont largement tributaires. C'est entre autres en reponse a cet etat de fait que la recente vague de reforme de l'Education conduisit a l'integration, dans les curricula de sciences/technologie, de contenus relavant d'education relative a l'environnement (ERE). Face au changement, les enseignants de sciences ont du s'approprier ce nouveau programme afm de l'enseigner a leurs eleves. Toutefois, l'analyse de la situation montre que les prescriptions du programme en matiere d'ERE ne se sont pas toujours traduites en de reelles actions dans la pratique. Le contexte de notre etude s'est interesse aux pratiques educatives de l'ERE ainsi qu'a la representation sociale qui en decoule. Notre recherche aborde plus specifiquement la problematique de la modification de ces derniers objets chez les enseignants de sciences et technologie du deuxieme cycle du secondaire. Pour y arriver, nous avons propose a un groupe de trois praticiens de participer a une activite, en communaute de pratique, de formation continue orientee autour de thematiques ERE. Cette recherche developpement, s'inscrivant dans un paradigme qualitatif/interpretatif, s'est appuyee sur une cueillette de donnees effectuee a partir d'entrevues semi-dirigees, d'observations en situation et d'un groupe de discussion, au debut et a la fm de la formation continue. Les donnees brutes ont ete soumises a une demarche d'analyse inductive et ont genere diverses categories etayant nos objets de recherche
Watremez, Louise; Evain, Mikael; Leprêtre, Angélique; Verrier, Fanny; Aslanian, Daniel; Leroy, Sylvie; Dias, Nuno; Afilhado, Alexandra; Schnurle, Philippe; d'Acremont, Elia; de Clarens, Philippe; Castilla, Raymi; Moulin, Maryline
The East Limpopo Margin is a continental margin located offshore southern Mozambique, in the Mozambique Channel. The southern Mozambique margin has not been studied much until now, but its formation is assumed to be the result of the separation of the African plate from the Antarctica plate. A new geophysical survey MOZ3/5 (February-April 2016; PAMELA project*) allowed the acquisition of seven wide-angle reflection and refraction seismic profiles across the southernmost Mozambique margin. In this work, we show the first results obtained from the layered modelling of an approximately 400 km long transect crossing the East Limpopo Margin and including information from 22 ocean-bottom seismometers and 18 land seismometers. The velocity model, compared to coincident seismic reflection data, allows to observe (1) the variations of seismic velocities together with the variations of reflectivity characteristics in the sediments, including the occurrence of some magmatism, (2) some deep features located below the acoustic basement and that can be related to the pre-to-syn-rift history of the margin, (3) the velocities and Moho depths in the different areas of the crust, from the thick continental crust to the clear oceanic crust (magnetic anomalies), helping to define the nature of the crust and the presence of magmatic features along the whole profile, and (4) some velocity information in the uppermost mantle. These results will allow us to (1) understand the deep structures of the East Limpopo Margin and to have better constraints on the formation of the margin, helping kinematic reconstructions, improving the quantification of the magmatism along this margin, and (2) improve the knowledge of both the thermal evolution of the sediments and the potential magmatic sources in the study area. *The PAMELA project (PAssive Margin Exploration Laboratories) is a scientific project led by Ifremer and TOTAL in collaboration with Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Universit
Innocent, Ester; Hassanali, Ahmed; Kisinza, William Nw; Mutalemwa, Prince Pp; Magesa, Stephen; Kayombo, Edmund
Plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for mosquito control by communities in Tanzania. However, no documented statistics exist for their contribution in the management of mosquitoes and other insects except through verbal and some publications. This study aimed at assessing communities' knowledge, attitudes and practices of using plants as an alternative method for mosquito control among selected communities in a malaria-prone area in Tanzania. Questionnaires were administered to 202 respondents from four villages of Bagamoyo District, Pwani Region, in Tanzania followed by participatory rural appraisal with village health workers. Secondary data collection for plants mentioned by the communities was undertaken using different search engines such as googlescholar, PubMED and NAPRALERT. Results showed about 40.3% of respondents used plants to manage insects, including mosquitoes. A broad profile of plants are used, including "mwarobaini" (Azadirachta indica) (22.5%), "mtopetope" (Annona spp) (20.8%), "mchungwa/mlimau" (Citrus spp) (8.3%), "mvumbashi/uvumbati" (Ocimum spp) (7.4%), "mkorosho" (Anacadium occidentale) (7.1%), "mwembe" (5.4%) (Mangifera indica), "mpera" (4.1%) (Psidium spp) and "maganda ya nazi" (4.1%) (Cocos nucifera). Majority of respondents collected these plants from the wild (54.2%), farms (28.9%) and/or home gardens (6%). The roles played by these plants in fighting mosquitoes is reflected by the majority that deploy them with or without bed-nets (p > 0.55) or insecticidal sprays (p >0.22). Most respondents were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria (90.6%) while few respondents associated elephantiasis/hydrocele (46.5%) and yellow fever (24.3%) with mosquitoes. Most of the ethnobotanical uses mentioned by the communities were consistent with scientific information gathered from the literature, except for Psidium guajava, which is reported for the first time in insect control. This survey has indicated some knowledge gap
Lagabrielle, Y.; Benoit, M.; Guivel, C.; Garel, E.; Pelletier, B.
doctorat, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 312p. - Pelletier, B., Lagabrielle, Y., Benoit, M., Cabioch, G., Calmant, S., Garel E., et Guivel, C., 2001. Newly identified segments of the Pacific-Australia plate boundary along the North Fiji transform zone, Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 193, 347-358. - Turner, S., et Hawkesworth, C., 1998. Using geochemistry to map mantle flow beneath the Lau basin, Geology, 26 (11), 1019-1022. - Volpe A.M., Mac Dougall J.D. et Hawkins J.W., 1988. Lau basin basalts: trace element and isotopic evidence for heterogeneity in back-arc basin mantle. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 90, 174-186.
Mathis, Wayne N; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz
The New World species of the subgenera Allotrichoma Becker and Neotrichoma (new subgenus) are revised, including a phylogenetic analysis of the species groups and subgenera within the genus Allotrichoma. For phylogenetic perspective and to document the monophyly of the genus Allotrichoma and its included subgenera and species groups, we also provide a cladistic analysis of genera within the tribe Hecamedini. The ingroup included seven exemplar congeners from within Allotrichoma. Outgroup sampling included exemplars of other genera within Hecamedini and from the putative sister group, Lipochaetini, and to root the analysis, we used an exemplar of the tribe Discocerinini. Analyses with successive weighting and implied weighting recovered a monophyletic Allotrichoma and indicated clades within the genus. Eight new species are described (type locality in parenthesis): Allotrichoma bifurcatum (Utah. Utah: Lake Shore (40°06.9'N, 111°41.8'W; 1370 m)), Allotrichoma dynatum (Oregon. Benton: Finley National Wildlife Refuge (44°24.6'N, 123°19.5'W)), Allotrichoma occidentale (Oregon. Lake: Lakeview (44 km E; Drake Creek; 42°11'N, 119°59.3'W)), Allotrichoma robustum (California. Kern: Kern River (35°16.1'N, 119°18.4'W)), Allotrichoma sabroskyi (New Mexico. Sandoval: La Cueva (Junction of Highways 126 and 4; 35°52'N, 106°38.4'W; 2342 m)), Allotrichoma wallowa (Oregon Baker: Goose Creek (35 km E Baker City; 44°49.2'N, 117°27.79'W; 825 m)), Allotrichoma baliops (Florida. Monroe: Key West (Willie Ward Park; 24°32.9'N, 81°47.9'W)), and Allotrichoma insulare (Dominica. Cabrits Swamp (15°35'N, 61°29'W)). Within Allotrichoma, we recognize three subgenera of which one, Neotrichoma (type species: Allotrichoma atrilabre), is newly described. All known species from the New World are described with an emphasis on structures of the male terminalia, which are fully illustrated. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for the New World species are provided. A lectotype is
Barais, Marie; Barraine, Pierre; Scouarnec, Florie; Mauduit, Anne Sophie; Le Floc'h, Bernard; Van Royen, Paul; Liétard, Claire; Stolper, Erik
Dyspnoea and chest pain are signs shared with multiple pathologies ranging from the benign to life-threatening diseases. Gut feelings such as the sense of alarm and the sense of reassurance are known to play a substantial role in the diagnostic reasoning of general practitioners (GPs). A Gut Feelings Questionnaire (GFQ) has been validated to measure the GP's sense of alarm. A French version of the GFQ is available following a linguistic validation procedure. The aim of the study is to calculate the diagnostic test accuracy of a GP's sense of alarm when confronted with dyspnoea and chest pain. Prospective observational study. Patients aged between 18 and 80 years, consulting their GP for dyspnoea and/or thoracic pain will be considered for enrolment in the study. These GPs will have to complete the questionnaire immediately after the consultation for dyspnoea and/or thoracic pain. The follow-up and the final diagnosis will be collected 4 weeks later by phone contact with the GP or with the patient if their GP has no information. Life-threatening and non-life-threatening diseases have previously been defined according to the pathologies or symptoms in the (ICPC2) International Collegiate Programming Contest classification. Members of the research team, blinded to the actual outcomes shown on the index questionnaire, will judge each case in turn and will, by consensus, classify the expected outcomes as either life-threatening or non-life-threatening diseases. The sensitivity, the specificity, the positive and negative likelihood ratio of the sense of alarm will be calculated from the constructed contingency table. This study was approved by the ethical committee of the University de Bretagne Occidentale. A written informed consent form will be signed and dated by GPs and patients at the beginning of the study. The results will be published in due course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence
risque et d'auto-protection (e.g., la ceinture de sécurité, la vitesse au volant, l'usage de tabac), sur les facteurs sociaux et démographiques (e.g., le sexe, le statut socio-économique, la religiosité). Les résultats ont indiqué que l'optimisme dispositionnel était plus fort chez les américains en comparaison aux participants jordaniens. Des analyses séparées de l'optimisme versus le pessimisme ont montré que les participants jordaniens n'étaient pas pessimistes mais pas moins optimistes que leurs homologues américains. Il n'y avait pas de corrélations significatives entre l'optimisme dispotionnel et le sexe, le statut socio-économique et la religiosité. Les niveaux d'optimisme dispotionnel affichés par les jordaniens dans cette étude sont inconsistents avec les affirmations passées d'un occident optimiste et d'un orient pessimiste et suggèrent que les processus d'auto-amélioration pourraient ne pas être restreints aux occidentaux ou aux groupes hautement individualistes. Les résultats n'ont pas dévoilé une association entre l'optimise dispotionnel et les comportements de risque ou les comportements d'auto-protection. Des analyses de régression multiples ont indiqué que le contexte culturel et le sexe sont les meilleurs prédicteurs de ces comportements. Les implications de ces résultats sont discutées. El presente estudio se basó en la evaluación de algunas conclusiones de investigaciones anteriores, basadas principalmente en comparaciones de habitantes de norteamericanos con habitantes del Asia del este, en las que se proponía que mientras los occidentales tienden a ser optimistas, los orientales tienden a ser pesimistas. En dos muestras de estudiantes de la escuela superior europeo-americanos y jordanos se administró un cuestionario que consiste en preguntas que miden el optimismo disposicional junto con preguntas que evalúan conductas de riesgo y de autoprotección (p.e., uso de cinturón de seguridad, velocidad de manejo, fumar
Reis, Audrey Machado Dos; Kabke, Geórgia Brum; Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Barreiro, Taiane Dias; Moreira, Luis Fernando
Costs, length of hospital staying and morbidity are frequently and significantly increased as a result of infections and other complications following surgical procedure for gastrointestinal tract cancer. Recently, improving host defence mechanisms have become a target of interest. Immunonutrition aims at improving immunity, most likely providing key nutrients to maintain T-lymphocyte and other host defence. To evaluate the immunonutrition in cancer patients who are operated by digestive diseases and assess the cost-effectiveness of this supplementation. This study consisted of a systematic review of the literature based on reference analyses retrieved from current databases such as PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO. The search strategy was defined by terms related to immunonutrition [immunonutrition, arginine, omega-3 and nucleotides] in combination with [costs, cost-effective and cost-effectiveness] as well as [gastrointestinal cancer surgery, oesophageal, gastric or pancreatic surgery] in English, Portuguese or Spanish language. For cost analyses, currencies used in the manuscripts were all converted to American dollars (US$) in order to uniform and facilitate comparison. Six prospective randomized studies were included in this review. The cost-effectiveness was positive in most of studies, demonstrating that this diet can significantly reduce hospital costs in the North hemisphere. However, similar studies needed to be carried to determine such results among us. Custos, tempo de hospitalização e morbidade estão frequentemente aumentados na presença de infecções e outras complicações decorrentes de procedimentos cirúrgicos para o câncer gastrointestinal. Recentemente, a melhora de mecanismos de defesa do hospedeiro tem se tornado um alvo de interesse. Nutrição adequada está fortemente relacionada com competência imune e redução de infeções. Imunonutrição objetiva a melhora da imunidade, principalmente para manutenção de linfócitos-T e outras
Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Drocourt, Yoann; Ferré, Hélène; Henriot, Nicolas; Ramage, Karim
Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology…) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using
Brissebrat, Guillaume; Albert-Aguilar, Alexandre; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Cloché, Sophie; Darras, Sabine; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne
Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using
Fierens, Ruth; Droz, Laurence; Toucanne, Samuel; Jorry, Stephan; Raisson, François
The classical stratigraphic framework stating minimum land-to-sea transfers during periods of high relative sea-level is challenged by marine sedimentary systems in regions where climate (low latitude, monsoon-type) is dominated by the 23-ky cyclicity. Known turbidite systems at the lowest latitudes, like the Nile and Bengal systems (Ducassou et al., 2009; Weber et al., 1997) show that the supply of sediments to the deep oceanic domain could persist during relative high sea-level periods. But turbidite systems at low-latitudes still remain poorly understood. In this work, we use the Zambezi turbidite system as a case study to develop our understanding of the reactivity of deep marine sedimentary systems and land-sea transfers to low-latitude climate variability. The Zambezi Plio-Quaternary turbidite system ( 2000 km long x 500 km wide) is located within the Mozambique Channel (Indian Ocean; 11°-30°S), separating Madagascar from the African continent, in a context of high hydronamic conditions. An extensive dataset acquired strategically along the turbidite system was obtained within the scope of the PAMELA project (scientific project leaded by Ifremer and TOTAL in collaboration with Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Université Rennes 1, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, CNRS et IFPEN) and includes multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection data and sediment cores. Preliminary results of morphological, seismic and sedimentological study suggest that this turbidite system in the Mozambique Channel is particular: i) The Zambezi Valley currently appears to be dominated by erosional or vacuity process over its entire length, which is observed within the valley as well as on the flanks; ii) Only two restricted zones of tubiditic deposition are identified; iii) The sedimentary record of the last 375 ky shows few turbidites that occurs both during glacial and interglacial periods, with a rate of recurrence of several tens of thousands of years. Additional
Badji, Nfally; Deme, Hamidou; Akpo, Geraud; Ndong, Boucar; Toure, Mouhamadou Hamine; Diop, Sokhna Ba; Niang, El Hadji
Les compressions médullaires lentes sont dues au développement dans le canal médullaire d’une lésion expansive. C’est une pathologie très fréquente dont le diagnostic est essentiellement clinique. L’imagerie par résonnance magnétique occupe une place incontournable dans le diagnostic de localisation et la recherche étiologique. En Europe l’étiologie tumorale est prépondérante. Le but de cette étude était de décrire les aspects IRM des compressions médullaires lentes et de déterminer le profil étiologique. Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective portant sur 97 observations colligées au service de radiologie du CHUN de Fann sur une période de 30 mois (du 08/03/10 au 29/09/12). On été inclus dans l’étude, tous les patients adressés pour un tableau de compression médullaire lente survenu dans un contexte non traumatique. L’âge moyen des patients était de 42,6 ans avec des extrêmes compris entre 04 mois et 85 ans. Nous avons étudié la topographie des lésions (étage rachidien, compartiments canalaires) leur rehaussement et les critères d’orientation étiologique. Le protocole d’examen permettait la réalisation de séquence pondérées T1 sans avec injection de gado, T2, STIR et T2 DRIVE centrées sur les niveaux lésionnels ou les zones suspectes. L’IRM a permis de préciser le siège exact et l’étendue des lésions. L’atteinte du rachis dorsal représentait 42% des cas, suivi du rachis cervical avec 32% des cas. Les atteintes lombo-sacrées et pluri-étagées représentaient respectivement 18% et 08% des cas. Les lésions extradurales représentaient 87% des cas, suivi des lésions intradurales extramédullaires avec 08% des cas et des lésions intramédullaires dans 05% des cas. La particularité du profil étiologique de notre étude est la prédominance des épidurites infectieuses et la fréquence relative des épidurites métastatiques comparée aux séries occidentales. L’IRM vertébro-médullaire occupe
Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Labatut, Laurent; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine; Vermeulen, Anne; André, François
Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, all the disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity. Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, such as Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, social sciences surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by several data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with different data sharing practices, specific expectations and using
Fleury, Laurence; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brosolo, Laetitia; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Ferré, Hélène; Focsa, Loredana; Labatut, Laurent; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Petit de la Villéon, Loïc; Ramage, Karim; Schmechtig, Catherine
Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) is a decennial programme for systematic observations and research dedicated to the understanding of the Mediterranean Basin environmental process and its evolution under the planet global change. It is composed of eight multidisciplinary projects that cover all the components of the Earth system (atmosphere, ocean, continental surfaces, lithosphere...) and their interactions, many disciplines (physics, chemistry, marine biogeochemistry, biology, geology, sociology...) and different time scales. For example Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment (HyMeX) aims at improving the predictability of rainfall extreme events, and assessing the social and economic vulnerability to extreme events and adaptation capacity, and Paleo Mediterranean Experiment (PaleoMeX) is dedicated to the study of the interactions between climate, societies and civilizations of the Mediterranean world during the last 10000 years. Many long term monitoring research networks are associated with MISTRALS, like Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment (MOOSE), Centre d'Observation Régional pour la Surveillance du Climat et de l'environnement Atmosphérique et océanographique en Méditerranée occidentale (CORSICA) and the environmental observations from Mediterranean Eurocentre for Underwater Sciences and Technologies (MEUST-SE). Therefore, the data generated or used by the different MISTRALS projects are very heterogeneous. They include in situ observations, satellite products, model outputs, qualitative field surveys... Some datasets are automatically produced by operational networks, and others come from research instruments and analysis procedures. They correspond to different time scales (historical time series, observatories, campaigns...) and are managed by different data centres. They originate from many scientific communities, with varied data sharing cultures, specific expectations, and using
Martins-Campina, B.; Lebourg, T.; Riss, J.; Benabderrazik, A.; Fabre, R.
The study of granular materials, and more particularly their mechanical behaviour, has made it possible to highlight, the influence of the grains shape on their mechanical behaviour. Recently when being concerned with till formations (glacial deposits) that cover mountain slopes and govern natural hazards, Lebourg (2000) has shown that there exists a simple linear regression of the internal angle of friction (phi) on a shape parameter (elongation factor IA ) based on the analysis of six tills formations coming from a paleoglacial valley (Vallée d Aspe, Pyrénées Occidentales : IGN map 1547 OT, 1/25 000 ; geological map URDOS 1/80 000). These results are in agreement with previous works where relation between shape and mechanical properties is assumed. Till-forming materials look like a heap of unsorted very heterogeneous material characterised by rock debris of all sizes from angular blocks of metric size to very fine rock. In addition to the block sizes, lithology, petrography and the spatial distribution of the blocks are also heterogeneous. Then it is hard, if not impossible, to collect a large sample of mechanical and physical data from the till in order to execute good simulations while running numerical programs. The validation of such a relation would be very interesting for other till formations and in any case of natural hazards such as landslides. So we propose new results based on the analysis of a set of samples collected on the site of La Clapière, a rocky landslide. The landslide at La Clapière, in south-eastern France, is located on the east side of the steep La Tinée river valley upstream of the village of Saint Etienne de Tinée. On the one hand, triaxial compression (test with simultaneous compression of a cylindrical sample and application of axisymetric confining pressure) has been performed on four sets of samples collected at La Clapière, then mechanical properties (E : Young modulus, phi: angle of internal friction, C : cohesion) were
Kisely, Steve; Xiao, Jianguo; Lawrence, David; Jian, Le
Objectifs : Le traitement obligatoire en milieu communautaire s’est révélé réduire les décès évitables de maladies physiques, lesquels étant jusqu’à 10 fois plus fréquents que le suicide chez les patients psychiatriques. Nous avons recherché si cela était favorisé par un meilleur accès aux procédures médicales spécialisées. Méthode : Tous les patients soumis à un traitement obligatoire en milieu communautaire pendant plus de 11 ans ont été comparés avec des sujets témoins appariés à l’aide des données conjointes de santé et administratives d’Australie-Occidentale (population de quelque 2,24 millions). Les résultats étaient l’accès à la revascularisation et à d’autres procédures spécialisées aux suivis de 1, 2 et 3 ans. La régression logistique a servi à ajuster les données démographiques, l’utilisation précédente des services de santé, le diagnostic, et la durée des antécédents psychiatriques. Résultats : Il y avait 2 757 patients et 2 687sujets témoins (total n = 5 444). Soixante-cinq pour cent étaient des hommes (n = 3 522) et l’âge moyen était de 36 ans (ET 13,2). La plupart souffraient de schizophrénie ou d’autres psychoses non affectives (74 %), suivies de troubles affectifs (26 %). Au suivi de 2 ans, 2 % (n = 53) des patients et 2,6 % (n = 69) des sujets témoins avaient subi une intervention spécialisée. Le traitement obligatoire en milieu communautaire n’a pas donné un meilleur accès aux procédures spécialisées à tous les 3 points chronologiques, même après ajustement pour des facteurs de confusion éventuels. Conclusions : L’accès accru aux procédures spécialisées n’explique pas la mortalité réduite des maladies physiques évitables qui avait été rapportée chez des patients soumis à un traitement obligatoire en milieu communautaire. Il doit y avoir une autre explication pour ce résultat, comme le personnel de la santé mentale qui facilite l’accès au
Hiel, Alain Van; Kossowska, Malgorzata
'élargissement de l'UE). Dans la discussion, il est aussi argumenté que la correspondance plus étroite entre la représentation idéologique de ces attitudes dans les sociétés polonaise et occidentale peut être due au fait que le communisme a moins réussi à pénétrer la mentalité politique en Pologne qu'en Ukraine. La presente investigación somete a prueba la validez de un modelo de dos dimensiones, cultural y económico de ideología de derecha, así como las relaciones entre estas dimensiones y actitudes hacia temas políticos recientes. Las opiniones sobre el ambiente, la guerra al terror, y la ampliación de la Unión Europea se seleccionaron como actitudes representativas contemporáneas. Se investigaron las preguntas de investigación en muestras flamencas (N = 176), polacas (N = 93) y ucranianas (N = 93). Los resultados revelan que subyacen dos dimensiones al espectro ideológico en todas las muestras, una se refiere al conservadurismo cultural y al autoritarismo de derecha (AD), y otra que se refiere al conservadurismo económico y a la orientación de dominancia social (ODS). A pesar de que los estudios en muestras occidentales han ilustrado ampliamente la validez de las diferencias entre estas dimensiones ideológicas, la réplica de estos estudios en países anteriormente comunistas contribuye a su validez y generalidad, porque estos países poseen una cultura e historia política específica. Sin embargo, también se obtuvieron diferencias interculturales importantes respecto a la representación de las actitudes contemporáneas en este espacio ideológico de dos dimensiones. En tanto que la guerra al terror se relacionó de manera significativa a la dimensión de derecha en todas las muestras, las relaciones para el ambientalismo y la ampliación de la Unión Europea dependieron de la muestra. Las diferencias interculturales se explican en términos de la notoriedad del tema (relaciones no significativas contra significativas en el caso del
Monopoli, Bruno; Bistacchi, Andrea; Bertolo, Davide; Dal Piaz, Giovanni; Gouffon, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Sartori, Mario; Vittorio Dal Piaz, Giorgio
considered as a sort of pseudo-stratigraphy, since they are the oldest feature that can be traced continuously at the map scale. For this reason we have developed a set of attributes identifying the tectonic and lithological units (a "legend"), implemented both in the GIS database and in the 3D models, which at the same time is compatible with the data structure of 3D modelling packages like Move and Skua/Gocad, and allows tracing the complex hierarchic classification of the units mapped in the GIS. This allows for the almost automatic and consistent two-way transfer of data between the GIS and geomodelling environments. E.g. results of 3D modelling, which is based on input data originally stored in the GIS, will eventually be transferred back to the GIS. The results of this study, which are preliminarily presented here, will open new opportunities to study the collision- and subduction-related nappe architecture and kinematics with younger deformations removed, and will eventually lead (with additional studies) to a step-by-step retrodeformation supported by modern technologies, following the path traced by Argand at the beginning of the 20th century. Argand E. 1909. L'exploration géologique des Alpes pennines centrales. Bull. Soc. Vaudoise Sci. Nat., 45, 217-276. Argand A. 1911. Les nappes de recouvrement des Alpes pennines et leurs prolongements structuraux. Mat. Carte Géol. Suisse, 31, 25. Argand A. 1916. Sur l'arc des Alpes occidentales. Eclogae Geol. Helv., 14, 145-191. Franchi S., Mattirolo E., Novarese V., Stella A. & Zaccagna D. 1908. Carta geologica delle Alpi Occidentali alla scala 1:400.000. Regio Ufficio Geologico, Roma. Gerlach H. 1869. Die Penninischen Alpen. N. Denkschr. Schweiz. Natf. Ges., 23, 132. Gerlach H. 1871. Das Suedwestliche Wallis. Beitraege Geol. Karte Schweiz, 9, 175. Giordano F. 1869. Sulla orografia e sulla geologica costituzione del Gran Cervino. Atti R. Acc. Sci. Torino, 4, 304-321.
Nolan, Bernard T.; Campbell, David L.; Senterfit, Robert M.
ées ont été krigées afin d'estimer la profondeur de la base de la formation aquifère dans la partie sud de Jackson Hole. Les cartes d'isovaleurs d'estimation krigées indiquent que la profondeur de la base de la formation aquifère de Jackson est faible dans la partie centrale de la zone d'étude à l'est et à l'ouest des monts Gros Ventre, plus grande dans le secteur ouest près de la zone faillée de Teton, et faible sur la bordure sud de Jackson Hole. Les profondeurs estimées vont de 30m au sud, près des confluences des rivières Spring et Flat avec la rivière Snake, à 210m à l'ouest près de la ville de Wilson (Wyoming). Resumen Se llevó a cabo una campaña geofísica para determinar la profundidad del basamento de un acuífero libre en la zona sur de Jackson Hole, Wyoming, EEUU. USA. Medidas audio-magnetotelúricas (ATM) en 77 lugares de la zona de estudio dieron lugar a registros de resistividad eléctrica del subsuelo, que se usaron para inferir los cambios litológicos con la profundidad. Los depósitos superficiales, saturados y no consolidados de edad cuaternaria, el acuífero de Jackson, forman una capa de resistencia geoeléctrica entre 100-600ohm-m. La profundidad media de la base del acuífero de Jackson se estima en unos 61m (200pies), a partir de 62 registros con medidas suficientes. Los valores ATM fueron krigeados para obtener una medida de la profundidad del basamento del acuífero en la zona sur de Jackson Hole. Los mapas de isoprofundidades obtenidos por krigeado indican que el acuífero es poco profundo en la parte central de la zona de estudio, cerca de los Gros Ventre Buttes orientales y occidentales, más profundo al oeste, cerca del sistema de fallas de Teton, y menos profundo en el borde sur de Jackson Hole. Las profundidades van desde 30m (100pies) en el sur, en la confluencia entre los desfiladeros Spring y Flat con el Río Snake, hasta 210m (700pies) al oeste, cerca de la ciudad de Wilson, Wyoming.
Youngs, Ian J.; Almond, Darryl P.
Occidentale, France, presented an invited paper discussing electromagneto-mechanical coupling in ferrite-filled plastics. A model for the changes to the electromagnetic properties of the composite as a function of applied mechanical stress was presented and linked to the elastic network response of the composite. The work is relevant to flexible materials such as circuits and for smart sensor applications. Rolf Pelster, Universität des Saarlandes, Germany, concluded the meeting with a comparison of micro- and nano-composites of magnetic particles dispersed in polymer. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was used to highlight the particle-size differences and the likely modification of the host polymer when nano-sized filler particles were used. The dielectric data was used to infer the microstructural contribution to the effective properties of each composite and this information was used to extract an estimate of the intrinsic magnetic properties of the filler particles, again showing a difference between micro- and nano-sized particles. This cluster issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains four of the above-mentioned papers presented at the meeting. We would like to thank those authors for preparing their contributions to this special cluster. Their papers provide a cross section of the topics presented at the meeting and we hope you enjoy reading them.
Hidas, Károly; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Louni-Hacini, Amina; Azzouni-Sekkal, Abla; Konc, Zoltán; Dautria, Jean-Marie; Varas-Reus, Maria Isabel
. Multi-stage evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the westernmost Mediterranean: Geochemical constraints from peridotite xenoliths in the eastern Betic Cordillera (SE Spain). Lithos, in press 7. Zerka, M., 2004. Le manteau sous la marge Maghrébine: relations infiltrations-réactions-cristallisations et cisaillements lithosphériques dans les enclaves ultramafiques du volcanisme alcalin Plio-Quaternaire d'Oranie, exemple des complexes d'Ain Temouchent et de la Basse Tafna (Algérie Nord-Occidentale). PhD thesis, Université d'Oran, Algeria, pp. 345. Funding: This research has been funded by a FP7-IRSES Marie Curie Action under Grant Agreement PIRSESGA-2013-612572
Aubertin, E.; Millot, C.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Albérola, C.; Robin, S.; Font, J.
relationships with both the bathymetry and the AE's dynamics are under study Albérola C., S. Rousseau, C. Millot, M. Astraldi, J. Font, J. Garcia-Lafuente, G.P. Gasparini, U. Send and A. Vangriesheim, 1995. Tidal currents in the interior of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Oceanol. Acta, 18, 2, 273-284. Bouzinac C., J. Font and C. Millot, 1999. Hydrology and currents observed in the channel of Sardinia during the PRIMO-1 experiment from November 1993 to October 1994. J. Mar. Systems, 20, 1-4, 333-355. Fuda J.-L., C. Millot, I. Taupier-Letage, U. Send and J.M. Bocognano, 2000. XBT monitoring of a meridian section across the Western Mediterranean Sea. Deep-Sea Res., I 47, 2191-2218. Millot C., 1994. Models and data: a synergetic approach in the western Mediterranean Sea. Erice School Proceedings,"Ocean Processes in Climate Dynamics: Global and Mediterranean Examples", P. Malanotte-Rizzoli and A.R. Robinson eds, 407-425. Millot C., I. Taupier-Letage and M. Benzohra, 1997. Circulation off Algeria inferred from the Médiprod-5 current meters. Deep-Sea Res., 44, 9-10, 1467-1495. Obaton D., C. Millot, G. Chabert D'Hières and I. Taupier-Letage, 2000. The Algerian Current: comparisons between in situ and laboratory measurements. Deep-Sea Res., I 47, 2159-2190. Puillat I., I.Taupier-Letage and C. Millot. Algerian eddies lifetimes can near 3 years, 2002. Journal of Marine Syst., 31, 4, 245-259. Ruiz S., J. Font, M.Emelianov, J. Isern-Fontanet, C. Millot and I. Taupier-Letage, 2002. Deep structure of an open sea eddy in the Algerian Basin. J. Mar. Sys., 33-34, 179-195. Testor P., 2002. Etude lagrangienne de circulations tourbillonnaires de subméso et méso échelle en Méditerranée occidentale sur la base d'observations et de simulations numériques : phénoménologie et interaction avec la circulation générale. Thèse de Doctorat d'Université, Paris 6.
Wilkes, Shane M.; Clement, T. Prabhakar; Otto, Claus J.
Understanding the hydrogeology of weathered rock catchments is integral for the management of various problems related to increased salinity within the many towns of Western Australia. This paper presents the results of site characterisation investigations aimed at improving the overall understanding of the hydrogeology of the southern portion of the Augustus River catchment, an example of a weathered rock catchment. Site data have highlighted the presence of both porous media aquifers within the weathered profile and fractured rock aquifers within the basement rocks. Geophysical airborne surveys and other drilling data have identified a large number of dolerite dykes which crosscut the site. Fractured quartz veins have been found along the margins of these dolerite dykes. Detailed groundwater-level measurements and barometric efficiency estimates indicate that these dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins are affecting groundwater flow directions, promoting a strong hydraulic connection between all aquifers, and also influencing recharge mechanisms. The hydrogeological significance of the dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins has been assessed using a combination of high-frequency groundwater-level measurements (30-min sampling interval), rainfall measurements (5-min sampling interval) and barometric pressure fluctuations (30-min sampling interval). A conceptual model was developed for describing various hydrogeological features of the study area. The model indicates that fractured quartz veins along the margins of dolerite dykes are an important component of the hydrogeology of the weathered rock catchments. Comprendre l'hydrogéologie des bassins en roches altérées est essentiel pour la gestion de différents problèmes liés à l'augmentation de la salinité dans de nombreuses villes d'Australie occidentale. Cet article présente les résultats d'études de caractérisation de sites conduites pour améliorer la compréhension de l'hydrogéologie de la