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  1. Donor blood procurement and utilisation at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City.

    PubMed

    Enosolease, M E; Imarengiaye, C O; Awodu, O A

    2004-08-01

    Banked blood is a limited resource in Nigeria. We sought to evaluate factors that may further limit the effective utilisation of donor blood in a tertiary hospital in Benin City. The records of the blood transfusion unit of the hospital were studied to identify the methods of blood procurement and utilisation from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002. A total of 11,021 units of blood were received in the blood transfusion unit within this period out of which 1491 (13.5%) donor blood samples were found unfit for transfusion and, hence, discarded. Commercial blood donation accounted for 95.3%, compared to 4.7% from replacement and volunteer donors. Commercial blood donation was a major risk factor for likely disposal of donor blood (chi2 = 74.3, p < 0.0001, OR = 21.1. 95% CI = 7.8-56.7). Expired units of blood with low PCV were discarded for lack of infrastructure to fractionate and store them. Over 0.8million naira (US$6000.00) is wasted annually on discarded units of donor blood mainly from commercial donors. A policy on blood procurement to include subgroup selection of donors and improved funding of blood banking services may enhance efficient and effective utilisation of donor blood.

  2. Pattern of Skin Diseases at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Nigeria: A 12 Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ukonu, B. A.; Eze, E. U

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: This study aims to look at the pattern and incidence of skin diseases seen in Dermatology/Venereology clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Zone, Nigeria and compare it with other zones of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on pattern and incidence of skin diseases in new patients presenting at the Dermatology/Venereology outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, from September 2006 to August 2007. All patients were seen by the researchers. Diagnosis were made clinically and sometimes with the support of histopathology. Results: A total number of 4786 patients were seen during the study period and these comprised 2647 HIV/AIDS patients and 2112 pure Dermatological patients. Out of 4786 patients, 755 (15.8%) were new patients. The new patients comprised 96 (12.7%) children patients (< 15 years) and 659 (83.7%) adult patients (>15years). The ages of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 80 years and more than two-third were < 40 years. There were 354 males (46.9%) and 401 females (53.1%). This represents female: male ratio of 1.1: 1. Eczematous dermatitis accounted for 20.9% of the skin diseases and was the most common of the skin diseases observed. This is consistent with observation from other zones in Nigeria. Other skin diseases observed in order of frequencies include: Papulosqamous disorder (9.0%), Infectious skin diseases like fungal, viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation, at 7.9%, 7.7%, 2.3% and 2.1% respectively. Pigmentary disorders (5.0%), hair disorders (4.2%) and Benign neoplastic skin disease (6.5%). All the patients that had neurofibromatosis were females (1.9%). HIV-related skin diseases were observed to have increased remarkably (7.9%) with Kaposi’s sarcoma, papular pruritic eruptions and drug eruptions being the commonest mode of presentation. Conclusion: The current pattern of

  3. Adolescent induced abortion in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omu, A E; Oronsaye, A U; Faal, M K; Asuquo, E E

    1981-12-01

    Induced adolescent abortion is a major cause of maternal and gynecologic death in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, where 244 out of 349 such cases seen from January 1, 1974 to December 31, 1979 were reviewed. Ignorance and lack of contraceptive facilities were contributory factors. To deal with this problem that has been pervasive throughout Nigeria for the past decade, the authors advocate sex education, systematic dissemination of information for planned and conscientious parenthood as well as free availability of alternative methods of contraception. Interruption of early pregnancy should be an essential component of a national family planning program.

  4. Benin.

    PubMed

    1984-11-01

    Focus in this discussion of Benin is on the following: the people; geography; history; government and political conditions; economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Benin. The population totaled 3.8 million in 1983 with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The infant mortality rate is 45/1000 and life expectancy 46.9 years. The population comprises about 20 sociocultural groups. 4 groups -- the Fon, Aja, Bariba, and Yoruba -- account for more than half of the population. The name was changed from Dahomey to the People's Republic of Benin in 1975. 2 years after the military coup d'etat in 1972, Marxism-Leninism was declared the guiding philosophy of the new government. Marxism-Leninism remains the official doctrine, but the government has moved to take account of popular resistance to a radical social transformation, as well as problems encountered in attempting to establish a centrally directed economy. Benin is ranked as 1 of the world's 35 poorest countries. The commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors are all experiencing severe problems. The government's newest 5 year plan for 1983-88 places a stronger emphasis on developing agriculture. In so doing, the government hopes to assure its own domestic needs and to become a supplier of basic foodstuffs to the region. Benin's Armed Forces number about 3000 personnel. Benin is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organization of African Unity. Relations with France are important because of historical, cultural, economic, and aid links. After 1972, relations between the US and Benin became strained as Benin moved to strengthen its ties with the Soviet Union and other socialist countries and mounted harsh propaganda attacks on the US.

  5. Etiologic agents of otitis media in Benin city, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osazuwa, Favour; Osazuwa, Emmanuel; Osime, Clement; Igharo, Esohe Amanda; Imade, Paul Erhumwunse; Lofor, Patrick; Momoh, Moses; Omoregie, Richard; Dirisu, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Otitis Media continues to be a major presentation in the ear, nose and throat clinic. Aim: This study aimed to isolate, characterize and identify the bacteriological and mycological etiologic agents of otitis media in Benin city. Patients and Methods: Ear discharge from 569 (299 males and 270 females) patients diagnosed clinically of otitis media between August 2009 and August 2010 were processed to recover the bacterial and fungal etiologic agents. Susceptibility test was performed on all bacterial isolate. Result: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.3%) was the predominant bacteria isolate causing otitis media followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21.0%), Klebsiella sp (8.9%), Proteus sp (8.2%), Alkaligenes spp (4.3%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (3.9%), Escherichia coli (3.0%) and Citrobacter freundi (1.7%). Fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger (9.2%), Candida albicans (5.4%), Candida tropicalis (3.0%), Aspergillus flavus (2.1%) and Candida parasilopsis (1.5%). 413 had a single organism isolated from the middle ear culture while twenty (3.51%) patients had mixed organisms isolated. Infection was highest among 0 - 5 years, and lowest among aged 18 - 23. All bacterial isolates were poorly susceptible to the antibacterial agents. Conclusion: The study uncovers a high frequency of bacteria associated otitis media with the finding of fungi too as a significant etiologic agent. PMID:22540074

  6. Female genital mutilation among Edo people: the complications and pattern of presentation at a pediatric surgery unit, Benin City.

    PubMed

    Osifo, David Osarumwese; Evbuomwan, Iyekoretin

    2009-03-01

    This prospective study on female genital mutilation among Edo people was based on female children and parents who presented on account of it at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, between January 2002 and December 2007. During the period, 51 female children aged 10 days and 18 years presented with complications following genital mutilation. Twenty-nine were brought by their parents for mutilation while 67 parents interviewed believed strongly on female genital mutilation with 47 mothers mutilated. Religio-cultural and superstitious beliefs were the main indications and the type of mutilation ranged from excision of clitoridal tip in 10 (19.6%) children to complete excision of the clitoris, labia minora and inner layer of majora in 7 (13.7%). Complications ranged from clitoridal cyst formation in 21 (41.2%) to life threatening infections with one mortality due to tetanus infection.

  7. Factors associated with post-cesarean stillbirth in 12 hospitals in Benin: a cross-sectional

    PubMed Central

    Mongbo, Virginie; Ouendo, Edgard-Marius; Agueh, Victoire; Kpozèhouen, Alphonse; Sopoh, Ghislain; Saïzonou, Jacques; Godin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In spite of free caesarean section applied in Benin since 2009, high rates of stillborn babies continue to be recorded. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with post-caesarean stillborn in Benin. Methods Cross-sectional study that covered all women who have delivered by caesarean from December 2013 to February 2014 in twelve hospitals chosen by simple random selection in each of the twelve departments of Benin. Data collected by chart review have been analyzed using the statistical software Epi info 3.5.1. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with post-caesarean stillbirth at the significance threshold of 5%. Results There were 66 stillborn per 1,000 births of which 58% died before admission to hospital. The risk factors identified were the reference (p = 0.0011), general anesthesia (p = 0.0371), the low birth weight (p = 0.0001), the retro-placental hematoma (p = 0.0083), and the umbilical cord prolapse (p = 0.0229). Acute fetal distress (p = 0.0308) and anesthesia administered by an anesthetist nurse or midwife (p = 0.0337) were protective factors. Conclusion The majority of cases, in utero death occurred before admission to hospital. Strengthening antenatal refocused consultation, a better access to quality obstetric care and the grant of all obstetric care could reduce stillbirths from caesarean sections in Benin. PMID:28292080

  8. Sources of Stress among Undergraduate Students in the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Ijeoma Henrietta

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the role of inadequate facilities/accommodation, poor health, emotional problems, socio-economic status and poor time management as sources of stress among University of Benin undergraduates. The research instrument used was a questionnaire. The survey method was adopted for the study. Seven hundred and fifty respondents were…

  9. 26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. 'CITY HOSPITAL, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  10. Pathogenic features of clinically significant coagulase-negative staphylococci in hospital and community infections in Benin.

    PubMed

    Nanoukon, Chimène; Argemi, Xavier; Sogbo, Frédéric; Orekan, Jeanne; Keller, Daniel; Affolabi, Dissou; Schramm, Frédéric; Riegel, Philippe; Baba-Moussa, Lamine; Prévost, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    In West Africa, very little consideration has been given to coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Herein, we describe the features contributing to the pathogenicity of 99 clinically-significant independent CNS isolates associated with infections encountered at the National Teaching Hospital Center of Cotonou (Benin). The pathogenic potentials of nosocomial strains were compared with community strains. S. haemolyticus (44%), S. epidermidis (22%) and S. hominis (7%) were the most frequently isolated while bacteremia (66.7%) and urinary tract infections (24.2%) were the most commonly encountered infections. Most strains were resistant to multiple antibiotics, including penicillin (92%), fosfomycin (81%), methicillin (74%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (72%). The most frequently isolated species were also the most frequently resistant to methicillin: S. hominis (100%), S. haemolyticus (93%) and S. epidermidis (67%). Screening of toxic functions or toxin presence revealed hemolytic potential in 25% of strains in over 50% of human erythrocytes in 1h. Twenty-six percent of strains exhibited protease activity with low (5%), moderate (10%) and high activity (11%), while 25% of strains displayed esterase activity. Three percent of strain supernatants were able to lyse 100% of human polymorphonuclear cells after 30min. Polymerase chain reaction and latex agglutination methods revealed staphylococcal enterotoxin C gene expression in 9% of S. epidermidis. A majority of hospital-associated CNS strains (68%) had at least one important virulence feature, compared with only 32% for community-acquired strains. The present investigation confirms that these microorganisms can be virulent, at least in some individual cases, possibly through genetic transfer from S. aureus.

  11. Association between Periodontal Status, Oral Hygiene Status and Tooth Wear among Adult Male Population in Benin City, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umoh, AO; Azodo, CC

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and severity of tooth wear lesion varies from community to community and also from occupation to occupation. Aim: To determine the association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and tooth wear among the adult male population in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted among 65 male drivers, aged 25-64 years, with a mean age of 48.6 (9.1) years in an organized private motor park in Benin City between November 2011 and January 2012. The data collected through interview and clinical oral examination were age, educational status, driving experience, oral hygiene status, periodontal status and severity of tooth wear. Results: In this study, 13.8% (9/65) and 1.5% (1/65) of the participants had 4-5 mm and ≥6 mm periodontal pockets, respectively. A total of 15.4% (10/65) of the participants had poor oral hygiene status and 58.5% (38/65) of the participants had tooth wear lesion, with 15.8% (9/65) being severe tooth wear lesions (score 3). Participants with poorer oral hygiene and more severe tooth wear lesions significantly exhibited poorer periodontal status. There also existed a significant association between oral hygiene status and the severity of tooth wear lesion among the participants in this study. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed a statistically significant association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and severity of tooth wear lesion among the participants. PMID:23919180

  12. Influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function indices in sawmill workers in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugheoke, A J; Ebomoyi, M I; Iyawe, V I

    2006-01-01

    The study was done to assess the influence of smoking on respiratory symptoms and respiratory function in sawmill workers in Benin City. 150 sawmill workers who were all males and aged between 18 and 50 years, and had been in continuous employment in sawmill factories for a minimum of one year were studied. They were selected by a two-stage random sampling process from sawmills in Benin City. These were compared to 150 age and sex matched controls in order to determine the effect of sawdust exposure on the respiratory system. Questionnaire was used to elicit morbidity patterns and anthropometric measurements were also made. Respiratory rates, Peak Expiratory Flow Rates and Blood Pressures were measured in both groups. Respiratory symptoms were more common among sawmill workers compared to the controls. Smoking by some of these workers further aggravated their respiratory symptoms. Although blood pressure was similar in both groups, Respiratory rates were higher and Peak Flow Rates were lower in the sawmill workers compared to the controls (20.83 +/- 2.02 cycles/minute and 516.72 +/- 38.48 L/minute for the sawmill workers; 15.45 +/- 1.23 cycles/minute and 575.37 +/- 27.34 L/minute for the controls, respectively). Less than 5% of the sawmill workers wore protective devices/clothing, and health and safety standards were neither practiced nor enforced. The findings suggest that respiratory symptoms especially sputum production and chest pain are common in sawmill workers. Respiratory function is compromised in these workers.

  13. Sanitary Conditions of Food Vending Sites and Food Handling Practices of Street Food Vendors in Benin City, Nigeria: Implication for Food Hygiene and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Okojie, P. W.; Isah, E. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the sanitary conditions of vending sites as well as food handling practices of street food vendors in Benin City, Nigeria. Methodology. A descriptive cross-sectional study was done using an observational checklist and researcher-administered questionnaire. 286 randomly selected vending units were surveyed, and their operators interviewed on their food handling practices. Results. A higher proportion, 259 (90.5%), of the observed vending sites appeared clean. The following sanitary facilities were observed in and around the respective food premises of the respondents: waste bin, 124 (43.4%), refuse dumpsite, 41 (14.3%), wash hand basin, 201 (71.2%), hand towel, 210 (73.4%), and soap, 220 (76.9%). There were also the presence of flies 118, (41.3%), and the presence of rats/cockroaches, 7 (2.4%). Respondents with tertiary education, 5 (38.5%), vended foods in environment with good hygiene status compared to those with secondary, 45 (31.7%), and primary education, 33 (27.3%). There was no statistically significant association between educational status and the hygiene status of food premise (P = 0.362). Conclusion. This study showed that street food vending sites in Benin City were sanitary and that food vendors had good food handling practices. PMID:25258630

  14. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND CONTROL PRACTICES OF SICKLE CELL DISEASE AMONG YOUTH CORPS MEMBERS IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Adewoyin, A.S.; Alagbe, A.E.; Adedokun, B.O.; Idubor, N.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Carrier prevalence is about 25% and it affects about 2 - 3% of the Nigerian population. The disease runs a chronic course, characterized by recurrent ill-health, progressive organ damage and shortened life-span. There is a need for SCD control through public education and other preventive measures. Objective: This study aimed at assessing the level of knowledge regarding SCD among a cross-section of new tertiary graduates in Nigeria, as well as factors influencing their knowledge. It also describes their attitudes and patterns of control practices engaged by the respondents regarding SCD. Method: This was an analytic, cross-sectional study among 370 new tertiary graduates (youth corps members) in Benin City, Nigeria. Bio-data, data on knowledge, their attitude and control practices of sickle cell disease were obtained using a structured questionnaire. Association between the mean level of knowledge and other variables such as age, gender, course of study, etc were tested using one way analysis of variance. Results: Most of the study participants were aged 22 - 29 years. A large proportion (63.5%) of the respondents was females. Only 17.8% of the respondents had a good knowledge of SCD despite high level of awareness (98.4%). Those who studied courses related to medical sciences had significantly higher mean knowledge score. About 94.6% of the respondents knew their SCD carrier status and 80.8% were willing to avoid carrier marriages. Only 38.1% will accept prenatal diagnosis/selective abortion if locally available. Conclusion: Most participants demonstrated moderate level of public health knowledge regarding SCD in Nigeria. Considering the relative lack of prenatal diagnostic services, low acceptability of selective abortion among the respondents, sub-optimal care of affected persons and poor access to haemopoeitic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in our environment, stronger efforts

  15. Knowledge and Use of Zinc Supplementation in the Management of Childhood Diarrhoea among Health Care Workers in Public Primary Health Facilities in Benin-City, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Omuemu, Vivian O.; Ofuani, Ifeanyi J.; Kubeyinje, Itse C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc supplementation reduces the severity, duration and recurrence of childhood acute diarrhoea. These beneficial effects of zinc in the treatment of diarrhoea led to the inclusion of a 10-14 days treatment regimen by the WHO/UNICEF. This study assessed the level of knowledge and use of zinc supplementation in the management of childhood diarrhoea among health care workers in public primary health facilities in Benin-City, Nigeria. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out among the total population of health care providers in public primary health facilities in Benin-City. Data collection was done using a pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaire and data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results: A total of 168 health care workers participated in the study. Two-thirds of them were aware of zinc supplementation but specific knowledge of zinc supplementation in the management of childhood acute diarrhoea was poor. Thirty-five percent of them prescribed zinc when managing childhood diarrhoea and only 10% of these do so for every case of childhood diarrhoea. About 84.6% of them prescribed the correct dose of zinc while less than half of them prescribe it for the correct duration. All but one of them prescribed zinc in addition to ORS in line with the WHO guideline. Discussion: The study revealed a gap in the knowledge and practice of use of zinc supplementation in the management of childhood diarrhoea. It is recommended that nationwide campaigns should be embarked on to promote the use of zinc supplementation in the clinical management of childhood diarrhoea. PMID:22980153

  16. 25. 'VIEW OF CITY HOSPITAL DISTRICT, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND, FROM MANHATTAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'VIEW OF CITY HOSPITAL DISTRICT, BLACKWELL'S ISLAND, FROM MANHATTAN SHORE.' (Source: New York City Department of Public Finance, Real Estate Owned by the City of New York Under Jurisdiction of the Department of Public Charities, 1909.) - Island Hospital, Roosevelt Island, New York County, NY

  17. C4 plant isotopic composition (delta13C) evidence for urban CO2 pollution in the city of Cotonou, Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Kèlomé, Nelly C; Lévêque, Jean; Andreux, Francis; Milloux, Marie-Jeanne; Oyédé, Lucien-Marc

    2006-08-01

    The carbon isotopic composition (delta13C) of plants can reveal the isotopic carbon content of the atmosphere in which they develop. The delta13C values of air and plants depend on the amount of atmospheric fossil fuel CO2, which is chiefly emitted in urban areas. A new indicator of CO2 pollution is tested using the delta13C variation in a C4 grass: Eleusine indica. A range of about 4 per thousand delta units was observed at different sites in Cotonou, the largest city in the Republic of Benin. The highest delta13C values, from -12 per thousand to -14 per thousand, were found in low traffic zones; low delta13C values, from -14 per thousand to -16 per thousand, were found in high traffic zones. The amount of fossil fuel carbon assimilated by plants represented about 20% of the total plant carbon content. An overall decrease in plant delta13C values was observed over a four-year monitoring period. This decrease was correlated with increasing vehicle traffic. The delta13C dataset and the corresponding geographical database were used to map and define zones of high and low 13C-depleted CO2 emissions in urban and sub-urban areas. The spatial distribution follows dominant wind directions, with the lowest emission zones found in the southwest of Cotonou. High CO2 emissions occurred in the north, the east and the center, providing evidence of intense anthropogenic activity related to industry and transportation.

  18. Steps Toward Creating A Therapeutic Community for Inpatients Suffering from Chronic Ulcers: Lessons from Allada Buruli Ulcer Treatment Hospital in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Amoussouhoui, Arnaud Setondji; Johnson, Roch Christian; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Agbo, Ines Elvire; Aoulou, Paulin; Houezo, Jean-Gabin; Tingbe-Azalou, Albert; Boyer, Micah; Nichter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing social distance between hospital staff and patients and establishing clear lines of communication is a major challenge when providing in-patient care for people afflicted by Buruli ulcer (BU) and chronic ulcers. Research on hospitals as therapeutic communities is virtually non-existent in Africa and is currently being called for by medical anthropologists working in the field of health service and policy planning. This paper describes a pioneering attempt to establish a therapeutic community for patients suffering from BU and other chronic ulcers requiring long term hospital care in Benin. Methods A six-month pilot project was undertaken with the objectives of establishing a therapeutic community and evaluating its impact on practitioner and patient relations. The project was designed and implemented by a team of social scientists working in concert with the current and previous director of a hospital serving patients suffering from advanced stage BU and other chronic ulcers. Qualitative research initially investigated patients’ understanding of their illness and its treatment, identified questions patients had about their hospitalization, and ascertained their level of social support. Newly designed question–answer health education sessions were developed. Following these hospital wide education sessions, open forums were held each week to provide an opportunity for patients and hospital staff to express concerns and render sources of discontent transparent. Patient group representatives then met with hospital staff to problem solve issues in a non-confrontational manner. Psychosocial support for individual patients was provided in a second intervention which took the form of drop-in counseling sessions with social scientists trained to serve as therapy facilitators and culture brokers. Results Interviews with patients revealed that most patients had very little information about the identity of their illness and the duration of their

  19. Hathaway v. Worcester City Hospital. 22 Mar 1973.

    PubMed

    1973-01-01

    The arguments and findings in the case of Robbie Mae Hathaway, Plaintiff, Appellant, versus Worcester City Hospital et al., (Worcester, Massachusetts), Defendants, Appellees, are presented. The case was heard January 3, 1973 by the United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit, and was decided March 22, 1973. Hathaway's action challenged the city hospital policy barring the use of facilities in connection with consensual sterilization. The appellant, Hathaway, had 12 pregnancies resulting in 8 live children and maintained that her life would be jeopardized by future pregnancies. She challenged as unconstitutional the policy of the Worcester City Hospital barring the use of its facilities in connection with any consensual sterilization. Appellee administrator specifically refused appellant's request that the hospital allow her physicians to perform a tubal ligation at the time of the delivery of her 8th child in April 1971. Despite further requests, the operation was not performed after the delivery. In the interim, the instant suit was filed in the district court seeking declaratory and injunctive relief and damages. Th district court twice dismissed the complaint. The Assistant solicitor's opinion, on which the hospital's policy is based, was that the legality of sterilization procedures was "highly doubtful" in view of the Massachusetts statutes concerning birth control assistance. The U.S. Court of Appeals, First Circuit, reverses and remands for entry of an order declaring the Worceste City Hospital's policy against the use of its facilities in conjunction with sterilization operations unconstitutional and enjoining the individual appellees from enforcing the policy in the future.

  20. [Problems with pregnancy, delivery and puerperium in teenage girls hospitalized in a city hospital].

    PubMed

    Kukulski, P; Kwaśniewski, S; Szymański, J

    1993-08-01

    At the paper the problems of girls hospitalized at the Gynaecological and Obstetrician ward of the hospital situated on the border of city agglomeration were described. The data regards as pregnancy, delivery and puerperium and they were collected in last two years.

  1. Acute Surgical Unit at Auckland City Hospital: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsee, Li; Devaud, Marcelo; Middelberg, Lisa; Jones, Wayne; Civil, Ian

    2012-09-01

    Lack of timely assessment and access to acute operating rooms is a worldwide problem and also exists in New Zealand hospitals. To address these issues, an Acute Surgical Unit (ASU) was set up at Auckland City Hospital (ACH) in January 2009. This service has evolved and been modified to address the specific needs of acute surgical patients of ACH. Despite initial challenges inherent to setting up a new service, the Unit has been in steady operation and enhanced its performance over time. This paper is a descriptive analysis of the design of the ACH ASU and discusses some of the indications for streamlining acute surgical services at a large tertiary metropolitan hospital in New Zealand. Performance of the ASU has shown benefits for acute patients and the Hospital. The acute surgical rotation has also been beneficial for surgical training.

  2. Main Neurosurgical Pathologies in Benin Republic

    PubMed Central

    Gandaho, Hugues Jean Thierry; Soumaila, Madougou; Hoinsou-Hans, Isaac; Djrolo, Gautier M. M.; Zevounou, Audrey A. S.; Adeleye, Amos O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benin republic is a very low-income French-speaking country in West Africa The development of Neurosurgery in the Republic of Benin took off with the arrival of the first Beninese neurosurgeons in the year 2003. Aims: This study aims to evaluate patients’ attendance in a public neurosurgical center, and appreciate populations’ affordability to a new specialty. Settings and Design: In the year 2004, the Benin Armed Forces established the first Department of Neurosurgery in the Nation's Military Teaching Hospital. From the public authorities, that was a proof of motivation to develop this specialty in the Benin Republic. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional survey (September 2003 to December 2009) of the total neurosurgical patient population managed in a public pioneer hospital in a developing country. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were captured and analyzed with the SPSS software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and presented in descriptive statistics such as frequencies and proportions. Results: 2908 new patients, civilians, and militaries were registered. The surgical treatment was offered adult (86%) as well as pediatric (14%) patients. Spinal degenerative diseases (52.1%) were the most common pathology; neurotraumatology emergency cases (8.4%) appeared low in representation. Three-quarters of patients experienced financial difficulties to procure the required radiologic investigations and although 609 (20.94%) benefited from surgery, most patients could not pay for the surgical operations as well as the perioperative care. Conclusions: In spite of the great constraints of this country's privately-funded health-care delivery system on the affordability of neurosurgical treatment for the average Beninese, this study demonstrates a globally increasing attendance of the department. PMID:28163504

  3. Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Other Staphylococcus Species in Raw Meat Samples Intended for Human Consumption in Benin City, Nigeria: Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Beshiru, Abeni; Akporehe, Lucy U.; Oviasogie, Faith E.; Igbinosa, Owen O.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize methicillin-resistant staphylococci from raw meat. A total of 126 meat samples were obtained from open markets between February and April, 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the disc diffusion method. Molecular profiling was conducted using 16S rRNA, mecA, nuc, and PVL gene signatures were detected by polymerase chain reaction assay. Fifty isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 26 (52%) pork, 14 (28%) beef and 10 (20%) chicken samples. The staphylococcal isolates were identified through partial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) nucleotide sequencing, and BLAST analysis of the gene sequence revealed 98%–100% staphylococcal similarity. All isolates from beef and chicken samples amplified the mecA gene, while 100% of the MRSA isolates amplified the PVL gene. The multidrug resistance profile (resistant to ≥1 antimicrobial agent in ≥3 classes of antimicrobial agents) of the staphylococcal isolates showed that 7 isolates were resistant to methicillin, penicillin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, erythromycin, vancomycin, and gentamycin. There was a significant regression effect from the multidrug-resistant profile on the number of isolates (p < 0.05) suggesting a consequence of the dissemination of resistant strains within bacterial populations. The findings of the present study indicate that raw meats in the Benin metropolis were possibly contaminated with pathogenic and multi-drug resistant staphylococci strains and therefore could constitute a risk to public health communities. PMID:27669285

  4. Changes in HIV-related hospitalizations during the HAART era in an inner-city hospital.

    PubMed

    Pulvirenti, Joseph; Muppidi, Uma; Glowacki, Robert; Cristofano, Michael; Baker, Laurie

    2007-08-01

    We evaluated admissions of HIV-positive persons to an inner-city hospital from 2000 to 2005. There was a decline in the number of substance abusers, homeless persons, injection drug abusers, and African Americans, and there was an increase in patients older than 50 years. There were no significant changes in CD4 counts or in utilization of highly active antiretroviral therapy,m but there were more admissions of persons with HIV RNA levels less than 1000 copies/mL, internal medicine problems, cancers, and skin infections. Changes in the demographics of this patient population may reflect external factors (eg, gentrification of low-income housing areas, opening of a new hospital). Lower viral loads suggest better response in those on a highly active antiretroviral regimen, and changes in diagnoses leading to hospitalization may reflect the aging of the HIV population.

  5. HIV-1 seroprevalence in an inner-city public hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Nagachinta, T.; Brown, C. P.; Cheng, F.; Temple, W.; Kerndt, P. R.; Janssen, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    In a hospital-based seroprevalence survey for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a stratified sampling method based on age and gender was used to collect 5429 blood samples at an inner-city hospital. Sentinel Hospital Surveillance System (SHSS) criteria developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to classify patient diagnoses into two categories by the likelihood of being associated with HIV-1 infection. The two categories were those with high likelihood of association with HIV-1 (SHSS-ineligible) and those with low likelihood of association with HIV-1 infection (SHSS-eligible). Of the 5429 blood samples, 4262 were SHSS-eligible and 1167 were SHSS-ineligible. After personal identifies were removed, specimens were tested by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot analysis. The overall prevalence rate of HIV-1 infection was 0.98%. The seroprevalence rate was almost 2.6 times higher in high-association patients compared with low-association patients (1.89% versus 0.73%, P < .001). Results from this study indicate a high unsuspected HIV-1 seroprevalence rate in a subpopulation (SHSS-eligible) considered to have diagnoses with low likelihood of association with HIV-1 infection. These patients may better approximate HIV-1 seroprevalence in the general population of the area served by the hospital than would a sample of all patients. Monitoring HIV-1 seroprevalence in the SHSS-eligible group will be a useful measure for community serosurveillance for HIV-1 infection. PMID:8046762

  6. Environmental triggers of hospital admissions for school-age children with asthma in two British cities.

    PubMed

    Julious, Steven A; Jain, Ritika; Mason, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    Research has reported seasonal peaks in asthma in school age asthmatic children. The study aimed to assess if hospital admissions could be predicted from the possible environmental triggers using data from two British cities: Aberdeen and Doncaster. However, there were no consistent patterns across the two cities with no clear evidence that hospital admissions could be predicted from environmental data.

  7. Definition of the Catchment Area for a Small Rural Hospital Near a Large City

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Practicing physicians, hospital directors, members of the hospital's board of directors and government health care planners can benefit from an accurate description of a hospital catchment area. The sociodemographic and geographic characteristics of the catchment area of Wakefield, PQ.'s 31-bed Gatineau Memorial Hospital (GMH) were studied. A randomized, door-to-door survey was conducted among permanent residents in the catchment area. The response rate was 96.1%. We found language to be an important and complex determinant of hospital utilization patterns. Orientation towards the city also affected the pattern of hospital use; those who lived between Wakefield and Ottawa-Hull were more likely to use a city hospital, as were those who had recently moved to the area, or who commuted to work in the city. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21279011

  8. Costs of near-miss obstetric complications for women and their families in Benin and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Borghi, J; Hanson, K; Acquah, C Adjei; Ekanmian, G; Filippi, V; Ronsmans, C; Brugha, R; Browne, E; Alihonou, Eusebe

    2003-12-01

    This paper estimates the total cost to women and their families associated with a spontaneous vaginal delivery and five types of 'near-miss' obstetric complication in Benin and Ghana, and assesses affordability in relation to household cash expenditure. A retrospective evaluation of costs was carried out among 121 mothers in three hospitals in Ghana. A prospective evaluation of costs was undertaken among 420 pregnant women in two hospitals in Benin. Information was collected on the cost of travel to the facilities and of direct medical and non-medical costs incurred during their stay in hospital. In Benin, costs ranged from an average of 15 US dollars for a spontaneous delivery to 256 US dollars for a near-miss complication caused by dystocia. In Ghana, average costs ranged from 18 US dollars for a spontaneous vaginal delivery to 115 US dollars for a near-miss complication caused by haemorrhage. Medical costs accounted for the largest share of total costs, mainly drugs and medical supplies in Ghana and costs of the delivery and any surgical intervention in Benin. Payments associated with a spontaneous vaginal delivery amounted to at least 2% of annual household cash expenditure in both countries. In the case of severe obstetric complications, costs incurred reached a high of 34% of annual household cash expenditure in Benin. The economic burden of hospital-based delivery care in Ghana and Benin is likely to deter or delay women's use of health services. Should a woman develop severe obstetric complications while in labour, the relatively high costs of hospital care could have a potentially catastrophic impact on the household budget.

  9. New ad campaign for St. Mark's Hospital in Salt Lake City: nursing is a calling, not just a career.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    A recent advertising campaign for St. Mark's Hospital in Salt Lake City focuses on the hospital's compassion and impeccable nurse care. The effort illustrates that nursing is not just a career, but a calling.

  10. [Evaluation of customer satisfaction with the hospital catering system in the city of Palermo (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Firenze, Alberto; Morici, Mariagrazia; Calamus, Giuseppe; Gelsomino, Viviana; Aprea, Luigi; Di Benedetto, Antonino; Muangala, Muana A Luila; Centineo, Giovanni; Romano, Nino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate patients' customer satisfaction with the hospital catering services of two public hospitals and one private sector hospital in the city of Palermo (Italy). A multiple choice questionnaire was administered by face-to-face interview to 207 of 227 hospitalized patients. Positive responses regarding the perceived quality of food were given especially by patients of the private sector hospital, 80% of which reported being satisfied with the catering service. A higher percentage of patients in the private sector hospital were satisfied with the food distribution modalities with respect to the two public hospitals. Only 3% of patients in the private sector hospital required their families to bring food from home, with respect to 7.9% and 30% respectively in the two public hospitals. Private sector patients also reported appreciating the wide availability of food and the help given by health care workers (79% vs a mean of 55% in the two public hospitals). No differences were found amongst hospitals with regards to the hygienic characteristics of meals. The results of this study indicate the need to make changes in the management of the catering service of one of the involved public hospitals especially.

  11. Hospital morbidity in a medium-sized city: differentials between men and women

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective characterize the hospital morbidity of adults living in the city of Maringá, PR, Brazil, between 2000 and 2011, focusing on the differential between men and women. Method this descriptive study was developed based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System in order to investigate the association between groups of hospitalization causes and the average length of hospitalization per gender, in three-year periods. Results the main groups of hospitalization causes for men were: mental disorders, lesions and circulatory diseases; and, among women: tumors, circulatory and genitourinary diseases. Mental disorders and lesions, tumors, circulatory and genitourinary diseases were significantly associated with the female and male genders across the study period. Although not significant, the mean length of hospitalization dropped across the four three-year periods, and only showed a significant difference between men and women in the second triennium. Conclusion differences in the hospital morbidity profile between men and women underline the need for specific health and nursing actions, especially in primary health care, with a view to reducing hospitalizations due to the main groups of causes in the city. PMID:24553699

  12. Risk and outcome of aspiration pneumonia in a city hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J.

    1993-01-01

    Because aspiration pneumonia contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, this study was undertaken to identify risk factors for morbidity and mortality associated with aspiration pneumonia. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia in 1985 and 1990 were studied. Factors associated with death from aspiration pneumonia were: altered mental status, cerebrovascular accident, endotracheal intubation, tachycardia, and hypoxemia. Fever, cough, and unilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph were associated with survival. Attention to proper positioning of comatose patients, aggressive treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, and strict attention to endotracheal tubes and tracheostomies should decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with aspiration pneumonia. PMID:8350375

  13. Abusive Head Trauma at a Tertiary Care Children's Hospital in Mexico City. A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Garcia-Pina, Corina A.; Loredo-Abdala, Arturo; Paz, Francisco; Garcia, Sandra G.; Schilmann, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determine the prevalence, clinical signs and symptoms, and demographic and family characteristics of children attending a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City, Mexico, to illustrate the characteristics of abusive head trauma among this population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of infants and children under 5,…

  14. Etiology and outcome of chronic renal failure in hospitalized children in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Mong Hiep, Tran Thi; Janssen, Françoise; Ismaili, Khalid; Khai Minh, Dang; Vuong Kiet, Doan; Robert, Annie

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and treatment modalities and to determine mortality risks in hospitalized children with chronic renal failure (CRF) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. We reviewed the records of 310 children with CRF hospitalized in Ho Chi Minh City from January 2001 to December 2005. The average annual number cases was 4.8 per million child population native to Ho Chi Minh City. Median age was 14 years; 85% of patients were in end-stage renal failure. Associated illnesses were anemia (96%), hypertension (74%), and cardiopulmonary diseases (39%). Causes of included glomerulonephritis (30%) and congenital/hereditary anomalies (20%), but in 50% of children, the etiology was unavailable. Seventy-three percent of cases with end-stage renal failure did not benefit from renal replacement therapy. During hospitalization, 47 patients (15%) died. Mortality risks were higher in young children (1-4 years), in boys, and in patients with acquired pathologies. Severe metabolic acidosis was the main predictive factor of mortality by multivariate regression analysis. Our data shows a poor outcome due to late referral and limited facilities for renal replacement therapy in children with CRF hospitalized in Ho Chi Minh City.

  15. Risk Factors for Nonelective Hospitalization in Frail and Older Adult, Inner-City Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damush, Teresa M.; Smith, David M.; Perkins, Anthony J.; Dexter, Paul R.; Smith, Faye

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: In our study, we sought to improve the accuracy of predicting the risk of hospitalization and to identify older, inner-city patients who could be targeted for preventive interventions. Design and Methods: Participants (56% were African American) in a randomized trial were from a primary care practice and included 1,041 patients living in…

  16. Comparative Investigation of Health Literacy Level of Cardiovascular Patients Hospitalized in Private and Educational Hospitals of Kerman City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Sajedeh; Azami, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Moghadameh; Motamedi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: literacy involves a complex set of abilities to understand and use symbolic systems of a culture for personal development and social development in a diverse set of skills required as an adult to exercise behavior are considered in society Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate Comparative investigation of health literacy level of cardiovascular patients hospitalized in private and public educational hospitals of Kerman city Methods: This study used survey methods, analytical and cross-sectional manner. Data was collected through questionnaires distributed among 200 patients of cardiovascular-hospitalization took place in the city of Kerman. To analyze the data in the description of the mean, standard deviation and frequency distribution tables and the level of analysis to determine the relationship between gender and marital status of health literacy test or nonparametric test Mann-Whitney T-Test and, for the relationship between group employment and residence, a one-way analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test, to evaluate the relationship between age and income, Pearson and Spearman correlation to investigate the relationship between level of education and health literacy of SPPS software version 21 was used. Results: The results showed that 10% of patients at educational hospitals in Kerman adequate health literacy, and 48% of patients in private hospitals had adequate health literacy. As a result, there is a significant difference of health literacy between the two types of hospital (p-value <0/0001). Conclusions: The results showed that most patients had inadequate and border health literacy have been. Health plans, preparation of simple educational system and understanding, spending more time and have a discussion with the lower speed In connection with the patient’s doctor and medical staff, Including ways to help patients with low health literacy and improve their health literacy is. PMID:27041812

  17. Analysis of hospitalization occurred due to motorcycles accidents in São Paulo city

    PubMed Central

    Gorios, Carlos; Armond, Jane de Eston; Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; Pernambuco, Henrique; Iporre, Ramiro Ortiz; Colombo-Souza, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the motorcycle accidents occurred in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil in the year 2013, with emphasis on information about hospital admissions from SIH/SUS. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study covered 5,597 motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accident during the year 2013 occurred in the city of São Paulo. A survey was conducted using secondary data from the Information System of Hospitalization Health System (SIH/SUS). RESULTS: In 2013, in the city of São Paulo there were 5,597 admissions of motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accidents, of which 89.8% were male. The admission diagnosis were: leg fracture, femur fracture, and intracranial injury. CONCLUSION: This study confirms other preliminary studies on several points, among which stands out the highest prevalence of male young adults. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:26327804

  18. Hospital waste management system - a case study of a south Indian city.

    PubMed

    Hanumantha Rao, P

    2009-06-01

    It is more than 5 years since the prescribed deadline, 30 December 2002, for all categories of towns covered by the Biomedical Waste Management (BMW) Rules 1998 elapsed. Various reports indicate that the implementation of the BMW Rules is not satisfactory even in the large towns and cities in India. Few studies have looked at the ;macro system' of the biomedical waste management in India. In this context the present study describes the role of the important stakeholders who comprise the 'macrosystem' namely the pollution control board, common waste management facilities, municipal corporation, state government (Directorate of Medical Education and Health Systems Development Project), professional agencies such as the India Medical Association and non-governmental organizations, in the implementation of BMW rules in a capital city of a state in south India. Brief descriptions of the ;micro-system' (i.e. biomedical waste management practices within a hospital) of six hospitals of different types in the study city are also presented.

  19. The impact of heat, cold, and heat waves on hospital admissions in eight cities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2014-11-01

    Although the impact of temperature on mortality is well documented, relatively fewer studies have evaluated the associations of temperature with morbidity outcomes such as hospital admissions, and most studies were conducted in North America or Europe. We evaluated weather and hospital admissions including specific causes (allergic disease, asthma, selected respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease) in eight major cities in Korea from 2003 to 2008. We also explored potential effect modification by individual characteristics such as sex and age. We used hierarchical modeling to first estimate city-specific associations between heat, cold, or heat waves and hospitalizations, and then estimated overall effects. Stratified analyses were performed by cause of hospitalization, sex, and age (0-14, 15-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years). Cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly associated with high temperature, whereas hospitalizations for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease were significantly associated with low temperature. The overall heat effect for cardiovascular hospitalization was a 4.5% (95% confidence interval 0.7, 8.5%) increase in risk comparing hospitalizations at 25 to 15 °C. For cold effect, the overall increase in risk of hospitalizations comparing 2 with 15 °C was 50.5 (13.7, 99.2%), 43.6 (8.9, 89.5%), and 53.6% (9.8, 114.9%) for allergic disease, asthma, and selected respiratory disease, respectively. We did not find statistically significant effects of heat waves compared with nonheat wave days. Our results suggest susceptible populations such as women and younger persons. Our findings provide suggestive evidence that both high and low ambient temperatures are associated with the risk of hospital admissions, particularly in women or younger person, in Korea.

  20. Exposition and Synthesis of Benin Bronze Casting: Emphasis on the Olotan Casters of Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifeta, Chris Funke

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of Western education to Nigeria has brought in its wake great strides toward development. Changes in Benin dates far back to the dawn of the 20th century. This paper investigates the critical role of education in development. The paper integrates interview data collected from bronze casters in Benin. The first section of the paper…

  1. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographic information system grid modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-Soo; Moon, Kyeong-Jun

    2014-05-01

    Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS) based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas) were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  2. Developing a Collaborative Research Environment for a Study of Coastal Groundwater Hydraulics: Benin, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, S. E.; Boukari, M.; Yalo, N.

    2011-12-01

    The city of Cotonou, Benin, has a population between 1.5 and 2 million people served by groundwater wells. Recent evidence suggests that salinity is increasing in a series of wells which border a salt-water lake. Modeling and field characterization of this complex groundwater system is targeted at providing the national water agency in Benin with assessment of multiple management strategies to reduce the impact of saline inflows from the lake. Research efforts have evolved through development of collaboration among colleagues from the Universite d'Abomey-Calavi (Benin) and the University of Notre Dame (USA): participants have included faculty and students (undergraduate and graduate) from both institutions. The combined research team has provided the ability to: (i) identify funding opportunities through multiple funding sources, (ii) establish long-term monitoring in the lake and groundwater systems through field measurements by Benin partners, (iii) introduce new tools (numerical and instrumentation) through professional contacts and suppliers in the U.S., (iv) establish site security (for long-term installation of equipment) through local knowledge of customs and cultural requirements, and (v) interpret data and management strategies from multiple viewpoints. The project has provided for collection of high-quality data that have provided opportunities to improve both the conceptual model of the local hydrogeology and the field strategies used to characterize both parameters and boundary conditions impacting flow to the water-supply wells.

  3. [Health anthropology and hospital archiving. The Museum of Pathological Anatomy of the City Hospital of Trieste].

    PubMed

    Braulin, F

    2001-10-01

    The preparations found in the Trieste Hospital Museum of Pathological Anatomy fit into the context of a medical semiotics which has its origins in the anatomical clinical method. The study of the practices involved in the museum preparation leads back to its purely diagnostic function inasmuch as it convalidates or contradicts the suppositions that, from the symptomatological case history, made from the study of the lesions and the diseased organ. This whole investigative process corresponds to a break in the field of scientific knowledge which marks the birth of a new approach to diagnosis and a new form of nosology, made possible by the great number of sick people and deaths available in a modern hospital. The Museum is permeated with empiricism, morphologism and localisation, and its exhibits fluctuate between macroscopic and microscopic anatomy, between organic and cellular pathology. In the exhibits of infectious and contagious diseases, one can see traces of the revolution brought about by bacteriology and laboratory techniques; in the considerable collection of malignant tumours, one can detect an oncological awareness which relates explicitly to a nosology based on the work of Virchow. The preparations which refer to pathologies that cannot be reduced simply to localisation illustrate an increasing awareness of functional medicine and clinical biochemistry. The Museum has the task of showing and teaching in order to train the hospital doctor. The Museum--through pathological anatomy--directed the community towards a knowledge of healthcare methods destined to change the morbidity and mortality rates due to a certain disease, in relation to those diseases typical of the times.

  4. Health services research in a quick and dirty world: the New York City hospital occupancy crisis.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, L P; Fox, K S; Vladeck, B C

    1990-01-01

    In 1987/1988, New York City experienced an unexpected health care crisis: a severe and prolonged communitywide shortage of inpatient hospital beds. A rapid rise in hospital occupancy rates dramatically ended a long-term decline in hospital utilization and left health care providers and policymakers baffled about both cause and remedy. This article describes the course of a short-term, intensive, midcrisis study that unraveled the reasons for the high occupancy rates. As a case study for a research effort that successfully yielded valid and timely results, this article illuminates the research design and methodological decisions that lay behind the findings and discusses the implications of those decisions. Key to the success of the study were a mandate to diagnose the crisis, a statewide patient discharge data base, our previous hands-on experience with that data base, active support for the study from the community of health care providers, and strong results. PMID:2254088

  5. An Intervention to Increase Availability of Healthy Foods and Beverages in New York City Hospitals: The Healthy Hospital Food Initiative, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Krepp, Erica M.; Johnson Curtis, Christine; Lederer, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background Hospitals serve millions of meals and snacks each year; however, hospital food is often unhealthy. Hospitals are ideal settings for modeling healthy eating, but few programs have sought to improve nutrition in all venues where food is served. Community Context The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene created the Healthy Hospital Food Initiative (HHFI) to improve the healthfulness of food served in hospitals. The HHFI built on prior work implementing mandatory nutrition standards for patient meals and vending in public hospitals. Public hospitals joined the HHFI by voluntarily adopting standards for cafeterias and cafés. Private hospitals joined by implementing nutrition standards for patient meals, food and beverage vending machines, and cafeterias and cafés. Methods Hospitals were recruited from 2010 through 2014 and provided technical assistance from health department staff. Implementation in each of the 4 areas was monitored through on-site assessments and menu review. Twenty-eight hospital cafeterias and cafés were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the HHFI to assess changes. Outcome Sixteen public hospitals and 24 private hospitals joined the HHFI. Most (n = 18) private hospitals implemented standards in at least 2 areas. In cafeterias, most hospitals introduced a healthy value meal (n = 19), removed unhealthy items from the entrance and checkout (n = 18), increased whole grains to at least half of all grains served (n = 17), and reduced calories in pastries and desserts (n = 15). Interpretation Most New York City hospitals joined the HHFI and voluntarily adopted rigorous nutrition standards. Partnerships between hospitals and local government are feasible and can lead to significant improvements in hospital food environments. PMID:27281392

  6. Increasing Prevalence of Electronic Cigarette Use Among Smokers Hospitalized in 5 US Cities, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Kathleen F.; Richter, Kimber; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Sherman, Scott E.; Grossman, Ellie; Chang, Yuchiao; Tindle, Hilary A.; Ylioja, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the pattern of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use over time or among smokers with medical comorbidity. Methods: We assessed current cigarette smokers’ use of e-cigarettes during the 30 days before admission to 9 hospitals in 5 geographically dispersed US cities: Birmingham, AL; Boston, MA; Kansas City, KS; New York, NY; and Portland, OR. Each hospital was conducting a randomized controlled trial as part of the NIH-sponsored Consortium of Hospitals Advancing Research on Tobacco (CHART). We conducted a pooled analysis using multiple logistic regression to examine changes in e-cigarette use over time and to identify correlates of e-cigarette use. Results: Among 4,660 smokers hospitalized between July 2010 and December 2013 (mean age 57 years, 57% male, 71% white, 56% some college, average 14 cigarettes/day), 14% reported using an e-cigarette during the 30 days before admission. The prevalence of e-cigarette use increased from 1.1% in 2010 to 10.3% in 2011, 10.2% in 2012, and 18.4% in 2013; the increase was statistically significant (p < .0001) after adjustment for age, sex, education, and CHART study. Younger, better educated, and heavier smokers were more likely to use e-cigarettes. Smokers who were Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and who had Medicaid or no insurance were less likely to use e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use also varied by CHART project and by geographic region. Conclusions: E-cigarette use increased substantially from 2010 to 2013 among a large sample of hospitalized adult cigarette smokers. E-cigarette use was more common among heavier smokers and among those who were younger, white, and who had higher socioeconomic status. PMID:25168031

  7. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results: The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion: It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment. PMID:26340391

  8. Biological aging and social characteristics: gerontology, the Baltimore city hospitals, and the National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Wook

    2013-01-01

    The intramural gerontological research program in the National Institutes of Health underwent a substantial growth after its creation within the precincts of the Baltimore City Hospitals in 1940. This paper analyzes its development and the associated problems of its early years. Gerontologists aimed at improving the social and economic life of the elderly through scientific research. With this aim in mind, they conducted various investigations using the indigent aged patients of the Baltimore City Hospitals. Yet the scientists of aging, who hoped to eliminate negative social factors that might bias their research and heighten the confusion between pathology and aging per se, eventually stopped using these patients in the hospital as human subjects. Instead they sought educated affluent subjects in order to eliminate the impact of poverty. By doing so, however, they introduced a new source of social bias to their work, especially within the novel project begun in 1958, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. This article thus examines the context of the development of gerontologists' research by analyzing their agenda, institutional environment, and research subjects in the 1940s and the 1950s.

  9. [North-South cooperation on transfusion and hematology teaching: A Benin experience].

    PubMed

    Lafia, E; Anani, L; Glitho, S; Bankole, C; Fachinan, H; Py, J-Y; Domenech, J; Martenot, B; Colombat, P; Chobli, M; Zohoun, I

    2015-06-01

    Hematologic diseases are a significant part of health disorders in Benin. As an example, anemia is the second cause of hospitalization, measuring up to 7.9% all over the country (National Plan of Sanitary Development, 2009-2018). By contrast, there is only one active hematologist in the country. Thanks to two partnerships, on one hand between the health sciences faculty in Cotonou (Benin) and the medicine one in Tours (France), and on the other hand between the Beninese Blood Transfusion National Agency and the French Blood Establishment, a first blood transfusion and hematology formation was held in Cotonou on December 2014. Among other benefits, was created an hematology-transfusion network in order to facilitate relations between Beninese hospital doctors, with the support of the two French partner institutions. The article describes this progress.

  10. The Occupational Structure of New York City Municipal Hospitals. Health Services Mobility Study. Text and Appendixes. Research Report Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpatrick, Eleanor, G.; Corliss, Paul K.

    This two volume report is the first of a five-part study to determine ways and means of facilitating horizontal and vertical mobility within New York City's Health Services Administration and selected private hospitals. It seeks to answer two questions: (1) Does the structure of the municipal hospital system permit the efficient planning,…

  11. [Transparency in public sector acquisitions. The case of hospitals in the City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Rossi, T; Murillo Fort, C; Puente Karolys, J C

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation.Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality.Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budget administration (activity and negotiation indicators). Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares), which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public hospitals have adequate purchase negotiation instruments and a uniform legal framework, they can achieve a good level of activity. Furthermore, public hospitals can contribute to reductions in price and price dispersion, at the same time as improving efficiency in the assignation and utilization of

  12. Environmental and health-related risk factors for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer) in Benin.

    PubMed

    Nackers, Fabienne; Johnson, Roch C; Glynn, Judith R; Zinsou, Claude; Tonglet, René; Portaels, Françoise

    2007-11-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between Buruli ulcer (BU) and environmental- and health-related behaviors in southern Benin. Hospital BU cases (N = 324) and sex- and age-matched neighborhood controls (N = 1,173) answered a questionnaire. Regular use of soap for washing, treating injuries with soap or antibiotic powder, and frequent contact with flowing water appeared protective against BU.

  13. "The City of the Hospital": On Teaching Medical Students to Write.

    PubMed

    Hellerstein, David J

    2015-12-01

    "The City of the Hospital" is a creative nonfiction writing workshop for medical students, which the author has conducted annually since 2002. Part of the required preclinical Narrative Medicine curriculum at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, this six-week intensive workshop includes close readings of literary works and in-class assignments that are then edited by fellow class members and rewritten for final submission. Over the years, students have produced a wide range of compelling essays and stories, and they describe the class as having an effect that lasts throughout their further medical training. This special section includes selected works from class members.

  14. Accreditation of Management Communication and Information Systems in Public Hospitals of Sabzevar City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Shojaei, Saeed; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Information systems are “computer systems that collect, store, process, retrieve, show, and provide timely information required in practice, education, management, and research”. The purpose of these systems is to support hospital activities in practical, tactical, and strategic levels in order to provide better service to patients. This study aimed to evaluate the communication and information system (MCI) in public hospitals in Sabzevar city in 2014 from the perspective of human resources according to international standards of the Joint Commission Accreditation Hospital (JCAH). Methods: This study was a practical, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of Sabzevar nurses who used hospital information system. Sampling was done by classification method and in proportion to the number of nurses in each health care units in hospitals in 2014. The sample size was 200 and after referring to hospitals, 200 questionnaires were completed. Sample size was calculated by the formula n=Z2P (1-P)/d2 with P=0.5, α=0.05, d=0.05, and Z=1.96. Data collection tool was the questionnaire of assessment of hospital information systems of JCAH, which has 124 specific questions, including 6 areas. To assess the effect of demographic variables with MCI standards of two questionnaires (feasibility and implementation), the following steps were taken. 1. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine whether responses were normal or not. 2. In case of normal data, t-test was used for dual groups and one-way ANOVA test for groups of three or more. 3. If not normal, Mann-Whitney test was used for dual groups and Kruskal-Wallis test for groups of three or more. Results: Research findings show the mean results of feasibility and implementation of all 6 areas of international standards MCI have feasibility in three hospitals in Sabzevar in 20 sections (H1=105.01±10.468), (H1=196.31±4.662), (H2=104.26±9.099), (H2=195.33±3.778) (H3=106.48±11.545) and

  15. Costs of treating diarrhoea in a children's hospital in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M.; Kumate-Rodríguez, J.; Mota-Hernández, F.

    1989-01-01

    The treatment received by children aged under 5 years with diarrhoea was studied in the Hospital Infantil de México (Federico Goméz), Mexico City. The costs of treatment were calculated and estimates were made of how these had changed since the establishment of an oral rehydration unit in the hospital in 1985. The results indicate that drug treatment of outpatients was generally appropriate and inexpensive. In contrast, the cost of drugs for inpatients was considerably higher. The seriousness of the cases justified much of this additional expense for inpatients, but there is evidence that the costs could be reduced further without jeopardizing the quality of the care. Diagnostic tests were relatively expensive, frequently failed to identify diarrhoeal etiology, and their results correlated poorly with the treatment prescribed. The oral rehydration unit resulted in significant savings by causing a 25% fall in the number of inpatients with diarrhoea. PMID:2766450

  16. Challenges of nurses' deployment to other New York City hospitals in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    VanDevanter, Nancy; Kovner, Christine T; Raveis, Victoria H; McCollum, Meriel; Keller, Ronald

    2014-08-01

    On October 29, 2012, a 12-ft storm surge generated by Hurricane Sandy necessitated evacuation and temporary closure of three New York City hospitals including NYU Langone Medical Center (NYULMC). NYULMC nurses participated in the evacuation, and 71 % were subsequently deployed to area hospitals to address patient surge for periods from a few days up to 2 months when NYULMC reopened. This mixed methods study explored nurses' experience in the immediate disaster and the subsequent deployment. More than 50 % of deployed nurse participants reported the experience to be extremely or very stressful. Deployed nurses encountered practice challenges related to working in an unfamiliar environment, limited orientation, legal concerns about clinical assignments. They experienced psychosocial challenges associated with the intense experience of the evacuation, uncertainty about future employment, and the increased demands of managing the deployment. Findings provide data to inform national and regional policies to support nurses in future deployments.

  17. Building a Vision for Education in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahanhanzo, Joseph; Odushin, David E.; Bibi-Adelakoun, Alice

    2006-01-01

    For the first time in Benin, the education sector has built its own vision. In the past, there were general policy laws, which provided a framework for education policy. The current building experience, arising in a particular context, is the result of a political decision to include in one document all the replies to the questions raised by the…

  18. Effect of Cause-of-Death Training on Agreement Between Hospital Discharge Diagnoses and Cause of Death Reported, Inpatient Hospital Deaths, New York City, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Paulina; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Zimmerman, Regina; Soto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accurate cause-of-death reporting is required for mortality data to validly inform public health programming and evaluation. Research demonstrates overreporting of heart disease on New York City death certificates. We describe changes in reported causes of death following a New York City health department training conducted in 2009 to improve accuracy of cause-of-death reporting at 8 hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess the degree to which death certificates citing heart disease as cause of death agreed with hospital discharge data and the degree to which training improved accuracy of reporting. Methods We analyzed 74,373 death certificates for 2008 through 2010 that were linked with hospital discharge records for New York City inpatient deaths and calculated the proportion of discordant deaths, that is, death certificates reporting an underlying cause of heart disease with no corresponding discharge record diagnosis. We also summarized top principal diagnoses among discordant reports and calculated the proportion of inpatient deaths reporting sepsis, a condition underreported in New York City, to assess whether documentation practices changed in response to clarifications made during the intervention. Results Citywide discordance between death certificates and discharge data decreased from 14.9% in 2008 to 9.6% in 2010 (P < .001), driven by a decrease in discordance at intervention hospitals (20.2% in 2008 to 8.9% in 2010; P < .001). At intervention hospitals, reporting of sepsis increased from 3.7% of inpatient deaths in 2008 to 20.6% in 2010 (P < .001). Conclusion Overreporting of heart disease as cause of death declined at intervention hospitals, driving a citywide decline, and sepsis reporting practices changed in accordance with health department training. Researchers should consider the effect of overreporting and data-quality changes when analyzing New York City heart disease mortality trends. Other vital records jurisdictions

  19. The Sociology of the Deceased Harvard Medical Unit at Boston City Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tishler, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    Many graduates of the Harvard Medical Unit (HMU) at Boston City Hospital, in either the clinical training/residency program or the research program at the Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, contributed in major ways to the HMU and constantly relived their HMU experiences. The HMU staff physicians, descending from founder and mentor physicians Francis W. Peabody, Soma Weiss, and George R. Minot, were dedicated to the teaching, development, and leadership of its clinical and research trainees, whose confidence and dedication to patient care as a result of their mentorship led many to lifelong achievements as clinicians, teachers, and mentors. Their experience also led to a lifelong love of the HMU (despite its loss), camaraderie, happiness, and intense friendships with their associates.

  20. The Sociology of the Deceased Harvard Medical Unit at Boston City Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tishler, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    Many graduates of the Harvard Medical Unit (HMU) at Boston City Hospital, in either the clinical training/residency program or the research program at the Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, contributed in major ways to the HMU and constantly relived their HMU experiences. The HMU staff physicians, descending from founder and mentor physicians Francis W. Peabody, Soma Weiss, and George R. Minot, were dedicated to the teaching, development, and leadership of its clinical and research trainees, whose confidence and dedication to patient care as a result of their mentorship led many to lifelong achievements as clinicians, teachers, and mentors. Their experience also led to a lifelong love of the HMU (despite its loss), camaraderie, happiness, and intense friendships with their associates. PMID:26604868

  1. An indoor radon survey of the X-ray rooms of Mexico City hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Faustino; Reyes, Pedro G.; Espinosa, Guillermo

    2013-07-03

    This paper presents the results of measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the X-ray rooms of a selection of hospitals in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The metropolitan area of Mexico City is Mexico's largest metropolitan area by population; the number of patients requiring the use of X-rays is also the highest. An understanding of indoor radon concentrations in X-ray rooms is necessary for the estimation of the radiological risk to which patients, radiologists and medical technicians are exposed. The indoor radon concentrations were monitored for a period of six months using nuclear track detectors (NTD) consisting of a closed-end cup system with CR-39 (Lantrack Registered-Sign ) polycarbonate as detector material. The indoor radon concentrations were found to be between 75 and 170 Bq m{sup -3}, below the USEPA-recommended indoor radon action level for working places of 400 Bq m{sup -3}. It is hoped that the results of this study will contribute to the establishment of recommended action levels by the Mexican regulatory authorities responsible for nuclear safety.

  2. The Epidemiology of Hospital-Referred Head Injury in Ardabil City

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Abbasi, Vahid; Kahnamouei-aghdam, Fariba; Molaei, Behnam; Iziy, Elham; Ojaghi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Trauma is the leading cause of death for youth in developing countries. Given the prevalence of head trauma (HT) in society and its complication and burden, the epidemiologic study of head trauma is necessary and is the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods. This retrospective population-based survey describes the epidemiology of head injury in a defined population in Ardabil city. It includes all 204 patients with head injury referred to the University Hospital of Ardabil, Iran, during 2013-2014. Data were collected by a checklist and analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.19. Significance level p < 0.05 was considered. Results. Of all registered cases, 146 (71.6%) were male and the rest of them were female. Most of HT patients lived in Ardabil city (60.8%). The mean age of patients was 22.6 ± 25.9 and most of victims were young. 24.5% of traumatic patients have injuries in severe to critical level (grade 3-4). The most cause of trauma was accidents (41.7%). Most of injuries occurred in night (55.9%) and in summer season (42.2%). Causes were traffic accident in 41.7%. Conclusion. Results showed that the leading cause of head trauma especially in the warm seasons is accidents and so, designing programs to reduce road accidents can dramatically reduce the rate of trauma in the future in Ardabil province. PMID:28255457

  3. An indoor radon survey of the X-ray rooms of Mexico City hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez, Faustino; Reyes, Pedro G.; Espinosa, Guillermo

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the X-ray rooms of a selection of hospitals in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The metropolitan area of Mexico City is Mexico's largest metropolitan area by population; the number of patients requiring the use of X-rays is also the highest. An understanding of indoor radon concentrations in X-ray rooms is necessary for the estimation of the radiological risk to which patients, radiologists and medical technicians are exposed. The indoor radon concentrations were monitored for a period of six months using nuclear track detectors (NTD) consisting of a closed-end cup system with CR-39 (Lantrack®) polycarbonate as detector material. The indoor radon concentrations were found to be between 75 and 170 Bq m-3, below the USEPA-recommended indoor radon action level for working places of 400 Bq m-3. It is hoped that the results of this study will contribute to the establishment of recommended action levels by the Mexican regulatory authorities responsible for nuclear safety.

  4. [Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of acute diarrhea in adults at a hospital from Cordoba city].

    PubMed

    Polo Friz, H; Toloza, S; Acosta, H; Toloza, C; Unsain, F; Marconetto, G; Massanet, P; Canova, S; Celli, J; Abdala, O; Gandini, B

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the clinical and epidemiologic presentation features of adult acute diarrhea in a general hospital form Córdoba City. All the patients older than 14 years old who assisted to the Hospital Nacional de Clínicas Central Guard for acute diarrhea, during the periods: A (15-12-89 to 15-03-90), B (15-12-93 to 15-03-94) and C (15-12-94 to 15-03-95), were included. 594 patients were studied: 337 female (56.7%) and 257 male, 143 in the period A, 250 in B and 201 in C. The means +/- SD age was 34.6 +/- 13.3 and stool loose per day at admission 7.3 +/- 4.7. Eighty six percent of patients presented liquid consistent stool, 89.6% abdominal pain, 44.7% vomiting and 18.8% bloody stools. The rate of patients who consulted Central Guard referring acute diarrhea increased from period A (2.4%) to B (3.61%); p = 0.002 and decreased form B to C (2.85%); p = 0.01. The mean (+/- SD) days transcurred from the beginning of diarrhea episode till consultation was 3.5 +/- 2.7; 2.7 +/- 2.3 y 2.9 +/- 3.5 in the periods A, B and C respectively, statistically significant difference between A and B, p < 0.01. Thirty six percent, 21.1% and 23.1% of patients presented mucus with their stools in the periods A, B and C (p = 0.01), and high temperature 61.1%, 48.1% and 48.5% respectively (p = 0.04). Twenty seven percent of stools samples cultures became positive in the periods A, 17.6% in B and 11.5% in C, statistically significant difference between A and C; p = 0.008. The results show that in a general hospital from Córdoba City the adult acute diarrhea is a frequent cause of consult. In the last years there were modifications in its clinical an epidemiologic presentation features.

  5. Periodontal Health among Non-Hospitalized Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Mangaluru City-India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rashmi; Kota, Keshava Pai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A substantial section of society constituting the mentally ill and psychiatric patients deserve special attention. Evidence has suggested that psychological factors have contributed to an increase in the susceptibility to periodontal disease. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the gingival and periodontal health of chronically non-hospitalized psychiatric patients in Mangaluru city, India. Materials and Methods Forty one psychiatric patients having chronic psychiatric illness and on neuroleptic medications for a minimum of 2 years were included in the study. The control group consisted of 41 healthy dental patients who were selected to match the study group by age and gender, and for both groups 20 teeth excluding the third molars should be present. Demographic characteristics, dental examination including gingival index and periodontal health according to the community periodontal index were recorded for each patient in both the groups. Results In the psychiatric patient group (Group A) 47.1% subjects were suffering from schizophrenia and 17.6% subjects were having mood disorder. Gingivitis varied from mild to severe among the patients of both the groups. Bleeding on probing (CPI 1) was recorded in 23.5% in Group A and 14.6% in Group B. Dental calculus (CPI 2) in 38.2% in Group A and 58.5% in Group B of the subjects, 20.6% with at least one 4mm to 5mm pocket (CPI 3), and 17.6% with at least one 6mm pocket (CPI 4). Conclusion The present study underlines a considerable need for prevention and treatment of periodontal disease among chronic psychiatric patients in Mangaluru city. Every effort should be made to increase the awareness of this cohort regarding the importance of oral hygiene practices and on the early diagnosis of periodontal problems. PMID:27656561

  6. Levels of organic compounds in interiors (school, home, university and hospital) of Ouargla city, Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudehane, A.; Lounas, A.; Moussaoui, Y.; Balducci, C.; Cecinato, A.

    2016-11-01

    Indoor environments are affected by a number of organic contaminants, whose concentrations can exceed by orders of magnitude those found outdoors in external air. At this regard, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deserve a special concern. PAHs occur in the air both in the gaseous and particulate forms; they are associated to fine aerosols and soil dust, and deposit on surfaces. Nonetheless, scarce information exists about the PAH pollution of indoor locations in Northern Africa. PAHs were first investigated in dust of interiors in Ouargla (Saharan Algeria), concurrently with n-alkanes and polar organics. Settled dust was collected from pre-cleaned surfaces (0.5 m2 each) at 7 internal locations in total from a school, the city hospital and university, and a home. Three sample series were collected 15, 30 days and random after the preliminary cleaning of surfaces. Contemporarily, organic compounds were collected at 15 locations of the target sites by deploying diffusive samplers over the whole study period to obtain molecular signatures of semi-volatile organic fraction. A consolidated procedure consisting of ultra-sonic bath extraction, semi-preparative column chromatography and gas chromatographic - mass spectrometric analysis was applied for chemical characterization of dusts. n-Alkanes ranged from 3.8 to 41 μg/m2 in dust and 0.17-2.42 μg/m3 in gas phase. PAHs concentrations were 17-89 ng/m2 and 45-182 ng/m3, respectively. Caffeine and nicotine were found both in dust (63-2,02 ng/m2 and 7-284 ng/m2, respectively) and as vapors in air (4-416 ng/m3 and 3.5-60 ng/m3). Two sites were affected by cannabinoids, while traces of nonylphenols occurred at all locations. External air was, on the average, more affected by PAHs than the interiors of school and hospital, but not of university. The compound concentrations show that Ouargla city is seriously polluted and requires actions to improve air quality.

  7. A system dynamics approach for hospital waste management in a city in a developing country: the case of Nablus, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Eleyan, Derar; Garfield, Joy

    2016-09-01

    Hospitals and health centers provide a variety of healthcare services and normally generate hazardous waste as well as general waste. General waste has a similar nature to that of municipal solid waste and therefore could be disposed of in municipal landfills. However, hazardous waste poses risks to public health, unless it is properly managed. The hospital waste management system encompasses many factors, i.e., number of beds, number of employees, level of service, population, birth rate, fertility rate, and not in my back yard (NIMBY) syndrome. Therefore, this management system requires a comprehensive analysis to determine the role of each factor and its influence on the whole system. In this research, a hospital waste management simulation model is presented based on the system dynamics technique to determine the interaction among these factors in the system using a software package, ithink. This model is used to estimate waste segregation as this is important in the hospital waste management system to minimize risk to public health. Real data has been obtained from a case study of the city of Nablus, Palestine to validate the model. The model exhibits wastes generated from three types of hospitals (private, charitable, and government) by considering the number of both inpatients and outpatients depending on the population of the city under study. The model also offers the facility to compare the total waste generated among these different types of hospitals and anticipate and predict the future generated waste both infectious and non-infectious and the treatment cost incurred.

  8. Metformin associated lactic acidosis in Auckland City Hospital 2005 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Haloob, Imad; de Zoysa, Janak R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with metformin associated lactic acidosis (MALA). METHODS: Auckland City Hospital drains a population of just over 400000 people. All cases presenting with metabolic acidosis between July 2005 and July 2009 were identified using clinical coding. A retrospective case notes review identified patients with MALA. Prescribing data for metformin was obtained from the national pharmaceutical prescribing scheme. RESULTS: There were 42 cases of metabolic lactic acidosis over 1718000 patient years. There were 51000 patient years of metformin prescribed to patients over the study period. There were thirty two cases of lactic acidosis due to sepsis, seven in patients treated with metformin. Ten cases of MALA were identified. The incidence of MALA was estimated at 19.46 per 100000 patient year exposure to metformin. The relative risk of lactic acidosis in patients on metformin was 13.53 (95%CI: 7.88-21.66) compared to the general population. The mean age of patients with MALA was 63 years, range 40-83 years. A baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was obtained in all patients and ranged from 23-130 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Only two patients had chronic kidney disease G4. Three patients required treatment with haemodialysis. Two patients died. CONCLUSION: Lactic acidosis is an uncommon but significant complication of use of metformin which carries a high risk of morbidity. PMID:27458565

  9. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in sewage from treatment plants of Messina University Hospital and of Messina City Council.

    PubMed

    La Fauci, V; Sindoni, D; Grillo, O C; Calimeri, S; Lo Giudice, D; Squeri, R

    2010-03-01

    Samples of sewage from treatment plants at the "G. Martino" University Hospital of Messina (AOU) and that of Messina City Council were analysed to detect the hepatits E virus. Samples were taken on sewage entering and exiting the treatment plants on a monthly basis over a one-year period from both the hospital plant (24 samples) and the municipal plant (22 samples). All sewage samples were pretreated by ultrafiltraton and concentration and finally processed by the PCR method to amplify gene material. A total of three samples tested positive: two (8.33%) entering the AOU treatment plant and one (4.5%) entering the municipal plant while no cases of HEV were detected in samples of treated sewage. These findings confirm the presence of the virus in the city of Messina and showed that the two treatment plants to be working efficiently when tested.

  10. Causes of Hospitalization among Children Ages Zero to Nine Years Old in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Ana Paula Scoleze; Sucupira, Ana Cecília Silveira Lins; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The profile of child morbidity is an important parameter for defining and altering health policies. Studies about infant mortality are more numerous than those on morbidity, especially related to hospital admissions. The objective of this study is to describe the causes of admission in the public health system for children from zero to nine years of age in the city of São Paulo during the years 2002 to 2006 and compare these results to those from the national data. METHOD: Through a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from the Hospital Information System, which is available in the Information System of the Unified Health System - DATASUS. RESULTS: Within the period, 16% of the total admissions corresponded to children from zero to nine years of age, with most of the children being younger than one year of age. In the city of São Paulo, the admission coefficient increased 11%, and in Brazil, it decreased 14%. Respiratory diseases were the main causes of hospitalization. In São Paulo, the second most frequent causes of admission were diseases that originated during the perinatal period (15.9%), and in Brazil, the second most frequent cause of admission was infectious-parasitic diseases (21.7%). Admissions for perinatal diseases increased 32% in São Paulo and 6% in Brazil. While hospitalizations for diarrhea decreased in Brazil, an increase was recorded in the city of São Paulo for children under five years old. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show a paradoxical increase in the number of hospitalizations during an expansion of primary attention, indicating that the rise was not associated with a significant improvement in the quality of service. PMID:20126344

  11. Attitudes of Terminally Ill Patients toward Death and Dying in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olokor, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the attitudes of terminally ill patients toward death and dying. Four hospitals in Nigeria were randomly selected: University College Hospital, Ibadan; University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City; the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; and Igbinedion Specialist Hospital, Okada, Benin City.…

  12. Offshore Benin, a classic passive margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mathalone, J.M.P. )

    1991-03-01

    Offshore Benin comprises a narrow east-west continental shelf, some 30 km wide. A sharp shelf break running parallel to the coast borders the shelf, whereupon water depths rapidly increase to over 7000 ft. The area lies within the Dahomey Embayment, one of a series of Cretaceous and younger basins lining the coast of Africa that owe their inception to the Late Mesozoic break-up of the Gondwanaland Continent. The basin extends some 100 km inland, but sedimentary section is thin onshore compared to a maximum of 20,000 ft of sediment offshore. Initial sedimentation in this basin was of Neocomian alluvial and lacustrine clastics. These were deposited in east-west-trending narrow half-grabens associated with the initial break up of the South American and African continents. They are covered unconformably by more extensive Albian and Cenomanian transgressive clastics and shallow marine Turonian sandstones which are the main reservoir at Seme, Benin's only oilfield. The Senonian section offshore comprises passive margin deep sea clastic sediments prograding southwards. Very large proximal deep sea channels up to 2500 ft thick are developed in this interval. These channels are associated with excellent petroleum source rocks, averaging 4-5% oil-prone organic carbon, and form the main exploration target in the area when configured in a trap morphology. Seismic data quality is excellent in the region allowing detailed examination of the relationships between the rifted section and later units. In addition, these data illustrate clearly both internal and external morphology of the Senonian proximal deep sea channels.

  13. Serratia marcescens: Biochemical, Serological, and Epidemiological Characteristics and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Strains Isolated at Boston City Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Wilfert, James N.; Barrett, Fred F.; Ewing, W. H.; Finland, Maxwell; Kass, Edward H.

    1970-01-01

    The biochemical, serological, and epidemiological characteristics of 95 strains of Serratia marcescens isolated at the Boston City Hospital were examined. Several strains were shown to be endemic, and the majority of isolates were cultured from urine or respiratory secretions. Serratia species were highly resistant to polymyxin B and the cephalosporins, and various proportions were also resistant to other antibiotics including kanamycin, but all of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin. The appearance of resistance to kanamycin and nalidixic acid among endemic strains was demonstrated. The nosocomial nature of Serratia infections, particularly those involving the urinary tract, was confirmed. Many clinical bacteriology laboratories currently fail to identify the nonpigmented strains. PMID:4314379

  14. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates That Colonize Medical Students in a Hospital of the City of Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Collazos Marín, Luis Fernando; Estupiñan Arciniegas, Gina; Chavez Vivas, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents a risk for the spread of bacteria. This study characterized the S. aureus isolated from medical students, who were in their clinical rotation at a hospital in the city of Cali. Materials and Methods. 216 students participated in the study and 63 isolates of S. aureus were evaluated for susceptibility and PCR amplification of agr and mecA genes. The origin of MRSA isolates was established by analyzing agr polymorphisms. Results. A total of 29.2% of students were colonized by S. aureus and nasal carriage rate was 23.6% and 14.3% MRSA. Three agr groups (agr II, and agr III) were identified; the agr I group was the most common, with a 35% prevalence; this group is from community origin. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates that medical students carry S. aureus strains, with the threat of spreading them both to community and hospital environments. PMID:26495001

  15. Cases of hydatidosis in patients referred to Governmental hospitals for cyst removal in Sana'a City, Republic of Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Shibani, Latifa A N; Al-Eryani, Samira M A; Azazy, Ahmed A; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M

    2012-03-01

    Hydatidosis is a parasitic infestation caused by Echinococcus granulosus. This disease is endemic in many countries including Yemen. The present review article aims to have a glimpse at the present status of hydatidosis in Yemen. This is the first descriptive study, investigating recorded cases of hydatidosis from the five main governmental hospitals in the capital Sana'a city, over a longer period starting from 2001 and ending in 2008. A total of 796 medical records of patients referred to the five main governmental hospitals in Sana'a city for cyst removal, were studied. Of these cases 482 were females and 314 were males. Their mean age was 30.0 ± 16.9 years. Information regarding the location of the cyst in the body, age, sex and residence of each patient was recorded. A higher infection rate was found in females than males (60.6% and 39.4%, respectively). Single organ involvement was observed in 98.6% cases, among which, the most frequent localizations were the liver (60.8%) followed by the lung (24.7%). Cases of hydatidosis appeared to increase during the period 2001-2008, with the lowest number (n=26) and the highest number (n=140) recorded in 2001 and 2007, respectively. We conclude that the risk of hydatidosis is still high in Yemen, where street or stray dogs move freely down town and the population should be aware about the role of dogs in the transmission of this disease. Hospital records provide a useful indication of infection expressed as annual rate of hospital cases. Finally, the collaboration of Public Health Authorities, the Veterinary Medical Authorities and the Environmental Affairs Authorities is a must to control this disease.

  16. Prevalence of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria in Hospital Waters of Major Cities of Khuzestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Hashemzadeh, Mohammad; Sheini Mehrabzadeh, Rasa; Teimoori, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are among the emerging pathogens in immunocompromised individuals including hospitalized patients. So, it is important to consider hospitals water supplies as a source for infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NTM in the hospital aquatic systems of Khuzestan, South west of Iran. In total, 258 hospital water samples were collected and examined. After initial sample processing, sediment of each sample were inoculated into two Lowenstein-Jensen medium. The positive cultures were studied with phenotypic tests including growth rate, colony morphology, and pigmentation, with subsequent PCR- restriction enzyme analysis (PRA) and rpoB gene sequence analysis. Mycobacterial strains were isolated from 77 samples (29.8%), comprising 52 (70.1%) rapid growing, and 25 (32.4%) slow growing mycobacteria. Based on the overall results, M. fortuitum (44.1%) was the most common mycobacterial species in hospital water samples, followed by M. gordonae (n = 13, 16.8%) and M. senegalense (n = 5, 7.7%). In conclusion, current study demonstrated the NTM strains as one of the major parts of hospital water supplies with probable potential source for nosocomial infections. This finding also help to shed light on to the dynamics of the distribution and diversity of NTM in the water system of hospitals in the region of study. PMID:27148491

  17. [Use of agricultural insecticides in Benin].

    PubMed

    Akogbeto, M C; Djouaka, R; Noukpo, H

    2005-12-01

    The use of insecticides in households and in agriculture has been incriminated in the emergence of insecticide resistance in insect vectors. For farming staff, the emergence of vector resistance is due to indoors spray of insecticides using aerosols and other low quality products in rural and urban settings against mosquitoes. On the other hand, public health specialists believe that the phenomenon of resistance could be due to massive use of insecticides in agriculture for field pests control. In Turkey, the implication of agricultural use of pesticides in the selection of vector resistance is clearly established. This study was framed to identify potential practices favouring the emergence of insecticide resistance in the Republic of Benin. Interviews and focus group discussions were organized with cotton, rice and vegetables farmers. The final aim of these surveys was to point out practices likely to favour the emergence of resistance. The research is conducted in 3 cotton fields, 2 rice fields and 2 vegetable plantations. After filling and signing concerned forms, farmers are subjected to quantitative and qualitative questionnaires to generate data on: insecticides being used, the various doses applied for pests eradication, the frequency of treatments, the cost of treatments (cost/hectare/year) the origin of insecticides, the place of purchase, safety precautions and related health hazards. The results of this study have shown that the use of insecticides in agriculture is a clear fact. During treatments, insecticide residues get in contact with mosquito breeding sites where they diffuse into water and exercise a selection pressure on larvae. This partially explains the high levels of resistance recorded in with strains of Anopheles gambiae collected in agricultural settings under insecticides pressure. Pyrethroids and more specifically deltamethrin and cyfluthrin are the insecticides mainly used in studied localities. Bedrooms of farmers are used as storage

  18. The definition of life: a survey of obstetricians and neonatologists in New York City hospitals regarding extremely premature births.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Sharon M; Santella, Regina M

    2011-05-01

    Among obstetricians and neonatologists in administrative roles in New York City hospitals, a survey was initiated to compare the physicians' definitions of live birth and fetal death, the gestational age at which they consider infants viable, and the resuscitation practices of the neonatologists. The target survey population was 34 neonatologists, and 39 obstetricians representing 41 of the City's 43 maternity hospitals. A telephone survey was used to gather qualitative data from the physicians regarding their definitions of live birth, fetal death, and viability, and their practices regarding extremely premature births. Surveys were completed for 58 physicians, a response rate of 79% (94% for neonatologists and 67% for obstetricians). Physicians' definitions of live birth and fetal death varied, with almost a third (29%) of physicians including gestational age as part of their live birth criteria. Most of the physicians (90%) consider infants born at ≥23 weeks gestation viable. Most neonatologists (97%) said they always resuscitate infants born at ≥23 weeks gestation, and most (94%) said they would never resuscitate infants born at <20 weeks gestation. For infants born at 20-22 weeks gestation, there were differences in resuscitation practices. There is a gap between clinical practices and reporting requirements for live birth and fetal death. Whereas reporting requirements are based on definitions of live birth and fetal death, physicians make resuscitation and other clinical decisions regarding extremely premature infants based on definitions of viability.

  19. [Porto and the construction of the modern city: the case of Hospital Geral de Santo António in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Helena

    2014-01-01

    During a period of demographic and urban growth of the city of Porto, the need arose for a new hospital. The Santa Casa da Misericórdia of Porto, in charge of erecting the new health facility, appointed the British architect John Carr to design the project. By means of the analysis of a set of archival sources and sundry literature on the topic, we examine the criteria chosen for the design and construction of Hospital Geral de Santo António and if it fulfilled expectations, becoming a special space in the city. This article opens up a perspective on the study of the development of the city and the creation of this health facility, contributing to the historical trajectory of hospital architecture.

  20. Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm Production in Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains, Isolated from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Contreras, Roberto; Morelos-Ramírez, Rubén; Galicia-Camacho, Ada Nelly; Meléndez-Herrada, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from nosocomial infections represent a serious problem worldwide. In various Mexican states several reports have shown isolates from hospitals with antibiotic resistance to methicillin. In Mexico City, there is scarce information on staphylococcal infections in hospitals. Here, our research findings are shown in a four-year period study (2006–2010) for Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Susceptibility and/or resistance to antibiotics in SE strains were assessed by phenotypic and molecular methods as mecA gene by PCR, as well as the correlation with biofilm production for these isolates and the relationship to the infection site. Out of a total of 161 (66%) negative biofilm SE strains, just 103 (64%) SE strains were confirmed as MRSE by PCR to mecA gene. From 84 (34%) positive biofilm SE strains, 76 (91%) were confirmed as MRSE by PCR to mecA gene. Higher percentages of resistance to antibiotics and higher number of resistance markers were found in biofilm-forming clinical strains (9 to 14) than non-biofilm-forming SE strains (3 to 8). These research findings represent a guide to establish infection control programs for this hospital. PMID:23724338

  1. Preventable Hospitalization Rates and Neighborhood Poverty among New York City Residents, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Bocour, Angelica; Tria, Maryellen

    2016-12-01

    Knowing which demographic groups have higher rates of preventable hospitalizations can help identify geographic areas where improvements in primary care access and quality can be made. This study assessed whether preventable hospitalization rates by neighborhood poverty decreased from 2008 to 2013 and whether the gap between very high and low poverty neighborhoods changed. We examined trends in age-adjusted preventable hospitalization rates and rate ratios by neighborhood poverty overall and by sex using JoinPoint regression. Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality were applied to inpatient hospitalization data from the New York State Department of Health's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. PQIs were classified into composites. From 2008 to 2013, preventable hospitalization rates per 100,000 adults across each poverty group decreased. For very high poverty neighborhoods (ZIP codes with ≥30 % of persons living below the federal poverty level (FPL)), there were significant decreases overall (3430.56 to 2543.10, annual percent change [APC] = -5.91 %), for diabetes (676.15 to 500.83, APC = -5.75 %), respiratory (830.78 to 660.29, APC = -4.85 %), circulatory (995.69 to 701.81, APC = -7.24 %), and acute composites (928.18 to 680.17, APC = -5.62 %). The rate ratios also decreased over time; however, in 2013, the rates for very high poverty neighborhoods were two to four times higher than low poverty neighborhoods (ZIP codes with <10 % of persons below the FPL). While preventable hospitalization rates have decreased over time, disparities still exist. These findings underscore the need to ensure adequate access to quality and timely primary care among individuals living in high poverty neighborhoods.

  2. Association between PM10 and respiratory hospital admissions in different seasons in heavily polluted Lanzhou City.

    PubMed

    An, Xingqin; Yan, Tao; Mi, Shengquan; Sun, Zhaobin; Hou, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Exposure-response relationship between particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10) and human health in different seasons from 2001 to 2005 was examined based on hospital admissions data of respiratory system diseases from four major hospitals in Lanzhou, China. To quantify associations of respiratory system diseases with multiple air pollutants and meteorological conditions, a semiparametric generalized additive model was used in the authors' study by implementing daily ambient sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and PM10 data collected from the Lanzhou Environmental Monitoring Station and daily meteorological data from Lanzhou Meteorological Bureau. Results showed that daily averaged PM10 increased per interquartile range the hospital admissions number of respiratory diseases by 3.3% in spring, 1.4% in summer, 3.6% in autumn, and 4.0% in winter from a single-pollutant model, or 3.1%, 1.4%, 3.0%, and 4.0% from a multi-pollutant model, respectively. The effect of PM10 on respiratory hospital admissions was lowest in summer and highest in winter. The relative risks of PM10 on female or the elderly (≥ 65 yrs.) were higher, showing a stronger association of PM10 with respiratory diseases in female and elderly groups than in males and people younger than 65.

  3. Air pollution and hospital admissions for asthma in a tropical city: Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Shang-Shyue Tsai; Meng-Hsuan Cheng; Hui-Fen Chiu; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

    2006-07-15

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there is an association between air pollutants levels and hospital admissions for asthma in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for asthma and ambient air pollution data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 1996 through 2003. The relative risk of hospital admission was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. In the single-pollutant models, on warm days ({>=}25{sup o}C) statistically significant positive associations were found in all pollutants except sulfur dioxide. On cool days ({<=} 25{sup o}C) all pollutants were significantly associated with asthma admissions. For the two pollutant models, CO and O{sub 3} were significant in combination with each of the other four pollutants on warm days. On cool days NO{sub 2} remained statistically significant in all the two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient pollutants increase the risk of hospital admissions for asthma.

  4. Bacterial-resistance among outpatients of county hospitals in China: significant geographic distinctions and minor differences between central cities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yonghong; Wei, Zeqing; Shen, Ping; Ji, Jinru; Sun, Ziyong; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Tiantuo; Ji, Ping; Ni, Yuxing; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey antibacterial resistance in outpatients of Chinese county hospitals. A total of 31 county hospitals were selected and samples continuously collected from August 2010 to August 2011. Drug sensitivity testing was conducted in a central laboratory. A total of 2946 unique isolates were collected, including 634 strains of Escherichia coli, 606 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 476 Staphylococcus aureus, 308 Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 160 Haemophilus influenzae. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were detected in E. coli (42.3% strains), K. pneumoniae (31.7%), and Proteus mirabilis (39.0%). Ciprofloxacin-resistance was detected in 51.0% of E. coli strains. Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were sensitive to most antibacterial agents. Less than 8.0% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to carbapenem. For S. aureus strains, 15.3% were resistant to methicillin, and some strains of S. pneumoniae showed resistance to penicillin (1.6%), ceftriaxone (13.0%), and erythromycin (96.4%). β-lactamase was produced by 96.5% of Moraxella catarrhalis strains, and 36.2% of H. influenzae isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Azithromycin-resistant H. influenzae, imipenem-resistant but meropenem-sensitive Proteus, and ceftriaxone- and carbapenem non-sensitive M. catarrhalis were recorded. In conclusion, cephalosporin- and quinolone-resistant strains of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and macrolide-resistant Gram-positive cocci were relatively prominent in county hospitals. The antibacterial resistance profiles of isolates from different geographical locations varied significantly, with proportions in county hospitals lower than those in their tertiary counterparts in the central cities, although the difference is diminishing.

  5. Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in Three New York City Hospitals Trended Downwards From 2006 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfang; Furuya, E. Yoko; Larson, Elaine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection is a rising public health threat since its first outbreaks in New York City (NYC) in the early 2000s. We investigated annual trends of CRKP infection in hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and community-onset infections (COIs) treated in 3 NYC hospitals from 2006 to 2014. Methods. We extracted K pneumoniae infection data including carbapenem susceptibility and anatomical sites, compared clinical characteristics between CRKP and carbapenem-susceptible K pneumoniae infections, and determined CRKP infection proportions in total K pneumoniae infections in HAI and COI to identify statistically significant trends from 2006 to 2014 using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Results. Carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae contributed 17.3% (601 of 3477) of hospital-acquired K pneumoniae infection compared with 7.7% (149 of 1926) in COI from 2006 to 2014. Carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae proportions in HAI and COI were positively correlated over time (r = 0.83, P < .01), and there were downward annual trends of CRKP proportions from 2006 to 2014 in both HAI and COI (25.8% to 10.5% in HAI, P < .001; 13.6% to 3.1% in COI, P < .001). By anatomical site, significant downward annual trends were present only in urinary tract infection (P < .001 for both HAI and COI) from 2006 to 2014. Conclusions. Annual trends of CRKP proportions from 2006 to 2014 were downward in both HAI and COI, and HAI and COI were positively correlated. Efforts to reduce and prevent CRKP infections in both hospital and community settings were successful and warrant continuation. PMID:27942542

  6. [Genotyping of Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii complex clinical isolates from Hospital "Dr. Julio C. Perrando", Resistencia city (Chaco, Argentina)].

    PubMed

    Cattana, Maria E; Tracogna, Maria F; Fernández, Mariana S; Carol Rey, Mariana C; Sosa, Maria A; Giusiano, Gustavo E

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by yeast species of Cryptococcus genus, particularly Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex. The knowledge of the cryptococcosis casuistic in northeastern Argentina is scarce and there is no information about the molecular types circulating in this area. The aim of this study was to genotyping C. neoformans/C. gattii complex clinical isolates obtained at Hospital "Dr. Julio C. Perrando", Resistencia city (Chaco, Argentina), in order to determine species, variety and molecular type. During two years and one month 26 clinical isolates were studied. Using conventional and molecular methods one isolate was identified as C. gattii VGI type, and 25 isolates as C. neoformans var. grubii; 23 of these belonged to VNI type and two belonged to VNII type. This data is a contribution to the knowledge of cryptococcosis epidemiology in Argentina and the first report about C. neoformans/ C. gattii complex molecular types from clinical isolates in northeastern Argentina.

  7. Annual economic burden of hepatitis B virus-related diseases among hospitalized patients in twelve cities in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Ma, Q; Liang, S; Xiao, H; Zhuang, G; Zou, Y; Tan, H; Liu, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, L; Feng, X; Xue, L; Hu, D; Cui, F; Liang, X

    2016-03-01

    A nationwide survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated economic burden has not previously been performed in China. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct, indirect, and intangible costs of HBV-related diseases within the span of one year. A random sample was taken from specialty and general hospitals across 12 cities in six provinces of China. Intangible costs were estimated based on willingness to pay or open-ended answers provided by patients. The results showed that 27 hospitals were enrolled, with a sample population of 4726 patients (77.7% response rate). The average annual costs were $4454.0 (direct), $924.3 (indirect), and $6611.10 (intangible), corresponding to 37.3%, 7.7%, and 55.1% of the total costs, respectively. The direct medical fees were substantially greater than the non-medical fees. Annual indirect costs were divided into outpatient ($112.9) and inpatient ($811.40) loss of income. The intangible costs of chronic HBV were notably higher than either the direct or indirect costs, consistent with the social stigma in China. The comparison amongst individual cities for the average ratio of direct to indirect costs revealed that the sizes of ratios were negatively correlated with the socioeconomic status of the regions. This study suggested that as a whole in China, the HBV-related diseases caused a heavy financial burden which was positively associated with disease severity. Although the intangible costs coincided with a high prevalence of discrimination against CHB patients in Chinese society, our study may serve as future reference for detailed exploration.

  8. Campus Planning in Nigeria. Case Study: University of Benin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennet, Bob

    A case study of the University of Benin in Nigeria illustrates campus planning in the development of a university. Eight aspects of university planning are considered: (1) the functions of a university (students, staff, facility capacity); (2) residential accommodation for students and staff; (3) commercial facilities (shopping); (4) environment…

  9. A Complexity Theory Analysis of Educational Reform in Benin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Gnahoui, Emmanuel

    Benin is breaking new ground through a profound reform of its primary school system. The innovation in the system is the revolutionary approach as regards educational practice. The main focus has shifted, in the objectives of the curriculum, from what to teach to whom to empower. This paper analyzes the Reforme de l'ecole de qualite fondamentale…

  10. Enhancing Correctional Education through Community Theatre: The Benin Prison Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okhakhu, Marcel; Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish the relationship between Popular Theatre and Correctional Education. The Benin Prison experiment is the springboard for this laudable and valuable link. The paper strives stridently to show the value of Popular Theatre as a vehicle for achieving correctional values in a Correction centre. More than anything else, it…

  11. Maximizing appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical patients: an update from LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City.

    PubMed

    Burke, J P

    2001-09-01

    Errors in antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgical patients remain one of the most frequent types of medication errors in hospitals. Failure to administer the first dose of antimicrobial prophylaxis within the 2-h window of time before incision is associated with 2- to 6-fold increases in rates of surgical site infection. Optimal use of antimicrobial prophylaxis includes proper case selection; use of appropriate agents; proper dosing, route of administration, timing, and duration; and intraoperative dosing when appropriate. Effective use of antimicrobial prophylaxis also requires monitoring of and feedback on patterns of use. Programs to improve antimicrobial prophylaxis should be multidisciplinary and should aim to improve use of medications, not simply to change physician practice patterns. The LDS Hospital experience demonstrates the clinical and financial benefits of such a program and also shows the pitfalls of and great difficulties associated with changing systems of care.

  12. [Frequency and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter species in a university hospital of Buenos Aires City].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán; Nastro, Marcela; Dabos, Laura; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Two-hundred Acinetobacter isolates belonging to 200 patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martín during the period March 2013-June 2014 were analyzed. The identification was performed by mass spectrometry and was confirmed by molecular methods. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was studied by the Vitek-2 system. A 94% correlation of both identification methods was found. Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was the predominant genomic species (92.6%) in hospital-acquired infections, whereas Acinetobacter pitti and Acinetobacter nosocomialis accounted for 3.5% and 0.5% of the isolates recovered, respectively. In community-acquired infections a major predominance of the different genomic species was observed. Acinetobacter johnsonii and A. baumannii are the most frequent species, accounting for 45.9% of the isolates recovered. Resistance to carbapenems and minocycline was only observed in A. baumannii. Mass spectrophotometry was an effective tool for the identification of the different genomic species.

  13. [Optimization of hospital services extended to residents in a big industrial city].

    PubMed

    Gaĭdarov, G M; Kitsul, I S; Kulesh, D V

    2003-01-01

    Scientific approaches to optimizing the hospital medical care with respect to 3 healthcare levels (regional, municipal and departmental) are presented in the paper. An appropriate model of patient-care facilities aimed at solving the issues of intersectoral involvement of such regional, municipal and departmental institutions in implementing the Territorial Program of State Guarantees in Rendering the Free-Of-Charge Medical Care To Population is suggested.

  14. Outcomes of Patients With Cocaine Induced Chest Pain in An Inner City Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Atoui, Moustapha; Fida, Nadia; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Glandt, Mariela; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Background Cocaine induced chest pain is a major reason for admission in Safety Net Hospitals in the United States. The majority of patients admitted undergo extensive work-up leading to enormous economic burden. We hypothesize that in individuals with low risk, cocaine does not further increase adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients admitted with chest pain to our hospital between 07/01/09 and 06/30/10. We excluded patients with modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). The study population was divided into cocaine and non-cocaine group based on urine drug screen. We analyzed data including demographic, laboratory, cardiac testing, detection of CAD, length of stay and mortality rates. Results A total of 426 individuals matched our inclusion and exclusion criteria and were considered to have no known modifiable cardiac risk factors; 54 in cocaine group and 372 in non-cocaine group. Based on physician discretion, 41(76%) in the cocaine group and 239(64%) in the non-cocaine group underwent various modalities of cardiac testing. Cardiac testing was positive in 6(2.5%) patients in non-cocaine group and none in the cocaine group (p=0.597). There was no significant difference between length of stay and in-hospital mortality between the two groups. Conclusions In individuals at low risk for CAD, cocaine use resulted in higher rate of cardiac testing. However, there is no difference in prevalence of CAD and in-hospital mortality between the two groups. We conclude that cocaine does not increase adverse outcomes in patients with low risk for CAD.

  15. Ecotoxicological and Genotoxic Evaluation of Buenos Aires City (Argentina) Hospital Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Ángela Beatriz; Dragani, Valeria; Saenz, Magalí Elizabeth; Moretton, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Hospital wastewater (HWW) constitutes a potential risk to the ecosystems and human health due to the presence of toxic and genotoxic chemical compounds. In the present work we investigated toxicity and genotoxicity of wastewaters from the public hospital of Buenos Aires (Argentina). The effluent from the sewage treatment plant (STP) serving around 10 million inhabitants was also evaluated. The study was carried out between April and September 2012. Toxicity and genotoxicity assessment was performed using the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the Allium cepa test, respectively. Toxicity assay showed that 55% of the samples were toxic to the algae (%I of growth between 23.9 and 54.8). The A. cepa test showed that 40% of the samples were genotoxic. The analysis of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) showed no significant differences between days and significant differences between months. The sample from the STP was not genotoxic to A. cepa but toxic to the algae (%I = 41%), showing that sewage treatment was not totally effective. This study highlights the need for environmental control programs and the establishment of advanced and effective effluent treatment plants in the hospitals, which are merely dumping the wastewaters in the municipal sewerage system. PMID:25214834

  16. Amenagement et politique linguistques: La politique des langues au Benin (Language Management and Language Policy: The Politics of Language in Benin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halaoui, Nazam

    2001-01-01

    Distinguishing between language management and language policy, examines the politics of language in Benin from independence to the present. Describes the politics of language in Dahomey, the early policies of Benin, and the Republican politics of language, arising from the national constitutional convention and striving to address the needs of…

  17. A prospective multi-center observational study of children hospitalized with diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Phan, My V T; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Minh, Pham Van; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Cao Thu; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Rabaa, Maia A; Duy, Pham Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Jenkins, Claire; Duong, Vu Thuy; Phuc, Hoang Le; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Vinh, Ha; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thuong, Tang Chi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Campbell, James I; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009-2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 (13.3%) children without diarrhea. Rotavirus predominated in the symptomatic children (664/1,419; 46.8%), followed by norovirus (293/1,419; 20.6%). The bacterial pathogens Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Shigella were cumulatively isolated from 204/1,419 (14.4%) diarrheal children and exhibited extensive antimicrobial resistance, most notably to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins. We suggest renewed efforts in generation and implementation of policies to control the sale and prescription of antimicrobials to curb bacterial resistance and advise consideration of a subsidized rotavirus vaccination policy to limit the morbidity due to diarrheal disease in Vietnam.

  18. E. coli outbreak in a neonate intensive care unit in a general hospital in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Casas, Erika Margarita; Suástegui-Urquijo, Zaydy; Arroyo-Escalante, Sara; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Moncada-Barrón, David; Hernández-Delgado, Lorena; Méndez-Sánchez, José Luis; Delgado-Sapién, Gabriela; Navarro-Ocaña, Armando; Manjarrez-Hernández, Ángel; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2013-05-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of this paper was to describe an outbreak of Escherichia coli among infants admitted to the NICU of the General Hospital "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez" in May of 2008. The isolated E. coli strains were identified using standard biochemical methods. The susceptibilities of these strains were analysed by determining their minimal inhibitory concentrations. Following this, their molecular relationships to each other were assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis and corroborated by serology. Twelve E. coli strains were isolated from blood, urine, or indwelling catheter samples from five cases of preterm infants within a 3-day period. Patients were admitted to the NICU of the general hospital and, during the outbreak, developed sepsis caused by E. coli. For four of the patients, the average age was 23 days, while one patient was a 3-month-old infant. Prior to sepsis, the infants had received assisted ventilation and hyperalimentation through a central venous catheter. Two profiles were observed by PFGE; profile A was identified as the outbreak's cause and an outcome of cross-infection, while profile B showed genetic differences but serologically it was identified as part of the same serotype. We conclude that E. coli colonised the patients through horizontal transmission. A focal source of the microorganism in this outbreak was not identified, but cross-transmission through handling was the most probable route.

  19. Imported Malaria over Fifteen Years in an Inner City Teaching Hospital of Washington DC.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi; Sinha, Archana; Sarraf-Yazdy, Mariam; Gajjala, Jhansi

    2016-06-01

    As endemic malaria is not commonly seen in the United States, most of the cases diagnosed and reported are associated with travel to and from the endemic places of malaria. As the number of imported cases of malaria has been increasing since 1973, it is important to look into these cases to study the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease in the United States. In this study, we would like to share our experience in diagnosing and treating these patients at our institution. We did a retrospective chart review of 37 cases with a documented history of imported malaria from 1998 to 2012. Among them, 16 patients had complicated malaria during that study period, with a mean length of hospital stay of 3.5 days. Most common place of travel was Africa, and chemoprophylaxis was taken by only 11% of patients. Travel history plays a critical role in suspecting the diagnosis and in initiating prompt treatment.

  20. [Etiological agents of dermatomycoses isolated in a hospital of Santa Fe City, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Nardin, M E; Pelegri, D G; Manias, V G; Méndez, E de los A

    2006-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are limited to skin, hair, nails and mucous membranes. The most common etiological agents are dermatophytes and yeasts of Candida genus. The aim of this work was to know the etiological agents of dermatomycoses and their clinical presentation. Were analized 2073 samples of skin, hair, nails, and oral mucous membranes obtained from 1817 patients who attended the Microbiology Branch of the Central Laboratory at Dr. J. M. Cullen Hospital, since September 1999 to September 2003. The samples were examined and identified according to the localization and type of lesion. Out of the total samples 55.67% were positive; 63% were recovered from females, and 37% from males. The most common localization was the skin. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequent dermatophyte, and among yeasts, Candida albicans was the prevalent species. Fourteen non-dermatophytic fungi (Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp.) were isolated, and considered emergent pathogens from superficial mycoses.

  1. Morbidity following Mexico City's 1985 earthquakes: clinical and epidemiologic findings from hospitals and emergency units.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Carrillo, C I

    1989-01-01

    Medical records of 822 inpatients and outpatients cared for by the Department of the Federal District medical services during the 1985 Mexico City earthquakes were reviewed. Record incompleteness varied between 92.8 percent and 14.0 percent for the various study variables. No gender differences were detected among the groups; more than 70.0 percent of the patients were ages 15 to 64 years. Multiple traumatic injuries were frequent for inpatients across age groups, while simple contusions were more frequent among outpatients. Multiple head traumas, thorax-abdomen multiple traumas, and simple fractures of an arm or leg were more frequently recorded for inpatients than for outpatients. Head wounds with contusions; simple contusion of the thorax-abdomen, arms, and legs; and psychological trauma were more frequently recorded for outpatients. Although a great many records were incomplete, the data may reflect what actually happened to these patients, given the similarity of the findings with other reports of disasters. Improved record keeping during emergencies is needed to standardize the quantity and the reliability of the data so that statistical and medical care requirements are soundly based. The use of standard questionnaires for data collection is stressed to facilitate the management of clinical and epidemiologic activities. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine patterns of physical injuries, psychological trauma, and survival.

  2. Morbidity following Mexico City's 1985 earthquakes: clinical and epidemiologic findings from hospitals and emergency units.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Carrillo, C I

    1989-01-01

    Medical records of 822 inpatients and outpatients cared for by the Department of the Federal District medical services during the 1985 Mexico City earthquakes were reviewed. Record incompleteness varied between 92.8 percent and 14.0 percent for the various study variables. No gender differences were detected among the groups; more than 70.0 percent of the patients were ages 15 to 64 years. Multiple traumatic injuries were frequent for inpatients across age groups, while simple contusions were more frequent among outpatients. Multiple head traumas, thorax-abdomen multiple traumas, and simple fractures of an arm or leg were more frequently recorded for inpatients than for outpatients. Head wounds with contusions; simple contusion of the thorax-abdomen, arms, and legs; and psychological trauma were more frequently recorded for outpatients. Although a great many records were incomplete, the data may reflect what actually happened to these patients, given the similarity of the findings with other reports of disasters. Improved record keeping during emergencies is needed to standardize the quantity and the reliability of the data so that statistical and medical care requirements are soundly based. The use of standard questionnaires for data collection is stressed to facilitate the management of clinical and epidemiologic activities. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine patterns of physical injuries, psychological trauma, and survival. PMID:2508177

  3. [Promotion of community-based care in Africa: example of community general practice in Benin].

    PubMed

    Caplain, Roland; Yacoubou, Ismaïl; Adedemy, Didier; Sani, Alidou; Takam, Sandrine; Desplats, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort has been made to provide rural African populations with basic health care, but the quality of this care remains unsatisfactory due to the absence of first-line GPs. This is a paradoxical situation in view of the large number of physicians trained in medical schools in French-speaking Africa and Madagascar. of the lack of GPs working in rural areas is a real concern, as many young doctors remain unemployed in cities. For more than 20 years, the NGO Santé Sud has proposed a Community General Medicine concept, which, combined with a support system, has allowed the installation of more than 200 community GPs in Mali and Madagascar. The advantage of this concept is that it provides family medicine and primary health care in the same practice. Since 2009, Santé Sud supports an installation project in rural areas of northern Benin, where community GPs work independently, as a complementary partner of the public sector. Since 2013, the installation process comprises a university degree created with the University of Parakou Faculty of Medicine. Based on this experience in Benin, the authors show that the presence of a first-line general practitioner is an original strategy that provides a major contribution to health promotion : reducing health inequalities between rural and urban populations, allowing women to receive medically assisted childbirth close to home, developing family planning activities, education and health care for chronic diseases, strengthening health coverage by participating in vaccination campaigns, etc. Due to their functions and proximity, community GPs represent an added value for health promotion.

  4. Falling through the cracks? Missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis in a New York City Hospital.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Jolene H; Wiener, Dan E; Newman, David H; Sharp, Victoria L; Egan, Daniel J

    2014-10-01

    Summary Newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients have frequent health care encounters prior to diagnosis representing missed opportunities for diagnosis. This study determines the proportion of patients with new HIV diagnoses with encounters in the 3 years prior to diagnosis. We describe the characteristics of newly diagnosed patients and of "late testers" (CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) at the time of diagnosis). We identified all newly diagnosed with HIV in emergency department, inpatient, and outpatient settings between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009. Data abstractors searched hospital records to identify all emergency department, inpatient, and outpatient visits for the 3 years prior to diagnosis. In all, 23,271 HIV tests were performed and 253 persons were newly diagnosed (1.1%); 152 new positives (60.1%) made at least one prior visit. Of patients with CD4 counts available, 104/175 (59.4%) had CD4 <200 cells/mm(3). Patients with at least one prior visit had a median of three. There was no difference in numbers of visits between late testers and non-late testers, although late testers were more likely to have ED visits. Most newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients had multiple encounters prior to diagnosis. Many of these patients presented with CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm(3), indicating true missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis.

  5. [Differential mortality according to region of residence in Benin].

    PubMed

    Laourou, H M

    1995-01-01

    "The first mortality tables of Benin elaborated by direct estimation for the whole country deal with relatively different regional realities. It is in this regard that the data, whether it is death from multiround surveys or information about survival of parents, allows one to distinguish between the North (with a higher mortality) and the South (which has a lower mortality). Moreover, this differential study reveals that the level of male adult mortality after 35 years in the South, is well above the national average, probably because of the increase in deaths through violence (road accident or victim of a fire) in this part of Benin....The originality of this study is to have highlighted the mortality differentials at almost all age groups of life...." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND ITA)

  6. The burden of bone, native joint and soft tissue infections on orthopaedic emergency referrals in a city hospital.

    PubMed

    Howell, A; Parker, S; Tsitskaris, K; Oddy, M J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bone, native joint and soft tissue infections are frequently referred to orthopaedic units although their volume as a proportion of the total emergency workload has not been reported previously. Geographic and socioeconomic variation may influence their presentation. The aim of this study was to quantify the burden of such infections on the orthopaedic department in an inner city hospital, determine patient demographics and associated risk factors, and review our current utilisation of specialist services. Methods All cases involving bone, native joint and soft tissue infections admitted under or referred to the orthopaedic team throughout 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Prosthetic joint infections were excluded. Results Almost 15% of emergency admissions and referrals were associated with bone, native joint or soft tissue infection or suspected infection. The cohort consisted of 169 patients with a mean age of 43 years (range: 1-91 years). The most common diagnosis was cellulitis/other soft tissue infection and the mean length of stay was 13 days. Two-thirds of patients (n=112, 66%) underwent an operation. Fifteen per cent of patients were carrying at least one blood borne virus, eleven per cent were alcohol dependent, fifteen per cent were using or had been using intravenous drugs and nine per cent were homeless or vulnerably housed. Conclusions This study has shown that a significant number of patients are admitted for orthopaedic care as a result of infection. These patients are relatively young, with multiple complex medical and social co-morbidities, and a long length of stay.

  7. Prevalence of nosocomial infections and anti-infective therapy in Benin: results of the first nationwide survey in 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on nosocomial infections in hospitals in low-income countries are scarce and often inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of nosocomial infections and antimicrobial drug use in Benin hospitals. Methods All hospitals were invited to participate in the first national point prevalence study conducted between 10–26 October 2012 using the protocol developed by the “Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance” (HELICS) project. Infection prevalence rates and the proportion of infected patients and exposure to antimicrobials were assessed. Results Overall, 87% (39/45) of hospitals participated. Of 3130 inpatients surveyed, 972 nosocomial infections were identified among 597 patients, representing an overall prevalence of infected patients of 19.1%. The most frequent infections were related to the urinary tract (48.2%), vascular catheter use (34.7%), and surgical site (24.7%). 64.6% of patients surveyed were treated with antibiotics, including a significant proportion (30%) of non-infected patients and a high proportion of self-medication (40.8%). Resistance of leading nosocomial pathogens to antimicrobials included methicillin-resistance (52.5%) among Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistance among enterococci (67.5%), cefotaxime resistance among Escherichia coli (67.6%), and ceftazidime resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii (100%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (68.2%). Conclusions Benin has high nosocomial infection rates and calls for the implementation of new national infection control policies. Patient safety education and training of all individuals involved in healthcare delivery will be critical to highlight awareness of the burden of disease. The high use of antimicrobials needs to be addressed, particularly their indiscriminate use in non-infected patients. PMID:24883183

  8. Discourses of Education, Protection, and Child Labor: Case Studies of Benin, Namibia and Swaziland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses discontinuities between local, national and international discourse in the fields of education, protection of children, and child labor, using Benin, Namibia and Swaziland as case studies. In Benin, child abuse and child labor are related to poverty, whereas in Namibia and Swaziland they are also interrelated with HIV/AIDS.…

  9. Factors associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene by emergency medical service personnel: a population-based study in Osaka City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Yusuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Hayashida, Sumito; Yoshiya, Kazuhisa; Ogura, Hiroshi; Shimazu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and prehospital demographic factors and reasons for EMS calls. Design A retrospective, observational study. Setting Osaka City, Japan. Participants A total of 100 649 patients transported to medical institutions by EMS from January 2013 to December 2013. Primary outcome measurements The definition of difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene was EMS personnel making ≥5 phone calls to medical institutions until a decision to transport was determined. Multivariable analysis was used to assess the relationship between difficulty in hospital acceptance and prehospital factors and reasons for EMS calls. Results Multivariable analysis showed the elderly, foreigners, loss of consciousness, holiday/weekend, and night-time to be positively associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. As reasons for EMS calls, gas poisoning (adjusted OR 3.281, 95% CI 1.201 to 8.965), trauma by assault (adjusted OR 2.662, 95% CI 2.390 to 2.966), self-induced drug abuse/gas poisoning (adjusted OR 4.527, 95% CI 3.921 to 5.228) and self-induced trauma (adjusted OR 1.708, 95% CI 1.369 to 2.130) were positively associated with the difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. Conclusions Ambulance records in Osaka City showed that certain prehospital factors such as night-time were positively associated with difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene, and reasons for EMS calls, such as self-induced drug abuse/gas poisoning, were also positive predictors for difficulty in hospital acceptance at the scene. PMID:27798040

  10. Louse-borne relapsing fever profile at Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Louse- borne relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by Borrelia recurrentis and is transmitted by body lice, Pediculus humanus corporis. The disease has occurred as epidemic in different parts of the country.Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was conducted to assess the LBRF profile for the last four years. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on patients with LBRF admitted from 2009–2012 at Felegehiwot referral hospital. The diagnosis was based on both clinical and laboratory methods. Patients with strong clinical suspicion of LBRF and positive for Borrelia species in their blood was diagnosed as LBRF cases. Data was collected from all patients with LBRF- like symptoms in their registration book. Data was checked for completeness, coded and analysed using SPSS version 16. P < 0.05 was considered significant for comparison. Results Of the 4559 patients admitted with LBRF- like symptoms, 4178 (91.6%) were males and 381 (8.4%) were females. Most of the patients (74.2%) were within age groups 11–20 years. The majority of patients (94.4%) were from urban residence. The overall prevalence of LBRF was 225 (4.9%) and the highest prevalence 171 (5.1%) was observed in age groups of 11–20 years. The association between seasonal variation and prevalence of LBRF showed that more patients with positive for Borrelia species were recorded in dry 27 (9.7%) than wet 198 (4.6%) seasons (P < 0.001). Finally, a trend in prevalence of LBRF for the last four years showed that the highest numbers of cases were documented in 2010. Conclusion The overall prevalence of LBRF was high and the highest prevalence was observed in young age groups. Moreover, most of the patients with LBRF were from urban dwellers. Therefore, health education should be delivered towards LBRF prevention in the city. PMID:24742342

  11. A Survey of ICT Competencies among Students in Teacher Preparation Programmes at the University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, R. B.; Pessu, C. O. A.

    2013-01-01

    Today's fast-paced world is becoming increasingly characterized by technology driven communication, which has transformed the world into a large global connected community with ever-increasing outreach of information and communication technology (ICT). Technology plays an increasingly important role in people's lives, and it is envisaged that…

  12. Train crash disasters and emergency plans of suburban hospitals in the New York City and Washington, DC areas: what went right; what could have been improved.

    PubMed

    1996-06-01

    Two major train crashes in February--one in Northern New Jersey and the other in Silver Spring, MD, near Washington, DC--posed severe challenges to the disaster plans of area hospitals. The first crash involving two commuter trains near Secaucus, NJ, tested the effectiveness of emergency plans at the Jersey City Medical Center, Jersey City, NJ, and the Meadowlands Hospital Medical Center, Secaucus. The incident occurred at approximately 8:40 a.m. and resulted in three deaths and 162 injuries. The Silver Spring crash, which took place a week after the one in New Jersey, occurred in early evening and involved an Amtrak and a commuter train. It resulted in 11 deaths and 26 injuries. Holy Cross Hospital, Silver Spring, was the primary caregiver. In this report, we'll provide details on how the incidents impacted on nearby hospitals and their security staffs; how challenges, anticipated and unanticipated, were met; and what conclusions were reached in follow-up critiques.

  13. Mites associated with stored grain commodities in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Zannou, Ignace D; Adebo, Habib O; Zannou, Elisabeth; Hell, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    After insects, mites are the major arthropod pests that inhabit stored agricultural products worldwide. To determine the acarofauna that infests cowpea, maize, paddy rice and sorghum in Benin (West Africa), surveys were conducted in some principal markets (Dantokpa, Glazoue and Parakou) of this country. A total of 555 samples of grains and debris were collected in May and September 2011. More than 56 species belonging to 24 mite families were recorded in the four products. These mite species included predators, parasites, fungivorous, phytophagous and other groups whose feeding habits are not well known. The family Cheyletidae was the most prevalent and the most diverse predatory mite family encountered, in which Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans was the most abundant species. Several families of mite pests and mites responsible for allergies (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Pyroglyphidae, Pyemotidae and Saproglyphidae) were also detected. The three most dominant and frequent species were C. malaccensis, Suidasia nesbitti (Hughes) and Suidasia sp. Statistical analysis showed that densities of these three mite species were higher in Parakou than in Glazoue and Dantokpa, on one hand, and higher in debris than in grains, on the other hand. The densities of S. nesbitti and Suidasia sp. decreased significantly during the dry season, whereas C. malaccensis remained stable throughout the two samplings. Of all grains, sorghum was the least infested with mites. This study shows that in Benin mites are present in stored agricultural products to which they cause serious damage, and may cause various allergies to people.

  14. Introduction of misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion beyond 12 weeks of pregnancy in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adisso, Sosthène; Hounkpatin, Benjamin I B; Komongui, Gounnou D; Sambieni, Olivier; Perrin, René X

    2014-07-01

    Improving the care of women who have undergone a spontaneous or induced abortion is an important step in reducing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Both the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization recommend the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol rather than sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion. MVA was introduced into the public healthcare service in Benin in 2006 and since 2008 misoprostol has been available in 3 large maternity hospitals. The present study opted to use an oral dose of 800 μg and not to limit to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks, but to include women with second trimester abortions. After 5 years, results show that around three-quarters of the women treated with misoprostol at 13-18 weeks of pregnancy required MVA to complete uterine evacuation and approximately one-quarter had severe bleeding, confirming that the indication of misoprostol for incomplete abortion should be limited to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks.

  15. A tale of two cities: effects of air pollution on hospital admissions in Hong Kong and London compared.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chit-Ming; Atkinson, Richard W; Anderson, H Ross; Hedley, Anthony Johnson; Ma, Stefan; Chau, Patsy Yuen-Kwan; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2002-01-01

    The causal interpretation of reported associations between daily air pollution and daily admissions requires consideration of residual confounding, correlation between pollutants, and effect modification. If results obtained in Hong Kong and London--which differ in climate, lifestyle, and many other respects--were similar, a causal association would be supported. We used identical statistical methods for the analysis in each city. Associations between daily admissions and pollutant levels were estimated using Poisson regression. Nonparametric smoothing methods were used to model seasonality and the nonlinear dependence of admissions on temperature, humidity, and influenza admissions. For respiratory admissions (> or = 65 years of age), significant positive associations were observed with particulate matter < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10), nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone in both cities. These associations tended to be stronger at shorter lags in Hong Kong and at longer lags in London. Associations were stronger in the cool season in Hong Kong and in the warm season in London, periods during which levels of humidity are at their lowest in each city. For cardiac admissions (all ages) in both cities, significant positive associations were observed for PM(10), NO(2), and SO(2) with similar lag patterns. Associations tended to be stronger in the cool season. The associations with NO(2) and SO(2) were the most robust in two-pollutant models. Patterns of association for pollutants with ischemic heart disease were similar in the two cities. The associations between O(3) and cardiac admissions were negative in London but positive in Hong Kong. We conclude that air pollution has remarkably similar associations with daily cardiorespiratory admissions in both cities, in spite of considerable differences between cities in social, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The results strengthen the argument that air pollution causes detrimental short

  16. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Corinne N; Zelner, Jonathan L; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My Vt; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Baker, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings.

  17. The impact of environmental and climatic variation on the spatiotemporal trends of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corinne N.; Zelner, Jonathan L.; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Phan, My VT; Hoang Le, Phuc; Nguyen Thanh, Hung; Vu Thuy, Duong; Minh Nguyen, Ngoc; Ha Manh, Tuan; Van Hoang Minh, Tu; Lu Lan, Vi; Nguyen Van Vinh, Chau; Tran Tinh, Hien; von Clemm, Emmiliese; Storch, Harry; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    It is predicted that the integration of climate-based early warning systems into existing action plans will facilitate the timely provision of interventions to diarrheal disease epidemics in resource-poor settings. Diarrhea remains a considerable public health problem in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam and we aimed to quantify variation in the impact of environmental conditions on diarrheal disease risk across the city. Using all inpatient diarrheal admissions data from three large hospitals within HCMC, we developed a mixed effects regression model to differentiate district-level variation in risk due to environmental conditions from the overarching seasonality of diarrheal disease hospitalization in HCMC. We identified considerable spatial heterogeneity in the risk of all-cause diarrhea across districts of HCMC with low elevation and differential responses to flooding, air temperature, and humidity driving further spatial heterogeneity in diarrheal disease risk. The incorporation of these results into predictive forecasting algorithms will provide a powerful resource to aid diarrheal disease prevention and control practices in HCMC and other similar settings. PMID:26402922

  18. Statistical Analysis Aiming at Predicting Respiratory Tract Disease Hospital Admissions from Environmental Variables in the City of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO2 and CO, PM10 and O3, and PM10, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes. PMID:20706674

  19. Isolation and Identification of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts From Adult House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Captured From the Hospital Environments in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Kassiri, Hamid; Zarrin, Majid; Veys-Behbahani, Rahele; Faramarzi, Sama; Kasiri, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Musca domestica L., 1758 is capable of transferring a number of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify medically important filamentous fungi and yeasts from adult M. domestica collected from two wards of three hospital environments in Ahvaz city, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. The common house flies were caught by a sterile net. These insects were washed in a solution of 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min and twice in sterile distilled water for 1 min. The flies were individually crushed with sterile swabs in sterile test tubes. Then 2 ml of sterile normal saline (0.85%) was added to each tube, and the tube was centrifuged for 5 min. The supernatant was then discarded, and the remaining sediment was inoculated with a sterile swab in the Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium containing chloramphenicol. Isolation and identification of fungi were made by standard mycological methods. In this research, totally 190 M. domestica from hospital environments were captured. In total, 28 fungal species were isolated. The main fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp. (67.4%), Penicillium sp. (11.6%), Mucorales sp. (11%), Candida spp. (10.5%), and Rhodotorula sp. (8.4%). Among the house flies caught at the hospitals, about 80% were found to carry one or more medically important species of fungi. This study has established that common house flies carry pathogenic fungi in the hospital environments of Ahvaz. The control of M. domestica in hospitals is essential in order to control the nosocomial fungal infections in patients.

  20. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection Among Pregnant Women and its Complications in Their Newborns During the Birth in the Hospitals of Dezful City, Iran, 2012 - 2013

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Marziyeh; Lavasani, Zohreh; Norouzirad, Reza; Najibpour, Reza; Mohamadpour, Masoomeh; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Raeisi, Mohammad; Zare Marzouni, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common disorder caused by bacterial agents in pregnancy, which can lead to important complications in newborn of such mothers in case of inappropriate diagnosis and treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to study the prevalence of UTI among pregnant women and its complications in their newborns during the birth in the hospitals of Dezful City, Iran, during 2012 - 2013. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, 1132 women admitted to Dr. Ganjavian and Ayatollah Nabavi Hospitals in Dezful City, Iran, during 2012 - 2013 were randomly allocated into the case and control groups and were matched based on their age, numbers of pregnancy, sex and diseases of their children. UTI was the only difference between the two groups. Results: Twenty-two thousand six hundred deliveries occurred within the course of this study. Due to UTI, 5% of deliveries led to hospitalization of mothers (1132 patients).Weight and height of newborn infants of mothers afflicted with UTI (P < 0.001) were significantly lower compared to newborns of healthy women (P < 0.001). There was a significant association between the two groups of pregnant women with UTI in terms of type of delivery (normal and caesarean section) (P < 0.008). Conclusions: The lower incidence of UTI in pregnant women compared to other areas of Iran represents the role of climate and weather in the prevalence of UTI. In addition, the increased number of low-birth-weight infants had a remarkable correlation with UTI, which can influence the health of the next generation. PMID:26430526

  1. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil.

    PubMed

    d'Azevedo, P A; Secchi, C; Antunes, A L S; Sales, T; Silva, F M; Tranchesi, R; Pignatari, A C C

    2008-10-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: study of antibiotic resistance and molecular typing in hospital infection cases in a neonatal intensive care unit from Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, M M; de Moraes, B A; Mendonca, V L F; Quadra, M R R; Pinheiro, G S; Asensi, M D

    2002-04-01

    This study had the objective of to analyze the demographic and bacteriologic data of 32 hospitalized newborns in an neonatal intensive care unit of a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, seized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis during a period ranged from July 1997 to July 1999, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance percentage, serotypes and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of 32 strains isolated during this period. The study group presented mean age of 12.5 days, with higher prevalence of hospital infection in males (59.4%) and vaginal delivery (81.2%), than females (40.6%) and cesarean delivery (18.8%), respectively. In this group, 20 (62.5%) patients received antimicrobials before positive blood cultures presentation. A total of 87.5% of the patients were premature, 62.5% presented very low birth weight and 40.6% had asphyxia. We detected high antimicrobial resistance percentage to b-lactams, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline among the isolated strains. All isolated strains were classified as multi-drug resistant. Most strains presented serotype O11 while PFGE analysis revealed seven distinct clones with isolation predominance of a single clone (75%) isolated from July 1997 to June 1998.

  3. The dilemma of a practice: experiences of abortion in a public maternity hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Cecilia; Menezes, Greice; Reis, Ana Paula Dos

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses abortion and miscarriage from the perspective of women admitted to a public maternity hospital in Salvador (BA), Brazil. Based on qualitative and quantitative research, it draws on participant observation of everyday hospital life. Taking an ethnographic approach, it addresses the hospital experiences of women who had miscarriages or induced abortions, also presenting the views of health professionals. It argues that the way the institution structures care for abortion and miscarriage involves symbolic processes that profoundly affect women's experiences. The discrimination against women who have had abortions/miscarriages is an integral part of the structure, organization and culture of these institutions, and does not derive solely from the individual actions of healthcare personnel.

  4. Management of information within emergencies departments in developing countries: analysis at the National Emergency Department in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Ahanhanzo, Yolaine Glèlè; Kpozehouen, Alphonse; Sopoh, Ghislain; Sossa-Jérôme, Charles; Ouedraogo, Laurent; Wilmet-Dramaix, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of health information is a key pillar in both emergencies reception and handling facilities, given the strategic position and the potential of these facilities within hospitals, and in the monitoring of public health and epidemiology. With the technological revolution, computerization made the information systems evolve in emergency departments, especially in developed countries, with improved performance in terms of care quality, productivity and patient satisfaction. This study analyses the situation of Benin in this field, through the case of the Academic Clinic of Emergency Department of the National University Teaching Hospital of Cotonou, the national reference hospital. Methods The study is cross-sectional and evaluative. Collection techniques are literature review and structured interviews. The components rated are resources, indicators, data sources, data management and the use-dissemination of the information through a model adapted from Health Metrics Network framework. We used quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results The absence of a regulatory framework restricts the operation of the system in all components and accounts for the lack and inadequacy of the dedicated resources. Conclusion Dedication of more resources for this system for crucial needs such as computerization requires sensitization and greater awareness of the administrative authorities about the fact that an effective health information management system is of prime importance in this type of facility. PMID:27800116

  5. Coarse Particulate Air Pollution Associated with Increased Risk of Hospital Admissions for Respiratory Diseases in a Tropical City, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Meng-Hsuan; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between coarse particles (PM2.5–10) levels and frequency of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases (RD) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for RD including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia, and ambient air pollution data levels for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for RD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased rate of admissions for RD were significantly associated with higher coarse PM levels only on cool days (<25 °C), with a 10 µg/m3 elevation in PM2.5–10 concentrations associated with a 3% (95% CI = 1%–5%) rise in COPD admissions, 4% (95% CI = 1%–7%) increase in asthma admissions, and 3% (95% CI = 2%–4%) rise in pneumonia admissions. No significant associations were found between coarse particle levels and the number of hospital admissions for RD on warm days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5–10 levels remained significantly correlated with higher rate of RD admissions even controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5–10 enhance the risk of hospital admissions for RD on cool days. PMID:26501308

  6. Comparison of two different running models for the shock wave lithotripsy machine in Taipei City Hospital: self-support versus outsourcing cooperation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Yi; Chen, Shiou-Sheng; Chen, Li-Kuei

    2009-10-01

    To compare two different running models including self-support and outsourcing cooperation for the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) machine in Taipei City Hospital, we made a retrospective study. Self-support means that the hospital has to buy an SWL machine and get all the payment from SWL. In outsourcing cooperation, the cooperative company provides an SWL machine and shares the payment with the hospital. Between January 2002 and December 2006, we used self-support for the SWL machine, and from January 2007 to December 2008, we used outsourcing cooperation. We used the method of full costing to calculate the cost of SWL, and the break-even point was the lowest number of treatment sessions of SWL to make balance of payments every month. Quality parameters including stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate were evaluated. When outsourcing cooperation was used, there were significantly more treatment sessions of SWL every month than when utilizing self-support (36.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 48.1 +/- 8.4, P = 0.03). The cost of SWL for every treatment session was significantly higher using self-support than with outsourcing cooperation (25027.5 +/- 1789.8 NT$ vs. 21367.4 +/- 201.0 NT$). The break-even point was 28.3 (treatment sessions) for self-support, and 28.4 for outsourcing cooperation, when the hospital got 40% of the payment, which would decrease if the percentage increased. No significant differences were noticed for stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate of SWL between the two running models. Besides, outsourcing cooperation had lower cost (every treatment session), but a greater number of treatment sessions of SWL every month than self-support.

  7. Geochemical and isotopic study of the aquifers of the littoral plain of Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Alasanne, Abdoukarim; Boukari, Moussa; Mama, Daouda; Lavastre, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    The study area is located in the Southern part of the coastal sedimentary basin of Benin. This basin contains four aquifers among which the aquifers of the Quaternary and of the Continental Terminal which are concerned by the present study. These aquifers are intensely used for the drinking water supply of about two million inhabitants in the cities of Cotonou, Porto Novo, Ouidah and their surroundings. At present, a degradation of the quality of groundwaters coming from the aquifers of the Quaternary and of Continental Terminal is observed that is connected to ground occupation and to the intensive pumping, having for consequence the progression of the marine intrusion in these aquifers. The present work aims at studying the hydrogeochemical and isotopic behaviour of these two aquifers. The methodological approach consists in the measurements of the physico-chemical parameters, as well as the stable isotope signature of the groundwater in order to appreciate groundwater quality and origin. Results show that groundwaters of the aquifers of the Quaternary and of the Continental Terminal are highly mineralized and show Na-Cl or Ca-HCO3 water types. The main processes affecting the mineralization of waters are, among others, the mixture with salty and brackish waters from the Atlantic Ocean or from the littoral lagoons, dissolution of carbonate minerals and cationic exchanges. The isotopic study indicates that groundwater is recharged by local rainfalls; some samples of the Quaternary aquifer show a mixture with the sea water, which is in good agreement with the geochemical results. Both aquifers tend to show the same isotopic signature suggesting a relatively good hydraulic continuity within the reservoir and confirming geological investigations made through drillings.

  8. "You Who Have Been to School, What Have You Become?": An Ethnographic Study of University Life in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessling O'Neil, Marcy

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between higher education and social mobility among students and their families in Benin, West Africa. In this study I draw on ethnographic research conducted at the public University of Abomey-Calavi in Cotonou, Benin in 2010. I utilize interviews, historical documents, and participant observation to…

  9. Surveillance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Pediatric Hospital in Mexico City during a 7-Year Period (1997 to 2003): Clonal Evolution and Impact of Infection Control

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez-Meza, M. E.; Aires de Sousa, M.; Echaniz-Aviles, G.; Solórzano-Santos, F.; Miranda-Novales, G.; Silva-Sanchez, J.; de Lencastre, H.

    2004-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2000 a single multidrug-susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone, M (sequence type 30 [ST30]-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec [SCCmec] type IV), was present in a pediatric hospital in Mexico City, Mexico. In 2001 the international multidrug-resistant New York-Japan clone (ST5-SCCmec type II) was introduced into the hospital, completely replacing clone M by 2002. PMID:15297554

  10. The Role of Psychiatric Emergency Services in Aiding Community Alternatives to Hospitalization in an Inner-City Population

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.

    1978-01-01

    In the proper political/economic environment, Crisis Intervention Programs can reduce the recidivism rate of patients who suffer from recurrent intermittent acute psychotic episodes. The author seeks to outline such a program and demonstrate its effectiveness in providing an alternative to brief hospitalization. It is believed that this form of management of the psychiatric emergency aids the practice of community psychiatry and supports the use of day treatment facilities, outpatient clinics, emergency housing, family therapy, and other community support systems. PMID:731721

  11. FUNGEMIA CAUSED BY Candida SPECIES IN A CHILDREN'S PUBLIC HOSPITAL IN THE CITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL: STUDY IN THE PERIOD 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Vanessa Kummer Perinazzo; Ruiz, Luciana da Silva; Oliveira, Nélio Alessandro Jesus; Moreira, Débora; Hahn, Rosane Christine; Melo, Analy Salles de Azevedo; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care environment. The epidemiology of Candida infection is changing, mainly in relation to the number of episodes caused by species C. non-albicans. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of yeasts of the genus Candida, in a four-year period, isolated from blood of pediatric patients hospitalized in a public hospital of the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In this period, yeasts from blood of 104 patients were isolated and, the identified species of Candida by phenotypic and genotypic methods were: C. albicans (39/104), C. tropicalis (25/104), C. parapsilosis (23/104), Pichia anomala (6/104), C. guilliermondii (5/104), C. krusei (3/104), C. glabrata (2/104) and C. pararugosa (1/104). During the period of the study, a higher frequency of isolates of C. non-albicans (63.55%) (p = 0.0286) was verified. In this study we verified the increase of the non-albicans species throughout the years (mainly in 2009 and 2010). Thus, considering the peculiarities presented by Candida species, a correct identification of species is recommended to lead to a faster diagnosis and an efficient treatment. PMID:25076430

  12. Pre-hospital delay and its associated factors in first-ever stroke registered in communities from three cities in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bin; Ru, Xiaojuan; Sun, Haixin; Liu, Hongmei; Sun, Dongling; Liu, Yunhai; Huang, Jiuyi; He, Li; Wang, Wenzhi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore pre-hospital delay and its associated factors in first-ever stroke registered in communities from three cities in China. The rates of delay greater than or equal to 2 hours were calculated and factors associated with delays were determined by non-conditional binary logistic regression, after adjusting for different explanatory factors. Among the 403 cases of stroke with an accurate documented time of prehospital delay, the median time (interquartile range) was 4.00 (1.50–14.00) hours. Among the 544 cases of stroke with an estimated time range of prehospital delay, 24.8% of patients were transferred to the emergency department or hospital within 2 hours, only 16.9% of patients with stroke were aware that the initial symptom represented a stroke, only 18.8% used the emergency medical service and one-third of the stroke cases were not identified by ambulance doctors. In the multivariate analyses, 8 variables or sub-variables were identified. In conclusion, prehospital delay of stroke was common in communities. Thus, intervention measures in communities should focus on education about the early identification of stroke and appropriate emergency medical service (EMS) use, as well as the development of organized stroke care. PMID:27411494

  13. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007-2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0-15 years old). Middle-aged people (16-65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8-1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place.

  14. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007–2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0–15 years old). Middle-aged people (16–65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8–1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID

  15. Estimation of the Demand for Hospital Care After a Possible High-Magnitude Earthquake in the City of Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Bambarén, Celso; Uyen, Angela; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Introduction A model prepared by National Civil Defense (INDECI; Lima, Peru) estimated that an earthquake with an intensity of 8.0 Mw in front of the central coast of Peru would result in 51,019 deaths and 686,105 injured in districts of Metropolitan Lima and Callao. Using this information as a base, a study was designed to determine the characteristics of the demand for treatment in public hospitals and to estimate gaps in care in the hours immediately after such an event.

  16. The ecological relationship between deprivation, social isolation and rates of hospital admission for acute psychiatric care: a comparison of London and New York City.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Sarah; Copeland, Alison; Fagg, James; Congdon, Peter; Almog, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Justine

    2006-03-01

    We report on comparative analyses of small area variation in rates of acute hospital admissions for psychiatric conditions in Greater London around the year 1998 and in New York City (NYC) in 2000. Based on a theoretical model of the factors likely to influence psychiatric admission rates, and using data from the most recent population censuses and other sources, we examine the association with area indicators designed to measure access to hospital beds, socio-economic deprivation, social fragmentation and ethnic/racial composition. We report results on admissions for men and women aged 15-64 for all psychiatric conditions (excluding self-harm), drug-related substance abuse/addiction, schizophrenia and affective disorders. The units of analysis in NYC were 165 five-digit Zip Code Areas and, in London, 760 electoral wards as defined in 1998. The analysis controls for age and sex composition and, as a proxy for access to care, spatial proximity to hospitals with psychiatric beds. Poisson regression modeling incorporating random effects was used to control for both overdispersion in the counts of admissions and for the effects of spatial autocorrelation. The results for NYC and London showed that local admission rates for all types of condition were positively and significantly associated with deprivation and the association is independent of demographic composition or 'access' to beds. In NYC, social fragmentation showed a significant association with admissions due to affective disorders and schizophrenia, and for drug dependency among females. Racial minority concentration was significantly and positively associated with admissions for schizophrenia. In London, social fragmentation was associated positively with admissions for men and women due to schizophrenia and affective disorders. The variable measuring racial/ethnic minority concentration for London wards showed a negative association with admission rates for drug dependency and for affective disorders. We

  17. Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Musco, Nadia; Koura, Ivan B.; Tudisco, Raffaella; Awadjihè, Ghislain; Adjolohoun, Sebastien; Cutrignelli, Monica I.; Mollica, Maria Pina; Houinato, Marcel; Infascelli, Federico; Calabrò, Serena

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide recommendations on the most useful forage species to smallholder farmers, eleven grass and eleven legume forages grown in Abomey-Calavi in Republic of Benin were investigated for nutritive value (i.e. chemical composition and energy content) and fermentation characteristics (i.e. gas and volatile fatty acid production, organic matter degradability). The in vitro gas production technique was used, incubating the forages for 120 h under anaerobic condition with buffalo rumen fluid. Compared to legume, tropical grass forages showed lower energy (8.07 vs 10.57 MJ/kg dry matter [DM]) and crude protein level (16.10% vs 19.91% DM) and higher cell wall content (neutral detergent fiber: 63.8% vs 40.45% DM), respectively. In grass forages, the chemical composition showed a quite high crude protein content; the in vitro degradability was slightly lower than the range of tropical pasture. The woody legumes were richer in protein and energy and lower in structural carbohydrates than herbaceous plants, however, their in vitro results are influenced by the presence of complex compounds (i.e. tannins). Significant correlations were found between chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics. The in vitro gas production method appears to be a suitable technique for the evaluation of the nutritive value of forages in developing countries. PMID:26732328

  18. Indigenous knowledge on landraces and fonio-based food in Benin.

    PubMed

    Ballogou, Vénérande Y; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Toukourou, Fatiou; Hounhouigan, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Fonio is a traditional cereal cultivated in many West African countries, where farmers are often the guardians of a rich diversity of landraces or traditional varieties. An investigation conducted in northwest of Benin on indigenous knowledge about fonio landraces and fonio-based traditional foods allowed us to inventory 35 landraces identified by the farmers. Ipormoa, Namba, Icantoni or Kopognakè or Icantoga and Iporhouwan landraces were good to cook paste and couscous and easy to dehusk. Besides, Ipormoa and Iporhouwan landraces had interesting agronomic characteristics. Paste, porridge, and couscous were the main fonio-based foods consumed by farmers in northwest of Benin.

  19. Prevalence of Needlestick Injuries Among Healthcare Workers in the Accident and Emergency Department of a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, AR; Oguzie, KE; Okpogoro, OE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are continually exposed to hazards from contact with blood and body fluids of patients in the healthcare setting. Aim: To determine the prevalence of needlestick injuries (NSIs) and associated factors among HCWs in the Accident and Emergency Department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Data were collected using a structured, self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Univariate, bivariate, and binary logistic regression analyses were done. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of NSIs 12 months preceding the study was 51.0% (50/98). Doctors 8/10 (80.0%) and nurses 28/40 (70.0%) had the highest occurrence. Recapping of needles 19/50 (38.0%) and patient aggression 13/50 (26.0%) were responsible for most injuries. The majority 31/50 (62.0%) of the injuries were not reported. The uptake of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was low 11/50 (22.0%). The factors that were significantly associated with NSI include age 30 years and above (odds ratio [OR] =0.28, confidence interval [CI] = 0.11–0.70), work duration of three years and above (OR = 0.29, CI = 0.11–0.75), and being a nurse (OR = 3.38, CI = 1.49–9.93) or a paramedic (OR = 0.18, CI = 0.06–0.52). Conclusion: The high prevalence of NSIs among the HCWs, especially in doctors and nurses is an indication that HCWs in UBTH are at great risk of contracting blood-borne infections. Efforts should be made to ensure that injuries are reported and appropriate PEP undertaken following NSIs. PMID:27057376

  20. [Frequency of cancer in a specialty hospital in Mexico City. Implications for the development of early detection methods].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Torre, Analy; García-Rodríguez, Francisco Mario; García, Rebeca Gil; Jiménez-Villanueva, Xicoténcatl; Hernández-Rubio, Angela; Aboharp-Hasan, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en México. El Hospital Juárez de México es una institución general de alta especialidad, por lo que la frecuencia de pacientes con cáncer atendidos en su Unidad de Oncología es una muestra representativa de la frecuencia de cáncer en el país. Objetivo: conocer la estadística de tumores diagnosticados en un hospital de tercer nivel. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo efectuado con base en la revisión de los expedientes guardados en los archivos de Anatomía Patológica de pacientes atendidos entre los años 2006 y 2010. Se registraron todos los casos positivos a cáncer de material obtenido mediante biopsia o pieza quirúrgica. Se agruparon por edad, sexo y sitios anatómicos. Resultados: se identificaron las 10 neoplasias más frecuentes en uno y otro sexo, los grupos de edad, y sexo más afectado. Conclusiones: la información obtenida refleja la realidad del país de población abierta no derechohabiente. En México, las mujeres padecen más cáncer que los hombres; las neoplasias de mama y tracto genital son las más frecuentes. Deben reforzarse los sistemas de detección oportuna para que la identificación de casos tempranos sea mayor en nuestra población.

  1. Genetic organization of transposase regions surrounding blaKPC carbapenemase genes on plasmids from Klebsiella strains isolated in a New York City hospital.

    PubMed

    Gootz, Thomas D; Lescoe, Mary Kay; Dib-Hajj, Fadia; Dougherty, Brian A; He, Wen; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Huard, Richard C

    2009-05-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella strains carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) are endemic to New York City and are spreading across the United States and internationally. Recent studies have indicated that the KPC structural gene is located on a 10-kb plasmid-borne element designated Tn4401. Fourteen Klebsiella pneumoniae strains and one Klebsiella oxytoca strain isolated at a New York City hospital in 2005 carrying either bla(KPC-2) or bla(KPC-3) were examined for isoforms of Tn4401. Ten of the Klebsiella strains contained a 100-bp deletion in Tn4401, corresponding to the Tn4401a isoform. The presence of this deletion adjacent to the upstream promoter region of bla(KPC) in Tn4401a resulted in a different -35 promoter sequence of TGGAGA than that of CTGATT present in isoform Tn4401b. Complete sequencing of one plasmid carrying bla(KPC) from each of three nonclonal isolates indicated the presence of genes encoding other types of antibiotic resistance determinants. The 70.6-kb plasmid from K. pneumoniae strain S9 carrying bla(KPC-2) revealed two identical copies of Tn4401b inserted in an inverse fashion, but in this case, one of the elements disrupted a group II self-splicing intron. In K. pneumoniae strain S15, the Tn4401a element carrying bla(KPC-2) was found on both a large 120-kb plasmid and a smaller 24-kb plasmid. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results indicate that the isolates studied represent a heterogeneous group composed of unrelated as well as closely related Klebsiella strains. Our results suggest that endemic KPC-positive Klebsiella strains constitute a generally nonclonal population comprised of various alleles of bla(KPC) on several distinct plasmid genetic backgrounds. This study increases our understanding of the genetic composition of the evolving and expanding role of KPC-producing, healthcare-associated, gram-negative pathogens.

  2. Reshaping Care for Older People: Trends in emergency admissions to hospital during a period of simultaneous interventions in Glasgow City, April 2011-March 2015.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Crighton, Emilia M

    2016-12-01

    This study describes trends in emergency admissions (EAs) in Glasgow City during a period when interventions were designed and implemented, aimed at shifting the balance from institutional to community-based care. Standardised monthly rates of EAs between April 2011 and March 2015 were calculated, for residents of Glasgow City aged 65 years and over. Multilevel zero-inflated Negative Binomial models for EAs nested by datazone were created, adjusting for sex, 5-year age group, area-level deprivation (SIMD quintile), season, month and month squared. Models were also run for EAs by cause, for three causes: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), falls and dementia. The rate of EAs first rose then fell during the study period. When modelled, RRs for month (RR for month 12 relative to month 1 and 95% CI=1.02 (0.99, 1.06)) and month squared (RR=0.999 (0.998, 0.999)) indicated a rise in admissions until February 2012, followed by a fall. Risk of admission was greater for males and increased with increasing age group. The risk of going into hospital for those from SIMD 5 (most affluent) was 0.58 (0.56, 0.59) relative to those from SIMD 1 (most deprived). Socioeconomic inequalities were particularly great for COPD-related admissions, where RR for SIMD 5 was 0.25 (0.23, 0.28) times that of SIMD 1. An interaction term between month and SIMD was not significant for any outcome. For dementia-related EAs there was a suggestion that inequalities may be reducing over time. EAs for those aged 65 years and more reduced during the Change Fund period, with similar relative reductions observed across all deprivation quintiles.

  3. Bacterial and viral pathogen spectra of acute respiratory infections in under-5 children in hospital settings in Dhaka city

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Golam Sarower; Hossain, Mohammad Amir; Sarker, Suprovath Kumar; Rahat, Asifuzzaman; Islam, Md Tarikul; Haque, Tanjina Noor; Begum, Noorjahan; Qadri, Syeda Kashfi; Muraduzzaman, A. K. M.; Islam, Nafisa Nawal; Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul; Sultana, Nusrat; Jony, Manjur Hossain Khan; Khanam, Farhana; Mowla, Golam; Matin, Abdul; Begum, Firoza; Shirin, Tahmina; Ahmed, Dilruba; Saha, Narayan; Qadri, Firdausi

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to examine for the first time the spectra of viral and bacterial pathogens along with the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in under-5 children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in hospital settings of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nasal swabs were collected from 200 under-five children hospitalized with clinical signs of ARIs. Nasal swabs from 30 asymptomatic children were also collected. Screening of viral pathogens targeted ten respiratory viruses using RT-qPCR. Bacterial pathogens were identified by bacteriological culture methods and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined following CLSI guidelines. About 82.5% (n = 165) of specimens were positive for pathogens. Of 165 infected cases, 3% (n = 6) had only single bacterial pathogens, whereas 43.5% (n = 87) cases had only single viral pathogens. The remaining 36% (n = 72) cases had coinfections. In symptomatic cases, human rhinovirus was detected as the predominant virus (31.5%), followed by RSV (31%), HMPV (13%), HBoV (11%), HPIV-3 (10.5%), and adenovirus (7%). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogen (9%), whereas Klebsiella pneumaniae, Streptococcus spp., Enterobacter agglomerans, and Haemophilus influenzae were 5.5%, 5%, 2%, and 1.5%, respectively. Of 15 multidrug-resistant bacteria, a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate and an Enterobacter agglomerans isolate exhibited resistance against more than 10 different antibiotics. Both ARI incidence and predominant pathogen detection rates were higher during post-monsoon and winter, peaking in September. Pathogen detection rates and coinfection incidence in less than 1-year group were significantly higher (P = 0.0034 and 0.049, respectively) than in 1–5 years age group. Pathogen detection rate (43%) in asymptomatic cases was significantly lower compared to symptomatic group (P<0.0001). Human rhinovirus, HPIV-3, adenovirus, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Klebsiella pneumaniae had

  4. Physicians' attitude towards tobacco dependence in a private hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Julião, Alessandra Maria; Camargo, Ana Luiza Lourenço Simões; Cítero, Vanessa de Albuquerque; Maranhão, Mara Fernandes; Maluf, Alfredo; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Glezer, Milton; Cendoroglo, Miguel; Schvartsman, Cláudio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate how often physicians identify and treat tobacco dependence and whether characteristics as gender, age, marital status, medical specialty and smoking status can influence their attitude towards this question. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 515 physicians working in a private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, using a confidential voluntary questionnaire sent and answered electronically. Results: We found that 89% of physicians who answered the research questionnaire often or always asked their patients about smoking habits, but only 39% often or always treated patients' tobacco dependence. In our sample, 5.8% of individuals were current smokers. Tobacco dependent physicians provided less treatment for smoking dependence compared with those who had never smoked, or were former smokers. Being a clinician was associated with higher probability to treat tobacco dependence. Conclusion: Physicians should not only address patients' smoking habits but also provide treatment whenever tobacco dependence is diagnosed. To understand physicians' attitude towards smoking may help to develop strategies to stimulate patients' treatment. The development of smoking cessation programs meant specifically for physicians may also be a strategy to enhance patients' treatment. PMID:23843054

  5. Evidence for the molecular heterogeneity of sickle cell anemia chromosomes bearing the betaS/Benin haplotype.

    PubMed

    Patrinos, George P; Samperi, Piera; Lo Nigro, Luca; Kollia, Panagoula; Schiliro, Gino; Papadakis, Manoussos N

    2005-09-01

    There are at least four distinct African and one Asian chromosomal backgrounds (haplotypes) on which the sickle cell mutation has arisen. Additionally, previous data suggest that the beta(S)/Bantu haplotype is heterogeneous at the molecular level. Here, we report the presence of the (A)gamma -499 T-->A variation in sickle cell anemia chromosomes of Sicilian and North African origin bearing the beta(S)/Benin haplotype. Being absent from North American beta(S)/Benin chromosomes, which were studied previously, this variation is indicative for the molecular heterogeneity of the beta(S)/Benin haplotype.

  6. Community-Academic Partnership to Investigate Low Birth Weight Deliveries and Improve Maternal and Infant Outcomes at a Baltimore City Hospital.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth M; Strobino, Donna; Sherrod, Leslie; Webb, Mary Catherine; Anderson, Caroline; White, Jennifer Arice; Atlas, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Mercy Medical Center (MMC), a community hospital in Baltimore Maryland, has undertaken a community initiative to reduce low birth weight (LBW) deliveries by 10 % in 3 years. MMC partnered with a School of Public Health to evaluate characteristics associated with LBW deliveries and formulate collaborations with obstetricians and community services to improve birth outcomes. Description As part of the initiative, a case control study of LBW was undertaken of all newborns weighing <2500 grams during June 2010-June 2011 matched 2:1 with newborns ≥2500 grams (n = 862). Assessment Logistic regression models including maternal characteristics prior to and during pregnancy showed an increased odds of LBW among women with a previous preterm birth (aOR 2.48; 95 % CI: 1.49-4.13), chronic hypertension (aOR: 2.53; 95 % CI: 1.25-5.10), hospitalization during pregnancy (aOR: 2.27; 95 % CI:1.52-3.40), multiple gestation (aOR:12.33; 95 % CI:5.49-27.73) and gestational hypertension (aOR: 2.81; 95 % CI: 1.79-4.41). Given that both maternal pre-existing conditions and those occurring during pregnancy were found to be associated with LBW, one strategy to address pregnant women at risk of LBW infants is to improve the intake and referral system to better triage women to appropriate services in the community. Meetings were held with community organizations and feedback was operationalized into collaboration strategies which can be jointly implemented. Conclusion Education sessions with providers about the referral system are one ongoing strategy to improve birth outcomes in Baltimore City, as well as provision of timely home visits by nurses to high-risk women.

  7. Reliability of Reported Maternal Smoking: Comparing the Birth Certificate to Maternal Worksheets and Prenatal and Hospital Medical Records, New York City and Vermont, 2009.

    PubMed

    Howland, Renata E; Mulready-Ward, Candace; Madsen, Ann M; Sackoff, Judith; Nyland-Funke, Michael; Bombard, Jennifer M; Tong, Van T

    2015-09-01

    Maternal smoking is captured on the 2003 US Standard Birth Certificate based on self-reported tobacco use before and during pregnancy collected on post-delivery maternal worksheets. Study objectives were to compare smoking reported on the birth certificate to maternal worksheets and prenatal and hospital medical records. The authors analyzed a sample of New York City (NYC) and Vermont women (n = 1,037) with a live birth from January to August 2009 whose responses to the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey were linked with birth certificates and abstracted medical records and maternal worksheets. We calculated smoking prevalence and agreement (kappa) between sources overall and by maternal and hospital characteristics. Smoking before and during pregnancy was 13.7 and 10.4% using birth certificates, 15.2 and 10.7% using maternal worksheets, 18.1 and 14.1% using medical records, and 20.5 and 15.0% using either maternal worksheets or medical records. Birth certificates had "almost perfect" agreement with maternal worksheets for smoking before and during pregnancy (κ = 0.92 and 0.89) and "substantial" agreement with medical records (κ = 0.70 and 0.74), with variation by education, insurance, and parity. Smoking information on NYC and Vermont birth certificates closely agreed with maternal worksheets but was underestimated compared with medical records, with variation by select maternal characteristics. Opportunities exist to improve birth certificate smoking data, such as reducing the stigma of smoking, and improving the collection, transcription, and source of information.

  8. Etiology of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Patients with Epilepsy: Experience of Tertiary Referral Hospital in Sapporo City, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MIYATA, Kei; OCHI, Satoko; ENATSU, Rei; WANIBUCHI, Masahiko; MIKUNI, Nobuhiro; INOUE, Hiroyuki; UEMURA, Shuji; TANNO, Katsuhiko; NARIMATSU, Eichi; MAEKAWA, Kunihiko; USUI, Keiko; MIZOBUCHI, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that epilepsy patients had higher risk of sudden death than that of the general population. However, in Japan, there is very little literature on the observational research conducted on sudden fatal events in epilepsy. We performed a single-center, retrospective study on all the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated in our emergency department between 2007 and 2013. Among the OHCA patients, we extracted those with a history of epilepsy and then analyzed the characteristics of the fatal events and the background of epilepsy. From 1,823 OHCA patients, a total of 10 cases were enrolled in our study. The median age was 34 years at the time of the incident [9–52 years; interquartile range (IQR), 24–45]. We determined that half of our cases resulted from external causes of death such as drowning and suffocation and the other half were classified as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). In addition, asphyxia was implicated as the cause in eight cases. Only the two near-drowning patients were immediately resuscitated, but the remaining eight patients died. The median age of first onset of epilepsy was 12 years (0.5–30; IQR, 3–21), and the median disease duration was 25 years (4–38; IQR, 6–32). Patients with active epilepsy accounted for half of our series and they were undergoing poly anti-epileptic drug therapy. The fatal events related to epilepsy tended to occur in the younger adult by external causes. An appropriate therapeutic intervention and a thorough observation were needed for its prevention. PMID:26948699

  9. Use of biological based therapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases in a university-hospital in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Chagan, Larisa; Bernstein, Diane; Cheng, Judy WM; Kirschenbaum, Harold L; Rozenfeld, Vitalina; Caliendo, Gina C; Meyer, Joanne; Mehl, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative products including Biological Based Therapy (BBT) has increased among patients with various medical illnesses and conditions. The studies assessing the prevalence of BBT use among patients with cardiovascular diseases are limited. Therefore, an evaluation of BBT in this patient population would be beneficial. This was a survey designed to determine the effects of demographics on the use of Biological Based Therapy (BBT) in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the education level on the use of BBT in cardiovascular patients. This survey also assessed the perceptions of users regarding the safety/efficacy of BBT, types of BBT used and potential BBT-drug interactions. Method The survey instrument was designed to assess the findings. Patients were interviewed from February 2001 to December 2002. 198 inpatients with cardiovascular diseases (94 BBT users and 104 non-users) in a university hospital were included in the study. Results Users had a significantly higher level of education than non-users (college graduate: 28 [30%] versus 12 [12%], p = 0.003). Top 10 BBT products used were vitamin E [41(43.6%)], vitamin C [30(31.9%)], multivitamins [24(25.5%)], calcium [19(20.2%)], vitamin B complex [17(18.1%)], fish oil [12(12.8%)], coenzyme Q10 [11(11.7%)], glucosamine [10(10.6%)], magnesium [8(8.5%)] and vitamin D [6(6.4%)]. Sixty percent of users' physicians knew of the BBT use. Compared to non-users, users believed BBT to be safer (p < 0.001) and more effective (p < 0.001) than prescription drugs. Forty-two potential drug-BBT interactions were identified. Conclusion Incidence of use of BBT in cardiovascular patients is high (47.5%), as is the risk of potential drug interaction. Health care providers need to monitor BBT use in patients with cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15745441

  10. Forging New Partnerships: Lessons from the Dissemination of Agricultural Training Videos in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okry, Florent; Van Mele, Paul; Houinsou, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article evaluates the dissemination and use of rice training videos by radio stations, farmers, farmer associations and extension services in Benin. It pays attention to positive deviants and process innovation within a "hands-off experiment". Design/methodology/approach: Using questionnaires and checklists we interviewed…

  11. Budgeting and Funding of the Library at the University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Orheruata, Matilda U.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on funding of the library at the University of Benin in relation to the recurrent budget implementation during the 1992/93 to 1996/97 academic sessions. The findings indicated that the library depended on the central administrations's allocation for its funding. It also showed that the University of…

  12. Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender Roles and Fairness in Benin, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…

  13. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Agboton, C; Onzo, A; Ouessou, F I; Goergen, G; Vidal, S; Tamò, M

    2014-01-01

    Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in Benin. However, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. In Benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. The present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. The survey was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 in 22 cashew orchards (5 young and 17 mature) distributed over three major agroecological zones where cashew is most produced in the country. Insects were collected using chemical knock-down technique and visual observation followed by capture with sweep net. In addition, infested plant organs were sampled and incubated to collect emerging insects. In total, 262 insect species were recorded and identified. Among them, the wood borer Apate terebrans Pallas, the leafminer Eteoryctis gemoniella Stainton, and the mirid bugs Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter., and Helopeltis anacardii Miller., appeared as the most important insect species attacking cashew in Benin. Beneficial insects encountered included some predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. Few vertebrate predators were also recorded on the trees. Differences in agroecological conditions or in field cleanliness did not affect the number of insect species encountered in the cashew orchards. The results of this study represent an important baseline data for the design and implementation of strategies for cashew protection in Benin.

  14. Lifelong Learning as an Instrument for Human Capital Development in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biao, Idowu

    2015-01-01

    A review of the Benin education system shows that it is still heavily school-based. Yet, a high level of wastage is currently being recorded at school level (about 50% success rate at primary level, about 40% success rate at high school level and about 1% enrolment rate of qualified candidates and success rate at tertiary level), leading to the…

  15. Globalization Viewed from the Periphery: The Dynamics of Teacher Identity in the Republic of Benin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welmond, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Archival research and interviews with teachers and key informants in Benin schools examined cultural schemata that define teacher identity as vessel and conveyer of special knowledge, civil servant, self-sacrificing parental surrogate, or efficient worker ensuring high test grades. Conflicts among these identities, between teachers and the state,…

  16. [SIM and SINASC: social representation of nurses and professional in administrative sectors who work in hospitals in the city of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Schoeps, Daniela; Almeida, Marcia Furquim de; Raspantini, Priscila Ribeiro; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Silva, Zilda Pereira da; Lefevre, Fernando

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have analyzed the SINASC (Live Birth Information System) and MIS (Mortality Information System) applying qualitative methodology seeking to understand data production processes and contexts. This article aims to study the social representation of health professionals about Live Birth Certificates (LBC) and perinatal Death Certificates (DC). A total of 24 interviews were conducted with nurses and other professionals of 16 Unified Health System (SUS) and non-SUS hospitals of the city of São Paulo in 2009. Qualitative methodology was adopted along with the Collective Subject Discourse technique. Professionals acknowledged that they are an integral part of the information production process of SINASC and their reports indicate that they incorporate it in their work routine. They also perceive that training activities are a tool to understand the information produced by them and are aware of the utility of LBC information. Although physicians are legally responsible for the DC, other professionals frequently provide some of the information to complete it. The professionals see themselves as participants of the SINASC. Despite providing information to complete the DC, they do not see themselves as participants of the MIS operation.

  17. [Tetanus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: epidemiological, clinical and outcome features of 389 cases at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases].

    PubMed

    An, V T; Khue, P M; Yen, L M; Phong, N D; Strobel, M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the different aspects of tetanus during the past recent years in southern Vietnam: epidemiology, clinical picture, management, and death risk factors. It is a retrospective study concerning 389 cases admitted in 2007 and 2008 at the reference Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City. 93% of all cases were generalized tetanus, and 50% were severe cases. A majority of patients were adult males (medium age 43, M/ F sex-ratio 2.9). Half of them underwent tracheotomy and 39% assisted ventilation. Case fatality rate was 6.4%, the lowest reported rate worldwide in the last ten years. Fatalities resulted mainly from neuro-vegetative disorders, essentially cardiogenic shock (28% of all deaths) [OR = 16.95; p < 0.001], sepsis (24%) [OR = 3.25; (p < 0,114], and acute renal failure (16%) [OR = 7,22; p < 0.004]. Age over 60-year [OR = 4.53; p < 0.0001] and a leukocyte count>12.000/mm(3) [OR = 2.32; p < 0.020] were significantly associated with fatal outcome, contrarily to incubation and extension phase durations, or delayed serum administration. Systematic extension of vaccination to all adult males, and improved access to post exposure sero-immunization at all levels of health centres throughout the country may further reduce tetanus burden in Vietnam.

  18. Effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, Truong Giang; Ngo, Long; Mehta, Sumi; Do, Van Dzung; Thach, T Q; Vu, Xuan Dan; Nguyen, Dinh Tuan; Cohen, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    There is emerging evidence, largely from studies in Europe and North America, that economic deprivation increases the magnitude of morbidity and mortality related to air pollution. Two major reasons why this may be true are that the poor experience higher levels of exposure to air pollution, and they are more vulnerable to its effects--in other words, due to poorer nutrition, less access to medical care, and other factors, they experience more health impact per unit of exposure. The relations among health, air pollution, and poverty are likely to have important implications for public health and social policy, especially in areas such as the developing countries of Asia where air pollution levels are high and many live in poverty. The aims of this study were to estimate the effect of exposure to air pollution on hospital admissions of young children for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI*) and to explore whether such effects differed between poor children and other children. ALRI, which comprises pneumonia and bronchiolitis, is the largest single cause of mortality among young children worldwide and is responsible for a substantial burden of disease among young children in developing countries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the health effects of air pollution in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. For these reasons, the results of this study have the potential to make an important contribution to the growing literature on the health effects of air pollution in Asia. The study focused on the short-term effects of daily average exposure to air pollutants on hospital admissions of children less than 5 years of age for ALRI, defined as pneumonia or bronchiolitis, in HCMC during 2003, 2004, and 2005. Admissions data were obtained from computerized records of Children's Hospital 1 and Children's Hospital 2 (CH1 and CH2) in HCMC. Nearly all children hospitalized for respiratory illnesses in the city are admitted to one of these two pediatric

  19. Patterns of Adolescent Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse in Benin City, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pela, Ona A.

    1989-01-01

    Used unobtrusive methods to collect data on substance use from 320 Nigerian partygoers aged 14 through 25. Found that adolescents tended to use following drugs in decreasing order of frequency: alcohol, cigarettes. stimulants, cannabis, and sedative-hypnotics. Polydrug use, especially of alcohol, stimulants, and cigarettes, was common. (Author/NB)

  20. Drug Use and Attitudes among College Students in Benin City, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pela, Ona A.

    1989-01-01

    Examined pattern of drug use among Nigerian college students, their attitudes toward drug use, and their perception of drug harmfulness to the body and to society. Results from 400 undergraduate students revealed that most frequently used social drugs were caffeine and alcohol. Respondents considered heroin and cocaine to pose greatest dangers to…

  1. [Socio-cultural aspects of epilepsy in a rural community in northern Benin in 2011].

    PubMed

    Adoukonou, T; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, F; Gnonlonfoun, D; Djidonou, A; Sego-Sounon, D; Gandaho, P; Houinato, D

    2015-03-01

    Despite the development of knowledge in diagnosis and therapeutic of epilepsy it remains to be cause of rejection and stigma. We aimed to study the knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy and the stigma in a rural community. The cross-sectional study was carried out from 1st to 31st March 2011 in a rural community (Tourou) at Parakou in the northern Benin. It was a door-to-door survey and included 1 031 adults older than 15 years. The diagnosis of epilepsy was based on International League Against Epilepsy. The specific questionnaire was used and comprised 16 items which explored knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Another questionnaire was developed to study stigma among epileptics. The associated factors to the misconception toward epilepsy have been studied. All adults have heard about epilepsy and knew the generalized tonic-clonic form of epilepsy and knew someone with epilepsy. Hereditary (98%) and witchcraft (97.9%) and social problems (65.9%) were mentioned as the most cause of epilepsy. Epilepsy was cited as contagious disease by 90.6% of respondents and the associated factors were the sex (p=0.005) and occupational status (0.024). The saliva (98.1%) and witness of the place of seizure (97.8%) were the frequently mentioned modes of transmission. 65% of all mentioned that epileptics can not get marriage and the main associated factors to this belief were the advanced age (p=0.008) and occupational status (0.004). 64.4% believed that children with epilepsy shouldn't be attend to school, age (0.004), ethnicity (0.047) and occupational status were the associated factors with this misconception. Despite 99.4% considered epilepsy as treatable disease only 12.7% would have referred epileptics to the hospital. All the seven epileptics considered themselves as victims of stigma and rejected by their family and the community. The misconceptions associated to the epilepsy can explain the stigma and the therapeutic gap in this rural community.

  2. Development of vegetable farming: a cause of the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae in urban areas of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Yadouleton, Anges William M; Asidi, Alex; Djouaka, Rousseau F; Braïma, James; Agossou, Christian D; Akogbeto, Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Background A fast development of urban agriculture has recently taken place in many areas in the Republic of Benin. This study aims to assess the rapid expansion of urban agriculture especially, its contribution to the emergence of insecticide resistance in populations of Anopheles gambiae. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of sociological data by interviewing vegetable farmers regarding various agricultural practices and the types of pesticides used. Bioassay tests were performed to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to various agricultural insecticides and biochemical analysis were done to characterize molecular status of population of An. gambiae. Results This research showed that: (1) The rapid development of urban agriculture is related to unemployment observed in cities, rural exodus and the search for a balanced diet by urban populations; (2) Urban agriculture increases the farmers' household income and their living standard; (3) At a molecular level, PCR revealed the presence of three sub-species of An. gambiae (An. gambiae s.s., Anopheles melas and Anopheles arabiensis) and two molecular forms (M and S). The kdr west mutation recorded in samples from the three sites and more specifically on the M forms seems to be one of the major resistance mechanisms found in An. gambiae from agricultural areas. Insecticide susceptibility tests conducted during this research revealed a clear pattern of resistance to permethrin (76% mortality rate at Parakou; 23.5% at Porto-Novo and 17% at Cotonou). Conclusion This study confirmed an increase activity of the vegetable farming in urban areas of Benin. This has led to the use of insecticide in an improper manner to control vegetable pests, thus exerting a huge selection pressure on mosquito larval population, which resulted to the emergence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. PMID:19442297

  3. Management of pericardial effusion by drainage: a survey of 10 years' experience in a city centre general hospital serving a multiracial population

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, C.; Watson, R.; Singh, S.; Lip, G.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the aetiology of large and symptomatic pericardial effusions and to review the management and subsequent outcome. A survey was done on a consecutive cases of patients who had undergone percutaneous pericardiocentesis over a 10 year period in a city centre general hospital serving a multiethnic catchment population. In all, 46 patients (24 male, 22 female; age range 16 to 90 years, mean 54 years) underwent a total of 51 pericardial drainage procedures (or attempted pericardiocentesis) between 1989 and 1998. Malignancy (44%), tuberculosis (26%), idiopathic (11%), and post-cardiac surgery (9%) were the most common causes of pericardial effusion. The most common presenting symptoms were breathlessness (90%), chest pain (74%), cough (70%), abdominal pain (61%) (presumed to be related to hepatic congestion), and unexplained fever (28%). In the 12 cases of tuberculous pericarditis, nine occurred in patients of Indo-Asian origin, and three in patients of Afro-Caribbean origin. Fever, night sweats, and weight loss were common among these patients, occurring in over 80% of cases of tuberculous pericarditis. Pulsus paradoxus was the most specific sign (100%) for the presence of echocardiographic features of tamponade, with strongest positive predictive value (100%). Although malignancy remains the most common cause in developed countries, tuberculous disease should be considered in patients from areas where tuberculosis is endemic. Percutaneous pericardiocentesis remains an effective measure for the immediate relief of symptoms in patients with cardiac tamponade, although its diagnostic yield in tuberculous pericarditis is relatively low.


Keywords: tuberculosis; pericardial effusions; percutaneous pericardiocentesis PMID:11085787

  4. The spectrum of HIV infection in patients seen at a private hospital in Mexico City: 115 patients seen from 1984 to 1990.

    PubMed

    del Río-Chiriboga, C; Tellez-Gómez, I; Orzechowski-Rallo, A; Alanis-Ortega, A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HIV infection among upper middle class patients in Mexico City. A retrospective review of outpatient and hospital records of all HIV-infected patients was accomplished by one of the authors between 1984 and 1990. A total of 115 patients were seen during the study period, 109 men and 6 women. One hundred and seven patients acquired HIV infection through sexual contact, six patients had HIV infection associated with blood transfusion and two were homosexual men who also had a history of intravenous drug use. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years (range 13 - 65 years). CDC classification at presentation was predominantly stage IV (65%) with the most common AIDS associated diseases at presentation being wasting syndrome in 30 (42.2%), P. carinii pneumonia in 22 (30.9%), cytomegalovirus infection in 11 (15.5%), Cryptosporidium parvum diarrhea in 7 (9.8%), and Kaposi's sarcoma in 6 (8.4%). CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell counts at the time of HIV diagnosis were available in 87 patients (median = 150 cells/microliters; mean = 224 cells/microliters, SD +/- 219). Zidovudine was used in 37 patients after 1988 when it first became available in Mexico, in six patients the drug had to be discontinued because of serious hematologic toxicity. The average follow-up on zidovudine was 8.5 months. Similar age, gender, age distribution, risk categories and CDC classification at presentation was seen compared to other series reported from Mexico. However, the spectrum of opportunistic infections found were similar to that seen in the United States.

  5. Genetic population study of Y-chromosome markers in Benin and Ivory Coast ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Lima, Cesar; Brucato, Nicolas; Croze, Myriam; Bellis, Gil; Schiavinato, Stephanie; Massougbodji, Achille; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2015-11-01

    Ninety-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seventeen short tandem repeat (STRs) were investigated on the Y-chromosome of 288 unrelated healthy individuals from populations in Benin (Bariba, Yoruba, and Fon) and the Ivory Coast (Ahizi and Yacouba). We performed a multidimensional scaling analysis based on FST and RST genetic distances using a large extensive database of sub-Saharan African populations. There is more genetic homogeneity in Ivory Coast populations compared with populations from Benin. Notably, the Beninese Yoruba are significantly differentiated from neighbouring groups, but also from the Yoruba from Nigeria (FST>0.05; P<0.01). The Y-chromosome dataset presented here provides new valuable data to understand the complex genetic diversity and human male demographic events in West Africa.

  6. First isolation and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in Benin.

    PubMed

    Gorna, Kamila; Houndjè, Evelyne; Romey, Aurore; Relmy, Anthony; Blaise-Boisseau, Sandra; Kpodékon, Marc; Saegerman, Claude; Moutou, François; Zientara, Stephan; Bakkali Kassimi, Labib

    2014-06-25

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It is one of the most economically devastating diseases affecting livestock animals. In West Africa, where constant circulation of FMD virus (FMDV) is assumed, very few studies on the characterization of circulating strains have been published. This study describes the first isolation and characterization of FMDV in Benin. FMDV was isolated from 42 samples. Antigen Capture Elisa (Ag-ELISA) and VP1 coding sequence analysis revealed 33 strains of serotype O and 9 strains of serotype A. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 sequence revealed two different groups of type O isolates and one group of A isolates. VP1 sequence comparison with the sequences available in the GenBank database revealed a close relationship of the Benin isolates with topotype O of West Africa and with African topotype A of genotype VI. Knowledge of the recent strains circulating in Benin should contribute to better selection of vaccine strains and enable the updating of molecular epidemiology data available for West Africa in general.

  7. Natural Interactions between S. haematobium and S. guineensis in the Republic of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Moné, Hélène; Minguez, Stéphanie; Ibikounlé, Moudachirou; Allienne, Jean-François; Massougbodji, Achille; Mouahid, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects millions of people around the world, particularly in Africa. In this continent, different species are able to interbreed, like Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma guineensis, two schistosome species infecting humans. The Republic of Benin is known to harbor S. haematobium, but its geographical situation in between Nigeria, Mali, and Burkina Faso, where S. guineensis was found, raises the question about the possible presence of S. haematobium/S. guineensis hybrids in this country. We conducted morphological analyses on schistosome eggs and molecular analyses on schistosome larvae (high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and gene sequencing) in order to detect any natural interaction between these two species of schistosomes. The morphological results showed the presence of three egg morphotypes (S. haematobium, S. guineensis, and intermediate). Three genotypes were detected by ITS2 rDNA HRM analysis: S. haematobium, S. guineensis, and hybrid, and their percentages confirmed the results of the morphological analysis. However, sequencing of the CO1 mtDNA gene showed that all the samples from Benin belonged to S. haematobium. Our results provide the first evidence of introgression of S. guineensis genes in S. haematobium in Benin. PMID:22645454

  8. Lifelong learning as an instrument for human capital development in Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biao, Idowu

    2015-10-01

    A review of the Benin education system shows that it is still heavily school-based. Yet, a high level of wastage is currently being recorded at school level (about 50% success rate at primary level, about 40% success rate at high school level and about 1% enrolment rate of qualified candidates and success rate at tertiary level), leading to the unintentional creation of a large population of unskilled and unproductive youths and adults. Integrated education systems which hold great potential and opportunities for both initial and continuing education remain hardly explored and virtually untapped. Yet, the challenges of the 21st century are such that only the unveiling and continuous cultivation of multi-faceted human capital can help individual citizens lead both a productive and fulfilled life. Formal education alone or non-formal education alone, irrespective of how well each is delivered, is no longer sufficient in facing up to the multifarious challenges of the 21st century. If education is to serve Benin beneficially in this century, the current national system of education must be reoriented to free up citizens' human capital through the implementation of an integrated educational system. This article proposes a new national education system which is rooted in the concept of lifelong learning and combines formal and non-formal systems of education for Benin.

  9. Frequency of cancer in children residing in Mexico City and treated in the hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (1996–2001)

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    Background The objective of this article is to present the frequency of cancer in Mexican children who were treated in the hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Mexico City (IMSS-MC) in the period 1996–2001. Methods The Registry of Cancer in Children, started in 1996 in the IMSS-MC, is an on-going, prospective register. The data from 1996 through 2001 were analyzed and the different types of cancer were grouped according to the International Classification for Cancer in Children (ICCC). From this analysis, the general and specific frequencies by age and by sex were obtained for the different groups of neoplasms. Also, the frequency of the stage of the disease that had been diagnosed in cases of children with solid tumors was obtained. Results A total of 1,702 new cases of children with cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio at 1.1/1. Leukemias had the highest frequency with 784 cases (46.1%) and, of these, acute lymphoblastic leukemias were the most prevalent with 614 cases (78.3%). Thereafter, in descending order of frequency, were tumors of the central nervous system (CNST) with 197 cases (11.6%), lymphomas with 194 cases (11.4%), germinal cell tumors with 110 cases (6.5%), and bone tumors with 97 cases (5.7%). The highest frequency of cancer was found in the group of one to four year-olds that had 627 cases (36.8%). In all the age groups, leukemias were the most frequent. In the present work, the frequency of Hodgkin's disease (~4%) was found to be lower than that (~10%) in previous studies and the frequency of tumors of the sympathetic nervous system was low (2.3%). Of those cases of solid tumors for which the stage of the disease had been determined, 66.9% were diagnosed as being Stage III or IV. Conclusions The principal cancers in the children treated in the IMSS-MC were leukemias, CNST, and lymphomas, consistent with those reported by developed countries. A 2.5-fold reduction in the frequency of Hodgkin's disease was found

  10. Inheritance of the Bantu/Benin haplotype causes less severe hemolytic and oxidative stress in sickle cell anemia patients treated with hydroxycarbamide.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Jéssika V; Silva, Danilo G H; Torres, Lidiane S; Belini-Junior, Edis; Barberino, Willian M; Oliveira, Renan G; Carrocini, Gisele C S; Gelaleti, Gabriela B; Lobo, Clarisse L C; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia R

    2016-07-01

    Beta S-globin gene cluster haplotypes (β(S)-haplotypes) can modulate the response to hydroxycarbamide (HC) treatment in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients. In Brazil, the most common haplotypes are Bantu and Benin, and both confer a poor prognosis for patients when untreated with HC. We evaluated oxidative and hemolytic biomarkers in 48 SCA patients undergoing HC treatment separated in three subgroups: Bantu/Bantu, Bantu/Benin and Benin/Benin haplotype. On the basis of reduced haptoglobin (HP) levels, patients with Bantu/Bantu haplotypes had 3.0% higher hemolysis degree when compared with those with Bantu/Benin haplotypes (P=0.01). The Benin/Benin patients had 53.6% greater lipid peroxidation index than the Bantu/Bantu patients (P=0.01) because of evaluated thiobarbituric acid reactive species levels. The Bantu/Benin subgroup had intermediate levels of hemolytic and oxidative stress markers compared with the homozygous subgroups. Through strict inclusion criteria adopted, as well as consolidated and well-described hemolytic and the oxidative parameters evaluated, we suggest a haplotype-interaction response to HC treatment mediated by a 'balance' between the genetic factors of each haplotype studied.

  11. [The determinants of the low case fatality rate of the cholera epidemic in the Littoral department of Benin in 2008].

    PubMed

    Gbary, Akpa Raphaël; Sossou, Roch Aristide; Dossou, Jean-Paul; Mongbo, Virginie; Massougbodji, Achille

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 cholera outbreak in Benin was characterized by a low case fatality rate (0.39 p.100) in the Littoral department, where 502 cases were recorded between July and December. The aim of this study was to identify the key factors associated with the low case fatality rate within the department. The cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study conducted as part of this research used 404 patient records, focus group discussions with ten former patients, in-depth interviews with 8 health authorities involved in the response and structured face-to-face interviews with 12 health personnel involved in the treatment of patients. The data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis based on EPIINFO 3.3.2 and EXCEL 2007 software. The results from several sources were cross-checked through triangulation. The mean age of patients was 23.72 ± 14.8 years. 39.35% patients were admitted with severe dehydration. Oral rehydration, intravenous rehydration and antibiotic therapy were given to 99.5%, 85% and 97.77% of patients, respectively. Only one hospital death was noted. The low case fatality rate was mainly due to the following factors: the high quality of care provided in a center with qualified personnel and available and free of charge treatment kits, protocols based on massive rehydration and appropriate hygiene measures, and patient compliance with the treatment plan. The response was also characterized by good coordination, wide mass and local health promotion, and selective antibiotic prophylaxis, which contributed significantly to reducing the spread of the infection.

  12. Groundwater contamination in relation with the increasing urbanization rate in Africa. Case of Cotonou and Porto Novo (Benin).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Boukari, Moussa; Alassane, Abdelkarim; Garel, Emilie; Lavastre, Véronique; Bertrand, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    More than one billion people in the world still have no access to sufficient resources in drinking water (United Nation, 2014). In particular, large cities in Africa have to face several problems: 1) population growth associated with the strongest urbanization rate increase (5% per year) of the world leading to a dramatic increase in good-quality water needs, 2) low levels of solid waste management and sanitation services, 3) insufficient or disconnected water supply services, 4) low knowledge of water resources availabilities. The situation in Benin is a relevant illustration of the problems that Africa has to face to. As many other coastal urban areas in Africa (Showers, 2002; Re et al., 2011), Cotonou and Porto Novo cities have seen a rapid increase of their population as these towns constitute a corridor of transit for the imports and the exports in the nearby countries. Hence, they are very attractive for job hunters, and constitute the administrative centers for the whole country. This rapid population growth amplifies the problem of water supply and may generate serious impacts on groundwater resources: depletion due to overexploitation, salinization due to seawater intrusion and pollution linked to human activities. In order to insure a safe water supply in the context of increasing urbanization and population in the coastal area of Cotonou and Porto Novo, the identification of the main sources of pollution is essential for the implementation of long-term water management procedures. Based on two field campaigns carried out in January-2012 (dry season) and August-2012 (rainy season), hydrochemical analysis have been realized on groundwater sampled from boreholes drilled in the CTA (Continental Terminal Aquifer) and wells dug in the QCA (Quaternary Coastal Aquifer) in order to investigate the origin of salinization and the present time extension of the nitrate contamination. Historical data have also been collected from previous studies in order to

  13. Pierre Bourdieu and transformative agency: a study of how patients in Benin negotiate blame and accountability in the context of severe obstetric events.

    PubMed

    Béhague, Dominique P; Kanhonou, Lydie G; Filippi, Véronique; Lègonou, Solange; Ronsmans, Carine

    2008-05-01

    This paper explores the social and institutional processes that constrain and enable obstetric patients in Benin to critically evaluate quality of healthcare and to stimulate positive changes in the health system. Based on qualitative data collected as part of a hospital auditing system, the paper analyses semi-structured patient feedback interviews and their function as a primary mechanism through which critical patient evaluation can develop constructively. Using a Bourdieuan framework, we explore the dynamic social conditions that give rise to transformative agency and institutional change. Our results show that hospitals are often permeated with the habitus of employment, kinship and reproductive social fields, through which a number of social, economic and healthcare conflicts, power struggles and blame-inducing interactions emerge. These conflicts generally serve to keep patients quiescent and passive when it comes to developing critical statements of quality of care. In a subset of cases, however, these conflicts are transformed by patients and their family members into opportunities for modifying the values and practices of each habitus in new and creative ways. The active negotiation of social conflict and blame enabled a minority of patients actively to divert blame from themselves and to develop and maintain critical healthcare evaluations.

  14. Transport accidents among children and adolescents at the emergency service of a teaching hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gorios, Carlos; de Souza, Renata Maia; Gerolla, Viviane; Maso, Bruno; Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; Armond, Jane de Eston

    2014-01-01

    Objective to describe the victim profile and circumstances of transport accidents involving children and adolescents who were attended at a teaching hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo. Methods this was an individual observational case series study among patients up to the age of 19 years who were attended at a hospital in the southern zone of the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil, due to traffic accidents. The files notifying suspected or confirmed cases of violence and accidents (SIVVA files) covering January to December 2012 were analyzed. Results among the 149 cases notified, 64.4% related to males and 35.6% to females. The transport accidents were predominantly among males, irrespective of age. The main injury diagnoses were superficial head trauma (24.8%) followed by multiple non-specified trauma (36.4%), in both sexes. Conclusion transport accidents among children and adolescents occurred more often among males. The main transport accidents among the children and adolescents attended as emergency cases were caused by motor vehicles and motorcycles. Among the accident victims, the largest proportion was attended because of being run over. PMID:26229833

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Participation Scale among Former Buruli Ulcer Patients in Ghana and Benin

    PubMed Central

    de Zeeuw, Janine; Douwstra, Marlies; Omansen, Till F.; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Johnson, Christian; Phillips, Richard O.; Alferink, Marike; Saunderson, Paul; Van der Werf, Tjip S.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is a stigmatising disease treated with antibiotics and wound care, and sometimes surgical intervention is necessary. Permanent limitations in daily activities are a common long term consequence. It is unknown to what extent patients perceive problems in participation in social activities. The psychometric properties of the Participation Scale used in other disabling diseases, such as leprosy, was assessed for use in former Buruli ulcer patients. Methods Former Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin, their relatives, and healthy community controls were interviewed using the Participation Scale, Buruli Ulcer Functional Limitation Score, and the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue to measure stigma. The Participation Scale was tested for the following psychometric properties: discrimination, floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, inter-item correlation, item-total correlation and construct validity. Results In total 386 participants (143 former Buruli ulcer patients with their relatives (137) and 106 community controls) were included in the study. The Participation Scale displayed good discrimination between former Buruli ulcer patients and healthy community controls. No floor and ceiling effects were found. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.88. In Ghana, mean inter-item correlation of 0.29 and item-total correlations ranging from 0.10 to 0.69 were found while in Benin, a mean inter-item correlation of 0.28 was reported with item-total correlations ranging from −0.08 to 0.79. With respect to construct validity, 4 out of 6 hypotheses were not rejected, though correlations between various constructs differed between countries. Conclusion The results indicate the Participation Scale has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used for Buruli ulcer patients in Ghana and Benin. Future studies can use this Participation Scale to evaluate the long term restrictions in participation in daily social activities of former

  16. Suicidal Behaviour and Related Risk Factors among School-Aged Youth in the Republic of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Jason R.; Doku, David; Wilson, Michael L.; Peltzer, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Research on factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts has been conducted largely in developed countries. Research on West African countries in particular is lacking. Methods Data were obtained from the Global School-based Health Survey conducted in Benin in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study of three grades, spanning Junior and Senior High, which sampled a total of 2,690 adolescents. Data on the occurrence of demographic, psycho-social and socio-environmental risk factors were tested using multinomial logistic regression for their association with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results The survey indicated that 23.2% had thought about suicide and 28.3% had made a suicide attempt in the previous year. Anxiety, loneliness, being bullied, alcohol misuse, illicit drug use, and lack of parental support were independently related to the ideation outcomes, suicidal ideation without planning and suicidal ideation with planning. Multinomial regression analysis, using one suicide attempt and multiple suicide attempts as outcomes, revealed that female sex, anxiety, loneliness, being physically attacked, and illicit drug use were associated these outcomes. Discussion The prevalence of suicide attempts reported in the survey is relatively high. It is possible that there are cultural factors that could explain this finding. Our research indicates that many factors are related to the occurrence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among youth in Benin. Illicit drug use and violence in particular are associated with a high rate of suicide attempts in Benin. Measures to address these issues may reduce the risk of self-inflicted violence. PMID:24505443

  17. Indigenous knowledge of shea processing and quality perception of shea products in Benin.

    PubMed

    Honfo, Fernande G; Linnemann, Anita R; Akissoe, Noël H; Soumanou, Mohamed M; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2012-01-01

    A survey among 246 people belonging to 14 ethnic groups and living in 5 different parklands in Benin revealed different practices to process shea kernels (namely boiling followed sun drying and smoking) and extract shea butter. A relation between parklands, gathering period, and sun-drying conditions was established. Moisture content and appearance of kernels were the selection criteria for users of shea kernels; color was the main characteristic to buy butter. Constraints to be solved are long processing times, lack of milling equipment and high water requirements. Best practices for smoking, sun drying, and roasting operations need to be established for further improvement.

  18. Swampy area transformations by exploitation of Raphia hookeri (Arecaceae) in southern Benin (West Africa)

    SciTech Connect

    Profizi, J.

    1988-03-01

    The Raphia palms in the southern part of Benin are confined to freshwater swamps, where the natural vegetation consists of a forest rich in Dicotyledons. Human activity has transformed this forest into a raphiale where Raphia hookeri has become the main arborescent species. The influence of this transformation on the vegetation results in a more regular distribution of Raphis hookeri trunks and a gradual disappearing of clumps of ramets. By now, the future of Raphis hookeri species is almost ensured except in situations of over-exploitation.

  19. Short-Term Effects of Gaseous Pollutants and Particulate Matter on Daily Hospital Admissions for Cardio-Cerebrovascular Disease in Lanzhou: Evidence from a Heavily Polluted City in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shan; Wang, Minzhen; Wang, Shigong; Tao, Yan; Shang, Kezheng

    2013-01-01

    Panel studies show a consistent association between increase in the cardiovascular hospitalizations with air pollutants in economically developed regions, but little evidence in less developed inland areas. In this study, a time-series analysis was used to examine the specific effects of major air pollutants [particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxides (NO2)] on daily hospital admissions for cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in Lanzhou, a heavily polluted city in China. We examined the effects of air pollutants for stratified groups by age and gender, and conducted the modifying effect of seasons on air pollutants to test the possible interaction. The significant associations were found between PM10, SO2 and NO2 and cardiac disease admissions, SO2 and NO2 were found to be associated with the cerebrovascular disease admissions. The elderly was associated more strongly with gaseous pollutants than younger. The modifying effect of seasons on air pollutants also existed. The significant effect of gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) was found on daily hospital admissions even after adjustment for other pollutants except for SO2 on cardiac diseases. In a word, this study provides the evidence for the detrimental short-term health effects of urban gaseous pollutants on cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in Lanzhou. PMID:23358231

  20. Repetitive Discrepancy between Espoused and In-Use Action Theories for Fishery Intervention in Grand-Popo, Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouevi, Augustin T.; Van Mierlo, Barbara; Leeuwis, Cees

    2011-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt successfully to eco-challenges, interest in change-oriented learning is growing around the world. The authors of this paper aim to assess the occurrence of learning for effective action-taking in successive fishery problem-solving interventions in the municipality of Grand-Popo, South-Western Benin, where interventions…

  1. Comparing Farmer-to-Farmer Video with Workshops to Train Rural Women in Improved Rice Parboiling in Central Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zossou, Esperance; Van Mele, Paul; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Wanvoeke, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the comparison of the conventional training based on two day community workshops and farmer-to-farmer video used as methodologies for the dissemination of improved rice parboiling process in Benin. From November 2007 to May 2008, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women groups who had been exposed to both, one or other of the…

  2. Effect of Participatory Research on Farmers' Knowledge and Practice of IPM: The Case of Cotton in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togbé, Codjo Euloge; Haagsma, Rein; Aoudji, Augustin K. N.; Vodouhê, Simplice D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the effect of participatory research on farmers' knowledge and practice of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Benin. The participatory field experiments were carried out during the 2011-2012 cotton growing season, and focused on the development and application of pest management knowledge. Methodology: A…

  3. AN ASSESSMENT OF HOST ASSOCIATIONS, GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS, AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF AVIAN CHEWING LICE (INSECTA: PHTHIRAPTERA) FROM BENIN.

    PubMed

    Takano, Oona M; Mitchell, Preston S; Gustafsson, Daniel R; Adite, Alphonse; Voelker, Gary; Light, Jessica E

    2017-01-07

    Host associations of highly host-specific chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) across multiple avian species remains fairly undocumented in the West African country of Benin. Two hundred and seventeen bird specimens collected from multiple localities across Benin and housed at the Texas A&M University Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections were examined for lice. Lice were identified and genetic data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF-1α genes) were obtained and phylogenetically analyzed. In total, we found 15 host associations, 7 of which were new to science. Genetically, most lice from Benin were unique and could represent new species. Based on host associations and unique genetic lineages, we estimate we discovered a minimum of 4 and possibly as many as 8 new chewing louse species. Given the lack of current data on chewing louse species distributions in Benin, this study adds to the knowledge of host associations, geographic distribution, and genetic variability of avian chewing louse species in West Africa.

  4. Five Years After; the Impact of a Participatory Technology Development Programme as Perceived by Smallholder Farmers in Benin and Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterk, B.; Christian, A. K.; Gogan, A. C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Kossou, D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports effects on livelihoods of a participatory technology development effort in Benin and Ghana (2001-2006), five years after it ended. Design: The study uses data from all smallholders who participated in seven experimental groups, each facilitated by a PhD researcher. Baseline data and controls were not available. In…

  5. What Makes Small-Scale Farmers Participate in Financing Agricultural Research and Extension? Analysis of Three Case Studies from Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moumouni, Ismail M.; Vodouhe, Simplice D.; Streiffeler, Friedhelm

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the organizational, financial and technological incentives that service organizations used to motivate farmers to finance agricultural research and extension in Benin. Understanding the foundations and implications of these motivation systems is important for improving farmer financial participation in agricultural research and…

  6. Diversity of the Neglected and Underutilized Crop Species of Importance in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Dansi, A.; Vodouhè, R.; Azokpota, P.; Yedomonhan, H.; Assogba, P.; Adjatin, A.; Loko, Y. L.; Dossou-Aminon, I.; Akpagana, K.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the plant species that are cultivated for food across the world are neglected and underutilized. To assess their diversity in Benin and identify the priority species and establish their research needs, a survey was conducted in 50 villages distributed throughout the country. The study revealed 41 neglected and underutilized crop species (NUCS) among which 19 were identified as of priority base on 10 criteria among which included their extent and degree of consumption. Reasons for neglect vary with the producers and the agricultural technicians. Market surveys revealed that NUCS are important source of household incomes and substantially contribute to poverty reduction. Review of the literature available revealed that most of the species are rich in nutrients and have some proven medicinal values and the promotion of their use would help in combating malnutrition and improving the health status of the local populations. The knowledge gaps and research needs are immense on most of the species identified as no concrete scientific data is nationally available. In terms of research, almost all has to be done starting from basic ethnobotanical investigation. The results will help the scientists and students willing to conduct research on NUCS in Benin to better orient their research programs. PMID:22593712

  7. Diversity of the neglected and underutilized crop species of importance in Benin.

    PubMed

    Dansi, A; Vodouhè, R; Azokpota, P; Yedomonhan, H; Assogba, P; Adjatin, A; Loko, Y L; Dossou-Aminon, I; Akpagana, K

    2012-01-01

    Many of the plant species that are cultivated for food across the world are neglected and underutilized. To assess their diversity in Benin and identify the priority species and establish their research needs, a survey was conducted in 50 villages distributed throughout the country. The study revealed 41 neglected and underutilized crop species (NUCS) among which 19 were identified as of priority base on 10 criteria among which included their extent and degree of consumption. Reasons for neglect vary with the producers and the agricultural technicians. Market surveys revealed that NUCS are important source of household incomes and substantially contribute to poverty reduction. Review of the literature available revealed that most of the species are rich in nutrients and have some proven medicinal values and the promotion of their use would help in combating malnutrition and improving the health status of the local populations. The knowledge gaps and research needs are immense on most of the species identified as no concrete scientific data is nationally available. In terms of research, almost all has to be done starting from basic ethnobotanical investigation. The results will help the scientists and students willing to conduct research on NUCS in Benin to better orient their research programs.

  8. Credit with Health Education in Benin: A Cluster Randomized Trial Examining Impacts on Knowledge and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Karlan, Dean; Thuysbaert, Bram; Gray, Bobbi

    2017-02-08

    We evaluate whether health education integrated into microcredit lending groups reduces health risks by improving health knowledge and self-reported behaviors among urban and rural borrowers in eastern Benin. In 2007, we randomly assigned 138 villages in the Plateau region of Benin to one of four variations of a group liability credit product, varying lending groups' gender composition and/or inclusion of health education using a 2 × 2 design. Women in villages receiving health education, regardless of gender composition of the groups, showed improved knowledge of malaria and of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), but not of childhood illness danger signs. No significant changes in health behavior were observed except an increase in HIV/AIDS prevention behavior, a result predominantly driven by an increase in respondents' self-reported ability to procure a condom, likely an indicator of increased perceived access rather than improved preventative behavior. Women in villages assigned to mixed-gender groups had significantly lower levels of social capital, compared with villages assigned to female-only groups. This suggests there may be an important trade-off to consider for interventions seeking improved health outcomes and social capital through provision of services to mixed-gender groups. Although bundling health education with microcredit can expand health education coverage and lower service-delivery costs, the approach may not be sufficient to improve health behaviors.

  9. Natural enemies of the maize cob borer, Mussidia nigrivenella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Sétamou, M; Schulthess, F; Goergen, G; Poehling, H-M; Borgemeister, C

    2002-08-01

    Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot is a pest of maize cobs in West Africa. It significantly reduces maize yields and grain quality, with quantitative losses of 2-25%at harvest, and up to 10-15% indirect losses due to an increase in storage pest infestation levels. Infestation by M. nigrivenella also significantly increased the susceptibility of maize to Aspergillus flavus infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Surveys conducted in different agro-ecological zones of Benin on cultivated and wild host plants during 1994-1997 revealed one egg parasitoid, three larval parasitoids and one pupal parasitoid attacking M. nigrivenella. Egg parasitism was scarce on all host plants sampled and in all four agro-ecological zones. Parasitism by larval and pupal parasitoids was usually less than 10%, and varied with host plant species. Both larval and pupal parasitoids were rare or absent in cultivated maize fields. The solitary chalcidid pupal parasitoid, Antrocephalus crassipes Masi, was the predominant species, contributing approximately 53% of the observed mortality. Logistic regression analysis indicated that this parasitoid was more prevalent on fruits of Gardenia spp. (Rubiaceae) than on the other host plant species including maize used by M. nigrivenella, and was most abundant between February and September. The differences in parasitoid diversity and parasitism between Benin and other regions suggest that there are opportunities for biological control through introduction of exotic parasitoids or using the 'new association' approach, which uses natural enemies of closely related host species that occupy similar ecological niches to the target pest.

  10. Is Walk Score associated with hospital admissions from chronic diseases? Evidence from a cross-sectional study in a high socioeconomic status Australian city-state

    PubMed Central

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Learnihan, Vincent; Cochrane, Thomas; Phung, Hai; O'Connor, Bridget; Davey, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore patterns of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).To ascertain the effect of the neighbourhood built environmental features and especially walkability on health outcomes, specifically for hospital admissions from NCDs. Design A cross-sectional analysis of public hospital episode data (2007–2013). Setting Hospitalisations from the ACT, Australia at very small geographic areas. Participants Secondary data on 75 290 unique hospital episodes representing 39 851 patients who were admitted to ACT hospitals from 2007 to 2013. No restrictions on age, sex or ethnicity. Main exposure measures Geographic Information System derived or compatible measures of general practitioner access, neighbourhood socioeconomic status, alcohol access, exposure to traffic and Walk Score walkability. Main outcome measures Hospitalisations of circulatory diseases, specific endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, respiratory diseases and specific cancers. Results Geographic clusters with significant high and low risks of NCDs were found that displayed an overall geographic pattern of high risk in the outlying suburbs of the territory. Significant relationships between neighbourhood walkability as measured by Walk Score and the likelihood of hospitalisation with a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction (heart attack) were found. A possible relationship was also found with the likelihood of being hospitalised with 4 major lifestyle-related cancers. Conclusions Our research augments the growing literature underscoring the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes. In addition, it supports the importance of walkable neighbourhoods, as measured by Walk Score, for improved health. PMID:27932340

  11. The Organization of Hospital Services for Casualties due to the Bombing of Cities, Based on Experience Gained in Barcelona—with Special Reference to the Classification of Casualties

    PubMed Central

    Trueta, J.

    1939-01-01

    (1) Difference between modern “total population” war and old-fashioned war. Difference between bombing of (a) military objectives and (b) civilian population. (a) The heavy bomb, e.g. 750 lb., with large fragments, upward throw, great destruction of buildings. (b) The light bomb with finger nail fragments, horizontal throw, great velocity.There is in addition the incendiary bomb, little used in Barcelona because the buildings are built of stone and concrete. (2) Aerial bombing of a town produces injuries needing more immediate hospitalization than most front-line wounds. At the same time it is possible in a town to organize rapid collection of patients and their immediate transfer to hospital. (3) Experience shows that it is most desirable to make this transfer of patients to hospital a primary consideration. On arrival they are “sorted” and minor injuries are given First Aid treatment and sent home, others are fully examined, classified, and dispatched to the theatres on a priority list, to nearby wards for resuscitation, to wards for rest, or sent on to plaster rooms for splintage, or to a neurosurgical centre. (4) First-aid posts in a town should be in hospitals and treat superficial injuries, &c., after primary sorting in the hospital reception room. (5) First-aid posts in outlying areas should carry out the same function for the same type of cases; all the more seriously wounded, including those with tiny penetrating wounds, should be dispatched without first aid treatment direct to hospital. (6) Hospital arrangements, for circulation of ambulances, for sorting, undressing of patients, docketing of valuables, &c. (7) Classification must be carried out by surgeons of experience and judgment. They must regard not only a standard priority list but the particular clinical picture and prognosis in each case. (8) The surgeon will furthermore draft the cases with regard to the special abilities of the surgical units available, e.g. chest, abdomen, or limbs

  12. Short-Term Effects of Coarse Particulate Matter on Hospital Admissions for Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case-Crossover Study in a Tropical City.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between coarse particles (PM2.5-10) levels and frequency of hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for CVD, including ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, congestive heart failure (CHF), and arrhythmias, and ambient air pollution data levels for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period 2006-2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for CVD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased rates of admissions for CVD were significantly associated with higher coarse PM levels only on cool days (< 25°C), with a 10-μg/m(3) elevation in PM2.5-10 concentrations associated with a 3% (95% CI = 2-4%) rise in IHD admissions, 5% (95% CI = 4-6%) increase in stroke admissions, 3% (95% CI = 1-6%) elevation in CHF admissions, and 3% (95% CI = 0-6%) rise in arrhythmias admissions. No significant associations were found between coarse particle levels and number of hospital admissions for CVD on warm days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5-10 levels remained significantly correlated with higher rate of CVD admissions even controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. Compared to the effect estimate associated with a 10-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 levels, effect estimates of frequency of CVD-related admissions associated with a 10-μg/m(3) rise in coarse PM levels were weaker. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5-10 enhance the risk of hospital admissions for CVD.

  13. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  14. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  15. Determinants of Benin elementary school science teachers' orientation toward inquiry-based instructional practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gado, Issaou

    The Republic of Benin (West Africa) undertook a nationwide curriculum reform that put an emphasis on inquiry-based instructional practices. Little, if any, research has been conducted to explore factors that could be related to teachers' orientation toward inquiry instructional practices. The purpose of this research study was to investigate factors and concerns that determine Benin elementary school teachers' orientation toward the use of inquiry-based instruction in the teaching of science. The study followed a naturalistic inquiry methodology combining a correlational ex post facto design and an observational case-study design. The theory of Planned Behavior was the conceptual framework used to design the study. Two hundred (N = 200) elementary school teachers and three (n = 3) case study participants were purposively selected. Data was gathered via the Revised Science Attitude Scale (Thompson & Shrigley, 1986), the Science Teachers' Ideological Preference Scale (Jones & Harty, 1978), open-ended questions, interviews, and classroom observations using audiorecorders, videorecorders, and the researcher-contextualized version of the Observational System for the Analysis of Classroom Instruction (Hough, 1966). Qualitative and quantitative data provided a deeper understanding of participants' responses. Quantitative measures indicated that Benin elementary school teachers have positive attitudes toward school science, significant positive orientation toward both inquiry-based instruction and traditional non inquiry-based instruction, and higher orientation toward inquiry-based instruction than traditional non inquiry-based instruction. Attitude toward handling materials for investigations was found to significantly contribute to the prediction of participants' inquiry orientation. Qualitative analyses of participants' responses indicated that the expectations of educational leaders, individual motivation to comply with the program, a perceived control of the

  16. Schistosomiasis and Soil Transmitted Helminths Distribution in Benin: A Baseline Prevalence Survey in 30 Districts

    PubMed Central

    Boko, Pelagie M.; Ibikounle, Moudachirou; Onzo-Aboki, Ablawa; Tougoue, Jean-Jacques; Sissinto, Yollande; Batcho, Wilfrid; Kinde-Gazard, Dorothe; Kabore, Achille

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, Benin developed strategies to control neglected tropical diseases and one of the first step was the disease mapping of the entire country in order to identify endemic districts of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH). This study was carried out in 30 of the 77 districts of Benin. Of these 30 districts 22 were previously treated for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) using the Ivermectin and Albendazole combination. In each district, five schools were selected and 50 children aged 8 to 14 years were sampled in each school, making a total of 250 children sampled in the district. The schools were selected mainly according to their proximity to lakes or any bodies of water that were likely to have been used by the children. Samples of faeces and urine were collected from each pupil. Urinary schistosomiasis was identified using the urine filtration technique while STH and intestinal schistosomiasis were identified through the Kato Katz method. Overall a total of 7500 pupils were surveyed across 150 schools with a gender ratio of 1:1. Hookworm was identified in all 30 districts with a prevalence ranging from 1.2% (95%CI: 0.0–2.5) to 60% (95%CI: 53.9–66.1). Ascaris lumbricoides was detected in 19 districts with a prevalence rate between 1% (95%CI: 0.0–2.2) and 39% (95%CI: 32.9–45.0). In addition to these common STH, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Strongyloides stercoralis were found at low prevalence. Only 16 districts were endemic to Schistosoma mansoni, while 29 districts were endemic to S. haematobium. The S. haematobium prevalence ranged from 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0–1.9) to 56% (95% CI: 50.2–62.5) while the prevalence of S. mansoni varied from 0.4% (95%CI: 0.0–1.2) to 46% (95% CI: 39.8–52.2). The 22 districts, where LF was successfully eliminated, still require mass drug administration (MDA) of albendazole indicating that school-based MDA would be needed even after LF elimination in districts co-endemic to LF and STH in

  17. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of plant essential oils from Benin against Anopheles gambiae (Giles)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance in sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Benin is a major public health issue hindering the control of the malaria vectors. Each Anopheles species has developed a resistance to one or several classes of the insecticides currently in use in the field. Therefore, it is urgent to find alternative compounds to conquer the vector. In this study, the efficacies of essential oils of nine plant species, which are traditionally used to avoid mosquito bites in Benin, were investigated. Methods Essential oils of nine plant species were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were identified by GC-MS. These oils were tested on susceptible “kisumu” and resistant “ladji-Cotonou” strains of Anopheles gambiae, following WHO test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes. Results Different chemical compositions were obtained from the essential oils of the plant species. The major constituents identified were as follows: neral and geranial for Cymbopogon citratus, Z-carveol, E-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol and E-p-mentha-2,8-dienol for Cymbopogon giganteus, piperitone for Cymbopogon schoenanthus, citronellal and citronellol for Eucalyptus citriodora, p-cymene, caryophyllene oxide and spathulenol for Eucalyptus tereticornis, 3-tetradecanone for Cochlospermum tinctorium and Cochlospermum planchonii, methyl salicylate for Securidaca longepedunculata and ascaridole for Chenopodium ambrosioides. The diagnostic dose was 0.77% for C. citratus, 2.80% for E. tereticornis, 3.37% for E. citriodora, 4.26% for C. ambrosioides, 5.48% for C. schoenanthus and 7.36% for C. giganteus. The highest diagnostic doses were obtained with S. longepedunculata (9.84%), C. tinctorium (11.56%) and C. planchonii (15.22%), compared to permethrin 0.75%. A. gambiae cotonou, which is resistant to pyrethroids, showed significant tolerance to essential oils from C. tinctorium and S. longepedunculata as expected but was

  18. Species distribution modelling for Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Benin, West Africa: comparing datasets and modelling algorithms.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E M; Leta, S; Estrada-Peña, A; Madder, M; Adehan, S; Vanwambeke, S O

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is one of the most widely distributed and economically important ticks, transmitting Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale. It was recently introduced to West Africa on live animals originating from Brazil. Knowing the precise environmental suitability for the tick would allow veterinary health officials to draft vector control strategies for different regions of the country. To test the performance of modelling algorithms and different sets of environmental explanatory variables, species distribution models for this tick species in Benin were developed using generalized linear models, linear discriminant analysis and random forests. The training data for these models were a dataset containing reported absence or presence in 104 farms, randomly selected across Benin. These farms were sampled at the end of the rainy season, which corresponds with an annual peak in tick abundance. Two environmental datasets for the country of Benin were compared: one based on interpolated climate data (WorldClim) and one based on remotely sensed images (MODIS). The pixel size for both environmental datasets was 1 km. Highly suitable areas occurred mainly along the warmer and humid coast extending northwards to central Benin. The northern hot and drier areas were found to be unsuitable. The models developed and tested on data from the entire country were generally found to perform well, having an AUC value greater than 0.92. Although statistically significant, only small differences in accuracy measures were found between the modelling algorithms, or between the environmental datasets. The resulting risk maps differed nonetheless. Models based on interpolated climate suggested gradual variations in habitat suitability, while those based on remotely sensed data indicated a sharper contrast between suitable and unsuitable areas, and a patchy distribution of the suitable areas. Remotely sensed data yielded more spatial detail in the predictions. When

  19. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo) is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

    PubMed

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J; De Snoo, Geert R; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  20. Using information technology for an improved pharmaceutical care delivery in developing countries. Study case: Benin.

    PubMed

    Edoh, Thierry Oscar; Teege, Gunnar

    2011-10-01

    One of the problems in health care in developing countries is the bad accessibility of medicine in pharmacies for patients. Since this is mainly due to a lack of organization and information, it should be possible to improve the situation by introducing information and communication technology. However, for several reasons, standard solutions are not applicable here. In this paper, we describe a case study in Benin, a West African developing country. We identify the problem and the existing obstacles for applying standard ECommerce solutions. We develop an adapted system approach and describe a practical test which has shown that the approach has the potential of actually improving the pharmaceutical care delivery. Finally, we consider the security aspects of the system and propose an organizational solution for some specific security problems.

  1. Mapping of initiatives to increase membership in mutual health organizations in Benin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Mutual health organizations (MHO) have been implemented across Africa to increase access to healthcare and improve financial protection. Despite efforts to develop MHOs, low levels of both initial enrolment and membership renewals continue to threaten their financial viability. The purpose of this study was to map initiatives implemented to increase the pool of MHO members in Benin. Methods A multiple case study was conducted to assess MHOs supported by five major promoters in Benin. Three months of fieldwork resulted in 23 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups with MHO promoters, technicians, elected members, and health professionals affiliated with the MHOs. Fifteen non-structured interviews provided additional information and a valuable source of triangulation. Results MHOs have adopted a wide range of initiatives targeting different entry points and involving a variety of stakeholders. Initiatives have included new types of collective health insurance packages and efforts to raise awareness by going door-to-door and organizing health education workshops. Different types of partnerships have been established to strengthen relationships with healthcare professionals and political leaders. However, the selection and implementation of these initiatives have been limited by insufficient financial and human resources. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of prioritizing sustainable strategies to increase MHO membership. No single MHO initiative has been able to resolve the issue of low membership on its own. If combined, existing initiatives could provide a comprehensive and inclusive approach that would target all entry points and include key stakeholders such as household decision-makers, MHO elected members, healthcare professionals, community leaders, governmental authorities, medical advisors, and promoters. There is a need to evaluate empirically the implementation of these interventions. Mechanisms to promote dialogue between

  2. Spatial Analysis of Anthropogenic Landscape Disturbance and Buruli Ulcer Disease in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lindsay P.; Finley, Andrew O.; Benbow, M. Eric; Gronseth, Jenni; Small, Pamela; Johnson, Roch Christian; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Merritt, Richard M.; Williamson, Heather; Qi, Jiaguo

    2015-01-01

    Background Land use and land cover (LULC) change is one anthropogenic disturbance linked to infectious disease emergence. Current research has focused largely on wildlife and vector-borne zoonotic diseases, neglecting to investigate landscape disturbance and environmental bacterial infections. One example is Buruli ulcer (BU) disease, a necrotizing skin disease caused by the environmental pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU). Empirical and anecdotal observations have linked BU incidence to landscape disturbance, but potential relationships have not been quantified as they relate to land cover configurations. Methodology/Principal Findings A landscape ecological approach utilizing Bayesian hierarchical models with spatial random effects was used to test study hypotheses that land cover configurations indicative of anthropogenic disturbance were related to Buruli ulcer (BU) disease in southern Benin, and that a spatial structure existed for drivers of BU case distribution in the region. A final objective was to generate a continuous, risk map across the study region. Results suggested that villages surrounded by naturally shaped, or undisturbed rather than disturbed, wetland patches at a distance within 1200m were at a higher risk for BU, and study outcomes supported the hypothesis that a spatial structure exists for the drivers behind BU risk in the region. The risk surface corresponded to known BU endemicity in Benin and identified moderate risk areas within the boundary of Togo. Conclusions/Significance This study was a first attempt to link land cover configurations representative of anthropogenic disturbances to BU prevalence. Study results identified several significant variables, including the presence of natural wetland areas, warranting future investigations into these factors at additional spatial and temporal scales. A major contribution of this study included the incorporation of a spatial modeling component that predicted BU rates to new locations

  3. Analysis of Hydrological Processes In A Small Catchment In Benin (west Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giertz, S.; Diekkrüger, B.

    The presented study is integrated in the GLOWA IMPETUS project (an integrated ap- proach to the efficient management of scarce water resources in West Africa) which analyses the effects of global change conditions on regional hydrological processes and on the water availability in Benin and Morocco. To examine the hydrological cy- cle and its change at the regional scale, detailed knowledge about the dominant hydro- logical processes dependent on the environmental conditions is necessary. This study provides the analysis of the hydrological processes as well as their simulation at the local scale serving as a basis for the subsequent regionalisation of processes and model parameters. The investigated area is a 30 km2 sized catchment in the sub-humid region of Benin which has been selected as research area for several participating disciplines of the IMPETUS-Project (hydrology, soil degradation, dynamics of vegetation, phys- iological plant ecology). The catchment is characterized by a high spatial variability of the land cover and a high temporal variablility due to land cover changes. Con- sequently all hydrologic measurements are performed on different land use types to analyse their influence on the hydrological processes. The measurements of soil water dynamics, runoff, infiltration and soil physical properties provide detailed information on the generation of model input parameters. A validation of the model output is car- ried out by comparing simulated and measured dynamics of state variables as well as water balance terms. By testing and validating the TOPLATS-model at the local scale in different-sized sub-catchments an evaluation of its applicability to the regional scale and the assessment of the related uncertainties is performed.

  4. The impact of 9/11 on the association of ambient air pollution with daily respiratory hospital admissions in a Canada-US border city, Windsor, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    LUGINAAH, ISAAC; FUNG, KAREN Y.; GOREY, KEVIN M.; KHAN, SHAHEDUL

    2010-01-01

    The 11 September 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States resulted in long lines of trucks at the border crossing in Windsor, Ontario. Public concern about the potential impact of these trucks spewing toxic pollutants into the air drew attention to the need to investigate the impact of 9/11 on the daily levels of air pollutants and respiratory hospitalization. In this study, significant increases in respiratory admissions were found one month and 6 months post-9/11. Mean daily respiratory admission was also significantly higher than the same period one year earlier and one year later. SO2 and CO concentration levels were found to be generally higher after 9/11 than one year before and immediately before. Relative risk estimates of respiratory hospitalization after 9/11 showed that SO2 (RR̂ = 1.15 for two-day, RR̂ = 1.18 for three-day, and RR̂ = 1.21 for five-day averages), NO2 (RR̂ = 1.10 for current day), and COH (RR̂ = 1.09 for current day, RR̂ = 1.10 for two-day average) had the most significant effects after 9/11. These results suggest the need for more stringent regulatory efforts in air quality in the region in response to the changing transportation dynamics at this Canada-US border crossing. PMID:21234298

  5. The impact of 9/11 on the association of ambient air pollution with daily respiratory hospital admissions in a Canada-US border city, Windsor, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Luginaah, Isaac; Fung, Karen Y; Gorey, Kevin M; Khan, Shahedul

    2006-08-01

    The 11 September 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks in the United States resulted in long lines of trucks at the border crossing in Windsor, Ontario. Public concern about the potential impact of these trucks spewing toxic pollutants into the air drew attention to the need to investigate the impact of 9/11 on the daily levels of air pollutants and respiratory hospitalization. In this study, significant increases in respiratory admissions were found one month and 6 months post-9/11. Mean daily respiratory admission was also significantly higher than the same period one year earlier and one year later. SO(2) and CO concentration levels were found to be generally higher after 9/11 than one year before and immediately before. Relative risk estimates of respiratory hospitalization after 9/11 showed that SO(2) (RR̂ = 1.15 for two-day, RR̂ = 1.18 for three-day, and RR̂ = 1.21 for five-day averages), NO(2) (RR̂ = 1.10 for current day), and COH (RR̂ = 1.09 for current day, RR̂ = 1.10 for two-day average) had the most significant effects after 9/11. These results suggest the need for more stringent regulatory efforts in air quality in the region in response to the changing transportation dynamics at this Canada-US border crossing.

  6. Help-seeking Behaviors Among Caregivers of Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Patients: A Hospital-based Study in Two Geographically and Culturally Distinct Indian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Sujit Kumar; Pattanayak, Sanjay; Gupta, Chandra Shekhar; Pattanayak, Raman Deep

    2012-01-01

    Background: India is a country of several diversities and cultures, which may influence the help-seeking behavior of mentally ill patients and families. Only a few Indian studies have focused on help seeking, especially for severe mental disorders. Objective: The study aimed to describe and compare the help-seeking behaviors among caregivers of psychotic patients visiting psychiatric clinics at two distinct cities of India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study of key caregivers (N=50) of patients with a DSM-IV TR diagnosis of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, visiting psychiatric out-patient departments of VIMHANS, New Delhi, and CIMS, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. After due informed consent was taken, a semi-structured proforma was administered for socio-demographic profile, illness details, causative beliefs, and information on help seeking. Results: Supernatural forces were held responsible by 40% of the Bilaspur sample in contrast to 8% in New Delhi sample. Faith-healers were initial contacts for 56% and 64% of sample, respectively, at New Delhi and Bilaspur. Faith-healers followed by a psychiatrist formed the commonest pathway of care at both centers (32% and 36%, respectively). The sample at New Delhi spent significantly more money (median: $4000 vs. $10) and traveled greater distances (median: 35 km vs. 10 km) for faith-healers during the course of illness. Two-thirds of sample in New Delhi and one-third at Bilaspur were aware of the nearby psychiatrist at the time of initial help seeking; however, only 28% and 12%, respectively, chose psychiatrist as an initial contact. The New Delhi sample reported a fear of medication adverse effects and stigma as perceived disadvantages of psychiatric help. The median time lost at both the centers was 1 month, with a maximum of 8.4 years in New Delhi and 4.9 years in Bilaspur. Of the total, 16% caregivers at New Delhi and 32% at Bilaspur center reported an intention to continue with

  7. The Benin experience: How computational modeling can assist major vaccine policy changes in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Schreiber, Benjamin; Wateska, Angela R; Connor, Diana L; Dicko, Hamadou M; Jaillard, Philippe; Mvundura, Mercy; Levin, Carol; Avella, Mélanie; Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T

    2015-06-09

    While scientific studies can show the need for vaccine policy or operations changes, translating scientific findings to action is a complex process that needs to be executed appropriately for change to occur. Our Benin experience provided key steps and lessons learned to help computational modeling inform and lead to major policy change. The key steps are: engagement of Ministry of Health, identifying in-country "champions," directed and efficient data collection, defining a finite set of realistic scenarios, making the study methodology transparent, presenting the results in a clear manner, and facilitating decision-making and advocacy. Generating scientific evidence is one component of policy change. Enabling change requires orchestration of a coordinated set of steps that heavily involve key stakeholders, earn their confidence, and provide them with relevant information. Our Benin EVM+CCEM+HERMES Process led to a decision to enact major changes and could serve as a template for similar approaches in other countries.

  8. The Benin Experience: How Computational Modeling can lead to Major Vaccine Policy Changes in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Schreiber, Benjamin; Wateska, Angela R.; Connor, Diana L.; Dicko, Hamadou M.; Jaillard, Philippe; Mvundura, Mercy; Levin, Carol; Avella, Mélanie; Haidari, Leila A.; Brown, Shawn T.

    2015-01-01

    While scientific studies can show the need for vaccine policy or operations changes, translating scientific findings to action is a complex process that needs to be executed appropriately for change to occur. Our Benin experience provided key steps and lessons learned to help computational modeling inform and lead to major policy change. The key steps are: engagement of Ministry of Health, identifying in-country “champions,” directed and efficient data collection, defining a finite set of realistic scenarios, making the study methodology transparent, presenting the results in a clear manner, and facilitating decision-making and advocacy. Generating scientific evidence is one component of policy change. Enabling change requires orchestration of a coordinated set of steps that heavily involve key stakeholders, earn their confidence, and provide them with relevant information. Our Benin EVM+CCEM+HERMES Process led to a decision to enact major changes and could serve as a template for similar approaches in other countries. PMID:25900134

  9. Comparative chemical and analgesic properties of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo.

    PubMed

    Abena, A A; Gbenou, J D; Yayi, E; Moudachirou, M; Ongoka, R P; Ouamba, J M; Silou, T

    2007-02-16

    The chemical and analgesic comparison of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L) Rendle of Benin and Congo was investigated. The chemical analysis wa carried out by using GS/MS for identification of components of the two essential oils while acetic acid-induced writhings, hot plate and tail flick test models were used for analgesic activity. The results showed that the two essential oils exhibited comparable activity on acetic acid-induced writhings, however, the essential oil of Benin induced more significant effect on hot plate model while the Congolese specie showed more effect in the tail flick test. These observations could be explained by some qualitative and/or quantitative differences observed between the constituents of the two essential oils studied.

  10. [Changes in the structure of pathogens of calculous pyelonephritis complicated with diabetes mellitus type ii, in the hospital urology of the city of Volgograd].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V I; Vinarov, A Z; Vekilyan, M A; Kulchenko, N G

    2016-08-01

    Among the diseases complicating the course of calculous pyelonephritis, are among the leaders of diabetes mellitus, which is associated with reduced immune response, deterioration of renal hemodynamics, the reduced sensitivity to antibacterial drugs. The purpose of the study is to improve the results of treatment of patients with calculous pyelonephritis and diabetes mellitus type 2. The materials and methods of research. We studied 179 people. This was a retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological analysis of medical records of patients who were treated in 2009 and 2013, in hospital of Volgograd. Women in the study was greater than 99(by 55.4%), males - 80 (44,6%). All patients underwent standard clinical examination, with mandatory bacteriological urine analysis, ultrasound study of kidneys.

  11. [Drug monitoring in hospitals of Cordoba City (Argentina). 2-year-experience of the Pharmacological Department as a peripheric effect of ANMAT].

    PubMed

    Segura, Aída E del V; Mutal, Víctor; Lizzio, Salvador; Montrull, Hilda L

    2005-01-01

    There were designed Monitorings study (FVG), centred on three Public Hospitals of C6rdoba, seeking to detect Adverse Reactions for medicines. To such purpose there were realized forming courses of human resources in FVG. FVG's cards were distributed, of own design, recovered then. For statistical calculation there was applied the INFO 4. 84 informed cards were recovered. The groups of involved medicines: they were: Antibiotics (22%), cardiovascular (16%), antiulcerous (10%), anxiolytics (8.75%), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (8%), onchologics (6%), anticonvulsants (3.75%), hypolypemics (3.5%), sexual hormones (2.5%), hypoglycemics (2.5%), plasmatic expansors (2.5%). The organs affected by RAM were: Central Nervous System (25%), skin (25%), gastrointestinal (17.5%), Bleeds (7.5%), cardiovascular (7.5%), respiratory (7%), immune (6%), renal (4%). The analysis of imputability indicated: Definite RAM: 10 % Probable RAM: 90%.

  12. [A retrospective study on the incidence of chronic renal failure in the Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology at University Hospital of Antananarivo (the capital city of Madagascar)].

    PubMed

    Ramilitiana, Benja; Ranivoharisoa, Eliane Mikkelsen; Dodo, Mihary; Razafimandimby, Evanirina; Randriamarotia, Willy Franck

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal failure is a global public health problem. In developed countries, this disease occurs mainly in the elderly, but in Africa it rather affects active young subjects. This disease need for expensive treatments in a low income country, because of its costs. Our aim is to describe the epidemiology of new cases of chronic renal failure in Madagascar. This is a retrospective, descriptive study of 239 patients with chronic renal failure over a 3 year period, starting from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2009, in the Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology at University Hospital of Antananarivo. The incidence was 8.51% among patients hospitalized in the Department. The average age of patients was 45.4 years with extremes of 16 and 82 years and a sex ratio 1,46. The main antecedent was arterial hypertension (59.8%). Chronic renal failure was terminal in 75.31% of the cases (n=180). The causes of chronic renal failure were dominated by chronic glomerulonephritis (40.1%), nephroangiosclerosis (35.5%). Hemodialysis was performed in 3 patients (1.26%), no patient was scheduled for a renal transplantation. Mortality rate in the Department was 28.87%. Chronic renal failure is a debilitating disease with a dreadful prognosis which affects young patients in Madagascar. Its treatment remains inaccessible to the majority of patients. The focus must be mainly on prevention, especially on early effective management of infections, arterial hypertension and diabetes to reduce its negative impacts on the community and public health. The project on renal transplantation: living donor, effective and less expensive treatment compared to hemodialysis could also be a good solution for these Malagasy young subjects.

  13. Development of methane emission factors for enteric fermentation in cattle from Benin using IPCC Tier 2 methodology.

    PubMed

    Kouazounde, J B; Gbenou, J D; Babatounde, S; Srivastava, N; Eggleston, S H; Antwi, C; Baah, J; McAllister, T A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop emission factors (EF) for methane (CH4) emissions from enteric fermentation in cattle native to Benin. Information on livestock characteristics and diet practices specific to the Benin cattle population were gathered from a variety of sources and used to estimate EF according to Tier 2 methodology of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Most cattle from Benin are Bos taurus represented by Borgou, Somba and Lagune breeds. They are mainly multi-purpose, being used for production of meat, milk, hides and draft power and grazed in open pastures and crop lands comprising tropical forages and crops. Estimated enteric CH4 EFs varied among cattle breeds and subcategory owing to differences in proportions of gross energy intake expended to meet maintenance, production and activity. EFs ranged from 15.0 to 43.6, 16.9 to 46.3 and 24.7 to 64.9 kg CH4/head per year for subcategories of Lagune, Somba and Borgou cattle, respectively. Average EFs for cattle breeds were 24.8, 29.5 and 40.2 kg CH4/head per year for Lagune, Somba and Borgou cattle, respectively. The national EF for cattle from Benin was 39.5 kg CH4/head per year. This estimated EF was 27.4% higher than the default EF suggested by IPCC for African cattle with the exception of dairy cattle. The outcome of the study underscores the importance of obtaining country-specific EF to estimate global enteric CH4 emissions.

  14. [Herpes Zoster, predictive element of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). Epidemio-clinical study in Cotonou (Benin)].

    PubMed

    Yedomon, H G; Doango-Padonou, F; Adjibi, A; Latoundji, S; Zohoun, I

    1993-01-01

    An epidemio-clinical study of Herpes Zoster in 39 healthy patients of Benin has permitted to the authors to evaluate the positive predictive value of Herpes Zoster for HIV infection on West Africa; and to compare it with results of central Africa. The mean age of patients is 34.74 years. The positive predictive value of Herpes Zoster for HIV infection is 41.02%. It is increased by the cranial site of Herpes Zoster.

  15. Assessment of periodontal health status in postmenopausal women visiting dental hospital from in and around Meerut city: Cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, D.; Jain, Gazal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Puberty, menses, pregnancy, and menopause are the different phases of a woman's life which have a varied influence on oral health. During the menopause, women go through biological and endocrine changes, particularly in their sex steroid hormone production which affects their health. Because the oral mucosa contains estrogen receptors, variations in hormone levels can be seen directly in the oral cavity leading to a few oral conditions and diseases seen more frequently during postmenopausal years. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess periodontal health status in postmenopausal women in and around Meerut city. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised ninety postmenopausal women. History of menopause was recorded, and the dental examinations were done by measuring the following parameters of periodontal health: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket probing depth, and Russell's periodontal index. The collected data were subjected to statistical analyses. Results and Conclusion: In the study group, mean age was 55 years, mean missing teeth were 10.3, mean duration of menopause was 9.23. Eleven percent females were completely edentulous, and 5 females had never brushed. Mean PI-s was 1.99, mean GI-s was 1.74, mean BOP was 52.85, and mean Russell's periodontal index was 4.34. Eleven patients were at the initial stages of destructive periodontal disease, 34 had established destructive periodontal disease while thirty patients had the terminal periodontal disease. These findings suggest that females after menopause are at a risk of developing destructive periodontal disease if proper oral hygiene practices are not followed. PMID:28096641

  16. Analysis of molecular epidemiologic characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli colonizing feces in hospital patients and community dwellers in a Japanese city.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akihiro; Komatsu, Masaru; Noguchi, Nobuyoshi; Ohno, Yuki; Hashimoto, Eriko; Matsutani, Hiroko; Abe, Noriyuki; Fukuda, Saori; Kohno, Hisashi; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Matsuo, Shuji; Kawano, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    Infectious diseases caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are prevalent because of nosocomial infection. In addition, colonization of ESBL-producing E. coli in the intestinal tract of community dwellers due to the contamination of meat or environmental water is assumed to be one of the sources, but the causes have not been clarified. To analyze these factors, we investigated the difference in clonal groups using a combination of phylogenetic groups and multilocus sequence typing of ESBL-producing E. coli, which were obtained from the feces of an inpatient group in our hospital and a community-dwelling group living in a Japanese city. The carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli in the inpatient group was 12.5% (32/257), similar to that of 8.5% (42/496) in the community dwellers (P = 0.082). Of the ESBL clonal groups detected from the community dwellers, 52% (22/42) were clonal groups, including D-ST1485, D-ST70, D-ST2847, B2-ST550, B2-ST3510, A-ST93, A-ST580, A-ST716 and B1-ST2787, that have not been detected from human pathogens, meat, companion animals and environmental water, whereas all clonal groups detected from the inpatients were those that had already been reported. The rate of fluoroquinolone-resistant ESBL clonal groups colonizing the intestinal tract of the inpatient group rose as the number of hospital days increased. These results indicated that different factors were related to colonization of ESBL-producing E. coli in the feces of the inpatient group and the community-dwelling group.

  17. [Cultural adaptation and Argentine validation of the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire in the hospitals of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Mariana V; Rodríguez, Matias G; Clarett, Martín; Iribarne, Juan I; Martínez, Marianela; Battistotti, Romina; López de Arcaute, Ana S; Adarves, Romina; Orsini, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: realizar la adaptación cultural y validación del Cuestionario Northwick Park (NPQ) en Argentina, determinando sus propiedades psicométricas, en pacientes con dolor cervical de origen mecánico derivados al Servicio de Kinesiología del Hospital D. F. Santojanni. Materiales y Métodos: Se solicitó la autorización del autor original del NPQ, luego se realizó la adaptación lingüística y prueba piloto. Las propiedades psicométricas incluyeron: confiabilidad test-retest (coeficiente de correlación intraclase, CCI), validez (coeficiente de correlación de Pearson NPQ-Escala Análoga Visual, EVA), consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y sensibilidad al cambio (prueba T para pruebas pareadas NPQ-EVA). Se incluyeron consecutivamente 60 pacientes de septiembre de 2007 a febrero de 2009 con dolor cervical mecánico. Se midieron las variables porcentaje de discapacidad (NPQ) y dolor (EVA) al día del ingreso, a las 24 horas y al alta. Resultados: Veintiséis pacientes completaron el estudio, 4 fueron eliminados y 30 no completaron la 3° medición. Se obtuvo una buena confiabilidad test-retest (ICC 0.8979) y una alta consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach 0.86). La validez mostró una buena correlación (r= 0,678). La sensibilidad al cambio fue buena (r=0.661). Conclusión: El NPQ es un instrumento válido, confiable y sensible para evaluar la discapacidad asociada al dolor cervical de origen mecánico en pacientes atendidos en el ámbito hospitalario de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.

  18. Genetic divergence in northern Benin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) landraces as revealed by agromorphological traits and selection of candidate genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dossou-Aminon, Innocent; Loko, Laura Yêyinou; Adjatin, Arlette; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer B K; Dansi, Alexandre; Rakshit, Sujay; Cissé, Ndiaga; Patil, Jagannath Vishnu; Agbangla, Clément; Sanni, Ambaliou; Akoègninou, Akpovi; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important staple food crop in northern Benin. In order to assess its diversity in Benin, 142 accessions of landraces collected from Northern Benin were grown in Central Benin and characterised using 10 qualitative and 14 quantitative agromorphological traits. High variability among both qualitative and quantitative traits was observed. Grain yield (0.72-10.57 tons/ha), panicle weight (15-215.95 g), days to 50% flowering (57-200 days), and plant height (153.27-636.5 cm) were among traits that exhibited broader variability. Correlations between quantitative traits were determined. Grain yield for instance exhibited highly positive association with panicle weight (r = 0.901, P = 0.000) and 100 seed weight (r = 0.247, P = 0.000). UPGMA cluster analysis classified the 142 accessions into 89 morphotypes. Based on multivariate analysis, twenty promising sorghum genotypes were selected. Among them, AT41, AT14, and AT29 showed early maturity (57 to 66 days to 50% flowering), high grain yields (4.85 to 7.85 tons/ha), and shorter plant height (153.27 to 180.37 cm). The results obtained will help enhancing sorghum production and diversity and developing new varieties that will be better adapted to the current soil and climate conditions in Benin.

  19. Genetic Divergence in Northern Benin Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Landraces as Revealed by Agromorphological Traits and Selection of Candidate Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dossou-Aminon, Innocent; Loko, Laura Yêyinou; Adjatin, Arlette; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer B. K.; Dansi, Alexandre; Rakshit, Sujay; Cissé, Ndiaga; Patil, Jagannath Vishnu; Agbangla, Clément; Sanni, Ambaliou; Akoègninou, Akpovi; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important staple food crop in northern Benin. In order to assess its diversity in Benin, 142 accessions of landraces collected from Northern Benin were grown in Central Benin and characterised using 10 qualitative and 14 quantitative agromorphological traits. High variability among both qualitative and quantitative traits was observed. Grain yield (0.72–10.57 tons/ha), panicle weight (15–215.95 g), days to 50% flowering (57–200 days), and plant height (153.27–636.5 cm) were among traits that exhibited broader variability. Correlations between quantitative traits were determined. Grain yield for instance exhibited highly positive association with panicle weight (r = 0.901,  P = 0.000) and 100 seed weight (r = 0.247,  P = 0.000). UPGMA cluster analysis classified the 142 accessions into 89 morphotypes. Based on multivariate analysis, twenty promising sorghum genotypes were selected. Among them, AT41, AT14, and AT29 showed early maturity (57 to 66 days to 50% flowering), high grain yields (4.85 to 7.85 tons/ha), and shorter plant height (153.27 to 180.37 cm). The results obtained will help enhancing sorghum production and diversity and developing new varieties that will be better adapted to the current soil and climate conditions in Benin. PMID:25729773

  20. Precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote wet savanna site in West Africa: Djougou (Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpo, A. B.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Laouali, D.; Delon, C.; Liousse, C.; Adon, M.; Gardrat, E.; Mariscal, A.; Darakpa, C.

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of the IDAF (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) international program, this study aims to study the chemical composition of precipitation and associated wet deposition at the rural site of Djougou in Benin, representative of a West and Central African wet savanna. Five hundred and thirty rainfall samples were collected at Djougou, Benin, from July 2005 to December 2009 to provide a unique database. The chemical composition of precipitation was analyzed for inorganic (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, NH4+, K+, NO3-, Cl-, SO42-) and organic (HCOO-, CH3COO-, C2H5COO-, C2O42-) ions, using ion chromatography. The 530 collected rain events represent a total of 5706.1 mm of rainfall compared to the measured pluviometry 6138.9 mm, indicating that the collection efficiency is about 93%. The order of total annual loading rates for soluble cations is NH4+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. For soluble anions the order of loading is carbonates > HCOO- > NO3- > CH3COO- > SO4,SUP>2- > Cl- > C2O42- > C2H5COO-. In the wet savanna of Djougou, 86% of the measured pH values range between 4.7 and 5.7 with a median pH of 5.19, corresponding to a VWM (Volume Weighed Mean) H+ concentration of 6.46 μeq·L-1. This acidity results from a mixture of mineral and organic acids. The annual sea salt contribution was computed for K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and SO42- and represents 4.2% of K+, 41% of Mg2+, 1.3% of Ca2+, and 7.4% of SO42-. These results show that K+, Ca2+, SO42-, and Mg2+ were mainly of non-marine origin. The marine contribution is estimated at 9%. The results of the chemical composition of rainwater of Djougou indicates that, except for the carbonates, ammonium has the highest VWM concentration (14.3 μeq·L-1) and nitrate concentration is 8.2 μeq·L-1. The distribution of monthly VWM concentration for all ions is computed and shows the highest values during the dry season, comparing to the wet season. Identified nitrogenous compound sources (NOx and NH3) are domestic animals, natural emissions from savanna soils

  1. LANDSCAPE CHANGES IN A LOWLAND IN BENIN: ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON PESTS AND NATURAL ENEMIES.

    PubMed

    Boucher, A; Silvie, P; Menozzi, P; Adda, C; Auzoux, S; Jean, J; Huat, J

    2015-01-01

    Habitat management involving conservative biological control could be a good crop pest management option in poor African countries. A survey was conducted from August 2013 to July 2014 in a rainfed lowland region near Pélébina, northern Benin, in order to characterize spatiotemporal landscape changes and investigate their influence on the main crop pests and their associated natural enemies. The area was mapped mainly regarding crop fields and fallows. Visual observations were recorded and a database was compiled. Major landscape composition changes were noted between rainy and dry seasons, which affected the presence of both pests and natural enemies. Cereals (rice, maize and sorghum) and cotton were grown in the humid season, and then okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) was the dominant vegetable crop in dry season. These modifications impacted fallow abundance throughout the lowland. Different cotton (e.g. Helicoverpa armigera, Dysdercus sp., Zonocerus variegatus) or rice (e.g. Diopsis longicornis, D. apicalis) pests were observed during dry season in okra crops. Dry season surveys of Poaceae in two types of fallows ('humid', 'dry') revealed the presence of very few stem borers: only 0.04% of stems sampled were infested by stem borers, with a mean of 1.13 larvae per stem. Known cereal stem borer species such as Busseola fusco, Coniesta ignefusalis, Sesamia calamistis were not clearly identified among these larvae because of their diapausing stage and white color. Unexpected pollinators (Hymenoptera Apidae, genus Braunsapis, Ceratina and Xylocopa) and predators (Crabronidae, genus Dasyproctus) were found in the stems. Sweep-net collection of insects in humid fallows allowed us to describe for the first time in Benin seven Diopsidae species (23% of adults bearing Laboulbeniomycetes ectoparasitic fungi). Some of these species were captured in rice fields during rainy season. Parasitoids (adult Chalcidoidae and Ichneumonoidae) were observed during both seasons but their

  2. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Rafiatou; Alfa, Teou; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Novidzro, Kosi Mawuéna; Dotse, Kokouvi; Koudouvo, Koffi; Houngue, Ursula; Donou Hounsode, Marcel T.; Koumaglo, Kossi Honoré; Ameyapoh, Yaovi

    2017-01-01

    The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh) was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain). The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91%) and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%). Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC) between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize. PMID:28197207

  3. Risks of ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated groundnuts in Benin: scale measurements, beliefs, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Jolly, C M; Bayard, B; Vodouhe, S

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluates farmers' beliefs and perceived risks of aflatoxin (AF) on the consumption, production, and marketing of groundnuts. A survey was conducted with 181 farmers in Benin to assess their beliefs of AF effects on the marketing of groundnuts, and finally human and animal health. Awareness and action factors were also evaluated. Relationships of the belief and action factors with socioeconomic variables were evaluated using multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) models within a socioeconomic framework using a health belief model (HBM). The results indicate that the scale of the various constructs is reliable and the validity conforms to expectations. The unifactorial models developed in this study provide a satisfactory fit with NFl, CFI, and GFI exceeding 0.90. The results reveal that gender, age, and years of experience in farming significantly impact farmers' action regarding the reduction of AF in groundnut production and marketing. Male farmers are more likely to be aware of AF problems in groundnuts and feel more susceptible to the problems than their female counterparts. Gender and education seem to be dominating factors in the perception of barriers to mitigating the effects of AF, and male and older farmers are more likely to perceive the benefits of producing and marketing good quality groundnuts.

  4. Use of cpSSRs for the characterisation of yam phylogeny in Benin.

    PubMed

    Chaïr, H; Perrier, X; Agbangla, C; Marchand, J L; Dainou, O; Noyer, J L

    2005-08-01

    The Dioscorea cayenensis - Dioscorea rotundata species complex is the most widely cultivated yam in West Africa. This species complex has been described as deriving from wild yams belonging to the Enanthiophyllum section through domestication by African farmers. To study patterns of yam evolution and to establish phylogenetic relationships existing between wild and cultivated species sampled in Benin, we investigated changes in chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeats (cpSSR) in 148 yam accessions selected to cover the wider possible genetic diversity existing in the country. Dioscorea cayenensis and D. rotundata share the same haplotype. The morphotype "abyssinica" appeared to be subdivided into 2 haplotypes. One of these haplotypes shares the same haplotype with the Dioscorea cayenensis - Dioscorea rotundata species complex and with morphotypes praehensilis, suggesting that they might belong to the same species. Relationships among sections Lasiophyton, Macrocapaea, Opsophyton, and Enanthiophyllum were clarified, and some taxonomic changes within the Enanthiophyllum section were suggested. Dioscorea minutiflora, D. smilacifolia, and D. burkilliana might be considered as 1 single genetic group, and they are suspected of belonging to the same species.

  5. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-03-11

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2-85.0) and 46.6 (36.5-60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring's consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children's BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children's BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure.

  6. Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Infants and Mothers in Benin and Potential Sources of Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Glorennec, Philippe; Cot, Michel; Dumas, Pierre; Durand, Séverine; Massougbodji, Achille; Ayotte, Pierre; Le Bot, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Lead in childhood is well known to be associated with poor neurodevelopment. As part of a study on maternal anemia and offspring neurodevelopment, we analyzed blood lead level (BLL) with no prior knowledge of lead exposure in 225 mothers and 685 offspring 1 to 2 years old from Allada, a semi-rural area in Benin, sub-Saharan Africa, between May 2011 and May 2013. Blood samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Environmental assessments in households and isotopic ratio measurements were performed for eight children with BLL > 100 µg/L. High lead levels (BLL > 50 µg/L) were found in 44% of mothers and 58% of children. The median BLL was 55.1 (interquartile range 39.2–85.0) and 46.6 (36.5–60.1) µg/L, respectively. Maternal BLL was associated with offspring’s consumption of piped water and animals killed by ammunition. Children’s BLL was associated with presence of paint chips in the house and consumption of animals killed by ammunition. In this population, with 98% of children still breastfed, children’s BLL was highly associated with maternal BLL on multivariate analyses. Environmental measures and isotopic ratios supported these findings. Offspring may be highly exposed to lead in utero and probably via breastfeeding in addition to lead paint exposure. PMID:26978384

  7. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  8. A Healing Cult Met with the Baatombu from the North of Benin: The Kaawo.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Mohamed

    2007-04-01

    Some remarkable studies have been devoted to the healing cults in Africa; but few of them focus on the role played by their therapeutic processes in the healing of the patient. This paper aims to show the real implication of the techniques mobilized in a healing process by a cult named Kaawo on the Baatombu in Northern Benin; and of which the data have been collected between 1995 and 2002. The outcomes of the study show the techniques used, such as prayer, sacrifice, divination, witchcraft, gesture and postures, as being real healing operators that have inductive properties with direct effect on the 'disease'. Here, the healing efficiency is all the more significant as the troubles from which the subjects suffer are either of psychosomatic or psychofunctional type, and relating rather to an existential malaise than an organic disorder. In this process, the priest/healer's conviction in the efficiency of the treatment prescribed to the patient, and the faith of the latter in the efficiency of the treatment received, maximize the potential of healing. It is clear that such results move away from the classical clinical approach that consists of assessing the consequences of a disease by examining symptoms it generates-and contributes to opening up some avenues for as yet fairly unexplored research opportunities.

  9. Formation des enseignants dans une perspective d'education permanente au benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboton, Sébastien; Moussa, Yaya Mede

    1994-05-01

    The history of teacher training in Benin, which provides evidence of social and cultural change, suggests that a system of lifelong education should be introduced which unites formal, non-formal and informal education, all of which already exist in embryo. The education originally given to every member of society was a continuing progression from initiate to initiator, a lifelong education that involved, among other things, knowledge of agricultural production. This traditional system was disrupted by the reorganization of teacher training after 1945. Recurrent training of teachers remained inadequate because of limited external funding for in-service training, the lack of teachers, the suspension of recruitment and the closure of teacher training colleges. The 1975 reform, through the initiative known as Operation Education and Development, envisaged links between school and social environment, allying intellectual work with production. This meant a radical change in the role of the teacher, who was confronted with technical advance and was obliged to enter a difficult continuing process of self-training. Furthermore, population growth and the restrictions imposed by the World Bank have brought about developments in both lifelong learning and apprenticeship. These two elements are brought together under an initiative known as Production Scolaire Artisanale, designed for out-of-school learners and artisans. The author concludes that the creation of a coherent system of voluntary education would be possible in a society that was itself favourably disposed to education.

  10. Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in Benin.

    PubMed

    Ba, Rafiatou; Alfa, Teou; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Novidzro, Kosi Mawuéna; Dotse, Kokouvi; Koudouvo, Koffi; Houngue, Ursula; Donou Hounsode, Marcel T; Koumaglo, Kossi Honoré; Ameyapoh, Yaovi; Baba-Moussa, Lamine

    2017-01-01

    The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh) was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain). The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91%) and the mycelial growth (36.51-80.41%). Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC) between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize.

  11. Insecticide dissipation from soil and plant surfaces in tropical horticulture of southern Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, Ingrid; Laabs, Volker; Atcha-Ahowé, Cyrien; James, Braima; Amelung, Wulf

    2009-06-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, horticulture provides livelihood opportunities for millions of people, especially in urban and peri-urban areas. Although the vegetable agroecosystems are often characterized by intensive pesticide use, risks resulting therefrom are largely unknown under tropical horticultural conditions. The objective of this study therefore was to study the fate of pesticides in two representative horticultural soils (Acrisol and Arenosol) and plants (Solanum macrocarpon L.) after field application and thus to gain first insight on environmental persistence and dispersion of typical insecticides used in vegetable horticulture in Benin, West Africa. On plant surfaces, dissipation was rapid with half lives ranging from 2 to 87 h (alpha-endosulfan < beta-endosulfan < deltamethrin). Soil dissipation was considerably slower than dissipation from plant surfaces with half-lives ranging from 3 (diazinon) to 74 d (total endosulfan), but persistence of pesticides in soil was still reduced compared to temperate climates. Nevertheless, for deltamethrin and endosulfan, a tendency for mid-term accumulation in soil upon repeated applications was observed. The soil and plant surface concentrations of the metabolite endosulfan sulfate increased during the entire trial period, indicating that this compound is a potential long-term pollutant even in tropical environments.

  12. BTEX air concentrations and self-reported common health problems in gasoline sellers from Cotonou, Benin.

    PubMed

    Tohon, Honesty Gbèdolo; Fayomi, Benjamin; Valcke, Mathieu; Coppieters, Yves; Bouland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relation between BTEX exposure levels and common self-reported health problems in 140 gasoline sellers in Cotonou, Benin, a questionnaire documenting their socioeconomic status and their health problems was used, whereas 18 of them went through semi-directed qualitative individual interviews and 17 had air samples taken on their workplace for BTEX analysis. Median concentrations for BTEX were significantly lower on official (range of medians: 54-207 μg/m³, n = 9) vs unofficial (148-1449 μg/m³, n = 8) gasoline-selling sites (p < 0.05). Self-reported health problems were less frequently reported in sellers from unofficial vs official selling sites (p < 0.05), because, as suggested by the semi-directed interviews, of their fear of losing their important, but illegal, source of income. Concluding, this study has combined quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches to account for the complex socioeconomic and environmental conditions of the investigated sellers, leading to their, in some cases, preoccupying BTEX exposure.

  13. Storage Insects on Yam Chips and Their Traditional Management in Northern Benin

    PubMed Central

    Loko, Y. L.; Dansi, A.; Tamo, M.; Bokonon-Ganta, A. H.; Assogba, P.; Dansi, M.; Vodouhè, R.; Akoegninou, A.; Sanni, A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five villages of Northern Benin were surveyed to identify the constraints of yam chips production, assess the diversity of storage insects on yam chips, and document farmers' perception of their impacts on the stocks and their traditional management practices. Damages due to storage insects (63.9% of responses) and insufficiency of insect-resistant varieties (16.7% of responses) were the major constraints of yam chips production. Twelve insect pest species were identified among which Dinoderus porcellus Lesne (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) was by far the most important and the most distributed (97.44% of the samples). Three predators (Teretrius nigrescens Lewis, Xylocoris flavipes Reuter, and Alloeocranum biannulipes Montrouzier & Signoret) and one parasitoid (Dinarmus basalis Rondani) all Coleoptera, Bostrichidae were also identified. The most important traditional practices used to control or prevent insect attack in yam chips were documented and the producers' preference criteria for yam cultivars used to produce chips were identified and prioritized. To further promote the production of yam chips, diversification of insect-resistant yam varieties, conception, and use of health-protective natural insecticides and popularization of modern storage structures were proposed. PMID:23710140

  14. Pre-anesthetic echocardiographic findings in children undergoing non-cardiac surgery at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, E Sadoh,; Paul, Ikhurionan; Charles, Imarengiaye,

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A pre-anaesthestic echocardiogram (echo) is requested for most non-cardiac surgeries to identify possible cardiac structural anomalies Objective To describe the prevalence and spectrum of structural cardiac abnormalities seen in various non-cardiac conditions Methods We carried out a retrospective review of pre-anaesthetic echos performed over five years on children scheduled for non-cardiac surgery. The requests were categorised according to referring specialities, and the biodata and echo findings were noted Results A total of 181 children and 181 echocardiograms were studied, and 100 (55.2%) of the patients were male. Most of the children (87, 48.1%) with oro-facial clefts were referred from dentistry. Of the 181 children, 39 (21.5%) had cardiac abnormalities, most (34, 87.2%) of whom had congenital heart disease (CHD). Ophthalmic requests with suspected congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) had the highest prevalence of 8/12 (66.7%) while the lowest was oro-facial clefts at 15/87 (17.2%). Atrial septal defect was the commonest abnormality, found in 14 patients (35.9%) Conclusion Pre-anaesthetic echo should be performed, especially for children with suspected CRS and other congenital anomalies, requiring non-cardiac surgery. PMID:27701485

  15. Campaign supports new name for TX hospital. Effort expands children's hospital's image and increases awareness.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    For years, the North Texas Hospital for Children at Medical City in Dallas struggled with its brand awareness. It's long-winded name was largely unknown among the city's 1.2 million residents. The hospital needed a new name and it needed one fast. The year 2005 proved to be both a burden and an opportunity for the 311-bed pediatric hospital. It survived a legal battle with a local competitor for the right to use the word "children's" in its name, created a new identity, and launched a three-year branding initiative to introduce its new name: Medical City Children's Hospital.

  16. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but ... very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is ...

  17. Atypical Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this creative challenge, Surrealism and one-point perspective combine to produce images that not only go "beyond the real" but also beyond the ubiquitous "imaginary city" assignment often used to teach one-point perspective. Perhaps the difference is that in the "atypical cities challenge," an understanding of one-point perspective is a means…

  18. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  19. Anthropological perspectives on water availability, water quality and water managament in the IMPETUS research areas of Benin and Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirscht, H.; Bollig, M.; Casciarri, B.; Casimir, M.; Rössler, M.; Bako-Arifari, N.

    2003-04-01

    The anthropological research in the framework of the interdisciplinary IMPETUS West Africa-project focuses on water availability, water quality and on social problems and conflicts concerning the management of this sometimes scarce or polluted resource. The northern project area, the catchment of the Drâa river in Southern Moroco, is characterised by a very low precipitation rate and an overall shortage of available water, a situation which has been aggravated by a drought in recent years. But even in the much moister southern research region, the catchment of the river Ouémé in Benin, water is not always available in the required quantity and quality. Although Morocco and Benin share no common cultural or ethnic identities, local 'traditional' water management institutions exist in both countries. The common objective of anthropological research is to identify and analyse these institutions on a micro- or mezzo-level, and to look into the social and cultural processes which lead to a sustainable - or ineffective - use of water. The prime research unit for anthropologists is the household, which is in general congruent with the basic economic unit. It is obvious that gender relations are an important aspect to consider if one looks into the management of water resources. Women are often in charge of supplying the household with drinking water, and in Benin many women are farmers, who, according to local concepts, spend more time on the fields than men. In addition, social changes caused by the shortage of water and their consequences for water management systems are investigated. In Morocco, the emigration of young men is a reaction to the recent droughts, transforming the household structure and gender relations in rural settlements. In return, the investment of the remittances into agriculture, for instance the purchase of motor-pumps for irrigation, affects the water management by circumventing traditional social and politically accepted water distribution

  20. A Landscape-based model for predicting Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli Ulcer disease) presence in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Tyler; Benbow, M Eric; Burns, Meghan; Johnson, R Christian; Merritt, Richard W; Qi, Jiaguo; Small, Pamela L C

    2008-03-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer [BU] disease) is an emerging tropical disease that causes severe morbidity in many communities, especially those in close proximity to aquatic environments. Research and control efforts are severely hampered by the paucity of data regarding the ecology of this disease; for example, the vectors and modes of transmission remain unknown. It is hypothesized that BU presence is associated with altered landscapes that perturb aquatic ecosystems; however, this has yet to be quantified over large spatial scales. We quantified relationships between land use/land cover (LULC) characteristics surrounding individual villages and BU presence in Benin, West Africa. We also examined the effects of other village-level characteristics which we hypothesized to affect BU presence, such as village distance to the nearest river. We found that as the percent urban land use in a 50-km buffer surrounding a village increased, the probability of BU presence decreased. Conversely, as the percent agricultural land use in a 20-km buffer surrounding a village increased, the probability of BU presence increased. Landscape-based models had predictive ability when predicting BU presence using validation data sets from Benin and Ghana, West Africa. Our analyses suggest that relatively small amounts of urbanization are associated with a decrease in the probability of BU presence, and we hypothesize that this is due to the increased availability of pumped water in urban environments. Our models provide an initial approach to predicting the probability of BU presence over large spatial scales in Benin and Ghana, using readily available land use data.

  1. Magnitude of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Rural and Urban Areas in Benin: Findings from a Nationwide Steps Survey

    PubMed Central

    Houehanou, Yessito Corine Nadège; Lacroix, Philippe; Mizehoun, Gbedecon Carmelle; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Marin, Benoit; Houinato, Dismand Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Data on variations in the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in sub-Saharan populations are limited, particularly with regard to Benin. Objective To describe and compare the prevalences of CVRF in urban and rural populations of Benin. Methods Subjects were drawn from participants in the Benin Steps survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2008 using the World Health Organisation (WHO) stepwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. Subjects aged above 24 and below 65 years were recruited using a five-stage random sampling process within households. Sociodemographic data, behavioral data along with medical history of high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were collected in Step 1. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured in Step 2. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in Step 3. CVRF were defined according to WHO criteria. The prevalences of CVRF were assessed and the relationships between each CVRF and the area of residence (urban or rural), were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of the 6762 subjects included in the study, 2271 were from urban areas and 4491 were from rural areas. High blood pressure was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 29.9% (95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 27.4, 32.5) and 27.5% (95% CI: 25.6, 29.5) respectively, p = 0.001 (p-value after adjustment for age and gender). Obesity was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 16.4% (95% CI: 14.4, 18.4) and 5.9% (95% CI: 5.1, 6.7), p<0.001. Diabetes was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1, 4.5) and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2, 2.4), p = 0.004. Conversely, daily tobacco smoking was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, 9.3% (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4) and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.1, 5.6), p<0.001. No differences in raised blood cholesterol were noted between the two groups. Conclusion According to our data, CVRF are prevalent among adults in Benin, and variations

  2. Norovirus - hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus ... fluids ( dehydration ). Anyone can become infected with norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ...

  3. Hydro-gravimetry in West-Africa: First results from the Djougou (Benin) superconducting gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, Basile; Hinderer, Jacques; Séguis, Luc; Boy, Jean-Paul; Calvo, Marta; Descloitres, Marc; Rosat, Séverine; Galle, Sylvie; Riccardi, Umberto

    2014-10-01

    The increasing number of hydro-gravimetry studies proves the rising interest of the hydrology community toward this monitoring method. The accuracy of superconducting gravimeters (SG) potentially allows the retrieval of small water storage changes (WSC) down to a few millimeters of equivalent water thickness. However, the importance of corrections applied to SG data to achieve such a precision in gravity residuals should be recalled. The Djougou permanent gravity station presented in this paper and located in northern Benin, West-Africa, provides a good opportunity to review these considerations. This station is equipped since July 2010 with the superconducting gravimeter SG-060 aimed at deriving WSC at different time-scales, daily to inter-annual. In this area, WSC are (1) part of the control system for evapotranspiration (ET) process, a key variable of the West-African monsoon cycle and (2) the state variable for resource management, a critical issue in storage-poor hard rock basement contexts such as in northern Benin. The potential for deriving WSC from time-lapse gravity data partly depends on environmental features such as topography and the instrument shelter. Therefore, this issue is addressed first, with the background idea that such sensitivity analysis should be undertaken before setting up any new instrument. In Djougou, local topography is quite flat leading to a theoretical straightforward relationship between gravity changes and WSC, close to the standard Bouguer value. However, the shelter plays a significant masking role, which is the principal limitation to the retrieval of fast hydrological processes such as ET following a rain event. Several issues concerning classical gravity corrections are also addressed in the paper. These include gap-filling procedures during rain-events and drift estimates for short time series. Special attention is provided to atmospheric corrections, and different approaches are tested: a simple scalar admittance, a

  4. Security Station and Front Entrance to hospital property, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Security Station and Front Entrance to hospital property, looking northeast - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Security Station & Front Gate, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  5. [Insomnia: prevalence in Cordoba city hospital].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M E; Lopez, S M; Cazaux, A; Cambursano, V H; Cortes, J R

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Insomnio es el trastorno caracterizado por sueño deficiente o de mala calidad con consecuencias diurnas adversas. La prevalencia es 30-50% en adultos y puede llevar al desarrollo de depresión. A pesar de las altas tasas de prevalencia es una entidad poco reconocida, subdiagnosticada y subtratada. Poco se ha publicado acerca de la prevalencia en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas. Objetivos: conocer prevalencia y características clínicas del insomnio en pacientes ambulatorios con enfermedades crónicas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio prospectivo descriptivo observacional de corte transversal. Se definió insomnio en base a los criterios del ICSD-2. La obtención de los datos se realizó por un cuestionario autoadministrado. Resultados: Encuestamos a 100 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta de diferentes especialidades clínicas, edad promedio 50 años. El 57% mujeres. El 69% cumplía criterios de insomnio. Las enfermedades más prevalente fueron HTA: 57%; asma: 20%, diabetes: 18% e hipotiroidismo: 17%. Entre los pacientes con insomnio, el 62% fueron mujeres, el 35 % lo presentaban de manera aislada y el restante 65% presentaba condiciones asociadas a insomnio secundario (el 60% presentaban depresión). La cuarta parte de los pacientes consultó por insomnio alguna vez. La prevalencia de criterios de depresión en los enfermos crónicos analizados fue de 52%, y asciende a 63% en los pacientes que padecen insomnio. Discusión: La prevalencia de insomnio en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas es alta, siendo en pacientes ambulatorios con enfermedades crónicas del 69%, muy superior a la media descripta en la población general. Es una entidad subtratada. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de insomnio en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas es alta, está subdiagnosticada y subtratada. Presenta una asociación significativa con depresión.

  6. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of Parkia biglobosa in Northern Benin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa) is a multipurpose species used widely in arid Africa by local communities. The present study focused on ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of P. biglobosa in Northern Benin, where the species widely grows. The use values according to the various ethnic groups in the study area have been evaluated in detail for P. biglobosa. Methods From 13 ethnic groups, 1587 people were interviewed in the study area using semi-structured questionnaires. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analyze the use value and the use patterns of P. biglobosa for the different ethnic groups. Results All interviewees in the study area knew at least one use of P. biglobosa. The various uses identified were medicinal (47%), handicraft and domestic (3%), medico-magic (1%), veterinary (1%), cultural (1%), food (25%) and commercial (22%). The various parts involved in these types of uses were: fruits [shell (2%), pulp (22%) and seeds (36%)], bark (17%), leaves (9%), roots (3%), flowers (1%) and branches (10%). The ethnic group consensus values for P. biglobosa parts showed that the seeds are used the most. The interviewees diversity value (ID) and equitability value (IE) indicated that knowledge concerning P. biglobosa use was distributed homogeneously among the ethnic groups. Conclusions P. biglobosa is well-known and used in different ways by the local populations in the study area. Local knowledge on the species is diversified and influenced by ethnic group. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of the species were evident in this study. PMID:22152043

  7. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (β = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (β = 0.35), forgetting (β = -0.22), and self-efficacy (β = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  8. Structural characterization of the Nigerian sector of Benin Basin using geopotential field attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladele, S.; Ayolabi, E. A.; Dublin-Green, C. O.

    2016-09-01

    The structural dispositions of the Nigerian sector of the Benin Basin have been investigated using attributes of geomagnetic and gravimetric fields. Aeromagnetic anomalies were reduced to the equator to improve the correspondence of the anomalies with the causative bodies. The residual, upward continued, tilt and horizontal derivatives, and pseudogravity attributes and forward models of both geomagnetic and gravimetric anomalies were computed to accentuate geological features including shallow and regional faults, fracture network, basement block pattern and depth to magnetic basement. Three generations of sinistral faults were identified. The oldest generation of faults (F1) is the NE-SW trend corresponding to the oceanic fracture zones trend. The F1 is truncated by the second generation of faults (F2) with E-W trends. The third generation of faults (F3) assumes NW-SE trend and is offset by F2. Shallow and deep regional faults and fractures envisaged to play major role in migration and entrapment of hydrocarbons and localization of mineral resources in this area were imaged. The coastline, Lagos and Lekki Lagoons surface geometry showed high degree of similarity with their underlying basement block pattern, thus implying that these surface features are structurally controlled. The basement morphology is not flat but of horst and graben architecture in which sediment thickness attained about 4 km within the graben. Hence, the graben has significant hydrocarbon potential. This study has shown the capabilities of geopotential field attributes in providing information about the structural architecture of frontier basin. Such knowledge will aid the understanding of the geology of the basin and its resources.

  9. Maternal migration and child health: An analysis of disruption and adaptation processes in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2016-01-01

    Children of migrant mothers have lower vaccination rates compared to their peers with non-migrant mothers in low-income countries. Explanations for this finding are typically grounded in the disruption and adaptation perspectives of migration. Researchers argue that migration is a disruptive process that interferes with women’s economic well-being and social networks, and ultimately their health-seeking behaviors. With time, however, migrant women adapt to their new settings, and their health behaviors improve. Despite prominence in the literature, no research tests the salience of these perspectives to the relationship between maternal migration and child vaccination. We innovatively leverage Demographic and Health Survey data to test the extent to which disruption and adaptation processes underlie the relationship between maternal migration and child vaccination in the context of Benin—a West African country where migration is common and child vaccination rates have declined in recent years. By disaggregating children of migrants according to whether they were born before or after their mother’s migration, we confirm that migration does not lower children’s vaccination rates in Benin. In fact, children born after migration enjoy a higher likelihood of vaccination, whereas their peers born in the community from which their mother eventually migrates are less likely to be vaccinated. Although we find no support for the disruption perspective of migration, we do find evidence of adaptation: children born after migration have an increased likelihood of vaccination the longer their mother resides in the destination community prior to their birth. PMID:26463540

  10. Mobile Microbiological Laboratory Support for Evaluation of a Meningitis Epidemic in Northern Benin

    PubMed Central

    Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Djogbe, Honoré; Kodjo, Agbenoko; N’douba, Adèle Kacou; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Stoeckel, Philippe; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Fixed laboratory capacity in Africa may be inadequate; mobile microbiological laboratories may address this issue but their utility has seldom been evaluated. Methods During 2012, the Benin Ministry of Health requested mobile microbiological laboratory (LaboMobil®) support following the failure of polysaccharide meningococcal A+C vaccine to prevent an epidemic in five Northern districts. Within four days, the intervention was initiated. A fixed site in Northern Togo, Pasteur Institutes in Côte d’Ivoire and France, and a research laboratory in Burkina Faso provided additional laboratory support. Results Local laboratories initially reported most cases to have Gram-positive diplococci suggestive of pneumococcal meningitis. The LaboMobil® evaluated 200 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and 59 stored isolates collected from 149 individuals. Of the 74 individuals with etiologic confirmation, 60 (81%) had NmW135 and 11 (15%) NmX identified; no pneumococci were identified. Testing in France on 30 NmW135 and 3 NmX confirmed the etiology in all cases. All five districts had crossed the epidemic threshold (10 cases per 100,000 per week), all had NmW135 identified and four had NmX identified. NmX were identified as X:ST-181:ccST-181∶5-1∶10-1:F1–31 and NmW135 as W:ST-11: ccST-11∶5∶2:F1-1. Conclusions In an area with limited local laboratory capacity, a mobile microbiology laboratory intervention occurred in four days through the cooperation of four African and one European country. Results were different from those reported by local laboratories. Despite the introduction of serogroup A meningococcal and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, endemic and epidemic meningitis will continue in the region, emphasizing the usefulness of the LaboMobil® in the short and medium term. PMID:23844195

  11. Violence, condom breakage and HIV infection among female sex workers in Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tounkara, Fatoumata K.; Diabaté, Souleymane; Guédou, Fernand A.; Ahoussinou, Clément; Kintin, Frédéric; Zannou, Djimon M.; Kpatchavi, Adolphe; Bédard, Emmanuelle; Bietra, Raphaël; Alary, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between violence, condom breakage and HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Data were obtained from the 2012 cross-sectional integrated biological and behavioural survey conducted in Benin. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of HIV infection and condom breakage in relation to violence towards FSWs. A score was created to examine the relationship between the number of violence types reported and HIV infection. Results Among the 981 women who provided a blood sample, HIV prevalence was 20.4%. During the last month, 17.2%, 13.5% and 33.5% of them had experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. In addition, 15.9% reported at least one condom breakage during the previous week. There was a significant association between all types of violence and HIV prevalence. The APRs of HIV were 1.45 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.05 – 2.00), 1.42 (95%CI: 1.02 – 1.98), and 1.41 (95%CI: 1.08 – 1.41) among those who had ever experienced physical, sexual and psychological violence, respectively. HIV prevalence increased with the violence score (p=0.002, test for trend), and physical and sexual violence were independently associated with condom breakage (p values 0.010 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion The results show that violence is associated with a higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and that condom breakage is a potential mediator for this association. Longitudinal studies designed to analyse this relationship and specific interventions integrated to current HIV prevention strategies are needed to reduce the burden of violence among FSWs. PMID:24722385

  12. A Laboratory for Education Reform or a Battlefield of Donor Intervention?: Local Debates on Primary Education and the New Study Programmes in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichtner, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the politics of aid partnerships in the education sector of Benin following an anthropological policy research approach based on empirical data. I present local debates on primary education and the New Study Programmes, the latest education reform introduced nationwide in 1999. The different perceptions of the reform…

  13. Lack of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in northwest Benin after 10 years of use of artemisinin-based combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, Aurore; Damien, Georgia; Deme, Awa Bineta; Ndam, Nicaise T.; Assohou, Constance; Tchonlin, Didier; Mama, Atika; Hounkpe, Virgile Olivier; Moutouama, Jules Doumitou; Remoué, Franck; Ndiaye, Daouda; Gazard, Dorothée Kinde

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In Benin, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria since 2004. The emergence in Southeast Asia of parasites that are resistant to artemisinins poses a serious threat to global control of this disease. The presence of artemisinin resistance genotypes in parasite populations in Benin is currently unknown. The present study investigated the prevalence of relevant K13-propeller gene polymorphisms in parasite isolates from the north-western region of Benin. Method: Plasmodium falciparum isolates were collected from children with a confirmed diagnosis of malaria aged 6 months to 5 years in two towns, Cobly and Djougou, in the north-western part of Benin. The study was conducted during the rainy season from July to November 2014 in local health facilities. The K13-propeller gene was amplified in parasite isolates using nested PCR and subsequently sequenced. Results: A total of 108 children were recruited into the study. The efficiency of amplification reactions was 72% (78/108). The propeller domain of the K13 gene was successfully sequenced in 78 P. falciparum isolates; all of them were wild type with no polymorphisms detectable. Conclusion: The absence of mutations in the K13 gene indicates that P. falciparum parasite populations in the study area are still fully susceptible to artemisinins. PMID:27443837

  14. Mosquito fauna and perspectives for integrated control of urban vector-mosquito populations in Southern Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa.

  15. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin.

    PubMed

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-09-08

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV₁ and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin's economy.

  16. Mapping the distribution of Anopheles funestus across Benin highlights a sharp contrast of susceptibility to insecticides and infection rate to Plasmodium between southern and northern populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Malaria remains an important public health issue in Benin, with Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus s.s being the predominant vectors. This study was designed to generate information on An. funestus distribution, molecular speciation, Plasmodium infection rate and insecticide susceptibility status across Benin. Methods. Mosquito samples were collected from December 2014 to January 2016 in 46 localities in Benin. These samples were mapped and An. funestus collected were speciated to the molecular level. Plasmodium infection rate was determined using a Taqman assay and susceptibility to insecticides was assessed using the WHO guidelines. The genotyping of the L119F- Gste2 mutation was also carried out.  Results.  An. funestus was found in 8 out of the 46 localities surveyed with a high presence in Tanongou (wet Sudanese ecological zone), Kpome, Doukonta and Pahou (sub-equatorial ecological zone). Molecular identifications revealed that only An. funestus s.s was present in southern Benin, whereas in Tanongou (northern Benin) An. funestus s.s. and An. leesoni were found in sympatry at proportions of 77.7% and 22.3% respectively. Plasmodium infection rate of An. funestus was higher in southern Benin at a range of 13 to 18% compared to 5.6% recorded in Tanongou. High DDT (8±0.5%) and permethrin (11±0.5%) resistance were observed in Doukonta, Kpome and Pahou, contrasting with relatively low resistance profiles: mortality-DDT=90±3.18% and mortality-permethrin=100% in Tanongou. Genotyping analysis revealed  high frequency  of the resistant 119F allele in the South (Kpome and Doukonta) compared to the North (Tanongou).  Discussion and Conclusion. The high presence of   An. funestus in the South compared to the North  could be due to favorable environmental and climatic conditions found in both regions. A significant Plasmodium infection rate was recorded across the country. A high resistance profile was recorded in the southern Benin; this

  17. Exploring Reasons for Bed Pressures in Winnipeg Acute Care Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menec, Verena H.; Bruce, Sharon; MacWilliam, Leonard R.

    2005-01-01

    Hospital overcrowding has plagued Winnipeg and other Canadian cities for years. This study explored factors related to overcrowding. Hospital files were used to examine patterns of hospital use from fiscal years 1996/1997 to 1999/2000. Chart reviews were conducted to examine appropriateness of admissions and hospital stays during one pressure…

  18. Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, William; Vasquez, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work.

  19. Malaria infection and disease in an area with pyrethroid-resistant vectors in southern Benin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate baseline data on malaria before the evaluation of new vector control strategies in an area of pyrethroid-resistance of vectors. The burden of malaria was estimated in terms of infection (prevalence and parasite density) and of clinical episodes. Methods Between December 2007 and December 2008 in the health district of Ouidah - Kpomassè - Tori Bossito (southern Benin), a descriptive epidemiological survey of malaria was conducted. From 28 selected villages, seven were randomized from which a total of 440 children aged 0 to 5 years were randomly selected. Clinical and parasitological information was obtained by active case detection of malaria episodes carried out during eight periods of six consecutive days scheduled at six weekly intervals and by cross-sectional surveys of asymptomatic infection. Entomological information was also collected. The ownership, the use and the correct use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) were checked over weekly-survey by unannounced visits at home in the late evening. Results Mean parasite density in asymptomatic children was 586 P. falciparum asexual forms per μL of blood (95%CI 504-680). Pyrogenic parasite cut-off was estimated 2,000 P. falciparum asexual blood forms per μL. The clinical incidence of malaria was 1.5 episodes per child per year (95%CI 1.2-1.9). Parasitological and clinical variables did not vary with season. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the principal vector closely followed by Anopheles funestus. Entomological inoculation rate was 5.3 (95%CI 1.1-25.9) infective bites per human per year. Frequency of the L1014F kdr (West) allele was around 50%. Annual prevalence rate of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection was 21.8% (95%CI 19.1-24.4) and increased according to age. Mean rates of ownership and use of LLINs were 92% and 70% respectively. The only correct use of LLINs (63%) conferred 26% individual protection against only infection (OR = 0.74 (95%IC 0

  20. [Practices of caregivers and national recommendations for treatment of malaria in Benin in 2009].

    PubMed

    Robin, S; Bruneton, C; Guévart, E

    2017-01-31

    New treatments against malaria (artemisinin-based combination therapies, ACT) resulted in profound changes in the therapeutic behaviours in Africa. This study aims to evaluate the practices adaptation to the new strategies in Benin in 2009. In three southern areas of the country, 14 private pharmacies, 10 public health centers and 10 private health centers were audited. Between July and October 2009, 36 providers and 93 prescribers were interviewed, 127 dispensations for self-medication were observed, 210 prescriptions were analyzed according to the WHO recommendations, 251 patients with complaints of malaria and 50 healthy women were interviewed and 34 physical inventories were conducted in pharmacies. Knowledge and trainings were inadequate, especially in the private sector and for the providers, as 41.6% of requests for antimalarial drugs were without prescription in private pharmacies. Only 28% of prescribers and 47% of providers knew the national recommendations of 1st line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. 53% of prescribers treated patients by ACT without prior parasitological examination in the case of uncomplicated malaria and no Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was carried out or requested during the dispensation. Pharmaceutical advices were absent in 78.7% of cases and population acknowledged a lack of knowledge about use of the treatment. Private pharmacies were structures where the variability of available antimalarial drugs was the largest, up to 70 different specialities and where unit prices were highest, up to 7.7 times those charged in public health centers. In the field, the difficulties of application of recommendations, given at the scientific or political level, show the necessity of accompanying policy change by prior training activities of all health stakeholders and of adapting the previous regulations to facilitate implementation of the new rules. The number of authorizations issued for the ACT should be limited; authorization to chloroquine

  1. Pan-African deformation markers in the migmatitic complexes of Parakou-Nikki (Northeast Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chala, D.; Tairou, M. S.; Wenmenga, U.; Kwékam, M.; Affaton, P.; Kalsbeek, F.; Tossa, C.; Houéto, A.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of structural markers collected from the petrostrutural units of Parakou-Nikki, in Northeast Benin, indicates that the Pan-African remobilization or rejuvenation (600 ± 50 Ma) of the Benino-Nigerian Metacraton consits of a wide migmatization accompanied by five tectogenetic phases (Dn-Dn+4). The Dn phase is penecontemporaneous with the collision between the Benino-Nigerian shield and the oriental margin of the West-African Craton. This phase is associated with the granulitization or migmatization episode, and materialized by the Sn foliation on which the Dn+1 deformation markers (major Pan-African structuring phase in the Dahomeyide orogenic belt) are superimposed. Thus, the Sn+1 plane and the Ln+1 lineations indicate a perfect transposition of the Sn plane and a syn-Dn paragenesis remobilization in the syn-Dn+1 amphibolite facies retromorphosis. The strong resumption of the main foliation (Sn+1) corresponds to the Dn+2 deformation phase. The latter, associated with a second retromorphosis, is materialized by Pn+2 folds, with submeridian to NE-SW axes, and by a Sn+2 foliation or strain-slip cleavage. It is also the phase of emplacement of the Kandi mega-shear zone associated with the development of Cn+2 dextral shear plane very generalized over all the petrostructural units of Parakou-Nikki. At a large scale, the Dn+3 phase is expressed as Pn+3 kilometric synform and antiform structures with NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending axes. This Dn+3 phase can be considered as a transpression responsible for the development of the Cn+3 sinistral shear plane and flat shear structures displaying a westward overlapping. It ends with a fracturing episode materialized by strike-slip fault systems defining a main stress σ1 trending ESE-WNW to SE-NW. The late Dn+4 phase only corresponds to conjugated strike-slip faults which resulted from a major SE-NW to SSE-NNW compression.

  2. Unhappy Cities

    PubMed Central

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Gottlieb, Joshua D.; Ziv, Oren

    2016-01-01

    There are persistent differences in self-reported subjective well-being across US metropolitan areas, and residents of declining cities appear less happy than others. Yet some people continue to move to these areas, and newer residents appear to be as unhappy as longer-term residents. While historical data on happiness are limited, the available facts suggest that cities that are now declining were also unhappy in their more prosperous past. These facts support the view that individuals do not maximize happiness alone but include it in the utility function along with other arguments. People may trade off happiness against other competing objectives. PMID:27546979

  3. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  4. The Twin Cities biomedical consortium.

    PubMed

    Bailey, A S

    1975-07-01

    Twenty-eight health science libraries in the St. Paul-Minneapolis area formed the Twin Cities Biomedical Consortium with the intention of developing a strong network of biomedical libraries in the Twin Cities area. Toward this end, programs were designed to strengthen lines of communication and increase cooperation among local health science libraries; improve access to biomedical information at the local level; and enable the Consortium, as a group, to meet an increasing proportion of its members' needs for biomedical information. Presently, the TCBC comprises libraries in twenty-two hospitals, two county medical societies, one school of nursing, one junior college, and two private corporations.

  5. The Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Richard P.; Dommel, Paul R.

    Over the past two decades, direct payments from the Federal Government to local governments has increased more than sixfold as a percentage of the revenues local governments raise on their own. Both the Ford budget and the Carter budget revisions for 1977 and 1978 contain policy changes with important implications for cities. In this document…

  6. Understanding hospitality.

    PubMed

    Patten, C S

    1994-03-01

    Bridging patient/"customer" issues and business aspects can be aided through developing a specific nursing basis for hospitality. The ancient practice of hospitality has evolved into three distinct levels: public, personal and therapeutic. Understanding these levels is helpful in integrating various dimensions of guest relations programs in hospitals into a more comprehensive vision. Hospitality issues must become a greater part of today's nursing management.

  7. [POWER ASYMMETRY IN GLOBAL HEALTH RESEARCH, WHAT ARE THE ETHICAL STAKES? A PILOT STUDY WITH RESEARCHERS IN BENIN].

    PubMed

    Gogognon, Patrick; Godard, Béatrice

    2015-10-01

    Global health research constitutes a driving force to achieve health justice and health equity in several countries around the world and more specifically in global South. However, these research raise significant ethical challenges. We have conducted a pilot study with researchers from Benin to better understand challenges associated with power asymmetry in global health research. The study highlights the complexity of the social context in which power asymmetry arises and the way it evolves. Moreover, it reveals the vulnerability of researchers who are working in such environments, where they are exposed to critical conditions that could affect the research process and jeopardize their moral values. Finally, these results suggest that there are innovative approaches coming from researchers facing these constraints.

  8. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben GJS

    2008-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer

  9. Data quality assessment in the routine health information system: an application of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling in Benin.

    PubMed

    Glèlè Ahanhanzo, Yolaine; Ouendo, Edgard-Marius; Kpozèhouen, Alphonse; Levêque, Alain; Makoutodé, Michel; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle

    2015-09-01

    Health information systems in developing countries are often faulted for the poor quality of the data generated and for the insufficient means implemented to improve system performance. This study examined data quality in the Routine Health Information System in Benin in 2012 and carried out a cross-sectional evaluation of the quality of the data using the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method. The results confirm the insufficient quality of the data based on three criteria: completeness, reliability and accuracy. However, differences can be seen as the shortcomings are less significant for financial data and for immunization data. The method is simple, fast and can be proposed for current use at operational level as a data quality control tool during the production stage.

  10. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin from maize and groundnut in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Egal, S; Hounsa, A; Gong, Y Y; Turner, P C; Wild, C P; Hall, A J; Hell, K; Cardwell, K F

    2005-10-15

    Aflatoxins are a family of fungal toxins that are carcinogenic to man and cause immunosuppression, cancer and growth reduction in animals. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 480 children (age 9 months to 5 years) across 4 agro-ecological zones (SS, NGS, SGS and CS) in Benin and Togo to identify the effect of aflatoxin exposure on child growth and assess the pattern of exposure. Prior reports on this study [Gong, Y.Y.,Cardwell, K., Hounsa, A., Egal, S., Turner, Hall, A.J., Wild, C.P., 2002. Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Benin and Togo: cross sectional study. British Medical Journal 325, 20-21, Gong, Y.Y., Egal, S., Hounsa, A., Turner, P.C., Hall, A.J., Cardwell, K., Wild, C.P., 2003. Determinants of aflatoxin exposure in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa: the critical role of weaning and weaning foods. International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 556-562] showed that aflatoxin exposure among these children is widespread (99%) and that growth faltering is associated with high blood aflatoxin-albumin adducts (AF-alb adducts), a measure of recent past exposure. The present report demonstrates that consumption of maize is an important source of aflatoxin exposure for the survey population. Higher AF-alb adducts were correlated with higher A. flavus (CFU) infestation of maize (p=0.006), higher aflatoxin contamination (ppb) of maize (p<0.0001) and higher consumption frequencies of maize (p=0.053). The likelihood of aflatoxin exposure from maize was particularly high in agro-ecological zones where the frequency of maize consumption (SGS and CS), the presence of aflatoxin in maize (SGS) or the presence of A. flavus on maize (NGS and SGS) was relatively high. Socio-economic background did not affect the presence of A. flavus and aflatoxin in maize, but better maternal education was associated with lower frequencies of maize consumption among children from the northernmost agro-ecological zone (SS) (p=0.001). The

  11. Ethno-botanical study of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don) in the Southern Benin (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In addition to plant species biology and ecology, understanding the folk knowledge systems related to the use of plant species and how this knowledge system influences the conservation of plant species is an important issue in the implementation of sustainable strategies of biodiversity conservation programs. This study aimed at providing information on the use and local knowledge variation on Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don a multipurpose tree species widely used in southern Benin. Methods Data was collected through 210 structured interviews. Informants were randomly selected from ten villages. The fidelity level and use value of different plant parts of C. albidum were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was assessed by comparing the use value between ethnic, gender and age groups. In order to assess the use pattern of the different plant parts in folk medicine, a correspondence analysis was carried out on the frequency citation of plant parts. Results Four categories of use (food, medicine, firewood and timber) were recorded for C. albidum. With respect to the different plant parts, the fleshy pulp of the African star apple fruit showed high consensus degree as food among the informants. Fifteen diseases were reported to be treated by the different parts of C. albidum in the region. Correspondence analysis revealed the specificity of each part in disease treatment. There was no significant difference among ethnic groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value of C. albidum. However, significant difference existed between genders and among age groups regarding the knowledge of the medical properties of this species. Conclusions C. albidum is well integrated in the traditional agroforestry system of the southern Benin. Despite its multipurpose character, this species remains underutilized in the region. Considering the current threat of habitat degradation, action is needed in order to ensure the long term survival of the species and local

  12. Patterns of Genetic and Morphometric Diversity in Baobab (Adansonia digitata) Populations Across Different Climatic Zones of Benin (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    ASSOGBADJO, A. E.; KYNDT, T.; SINSIN, B.; GHEYSEN, G.; VAN DAMME, P.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a multi-purpose tree used daily by rural African communities. The present study aimed at investigating the level of morphometric and genetic variation and spatial genetic structure within and between threatened baobab populations from the three climatic zones of Benin. • Methods A total of 137 individuals from six populations were analysed using morphometric data as well as molecular marker data generated using the AFLP technique. • Key Results Five primer pairs resulted in a total of 217 scored bands with 78·34 % of them being polymorphic. A two-level AMOVA of 137 individuals from six baobab populations revealed 82·37 % of the total variation within populations and 17·63 % among populations (P < 0·001)· Analysis of population structure with allele-frequency based F-statistics revealed a global FST of 0·127 ± 0·072 (P < 0·001). The mean gene diversity within populations (HS) and the average gene diversity between populations (DST) were estimated at 0·309 ± 0·000 and 0·045 ± 0·072, respectively. Baobabs in the Sudanian and Sudan-Guinean zones of Benin were short and produced the highest yields of pulp, seeds and kernels, in contrast to the ones in the Guinean zone, which were tall and produced only a small number of fruits with a low pulp, seed and kernel productivity. A statistically significant correlation with the observed patterns of genetic diversity was observed for three morphological characteristics: height of the trees, number of branches and thickness of the capsules. • Conclusions The results indicate some degree of physical isolation of the populations collected in the different climatic zones and suggest a substantial amount of genetic structuring between the analysed populations of baobab. Sampling options of the natural populations are suggested for in or ex situ conservation. PMID:16520343

  13. Molecular detection of establishment and geographical distribution of Brazilian isolates of Neozygites tanajoae, a fungus pathogenic to cassava green mite, in Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Agboton, Bonaventure V; Hanna, Rachid; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Diagnostic PCR with two specific primer pairs (NEOSSU and 8DDC) were used to monitor the establishment and geographical distribution of Brazilian isolates of Neozygites tanajoae Delalibera, Hajek and Humber (Entomophthorales: Neozygitaceae) released in Benin for the biological control of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar) (Acari: Tetranychidae). A total of 141 cassava fields were visited and samples of M. tanajoa suspected to be infected by N. tanajoae were collected in 60 fields distributed between the coastal Southern Forest Mosaic (SFM) and the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS) zones of Benin, West Africa. Analysis of DNA samples of dead mites using the species specific NEOSSU primers revealed the presence of N. tanajoae in 46 fields. The second country specific pair of primers 8DDC revealed the presence of Brazilian isolates of N. tanajoae in 36 fields, representing 78.3% of fields positive for N. tanajoae. Brazilian isolates occurred from SFM to NGS zones in Benin, however, they were concentrated in fields located within former release zones (e.g. Department of Ouémé in the South and Borgou in the North). In contrast, the indigenous African isolates of N. tanajoae were evenly distributed in the sub-humid and humid savannah zones of the country. The mean infection rate of M. tanajoa with indigenous isolates of N. tanajoae was relatively low (5.3%) compared to Brazilian isolates (28%), indicating a higher biocontrol potential of the latter. This first post-release monitoring using PCR techniques showed that the Brazilian strains of N. tanajoae is well established in Benin and spread effectively in this area.

  14. Potential use of the Bushmint, Hyptis suaveolens, for the Control of Infestation by the Pink Stalk Borer, Sesamia calamistis on Maize in Southern Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adda, Cyrille; Atachi, Pierre; Hell, Kerstin; Tamò, Manuele

    2011-01-01

    Maize production in Benin, especially in resource-poor farmers' fields, is constrained by stemborers among other factors. One of the major stemborers in southern Benin is Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). African farmers cannot afford to use commercial insecticides for controlling stemborers - they are expensive and unsuitable for durable pest management systems due to eco-toxicity. There is therefore a need for cheaper and environmentally friendly methods and botanicals offer an attractive alternative. The bushmint, Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), was compared with the commercial insecticide Furadan (carbofuran) for the control of S. calamistis on maize Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae). Trials were conducted in the screenhouse and in the field during the minor cropping season in 2004 at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)-Benin station. The variables measured included numbers of egg masses per plant, eggs per egg mass (in the screenhouse study), population density of S. calamistis, percentage of infested plants and/or ears, and deadhearts in the field. Irrespective of the variable considered, the aqueous extract of H. suaveolens compared favorably with Furadan while maize surrounded by live H. suaveolens plants had lower S. calamistis densities. PMID:21529259

  15. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  16. 75 FR 11580 - Florida Power Corporation, City of Alachua, City of Bushnell, City of Gainesville, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Corporation, City of Alachua, City of Bushnell, City of Gainesville, City of Kissimmee, City of Leesburg, City of New Smyrna Beach and Utilities Commission, City of New Smyrna Beach, City of Ocala, Orlando Utilities Commission and City of Orlando, Seminole Electric Cooperative, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3...

  17. Local and Catchment-Scale Water Storage Changes in Northern Benin Deduced from Gravity Monitoring at Various Time-Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Séguis, L.; Descloitres, M.; Cohard, J.; Boy, J.; Calvo, M.; Rosat, S.; Riccardi, U.; Galle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage changes (WSC) are investigated by the mean of gravity monitoring in Djougou, northern Benin, in the frame of the GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) project. In this area, WSC are 1) part of the control system for evapotranspiration (ET) processes, a key variable of the West-African monsoon cycle and 2) the state variable for resource management, a critical issue in storage-poor hard rock basement contexts such as in northern Benin. We show the advantages of gravity monitoring for analyzing different processes in the water cycle involved at various time and space scales, using the main gravity sensors available today (FG5 absolute gravimeter, superconducting gravimeter -SG- and CG5 micro-gravimeter). The study area is also part of the long-term observing system AMMA-Catch, and thus under intense hydro-meteorological monitoring (rain, soil moisture, water table level, ET ...). Gravity-derived WSC are compared at all frequencies to hydrological data and to hydrological models calibrated on these data. Discrepancies are analyzed to discuss the pros and cons of each approach. Fast gravity changes (a few hours) are significant when rain events occur, and involve different contributions: rainfall itself, runoff, fast subsurface water redistribution, screening effect of the gravimeter building and local topography. We investigate these effects and present the statistical results of a set of rain events recorded with the SG installed in Djougou since July 2010. The intermediate time scale of gravity changes (a few days) is caused by ET and both vertical and horizontal water redistribution. The integrative nature of gravity measurements does not allow to separate these different contributions, and the screening from the shelter reduces our ability to retrieve ET values. Also, atmospheric corrections are critical at such frequencies, and deserve some specific attention. However, a quick analysis of gravity changes following rain events shows that the

  18. The use of magnetic resonance sounding for quantifying specific yield and transmissivity in hard rock aquifers: The example of Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouillamoz, J. M.; Lawson, F. M. A.; Yalo, N.; Descloitres, M.

    2014-08-01

    Hundreds of thousands of boreholes have been drilled in hard rocks of Africa and Asia for supplying human communities with drinking water. Despite the common use of geophysics for improving the siting of boreholes, a significant number of drilled holes does not deliver enough water to be equipped (e.g. 40% on average in Benin). As compared to other non-invasive geophysical methods, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is selective to groundwater. However, this distinctive feature has not been fully used in previous published studies for quantifying the drainable groundwater in hard rocks (i.e. the specific yield) and the short-term productivity of aquifer (i.e. the transmissivity). We present in this paper a comparison of MRS results (i.e. the water content and pore-size parameter) with both specific yield and transmissivity calculated from long duration pumping tests. We conducted our experiments in six sites located in different hard rock groups in Benin, thus providing a unique data set to assess the usefulness of MRS in hard rock aquifers. We found that the MRS water content is about twice the specific yield. We also found that the MRS pore-size parameter is well correlated with the specific yield. Thus we proposed two linear equations for calculating the specific yield from the MRS water content (with an uncertainty of about 10%) and from the pore-size parameter (with an uncertainty of about 20%). The later has the advantage of defining a so-named MRS cutoff time value for indentifying non-drainable MRS water content and thus low groundwater reserve. We eventually propose a nonlinear equation for calculating the specific yield using jointly the MRS water content and the pore-size parameters, but this approach has to be confirmed with further investigations. This study also confirmed that aquifer transmissivity can be estimated from MRS results with an uncertainty of about 70%. We conclude that MRS can be usefully applied for estimating aquifer specific yield and

  19. Buruli ulcer disease prevalence in Benin, West Africa: Associations with land use/cover and the identification of disease clusters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, T.; Benbow, M.E.; Brenden, T.O.; Qi, J.; Johnson, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) disease, caused by infection with the environmental mycobacterium M. ulcerans, is an emerging infectious disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although vectors and modes of transmission remain unknown, it is hypothesized that the transmission of BU disease is associated with human activities in or around aquatic environments, and that characteristics of the landscape (e.g., land use/cover) play a role in mediating BU disease. Several studies performed at relatively small spatial scales (e.g., within a single village or region of a country) support these hypotheses; however, if BU disease is associated with land use/cover characteristics, either through spatial constraints on vector-host dynamics or by mediating human activities, then large-scale (i.e., country-wide) associations should also emerge. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate associations between BU disease prevalence in villages in Benin, West Africa and surrounding land use/cover patterns and other map-based characteristics, and (2) identify areas with greater and lower than expected prevalence rates (i.e., disease clusters) to assist with the development of prevention and control programs. Results: Our landscape-based models identified low elevation, rural villages surrounded by forest land cover, and located in drainage basins with variable wetness patterns as being associated with higher BU disease prevalence rates. We also identified five spatial disease clusters. Three of the five clusters contained villages with greater than expected prevalence rates and two clusters contained villages with lower than expected prevalence rates. Those villages with greater than expected BU disease prevalence rates spanned a fairly narrow region of south-central Benin. Conclusion: Our analyses suggest that interactions between natural land cover and human alterations to the landscape likely play a role in the dynamics of BU disease. For example

  20. Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…

  1. Landscape Plan U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Therapeutic Exercise ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Landscape Plan - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Therapeutic Exercise Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  2. Window Details U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Therapeutic Exercise ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Window Details - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Therapeutic Exercise Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  3. First Floor Plan U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Therapeutic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First Floor Plan - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Therapeutic Exercise Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  4. Women in Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  5. The Organization of Hospital Services for Casualties due to the Bombing of Cities, Based on Experience Gained in Barcelona-with Special Reference to the Classification of Casualties: (Section of Orthopædics).

    PubMed

    Trueta, J

    1939-11-01

    (1) Difference between modern "total population" war and old-fashioned war. Difference between bombing of (a) military objectives and (b) civilian population.(a) The heavy bomb, e.g. 750 lb., with large fragments, upward throw, great destruction of buildings.(b) The light bomb with finger nail fragments, horizontal throw, great velocity.There is in addition the incendiary bomb, little used in Barcelona because the buildings are built of stone and concrete.(2) Aerial bombing of a town produces injuries needing more immediate hospitalization than most front-line wounds. At the same time it is possible in a town to organize rapid collection of patients and their immediate transfer to hospital.(3) Experience shows that it is most desirable to make this transfer of patients to hospital a primary consideration. On arrival they are "sorted" and minor injuries are given First Aid treatment and sent home, others are fully examined, classified, and dispatched to the theatres on a priority list, to nearby wards for resuscitation, to wards for rest, or sent on to plaster rooms for splintage, or to a neurosurgical centre.(4) First-aid posts in a town should be in hospitals and treat superficial injuries, &c., after primary sorting in the hospital reception room.(5) First-aid posts in outlying areas should carry out the same function for the same type of cases; all the more seriously wounded, including those with tiny penetrating wounds, should be dispatched without first aid treatment direct to hospital.(6) Hospital arrangements, for circulation of ambulances, for sorting, undressing of patients, docketing of valuables, &c.(7) Classification must be carried out by surgeons of experience and judgment. They must regard not only a standard priority list but the particular clinical picture and prognosis in each case.(8) The surgeon will furthermore draft the cases with regard to the special abilities of the surgical units available, e.g. chest, abdomen, or limbs.(9) Review of

  6. The Organization of Hospital Services for Casualties due to the Bombing of Cities, Based on Experience Gained in Barcelona-with Special Reference to the Classification of Casualties: (Section of Orthopaedics).

    PubMed

    Trueta, J

    1939-11-01

    (1) Difference between modern "total population" war and old-fashioned war. Difference between bombing of (a) military objectives and (b) civilian population.(a) The heavy bomb, e.g. 750 lb., with large fragments, upward throw, great destruction of buildings.(b) The light bomb with finger nail fragments, horizontal throw, great velocity.There is in addition the incendiary bomb, little used in Barcelona because the buildings are built of stone and concrete.(2) Aerial bombing of a town produces injuries needing more immediate hospitalization than most front-line wounds. At the same time it is possible in a town to organize rapid collection of patients and their immediate transfer to hospital.(3) Experience shows that it is most desirable to make this transfer of patients to hospital a primary consideration. On arrival they are "sorted" and minor injuries are given First Aid treatment and sent home, others are fully examined, classified, and dispatched to the theatres on a priority list, to nearby wards for resuscitation, to wards for rest, or sent on to plaster rooms for splintage, or to a neurosurgical centre.(4) First-aid posts in a town should be in hospitals and treat superficial injuries, &c., after primary sorting in the hospital reception room.(5) First-aid posts in outlying areas should carry out the same function for the same type of cases; all the more seriously wounded, including those with tiny penetrating wounds, should be dispatched without first aid treatment direct to hospital.(6) Hospital arrangements, for circulation of ambulances, for sorting, undressing of patients, docketing of valuables, &c.(7) Classification must be carried out by surgeons of experience and judgment. They must regard not only a standard priority list but the particular clinical picture and prognosis in each case.(8) The surgeon will furthermore draft the cases with regard to the special abilities of the surgical units available, e.g. chest, abdomen, or limbs.(9) Review of

  7. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  8. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  9. Hospital philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean G; Clement, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    It remains an open question whether hospital spending on fundraising efforts to garner philanthropy is a good use of funds. Research and industry reports provide conflicting results. We describe the accounting and data challenges in analysis of hospital philanthropy, which include measurement of donations, measurement of fundraising expenses, and finding the relationships among organizations where these cash flows occur. With these challenges, finding conflicting results is not a surprise.

  10. West wing, northwest corner, looking southeast U.S. Veterans Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, northwest corner, looking southeast - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Main Hospital, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  11. North wing, west wall, looking northeast U.S. Veterans Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wing, west wall, looking northeast - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Neuropsychiatric Hospital Infirm Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  12. East wing, northwest corner, looking southeast U.S. Veterans Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East wing, northwest corner, looking southeast - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Main Hospital, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  13. Detection of adenoviruses and rotaviruses in drinking water sources used in rural areas of Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Jens; Timmen-Wego, Monika; Laudien, Rainer; Boussaad, Ibrahim; Sen, Sibel; Koc, Aynur; Uesbeck, Alexandra; Mazou, Farouk; Pfister, Herbert

    2009-05-01

    Diseases associated with viruses also found in environmental samples cause major health problems in developing countries. Little is known about the frequency and pattern of viral contamination of drinking water sources in these resource-poor settings. We established a method to analyze 10 liters of water from drinking water sources in a rural area of Benin for the presence of adenoviruses and rotaviruses. Overall, 541 samples from 287 drinking water sources were tested. A total of 12.9% of the sources were positive for adenoviruses and 2.1% of the sources were positive for rotaviruses at least once. Due to the temporary nature of viral contamination in drinking water sources, the probability of virus detection increased with the number of samples taken at one test site over time. No seasonal pattern for viral contaminations was found after samples obtained during the dry and wet seasons were compared. Overall, 3 of 15 surface water samples (20%) and 35 of 247 wells (14.2%) but also 2 of 25 pumps (8%) tested positive for adenoviruses or rotaviruses. The presence of latrines within a radius of 50 m in the vicinity of pumps or wells was identified as being a risk factor for virus detection. In summary, viral contamination was correlated with the presence of latrines in the vicinity of drinking water sources, indicating the importance of appropriate decision support systems in these socioeconomic prospering regions.

  14. A Multifaceted Intervention to Improve Health Worker Adherence to Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Guidelines in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Osterholt, Dawn M.; Rowe, Samantha Y.; Deming, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated an intervention to support health workers after training in Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), a strategy that can improve outcomes for children in developing countries by encouraging workers' use of evidence-based guidelines for managing the leading causes of child mortality. Methods. We conducted a randomized trial in Benin. We administered a survey in 1999 to assess health care quality before IMCI training. Health workers then received training plus either study supports (job aids, nonfinancial incentives, and supervision of workers and supervisors) or usual supports. Follow-up surveys conducted in 2001 to 2004 assessed recommended treatment, recommended or adequate treatment, and an index of overall guideline adherence. Results. We analyzed 1244 consultations. Performance improved in both intervention and control groups, with no significant differences between groups. However, training proceeded slowly, and low-quality care from health workers without IMCI training diluted intervention effects. Per-protocol analyses revealed that workers with IMCI training plus study supports provided better care than did those with training plus usual supports (27.3 percentage-point difference for recommended treatment; P < .05), and both groups outperformed untrained workers. Conclusions. IMCI training was useful but insufficient. Relatively inexpensive supports can lead to additional improvements. PMID:19299681

  15. Impact of a Malaria-Control Project in Benin That Included the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Osterholt, Dawn M.; Deming, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy on early-childhood mortality, we evaluated a malaria-control project in Benin that implemented IMCI and promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Methods. We conducted a before-and-after intervention study that included a nonrandomized comparison group. We used the preceding birth technique to measure early-childhood mortality (risk of dying before age 30 months), and we used health facility surveys and household surveys to measure process indicators. Results. Most process indicators improved in the area covered by the intervention. Notably, because ITNs were also promoted in the comparison area children's ITN use increased by about 20 percentage points in both areas. Regarding early-childhood mortality, the trend from baseline (1999–2001) to follow-up (2002–2004) for the intervention area (13.0% decrease; P < .001) was 14.1% (P < .001) lower than was the trend for the comparison area (1.3% increase; P = .46). Conclusions. Mortality decreased in the intervention area after IMCI and ITN promotion. ITN use increased similarly in both study areas, so the mortality impact of ITNs in the 2 areas might have canceled each other out. Thus, the mortality reduction could have been primarily attributable to IMCI's effect on health care quality and care-seeking. PMID:21566036

  16. Hematologically and genetically distinct forms of sickle cell anemia in Africa. The Senegal type and the Benin type.

    PubMed

    Nagel, R L; Fabry, M E; Pagnier, J; Zohoun, I; Wajcman, H; Baudin, V; Labie, D

    1985-04-04

    Patients with sickle cell anemia vary in the hematologic and clinical features of their disease, in part because of variability in the presence of linked and unlinked genes that modify the expression of the disease. The hemoglobin S gene is strongly linked to three different haplotypes of polymorphic endonuclease-restriction sites of the beta-like gene cluster (genes in the vicinity of the beta-globin gene)--one prevalent in Atlantic West Africa, another in central West Africa, and yet another in Bantu-speaking Africa (equatorial, East, and southern Africa). We have studied the differences in the hematologic characteristics of patients with sickle cell anemia from the first two geographical areas. We find that the Senegalese (Atlantic West Africa) patients have higher levels of hemoglobin F, a preponderance of G gamma chains in hemoglobin F, a lower proportion of very dense red cells, and a lower percentage of irreversibly sickled cells than those from Benin (central West Africa). We interpret these data to mean that the gamma-chain composition and the hemoglobin F level are haplotype linked and that the decrease in the percentage of dense cells and irreversibly sickled cells is secondary to the elevation in the hemoglobin F level. Patients with sickle cell anemia in the New World probably correspond to various combinations of these types, in addition to the still hematologically undefined haplotype associated with sickle cell anemia in the Bantu-speaking areas of Africa.

  17. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin

    PubMed Central

    Atidégla, Séraphin C.; Huat, Joël; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Saint-Macary, Hervé; Glèlè Kakai, Romain

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. PMID:27069914

  18. Effect of hygiene and medication on preweaning survival and growth of Djallonké sheep in Atacora, Benin.

    PubMed

    Doko, Sanni Y; Degla, Pamphile; Edoun, Gilbert O; Bosma, Roel H

    2013-01-01

    Low sheep productivity in North Benin hampers economic development, and improvement can contribute to reduction of rural poverty and food insecurity. To reduce one of the constraints to the productivity of Djallonké sheep, high mortality during suckling in full rainy and start dry season, we tested hygienic measures and medication in improved housing. The effect of the two treatments and their combination on lamb performance and the internal rate of return (IRR) were compared to a control. For each treatment, survival and growth were observed in 20 lambs, living in 38 herds. Good housing and hygiene (daily cleaning and fortnightly disinfection of stable and water and feed troughs) reduced mortality and increased growth of suckling lambs until 3 months. Good housing plus medication (unique injection of vitamins and amino acids and with ivermectine for deworming, weekly tick treatment by spraying, and in case of diarrhea, antibiotic treatment) reduced mortality, but growth was not higher than the control. Accounting labor opportunity, the IRR was about equal for both, but capital investment was lower for the hygiene treatment which is thus more accessible to poor farmers. The combination of both treatments increased growth and benefits compared with the hygiene treatment, but decreased the IRR.

  19. Dynamics of water vapor and energy exchanges above two contrasting Sudanian climate ecosystems in Northern Benin (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamadou, Ossénatou; Galle, Sylvie; Cohard, Jean-Martial; Peugeot, Christophe; Kounouhewa, Basile; Biron, Romain; Hector, Basile; Zannou, Arnaud Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Natural ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing intense changes that will probably modify land surface feedbacks and consequently the regional climate. In this study, we have analyzed water vapor (QLE) and sensible heat (QH) fluxes over a woodland (Bellefoungou, BE) and a cultivated area (Nalohou, NA) in the Sudanian climate of Northern Benin, using 2 years (from July 2008 to June 2010) of eddy covariance measurements. The evaporative fraction (EF) response to environmental and surface variables was investigated at seasonal scale. Soil moisture was found to be the main environmental factor controlling energy partitioning. During the wet seasons, EF was rather stable with an average of 0.75 ± 0.07 over the woodland and 0.70 ± 0.025 over the cultivated area. This means that 70-75% of the available energy was changed into actual evapotranspiration during the investigated wet seasons depending on the vegetation type. The cumulative annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) varied between 730 ± 50 mm yr-1 at the NA site and 1040 ± 70 mm yr-1 at the BE site. With similar weather conditions at the two sites, the BE site showed 30% higher AET values than the NA site. The sensible heat flux QH at the cultivated site was always higher than that of the woodland site, but observed differences were much less than those of QLE. In a land surface conversion context, these differences are expected to impact both atmospheric dynamics and the hydrological cycle.

  20. Cotton Dust Exposure and Respiratory Disorders among Textile Workers at a Textile Company in the Southern Part of Benin

    PubMed Central

    Hinson, Antoine Vikkey; Lokossou, Virgil K.; Schlünssen, Vivi; Agodokpessi, Gildas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The textile industry sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of Benin. It exposes workers to several occupational risks, including exposure to cotton dust. To assess the effect of exposure to cotton dust on the health of workers, this study was initiated and conducted in a Beninese cotton industry company. The objective of the study was to evaluate the respiratory disorders among the textile workers exposed to cotton dust and the cross-sectional study involved 656 subjects exposed to cotton dust and 113 non-exposed subjects. The methods used are mainly based on a survey using a questionnaire of organic dust designed by the International Commission of Occupational Health (ICOH); and on the measures of lung function parameters (FEV1 and FVC). The main results of the different analyzes revealed that subjects exposed to cotton dust have more respiratory symptoms than unexposed subjects (36.9% vs. 21.2%). The prevalence of chronic cough, expectorations, dyspnoea, asthma and chronic bronchitis are 16.8%, 9.8%, 17.3%, 2.6%, and 5.9% respectively among the exposed versus 2.6%, 0.8%, 16.8%, 0% and 0.8% among the unexposed subjects. The prevalence of byssinosis is 44.01%.The prevalence of symptoms is dependent on the sector of activity and the age of the subject. These results should encourage medical interventions and technical prevention especially since the textile industry occupies an important place in the Benin’s economy. PMID:27618081

  1. Tuberculosis Case Finding in Benin, 2000–2014 and Beyond: A Retrospective Cohort and Time Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Ade, Serge; Békou, Wilfried; Adjobimey, Mênonli; Adjibode, Omer; Ade, Gabriel; Harries, Anthony D.; Anagonou, Séverin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine any changes in tuberculosis epidemiology in the last 15 years in Benin, seasonal variations, and forecasted numbers of tuberculosis cases in the next five years. Materials and Methods. Retrospective cohort and time series study of all tuberculosis cases notified between 2000 and 2014. The “R” software version 3.2.1 (Institute for Statistics and Mathematics Vienna Austria) and the Box-Jenkins 1976 modeling approach were used for time series analysis. Results. Of 246943 presumptive cases, 54303 (22%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Annual notified case numbers increased, with the highest reported in 2011. New pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) represented 78%  ± SD 2%. Retreatment cases decreased from 10% to 6% and new pulmonary clinically diagnosed cases increased from 2% to 8%. NPBCT notification rates decreased in males from 2012, in young people aged 15–34 years and in Borgou-Alibori region. There was a seasonal pattern in tuberculosis cases. Over 90% of NPBCT were HIV-tested with a stable HIV prevalence of 13%. The ARIMA best fit model predicted a decrease in tuberculosis cases finding in the next five years. Conclusion. Tuberculosis case notifications are predicted to decrease in the next five years if current passive case finding is used. Additional strategies are needed in the country. PMID:27293887

  2. Control of vegetable pests in Benin - Farmers' preferences for eco-friendly nets as an alternative to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Vidogbéna, Faustin; Adégbidi, Anselme; Tossou, Rigobert; Assogba-Komlan, Françoise; Ngouajio, Mathieu; Martin, Thibaut; Simon, Serge; Parrot, Laurent; Zander, Kerstin K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if eco-friendly nets (EFNs) are a viable and acceptable alternative to extremely high levels of insecticide use in vegetable production. Using a choice experiment, we found that vegetable producing farmers in Benin preferred all of the characteristics of EFNs except the higher labor requirements. The nets had been distributed in a trial phase for free but in the long run farmers would need to purchase the EFNs. The break-even point for investing in nets was found to vary with the lifespan of EFNs, their purchase price and potential health benefits from avoiding large quantities of insecticides. To break even the nets need to be used for at least two production cycles. To overcome risk-averse farmer's reluctance to adopt EFNs we propose a credit and warranty scheme along with the purchase of the nets. The study's findings can guide the implementation of EFNs in other African countries as part of integrated pest management with global benefits for the environment and human health.

  3. Professional changes induced by a redesigned immunization supply chain in the Comé Health Zone, Benin.

    PubMed

    Guillermet, Elise; Alfa, Daleb Abdoulaye; Gbodja, Romule; Jaillard, Philippe

    2017-04-19

    At the end of 2013, the Government of Benin and Agence de Médecine Préventive (AMP) launched a demonstration project in Comé Health Zone (HZ) to optimize the vaccine supply chain. A key part of the demonstration project was the creation of an "informed push model" of vaccine distribution supported by a new logistician position at the health zone (district) level. At the conclusion of the demonstration project in 2015, the authors conducted an anthropological study consisting of semi-structured interviews with 62 participants to assess how the new model changed the professional identities, roles, responsibilities, and practices of personnel involved in vaccine management during and just after the demonstration project end in Comé HZ. The study found that health workers considered the logistician as a key player in enabling them to perform their public health mission, notably by improving knowledge and practices in vaccine management, providing supportive supervision, and improving the availability of vaccines and other supplies so that immunization sessions could occur more reliably and professionally within the communities they served. The demonstration project was widely accepted among study participants. The study was approved by the Cotonou Ethics Committee (CER-ISBA No. 56 dated 09/04/2015).

  4. [The insigne and suntuoso Royal Hospital of Granada (I). Royal foundations and the hospital regrouping (1501-1526)].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela Candelario, José

    2003-01-01

    In the 1520s the local authorities planned to set up a new modern hospital in the city of Granada by combining two existing Royal Hospitals: Alhambra and Reyes. As a public institution and as a new building, the new hospital could develop the mandates of the original foundation and extend its care to become a general hospital. In this way it would strengthen its status as a charitable undertaking and legacy of the Catholic Monarchs and, secondly, as a great architectural monument.

  5. Health care in big cities--the McGill experience.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, N; Bodel, D; Andersen, A; Riley, D

    2000-01-01

    Big cities encounter problems which are peculiar to them: population mix, housing conditions, social structure, infrastructure including transport, etc, which manifest in hospitals. From the beginning of the 20th century, big cities have been served by many providers of hospital care. Common to most cities is the change in the principles and methods of care, e.g. home care, and the notion that traditional hospital services are no longer the only answer to the needs of the population of large cities. Over the last decade, plans and projects have been devised to address the problems of excessive bed capacity, insufficient and excessive specialised units and difficulties in administration of payment systems.

  6. [Civil hospital of Zamora de Hidalgo].

    PubMed

    Gómez de Lara, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The city of Zamora de Hidalgo is home to one of the most important hospitals in the region, built in 1841 and named the Civil Hospital of Zamora. Built following demand for municipal health needs and with the support of the City Council of Zamora and private donations, it functioned as a hostel for pilgrims, the destitute and the sick. It was administered and maintained by residents, subsequently by the mothers of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and finally by the federal Government. It currently gives the Zamorano community services, and admits sick people from other locations such as Jacona, Jiquilpan, Patamban Ocumicho, Chavinda, Tangancicuaro, Chilchota, and Tangamandapio, among others. It was called the Civil hospital because as the only hospital that operated in Zamora, it ceased to be administered by the Ecclesiastic Chapter, and passed into the hands of the State.

  7. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Kpodékon, T. M.; Ogni, C. A.; Dassou, H.; Dougnon, T. J.; Boko, C.; Koutinhouin, G. B.; Goussanou, J. S. E.; Akoegninou, A.; Youssao, I.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment. Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth disease was reported by all of the breeders of the southern part of Borgou compared with the other areas (p<0.05) and treated by 25 species of medicinal plants. African swine fever was the main pathology reported (22.92%) (p<0.05) in the fishery areas which is controlled by 7 medicinal plants. Pseudorinderpest was more reported (33.78%) (p<0.05) in the cotton area of central Benin and treated by 8 medicinal plants. There is also Newcastle disease that was mostly reported in the Western Atacora and treated by 32 medicinal plants as well as fowl pox which was a more reported in the lands of the bar area and the low-pressure area about 34.48% and 36.17% proportions, respectively, and treated by eight medicinal plants. Conclusion: The breeders in Benin possess rich ethno veterinary knowledge on medicinal plants and their uses in the treatment of livestock. A total of 57 medicinal plants have been inventoried to fight against five major viral diseases as African swine fever, pseudorinderpest and foot and mouth disease. The common plants used to treat viral disease in general were Euphorbia unispina, Euphorbia poissonii, Lannea acida, and Mangifera indica. The most harvested organs on the plants reported in this survey were the barks, the leaves, and the whole plants. To better develop our indigenous resources, it would be important to expand this ethno-pharmacological investigation to other diseases category. PMID:27047056

  8. Right half of CO17229. Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Right half of CO-172-29. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. Factors in the Effective Utilization of a LANDSAT Related Inventory in West Africa. [resource management in onchocerciasis-free Benin, Upper Volta, and Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, L.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.

  10. What determines duration of palliative care before death for patients with advanced disease? A retrospective cohort study of community and hospital palliative care provision in a large UK city

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Michael I; Ziegler, Lucy; Allsop, Matthew; Daniel, Sunitha; Hurlow, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objective For patients with advanced cancer, several randomised controlled trials have shown that access to palliative care at least 6 months before death can improve symptoms, reduce unplanned hospital admissions, minimise aggressive cancer treatments and enable patients to make choices about their end-of-life care, including exercising the choice to die at home. This study determines in a UK population the duration of palliative care before death and explores influencing factors. Design This retrospective cohort study analysed referrals to three specialist palliative care services; a hospital-based inpatient palliative care team, and two community-based services (hospices). For each patient referred to any of the above services we identified the date of first referral to that team and calculated the median interval between first referral and death. We also calculated how referral time varied by age, sex, diagnosis and type of palliative care service. Participants 4650 patients referred to specialist palliative care services in Leeds UK between April 2012 and March 2014. Results Median age of the sample was 75 years. 3903 (84.0%) patients had a diagnosis of cancer. Age, diagnosis and place of referral were significant predictors of duration of palliative care before death. Age was independently associated (J=2 672 078, z=−392046.14, r=0.01) with duration of palliative care regardless of diagnosis. Patients over 75 years have 29 fewer days of palliative care than patients under 50. Patients with non-cancer diagnoses have 13 fewer days of palliative care than patients with cancer. Additionally, patients referred to hospital palliative care receive 24.5 fewer days palliative care than those referred to community palliative care services. Conclusions The current timing of referral to palliative care may limit the benefits to patients in terms of improvements in end-of-life care, particularly for older patients and patients with conditions other than cancer

  11. All-Round Marketing Increases Hospital Popularity.

    PubMed

    Ziqi, Tao

    2015-06-01

    Xuzhou Center Hospital is in a competing medical market in Xuzhou city. This hospital has been dedicating to improve the medical skills and provide professional and individualized service to the patients in order to improve the patient's experience and increase the patient's satisfaction. On the other side, this hospital has provided an all-round marketing campaign to build up the social influence and public reputation through public-praise marketing, web marketing, media marketing, and scholar marketing. Besides, this hospital has been cooperating with foreign medical institutions and inviting foreign medical specialists to academic communication. With the combined effects of improving medical service and all-round marketing, the hospital's economic performance has been enhanced significantly and laid a solid foundation for its ambition to become the first-class hospital in Huaihai Economic Zone.

  12. Hospitality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  13. Hospital finance.

    PubMed

    Herman, M J

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes key areas of focus for the analysis of risk in the hospital segment of the health care industry. The article is written from a commercial bank lending perspective. Both for-profit (C-corporations) and 501 (c)(3) not-for-profit segments are addressed.

  14. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  15. Hospital Closure and Insights into Patient Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Garg, N.; Husk, G.; Nguyen, T.; Onyile, A.; Echezona, S.; Kuperman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hospital closures are becoming increasingly common in the United States. Patients who received care at the closing hospitals must travel to different, often farther hospitals for care, and nearby remaining hospitals may have difficulty coping with a sudden influx of patients. Objectives Our objectives are to analyze the dispersion patterns of patients from a closing hospital and to correlate that with distance from the closing hospital for three specific visit types: emergency, inpatient, and ambulatory. Methods In this study, we used data from a health information exchange to track patients from Saint Vincent’s Medical Center, a hospital in New York City that closed in 2010, to determine where they received emergency, inpatient, and ambulatory care following the closure. Results We found that patients went to the next nearest hospital for their emergency and inpatient care, but ambulatory encounters did not correlate with distance. Discussion It is likely that patients followed their ambulatory providers as they transitioned to another hospital system. Additional work should be done to determine predictors of impact on nearby hospitals when another hospital in the community closes in order to better prepare for patient dispersion. PMID:25848422

  16. Reforming the hospital service structure to improve efficiency: urban hospital specialization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-soo; Chun, Ki-Hong; Lee, Jung-Soo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to explain the relationship between the case-mix specialization index and efficiency of inpatient hospital care services. Hospital specialization was measured using the information theory index constructed from diagnosis-related group numbers of hospitals in Seoul, Korea, in 2004. Hospital performance was measured by technical efficiency scores computed by data envelopment analysis for 2004. Multiple regression analysis models were applied to identify the internal and external factors that affected the extent of hospital specialization status as well as the efficiency of hospitals. The data envelopment analysis showed that input variables such as the number of beds, doctors and nurses were related to hospital efficiency. Hospitals had different levels of specialization in patient services, and more specialized hospitals were more likely to be efficient (odds ratio=25.95). Internal characteristics of providers had more significant effects on the extent of specialization than market conditions. These findings help to explain the relationship among hospitals, specialization, market conditions and provider performance. The study results related to the rearrangement of hospital services in a city. Further study including hospitals from other regions will increase the generalizability of results, and policy makers can use the information in making policy for the specialized hospital industry in Korea.

  17. Abdominal obesity explains the positive rural-urban gradient in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ntandou, Gervais; Delisle, Hélène; Agueh, Victoire; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2009-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to verify the hypothesis that there is a positive rural-urban gradient in the overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components and that the differences are associated with socioeconomic status, a sedentary lifestyle, and poor diet quality. A sample of 541 Beninese adults apparently healthy was randomly selected from rural (n = 170), semi-urban (n = 171), and urban (n = 200) areas. The MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Diet and physical activity were assessed with a 3-day recall. Socioeconomic and additional lifestyle information was obtained during personal interviews. A positive rural-urban gradient (rural to semi-urban to urban) was observed for the overall prevalence of the MetS (4.1%, 6.4%, and 11%, respectively; P = .035), which reflected that of abdominal obesity (28.2%, 41.5%, 52.5%; P < .001) but not for the other prominent features of the MetS, that is, high blood pressure (HBP; 24.1%, 21.6%, and 26.5%; P > .05) and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; 25.3%, 18.1%, 37.5%; P < .001). Diet quality and physical activity were higher in rural and semi-urban compared to urban subjects. Physical activity appeared protective for obesity, HBP, and low HDL-C. Micronutrient adequacy was an independent predictor of HDL-C and was associated with a lower likelihood of HBP. Socioeconomic status was positively associated with abdominal obesity only, which was more widespread in women than in men. This study shows that the nutrition transition is ongoing in Benin and suggests that cardiovascular disease risk could be reduced substantially by promoting physical activity and a more adequate diet.

  18. Land cover changes assessment using object-based image analysis in the Binah River watershed (Togo and Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badjana, Hèou Maléki; Helmschrot, Jörg; Selsam, Peter; Wala, Kpérkouma; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert; Afouda, Abel; Akpagana, Koffi

    2015-10-01

    In this study, land cover changes between 1972 and 2013 were investigated in the Binah River watershed (North of Togo and Benin) using remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. Multitemporal satellite images—Landsat MSS (1972), TM (1987), and OLI-TIRS (2013)—were processed using object-based image analysis and post-classification comparison methods including landscape metrics and changes trajectories analysis. Land cover maps referring to five main land cover classes, namely, agricultural land, forest land, savannah, settlements, and water bodies, were produced for each acquisition date. The overall accuracies were 76.64% (1972), 83.52% (1987), and 88.84% (2013) with respective Kappa statistics of 0.69, 0.78, and 0.86. The assessment of the spatiotemporal pattern of land cover changes indicates that savannah, the main vegetation type, has undergone the most dominant change, decreasing from 67% of the basin area in 1972 to 56% in 1987 and 33% in 2013. At the same time, agricultural land has significantly increased from 15% in 1972 to 24% in 1987 and 43% in 2013, while some proportions of agricultural land were converted to savannah relating to fallow agriculture. In total, more than 55% of the landscape experienced changes between 1972 and 2013. These changes are primarily due to human activities and population growth. In addition, agricultural activities significantly contributed to the increase in the number of patches, degree of division, and splitting index of forest and savannah vegetations and the decrease in their effective mesh sizes. These results indicate further fragmentation of forest and savannah vegetations between 1972 and 2013. Further research is needed to quantitatively evaluate the influences of individual factors of human activities and to separate these from the impacts of climate change-driven disturbances.

  19. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.

    PubMed

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis S; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noèl; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-05-15

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis.

  20. Bight of Benin: a Maternal Perspective of Four Beninese Populations and their Genetic Implications on the American Populations of African Ancestry.

    PubMed

    Primativo, Giuseppina; Ottoni, Claudio; Biondi, Gianfranco; Serafino, Sara; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Scardi, Michele; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga

    2017-03-01

    The understanding of the first movements of the ancestral populations within the African continent is still unclear, particularly in West Africa, due to several factors that have shaped the African genetic pool across time. To improve the genetic representativeness of the Beninese population and to better understand the patterns of human settlement inside West Africa and the dynamics of peopling of the Democratic Republic of Benin, we analyzed the maternal genetic variation of 193 Beninese individuals belonging to Bariba, Berba, Dendi, and Fon populations. Results support the oral traditions indicating that the western neighbouring populations have been the ancestors of the first Beninese populations, and the extant genetic structure of the Beninese populations is most likely the result of admixture between populations from neighbouring countries and native people. The present findings highlight how the Beninese populations contributed to the gene pool of the extant populations of some American populations of African ancestry. This strengthens the hypothesis that the Bight of Benin was not only an assembly point for the slave trade during the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade but also an important slave trapping area.

  1. Community-based interventions for the use and conservation of animal genetic resources: the case of indigenous scavenger chicken production in Benin.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis C; Herrero, Mario; Baltenweck, Isabel

    2011-06-01

    Scavenging chicken production in Africa is important for the livelihood of the poor. In most countries, these low inputs, low output systems employ local breeds making use of the feeding resources available in the household. However, their replacement with introduced exotic breeds with higher productivities represents a risk for their conservation. Here, we present a simulation model to evaluate the impact of community-based interventions aiming to improve the profitability of local chicken breeds and promote their use and conservation. The results indicate that under the current conditions, farmers producing exotic chicken are able to sell more animals in a one year period; however the market price of local chicken makes their production more profitable. Vaccination campaigns significantly reduce the mortality rate of both breeds, having a positive effect on producers' income but its impact on animal off-take is larger for exotic breeds, and the availability of feeding resources is the limiting factor as the flock size increases. The results of the intervention are positive in terms of increasing farmers' income but do not clearly contribute to the conservation of indigenous breeds since after the vaccination campaign, the gap between the profitability of indigenous and exotic breeds is reduced. The simulation model indicates that under the current conditions, the conservation of indigenous chicken breeds in Benin is maintained by the existence of distinct niche markets with consumers able to pay higher prices for indigenous chicken. Policies for the conservation of chicken genetic resources in Benin are discussed.

  2. Economic evaluation of hospital at home versus hospital care: cost minimisation analysis of data from randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jeremy; Wilson, Andrew; Parker, Hilda; Wynn, Alison; Jagger, Carol; Spiers, Nicky; Parker, Gillian

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To compare the costs of admission to a hospital at home scheme with those of acute hospital admission. Design Cost minimisation analysis within a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Setting Hospital at home scheme in Leicester and the city's three acute hospitals. Participants 199 consecutive patients assessed as being suitable for admission to hospital at home for acute care during the 18 month trial period (median age 84 years). Intervention Hospital at home or hospital inpatient care. Main outcome measures Costs to NHS, social services, patients, and families during the initial episode of treatment and the three months after admission. Results Mean (median) costs per episode (including any transfer from hospital at home to hospital) were similar when analysed by intention to treat—hospital at home £2569 (£1655), hospital ward £2881 (£2031), bootstrap mean difference −305 (95% confidence interval −1112 to 448). When analysis was restricted to those who accepted their allocated place of care, hospital at home was significantly cheaper—hospital at home £2557 (£1710), hospital ward £3660 (£2903), bootstrap mean difference −1071 (−1843 to −246). At three months the cost differences were sustained. Costs with all cases included were hospital at home £3671 (£2491), hospital ward £3877 (£3405), bootstrap mean difference −210 (−1025 to 635). When only those accepting allocated care were included the costs were hospital at home £3698 (£2493), hospital ward £4761 (£3940), bootstrap mean difference −1063 (−2044 to −163); P=0.009. About 25% of the costs for episodes of hospital at home were incurred through transfer to hospital. Costs per day of care were higher in the hospital at home arm (mean £207 v £134 in the hospital arm, excluding refusers, P<0.001). Conclusions Hospital at home can deliver care at similar or lower cost than an equivalent admission to an acute hospital. PMID:10591720

  3. A new methodology for hospital design.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Ana Maria Silva

    2013-08-01

    According to architect, Ana Maria Silva Mejia, 'a new era for the design of hospitals in Guatemala has arrived', with a considerable growth in interest around good healthcare facility design. Here, in a slightly adapted version of an article, 'A new methodology for design', first published in the IFHE (International Federation of Hospital Engineering) Digest 2012, she reports on the application of a new methodology designed to optimise efficient use of space, and clinical and other adjacencies, in a district hospital in the City of Zacapa. The system has subsequently been successfully applied to a number of other Guatemalan healthcare facilities.

  4. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  5. Photograph of model projected new hospital building and new landscaping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photograph of model projected new hospital building and new landscaping for area north of building 500. Model displayed on the mezzanine level of building 500. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. [The hospital: reality and proposable future].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, A E; Torregrossa, M V

    2008-01-01

    In this work we run over hospital history from Middle ages to the present time. Hospitals were charitable institutions in fact they rise inside monasterys, churches or castles with an architecture in modum crucis as a symbolic expression of Christ crucifix. During Renaissance, new scientific Knowledges and the need of technical assistance in a suitable place, lead to a new kind of hospital included into the functional centres of the city were medical practice takes the places of spiritual assistance. In XVIII century hospital is like a "human diseases botanical garden" divided into departments with a circular structure in conformity with a functional model of control. To exceed the isolation of single room, rectangular rooms born with a radially arrangement. At the end of 700's born the pavilions structures typical of hospitals until half 900's when the "monobloc" take place. Today hospital becomes horizontal, include in the context of the city, with hall as a big hotel and with trading centres in accordance with Renzo Piano model and with a new vision of hospital as a welcome place were the patient is a guest to treat as a person of consequence.

  7. Oklahoma City Revitalization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Since the beginning of their Brownfields Program in 2003, Oklahoma City has been the recipient of nine EPA Brownfields Grants, creating a new city from the inside out. So far, 45 properties have been assessed and/or remediated.

  8. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  9. Use of job aids to improve facility-based postnatal counseling and care in rural Benin.

    PubMed

    Jennings, L; Yebadokpo, A; Affo, J; Agbogbe, M

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the effect of a job aids-focused intervention on quality of facility-based postnatal counseling, and whether increased communication improved in-hospital newborn care and maternal knowledge of home practices and danger signs requiring urgent care. Ensuring mothers and newborns receive essential postnatal services, including health counseling, is integral to their survival. Yet, quality of clinic-based postnatal services is often low, and evidence on effective improvement strategies is scarce. Using a pre-post randomized design, data were drawn from direct observations and interviews with 411 mother-newborn pairs. Multi-level regression models with difference-in-differences analyses estimated the intervention's relative effect, adjusting for changes in the comparison arm. The mean percent of recommended messages provided to recently-delivered women significantly improved in the intervention arm as compared to the control (difference-in-differences [∆i - ∆c] +30.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 19.3, 42.5), and the proportion of newborns thermally protected within the first hour (∆i - ∆c +33.7, 95 % CI 19.0, 48.4) and delayed for bathing (∆i - ∆c +23.9, 95 % CI 9.4, 38.4) significantly increased. No significant changes were observed in early breastfeeding (∆i - ∆c +6.8, 95 % CI -2.8, 16.4) which was nearly universal. Omitting traditional umbilical cord substances rose slightly, but was insignificant (∆i - ∆c +8.5, 95 % CI -2.8, 19.9). The proportion of mothers with correct knowledge of maternal (∆i - ∆c +27.8, 95 % CI 11.0, 44.6) and newborn (∆i - ∆c +40.3, 95 % CI 22.2, 58.4) danger signs grew substantially, as did awareness of several home-care practices (∆i - ∆c +26.0, 95 % CI 7.7, 44.3). Counseling job aids can improve the quality of postnatal services. However, achieving reduction goals in maternal and neonatal mortality will likely require more comprehensive approaches to link enhanced facility services with

  10. Gender Issues in Parenting Cleft Lip and Palate Babies in Southern Nigeria: A Study of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umweni, A. A.; Okeigbemen, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is a scarcity of studies on gender issues in parenting cleft lip and palate (CLAP) babies. The birth of a CLAP child presents an immediate visible handicap that is distressing to parents. The aims and objectives of this study are to determine the influence of gender on the attitude of parents on the birth of CLAP babies, to articulate the…

  11. Effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum L. on mycoflora during storage of peanuts in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adjou, Euloge S; Kouton, Sandrine; Dahouenon-Ahoussi, Edwige; Soumanou, Mohamed M; Sohounhloue, Dominique C K

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of essential oil from fresh leaves of Sweet Fennel (Ocimum gratissimum) on mycoflora and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in stored peanuts. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Mucor spp. were the most common genera identified from peanuts at post-harvest in Benin by using a taxonomic schemes primarily based on morphological characters of mycelium and conidia. The isolated fungi include Aspergillus niger, A. parasiticus, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, Fusarium graminearum, F. solani, F. oxysporum and Mucor spp. The most prevalent fungi recorded were A. niger (94.18 %), A. flavus (83.72 %), A. parasiticus (77.90 %), A. ochraceus (72.09 %), F. graminearum (59.30 %) and F. oxysporum (51.16 %). Antifungal assay, performed by the agar medium assay, indicated that essential oil exhibited high antifungal activity against the growth of A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was found to be 7.5 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus and 5.5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and F. oxysporium. The minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) was recorded to be 8.0 μl/ml for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, 6,5 μl/ml for A. ochraceus and 6.0 μl/ml for F. oxysporium. The essential oil was found to be strongly fungicidal and inhibitory to aflatoxin production. Chemical analysis by GC/MS of the components of the oil led to the identification of 31 components characterized by myrcene (6.4 %), α-thujene (8.2 %), p-cymene (17.6 %), γ-terpinene (20.0 %), and thymol (26.9 %) as major components. The essential oil of Sweet Fennel, with fungal growth and mycotoxin inhibitory properties, offers a novel approach to the management of storage, thus opening up the possibility to prevent mold contamination in stored peanuts.

  12. [Oral and dental health of a population of school children from the Zou region of Benin (1998)].

    PubMed

    Moalic é; Zérilli, A; Capo-Chichi, S; Apovi, G

    1999-01-01

    Dental caries is becoming increasingly common in developing countries but very few attempts have been made to assess its prevalence accurately. We therefore carried out an epidemiological survey in 1998 in the south of Benin, to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in 300 school children, both boys and girls, aged 12 to 14 years. Each child underwent a dental examination and interview and the data obtained were recorded in a personal clinical record. We determined DMF index for various subgroups of children. We then analyzed DMF index and its correlation with sex, age, socioeconomic level, the urban or rural origin of the child, diet and daily dental hygiene practices. We found that mean DMF index at age 12 years was 0.83 (38.7% had dental caries and 4.4% had fillings), and thus, 61. 3% of the children were free of dental caries. We also found that 80% of the children had an accumulation of tartar. More boys than girls had dental caries. Rural children were less likely to have dental caries than urban children. The prevalence of caries appears to be low despite poor dental hygiene and a lack of dental treatment. These results conflict with those of most other studies. However, they should be interpreted with caution because the population studied was very homogeneous (selection bias), the age of the children could be no more than approximate (some were probably younger than 12 and others older than 14, because the registry system is inaccurate), there had been health education classes in some schools before the survey and it was difficult to define socioeconomic level and a sugary diet. For example, the lower socioeconomic level (no TV, radio, electricity or tap water) was probably an accurate representation of children from the rural area, whereas urban children were proud of being well-equipped and may have had a tendency to exaggerate. The prevalence of dental caries in this population is currently as low as that for most pre-industrial African countries. To

  13. Spatio-temporal analysis of abundances of three malaria vector species in southern Benin using zero-truncated models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the ecology and spatial-temporal distribution of malaria vectors is essential to design more effective and sustainable strategies for malaria control and elimination. In a previous study, we analyzed presence-absence data of An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s. in an area of southern Benin with high coverage of vector control measures. Here, we further extend the work by analysing the positive values of the dataset to assess the determinants of the abundance of these three vectors and to produce predictive maps of vector abundance. Methods Positive counts of the three vectors were assessed using negative-binomial zero-truncated (NBZT) mixed-effect models according to vector control measures and environmental covariates derived from field and remote sensing data. After 8-fold cross-validation of the models, predictive maps of abundance of the sympatric An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s. were produced. Results Cross-validation of the NBZT models showed a satisfactory predictive accuracy. Almost all changes in abundance between two surveys in the same village were well predicted by the models but abundances for An. gambiae s.s. were slightly underestimated. During the dry season, predictive maps showed that abundance greater than 1 bite per person per night were observed only for An. funestus and An. coluzzii. During the rainy season, we observed both increase and decrease in abundance of An. funestus, which are dependent on the ecological setting. Abundances of both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. increased during the rainy season but not in the same areas. Conclusions Our models helped characterize the ecological preferences of three major African malaria vectors. This works highlighted the importance to study independently the binomial and the zero-truncated count processes when evaluating vector control strategies. The study of the bio-ecology of malaria vector species in time and space is critical

  14. Evidence for perennial malaria in rural and urban areas under the Sudanian climate of Kandi, Northeastern Benin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In arid settings, droughts usually lead to periods of very low or no malaria transmission. However, in rural Kandi (Sonsoro) in northeastern Benin, several malaria cases are often diagnosed during dry seasons. The underlying factors accounting for this phenomenon remain unknown. Methods The entomological profile of Sonsoro has been studied compared to a location in urban Kandi (Gansosso) for a period of one year. During this period, Anopheles larval habitats were investigated and populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were sampled by human landing catches in both areas. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP) were conducted on vector specimens and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were determined per season (wet versus dry) in each area. In addition, during the severe drought period, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) were conducted on school children under the age 10 years in these areas to provide a global view of drought-malaria prevalence and to perform a crossing with entomological data in Kandi. Results Overall, An. gambiae s.l. was particularly abundant in rural Kandi compared to the urban area with a significant decrease of vector density in both sites during the dry season. In this period, larval sampling data identified household water sources as potential breeding sites in urban and rural Kandi. We also observed a significant seasonal variation of the infectivity rate in both areas but for each period (season), the EIR was higher in the rural site than in the urban. Data of P. falciparum detection was the reflection of entomological findings. The drought-malaria prevalence was 5.5 times higher in rural Kandi as compared to urban Kandi. The presence of a permanent water site and the low level of urbanization in rural Kandi were identified as a risk factor. Conclusion Our data showed a high level of malaria transmission in the municipality of Kandi. Household water source plays an

  15. Strong advocacy led to successful implementation of smokefree Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the approval process and implementation of the 100% smokefree law in Mexico City and a competing federal law between 2007 and 2010. Methods Reviewed smokefree legislation, published newspaper articles and interviewed key informants. Results Strong efforts by tobacco control advocacy groups and key policymakers in Mexico City in 2008 prompted the approval of a 100% smokefree law following the WHO FCTC. As elsewhere, the tobacco industry utilised the hospitality sector to block smokefree legislation, challenged the City law before the Supreme Court and promoted the passage of a federal law that required designated smoking areas. These tactics disrupted implementation of the City law by causing confusion over which law applied in Mexico City. Despite interference, the City law increased public support for 100% smokefree policies and decreased the social acceptability of smoking. In September 2009, the Supreme Court ruled in favour of the City law, giving it the authority to go beyond the federal law to protect the fundamental right of health for all citizens. Conclusions Early education and enforcement efforts by tobacco control advocates promoted the City law in 2008 but advocates should still anticipate continuing opposition from the tobacco industry, which will require continued pressure on the government. Advocates should utilise the Supreme Court’s ruling to promote 100% smokefree policies outside Mexico City. Strong advocacy for the City law could be used as a model of success throughout Mexico and other Latin American countries. PMID:21059606

  16. Uses, traditional management, perception of variation and preferences in ackee (Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig) fruit traits in Benin: implications for domestication and conservation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Blighia sapida is a woody perennial multipurpose fruit tree species native to the Guinean forests of West Africa. The fleshy arils of the ripened fruits are edible. Seeds and capsules of the fruits are used for soap-making and all parts of the tree have medicinal properties. Although so far overlooked by researchers in the region, the tree is highly valued by farmers and is an important component of traditional agroforestry systems in Benin. Fresh arils, dried arils and soap are traded in local and regional markets in Benin providing substantial revenues for farmers, especially women. Recently, ackee has emerged as high-priority species for domestication in Benin but information necessary to elaborate a clear domestication strategy is still very sketchy. This study addresses farmers' indigenous knowledge on uses, management and perception of variation of the species among different ethnic groups taking into account also gender differences. Methods 240 randomly selected persons (50% women) belonging to five different ethnic groups, 5 women active in the processing of ackee fruits and 6 traditional healers were surveyed with semi-structured interviews. Information collected refer mainly to the motivation of the respondents to conserve ackee trees in their land, the local uses, the perception of variation, the preference in fruits traits, the management practices to improve the production and regenerate ackee. Results People have different interests on using ackee, variable knowledge on uses and management practices, and have reported nine differentiation criteria mainly related to the fruits. Ackee phenotypes with preferred fruit traits are perceived by local people to be more abundant in managed in-situ and cultivated stands than in unmanaged wild stands, suggesting that traditional management has initiated a domestication process. As many as 22 diseases have been reported to be healed with ackee. In general, indigenous knowledge about ackee varies among

  17. The Paternal Landscape along the Bight of Benin – Testing Regional Representativeness of West-African Population Samples Using Y-Chromosomal Markers

    PubMed Central

    Larmuseau, Maarten H. D.; Vessi, Andrea; Jobling, Mark A.; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Ottoni, Claudio; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation in human populations across the African continent are still not well studied in comparison with Eurasia and America, despite the high genetic and cultural diversity among African populations. In population and forensic genetic studies a single sample is often used to represent a complete African region. In such a scenario, inappropriate sampling strategies and/or the use of local, isolated populations may bias interpretations and pose questions of representativeness at a macrogeographic-scale. The non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome (NRY) has great potential to reveal the regional representation of a sample due to its powerful phylogeographic information content. An area poorly characterized for Y-chromosomal data is the West-African region along the Bight of Benin, despite its important history in the trans-Atlantic slave trade and its large number of ethnic groups, languages and lifestyles. In this study, Y-chromosomal haplotypes from four Beninese populations were determined and a global meta-analysis with available Y-SNP and Y-STR data from populations along the Bight of Benin and surrounding areas was performed. A thorough methodology was developed allowing comparison of population samples using Y-chromosomal lineage data based on different Y-SNP panels and phylogenies. Geographic proximity turned out to be the best predictor of genetic affinity between populations along the Bight of Benin. Nevertheless, based on Y-chromosomal data from the literature two population samples differed strongly from others from the same or neighbouring areas and are not regionally representative within large-scale studies. Furthermore, the analysis of the HapMap sample YRI of a Yoruban population from South-western Nigeria based on Y-SNPs and Y-STR data showed for the first time its regional representativeness, a result which is important for standard population and forensic genetic applications using the YRI sample. Therefore, the uniquely

  18. Acquisition of electroencephalographic data in a large regional hospital - Bringing the brain waves to the computer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, M. D.; Baker, M.; Ferguson, R.; Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a complete electroencephalographic acquisition and transmission system, designed to meet the needs of a large hospital with multiple critical care patient monitoring units. The system provides rapid and prolonged access to a centralized recording and computing area from remote locations within the hospital complex, and from locations in other hospitals and other cities. The system includes quick-on electrode caps, amplifier units and cable transmission for access from within the hospital, and EEG digitization and telephone transmission for access from other hospitals or cities.

  19. Assessment of the Knowledge of Blast Injuries Management among Physicians Working in Tripoli Hospitals (Libya).

    PubMed

    Oun, Abdulhakim M; Hadida, Elmokhtar M; Stewart, Charles

    2017-03-08

    Introduction No study on hospital staff preparedness for managing blast injuries has been conducted in Libya. The internal conflict in Libya since 2011 and the difficulties faced by the hospitals has highlighted the need for such studies. Hypothesis Physicians working in Tripoli (capital city Libya) hospitals are inadequately prepared for the management of blast injuries.

  20. A Field Study in Benin to Investigate the Role of Mosquitoes and Other Flying Insects in the Ecology of Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Zogo, Barnabas; Djenontin, Armel; Carolan, Kevin; Babonneau, Jeremy; Guegan, Jean-François; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer, the third mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy, is caused by the environmental mycobacterium M. ulcerans. There is at present no clear understanding of the exact mode(s) of transmission of M. ulcerans. Populations affected by Buruli ulcer are those living close to humid and swampy zones. The disease is associated with the creation or the extension of swampy areas, such as construction of dams or lakes for the development of agriculture. Currently, it is supposed that insects (water bugs and mosquitoes) are host and vector of M. ulcerans. The role of water bugs was clearly demonstrated by several experimental and environmental studies. However, no definitive conclusion can yet be drawn concerning the precise importance of this route of transmission. Concerning the mosquitoes, DNA was detected only in mosquitoes collected in Australia, and their role as host/vector was never studied by experimental approaches. Surprisingly, no specific study was conducted in Africa. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of mosquitoes (larvae and adults) and other flying insects in ecology of M. ulcerans. This study was conducted in a highly endemic area of Benin. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes (adults and larvae) were collected over one year, in Buruli ulcer endemic in Benin. In parallel, to monitor the presence of M. ulcerans in environment, aquatic insects were sampled. QPCR was used to detected M. ulcerans DNA. DNA of M. ulcerans was detected in around 8.7% of aquatic insects but never in mosquitoes (larvae or adults) or in other flying insects. Conclusion/Significance This study suggested that the mosquitoes don't play a pivotal role in the ecology and transmission of M. ulcerans in the studied endemic areas. However, the role of mosquitoes cannot be excluded and, we can reasonably suppose that several routes of transmission of M. ulcerans are possible through the world. PMID:26196901

  1. A professional development study of technology education in secondary science teaching in Benin: Issues of teacher change and self-efficacy beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelani, Razacki Raphael E. D.

    This study has two purposes. The practical purpose of the study was to provide Benin middle school science teachers with an effective technology education professional development (TEPD) program which granted teachers with content knowledge in technology education (TE), PCK in TE, design hands-on models in TE, and design rubrics assessing students' works. The research purpose of the study was to explore teachers' TE content knowledge and PCK, changes in teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in teaching the TE portion of the curriculum, and teachers' perceptions of their TEPD experience after participating in the program. Four sessions of the TEPD program were carried out with two groups of teachers (N = 23 & 28). A mixed methods research design was utilized to collect data. Pre-experimental one-group pretest-posttest research design was used to collect quantitative data. Two instruments, the technology education teacher self-efficacy beliefs instrument (TETEBI) and the TE Awareness instrument, were designed. The qualitative research design employed a case study with participating teachers' after-session journals and after-session evaluation, classroom observations, teachers' and students' interviews. Overall results of the study revealed that the TEPD program impacted positively participating teachers. Salient results indicated that (1) the TEPD program was effective; (2) although quantitative analysis was inconclusive, through documents analysis, teachers' self-efficacy beliefs were enhanced after participating in the program; (3) teachers did acquire TE content knowledge and PCK; (4) teachers were effectively teaching the TE lessons integrated in the science curriculum; and (5) teachers expressed positive perceptions about the program and acknowledged its soundness, relevancy and effectiveness. Other characteristics of effective PD have been founded such as trainers' expertise and consideration of cultural and contextual issues of the trainees. Interpretations of the

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of bendiocarb in indoor residual spraying against pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors in Benin: results of the third campaign

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2008, the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) has been engaged in the implementation of indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Benin. The first and second round was a success with a drastic decrease of malaria transmission in areas under IRS. We present here the results of the third round. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of the third round of IRS to those achieved during the first two rounds. A second success of IRS will enable the Government of Benin to extend the strategy to other areas. Methods Mosquito collections were carried out in the department of Ouémé where the homes of four districts were treated with bendiocarb. In these districts, more than 350 000 inhabitants were protected by IRS. A fifth untreated district served as control. In the five districts, mosquito collections were organized to follow the dynamics of malaria transmission and possible changes in the behavior of mosquitoes. Results A significant reduction in human biting rate was recorded after the third round of IRS, specifically in Adjohoun (89.78%), Dangbo (56.8%) and Missérété (93.22%) where an inhabitant received less than 2 bites of An. gambiae per night. During this same time, the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) declined dramatically in all areas under intervention (74.26% reduction). We also noted a significant reduction in longevity, the blood feeding rate of the vectors and an increase in exophily induced by bendiocarb on An. gambiae and Mansonia spp. Conclusion The present study showed, once again, the effectiveness of bendiocarb on anopheles populations resistant to pyrethroids. This product can be recommended in combination with other insecticides for the management of vector resistance to insecticides. PMID:22873930

  3. Land use scenarios development and impacts assessment on vegetation carbon/nitrogen sequestration in the West African Sudan savanna watershed, Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    ackground: Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), being developed through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) requires information on the carbon/nitrogen stocks in the plant biomass for predicting future climate under scenarios development. The development of land use scenarios in West Africa is needed to predict future impacts of change in the environment and the socio-economic status of rural communities. The study aims at developing land use scenario based on mitigation strategy to climate change as an issue of contributing for carbon and nitrogen sequestration, the condition 'food focused' as a scenario based crop production and 'financial investment' as scenario based on an economic development pathway, and to explore the possible future temporal and spatial impacts on vegetation carbon/nitrogen sequestration/emission and socio-economic status of rural communities. Preliminary results: BEN-LUDAS (Benin-Land Use DyNamic Simulator) model, carbon and nitrogen equations, remote sensing and socio-economic data were used to predict the future impacts of each scenario in the environment and human systems. The preliminary results which are under analysis will be presented soon. Conclusion: The proposed BEN-LUDAS models will help to contribute to policy decision making at the local and regional scale and to predict future impacts of change in the environment and socio-economic status of the rural communities. Keywords: Land use scenarios development, BEN-LUDAS, socio-economic status of rural communities, future impacts of change, assessment, West African Sudan savanna watershed, Benin

  4. [Healthy Cities projects].

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  5. Mexico City, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In this rare clear view of Mexico City, Mexico (19.5N, 99.0W), the network of broad avenues and plazas of the capital city are very evident. The city, built on the remnants of a lake in the caldera of a tremendous extinct volcano, is home to over twenty million people and is slowly sinking as subsidence takes it's toll on the lakebed.

  6. 300 Cities Virtual Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    across line items. These differences will provide local, regional, and national comparison data for the next iteration of the Smart Card , an interface...updated weekly)  Tax actions by line item (annual) 15 Incorporated into the Smart Card will be demographic data for each city, simulated...In addition to descriptive city data as above, the Smart Card will contain informative output from our virtual city simulations, and include possibly

  7. A Study to Determine the Best Method of Delivering Nutrition Education Services at Darnall Army Community Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    University Graduate Program in Darnall, Army Comm. Hospital N/A Health Care Administration 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City...Services .................... 52 III. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................... 54 APPENDIX A. NUTRITION CARE DIVISION ORGANIZATION...53 ii I. INTRODUCTION Conditions Which Prompted The Study The mission of the Army hospital Nutrition Care Division (NCD) is "to provide

  8. Can hospitals compete on quality? Hospital competition.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Somayeh; Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Carter, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider two hospitals with different perceived quality of care competing to capture a fraction of the total market demand. Patients select the hospital that provides the highest utility, which is a function of price and the patient's perceived quality of life during their life expectancy. We consider a market with a single class of patients and show that depending on the market demand and perceived quality of care of the hospitals, patients may enjoy a positive utility. Moreover, hospitals share the market demand based on their perceived quality of care and capacity. We also show that in a monopoly market (a market with a single hospital) the optimal demand captured by the hospital is independent of the perceived quality of care. We investigate the effects of different parameters including the market demand, hospitals' capacities, and perceived quality of care on the fraction of the demand that each hospital captures using some numerical examples.

  9. Changing hospital payments: implications for teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bentley, J D

    1983-09-01

    Hospitals cannot continue to view themselves only as social institutions whose performance will be assessed on the good they do. Teaching hospitals, in particular, cannot view themselves simply as distinctive combinations of social and educational institutions. Under Medicare's prospective pricing system, the hospital's role as production system is enhanced, and all hospitals must learn to balance the new economic realities as they work with their medical staff to adapt to a changed future.

  10. Assessment of the current and future water balance of the Ouémé catchment (Benin) for an integrated water resource management by using the WEAP water planning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giertz, Simone; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Höllermann, Britta

    2010-05-01

    Today, fresh water has already become a critically scarce resource in many regions of the world. In many developing countries insufficient water supply infrastructure aggravates this problem. With the ongoing global change and population growth water security will become one of the major problems in the 21st century. Regarding the annual water balance the West African Country Benin is not suffering from physical water scarcity. Nevertheless, investigations show that water scarcity occurs at the local scale, especially at the end of the dry season. This is caused by reduced water availability in this period and particularly by the inadequate water supply infrastructure. Facing the impacts of climate and socio-economic change, an assessment of the national water resources is an important step to assure a sustainable water resource management and to satisfy the raising water demand of Benin in the future. In the presented study the WEAP water planning model was used to analyse the current and future water balance of Benin's largest catchment Ouémé. To take into account the possible impacts of climate and socio-economic change, two IPCC scenarios (A1B and B1) and three socio-economic scenarios were simulated for the time period 2002-2025. The results show that the pressure on Benin's water resources will increase, due to population growth and changing socio-economic conditions. This leads to a greater competition for surface water especially during the dry season. Improving the access to groundwater is an alternative; however, financial and institutional constraints hinder such a development. Furthermore, declining catchment inflows and groundwater recharge aggravate the situation and require an adapted groundwater management. Beside the scenario results the presentation will also examine the uncertainties of the modelling process with WEAP. Furthermore, the suitability of the model in supporting a sustainable and integrated water resources management in developing

  11. Going to the Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Going to the Hospital KidsHealth > For Kids > Going to the Hospital Print ... you flowers, balloons, or other treats! previous continue Hospital People You'll meet lots of people in ...

  12. Comparison of the Roche RealTime ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set with CDC A/H1N1pdm09 RT-PCR on samples from three hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Nguyen thi; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Khanh, Trong Huu; Viet, Do Chau; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2012-01-01

    Background Real-time PCR can be considered the gold standard for detection of influenza viruses due to its high sensitivity and specificity. Roche has developed the RealTime ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set, consisting of a generic influenza virus A PCR targeting the M2 gene (M2 PCR) and a specific PCR targeting the HA of A/H1N1-pdm09 (HA PCR, 2009 H1N1), with the intention to make a reliable, rapid, and simple test to detect and quantify 2009 H1N1 in clinical samples. Methods We evaluated this kit against the USCDC/WHO real-time PCR for influenza virus using 419 nose and throat swabs from 210 patients collected in 3 large hospitals in Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. Results In the per patient analysis, when compared to CDC PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of the M2 PCR were 85.8 and 97.6%, respectively; the sensitivity and specificity of HA PCR were 88.2 and 100%, respectively. In the per sample analysis, the sensitivity and specificity in nose swabs were higher than in throat swabs for both M2 and HA PCRs. The viral loads as determined with the M2 and HA PCRs correlated well with the Ct values of the CDC PCR. Conclusion Compared with the CDC PCR, the kit has a reasonable sensitivity and very good specificity for the detection and quantification of Influenza A virus and A/H1N1-pdm09. However, given the current status of 2009 H1N1, a kit that can detect all circulating seasonal influenza viruses would be preferable. PMID:22785431

  13. Sustainability for Shrinking Cities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shrinking cities are widespread throughout the world despite the rapidly increasing global urban population. These cities are attempting to transition to sustainable trajectories to improve the health and well-being of urban residents, to build their capacity to adapt to changing...

  14. Walkout in Crystal City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios, Greg

    2009-01-01

    When students take action, they create change that extends far beyond the classroom. In this article, the author, who was a former teacher from Crystal City, Texas, remembers the student walkout that helped launch the Latino civil rights movement 40 years ago. The Crystal City student walkout remains a high point in the history of student activism…

  15. Build a City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jean A.

    1985-01-01

    A week-long build-a-city project is described which lets students become familiar with the history of the five Platonic solids (tetrahedron, octahedron, hexahedron, isosahedron, dodecahedron) and then use these solids to create a city using posterboard and construction paper. (MNS)

  16. Innovation and the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  17. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  18. The Industrial City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohl, Raymond

    1976-01-01

    This article, the sixth installment in Environment's "Looking Back" series, traces the woes of America's industrialized cities to the movement that developed cities primarily as centers for industrial enterprise rather than as places for people to live. Today's social ills, from pollution to poverty, developed from that movement. (BT)

  19. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  20. The city of Ottawa.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    As Canada's capital, Ottawa's main business is government. The City of Ottawa is a low-density residential community with an abundance of open space. The unprecedented development boom in the City of Ottawa's industrial, commercial, and residential sectors since 1981 reversed the city's declining population trend and slowed the continuous loss of inner-city residents to suburban neighborhoods and new communities outside the city. Ottawa's population is skewed toward an older population because professionals migrate to the city for work and do not leave as they age. In 1981, 8% of Ottawa's population was over 65 years old; by 2001 this percentage is expected to jump to 20%. Although Ottawa's population declined from 1961 to 1981, the total number of households grew at about 4% annually. The trend toward small household formation is expected to continue with the traditional family taking more and more of a minority position. Average household size declined from 3.2 in 1971 to an estimated 2.2 in 1984. There are approximately 147,100 dwelling units in the City of Ottawa of which 12,000 are nonconventional. A realistic density, excluding government-owned public and open space lands, is 15.6 housing units per acre. About half of all dwelling units are low density. By 1984, the city counted 69 shopping centers with over 4 million square feet of floor space. Ottawa's major employer is the federal government, with about 40% of all jobs within the city being civil service. Employment participation rates have increased signficiantly at just over 70% in 1983, up from 62% in 1971, due largely to increased participation by women. The City of Ottawa leads surrounding areas in per capita income due primarily to the increase in the number of young professionals who make up 1 and 2-person households.

  1. Access to primary care in Hong Kong, Greater London and New York City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Pui Hing; Woo, Jean; Gusmano, Michael K; Weisz, Daniel; Rodwin, Victor G; Chan, Kam Che

    2013-01-01

    We investigate avoidable hospital conditions (AHC) in three world cities as a way to assess access to primary care. Residents of Hong Kong are healthier than their counterparts in Greater London or New York City. In contrast to their counterparts in New York City, residents of both Greater London and Hong Kong face no financial barriers to an extensive public hospital system. We compare residence-based hospital discharge rates for AHC, by age cohorts, in these cities and find that New York City has higher rates than Hong Kong and Greater London. Hong Kong has the lowest hospital discharge rates for AHC among the population 15-64, but its rates are nearly as high as those in New York City among the population 65 and over. Our findings suggest that in contrast to Greater London, older residents in Hong Kong and New York face significant barriers in accessing primary care. In all three cities, people living in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods are more likely to be hospitalized for an AHC, but neighborhood inequalities are greater in Hong Kong and New York than in Greater London.

  2. Assessing knowledge, performance, and efficiency for hospital waste management-a comparison of government and private hospitals in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz; Geng, Yong; Ashraf, Uzma

    2017-04-01

    Proper management of healthcare waste is a critical concern in many countries of the world. Rapid urbanization and population growth rates pose serious challenges to healthcare waste management infrastructure in such countries. This study was aimed at assessing the situation of hospital waste management in a major city of Pakistan. Simple random sampling was used to select 12 government and private hospitals in the city. Field visits, physical measurements, and questionnaire survey method were used for data collection. Information was obtained regarding hospital waste generation, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, and disposal. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to classify the hospitals on the basis of their relative waste management efficiencies. The weighted average total waste generation at the surveyed hospitals was discovered to be 1.53 kg/patient/day of which 75.15% consisted of general waste and the remaining consisted of biomedical waste. Of the total waste, 24.54% came from the public hospital and the remaining came from the private hospitals. DEA showed that seven of the surveyed hospitals had scale or pure technical inefficiencies in their waste management activities. The public hospital was relatively less efficient than most of the private hospitals in these activities. Results of the questionnaire survey showed that none of the surveyed hospitals was carrying out waste management in strict compliance with government regulations. Moreover, hospital staff at all the surveyed hospitals had low level of knowledge regarding safe hospital waste management practices. The current situation should be rectified in order to avoid environmental and epidemiological risks.

  3. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-06

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin.

  4. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  5. Starrett City energy exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Starrett City/26th Ward Energy Project is a joint effort of Starrett City (a privately owned and operated 5881-unit high rise housing complex located in Brooklyn, NY) and the city of New York Department of Environmental Protection to develop the means to utilize waste-derived energy produced as by-products of municipal waste water treatment. Starrett City, a development of over 20,000 residents with its own schools, shopping and community centers, and power plant, is located directly across the street from the City of New York's 26th Ward Water Pollution Control Plant. Out of five energy exchange options, a cooperative project team recommended three: (1) transmitting all digester gas from the 26th Ward wastewater sewage-treatment facility to Starrett's cogeneration-type total energy plant (TEP), (2) piping hot water from the Starrett TEP to provide space and process heat to the 26th Ward, and (3) pumping treated effluent from the 26th Ward to the TEP to eliminate the need for Starrett's cooling tower. Starrett City assumed all installation and maintenance costs, both on city property and the TEP. Starrett projects a 53$ million saving in fuel costs over the next 20 years. The project will serve as a model for similar energy resource development efforts and offer the rationale for the private sector and municipalities to build together for the future.

  6. Specialty hospitals: can general hospitals compete?

    PubMed

    Dummit, Laura A

    2005-07-13

    The rapid increase in specialty cardiac, surgical, and orthopedic hospitals has captured the attention of general hospitals and policymakers. Although the number of specialty hospitals remains small in absolute terms, their entry into certain health care markets has fueled arguments about the rules of "fair" competition among health care providers. To allow the smoke to clear, Congress effectively stalled the growth in new specialty hospitals by temporarily prohibiting physicians from referring Medicare or Medicaid patients to specialty hospitals in which they had an ownership interest. During this 18-month moratorium, which expired June 8, 2005, two mandated studies of specialty hospitals provided information to help assess their potential effect on health care delivery. This issue brief discusses the research on specialty hospitals, including their payments under Medicare's hospital inpatient payment system, the quality and cost of care they deliver, their effect on general hospitals and on overall health care delivery, and the regulatory and legal environment in which they have proliferated. It concludes with open issues concerning physician self-referral and the role of general hospitals in providing a range of health care services.

  7. [Reasons for the construction of Bispebjerg Hospital--a hospital with light, air and freedom of nature].

    PubMed

    Permin, Henrik; Wagner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1850ies the city of Copenhagen changed, ramparts were removed or remodelled as parks, industries were established. The new factories and wharfs expanded, labourers were needed; many country people moved into the city to find work and thus the population increased immensely. In Copenhagen a few hospitals only were present around 1850; The Royal Frederik Hospital (now the Museum of applied Arts) was the only hospital in the modern sense of the word. Other institutions with "hospital" as part of their name as e.g. General Hospital (Almindelig Hospital) or Ladegaarden were a mixture of hospital and workhouse and The Royal Maternity Hospital founded in 1750. The wealthy and the upper middle class citizens were nursed or cured at home. At the end of the nineteenth century medical doctors could successfully cure some diseases, and surgeons could after the introduction of the anesthetic and aseptic treatment carry out operations with diminished risks of complications. Copenhagen's first modern hospital, Municipal Hospital (Kommunehospitalet) opened 1863, but in a very short time it was permanently overcrowded. Although two small hospitals Blegdam Hospital (isolation hospital) and the Oresund Hospital (quarantine station) were established a large new hospital was needed. Although the financial situation of the city of Copenhagen was strained due to the expenditures caused by the rapidly growing population within the city itself and the villages incorporated into it, the first social democratic mayor Jens Jensen wanted to secure his voters the same care and treatment as citizens of better means. As this view was accepted by the majority of the city council a hospital in the then modern and functional pavilion system (ascribed to Florence Nightingale) with buildings surrounded by gardens was planned. The architect Martin Nyrop (1849-1921) who had just completed the monumental and beautiful Copenhagen City Hall along with the engineer AC Karsten (1857-1931) and

  8. City Lights of Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Growth in 'mega-cities' is altering the landscape and the atmosphere in such a way as to curtail normal photosynthesis. By using data from The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System, researchers have been able to look at urban sprawl by monitoring the emission of light from cities at night. By overlaying these 'light maps' onto other data such as soil and vegetation maps, the research shows that urbanization can have a variable but measurable impact on photosynthetic productivity. For more information, read Bright Lights, Big City Image by the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio

  9. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  10. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature.

  11. Competition among hospitals.

    PubMed

    Noether, M

    1988-09-01

    The traditional view of hospital competition has posited that hospitals compete primarily along 'quality' dimensions, in the form of fancy equipment to attract admitting physicians and pleasant surroundings to entice patients. Price competition among hospitals is thought to be non-existent. This paper estimates the effects of various hospital market characteristics on hospital prices and expenses in an attempt to determine the form of hospital competition. The results suggest that both price and quality competition are greater in markets that are less concentrated, although the net effect of the two on prices is insignificant. It appears, therefore, that, despite important distortions, hospital markets are not immune to standard competitive forces.

  12. North and South Elevations U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and South Elevations - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Therapeutic Exercise Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  13. Building Sections and Detailed Wall Sections U.S. Veterans Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building Sections and Detailed Wall Sections - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Therapeutic Exercise Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  14. West wall, looking northeast U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wall, looking northeast - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  15. Ground Floor Plan (Section B) U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ground Floor Plan (Section B) - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  16. First Floor Plan (Section A) U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First Floor Plan (Section A) - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  17. U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  18. Second Floor Plan (Section A) U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Second Floor Plan (Section A) - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  19. First Floor Plan (Section B) U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First Floor Plan (Section B) - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  20. Ground Floor Plan (Section A) U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ground Floor Plan (Section A) - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  1. Second Floor Plan (Section B) U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Second Floor Plan (Section B) - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  2. Southeast corner, looking northwest U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast corner, looking northwest - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Spinal Cord Injury Unit and Tuberculosis Neuropsychiatric Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  3. Interior, south wing, corridor, looking west U.S. Veterans Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, south wing, corridor, looking west - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Medical Rehabilitation Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  4. Interior, food processing room, looking northeast U.S. Veterans Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, food processing room, looking northeast - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Kitchen, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  5. Northeast corner, looking southwest U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast corner, looking southwest - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Hazardous Waste Storage, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  6. City of Albia, Iowa

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of Albia, located at 120 South A Street, Albia, Iowa 52531, for alleged violations at the Waste Water Treatment Plant.

  7. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  8. City of Parsons, Kansas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the city of Parsons, KS, for alleged violations at the wastewater treatment plant located at 1636 22000 Rd, Parsons, KS 67357.

  9. The Sustainable City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on methods to make cities more sustainable through the processes of energy efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, capture of natural processes, and the merger of ecological, economic, and social factors. (LZ)

  10. Reducing Soil CO2 Emission and Improving Upland Rice Yield with no-Tillage, Straw Mulch and Nitrogen Fertilization in Northern Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dossou-Yovo, E.; Brueggemann, N.; Naab, J.; Huat, J.; Ampofo, E.; Ago, E.; Agbossou, E.

    2015-12-01

    To explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emission and increase grain yield, field experiments were conducted on two upland rice soils (Lixisols and Gleyic Luvisols) in northern Benin in West Africa. The treatments were two tillage systems (no-tillage, and manual tillage), two rice straw managements (no rice straw, and rice straw mulch at 3 Mg ha-1) and three nitrogen fertilizers levels (no nitrogen, recommended level of nitrogen: 60 kg ha-1, and high level of nitrogen: 120 kg ha-1). Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers were applied to be non-limiting at 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Four replications of the twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil CO2 emission, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at 5 cm depth in 6 to 10 days intervals during the rainy season and every two weeks during the dry season. Soil moisture was the main factor explaining the seasonal variability of soil CO2 emission. Much larger soil CO2 emissions were found in rainy than dry season. No-tillage planting significantly reduced soil CO2 emissions compared with manual tillage. Higher soil CO2 emissions were recorded in the mulched treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were higher in fertilized treatments compared with non fertilized treatments. Rice biomass and yield were not significantly different as a function of tillage systems. On the contrary, rice biomass and yield significantly increased with application of rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer. The highest response of rice yield to nitrogen fertilizer addition was obtained for 60 kg N ha-1 in combination with 3 Mg ha-1 of rice straw for the two tillage systems. Soil CO2 emission per unit grain yield was lower under no-tillage, rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. No-tillage combined with rice straw mulch and 60 kg N ha-1 could be used by smallholder farmers to achieve higher grain yield and lower soil CO2 emission in upland rice fields in northern Benin.

  11. Soluble human leukocyte antigen -G during pregnancy and infancy in Benin: Mother/child resemblance and association with the risk of malaria infection and low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Milet, Jacqueline; Cottrell, Gilles; Mondière, Amandine; Avokpaho, Euripide; Gineau, Laure; Sabbagh, Audrey; Massougbodji, Achille; Moutairou, Kabirou; Donadi, Eduardo A.; Favier, Benoit; Carosella, Edgardo; Moreau, Philippe; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie; Courtin, David; Garcia, André

    2017-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) G is a tolerogenic molecule involved in the maternal-fetal immune tolerance phenomenon. Its expression during some infectious diseases leading to immune evasion has been established. A first study conducted in Benin has shown that the production of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) during the first months of life is strongly correlated with the maternal level at delivery and associated with low birth weight and malaria. However sHLA-G measurements during pregnancy were not available for mothers and furthermore, to date the evolution of sHLA-G in pregnancy is not documented in African populations. To extend these previous findings, between January 2010 and June 2013, 400 pregnant women of a malaria preventive trial and their newborns were followed up in Benin until the age of 2 years. Soluble HLA-G was measured 3 times during pregnancy and repeatedly during the 2 years follow-up to explore how sHLA-G evolved and the factors associated. During pregnancy, plasma levels of sHLA-G remained stable and increased significantly at delivery (p<0.001). Multigravid women seemed to have the highest levels (p = 0.039). In infants, the level was highest in cord blood and decreased before stabilizing after 18 months (p<0.001). For children, a high level of sHLA-G was associated with malaria infection during the follow-up (p = 0.02) and low birth weight (p = 0.06). The mean level of sHLA-G during infancy was strongly correlated with the mother’s level during pregnancy (<0.001), and not only at delivery. Moreover, mothers with placental malaria infection had a higher probability of giving birth to a child with a high level of sHLA-g (p = 0.006). High sHLA-G levels during pregnancy might be associated with immune tolerance related to placental malaria. Further studies are needed but this study provides a first insight concerning the potential role of sHLA-G as a biomarker of weakness for newborns and infants. PMID:28166246

  12. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    PubMed Central

    Sodjinou, Roger; Agueh, Victoire; Fayomi, Benjamin; Delisle, Hélène

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS) was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income). Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%), abdominal obesity (32%), hypertension (23%), and low HDL-cholesterol (13%). Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%). After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the rise of diet

  13. [Cities in peril, Mahgreb].

    PubMed

    Naciri, M

    1994-10-01

    The urban population has surpassed 50% in the Maghreb: first in Tunisia, followed by Algeria and Morocco. This phenomenon has greatly affected the distribution of power and the forms of its exercise in the political, social, and economic domain. The old city social strata are becoming extinct while city management is falling more and more under the control of cadres originally from rural areas. Urbanization is occurring at a slower pace than in other developing countries, however. In Morocco, the small- and medium-sized towns are growing at a faster rate than the cities. Their lack of infrastructure and services, like those that exist in the periphery of large cities, preoccupies the small- and medium-sized towns. The urban explosion is much more contained than its management is adapting. Legal and illegal housing will dominate the Moroccan city in the future. In the last decade, Moroccan authorities have tried to establish mechanisms to integrate populations in slums and illegal housing with the urban space. The Tunisians are also working on this. In Algeria, the rigid, urban formal management leaves no room to develop any type of housing. The problem of housing is even more grave here than the other 2 countries. Structural adjustment policies promote selling rather than renting houses. The government is not involved in social and health services. Algeria has a 2-tier society: a minority involved in the private sector and the majority who depends on the collapsing public sector which cannot meet the great needs of the poor. Persons with college degrees are unemployed in Algeria. One no longer knows how to build towns with the traditional medinas. The transportation system is falling apart in cities. Cities dump liquid and solid wastes directly into the sea or the wadis. The major risk of maghrebian cities lies in socioeconomic inequalities.

  14. [The psychiatric hospital circuit: the trajectories of young people prior to psychiatric hospitalization].

    PubMed

    Scisleski, Andrea Cristina Coelho; Maraschin, Cleci; Silva, Rosane Neves da

    2008-02-01

    This article analyzes psychiatric hospitalization of young patients from a contemporary social-subjective (rather than a psychopathological) perspective, following the trajectory of these youth prior to their admission. The study was conducted at the Center for Comprehensive Psychosocial Care for Children and Adolescents, São Pedro Psychiatric Hospital, in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Recurrent traits in the trajectory of these youth expressed how the health care network functioned with them prior to their hospitalization, with a consistent pattern of socioeconomic deprivation, low schooling, and drug use. Another key aspect was the role of the court system in referring them for hospitalization, adhering to a kind of logic that punished both the youth and the services and paradoxically formed a strategy for access to health services.

  15. Factors associated with variation in financial condition among voluntary hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Brecher, C; Nesbitt, S

    1985-01-01

    This article uses multiple regression analysis to identify factors which affect variations in the financial condition of voluntary hospitals in New York State. Six separate ratios are used to measure financial condition and 18 independent variables are considered. The factors affecting financial conditions were found to vary among dimensions of financial health, and different causal relationships were evident among hospitals in New York City than among those in the rest of the state. PMID:4019212

  16. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  17. Guide to Choosing a Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition? Should you consider a specialty hospital, teaching hospital (usually part of a university), community hospital, ... been approved by Medicare. Hospitals may choose either method of evaluation. You can check with a hospital ...

  18. Diabetes Control among Vietnamese Patients in Ho Chi Minh City: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokokawa, Hirohide; Khue, Nguyen Thy; Goto, Aya; Nam, Tran Quang; Trung, Tran The; Khoa, Vo Tuan; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Boi; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Okayama, Akira; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent of diabetic control and its associated factors among Vietnamese patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study was conducted among 652 outpatients who were recruited at a public general hospital (People Hospital 115) and a private clinic (Medic Center) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Median age…

  19. Good Samaritan Hospital and its department of surgery: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Scott R; Welling, Richard E

    2010-05-01

    At the end of the Revolutionary War, the United States government acquired the Northwest Territory, including the city of Cincinnati. Given the city's position on the Ohio River, and the subsequent development and introduction of steamboats in the early 1800s, Cincinnati became a major center for commerce and trade. With a population of over 115,000 in 1850, Cincinnati was the sixth largest city in the United States--larger even than St. Louis and Chicago-the first major city west of the Allegheny Mountains, and the largest inland city in the nation. The city's growth and importance is mirrored by the history of one if its prized institutions, Good Samaritan Hospital--the oldest, largest, and busiest private teaching and specialty-care hospital in Greater Cincinnati and a national leader in many surgical fields.

  20. Learning Cities on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The modern Learning City concept emerged from the work of OECD on lifelong learning with streams of Learning Cities and Educating Cities having much in common but having little contact with each other. While the early development of Learning Cities in the West has not been sustained, the present situation is marked by the dynamic development of…

  1. Hurricane Katrina's Impact on Tulane's Teaching Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ian L.

    2007-01-01

    On Monday, August 29, 2005 Hurricane Katrina passed east of New Orleans causing minimal damage to Tulane's Medical Center. Later that day, levees that protected the city failed and several feet of water entered the hospitals and school buildings. Emergency generators provided power for 36 hours before running out of fuel. Temperatures in the hospitals soared into the upper 90's and conditions were made intolerable by 100% humidity and backed-up sewage. For several days, faculty, residents, nurses and hospital personnel performed heroically, caring for patients in appalling conditions, hand-ventilating critically ill patients in shifts. Approximately 200 patients, and 1500 additional personnel would be evacuated on Wednesday and Thursday from a makeshift heliport on Tulane's parking garage. Current disaster plans may be inadequate should facilities be inaccessible for months because of damage or contamination. Contingency plans also need to be made should outside disaster relief be markedly delayed as was the case with Katrina. PMID:18528490

  2. Supported discharge shortens hospital stay in patients hospitalized because of an exacerbation of COPD.

    PubMed

    Sala, E; Alegre, L; Carrera, M; Ibars, M; Orriols, F J; Blanco, M L; Cárceles, F; Bertran, S; Mata, F; Font, I; Agustí, A G

    2001-06-01

    This prospective, controlled, but not formally randomized study investigates the feasibility and efficiency of an alternative to standard hospitalization for patients with exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), based upon supported discharge with nurse supervision at home. Over a 12-month period, emergency physicians, not directly involved in the study, admitted 205 patients with exacerbated COPD to the authors' respiratory unit. Patients were included in the supported discharge group (n=105) if they voluntarily chose to participate in the programme and lived in the city of Palma de Mallorca (where adequate home support could be provided). Patients not fulfilling these criteria (mainly residents outside the city) served as controls (n=100). Inpatient treatment was standardized in all patients and included oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, antibiotics and steroids. Both groups were comparable in terms of age (mean +/- SD: 70 +/- 10 versus 65 +/- 11 yr for supported discharge and control group, respectively), severity of airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in one second 45 +/- 18% reference versus 46 +/- 19% ref.), comorbidity and socioeconomic status. Length of hospital stay (LOS) in the supported discharge group was shorter (5.9 +/- 2.8 versus 8.0 +/- 5.1 days, p < 0.001). After discharge, a respiratory nurse visited supported discharge patients at home during 7.3 +/- 3.8 days. Only one patient (1%) required hospital readmission during this period of time. The reduced LOS resulted in a lower utilization of hospital beds at any given point in time throughout the study period. Within the framework and potential limitations of this study, the results indicate that the supported discharge programme in Spain: 1) allows a significant reduction in the length of hospital stay of patients hospitalized because of an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; 2) does not result in an inappropriately increased rate of hospital

  3. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  4. Impact of Insecticide Resistance on the Effectiveness of Pyrethroid-Based Malaria Vectors Control Tools in Benin: Decreased Toxicity and Repellent Effect

    PubMed Central

    Agossa, Fiacre R.; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Anagonou, Rodrigue; Azondekon, Roseric; Aïzoun, Nazaire; Sovi, Arthur; Oké-Agbo, Frédéric; Sèzonlin, Michel; Akogbéto, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first evidence of pyrethroids resistance in 1999 in Benin, mutations have rapidly increased in mosquitoes and it is now difficult to design a study including a control area where malaria vectors are fully susceptible. Few studies have assessed the after effect of resistance on the success of pyrethroid based prevention methods in mosquito populations. We therefore assessed the impact of resistance on the effectiveness of pyrethroids based indoor residual spraying (IRS) in semi-field conditions and long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in laboratory conditions. The results observed showed low repulsion and low toxicity of pyrethroids compounds in the test populations. The toxicity of pyrethroids used in IRS was significantly low with An. gambiae s.l (< 46%) but high for other predominant species such as Mansonia africana (93% to 97%). There were significant differences in terms of the repellent effect expressed as exophily and deterrence compared to the untreated huts (P<0.001). Furthermore, mortality was 23.71% for OlyseNet® and 39.06% for PermaNet®. However, with laboratory susceptible “Kisumu”, mortality was 100% for both nets suggesting a resistance within the wild mosquito populations. Thus treatment with pyrethroids at World Health Organization recommended dose will not be effective at reducing malaria in the coming years. Therefore it is necessary to study how insecticide resistance decreases the efficacy of particular pyrethroids used in pyrethroid-based vector control so that a targeted approach can be adopted. PMID:26674643

  5. The "bringing into cultivation" phase of the plant domestication process and its contributions to in situ conservation of genetic resources in Benin.

    PubMed

    Vodouhè, R; Dansi, A

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities' motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents), medicinal use (40% of respondents), income generation (20% of respondents) and cultural reasons (5% of respondents). 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers' decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees.

  6. Carbon fluxes over two contrasting types of vegetation in West Africa: the case of forest and savannah sites under a Sudanian climate in northern Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ago, E. E.; Agbossou, E. K.; Cohard, J. M.; Galle, S.; Aubinet, M.

    2015-12-01

    Continuous CO2, water vapour and sensible heat fluxes were measured during eighteen months (from July 2008 to December 2009) using an eddy-covariance technique over a Savannah and a Forest. Both sites were under a Sudanian climate and located in Benin. All data was computed following the standard procedure. Flux responses to the main environmental factors were studied and discussed during the year within four periods. Water was found to be the main factor controlling the ecosystem dynamic. During dry season, while the CO2 assimilation was limited for the Savannah, it was reduced for the Forest. The respiration was always constantly higher for the Forest than Savannah sites. No clear relationships were found between nighttime fluxes and soil temperature, but the soil moisture appeared to be the main factor controlling the respiration at the two sites. At the seasonal scale, both CO2 assimilation and quantum efficiency were higher within each period at the Forest than Savannah sites. During the dry periods, the Forest acted as a carbon sink while the Savannah was clearly a carbon source. Annually, Forest and Savannah sequestered 0.64 ± 0.05 and 0.19 ± 0.04 kg C m-2, respectively. Besides, the difference of the two sites in land-use strategies and species, the drought could have a big impact on the carbon fluxes dynamics in West Africa.

  7. The “Bringing into Cultivation” Phase of the Plant Domestication Process and Its Contributions to In Situ Conservation of Genetic Resources in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Vodouhè, R.; Dansi, A.

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, plant domestication is continually being carried out by local communities to support their needs for food, fibre, medicine, building materials, etc. Using participatory rapid appraisal approach, 150 households were surveyed in 5 villages selected in five ethnic groups of Benin, to investigate the local communities' motivations for plant domestication and the contributions of this process to in situ conservation of genetic resources. The results indicated differences in plant domestication between agroecological zones and among ethnic groups. People in the humid zones give priority to herbs mainly for their leaves while those in dry area prefer trees mostly for their fruits. Local communities were motivated to undertake plant domestication for foods (80% of respondents), medicinal use (40% of respondents), income generation (20% of respondents) and cultural reasons (5% of respondents). 45% of the species recorded are still at early stage in domestication and only 2% are fully domesticated. Eleven factors related to the households surveyed and to the head of the household interviewed affect farmers' decision making in domesticating plant species. There is gender influence on the domestication: Women are keen in domesticating herbs while men give priority to trees. PMID:22693431

  8. Water storage changes as a marker for base flow generation processes in a tropical humid basement catchment (Benin): Insights from hybrid gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, Basile; Séguis, Luc; Hinderer, Jacques; Cohard, Jean-Martial; Wubda, Maxime; Descloitres, Marc; Benarrosh, Nathalie; Boy, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-01

    In basement catchments of subhumid West Africa, base flow is the main component of annual streamflow. However, the important heterogeneity of lithology hinders the understanding of base flow generation processes. Since these processes are linked with water storage changes (WSCs) across the catchment, we propose the use of hybrid gravity data in addition to neutron probe-derived water content and water levels to monitor spatiotemporal WSC of a typical crystalline basement headwater catchment (16 ha) in Benin. WSC behaviors are shown to provide insights into hydrological processes in terms of water redistribution toward the catchment outlet. Hybrid gravimetry produces gravity change observations from time-lapse microgravity surveys coupled with gravity changes monitored at a base station using a superconducting gravimeter and/or an absolute gravimeter. A dense microgravity campaign (70 surveys of 14 stations) covering three contrasted years was set up with a rigorous protocol, leading to low uncertainties (<2.5 μGal) on station gravity determinations (with respect to the network reference station). Empirical orthogonal function analyses of both gravity changes and WSCs from neutron probe data show similar spatial patterns in the seasonal signal. Areas where storage and water table show a capping behavior (when data reach a plateau during the wet season), suggesting threshold-governed fast subsurface redistribution, are identified. This observed storage dynamics, together with geological structures investigated by electrical resistivity tomography and drill log analysis, make it possible to derive a conceptual model for the catchment hydrology.

  9. [Fake drugs, what are we talking about? Counterfeit drugs, informal market, quality of pharmaceutical… Thought from an anthropological study led in Benin].

    PubMed

    Baxerres, C

    2014-05-01

    This paper questions the current highlighted question of "fake drugs" in the media and through institutional speeches. After a brief reminder of the expressions used previously in France and in the French-speaking countries of West Africa, the realities which recover various phenomena will be discussed as well as the hotchpotch often made between them: the phenomenon of counterfeit drugs, that of substandard medicines and the recently legally defined in Europe phenomenon of falsified drugs. Then, the data of an anthropological study led from 2005 till 2007 about the informal market of pharmaceutical in Benin will allow to underline the differences which exist between this phenomenon and that of counterfeit drugs as well as that of falsified drugs. Finally, the political and economic stakes which recover these questions will be highlighted and will explain why "fantasized" speeches are often given about them. The conclusion will stop on the problem of substandard medicines and some of the ways to solve it will be sketched.

  10. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin.

    PubMed

    Sanoussi, Abadjayé Faouziath; Loko, Laura Yéyinou; Ahissou, Hyacinthe; Adjahi, Adidjath Koubourath; Orobiyi, Azize; Agré, Angelot Paterne; Azokpota, Paulin; Dansi, Alexandre; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2015-01-01

    Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca), and compare them with the farmers' and processors' perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%), starch (24.47% to 25.5%) and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%), low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%), and cyanide (50 mg/kg) contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture) products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers' perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials.

  11. EPIVAC International Conference on Financial Sustainability of Immunization Programs in sub-Saharan Africa, February 16-18, 2012, Ouidah, Benin.

    PubMed

    Drach, Marcel; Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard; Mathonnat, Jacky; Da Silva, Alfred; Kaddar, Miloud; Colombini, Anaïs

    2013-09-23

    The introduction of new vaccines with much higher prices than traditional vaccines results in increasing budgetary pressure on immunization programs in GAVI-eligible countries, increasing the need to ensure their financial sustainability. In this context, the third EPIVAC (Epidemiology and Vaccinology) technical conference was held from February 16 to 18, 2012 at the Regional Institute of Public Health in Ouidah, Benin. Managers of ministries of health and finance from 11 West African countries (GAVI eligible countries), as well as former EPIVAC students and European experts, shared their knowledge and best practices on immunization financing at district and country level. The conference concluded by stressing five major priorities for the financial sustainability of national immunization programs (NIPs) in GAVI-eligible countries. - Strengthen public financing by increasing resources and fiscal space, improving budget processes, increasing contribution of local governments and strengthen efficiency of budget spending. - Promote equitable community financing which was recognized as a significant and essential contribution to the continuity of EPI operations. - Widen private funding by exploring prospects offered by sponsorship through foundations dedicated to immunization and by corporate social responsibility programs. - Contain the potential crowding-out effect of GAVI co-financing and ensure that decisions on new vaccine introductions are evidence-based. - Seek out innovative financing mechanisms such as taxes on food products or a national solidarity fund.

  12. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority.

  13. Earth's City Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Earth's city lights was created with data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS). Originally designed to view clouds by moonlight, the OLS is also used to map the locations of permanent lights on the Earth's surface. The brightest areas of the Earth are the most urbanized, but not necessarily the most populated. (Compare western Europe with China and India.) Cities tend to grow along coastlines and transportation networks. Even without the underlying map, the outlines of many continents would still be visible. The United States interstate highway system appears as a lattice connecting the brighter dots of city centers. In Russia, the Trans-Siberian railroad is a thin line stretching from Moscow through the center of Asia to Vladivostok. The Nile River, from the Aswan Dam to the Mediterranean Sea, is another bright thread through an otherwise dark region. Even more than 100 years after the invention of the electric light, some regions remain thinly populated and unlit. Antarctica is entirely dark. The interior jungles of Africa and South America are mostly dark, but lights are beginning to appear there. Deserts in Africa, Arabia, Australia, Mongolia, and the United States are poorly lit as well (except along the coast), along with the boreal forests of Canada and Russia, and the great mountains of the Himalaya. The Earth Observatory article Bright Lights, Big City describes how NASA scientists use city light data to map urbanization. Image by Craig Mayhew and Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based on DMSP data

  14. Help prevent hospital errors

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23330698 . The Joint Commission. Hospital: 2014 National Patient Safety Goals. www.jointcommission. ... October 24, 2014. Accessed October 27, 2016. The Joint Commission. Hospital: 2016 National Patient Safety Goals. Updated January ...

  15. Hospitals as health educators

    MedlinePlus

    ... than your local hospital. From health videos to yoga classes, many hospitals offer information families need to ... care and breastfeeding Parenting Baby sign language Baby yoga or massage Babysitting courses for teens Exercise classes ...

  16. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  17. Jobs in Recreation and Hospitality. Job Family Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    This booklet describes jobs in recreation and hospitality in the following chapter classifications: serving people in cities and communities; helping people enjoy natural resources; helping people enjoy cultural resources; and helping people enjoy trips and travel. For each occupation, duties are outlined and working conditions discussed.…

  18. Coney Island Hospital focuses on healthcare for ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2001-01-01

    Since its beginnings as a first aid station on the famous New York beach, Coney Island Hospital has evolved as a well-known public hospital serving a multi-cultural community. Part of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corp. it has made extensive efforts to provide "ethnically correct" services to all of its constituents. These measures have been covered by National Public Radio and recognized as a "best practices" example by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Profile's article offers insights about how it's done and how it is publicized, including what its associate director calls "ethnic marketing on the cheap."

  19. Building functional cities.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J; Regan, Tanner; Samsonov, Ilia

    2016-05-20

    The literature views many African cities as dysfunctional with a hodgepodge of land uses and poor "connectivity." One driver of inefficient land uses is construction decisions for highly durable buildings made under weak institutions. In a novel approach, we model the dynamics of urban land use with both formal and slum dwellings and ongoing urban redevelopment to higher building heights in the formal sector as a city grows. We analyze the evolution of Nairobi using a unique high-spatial resolution data set. The analysis suggests insufficient building volume through most of the city and large slum areas with low housing volumes near the center, where corrupted institutions deter conversion to formal sector usage.

  20. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts.

  1. Hospital Dermatology, Introduction.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lindy P

    2017-03-01

    Inpatient dermatology is emerging as a distinct dermatology subspecialty where dermatologists specialize in caring for patients hospitalized with skin disease. While the main focus of inpatient dermatology is the delivery of top-quality and timely dermatologic care to patients in the hospital setting, the practice of hospital-based dermatology has many additional components that are critical to its success.

  2. City of Crystal City, Missouri - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of Crystal City, Missouri, a municipality located in Jefferson County, Missouri, 63019, for alleged violations associated with the City’s wastewater treatment progra

  3. The Alberta and Xenia tornados: how two hospitals handled hundreds of victims under trying conditions.

    PubMed

    2000-11-01

    Tornadoes rarely hit in areas where there are many hospitals. Two of the worst in recent years caused numerous casualties in a rural area of Canada and in a small city in Ohio, taxing the capabilities of the nearby hospitals involved. This report provides details on how they handled these disasters and what they learned from their experience.

  4. [Reality and importance of transfusion-transmitted malaria in a stable endemic context: Cotonou case in Benin].

    PubMed

    Anani, L Y; Bigot, A; Latoundji, S; Ahlonsou, F; de Souza, J; Akplogan, S; Lawson, J; Py, J Y; Zohoun, I

    2014-03-01

    Malaria endemic status of our countries supports avoiding malaria screening for the blood qualification. But this attitude makes young children, pregnant women and people without semi-immunity incur a high risk of malaria. The goal of the survey was to value the reality and the importance of transfusion-transmitted malaria and to assess its determining factors. The study included 141 packed-red-cells units transfused to 77 hospitalized recipients, not suffering from malaria and not having been transfused the last two weeks. Every packed-red-cells assigned to a patient was tested for malaria before use. Thick and thin blood film were performed 96hours after transfusion. A clinical follow-up was undertaken as well as in the hospital and at home after release. In all, 13.47% of the transfused packed-red-cells were positive for the thick blood film. Plasmodium research in patients was negative 96hours after transfusion, even in the 19 patients who had received parasitized blood units! The home follow-up had permitted to note that 15.78% of blood recipients had developed clinical malaria. Parasitic density ≥240 parasites/mm(3) seems to be a determining factor. Transfusion-transmitted malaria is a reality we ought to consider. Introduction of malaria screening in donated blood qualification testings simultaneously with a framing of the blood donors appear the lasting solution to hope in the future to limit the waited excessive blood evictions.

  5. Epidemiology of hemodialysis patients in Aleppo city.

    PubMed

    Moukeh, Ghamez; Yacoub, Rabi; Fahdi, Fadi; Rastam, Samer; Albitar, Sami

    2009-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of the hemodialysis (HD) patients in Aleppo city, we surveyed the hospitals representing the main dialysis centers in the city including private and community facilities during 2006. Personal patients' interviews and hospitals records were the source of data. The total number of patients in 2006 undergoing HD was 550 patients; 280 (50.9%) were males, and the age ranged from 5-82 years with mean and median age 44.7 and 45 years, respectively. The incidence (IR) and prevalence rate (PR) for hemodialysis were 60 pmp and 226 pmp, respectively. The major primary renal diseases in the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients included hypertension (HTN), glomerulonephritis (GN), and diabetes mellitus (DM), 21.1%, 20.5 %, and 19.45, respectively. The percent of Anti-HCV, HBV hepatitis and HBV vaccine were 54.4%, 7.8%, and 52.9%, respectively. This study suggests that the IR of hemodialysis was relatively low due to the high cost of treatment, and the PR for hemodialysis was also relatively low may be due to high mortality rate and low kidney transplantation rate in this country. There was an equal percentage of both genders in the hemodialysis population.

  6. Positioning hospitals: a model for regional hospitals.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A C; Campbell, D P

    1993-01-01

    In an age of marketing warfare in the health care industry, hospitals need creative strategies to compete successfully. Lately, positioning concepts have been added to the health care marketer's arsenal of strategies. To blend theory with practice, the authors review basic positioning theory and present a framework for developing positioning strategies. They also evaluate the marketing strategies of a regional hospital to provide a case example.

  7. Addicted women. Profiles from the inner city.

    PubMed

    Dumas, L

    1992-12-01

    This article has focused on addicted women and the contexts in which they present to the community nurse. An effort has been made to broaden the clinical applications to include the societal problems underlying addiction and the policy issues that must be addressed to solve them. Addicted women can be described from a societal dimension, in which the health care system reflects disarray and fiscal chaos, and from a community dimension. The two dimensions link the public and the private spheres. To evaluate addicted women and the options for their recovery more effectively, it is helpful to integrate the societal and personal milieu--public issues and the private lives that illustrate them. This is how policy is best formulated. The numbers of addicted women in the health care system reflect only the tip of the iceberg. Health care providers must strive to reach women who are outside of the health care system who have not been connected to a hospital, shelter, or home care agency. Researchers need to differentiate sample patient populations, and the patient selection bias needs to be addressed early on. A model of a community support for recovery located within a housing project was a viable option for reaching addicted women. The role of nurses is becoming increasingly unique. Nurses are skilled as caregivers and clinicians. They can open doors of opportunity for inner-city women and children by developing health-promotive programs in hospital settings for substance abusing women and by continuing to work with their colleagues in the community context. On both dimensions, nurses have front-line accessibility to women and children who are vulnerable. Often, commonality of gender strengthens the nurse/patient relationship and facilitates trust as well as empathy between female addicts and their nurse advocate counterparts. Never has the call to inner-city nurses been more compelling. The problems related to drug abuse and parenting are multidimensional. They resist

  8. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  9. Summer in the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the different experiences of the participants in an Outward Bound-sponsored "urban expedition" to New York City that was designed to make them better teachers by examining their beliefs and biases. The participants in this "urban expedition" came from schools that work with Outward Bound USA, the…

  10. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow that results from the arid climate and location at the ... should be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. The canyons and peaks of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains are ...

  11. New City, New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2010-01-01

    After eight years at the helm of the City College of New York, where Dr. Gregory Williams grew enrollment at the minority-serving institution by 60 percent, instituted more rigorous admissions standards and launched the college's first capital campaign that raised more than $300 million, last fall he became the 27th president of the University of…

  12. CITIES AND SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLEMENTS, H. MILLARD

    THIS DISCUSSION OF URBAN EDUCATION BRIEFLY ANALYZES THE OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK OF LARGE CITIES AND SCHOOLS. IT IS FELT THAT THE PRESENT EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM, WHICH PROVIDES ONLY ONE FORM OF EDUCATION FOR ALL PUPILS, INCONGRUOUSLY REFLECTS THE ADHERENCE TO ESTABLISHED VALUES, LIMITED OPPORTUNITY FOR CHOICE, AND GENERAL ROUTINIZATION WHICH ARE…

  13. Clean Cities Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  14. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferbert, Mary Lou

    1981-01-01

    Describes a science program developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, "Nature in the City," in which students and teachers learn together about the natural community surrounding their school. Includes program's rationale, list of "adventures," and methods. Discusses strategies of Sherlock Holmes'"adventure" focusing on animal tracks…

  15. City Kids Go Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tricia

    1993-01-01

    Describes Outward Bound Urban Resources Initiative, a six-week summer course whose goal is to work with urban youth to develop solutions for local environmental problems. Among the activities described include converting city lots into parks, neighborhood cleanup, and tree planting. (MDH)

  16. Nature in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karl, Dorie

    1979-01-01

    Graduate forestry students from Yale University cooperate with the New Haven public school system and with youth organizations to present learning experiences in ecology and the environment to inner city children. The program has been operating successfully for ten years. (RE)

  17. The New City Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1975-01-01

    Cities throughout the country are sponsoring family projects that convert vacant lots and rooftops to productive neighborhood gardens. It is hoped that utilization of these otherwide wasted areas will provide extra food for low income families, as well as promote community spirit and organization. (MA)

  18. [City and County Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Judith O.; And Others

    Six papers presented at the Institute were concerned with city and county records. They are: "EWEB and Its Records," which discusses the history, laws and records of the Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB);""Police Records: Eugene, Oregon," classifies police records, other than administrative, into three general…

  19. Accepted into Education City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Qatar's Education City, perhaps the world's most diverse campus, is almost entirely unknown in the United States, but represents the next step in the globalization of American higher education--international franchising. Aided by technology such as online libraries, distance learning and streaming video, U.S. universities offer--and charge tuition…

  20. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  1. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  2. The Plains City Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Olphen, Marcela; Rios, Francisco; Berube, William; Dexter, Robin; McCarthy, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This case study portrays a contemporary phenomenon that affects many U.S. school districts. Specifically, the authors address the challenges that the superintendent of the Plains City school district faced as a result of a change in the demographic distribution of his district. The gradual development of the pig farming industry in Plains City…

  3. The rise of pathophysiologic research in the United States: the role of two Harvard hospitals.

    PubMed

    Tishler, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Pathophysiologic research, the major approach to understanding and treating disease, was created in the 20th century, and two Harvard-affiliated hospitals, the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and Boston City Hospital, played a key role in its development. After the Flexner Report of 1910, medical students were assigned clinical clerkships in teaching hospitals. Rockefeller-trained Francis Weld Peabody, who was committed to investigative, pathophysiologic research, was a critical leader in these efforts. At the Brigham, Harvard medical students observed patients closely and asked provocative questions about their diseases. Additionally, physicians returned from World War I with questions concerning the pathophysiology of wartime injuries. At the Boston City Hospital's new Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, Peabody fostered investigative question-based research by physicians. These physicians expanded pathophysiologic investigation from the 1920s. Post-war, Watson and Crick's formulation of the structure of DNA led shortly to modern molecular biology and new research approaches that are being furthered at the Boston Hospitals.

  4. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  5. Charity Hospital: from the beginning to either a new beginning or the end.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Eddie L.

    2007-01-01

    Through epidemics, wars, hurricanes, pirates and politics, Charity Hospital has served the indigent population of New Orleans and Louisiana since May 10, 1736 as the second oldest continuing public hospital in the country following Bellevue in New York City, which opened six weeks earlier on March 31, 1736. The first Charity facility was financed by the estate of boat builder Jean Louis, whose will recorded, "a sale shall be made of all that remains, which, together with my small lot, I bequeath to serve in perpetuity to the founding of a hospital for the sick of the City of New Orleans...". Images p578-a PMID:17534018

  6. 'The hospital was just like a home': self, service and the 'McCord Hospital Family'.

    PubMed

    Noble, Vanessa; Parle, Julie

    2014-04-01

    For more than a century, McCord Hospital, a partly private and partly state-subsidised mission hospital has provided affordable health-care services, as well as work and professional training opportunities for thousands of people in Durban, a city on the east coast of South Africa. This article focuses on one important aspect of the hospital's longevity and particular character, or 'organisational culture': the ethos of a 'McCord Family', integral to which were faith and a commitment to service. While recognising that families - including 'hospital families' like that at McCord - are contentious social constructs, with deeply embedded hierarchies and inequalities based on race, class and gender, we also consider however how the notion of 'a McCord family' was experienced and shared in complex ways. Indeed, during the twentieth century, this ethos was avidly promoted by the hospital's founders and managers and by a wide variety of employees and trainees. It also extended to people at a far geographical remove from Durban. Moreover, this ethos became so powerful that many patients felt that it shaped their convalescence experience positively. This article considers how this 'family ethos' was constructed and what made it so attractive to this hospital's staff, trainees and patients. Furthermore, we consider what 'work' it did for this mission hospital, especially in promoting bonds of multi-racial unity in the contexts of segregation and apartheid society. More broadly, it suggests that critical histories of the ways in which individuals, hospitals, faith and 'families' intersect may be of value for the future of hospitals as well as of interest in their past.

  7. [Gangrene with pyocyanic infection and osteitis in a patient presenting endemic Kaposi's sarcoma: case report from Benin].

    PubMed

    Atadokpede, F; Gnangnon, T A; Lawson, M; Adegbidi, H; Yedomon, H; Co-Ango-Padonou, F

    2006-10-01

    Infectious complications involving chronic skin ulcers have been well document but superinfection of ulcerated Kaposi's sarcoma nodules by multiresistant germs has rarely been reported. The purpose of this report is to describe a case in a 57-year-old HIV-negative black African man. Kaposi's sarcoma nodules appeared suddenly and spread rapidly on the right leg with pain and fever. Onset was associated with a laboratory-documented inflammatory syndrome and two metatarsal bone defects. Amputation of the leg was required due to the presence of multiresistant germs: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, multiresistant Staphylococus aureus and Candida albicans. Occurrence of bone lesions beneath superinfected Kaposi's sarcoma nodules poses a challenge for differential diagnosis of the underlying cause, i.e. either Kaposi's sarcoma or infectious osteitis. Since etiologic diagnosis of bone defects requires facilities that are rarely available in an African hospital, surgical treatment is the only alternative if antimicrobial therapy fails.

  8. Methods to Increase Access to Care for the Uninsured and the Indigent in the Greater San Antonio Hospital Systems: A Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-22

    health systems: the Bexar County Hospital District, Christus , Baptist, and University Health Care Systems. These organizations take responsibility...Appendix E: Bexar County Hospital Locations. I Baptist Medical Center 2 Brooke Army Medical Center 3 CHRISTUS Santa Rosa Children’s Hospital 4 CHRISTUS ...Santa Rosa City Centre 5 Christus Santa Rosa Medical Center 6 Compass Hospital of San Antonio 7 HEALTHSOUTH RIOSA 8 Innova Hospital of San Antonio It oil

  9. The Future of American Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Downtown developments have saved some cities from collapse but don't make up for the loss of federal funds, nor do they provide jobs or housing suitable for most inner city residents. Nothing, however, has hurt the inner cities more than drug use. (DM)

  10. Outpatient admissions and hospital costs of Syrian refugees in a Turkish university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tahirbegolli, Bernard; Çavdar, Sabanur; Sümer, Esin Çetinkaya; Akdeniz, Sıdıka I.; Vehid, Suphi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the most frequent admitted polyclinics, diagnoses, and the costs of Syrian refugee patient in a Turkish university hospital in the metropolitan city of Istanbul, Western part of Turkey. Methods: Research methodology consist of analyzing outpatient admissions to the Hospital Polyclinics of Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey from January-June 2014. We carried out diagnosis groups as classified in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification, and analyzed the hospital cost of first admission through records based in the hospital information system. Results: Median age of 251 Syrian refugee patients is 19 years, inter quartile rate 7-34 years. Patients aged 65 and older compared with those until 18 years and 19 to 64 years aged groups have made statistically significant (p<0.001) less hospital admissions. The Most frequented clinic was the emergency clinic. On June there have been significantly (p<0.001) more admissions compared with other months. The most common diagnoses were diseases of the respiratory system. The costs of per admission was estimated nearly 48 US Dollar/per patient and the total amount of hospital admissions was 12,031.93 US Dollar. Conclusion: On the specified dates, the clinics were mostly frequented from Syrian refugees until 18 years group. The most common presenting symptoms are respiratory diseases and most frequented clinic is emergency. PMID:27381545

  11. Olyset Duo® (a Pyriproxyfen and Permethrin Mixture Net): An Experimental Hut Trial against Pyrethroid Resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Southern Benin

    PubMed Central

    Ngufor, Corine; N’Guessan, Raphael; Fagbohoun, Josias; Odjo, Abibatou; Malone, David; Akogbeto, Martin; Rowland, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen. Method The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone) and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN). Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts. Results Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P = 0.01). Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, P<0.001). The oviposition rate of surviving blood-fed An. gambiae from the control hut was 37% whereas none of those from Olyset Duo and PPF LN huts laid eggs. The tunnel test results were consistent with the experimental hut results. Olyset Duo was more protective than Olyset Net in the huts against wild pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus although mortality rates of this species did not differ significantly between Olyset Net and Olyset Duo. There was no sterilizing effect on surviving blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus with the PPF-treated nets. Conclusion Olyset Duo was superior to Olyset Net in terms of personal protection and killing of pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae, and sterilized surviving blood-fed mosquitoes. Mixing pyrethroid and pyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and management of

  12. [Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among schoolchildren of Nikki and Pèrèrè, two northeastern towns of Benin].

    PubMed

    Ibikounlé, M; Gbédjissi, L G; Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Batcho, W; Kindé-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-08-01

    Infection with schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and the burden of disease associated with parasites is enormous. A study was performed to determine the transmission and prevalence of human schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis among school children of Nikki and Perere, two north eastern towns of Benin, bordering Republic of Nigeria. Parasitological investigations by urine filtration and Kato-Katz conducted on 1,344 school children indicated a mean prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni 48.44% and 0%, respectively, in the children of Nikki area and 45.24% and 4.11% in Perere area. Only schoolchildren of Sonon locality were infected by S. mansoni with a mean prevalence rate of 36.24%. KatoKatz tests releaved five species of soil-transmitted helminths: Ankylostoma duodenale (8.16% and 6.73%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.26% and 2.30%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.09% and 1.97%), Trichuris trichiura (1.97% and 1.90%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (2.04% and 0.99%), respectively, in the schoolchildren of Nikki and Perere areas. The malacological investigations carried out in the freshwater points of each visited locality highlighted the presence of four species of freshwater snails known as intermediate host of schistosome: Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Bulinus forskalii, B. globosus and B. truncatus.Two B. globosus and B. pfeifferi collected in Sonon locality were naturally infected by schistosome, indicated the importance of their two species of snail in schistosome transmission cycle.

  13. A New Long-Lasting Indoor Residual Formulation of the Organophosphate Insecticide Pirimiphos Methyl for Prolonged Control of Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes: An Experimental Hut Trial in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Mark; Boko, Pelagie; Odjo, Abibatou; Asidi, Alex; Akogbeto, Martin; N’Guessan, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Background Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is widely used for malaria transmission control in sub-Saharan Africa. Resistance to pyrethroids in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is a growing problem. There is an urgent need to develop long-lasting alternative insecticides to reduce selection pressure for pyrethroid resistance and to provide control with a single IRS application in countries with long transmission seasons. Methods Two capsule suspension formulations (CS) of the organophosphate pirimiphos methyl were evaluated as IRS treatments in experimental huts in an area of Benin where the mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus are resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to organophosphates. The CS formulations were tested alongside an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation of pirimiphos methyl and a CS formulation of the pyrethroid lambdacyhalothrin. Results The two CS formulations of pirimiphos methyl gave prolonged control of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In cement huts application rates of 0.5 g/m2 induced high mortality of An. gambiae for almost a year: overall mortality rates 87% (95% CI 82–91%) and 92% (95% CI 88–94%). In mud huts application rates of 1 g/m2 induced high mortality of An. gambiae for 10 months: overall mortality rates 75% (95% CI 69–81%) and 76% (95% CI 68–83%). The EC formulation of pirimiphos methyl failed to control An. gambiae two months after spraying. The pyrethroid lambdacyhalothrin demonstrated prolonged residual activity in bioassay tests but failed to control pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae that entered the huts. Pirimiphos methyl CS was highly active against Culex quinquefasciatus and gave control for 10 months in cement huts and 6 months in mud huts. Conclusion Pirimiphos methyl CS (Actellic 300 CS) applied at 1 g/m2 shows great promise for providing prolonged control of pyrethroid-resistant An gambiae and for delaying pyrethroid resistance. An alternative to DDT, giving year-round transmission

  14. Diurnal and seasonal variability of CO2 fluxes over a degraded Woodland under a Sudanian climate in Northern Benin (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evariste Ago, Expédit; Serça, Dominique; Kossi Agbossou, Euloge; Galle, Sylvie; Aubinet, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Turbulent CO2 exchanges over a degraded woodland were measured during 17 months (from November 2005 to March 2007) by an eddy-covariance system at Nangatchori in the northern part of Benin, West Africa. The site (Lat 9.65°N, Long 1.74°E, Alt: 432 m), under a Sudanian climate, is one of the sites that were equipped in the framework of the international AMMA-CATH program. The site was highly disturbed during preceding years by illegal tree logging, agricultural activities, cattle pasture, and bushfire. The footprint area is mainly formed by herbs and crops with some sparse shrubs and trees. Fluxes data were completed during the same period by meteorological measurements made at the Nalohou site located approximately 20 km from Nangatchori, and by an inventory of dominating species on 1km2 area around the tower during the wet season. Fluxes response to climatic variables was analyzed. The annual drought and moisture cycle was found to be the main controlling factor of the ecosystem dynamics. A very clear response of CO2 fluxes to PPFD appears, but is different according to seasons. During wet season, CO2 uptake increases with increasing PPFD following a typical curvilinear function and saturates for high PPFD (PPFD > 1000 µmol m-2 s-1), while during dry season, a very weak linear response of CO2 fluxes was observed. No clear dependency of the total ecosystem respiration on temperature was observed. At an annual scale (from November 1st 2005 to October 31st 2006), net carbon sequestered by the ecosystem was 18 ± 5 g C m-2. Finally, with respect to the water use the ecosystem appeared to be more efficient during morning and wet season than during afternoon and dry period.

  15. A Model for Good Governance of Healthcare Technology Management in the Public Sector: Learning from Evidence-Informed Policy Development and Implementation in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Houngbo, P. Th.; Zweekhorst, M.; De Cock Buning, Tj.; Medenou, D.; Bunders, J. F. G.

    2017-01-01

    Good governance (GG) is an important concept that has evolved as a set of normative principles for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to strengthen the functional capacity of their public bodies, and as a conditional prerequisite to receive donor funding. Although much is written on good governance, very little is known on how to implement it. This paper documents the process of developing a strategy to implement a GG model for Health Technology Management (HTM) in the public health sector, based on lessons learned from twenty years of experience in policy development and implementation in Benin. The model comprises six phases: (i) preparatory analysis, assessing the effects of previous policies and characterizing the HTM system; (ii) stakeholder identification and problem analysis, making explicit the perceptions of problems by a diverse range of actors, and assessing their ability to solve these problems; (iii) shared analysis and visioning, delineating the root causes of problems and hypothesizing solutions; (iv) development of policy instruments for pilot testing, based on quick-win solutions to understand the system’s responses to change; (v) policy development and validation, translating the consensus solutions identified by stakeholders into a policy; and (vi) policy implementation and evaluation, implementing the policy through a cycle of planning, action, observation and reflection. The policy development process can be characterized as bottom-up, with a central focus on the participation of diverse stakeholders groups. Interactive and analytical tools of action research were used to integrate knowledge amongst actor groups, identify consensus solutions and develop the policy in a way that satisfies criteria of GG. This model could be useful for other LMICs where resources are constrained and the majority of healthcare technologies are imported. PMID:28056098

  16. A Model for Good Governance of Healthcare Technology Management in the Public Sector: Learning from Evidence-Informed Policy Development and Implementation in Benin.

    PubMed

    Houngbo, P Th; Coleman, H L S; Zweekhorst, M; De Cock Buning, Tj; Medenou, D; Bunders, J F G

    2017-01-01

    Good governance (GG) is an important concept that has evolved as a set of normative principles for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to strengthen the functional capacity of their public bodies, and as a conditional prerequisite to receive donor funding. Although much is written on good governance, very little is known on how to implement it. This paper documents the process of developing a strategy to implement a GG model for Health Technology Management (HTM) in the public health sector, based on lessons learned from twenty years of experience in policy development and implementation in Benin. The model comprises six phases: (i) preparatory analysis, assessing the effects of previous policies and characterizing the HTM system; (ii) stakeholder identification and problem analysis, making explicit the perceptions of problems by a diverse range of actors, and assessing their ability to solve these problems; (iii) shared analysis and visioning, delineating the root causes of problems and hypothesizing solutions; (iv) development of policy instruments for pilot testing, based on quick-win solutions to understand the system's responses to change; (v) policy development and validation, translating the consensus solutions identified by stakeholders into a policy; and (vi) policy implementation and evaluation, implementing the policy through a cycle of planning, action, observation and reflection. The policy development process can be characterized as bottom-up, with a central focus on the participation of diverse stakeholders groups. Interactive and analytical tools of action research were used to integrate knowledge amongst actor groups, identify consensus solutions and develop the policy in a way that satisfies criteria of GG. This model could be useful for other LMICs where resources are constrained and the majority of healthcare technologies are imported.

  17. On-Farm Diversity and Market Participation Are Positively Associated with Dietary Diversity of Rural Mothers in Southern Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, Mauricio R.; Ntandou-Bouzitou, Gervais D.; Caracciolo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to test the extent to which, under different opportunities for market participation, the diversity of plant species rural households grow or collect (on-farm diversity), and the variety of foods mothers purchase (market diversity) are associated with their dietary diversity. Methods Rural households from three districts in southern Benin were interviewed during dry (n = 472) and wet (n = 482) seasons between 2011 and 2012. Villages within districts and their households were selected randomly according to market accessibility, with a mother selected from each household. Information on on-farm diversity was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Market diversity was obtained through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire that elicited if foods were purchased. Dietary diversity was derived from a quantitative 24-hour food recall. A system of three simultaneous equations via a Generalized Methods of Moments was estimated to address potential endogeneity between dietary diversity and on-farm diversity and market diversity. Results Results show rich on-farm diversity with more than 65 different edible plant species grown or collected by households. More than 70% of foods consumed by mothers were purchased in 55 market places. More than 50% of mothers met minimum dietary diversity with at least 5 food groups consumed. Diagnostic tests indicated the existence of endogeneity. Econometric results showed that on-farm and market diversities were positively associated with mothers’ dietary diversity (p < 0.05) once market opportunities, seasonality and other socioeconomic factors were controlled for. Conclusion Results provide evidence of a positive relationship between on-farm diversity and dietary diversity among participant mothers. They demonstrate the important contribution of market diversity to their dietary diversity. Links among these three facets of diversity suggest that production for self-consumption and food

  18. The importance of national political context to the impacts of international conservation aid: evidence from the W National Parks of Benin and Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Daniel C.; Minn, Michael; Sinsin, Brice

    2015-11-01

    National political context is widely understood to be an important factor shaping the ecological and socio-economic impacts of protected areas (PAs) and other conservation interventions. Despite broad recognition that national political context matters, however, there is little systematic understanding about how and why it matters, particularly in the context of PAs. This article seeks to advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the influence of national political context on the impacts of conservation interventions through study of an international aid project in a large transboundary PA in West Africa. It uses multilevel regression analysis to analyze the variable effects of changes in enforcement—a central mechanism through which the Protected Ecosystems in Sudano-Sahelian Africa project sought to achieve its objectives—in the W National Parks (WNP) of Benin and Niger. We find that differences in national political context relating to governance quality and extent of democratic decentralization moderated the social-ecological effects of enforcement. Increasing enforcement levels in Benin’s WNP were associated with significant increases in mammal species abundance while having little average effect on the incomes of households around the Park. By contrast, greater levels of enforcement in Niger’s WNP were associated with sharply decreasing income levels among Park neighbors but did not have a statistically significant effect on wildlife populations. These results highlight the importance of national political context to the outcomes of aid-funded conservation efforts. They suggest that state-led PA enforcement will have more positive social-ecological impacts in better-governed, more decentralized countries and that conservation policy centered on PAs should therefore devote greater attention to engagement with higher levels of governance.

  19. Psychometric properties of teacher-made science tests used in national examinations for middle-grade students in Benin (West Africa): A longitudinal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gado, Issaou

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric properties (item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency reliability, content validity and construct validity) of teacher-made science tests used in national examinations for Middle Grade students in Benin (West Africa) for three consecutive years. The study also described the assessment methods used in science classrooms. Research data were collected from two sources: first, a survey questionnaire administered to 250 secondary school teachers purposively selected; second, a total of 630 graded physical science copies for three consecutive years of national examinations randomly selected from the Service of Examination and Testing data sources. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to explore construct validity of the measurements. Classical test theory methods were used to explore item difficulty, item discrimination, and reliability of examination scores. Generalizability theory provided estimate of variance components and proportions of total variance accounted for by sources of error related to persons, items, and person-by-item interaction. The result of this study shows that teacher-made tests used in large scale high-stakes examination for three consecutive years are highly reliable and have a satisfactory level of difficulty and discrimination. However, even though the items of teacher-made tests are associated with the objectives of the national curriculum standards, the proportion of objectives tested in national examinations and the number of items across three consecutive years show a non uniform and inconsistent distribution of items across years, content domains, and within the fields of chemistry and physics. Therefore, teacher-made tests used in national examinations for three consecutive years lack content validity. Discussion of the results and suggestions about constructing exam items with high validity are provided.

  20. Field Efficacy of Vectobac GR as a Mosquito Larvicide for the Control of Anopheline and Culicine Mosquitoes in Natural Habitats in Benin, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Djènontin, Armel; Pennetier, Cédric; Zogo, Barnabas; Soukou, Koffi Bhonna; Ole-Sangba, Marina; Akogbéto, Martin; Chandre, Fabrice; Yadav, Rajpal; Corbel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The efficacy of Vectobac GR (potency 200 ITU/mg), a new formulation of bacterial larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Strain AM65-52, was evaluated against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in simulated field and natural habitats in Benin. Methods In simulated field conditions, Vectobac GR formulation was tested at 3 dosages (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g granules/m2 against An. gambiae and 1, 1.5, 2 g granules/m2 against Cx. quinquefasciatus) according to manufacturer’s product label recommendations. The dosage giving optimum efficacy under simulated field conditions were evaluated in the field. The efficacy of Vectobac GR in terms of emergence inhibition in simulated field conditions and of reduction of larval and pupal densities in rice fields and urban cesspits was measured following WHO guidelines for testing and evaluation of mosquito larvicides. Results Vectobac GR caused emergence inhibition of ≥80% until 21 [20]–[22] days for An. gambiae at 1.2 g/m2 dose and 28 [27–29] days for Cx. quinquefasciatus at 2 g/m2 in simulated field habitats. The efficacy of Vectobac GR in natural habitats was for 2 to 3 days against larvae and up to 10 days against pupae. Conclusions Treatment with Vectobac GR caused complete control of immature mosquito within 2–3 days but did not show prolonged residual action. Larviciding can be an option for malaria and filariasis vector control particularly in managing pyrethroid-resistance in African malaria vectors. Since use of larvicides among several African countries is being emphasized through Economic Community of West Africa States, their epidemiological impact should be carefully investigated. PMID:24505334

  1. Variants of the mannose-binding lectin gene in the Benin population: heterozygosity for the p.G57E allele may confer a selective advantage.

    PubMed

    Dossou-Yovo, Omer Placide; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Hauchecorne, Michelle; Zaccaria, Isabelle; Ducrocq, Rolande; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Rahimy, Mohamed Chérif; Elion, Jacques

    2007-12-01

    Human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with mutations in the promoter region and in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. Such deficiency has been correlated with elevated incidence of infections in infancy and in immunocompromised adults. We determined the distribution profile of the MBL2 gene variants in the general population of Benin (West Africa) and in a vulnerable subset of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) (SS homozygotes). Five hundred forty-two healthy individuals (274 newborns, 268 adults) and 128 patients with SCD (35 newborns, 93 children) were screened for the common variant alleles in the MBL2 secretor haplotype region (exon 1 and promoter). The p.G57E variant allele was the most frequent allele compared to p.G54D (27.5% vs. 1.6%, respectively). The p.R52C allele was not found in this population. There was no difference in allele or genotype frequencies between healthy newborns and newborns with SCD. Alleles associated with MBL deficiency were more frequent in adults than in newborns (69.8% vs. 57.3%, respectively; p = 0.002). This enrichment was exclusively due to an elevated proportion of heterozygotes for the p.G57E allele (47.0% vs. 35.3%, respectively; p = 0.004), supporting a potential selective advantage of this genotype. Our results, compared to those reported in other African countries, support the implication of the MBL2 gene in various major infections in Africa, such as meningitis and tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients.

  2. Variants of the mannose-binding lectin gene in the Benin population: heterozygosity for the p.G57E allele may confer a selective advantage. 2007.

    PubMed

    Dossou-Yovo, Omer Placide; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Hauchecorne, Michelle; Zaccaria, Isabelle; Ducrocq, Rolande; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Rahimy, Mohamed Chérif; Elion, Jacques

    2009-12-01

    Human mannose- binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with mutations in the promoter region and in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. Such deficiency has been correlated with elevated incidence of infections in infancy and in immunocompromised adults. We determined the distribution profile of the MBL2 gene variants in the general population of Benin (West Africa) and in a vulnerable subset of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) (SS homozygotes). Five hundred forty-two healthy individuals (274 newborns, 268 adults) and 128 patients with SCD (35 newborns, 93 children) were screened for the common variant alleles in the MBL2 secretor haplotype region (exon 1 and promoter). The p.G57E variant allele was the most frequent allele compared to p.G54D (27.5% vs. 1.6%, respectively). The p.R52C allele was not found in this population. There was no difference in allele or genotype frequencies between healthy newborns and newborns with SCD. Alleles associated with MBL deficiency were more frequent in adults than in newborns (69.8% vs. 57.3%, respectively; p=0.002). This enrichment was exclusively due to an elevated proportion of heterozygotes for the p.G57E allele (47.0% vs. 35.3%,respectively; p=0.004), supporting a potential selective advantage of this genotype. Our results, compared to those reported in other African countries, support the implication of the MBL2 gene in various major infections in Africa, such as meningitis and tuberculosis in HIV- positive patients.

  3. The postindustrial decentralization of the hospital and the urban analogy.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R E

    1987-01-01

    The hospital in the United States as an institution, a community, an organizational form, and a social phenomenon shares many striking commonalities with the city. It has highly important technical functions which are accompanied, and at times overshadowed, by broader social purposes and roles. The hospital also has undergone a number of transformations over time and has experienced a distinct, if idealized, golden age fostered by key technological advances. It has been the site of significant political and social tensions and conflicts. And in recent years, it has begun to evidence a decline in social significance and standing, and a general deconcentration which further underscores the usefulness of the urban analogy. The application of an ecological perspective aids in framing this intriguing parallelism between these two great social institutions. This perspective emphasizes the interdependence and mutual causality which key contributory trends--such as technological and organizational developments, environmental change, and shifting population characteristics--have had on the forms and functions of both hospitals and cities. The urban ecologist Hicks has written: "The city is being redefined ... [t]he transforming city is a predictable response to changing demographic, economic and technological realities. While the image of the city's form is etched into our consciousness, it is the city's function that will always be its sine qua non; in time its form will adjust to the new roles that cities will come to society." In a like fashion, a similar ecological interpretation of the transformation of the hospital can and will be made. This article will propose that examining the modern hospital through the urbanization-deurbanization parallel can be an instructive way to explore and interpret its changing character and role in American society. It will suggest that the hospital evolved into a dominant central position--more in a functional than a territorial sense

  4. 78 FR 23869 - Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show; Port of Redwood City, Redwood City, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... of Redwood City near Redwood City, CA in support of the Redwood City 4th of July Fireworks Show...

  5. [Hospital costs: results of empirical studies].

    PubMed

    Delande, G; Negre, M

    1992-01-01

    The DRG hospital payment system will be introduced in France in 1993-94 under the name of GHM ("groupes homogènes de malades"). However the method for evaluating costs is mainly based on past trends and, as a matter of fact, they exclude innovative care behavior from the doctors. Three new methods are therefore experimented: (i) standardized operation protocols; (ii) observation of consumed products and time of health personnel; (iii) observation of the costs resulting from the tariffs of the Social Security administration. The empirical studies were carried out in Montpellier and Nantes, two middle size cities of France.

  6. Martian City Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 May 2004 Seasonal frost can enhance the view from orbit of polar polygonal patterns on the surface of Mars. Sometimes these patterns look something like a city map, or the view from above a city lit-up at night. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the south polar region near 80.7oS, 70.6oW. Polar polygons on Mars are generally believed, though not proven, to be the result of freeze/thaw cycles of ice occurring within the upper few meters (several yards) of the martian subsurface. The image shown here covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  7. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  8. Measuring hospital competition.

    PubMed

    White, S L; Chirikos, T N

    1988-03-01

    This paper appraises the use of the Herfindahl market share index as an exogenous competition variable in empirical studies of the hospital sector. An analysis of cross-sectional Florida data shows that this index itself is significantly influenced by the demand and supply factors commonly included in econometric models of hospital performance. The analysis then illustrates that biased inferences about the effects of market competition on the costs of hospital care may result unless the values of the Herfindahl Index are treated endogenously in hospital cost models.

  9. The Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled Renamed The Hospital for Special Surgery 1940; The War Years 1941–1945

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In 1939, the 75th anniversary program marking the founding of the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled (R & C), the oldest orthopaedic hospital in the nation, was held at the hospital site in New York City. Dr. Philip D. Wilson, Surgeon-in-Chief since 1935, used this event to mark the return of the hospital to its leadership role in the country. When the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled first opened its doors on May 1, 1863, the name of the hospital was not unusual; it described the type of patients treated. In 1940, the Board of Managers with guidance from Dr. Wilson changed the name to the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS). In 1941, with Britain engaged in a European war, Dr. Wilson felt there was a need for the Americans to support the British. He personally organized the American Hospital in Britain, a privately funded voluntary unit, to help care for the wounded. After the United States actually entered World War II in December 1941, HSS quickly organized support at all levels with a significant number of professional and auxiliary staff, eventually enlisting in the military. Even with such staff turnover, the hospital continued to function under Dr. Wilson’s leadership. After the war ended in 1945, Wilson forged ahead to further restore HSS as a leader in musculoskeletal medicine and surgery. PMID:19048348

  10. Garden City, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Center pivot irrigation systems create red circles of healthy vegetation in this image of croplands near Garden City, Kansas. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on September 25, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using near infrared, red, and green wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  11. Human diffusion and city influence

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  12. Is a healthy city also an age-friendly city?

    PubMed

    Jackisch, Josephine; Zamaro, Gianna; Green, Geoff; Huber, Manfred

    2015-06-01

    Healthy Ageing is an important focus of the European Healthy Cities Network and has been supported by WHO since 2003 as a key strategic topic, since 2010 in cooperation with the Global Network of Age-friendly Cities and Communities. Based on the methodology of realist evaluation, this article synthesizes qualitative evidence from 33 structured case studies (CS) from 32 WHO European Healthy Cities, 72 annual reports from Network cities and 71 quantitative responses to a General Evaluation Questionnaire. City cases are assigned to three clusters containing the eight domains of an age-friendly city proposed by WHO's Global Age-friendly City Guide published in 2007. The analysis of city's practice and efforts in this article takes stock of how cities have developed the institutional prerequisites and processes necessary for implementing age-friendly strategies, programmes and projects. A content analysis of the CS maps activities across age-friendly domains and illustrates how cities contribute to improving the social and physical environments of older people and enhance the health and social services provided by municipalities and their partners.

  13. City of Faith Medical and Research Center, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The gold towers of the City of Faith command the viewer's attention as they soar into the Tulsa sky. Built by Evangelist Oral Roberts, the City of Faith combines a 60-story clinic and diagnostic center, a 30-story full-service hospital and a 20-story research center on one 80-acre site adjacent to the Oral Roberts University campus. Due in part to their futuristic architectural features, the campus and the City of Faith are one of the top tourist attractions in Oklahoma. Construction began in early 1978. The clinic, first opened in June 1981 with nine physicians, is now staffed with more than 80, all with faculty appointments to the Oral Roberts School of Medicine. The hospital accepted its first patient in November, 1981 and is currently certified for 294 beds (final plans call for a total of 777). The research center began operations last June and focuses on cancer, heart disease, arthritis, diabetes and geriatrics. Built entirely through contributions from followers of the Oral Roberts Ministries, the debt-free City of Faith is expected to cost more than $500 million when completed in 1988.

  14. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  15. Hospitality, Tourism, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novachek, James

    The Northern Arizona Hospitality Education Program is an exemplary three-year project designed to help students, mainly Indian, obtain job skills and attitudes necessary for successful employment in the hospitality industry. Nine high schools from Apache, Coconino, and Navajo Counties participated in the project. Objectives included providing an…

  16. Handbook on Hospital Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prynne, T. A.

    Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…

  17. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  18. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  19. Virtual Pediatric Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thoracopaedia - An Imaging Encyclopedia of Pediatric Thoracic Disease Virtual Pediatric Hospital is the Apprentice's Assistant™ Last revised ... pediatric resources: GeneralPediatrics.com | PediatricEducation.org | SearchingPediatrics.com Virtual Pediatric Hospital is curated by Donna M. D' ...

  20. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  1. Leading a hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Paula A

    2002-01-01

    Hospital closures have become more common. The challenges facing a nursing leader in this situation are complex and difficult. This author suggests that looking for new beginnings rather than focusing on endings created an approach to closing a public hospital. The article includes approaches to employee morale, staffing, and patient care.

  2. Large cities are less green.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Erneson A; Andrade, José S; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-02-28

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  3. Large cities are less green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Erneson A.; Andrade, José S.; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-02-01

    We study how urban quality evolves as a result of carbon dioxide emissions as urban agglomerations grow. We employ a bottom-up approach combining two unprecedented microscopic data on population and carbon dioxide emissions in the continental US. We first aggregate settlements that are close to each other into cities using the City Clustering Algorithm (CCA) defining cities beyond the administrative boundaries. Then, we use data on CO2 emissions at a fine geographic scale to determine the total emissions of each city. We find a superlinear scaling behavior, expressed by a power-law, between CO2 emissions and city population with average allometric exponent β = 1.46 across all cities in the US. This result suggests that the high productivity of large cities is done at the expense of a proportionally larger amount of emissions compared to small cities. Furthermore, our results are substantially different from those obtained by the standard administrative definition of cities, i.e. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). Specifically, MSAs display isometric scaling emissions and we argue that this discrepancy is due to the overestimation of MSA areas. The results suggest that allometric studies based on administrative boundaries to define cities may suffer from endogeneity bias.

  4. Competition among hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Martin; Vogt, William B

    2003-01-01

    We examine competition in the hospital industry, in particular the effect of ownership type (for-profit, not-for-profit, government). We estimate a structural model of demand and pricing in the hospital industry in California, then use the estimates to simulate the effect of a merger. California hospitals in 1995 face an average price elasticity of demand of -4.85. Not-for-profit hospitals face less elastic demand and act as if they have lower marginal costs. Their prices are lower than those of for-profits, but markups are higher. We simulate the effects of the 1997 merger of two hospital chains. In San Luis Obispo County, where the merger creates a near monopoly, prices rise by up to 53%, and the predicted price increase would not be substantially smaller were the chains not-for-profit.

  5. Securing water for the cities.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries have grown so much that they can no longer provide adequate, sustainable water. Over pumping in Dakar and Mexico City has forced those cities to obtain water from ever more distant sources. In Dakar, the result has been saltwater intrusion. Overpumping has caused Mexico City to sink, in some areas by as much as 9 m, resulting in serious damage to buildings and sewage and drainage pipes. Other cities facing similar water problems are coastal cities in Peru (e.g., Lima), La Rioja and Catamarca in Argentina, cities in Northern Mexico, and cities in dry areas of Africa. For some cities, the problem is not so much ever more distant water supplies but insufficient funds to expand supplies. Bangkok and Jakarta both face saltwater intrusion into their overdrawn aquifers. Even through agriculture is the dominant user of water in most countries, demand concentrated in a small area exhausts local and regional sources and pollutes rivers, lakes, and coasts with untreated human and industrial waste. Most cities in Africa and Asia do not have a sewerage system. Further, most cities do not have the drains to deal with storm water and external floodwater, causing frequent, seasonal flooding. The resulting stagnant water provides breeding grounds for insect vectors of diseases (e.g., malaria). The problems in most cities are a result of poor management, not lack of water. Reducing leaks in existing piped distribution systems from the usual 60% loss of water to leaks to 12% would increase the available water 2-fold. Another way to address water shortages would be commercial, industrial, and recreational use of minimally treated waste water, such as is the case in Madras and Mexico City. Political solutions are needed to resolve inadequate water supply and waste management.

  6. Children's hospitals and PACS: six profiles of planning and implementation.

    PubMed

    Keen, C

    1999-01-01

    Six pediatric hospitals were interviewed at length about the status of PACS in their facilities. Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio entered electronic imaging communications in 1993. Several nearby clinics were connected through teleradiology and by 1998, the radiology department had developed a business plan for the implementation of PACS. Two hospitals in Atlanta, Egleston Hospital and Scottish Rite Children's. Medical Center, merged in 1998 to become one entity with two medical campuses. They now treat 60 percent of Atlanta's pediatric patients. Merging incompatible systems has been the administrator's most immediate problem. One director of imaging services is responsible for the recently merged Mary Bridge Children's Hospital and Tacoma General Hospital, plus a network of clinics and medical facilities scatted throughout Tacoma and the South Puget Sound area in Washington state. A state-of-the-art mini-PACS and teleradiology system were implemented at Primary Children's Medical Center, Salt Lake City, in 1991. Over the years, it has added modalities into an electronic system that now results in significantly improved use of physicians' time and patient relations. St. Louis Children's Hospital, with both a director of radiology and a PACS administrator, has implemented teleradiology and an ultrasound mini-PACS, and has plans for an enterprise-wide PACS. Children's Hospital in Birmingham, Ala., a major trauma center, provides specialized pediatric care to nearly all 67 counties in Alabama. With a 20-year history of online computerization, it is now reengineering its emergency department and will implement CR there first.

  7. CityGML - Interoperable semantic 3D city models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Gerhard; Plümer, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    CityGML is the international standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for the representation and exchange of 3D city models. It defines the three-dimensional geometry, topology, semantics and appearance of the most relevant topographic objects in urban or regional contexts. These definitions are provided in different, well-defined Levels-of-Detail (multiresolution model). The focus of CityGML is on the semantical aspects of 3D city models, its structures, taxonomies and aggregations, allowing users to employ virtual 3D city models for advanced analysis and visualization tasks in a variety of application domains such as urban planning, indoor/outdoor pedestrian navigation, environmental simulations, cultural heritage, or facility management. This is in contrast to purely geometrical/graphical models such as KML, VRML, or X3D, which do not provide sufficient semantics. CityGML is based on the Geography Markup Language (GML), which provides a standardized geometry model. Due to this model and its well-defined semantics and structures, CityGML facilitates interoperable data exchange in the context of geo web services and spatial data infrastructures. Since its standardization in 2008, CityGML has become used on a worldwide scale: tools from notable companies in the geospatial field provide CityGML interfaces. Many applications and projects use this standard. CityGML is also having a strong impact on science: numerous approaches use CityGML, particularly its semantics, for disaster management, emergency responses, or energy-related applications as well as for visualizations, or they contribute to CityGML, improving its consistency and validity, or use CityGML, particularly its different Levels-of-Detail, as a source or target for generalizations. This paper gives an overview of CityGML, its underlying concepts, its Levels-of-Detail, how to extend it, its applications, its likely future development, and the role it plays in scientific research. Furthermore, its

  8. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws.

    PubMed

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-06

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably.

  9. The dynamics of city formation*

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Venables, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines city formation in a country whose urban population is growing steadily over time, with new cities required to accommodate this growth. In contrast to most of the literature there is immobility of housing and urban infrastructure, and investment in these assets is taken on the basis of forward-looking behavior. In the presence of these fixed assets cities form sequentially, without the population swings in existing cities that arise in current models, but with swings in house rents. Equilibrium city size, absent government, may be larger or smaller than is efficient, depending on how urban externalities vary with population. Efficient formation of cities with internalization of externalities involves local government intervention and borrowing to finance development. The paper explores the institutions required for successful local government intervention. PMID:25089087

  10. Hospital waste management status in Iran: a case study in the teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Moradi, Arash; Mohammadi, Mojtaba Shah; Jorfi, Sahand

    2009-06-01

    Hospital waste materials pose a wide variety of health and safety hazards for patients and healthcare workers. Many of hospitals in Iran have neither a satisfactory waste disposal system nor a waste management and disposal policy. The main objective of this research was to investigate the solid waste management in the eight teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, the main stages of hospital waste management including generation, separation, collection, storage, and disposal of waste materials were assessed in these hospitals, located in Tehran city. The measurement was conducted through a questionnaire and direct observation by researchers. The data obtained was converted to a quantitative measure to evaluate the different management components. The results showed that the waste generation rate was 2.5 to 3.01 kg bed(-1) day(-1), which included 85 to 90% of domestic waste and 10 to 15% of infectious waste. The lack of separation between hazardous and non-hazardous waste, an absence of the necessary rules and regulations applying to the collection of waste from hospital wards and on-site transport to a temporary storage location, a lack of proper waste treatment, and disposal of hospital waste along with municipal garbage, were the main findings. In order to improve the existing conditions, some extensive research to assess the present situation in the hospitals of Iran, the compilation of rules and establishment of standards and effective training for the personnel are actions that are recommended.

  11. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  12. Surface Runoff Variability on two Slope Positions and Land Use in Koupendri Catchment, Benin, West Africa: Observation and Modeling using SCS_CN Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuka, C. V.; Diekkrüger, B.; Igué, A. M.; Bossa, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Surface runoff contributes significantly to soil erosion by water which is a serious worldwide problem causing decline in water resources quality, agricultural and forest land productivity, alongside environmental and ecological degradations. A field experiment was carried out on two hillslope (2-7 %) positions (downslope (2.3%), upslope (5.8%)) and two land use types; maize-beans intercrop (MB); fallow shrub-grassland (SG) in Koupendri catchment in north-western part of Benin, West Africa using microplots. The objective was to evaluate the influence of slope positions and land use on surface runoff and their variability, and the ability of Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach to simulate the measured runoff on both slope positions and land use types in Koupendri catchment. Six microplots (1m x 1m) were installed at 0.5m spacing, and on the same soil type in each slope positions and land use giving a total of 24 microplots. Surface runoff was measured after each rain event from September - October, 2014 and major runoff producing rain events were selected for analysis. The data obtained was subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) in RCBD. The results showed a very low variability (CV= 9%) for measured surface runoff on both slope positions and land use respectively. The surface runoff measured was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the land use with a total surface runoff of 340.1 mm in MB as against 250.3 mm in SG. However, the higher surface runoff depth obtained at the downslope (299.9 mm) compared to the upslope (290.5 mm) was due to shallow soil depth and saturation of the soil downslope but not slope position. Thus, land use must be given greater priority in future surface runoff and soil erosion related studies in the catchment or region. A good simulation (R2= 0.92 - 0.97) of the measured runoff depth was obtained using the SCS-CN approach on both slopes and land use types. A better simulation was obtained under the cultivated plot

  13. Improving pneumonia case-management in Benin: a randomized trial of a multi-faceted intervention to support health worker adherence to Integrated Management of Childhood Illness guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Osterholt, Dawn M; Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Deming, Michael S; Rowe, Alexander K

    2009-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children under five years of age. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy can improve the quality of care for pneumonia and other common illnesses in developing countries, but adherence to these guidelines could be improved. We evaluated an intervention in Benin to support health worker adherence to the guidelines after training, focusing on pneumonia case management. Methods We conducted a randomized trial. After a health facility survey in 1999 to assess health care quality before Integrated Management of Childhood Illness training, health workers received training plus either study supports (job aids, non-financial incentives and supervision of workers and supervisors) or "usual" supports. Follow-up surveys were conducted in 2001, 2002 and 2004. Outcomes were indicators of health care quality for Integrated Management-defined pneumonia. Further analyses included a graphical pathway analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling to identify factors influencing case-management quality. Results We observed 301 consultations of children with non-severe pneumonia that were performed by 128 health workers in 88 public and private health facilities. Although outcomes improved in both intervention and control groups, we found no statistically significant difference between groups. However, training proceeded slowly, and low-quality care from untrained health workers diluted intervention effects. Per-protocol analyses suggested that health workers with training plus study supports performed better than those with training plus usual supports (20.4 and 19.2 percentage-point improvements for recommended treatment [p = 0.08] and "recommended or adequate" treatment [p = 0.01], respectively). Both groups tended to perform better than untrained health workers. Analyses of treatment errors revealed that incomplete assessment and difficulties processing clinical findings led to missed pneumonia

  14. Origins of streamflow in a crystalline basement catchment in a sub-humid Sudanian zone: The Donga basin (Benin, West Africa): Inter-annual variability of water budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Séguis, L.; Kamagaté, B.; Favreau, G.; Descloitres, M.; Seidel, J.-L.; Galle, S.; Peugeot, C.; Gosset, M.; Le Barbé, L.; Malinur, F.; Van Exter, S.; Arjounin, M.; Boubkraoui, S.; Wubda, M.

    2011-05-01

    SummaryDuring the last quarter of the 20th century, West Africa underwent a particularly intense and generalized drought. During this period, the biggest drops in streamflow were observed in the Sudanian zone rather than in the Sahelian zone, but the reasons are still poorly understood. In 2000, a meso-scale hydrological observatory was set up in the sub-humid Sudanian zone of the Upper Ouémé Valley (Benin). Three embedded catchments of 12-586 km 2 located on a crystalline bedrock were intensively instrumented to document the different terms of the water budget and to identify the main streamflow generating processes and base-flow mechanisms at different scales. Geophysical, hydrological and geochemical data were collected throughout the catchments from 2002 to 2006. Crossing these data helped define their hydrological functioning. The region has seasonal streamflow, and the permanent groundwater in the weathered mantle does not drain to rivers, instead, seasonal perched groundwaters are the major contributor to annual streamflow. The perched groundwaters are mainly located in seasonally waterlogged sandy layers in the headwater bottom-lands called bas-fonds in French-speaking West Africa of 1st order streams. During the period 2003-2006, regolith groundwater recharge ranged between 10% and 15% of the annual rainfall depth. Depletion of permanent groundwater during the dry season is probably explained by local evapotranspiration which was seen not to be limited to gallery forests. During the 4-year study period, a reduction of 20% in annual rainfall led to a 50% reduction in streamflow. This reduction was observed in the two components of the flow: direct runoff and drainage of perched groundwater. Thanks to the comprehensive dataset obtained, the results obtained for the Donga experimental catchment are now being extrapolated to the whole upper Ouémé valley, which can be considered as representative of sub-humid Sudanian rivers flowing on a crystalline

  15. Land cover change assessment using object-oriented classification based on image segmentation in the Binah river watershed (Togo and Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badjana, M. H.; Helmschrot, J.; Wala, K.; Flugel, W. A.; Afouda, A.; Akpagana, K.

    2014-12-01

    Assessing and monitoring land cover changes over time, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa characterized by both a high population growth and the highest rate of land degradation in the world is of high relevance for sustainable land management, water security and food production. In this study, land cover changes between 1972 and 2013 were investigated in the Binah river watershed (North of Togo and Benin) using advanced remote sensing and GIS technologies to support sustainable land and water resources management efforts. To this end, multi-temporal satellite images - Landsat MSS (1972), TM (1987) and ETM+ (2013) were processed using object-oriented classification based on image segmentation and post-classification comparison methods. Five main land cover classes namely agricultural land, forest land, savannah, settlements and water bodies have been identified with overall accuracies of 75.11% (1972), 81.82% (1987), and 86.1% (2013) and respective Kappa statistics of 0.67, 0.76 and 0.83. These classification results helped to explicitly assess the spatio-temporal pattern of land cover within the basin. The results indicate that savannah as the main vegetation type in the basin has decreased from 63.3% of the basin area in 1972 to 60.4% in 1987 and 35.6% in 2013. Also the forest land which covered 20.7% in 1972 has decreased to 12.7% in 1987 and 11.7% in 2013. This severe decrease in vegetation mainly resulted from the extension of agricultural areas and settlements, which is, thus, considered as the main driving force. In fact, agricultural land increased of 61.4% from 1972 to 1987, 81.4% from 1987 to 2013 and almost twice from 1972 to 2013 while human settlements increased from 0.8% of the basin area in 1972 to 2.5% in 1987 and 7.7% in 2013. The transition maps illustrate the conversion of savannah to agricultural land at each time step relating to slash and burn agriculture, but also demonstrate the threat of environmental degradation of the savannah biome

  16. Statistical postprocessing of precipitation generated with the mesoscale model FOOT3DK for the rainy season 2002 in Benin (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, P.; Krüger, A.; Born, K.; Kerschgens, M.

    2009-04-01

    The presented study deals with various aspects of mesoscale modelling of precipitation in the Sudanian Region at the West African subcontinent and is imbedded into an interdisciplinary research project called IMPETUS. Environmental conditions of synoptic-scale features, being responsible regarding generation and propagation of several precipitation systems, are mostly influenced by the West African Monsoon system. For investigations of precipitation events during the rainy season of 2002, a total number of 40 precipitation episodes, with durations ranging from 54 to 72 hours for each episode, were simulated using the non-hydrostatic model FOOT3DK. While the spatial resolution is 3 km, the temporal resolution accounts for 1 hour. Input data for these simulations is provided using a model chain consisting GME-analysis, Lokal-Modell (0.25° resolution) and FOOT3DK (9 km resolution). The investigated area covers a region of 105 km x 105 km (35 x 35 grid points) and is situated in the upper river catchment of the Ouémé in Benin. On basis of a total number of 50 rainfall recording stations comparisons between simulated and observed precipitation within this study has been carried out. The recording stations are irregularly spaced across the investigated area. The accomplished comparison of precipitation adverts to the necessity for an adjustment of simulated rainfall by FOOT3DK. Therefore, an adjustment technique has been developed and is presented within this study. Based on the 1225 grid points this method fits the hourly simulated towards the hourly observed rainfall rates using a mapping function. In a first step the station data has to be interpolated to the same underlying model grid. Afterwards, the desired relation between simulated and observed precipitation can be established by fitting a sigmoidal curve to the precipitation data using the Levenberg-Marquardt-Algorithm. For every single grid mesh a separate Gompertz function can be found and employed. The

  17. Clinical Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer from Benin (2005-2013): Effect of Time-Delay to Diagnosis on Clinical Forms and Severe Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Capela, Carlos; Sopoh, Ghislain E.; Houezo, Jean G.; Fiodessihoué, René; Dossou, Ange D.; Costa, Patrício; Fraga, Alexandra G.; Menino, João F.; Silva-Gomes, Rita; Ouendo, Edgard M.

    2015-01-01

    Buruli Ulcer (BU) is a neglected infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is responsible for severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that may be associated with bone involvement. Clinical presentations of BU lesions are classically classified as papules, nodules, plaques and edematous infiltration, ulcer or osteomyelitis. Within these different clinical forms, lesions can be further classified as severe forms based on focality (multiple lesions), lesions’ size (>15cm diameter) or WHO Category (WHO Category 3 lesions). There are studies reporting an association between delay in seeking medical care and the development of ulcerative forms of BU or osteomyelitis, but the effect of time-delay on the emergence of lesions classified as severe has not been addressed. To address both issues, and in a cohort of laboratory-confirmed BU cases, 476 patients from a medical center in Allada, Benin, were studied. In this laboratory-confirmed cohort, we validated previous observations, demonstrating that time-delay is statistically related to the clinical form of BU. Indeed, for non-ulcerated forms (nodule, edema, and plaque) the median time-delay was 32.5 days (IQR 30.0–67.5), while for ulcerated forms it was 60 days (IQR 20.0–120.0) (p = 0.009), and for bone lesions, 365 days (IQR 228.0–548.0). On the other hand, we show here that time-delay is not associated with the more severe phenotypes of BU, such as multi-focal lesions (median 90 days; IQR 56–217.5; p = 0.09), larger lesions (diameter >15cm) (median 60 days; IQR 30–120; p = 0.92) or category 3 WHO classification (median 60 days; IQR 30–150; p = 0.20), when compared with unifocal (median 60 days; IQR 30–90), small lesions (diameter ≤15cm) (median 60 days; IQR 30–90), or WHO category 1+2 lesions (median 60 days; IQR 30–90), respectively. Our results demonstrate that after an initial period of progression towards ulceration or bone involvement, BU lesions become stable regarding size and

  18. The indigenous Somba cattle of the hilly Atacora region in North-West Benin: threats and opportunities for its sustainable use.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Vanvanhossou, Fridaïus Ulrich Sèyi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the declining Somba cattle population in its production system context. Two-hundred-twenty-four (224) cattle farm-households were surveyed in the Boukombe district, the natural habitat of the breed in North-West Benin. Information on their socioeconomic characteristics and on their herd management practices were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 15 body measurements were recorded from 102 adult cattle. Three types of breeders were distinguished: the owners-herders (54.0 %); the absentee owners (40.2 %) and the professional herders (5.8 %). The average cattle herd sizes were 4.7 ± 3.70 and 58.6 ± 22.83 heads for owner-managed and entrusted herds, respectively. Offtakes were more associated with sociocultural purposes (75.5 %) than market. While crop farming was the main occupation and income source of their owners, the Somba cattle were used for ploughing during the rainy season. In contrast to the widely accepted belief that this indigenous genetic resource is mainly threatened by crossbreeding and/or replacement, our findings suggest high mortalities due to diseases, feed and water shortages and poor reproduction management as the main causes of the decline of this cattle population. Somba cattle generally have short horns and a small body size. However, bulls have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) longer horns (21.2 ± 16.44 cm against 13.9 ± 7.21 cm), higher height at withers (99.7 ± 6.97 cm against 95.9 ± 5.76 cm) and body length (149.7 ± 12.87 cm against 146.8 ± 11.01 cm) than cows. All surveyed farmers expressed their willingness and readiness to participate in and contribute materially or financially to any program towards a sustainable use and preservation of this breed which they perceived as hardy and embedded in their culture. We therefore argue that strategies for its sustainable use and conservation should consist of simultaneously

  19. Clinical Epidemiology of Buruli Ulcer from Benin (2005-2013): Effect of Time-Delay to Diagnosis on Clinical Forms and Severe Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Capela, Carlos; Sopoh, Ghislain E; Houezo, Jean G; Fiodessihoué, René; Dossou, Ange D; Costa, Patrício; Fraga, Alexandra G; Menino, João F; Silva-Gomes, Rita; Ouendo, Edgard M; Rodrigues, Fernando; Pedrosa, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Buruli Ulcer (BU) is a neglected infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans that is responsible for severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that may be associated with bone involvement. Clinical presentations of BU lesions are classically classified as papules, nodules, plaques and edematous infiltration, ulcer or osteomyelitis. Within these different clinical forms, lesions can be further classified as severe forms based on focality (multiple lesions), lesions' size (>15 cm diameter) or WHO Category (WHO Category 3 lesions). There are studies reporting an association between delay in seeking medical care and the development of ulcerative forms of BU or osteomyelitis, but the effect of time-delay on the emergence of lesions classified as severe has not been addressed. To address both issues, and in a cohort of laboratory-confirmed BU cases, 476 patients from a medical center in Allada, Benin, were studied. In this laboratory-confirmed cohort, we validated previous observations, demonstrating that time-delay is statistically related to the clinical form of BU. Indeed, for non-ulcerated forms (nodule, edema, and plaque) the median time-delay was 32.5 days (IQR 30.0-67.5), while for ulcerated forms it was 60 days (IQR 20.0-120.0) (p = 0.009), and for bone lesions, 365 days (IQR 228.0-548.0). On the other hand, we show here that time-delay is not associated with the more severe phenotypes of BU, such as multi-focal lesions (median 90 days; IQR 56-217.5; p = 0.09), larger lesions (diameter >15 cm) (median 60 days; IQR 30-120; p = 0.92) or category 3 WHO classification (median 60 days; IQR 30-150; p = 0.20), when compared with unifocal (median 60 days; IQR 30-90), small lesions (diameter ≤15 cm) (median 60 days; IQR 30-90), or WHO category 1+2 lesions (median 60 days; IQR 30-90), respectively. Our results demonstrate that after an initial period of progression towards ulceration or bone involvement, BU lesions become stable regarding size and focal

  20. Influence of exposure differences on city-to-city heterogeneity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed heterogeneity between city-specific fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-mortality effect estimates. These studies typically use ambient monitoring data as a surrogate for exposure leading to potential exposure misclassification. The level of exposure misclassification can differ by city affecting the observed health effect estimate. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate whether previously developed residential infiltration-based city clusters can explain city-to-city heterogeneity in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. In a prior paper 94 cities were clustered based on residential infiltration factors (e.g. home age/size, prevalence of air conditioning (AC)), resulting in 5 clusters. For this analysis, the association between PM2.5 and all-cause mortality was first determined in 77 cities across the United States for 2001–2005. Next, a second stage analysis was conducted evaluating the influence of cluster assignment on heterogeneity in the risk estimates. Associations between a 2-day (lag 0–1 days) moving average of PM2.5 concentrations and non-accidental mortality were determined for each city. Estimated effects ranged from −3.2 to 5.1% with a pooled estimate of 0.33% (95% CI: 0.13, 0.53) increase in mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5. The second stage analysis determined that cluster assignment was marginally significant in explaining the city-to-city heterogeneity. The health effe