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Sample records for hospital case study

  1. Logistics in hospitals: a case study of some Singapore hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi Xiong; Pokharel, Shaligram

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate logistics activities in Singapore hospitals. It defines various types of activities handled by a logistics division. Inventory management policy and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for logistics purposes are also discussed. The study identifies the nature of strategic alliances in Singapore's health care industry. This study was conducted by utilizing a framework for data collection, pre-testing the questionnaire and conducting interviews. Various relevant literature was reviewed to design the questionnaire. This study finds that logistics division carry out many related activities and some of them also provide engineering services. The hospitals make use of ICT. The hospitals are clustered under various groups to minimize the cost of operation, including the logistics related costs. However, hospitals do not see alliances with suppliers as a strategic option; rather they focus on outsourcing of logistics services. The findings also show that Singapore hospitals have a good stocking policy for both medical and non-medical items so that changes in patient mix can be easily handled. Singapore is continuously improving its health care industry and therefore, the findings will help hospitals in other regions to adopt some of the practices, like concentrating on local vendors, outsourcing, clustering, and maximum use of information technology as competitive factors that can improve the service and reduce the cost of operation. The paper suggests motivators and barriers to the use of ICT in logistics in the health care industry.

  2. ERP implementation in hospitals: a case study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Divya; Garg, Poonam

    2012-01-01

    In a competitive healthcare sector, hospitals have to focus on their processes in order to deliver high-quality care while at the same time reducing costs. Many hospitals have decided to adopt one or another Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system to improve their businesses, but implementing an ERP system can be a demanding endeavour. The systems are so difficult to implement that some are successful; many have failed, causing multimillion dollar losses. The challenge of ERP solutions lie in implementation because they are complex, time consuming and expensive too. This paper describes the various process workflows and phases of ERP implementation at Fortis Hospital Cunningham Road, Bangalore, India. This knowledge will provide valuable insights for the researchers and practitioners to understand the different process workflows and to make informed decisions when implementing ERP in any hospital.

  3. Marketing hand hygiene in hospitals--a case study.

    PubMed

    Gopal Rao, G; Jeanes, A; Osman, M; Aylott, C; Green, J

    2002-01-01

    Hand hygiene of healthcare workers is frequently poor despite the efforts of infection control teams to promote hand decontamination as the most important method to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. In this case study, we describe how principles of societal marketing were applied to improve hand hygiene. Pre-marketing analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to implementation; attention to product, price, promotion and placement; and post-marketing 'customer' surveys were the essential components of the marketing strategy and its implementation. Placement of an alcohol-based gel decontaminant (Spirigel) at the bedside of every patient was widely welcomed in the hospital, and has played a major role in improving hand hygiene of healthcare workers. In the twelve months following the implementation, the decontaminant was used at least 440,000 times. The cost of purchasing the decontaminant was approximately 5000 pounds sterling. Following the introduction of Spirigel, there was a consistent reduction in the proportion of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in each of the quarters of 2000-2001 compared with 1999-2000. In the period 1999-2000, nearly 50% of the MRSA were hospital acquired compared with 39% in 2000-2001. Similarly, the average incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) decreased in each of the quarters in 2000-2001 following the introduction of Spirigel. During this period, there was an average incidence of 9.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions compared with 11.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions in 1999-2000. This represents a 17.4% reduction in the incidence of CDAD. However, this reduction was not statistically significant (P=0.2). Our case study demonstrates that principles of societal marketing methods can be used effectively to promote and sustain hand hygiene in hospitals. Improvement in hand hygiene will lead to considerable reduction in hospital

  4. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, D'Arcy

    2011-12-15

    Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83) and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74) for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61) and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47) for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94) and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82) for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63) and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79) for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  5. A Medication Safety Model: A Case Study in Thai Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rattanarojsakul, Phichai; Thawesaengskulthai, Natcha

    2013-01-01

    Reaching zero defects is vital in medication service. Medication error can be reduced if the causes are recognized. The purpose of this study is to search for a conceptual framework of the causes of medication error in Thailand and to examine relationship between these factors and its importance. The study was carried out upon an in-depth case study and survey of hospital personals who were involved in the drug use process. The structured survey was based on Emergency Care Research Institute (ECRI) (2008) questionnaires focusing on the important factors that affect the medication safety. Additional questionnaires included content to the context of Thailand's private hospital, validated by five-hospital qualified experts. By correlation Pearson analysis, the result revealed 14 important factors showing a linear relationship with drug administration error except the medication reconciliation. By independent sample t-test, the administration error in the hospital was significantly related to external impact. The multiple regression analysis of the detail of medication administration also indicated the patient identification before administration of medication, detection of the risk of medication adverse effects and assurance of medication administration at the right time, dosage and route were statistically significant at 0.05 level. The major implication of the study is to propose a medication safety model in a Thai private hospital. PMID:23985110

  6. LIFENET hospitals (India): developing new services' case study.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Zillur; Qureshi, M N

    2008-01-01

    Indian healthcare is in the process of offering a plethora of services to customers hailing largely from India and from neighboring countries. The Indian hospital sector consists of private "nursing homes" and government and charitable missionary hospitals. Government and missionary hospitals determine their charges according to patients' income levels and treat poor patients freely. Nursing homes charged higher, market-determined rates. They offer services in just a few medical specialties, owned and operated by physicians who worked with them. Nursing homes cannot afford the latest medical technology, but they provide more intimate settings than government hospitals. This case study aims to demonstrate the various strategic options available to a for-profit hospital, in an emerging economy with a burgeoning middle-class population and how it can choose which services that it can best offer to its target population. Diagnosing and treating complex ailments in nursing homes could be a time-consuming and expensive proposition as visits to several nursing homes with different specialties may be necessary. This paper demonstrates how an hospital can develop new customer-oriented services and eliminate the hassle for patients needing to run around different healthcare outlets even for minor ailments. The paper finds that large government hospitals generally have better facilities than nursing homes, but they were widely believed to provide poor-quality care. They failed to keep up with advanced equipment, train their technicians adequately and did not publicize their capabilities to doctors who might refer patients. Many missionary and charitable hospitals were undercapitalized and did not offer all services. These conditions left an unsatisfied demand for high-quality medical care. In 1983, LIFENET opened in Madras, becoming the first comprehensive, for-profit hospital in India. LIFENET, invested in a cardiology laboratory and clinics with capacity to diagnose heart

  7. The politics of local hospital reform: a case study of hospital reorganization following the 2002 Norwegian hospital reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Norwegian hospital reform of 2002 was an attempt to make restructuring of hospitals easier by removing politicians from the decision-making processes. To facilitate changes seen as necessary but politically difficult, the central state took over ownership of the hospitals and stripped the county politicians of what had been their main responsibility for decades. This meant that decisions regarding hospital structure and organization were now being taken by professional administrators and not by politically elected representatives. The question raised here is whether this has had any effect on the speed of restructuring of the hospital sector. Method The empirical part is a case study of the restructuring process in Innlandet Hospital Trust (IHT), which was one of the largest enterprise established after the hospital reform and where the vision for restructuring was clearly set. Different sources of qualitative data are used in the analysis. These include interviews with key actors, observational data and document studies. Results The analysis demonstrates how the new professional leaders at first acted in accordance with the intentions of the hospital reform, but soon chose to avoid the more ambitious plans for restructuring the hospital structure and in fact reintroduced local politics into the decision-making process. The analysis further illustrates how local networks and engagement of political representatives from all levels of government complicated the decision-making process surrounding local structural reforms. Local political representatives teamed up with other actors and created powerful networks. At the same time, national politicians had incentives to involve themselves in the processes as supporters of the status quo. Conclusion Because of the incentives that faced political actors and the controversial nature of major hospital reforms, the removal of local politicians and the centralization of ownership did not necessarily facilitate

  8. The politics of local hospital reform: a case study of hospital reorganization following the 2002 Norwegian hospital reform.

    PubMed

    Tjerbo, Trond

    2009-11-20

    The Norwegian hospital reform of 2002 was an attempt to make restructuring of hospitals easier by removing politicians from the decision-making processes. To facilitate changes seen as necessary but politically difficult, the central state took over ownership of the hospitals and stripped the county politicians of what had been their main responsibility for decades. This meant that decisions regarding hospital structure and organization were now being taken by professional administrators and not by politically elected representatives. The question raised here is whether this has had any effect on the speed of restructuring of the hospital sector. The empirical part is a case study of the restructuring process in Innlandet Hospital Trust (IHT), which was one of the largest enterprise established after the hospital reform and where the vision for restructuring was clearly set. Different sources of qualitative data are used in the analysis. These include interviews with key actors, observational data and document studies. The analysis demonstrates how the new professional leaders at first acted in accordance with the intentions of the hospital reform, but soon chose to avoid the more ambitious plans for restructuring the hospital structure and in fact reintroduced local politics into the decision-making process. The analysis further illustrates how local networks and engagement of political representatives from all levels of government complicated the decision-making process surrounding local structural reforms. Local political representatives teamed up with other actors and created powerful networks. At the same time, national politicians had incentives to involve themselves in the processes as supporters of the status quo. Because of the incentives that faced political actors and the controversial nature of major hospital reforms, the removal of local politicians and the centralization of ownership did not necessarily facilitate reforms in the hospital structure

  9. Collection overlap in hospital health sciences libraries: a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Stroyan, S

    1985-01-01

    Given similar demographics (age, size, and user population), to what extent do community hospital libraries differ in collection content? It is sometimes assumed that hospital libraries are relatively homogeneous and therefore subject to standardized procedures and collection development guides. This study compares the holdings of two community hospital libraries in Illinois to determine similarities and differences. PMID:4052675

  10. An Analysis of Uncertainty and Satisfaction: A Hospital Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Philip; Williams, M. Lee

    As part of a project investigating how communication within hospital systems differs from communication in other types of organizations, the employees of a 40-bed hospital were surveyed for their attitudes on perceived uncertainty, internal patterns of communication in the hospital, and worker satisfaction. Variables that were studied included…

  11. Hospitals as complex adaptive systems: A case study of factors influencing priority setting practices at the hospital level in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Barasa, Edwine W; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2017-02-01

    There is a dearth of literature on priority setting and resource allocation (PSRA) practices in hospitals, particularly in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Using a case study approach, we examined PSRA practices in 2 public hospitals in coastal Kenya. We collected data through a combination of in-depth interviews of national level policy makers, hospital managers, and frontline practitioners in the case study hospitals (n = 72), review of documents such as hospital plans and budgets, minutes of meetings and accounting records, and non-participant observations of PSRA practices in case study hospitals over a period of 7 months. In this paper, we apply complex adaptive system (CAS) theory to examine the factors that influence PSRA practices. We found that PSRA practices in the case hospitals were influenced by, 1) inadequate financing level and poorly designed financing arrangements, 2) limited hospital autonomy and decision space, and 3) inadequate management and leadership capacity in the hospital. The case study hospitals exhibited properties of complex adaptive systems (CASs) that exist in a dynamic state with multiple interacting agents. Weaknesses in system 'hardware' (resource scarcity) and 'software' (including PSRA guidelines that reduced hospitals decision space, and poor leadership skills) led to the emergence of undesired properties. The capacity of hospitals to set priorities should be improved across these interacting aspects of the hospital organizational system. Interventions should however recognize that hospitals are CAS. Rather than rectifying isolated aspects of the system, they should endeavor to create conditions for productive emergence.

  12. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-07-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead of being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%) > medical waste (30.32%) > sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60 kg per patient per day.

  13. Whooping cough--a study of severity in hospital cases.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, D A; Mandal, B K; Ironside, A G; Dunbar, E M

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the clinical severity and prognosis of children admitted to hospital with whooping cough, 127 patients were studied prospectively during a 12-month period. Clinical and laboratory criteria were used and the impression gained was that most cases were mild, although 3 children were dangerously ill and at least 30% had symptoms lasting 2 months or longer. There were no deaths, and no permanent sequelae were noted. The mean age of patients was higher than in other series, which might have accounted for the fairly low severity. Although there was some evidence of a decline in severity and mortality, whooping cough is still an unpleasant and protracted illness. PMID:7294871

  14. Searching for the hospital yardstick: a case study of private hospital productivity bargaining.

    PubMed

    Timo, N

    1997-01-01

    The decentralisation of Australia's centralised wage fixation system has been seen as providing opportunities for employers and trade unions to tailor working arrangements to suit the needs of the workplace and to provide better paid long-term jobs. This paper details the productivity bargaining between the Private Hospitals' Association of Queensland and The Australian Workers' Union in 1995-97 in Queensland that led to the introduction of a number of productivity-based enterprise agreements. The case study shows that productivity bargaining in the private hospitals studied remains focused on 'bottom line' issues where cashable savings can readily be generated. The paper concludes with an examination of the lessons drawn from the productivity bargaining process.

  15. Implementation of Advanced Warehouses in a Hospital Environment - Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J.; Sameiro Carvalho, M.; Nobre, A.

    2015-05-01

    In Portugal, there is an increase of costs in the healthcare sector due to several factors such as the aging of the population, the increased demand for health care services and the increasing investment in new technologies. Thus, there is a need to reduce costs, by presenting the effective and efficient management of logistics supply systems with enormous potential to achieve savings in health care organizations without compromising the quality of the provided service, which is a critical factor, in this type of sector. In this research project the implementation of Advanced Warehouses has been studied, in the Hospital de Braga patient care units, based in a mix of replenishment systems approaches: the par level system, the two bin system and the consignment model. The logistics supply process is supported by information technology (IT), allowing a proactive replacement of products, based on the hospital services consumption records. The case study was developed in two patient care units, in order to study the impact of the operation of the three replenishment systems. Results showed that an important inventory holding costs reduction can be achieved in the patient care unit warehouses while increasing the service level and increasing control of incoming and stored materials with less human resources. The main conclusion of this work illustrates the possibility of operating multiple replenishment models, according to the types of materials that healthcare organizations deal with, so that they are able to provide quality health care services at a reduced cost and economically sustainable. The adoption of adequate IT has been shown critical for the success of the project.

  16. Developing IT Infrastructure for Rural Hospitals: A Case Study of Benefits and Challenges of Hospital-to-Hospital Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Madhu C.; Purao, Sandeep; Kelly, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a study identifying benefits and challenges of a novel hospital-to-hospital information technology (IT) outsourcing partnership (HHP). The partnership is an innovative response to the problem that many smaller, rural hospitals face: to modernize their IT infrastructure in spite of a severe shortage of resources. The investigators studied three rural hospitals that outsourced their IT infrastructure, through an HHP, to a larger, more technologically advanced hospital in the region. The study design was based on purposive sampling and interviews of senior managers from the four hospitals. The results highlight the HHP's benefits and challenges from both the rural hospitals' and vendor hospital's perspectives. The HHP was considered a success: a key outcome was that it has improved the rural hospitals' IT infrastructure at an affordable cost. The investigators discuss key elements for creating a successful HHP and offer preliminary answers to the question of what it takes for an HHP to be successful. PMID:18436901

  17. Suicides following inpatient psychiatric hospitalization: A nationwide case control study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Petr; Mladá, Karolína; Csémy, Ladislav; Nechanská, Blanka; Höschl, Cyril

    2015-09-15

    Research shows the elevated risk of suicide associated with current or recent inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. However, it is unclear whether this applies in the area of post-communist Central and Eastern Europe where mental health care has not been deinstitutionalized yet. The present study aims to examine the rates of suicides among psychiatric patients during and shortly after discharge from inpatient hospitalization in the Czech Republic. All inpatient psychiatric hospitalizations and all suicides committed between 2008 and 2012 have been merged on an individual data basis. The time horizon between the admission and two months after the discharge from inpatient psychiatric facility was utilized and multiple logistic regression was performed to calculate the odds of committing suicide. A total of 137,290 inpatients were hospitalized in Czech psychiatric facilities between 2008 and 2012, and 402 of the inpatients committed suicide during the hospitalization or within the 2 months after the discharge. Highly elevated risks of suicides were found to be associated with being a male, having a history of multiple hospitalizations, and having a diagnosis of affective, anxiety, or personality disorder. Limitations are related to the design of the study, and its reliance on routinely collected data. Also, it was not possible to assess the odds of suicide associated with inpatient psychiatric hospitalization against the odds of suicide in general population. During psychiatric treatment and recovery, suicial behavior and idealiation is increased. In psychiatry, hospitalization may be a risky period for suicide behavior. Suicide rates during and soon after the psychiatric hospitalization identified in this study from Central and Eastern Europe are similar to the findings from Western Europe. Preventive strategies should be tailored accordingly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of wastes from hospitals: A case study in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    Proper management of hospital waste is a critical concern in many countries of the world. Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world, with one of the highest urbanisation and population growth rates in South Asia. Data and analyses regarding hospital waste management practices in Pakistan are scarce in scientific literature. This study was meant to determine waste management practices at selected hospitals in a major city in Pakistan, Gujranwala. A total of 12 different hospitals were selected for the survey, which involved quantification of waste generation rates and investigation of waste management practices. The results were analysed using linear regression. The weighted average total, general and infectious hospital waste generation rates were found to be 0.667, 0.497 and 0.17 kg bed-day(-1), respectively. Of the total, 73.85% consisted of general, 25.8% consisted of hazardous infectious and 0.87% consisted of sharps waste. The general waste consisted of 15.76% paper, 13.41% plastic, 21.77% textiles, 6.47% glass, 1.99% rubber, 0.44% metal and 40.17% others. Linear regression showed that waste generation increased with occupancy and decreased with number of beds. Small, private and specialised hospitals had relatively greater waste generation rates. Poor waste segregation, storage and transportation practices were observed at all surveyed hospitals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Hospital financial audit of medical equipment maintenance: a case study.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, J

    1987-01-01

    Maintenance expense is becoming an area of importance in the business of health care. Methods for identification and determination of both types and amounts of expenses have also become important. This paper is a case study of one institution's total medical equipment maintenance expense, during the 1985/86 fiscal year. During this time, the total hospital medical maintenance expense was $683,614: of which $238,008 (34.8%) was salary; $85,858 (12.6%) was parts; $77,083 (11.3%) was contracts; $48,230 (7.1%) was service; $123,572 (18.1%) was X-ray tubes; $91,260 (13.3%) was maintenance insurance; $14,479 (2.1%) was for training; $1,212 (0.2%) was for operating expenses; and $3,912 (0.6%) was the 10-year amortized test-equipment expense. The maintenance-expense/acquisition-cost ratio was 4.36%. Arguments are presented on the need to obtain expense data that have some comparative value to other institutions and on developing benchmarks to be utilized in evaluating acceptable levels of expense.

  20. A case study of nursing case management in a rural hospital.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Loftin, W; Wood, D; Whitfield, L

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the process of implementing a New England model of case management in a rural hospital and the modifications necessary in adapting an urban model to a rural setting. Nursing case management at this institution has been associated with a decrease in the length of stay by 1.7 days at an estimated cost savings of $65,932 for the 16-month study period. Case management has also been instrumental in improving quality of care through a program of continuous quality improvement and in redesigning the RN role. The vision for the future is to extend the nurse case manager role outside the hospital walls to the community in a collaborative plan that would bill nursing services through physicians' offices.

  1. Evaluating Nurses Acceptance of Hospital Information Systems: A Case Study of a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating hospital information systems (HIS) acceptance factors among nurses, in order to provide suggestions for successful HIS implementation. The study used mainly quantitative survey methods to collect data directly from nurses through a questionnaire. The availability of computers in the hospital was one of the most influential factors, with a special emphasis on the unavailability of laptop computers and computers on wheels to facilitate immediate data entry and retrieval when nurses are at the point of care. Nurses believed that HIS might frequently slow down the process of care delivery and increase the time spent by patients inside the hospital especially during slow performance and responsiveness phases. Recommendations were classified into three main areas; improving system performance and availability of computers in the hospital, increasing organizational support in the form of providing training and protected time for nurses' to learn and enhancing users' feedback by listening to their complaints and considering their suggestions.

  2. Organizational entrepreneurship and administrators of hospitals: case study of Iran.

    PubMed

    Raadabadi, Mehdi; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Nazari, Aslan; Mousavi, Seyed Masood; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Mohammadali

    2014-04-11

    Due to rapid changes of technology and scientific advances in health systems and need for fast planning in health care, entrepreneurial spirit among employers and employees is a crucial element. According to the field of entrepreneurship research has not been solved and where learning and innovation for healthcare organizations due to the nature of the work required. This study aims to examine the entrepreneurial activities within the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. To achieve the aim of the study, a questionnaire containing 29 items regarding the areas of innovation, creative behavior, flexibility, empowerment, rewarding systems and the management support was distributed among the hospitals' managers. Establishment of a culture of entrepreneurship in healthcare organizations led to the development unit controlled, changing the culture of the hospital. The analysis of the data showed that the majority of the managers agreed with all five areas of entrepreneurship namely the existence of innovation and innovative behavior, flexibility, decision making, rewarding and encouraging system, as well as management supportive system of personnel's new ideas. In fact, the managers generally had positive attitude towards entrepreneurship in their organizations The Pearson correlation test also showed that there is a significant relationship between the areas of entrepreneurship and the managers' age as well as their working experience (P<0.05). Entrepreneurial activities in healthcare can be improved through providing a suitable environment, adjusting reward and encouragement systems, giving more authority to subordinates, promoting awareness and education, and mobilizing managers to attract appropriate opportunities for organization. Further active involvement of employees, more stable in front of changes and increased ability managers to capture opportunities in domestic and foreign situation.

  3. Clinical epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae in community hospitals: a case-case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace C; Lawson, Kenneth A; Burgess, David S

    2013-09-01

    The occurrence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has been increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Despite that increase, there are limited data identifying risk factors. To evaluate risk factors associated with the acquisition of CRE among hospitalized patients. We performed a retrospective case-case-control study in 4 community hospitals from June 2007 through June 2012. Case group 1 (CG1) consisted of patients with CRE. Case group 2 (CG2) consisted of patients with carbapenem susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CSE). CG2 patients were matched to CG1 patients by site of infection and species of Enterobacteriaceae. Hospitalized controls were matched 2:1 by date of admission and hospital location to patients in CG1. Two sets of analyses were conducted comparing demographics, comorbidities, and antibiotic exposures of CG1 and CG2 to controls and then contrasted to identify unique risk factors associated with CRE. Overall, 104 patients (CG1, 25 patients; CG2, 29 patients, control, 50 patients) were evaluated. CRE and CSE consisted mostly of Klebsiella spp. (63%) from a urinary source (28%). In multivariable analyses, intensive care unit (ICU) stay (OR 12.48; 95% CI 1.14-136.62; p = 0.04) and cumulative number of antibiotic days (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.02-2.16; p = 0.04) were distinct independent predictors of CRE isolation; whereas, cumulative health care exposures (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.20-3.41; p < 0.01) and vancomycin exposure (OR 6.70; 95% CI 1.15- 38.91; p = 0.03) were predictors for CSE. CRE should be considered in patients requiring ICU admission, particularly those who have received multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic stewardship efforts should be directed at reducing all antibiotic exposures as opposed to any specific antibiotic class to reduce the risk of CRE.

  4. Organizational Entrepreneurship and Administrators of Hospitals: Case Study of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Raadabadi, Mehdi; Fayaz-Bakhsh, Ahmad; Nazari, Aslan; Mousavi, Seyed Masood; Fayaz-Bakhsh, MohammadAli

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid changes of technology and scientific advances in health systems and need for fast planning in health care, entrepreneurial spirit among employers and employees is a crucial element. According to the field of entrepreneurship research has not been solved and where learning and innovation for healthcare organizations due to the nature of the work required. This study aims to examine the entrepreneurial activities within the hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. To achieve the aim of the study, a questionnaire containing 29 items regarding the areas of innovation, creative behavior, flexibility, empowerment, rewarding systems and the management support was distributed among the hospitals’ managers. Establishment of a culture of entrepreneurship in healthcare organizations led to the development unit controlled, changing the culture of the hospital. The analysis of the data showed that the majority of the managers agreed with all five areas of entrepreneurship namely the existence of innovation and innovative behavior, flexibility, decision making, rewarding and encouraging system, as well as management supportive system of personnel’s new ideas. In fact, the managers generally had positive attitude towards entrepreneurship in their organizations The Pearson correlation test also showed that there is a significant relationship between the areas of entrepreneurship and the managers’ age as well as their working experience (P<0.05). Entrepreneurial activities in healthcare can be improved through providing a suitable environment, adjusting reward and encouragement systems, giving more authority to subordinates, promoting awareness and education, and mobilizing managers to attract appropriate opportunities for organization. Further active involvement of employees, more stable in front of changes and increased ability managers to capture opportunities in domestic and foreign situation. PMID:24762370

  5. Administrative case study: analysis of a hospital pharmacy's manpower requirements.

    PubMed

    Hammel, R J; King, C M; Jones, T F

    1977-09-01

    Development of a method to determine the manpower requirements needed to adequately staff a pharmacy department in a 760-bed teaching hospital is discussed. The Michigan Hospital Staffing Methodology Manual, direct observations, interviews and diaries were used to gather data. An example of the data collected for the dispensing area is presented. The data provided a basis for developing productivity standards for current methods and procedures used in the pharmacy department. Also, the data facilitated the justification process for allocating existing and requesting future manpower resources.

  6. Building and Growing a Hospital Intranet: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Polkowski, Michelle; McLemore, Geoff; Greaker, Mark; Murray, Malcolm

    2001-01-01

    Background The Intranet is a rapidly evolving technology in large hospitals. In this paper, we describe the first phase of an Intranet project in a multi-hospital system in New York City. Objectives (1) To encourage the use of the Intranet among physicians, nurses, managers, and other associates in a multi-hospital system; and (2) to build the Intranet in a cost-effective manner using existing resources. Methods A WebTrends Log Analyzer assessed the Intranet use in terms of the number of accesses from each department. Results A broad range of features, including medical knowledge resources, clinical practice guidelines, directions, patient education, online forms, phone directory, and discussion forums were developed. Analysis of more than 890,000 hits revealed the departments with hits greater than 1,000 were the 'Library' (6,130), 'Physicians Gateway' (2,539), 'Marketing' (1,321), 'Information Systems' (1,241), and 'Nutrition' (1,221). Of 819 unique visitors, 74 per cent visited more than once. Conclusions It is possible to create and diffuse an Intranet in a multi-hospital system in a cost-effective manner. However, the key challenges were selling the potential of this new technology to opinion leaders and other stakeholders, and converting pre-existing printed content by obtaining word processed and image files from other departments or contracted print publishers. PMID:11720952

  7. Factor selection for service quality evaluation: a hospital case study.

    PubMed

    Ameryoun, Ahmad; Najafi, Seyedvahid; Nejati-Zarnaqi, Bayram; Khalilifar, Seyed Omid; Ajam, Mahdi; Ansarimoghadam, Ahmad

    2017-02-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic approach to predict service quality dimension's influence on service quality using a novel analysis based on data envelopment and SERVQUAL. Design/methodology/approach To assess hospital service quality in Tehran, expectation and perception of those who received the services were evaluated using SERVQUAL. The hospital service quality dimensions were found by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). To compare customer expectation and perception, perceived service quality index (PSQI) was measured using a new method based on common weights. A novel sensitivity approach was used to test the service quality factor's impact on the PSQI. Findings A new service quality dimension named "trust in services" was found using EFA, which is not an original SERVQUAL factor. The approach was applied to assess the hospital's service quality. Since the PSQI value was 0.76 it showed that improvements are needed to meet customer expectations. The results showed the factor order that affect PSQI. "Trust in services" has the strongest influence on PSQI followed by "tangibles," "assurance," "empathy," and "responsiveness," respectively. Practical implications This work gives managers insight into service quality by following a systematic method; i.e., measuring perceived service quality from the customer viewpoint and service factors' impact on customer perception. Originality/value The procedure helps managers to select the required service quality dimensions which need improvement and predict their effects on customer perception.

  8. Case study: improving efficiency in a large hospital laboratory.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Marilynn

    2004-01-01

    Saint Francis Health System (SFHS) consists of three hospitals and one clinic: Saint Francis Hospital (SFH); Broken Arrow Medical Center; Laureate Psychiatric Hospital; and Warren Clinic. SFHS has 670 physicians on staff and serves medical (oncology, orthopedic, neurology, and renal), surgical, cardiac, women and infant, pediatric, transplant, and trauma patients in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, which has a population of 660,000. SFH incorporates 706 staffed beds, including 126 pediatric beds and 119 critical care beds. Each year, the health system averages 38,000 admissions, 70,000 emergency department visits, 25,000 surgeries, and 3,500 births. Saint Francis Laboratory is located within the main hospital facility (SFH) and functions as a core lab for the health system. The lab also coordinates lab services with Saint Francis Heart Hospital, a physician-system joint venture. The Optimal Equipment Configuration (OEC) Project was designed by the Clinical Laboratory Services division of Premier, a group purchasing organization, with the goal of determining whether laboratories could improve efficiency and decrease unit cost by using a single-source vendor. Participants included seven business partners (Abbott, Bayer, Beckman/Coulter, Dade/Behring, J&J/ Ortho, Olympus, and Roche) and 21 laboratory sites (a small, mid-sized, and large site for each vendor). SFH laboratory staff embraced Premier's concept and viewed the OEC project as an opportunity to "energize" laboratory operations. SFH partnered with Abbott, their primary equipment vendor, for the project. Using resources and tools made available through the project, the laboratory was re-engineered to simplify workflow, increase productivity, and decrease costs by adding automation and changing to centralized specimen processing. Abbott and SFH shared a common vision for the project and enhanced their partnership through increased communication and problem solving. Abbott's area representatives provided for third

  9. Hospital branding in Italy: A pilot study based on the case method.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    The article investigates if, and in affirmative case how, Italian hospitals are managing corporate brand communication. Thanks to results of qualitative research, this article offers insights on Italian hospital branding. The pilot study based in the case method is to be considered a starting point for wider investigations on this topic, and it is useful for managers and practitioners who want to understand the role of corporate brand in hospital communication management and to connect health care professionals with the audience in a meaningful way in those countries in which the health care system is a mix of both public and private institutions.

  10. Cost of Hospitalization for Foodborne Diarrhea: A Case Study from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tuan Anh; Ha, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Viet Hung

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam is undergoing a rapid social and economic developments resulting in speedy urbanization, changes in methods for animal production, food marketing systems, and food consumption habits. These changes will have major impacts on human exposures to food poisoning. The present case study aimed to estimate hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhea cases in selected health facilities in Vietnam. This is a facility-based cost-of-illness study conducted in seven health facilities in Northern Vietnam. All suspect cases of foodborne diarrhea, as diagnosed by doctors, who admitted to the studied health facilities during June-August, 2013 were selected. Costs associated with hospitalization for foodborne diseases were estimated from societal perspective using retrospective approach. We included direct and indirect costs of hospitalization of foodborne diarrhea cases. During the study period, 87 foodborne diarrhea cases were included. On average, the costs per treatment episode and per hospitalization day for foodborne diarrhea case were US$ 106.9 and US$ 33.6 respectively. Indirect cost (costs of times to patient, their relatives due to the patient's illness) made up the largest share (51.3%). Direct medical costs accounted for 33.8%; direct non-medical costs (patient and their relatives) represented 14.9%. Cost levels and compositions varied by level of health facilities. More attentions should be paid on prevention, control of foodborne diarrhea cases in Vietnam. Ensuring safety of food depends on efforts of everyone involved in food chain continuum, from production, processing, and transport to consumption. PMID:26617452

  11. Cost of Hospitalization for Foodborne Diarrhea: A Case Study from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Van Minh; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ha, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Viet Hung

    2015-11-01

    Vietnam is undergoing a rapid social and economic developments resulting in speedy urbanization, changes in methods for animal production, food marketing systems, and food consumption habits. These changes will have major impacts on human exposures to food poisoning. The present case study aimed to estimate hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhea cases in selected health facilities in Vietnam. This is a facility-based cost-of-illness study conducted in seven health facilities in Northern Vietnam. All suspect cases of foodborne diarrhea, as diagnosed by doctors, who admitted to the studied health facilities during June-August, 2013 were selected. Costs associated with hospitalization for foodborne diseases were estimated from societal perspective using retrospective approach. We included direct and indirect costs of hospitalization of foodborne diarrhea cases. During the study period, 87 foodborne diarrhea cases were included. On average, the costs per treatment episode and per hospitalization day for foodborne diarrhea case were US$ 106.9 and US$ 33.6 respectively. Indirect cost (costs of times to patient, their relatives due to the patient's illness) made up the largest share (51.3%). Direct medical costs accounted for 33.8%; direct non-medical costs (patient and their relatives) represented 14.9%. Cost levels and compositions varied by level of health facilities. More attentions should be paid on prevention, control of foodborne diarrhea cases in Vietnam. Ensuring safety of food depends on efforts of everyone involved in food chain continuum, from production, processing, and transport to consumption.

  12. Strengthening health promotion in hospitals with capacity building: a Taiwanese case study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiachi Bonnie; Chen, Michael S; Chien, Sou-Hsin; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Wang, Ying Wei; Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk

    2015-09-01

    Organizational capacity building for health promotion (HP) is beneficial to the effective implementation of HP in organizational settings. The World Health Organization (WHO) Health Promoting Hospitals' (HPHs) initiative encourages hospitals to promote the health of their stakeholders by developing organizational capacity. This study analyzes an application case of one hospital of the HPH initiative in Taiwan, characterizes actions aiming at building organizational support to strengthen health gains and identifies facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of the HP in this hospital. Case study methodology was used with a triangulation of various sources; thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative information. This study found a positive impact of the HPH initiative on the case hospital, such as more support from leadership, a fine-tuned HP mission and strategy, cultivated pro-HP habits of physical activities, a supportive intramural structure, an HP-inclusive system, improved management practices and enhanced staff participation. Transformational and transactional enablers are of equal importance in implementing HPH. However, it was also found that the case hospital encountered more transactional barriers than transformational ones. This hospital was hindered by insufficient support from external environments, leadership with limited autonomy and authority, a preference for ideals over professionalism, insufficient participation by physicians, a lack of manpower and time, a merit system with limited stimulating effect, ineffective management practices in weak central project management, a lack of integration, insufficient communication and an inability to inculcate the staff on the importance of HP, and inadequate staff participation. Several implications for other hospitals are suggested. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Centralized or decentralized? A case study of Norwegian hospital reform.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Jon; Hagen, Terje P; Kaarboe, Oddvar M

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, decentralization of financial and political power has been perceived as a useful means to improve outcomes of the health care sector of many European countries. Such reforms could be the result of fashionable policy trends, rather than being based on knowledge of "what works". If decentralization is the favored strategy in health care, studies of countries that go against the current trend will be of interest and importance as they provide information about the potential drawbacks of decentralization. In Norway, specialized health care has recently been recentralized. In this paper, we review some of the evidence now available on the economic effects of recentralization. Although recentralization has been associated with improvements in both cost efficiency and technical efficiency this may have been caused by the increasing role of activity-based funding methods used in the allocation of health care resources. However, recentralization was also associated with an increase in the rate of growth of real resources and the proportion of total costs being met by supplementary funding. As a result, recentralization failed to address the issues of cost containment and reductions in budget deficits.

  14. International benchmarking of specialty hospitals. A series of case studies on comprehensive cancer centres

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Benchmarking is one of the methods used in business that is applied to hospitals to improve the management of their operations. International comparison between hospitals can explain performance differences. As there is a trend towards specialization of hospitals, this study examines the benchmarking process and the success factors of benchmarking in international specialized cancer centres. Methods Three independent international benchmarking studies on operations management in cancer centres were conducted. The first study included three comprehensive cancer centres (CCC), three chemotherapy day units (CDU) were involved in the second study and four radiotherapy departments were included in the final study. Per multiple case study a research protocol was used to structure the benchmarking process. After reviewing the multiple case studies, the resulting description was used to study the research objectives. Results We adapted and evaluated existing benchmarking processes through formalizing stakeholder involvement and verifying the comparability of the partners. We also devised a framework to structure the indicators to produce a coherent indicator set and better improvement suggestions. Evaluating the feasibility of benchmarking as a tool to improve hospital processes led to mixed results. Case study 1 resulted in general recommendations for the organizations involved. In case study 2, the combination of benchmarking and lean management led in one CDU to a 24% increase in bed utilization and a 12% increase in productivity. Three radiotherapy departments of case study 3, were considering implementing the recommendations. Additionally, success factors, such as a well-defined and small project scope, partner selection based on clear criteria, stakeholder involvement, simple and well-structured indicators, analysis of both the process and its results and, adapt the identified better working methods to the own setting, were found. Conclusions The improved

  15. International benchmarking of specialty hospitals. A series of case studies on comprehensive cancer centres.

    PubMed

    van Lent, Wineke A M; de Beer, Relinde D; van Harten, Wim H

    2010-08-31

    Benchmarking is one of the methods used in business that is applied to hospitals to improve the management of their operations. International comparison between hospitals can explain performance differences. As there is a trend towards specialization of hospitals, this study examines the benchmarking process and the success factors of benchmarking in international specialized cancer centres. Three independent international benchmarking studies on operations management in cancer centres were conducted. The first study included three comprehensive cancer centres (CCC), three chemotherapy day units (CDU) were involved in the second study and four radiotherapy departments were included in the final study. Per multiple case study a research protocol was used to structure the benchmarking process. After reviewing the multiple case studies, the resulting description was used to study the research objectives. We adapted and evaluated existing benchmarking processes through formalizing stakeholder involvement and verifying the comparability of the partners. We also devised a framework to structure the indicators to produce a coherent indicator set and better improvement suggestions. Evaluating the feasibility of benchmarking as a tool to improve hospital processes led to mixed results. Case study 1 resulted in general recommendations for the organizations involved. In case study 2, the combination of benchmarking and lean management led in one CDU to a 24% increase in bed utilization and a 12% increase in productivity. Three radiotherapy departments of case study 3, were considering implementing the recommendations.Additionally, success factors, such as a well-defined and small project scope, partner selection based on clear criteria, stakeholder involvement, simple and well-structured indicators, analysis of both the process and its results and, adapt the identified better working methods to the own setting, were found. The improved benchmarking process and the success

  16. Priority-setting and hospital strategic planning: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Douglas; Shulman, Ken; Santiago-Sorrell, Patricia; Singer, Peter

    2003-10-01

    To describe and evaluate the priority-setting element of a hospital's strategic planning process. Qualitative case study and evaluation against the conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness' of a strategic planning process at a large urban university-affiliated hospital. The hospital's strategic planning process met the conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness' in large part. Specifically: the hospital based its decisions on reasons (both information and criteria) that the participants felt were relevant to the hospital; the number and type of participants were very extensive; the process, decisions and reasons were well communicated throughout the organization, using multiple communication vehicles; and the process included an ethical framework linked to an effort to evaluate and improve the process. However, there were opportunities to improve the process, particularly by giving participants more time to absorb the information relevant to priority-setting decisions, more time to take difficult decisions and some means to appeal or revise decisions. A case study linked to an evaluation using 'accountability for reasonableness' can serve to improve priority-setting in the context of hospital strategic planning.

  17. Strategies for Research Development in Hospital Social Work: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Ted; Nicholas, David Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article identifies salient components in the advancement of social work research leadership within health care. Method: Using tenets of a modified retrospective case study approach, processes and outcomes of social work research progression at a pediatric hospital are reviewed. Results: Capacity-building processes were…

  18. Language, Literacy and Numeracy in National Training Packages: Case Studies in Aged Care and Hospitality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Christine; Brand, Jennie Bickmore

    The implementation and effectiveness of the inclusion of literacy and numeracy in industry training packages was examined in case studies of three programs in Western Australia. Two were certificate programs in cooking and food and beverage as specified in the hospitality training package, and the third was an aged care program based on the…

  19. A Case Study of Job Satisfaction in Surgical Services at Martin Army Community Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    anesthesiologists, and registered nurses. The research was qualitative in nature, primarily employing comprehensive nonprobability sampling . Primary data...Community Hospital (MACH), Fort Benning, Georgia. The case study employed the nominal group technique to garner job factors specific to the...group technique to garner job factors specific to the professionals involved in surgical services at MACH. Job satisfaction was structured under the

  20. Strategies for Research Development in Hospital Social Work: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Ted; Nicholas, David Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article identifies salient components in the advancement of social work research leadership within health care. Method: Using tenets of a modified retrospective case study approach, processes and outcomes of social work research progression at a pediatric hospital are reviewed. Results: Capacity-building processes were…

  1. The Journey to Meet Emerging Community Benefit Requirements in a Rural Hospital: A Case Study

    PubMed

    Sabin, Allison V; Levin, Pamela F

    2015-10-22

    The Affordable Care Act requires nonprofit hospitals to collaborate with public health agencies and community stakeholders to identify and address community health needs. As a rural organization, Wabash County (Indiana) Hospital pursued new approaches to achieve these revised requirements of the community benefit mandate. Using a case study approach, the authors provide a historical review of governmental relationships with nonprofit community hospitals, offer a case study application for implementing legislative mandates and community benefit requirements, share the insights they garnered on their journey to meet the mandates, and conclude that drawing upon the existing resources in the community and using current community assets in novel ways can help conserve time, and also financial, material, and human resources in meeting legislative mandates.

  2. Unambiguous identification of hospital patients: case study at the university departments of the General Hospital, Vienna.

    PubMed

    Sachs, P; Gall, W; Marksteiner, A; Dorda, W

    2000-07-01

    This article considers the problem of identifying patients in one or more heterogeneous personal databases. The unambiguous identification of patients is an essential prerequisite for an efficient patient care system. We discuss the problems involved in this task and suggest how they can be dealt with. The solution of automatic consolidation of patient records sequires programming, organisational and work psychology measures. Following a survey of conventional identification methods, the method developed at the Department of Medical Computer Sciences, which is based on the current clinical situation at the General Hospital in Vienna (AKH--Allgemeines KrankenHaus), is described in detail. The basic principle is to identify patients unambiguously by means of an ID (IZAHL) derived directly from the personal data. Thereby a deterministic technique without probability weighting is used-all compared information must correspond completely. The article closes with a critical survey of experience gathered to date.

  3. Predictors of labor abnormalities in university hospital: unmatched case control study.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Wayu; Berhan, Yifru

    2014-08-03

    Abnormal labor is one of the common emergency obstetric problems contributing for more than two-thirds of the unplanned cesarean section. In Ethiopia, although labor abnormality and its complications like obstetric fistula are highly prevalent, there is no published study that determines the predictors of labor abnormalities. The study design was an unmatched case control which included 844 women (408 cases and 436 controls). Cases were identified when a woman was diagnosed to have one of the labor abnormalities at term (prolonged latent stage, active phase disorder, prolonged second stage, descent disorder and obstructed labor). Subgroup logistic regression analyses were done taking the different type of labor abnormalities as the dependent variable. Nearly half of the cases (48.6%) were found to have the active phase disorder. Obstructed labor alone accounted for about 16.8% of the cases. The mean gestational age of cases and controls was almost comparable. More than a quarter of cases and controls came to the hospital in the second stage of labor. More than two-thirds of the cases (67.4%) gave birth by cesarean section. The logistic regression analysis demonstrated an independent association of overall labor abnormality with pelvic inadequacy. The subgroup analysis, however, revealed that several obstetric factors were associated with one or more types of labor abnormalities. Active phase disorders were the commonest type of labor abnormalities. Cases were late in reporting to the hospital. Malposition, inadequate pelvis and inadequate uterine contraction were some of the predictors of specific types of labor abnormalities.

  4. 77 FR 12598 - Notice Correction; A Multi-Center International Hospital-Based Case-Control Study of Lymphoma in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ...-Based Case-Control Study of Lymphoma in Asia (AsiaLymph) (NCI) The Federal Register notice published on... international hospital-based case-control study of lymphoma in Asia (AsiaLymph) (NCI)'' was submitted with...

  5. Implementing a hospital based injury surveillance system: a case study in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    John, I A; Mohammed, A Z; Lawoko, S; Nkanta, C A; Frank-Briggs, A; Nwadiaro, H C; Tuko, M; Zavala, D E; Kolo, E S; Ramalan, M A; Bassey, D E; Didi, E

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study of violent injury surveillance was implemented in two hospitals in Kano, Nigeria, in two phases: a formative evaluation including training and arranging the collection of hospital information, followed by a 6 month prospective data collection. Road traffic injuries constituted about 80 per cent of the cases, gunshot injuries were the commonest in victims of interpersonal violence (IPV). The causes and context of IPV, the relationship of victims and perpetrators, and the place, related activities and anatomical site of injuries from IPV are summarized.

  6. Influence of social factors on avoidable mortality: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Daniel; Alfonso, José Luis; Corella, Dolores; Saiz, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of socioeconomic factors on avoidable mortality at an individual level is not well known, since most studies showing this association are based on aggregate data. The purpose of this study was to determine socioeconomic differences between those patients who die of avoidable causes and those who do not die. METHODS: A matched case-control study was carried out regarding in-hospital avoidable mortality (Holland's medical care indicators) that occurred in a university hospital serving a Spanish-Mediterranean population during a 30-month period. RESULTS: We studied 82 cases of death from avoidable causes and 300 controls matched on medical care indicators and age. The variables that showed a statistically significant association with in-hospital avoidable mortality were number of diagnoses (the greater the number, the higher the risk), length of stay (patients staying seven or more days presented a lower risk), and education. Those patients with low and middle educational levels showed a greater risk of avoidable mortality (adjusted odds ratio=3.57 and 2.82, respectively) than those patients with higher levels of education. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the findings of studies based on aggregate data, our case-control analyses indicated that among several socioeconomic variables studied, educational level was significantly associated with the risk of in-hospital avoidable mortality, regardless of age and medical care indicators. Patients with low levels of education (<6 years of schooling) were at highest risk for in-hospital avoidable mortality, followed by those with middle levels of education (7-10 years of schooling). PMID:15736332

  7. Evaluation of outsourcing in nursing services: a case study of kashani hospital, isfahan in 2011.

    PubMed

    Ferdosi, Masoud; Farahabadi, Ehsan; Mofid, Maryam; Rejalian, Farzaneh; Haghighat, Maryam; Naghdi, Parnaz

    2013-03-01

    Hospitals need to focus on their core activities, thus outsourcing of services may be effective in some instances. However, monitoring and supervision is a vital mechanism to preserving and enhancing the quality of outsourced services, and to identify the benefits and losses occurred. The purpose of this study is evaluation of nursing services outsourced in a general hospital from different point of views. This is a descriptive and applied study done by case study (before and after) method. Outsourcing nursing services of clinical wards (ENT and Neurosurgery) of Kashani Hospital in 2011 has been studied. We extracted data from a handmade questionnaire about internal customer's satisfaction and semi-structured interviews with officials, and also survey of financial and administrative documents and records related to the topic. The findings indicate an increased number of graduated nurses per bed to fulfill the main objective of outsourcing in this case. But achieving this objective is accompanied with remarkable increased costs per bed after outsourcing. Besides, we noticed minor changes in internal customer satisfaction rate. While outsourcing should bring about staff and patients' satisfaction and increase the efficiency and effectiveness, outsourcing nursing workforce singly, leaded to a loss of efficiency. Therefore, the applied outsourcing has not met the productivity for the hospital.

  8. Evaluation of Outsourcing in Nursing Services: A Case Study of Kashani Hospital, Isfahan in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ferdosi, Masoud; Farahabadi, Ehsan; Mofid, Maryam; Rejalian, Farzaneh; Haghighat, Maryam; Naghdi, Parnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hospitals need to focus on their core activities, thus outsourcing of services may be effective in some instances. However, monitoring and supervision is a vital mechanism to preserving and enhancing the quality of outsourced services, and to identify the benefits and losses occurred. The purpose of this study is evaluation of nursing services outsourced in a general hospital from different point of views. Methods: This is a descriptive and applied study done by case study (before and after) method. Outsourcing nursing services of clinical wards (ENT and Neurosurgery) of Kashani Hospital in 2011 has been studied. We extracted data from a handmade questionnaire about internal customer’s satisfaction and semi-structured interviews with officials, and also survey of financial and administrative documents and records related to the topic. Results: The findings indicate an increased number of graduated nurses per bed to fulfill the main objective of outsourcing in this case. But achieving this objective is accompanied with remarkable increased costs per bed after outsourcing. Besides, we noticed minor changes in internal customer satisfaction rate. Conclusion: While outsourcing should bring about staff and patients’ satisfaction and increase the efficiency and effectiveness, outsourcing nursing workforce singly, leaded to a loss of efficiency. Therefore, the applied outsourcing has not met the productivity for the hospital. PMID:23678338

  9. Risk factors for diarrhea hospitalization in Bangladesh, 2000-2008: a case-case study of cholera and shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Faruque, Abu S G; Cowgill, Karen D; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2014-08-15

    Cholera and shigellosis are endemic on the Indian subcontinent. Our objective was to identify cholera-specific risk factors distinct from shigellosis risk factors. We conducted a case-case study among hospitalized diarrheal patients, comparing those with cholera and shigellosis in International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) hospitals in Matlab (rural) and Dhaka (urban) between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008. Multivariable Poisson regression models revealed that having more than nine years of education, compared to no education, was associated with a 39% (adjusted Risk Ratio [aRR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.40-0.93) decreased risk for cholera hospitalization in Matlab and a 16% (aRR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.94) decreased risk in Dhaka. Having a family member with diarrhea in the past seven days increased cholera hospitalization risk by 17% (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09-1.26) in Matlab. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathway through which education impacts cholera risk in order to create targeted interventions in cholera-endemic areas. Interventions seeking to reduce transmission and facilitate hygienic practices among family members of index cases with diarrhea should be considered, especially in rural cholera endemic settings.

  10. The implications of management by walking about: a case study of a German hospital.

    PubMed

    Beil-Hildebrand, Margitta

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on case study research conducted in a German hospital and describe the implications that the "Management by walking about" approach had on healthcare employees. "Management by walking about" is widely seen as one of the favoured procedures for increasing employee commitment and shared understanding as well as supporting high trust work relations. This case study set out to examine the actual labour processes and the concrete experiences of healthcare employees behind the "Management by walking about" approach in a German hospital. This was achieved by means of a six month field study of day-to-day life in the hospital's nursing division. In this case study, the popular initiative of "Management by walking about" was used as a means of managerial control and, as such, the internal promotion of soaring values and path-finding visions was met with both scepticism and cynicism. Pre-commitment and motivation levels were high among healthcare employees, they were passionate about their healthcare work and they actively engaged in open communication and organisational development. But all this had little to do with "Management by walking about", and its implications raise questions about its influence on high trust work relations more generally. The paper concludes that a more critical analysis is necessary to challenge the way in which "Management by walking about" is examined by healthcare management academics and practitioners.

  11. Bacteremia in a general hospital. A prospective study of 102 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, O B; Korner, B

    1975-01-01

    A prospective clinical-bacteriological study of 102 consecutive cases of confirmed bacteremia at a Copenhagen City general hospital was carried out during 5 months of 1973 with special concern given to focus of infection and acquisition of microorganisms. Valid positive cultures were obtained from 7.2 patients per 1000 admissions. 50 of the 102 bacteremias were by all probability acquired in the hospital, mainly due to transurethral manipulations or intravenous lines. Pneumonia and hepatobiliary infections accounted for most of the non-hospital acquired bacteremias. 26/102 patients died in relation to the bacteremia. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus caused more than half of the infections. Bacteremia caused by proteus, klebsiella, enterobacter species of staphylococci was in most cases nosocomial and carried the highest mortality, i.e. 40%, verus 15% when other organisms were responsible. It is concluded that nosocomial bacteremia is a frequent and life-endangering complication which is often preceded by certain diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, not invariably linked to severe underlying diseases. Consequently, attempts to reduce bacteremic episodes should include surveillance of ecological factors and certain hospital procedures.

  12. Dementia in older people admitted to hospital: a regional multi-hospital observational study of prevalence, associations and case recognition

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Suzanne; Manning, Edmund; Barrett, Aoife; Brady, Noeleen M.; Browne, Vanessa; O’Shea, Emma; Molloy, David William; O'Regan, Niamh A.; Trawley, Steven; Cahill, Suzanne; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Woods, Noel; Meagher, David; Ni Chorcorain, Aoife M.; Linehan, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: previous studies have indicated a prevalence of dementia in older admissions of ∼42% in a single London teaching hospital, and 21% in four Queensland hospitals. However, there is a lack of published data from any European country on the prevalence of dementia across hospitals and between patient groups. Objective: to determine the prevalence and associations of dementia in older patients admitted to acute hospitals in Ireland. Methods: six hundred and six patients aged ≥70 years were recruited on admission to six hospitals in Cork County. Screening consisted of Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE); patients with scores <27/30 had further assessment with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Final expert diagnosis was based on SMMSE, IQCODE and relevant medical and demographic history. Patients were screened for delirium and depression, and assessed for co-morbidity, functional ability and nutritional status. Results: of 598 older patients admitted to acute hospitals, 25% overall had dementia; with 29% in public hospitals. Prevalence varied between hospitals (P < 0.001); most common in rural hospitals and acute medical admissions. Only 35.6% of patients with dementia had a previous diagnosis. Patients with dementia were older and frailer, with higher co-morbidity, malnutrition and lower functional status (P < 0.001). Delirium was commonly superimposed on dementia (57%) on admission. Conclusion: dementia is common in older people admitted to acute hospitals, particularly in acute medical admissions, and rural hospitals, where services may be less available. Most dementia is not previously diagnosed, emphasising the necessity for cognitive assessment in older people on presentation to hospital. PMID:26420638

  13. Risk factors for hospital-acquired infections in teaching hospitals of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia: A matched-case control study.

    PubMed

    Yallew, Walelegn Worku; Kumie, Abera; Yehuala, Feleke Moges

    2017-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infection affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. It is a major global issue for patient safety. Understanding the potential risk factors is important to appreciate the local context. A matched case control study design, which is the first of its kind in the study region, was undertaken to identify risk factors in teaching hospitals of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. A matched case control study design matched with age and hospital type was used. The study was conducted in University of Gondar and Felege-Hiwot medical teaching hospital. Cases were patients who fulfilled the criteria based on CDC definition of hospital-acquired infection and controls were patients admitted to the hospital that stayed for more than 48 hours in the ward in the study period, but who did not develop infection. For one case, four controls were selected. Of 545 patients, 109 were cases and 436 were controls. Conditional logistic regression using STATA 13 was used for data analysis. The median length of stay for cases and controls was 7 and 8 days, respectively. Patients admitted in wards with the presence of medical waste container in the room had 82% less chance of developing hospital-acquired infection (AOR 0.18; 95% CI, 0.03-0.98). The odds of developing hospital-acquired infection among immune deficient patients were 2.34 times higher than their counterparts (95% CI; 1.17-4.69). Patients received antimicrobials, central vascular catheter and surgery since admission had 8.63, 6.91 and 2.35 higher odds of developing hospital-acquired infection, respectively. Health providers and mangers should consider the provision and availability of healthcare materials and facilities in all of the ward rooms, follow appropriate safe medical procedures for use of external devices on patients, and give attention to the immunocompromised patients for the prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections.

  14. A hospital-based study on seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile cases in northeastern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rafizah, A A Noor; Aziah, B D; Azwany, Y N; Imran, M Kamarul; Rusli, A Mohamed; Nazri, S Mohd; Nikman, A Mohd; Nabilah, I; Asma', H Siti; Zahiruddin, W M; Zaliha, I

    2013-06-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile inpatient cases in northeastern Malaysia. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 999 febrile cases admitted to 10 hospitals in northeastern Malaysia. A survey using a proforma sheet was used to obtain sociodemographic and occupational information. Serum samples were screened for leptospirosis by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test (IgM ELISA) and confirmed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). There was an equivalent distribution of males and females in the 999 respondents enrolled in the study. The majority were Malay (94.7%) and their mean age was 39.4 (standard deviation 17.6) years. The overall seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 8.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.8-10.3) (n=84). The high-risk occupational group was found to have a higher seroprevalence, which was 56% (95% CI 45.3-66.1) (n=47). The predominant serogroup was Sejroe (82.1%, 95% CI 72.6-88.8) (n=69). This study revealed a possible high seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile cases, indicating the need to review the importance of adding leptospirosis to the case investigation of febrile illness, especially among high-risk occupational groups in Malaysia, as well as in other endemic countries. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Pathak, S M; Jindal, A K; Verma, A K; Mahen, A

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. In India, more than a million are injured annually and about a lakh are killed in road traffic accidents.(1) It causes the country to lose around 55,000 crores annually which is 2-3% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP).(2) This cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the role of various factors involved in road traffic accidents. Road traffic accident cases admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 01 Oct 2009 and 28 Feb 2011 were included in the study. A total of 182 patients were studied. Information was collected through questionnaire, hospital records and on-site visit. OPD cases, comatose patients and deaths were excluded. Two-wheelers were the commonest vehicle involved in vehicular accidents. Most accidents happened at a speed of 40-60 km/h (37.9%). Most of the patients were aged between 20 and 30 years. Majority had a driving experience of less than 5 years. Monsoons witnessed 46.7% cases. Most cases occurred between 6 and 10 pm. Among severe injuries, the commonest was lower limb fractures (19.8%). There are multiple factors associated with road traffic accidents which due to the lack of road safety measures in the country are playing their role. It is the need of the hour to address this issue and formulate comprehensive, scientific and practical rules and regulations as well as evaluate its enforcement.

  16. Role of Parental Smoking in Severe Bronchiolitis: A Hospital Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Mujibul; Kamal, Mohammad Shah; Choudhury, Md. Moseh Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Bronchiolitis is one of the commonest causes of hospitalization of infants and young children in Bangladesh. About 21% of under 5 children attending different hospitals of Bangladesh have bronchiolitis. Fifty percent (50%) men and three percent (3%) women of Bangladesh are smokers. Parental smoking is an important risk factor for both susceptibility and severity of bronchiolitis. The aim of this study was to find out the role of parental smoking in severe bronchiolitis. Design. Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study. The study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, from July 2013 to December 2015. Patients and Methods. Sixty-four patients admitted into the ward with severe bronchiolitis were enrolled as cases and sixty-four suitably matched apparently healthy children attending EPI centre and outpatient department presenting with nonrespiratory illness were enrolled as controls. Sample size was calculated using Guilford and Frucher formula. The technique was systematic random sampling. Every second case satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria was enrolled in the study. Results. The mean age of the patients was 7.53 (SD ± 4.75) months. Forty (62.5%) patients were male and twenty four (37.5%) patients were female. Male-to-female ratio was 1.7 : 1. Most of the cases (60.95%) came from low socioeconomic background. More than half of the cases (53.13%) were not exclusively breastfed babies. Mean length of hospital stay was 6.41 (SD ± 2.82) days. Thirty eight (59%) cases and twenty six (34%) controls were exposed to parental smoking. Result was highly significant (p = 0.005). Odds ratio was 2.8 (95% CI from 1.36 to 5.72). Conclusion. Exposure to parental smoking causes a statistically significant (p = 0.005, odds ratio = 2.8) increase in the risk of developing severe bronchiolitis in the first year of life. PMID:28356915

  17. Hospital waste management status in Iran: a case study in the teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Moradi, Arash; Mohammadi, Mojtaba Shah; Jorfi, Sahand

    2009-06-01

    Hospital waste materials pose a wide variety of health and safety hazards for patients and healthcare workers. Many of hospitals in Iran have neither a satisfactory waste disposal system nor a waste management and disposal policy. The main objective of this research was to investigate the solid waste management in the eight teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. In this cross-sectional study, the main stages of hospital waste management including generation, separation, collection, storage, and disposal of waste materials were assessed in these hospitals, located in Tehran city. The measurement was conducted through a questionnaire and direct observation by researchers. The data obtained was converted to a quantitative measure to evaluate the different management components. The results showed that the waste generation rate was 2.5 to 3.01 kg bed(-1) day(-1), which included 85 to 90% of domestic waste and 10 to 15% of infectious waste. The lack of separation between hazardous and non-hazardous waste, an absence of the necessary rules and regulations applying to the collection of waste from hospital wards and on-site transport to a temporary storage location, a lack of proper waste treatment, and disposal of hospital waste along with municipal garbage, were the main findings. In order to improve the existing conditions, some extensive research to assess the present situation in the hospitals of Iran, the compilation of rules and establishment of standards and effective training for the personnel are actions that are recommended.

  18. Social interaction in management group meetings: a case study of Finnish hospital.

    PubMed

    Laapotti, Tomi; Mikkola, Leena

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of management group meetings (MGMs) in hospital organization by examining the social interaction in these meetings. Design/methodology/approach - This case study approaches social interaction from a structuration point of view. Social network analysis and qualitative content analysis are applied. Findings - The findings show that MGMs are mainly forums for information sharing. Meetings are not held for problem solving or decision making, and operational coordinating is limited. Meeting interaction is very much focused on the chair, and most of the discussion takes place between the chair and one other member, not between members. The organizational structures are maintained and reproduced in the meeting interaction, and they appear to limit discussion. Meetings appear to fulfil their goals as a part of the organization's information structure and to some extent as an instrument for management. The significance of the relational side of MGMs was recognized. Research limitations/implications - The results of this study provide a basis for future research on hospital MGMs with wider datasets and other methodologies. Especially the relational role of MGMs needs more attention. Practical implications - The goals of MGMs should be reviewed and MG members should be made aware of meeting interaction structures. Originality/value - The paper provides new knowledge about interaction networks in hospital MGMs, and describes the complexity of the importance of MGMs for hospitals.

  19. Exploring types of focused factories in hospital care: a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Bredenhoff, Eelco; van Lent, Wineke A M; van Harten, Wim H

    2010-06-07

    Focusing on specific treatments or diseases is proposed as a way to increase the efficiency of hospital care. The definition of "focus" or "focused factory", however, lacks clarity. Examples in health care literature relate to very different organizations.Our aim was to explore the application of the focused factory concept in hospital care, including an indication of its performance, resulting in a conceptual framework that can be helpful in further identifying different types of focused factories. Thus contributing to the understanding of the diversity of examples found in the literature. We conducted a cross-case comparison of four multiple-case studies into hospital care. To cover a broad array of focus, different specialty fields were selected. Each study investigated the organizational context, the degree of focus, and the operational performance. Focus was measured using an instrument translated from industry. Data were collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods and included site visits. A descriptive analysis was performed at the case study and cross-case studies level. The operational performance per specialty field varied considerably, even when cases showed comparable degrees of focus. Cross-case comparison showed three focus domains. The product domain considered specialty based focused factories that treated patients for a single-specialty, but did not pursue a specific strategy nor adapted work-designs or layouts. The process domain considered delivery based focused factories that treated multiple groups of patients and often pursued strategies to improve efficiency and timeliness and adapted work-designs and physical layouts to minimize delays. The product-process domain considered procedure based focused factories that treated a single well-defined group of patients offering one type of treatment. The strategic focusing decisions and the design of the care delivery system appeared especially important for delivery and procedure based

  20. Exploring types of focused factories in hospital care: a multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Focusing on specific treatments or diseases is proposed as a way to increase the efficiency of hospital care. The definition of "focus" or "focused factory", however, lacks clarity. Examples in health care literature relate to very different organizations. Our aim was to explore the application of the focused factory concept in hospital care, including an indication of its performance, resulting in a conceptual framework that can be helpful in further identifying different types of focused factories. Thus contributing to the understanding of the diversity of examples found in the literature. Methods We conducted a cross-case comparison of four multiple-case studies into hospital care. To cover a broad array of focus, different specialty fields were selected. Each study investigated the organizational context, the degree of focus, and the operational performance. Focus was measured using an instrument translated from industry. Data were collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods and included site visits. A descriptive analysis was performed at the case study and cross-case studies level. Results The operational performance per specialty field varied considerably, even when cases showed comparable degrees of focus. Cross-case comparison showed three focus domains. The product domain considered specialty based focused factories that treated patients for a single-specialty, but did not pursue a specific strategy nor adapted work-designs or layouts. The process domain considered delivery based focused factories that treated multiple groups of patients and often pursued strategies to improve efficiency and timeliness and adapted work-designs and physical layouts to minimize delays. The product-process domain considered procedure based focused factories that treated a single well-defined group of patients offering one type of treatment. The strategic focusing decisions and the design of the care delivery system appeared especially important for

  1. Case study: the Stanford University School of Medicine and its teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Philip A

    2008-09-01

    There is wide variation in the governance and organization of academic health centers (AHCs), often prompted by or associated with changes in leadership. Changes at AHCs are influenced by institutional priorities, economic factors, competing needs, and the personality and performance of leaders. No organizational model has uniform applicability, and it is important for each AHC to learn what works or does not on the basis of its experiences. This case study of the Stanford University School of Medicine and its teaching hospitals--which constitute Stanford's AHC, the Stanford University Medical Center--reflects responses to the consequences of a failed merger of the teaching hospitals and related clinical enterprises with those of the University of California-San Francisco School of Medicine that required a new definition of institutional priorities and directions. These were shaped by a strategic plan that helped define goals and objectives in education, research, patient care, and the necessary financial and administrative underpinnings needed. A governance model was created that made the medical school and its two major affiliated teaching hospitals partners; this arrangement requires collaboration and coordination that is highly dependent on the shared objectives of the institutional leaders involved. The case study provides the background factors and issues that led to these changes, how they were envisioned and implemented, the current status and challenges, and some lessons learned. Although the current model is working, future changes may be needed to respond to internal and external forces and changes in leadership.

  2. A telegeriatric service in a small rural hospital: A case study and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Versleijen, Marloes; Martin-Khan, Melinda G; Whitty, Jennifer A; Smith, Anthony C; Gray, Leonard C

    2015-12-01

    Small hospitals in rural areas usually have an insufficient caseload of frail old people to justify the regular presence of a geriatrician. This study examined the costs of providing a telegeriatric service by videoconference in a rural hospital, compared to the costs of a visiting geriatrician that travels to undertake in-person consultations. A cost analysis was undertaken to compare the costs of the telegeriatric service model with the costs of a visiting geriatrician service model. A recently established telegeriatric service at Warwick Hospital was used as a case study. In the base case model (assuming four patients per round and a round-trip travel distance of 312 kilometres), an estimated AUD$131 per patient consultation can be saved in favour of the telegeriatric service model. Key drivers of costs are the number of patients per round and the travel distance and time in the visiting geriatrician model. At a workload of four patients per round, it is less expensive to conduct a telegeriatric service than a visiting geriatrician service when the round-trip travel time exceeds 76 minutes. Even under quite conservative assumptions, a telegeriatric service offers an economically feasible approach to the delivery of specialist geriatric assessment in rural and remote settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Adherence to thromboprophylaxis guidelines in elderly patients with hospital acquired venous thromboembolism: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jason; Desai, Amishi; Desai, Anish; Cruz, Josephine Dela; Mariampillai, Anusiyanthan; Hindenburg, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains the number one preventable cause of hospital acquired mortality and morbidity. Each year, more than 12 million patients are at risk for VTE. The delivery of appropriate and timely VTE prophylaxis is still suboptimal in many healthcare institutions and can lead to increased readmissions, morbidity, as well as costs. To clarify this issue further, we performed a retrospective case control study at our institution to determine if poor adherence to the VTE prophylaxis guidelines could lead to an increase in VTE events. This was a retrospective case control study conducted at Winthrop-University Hospital from January 2007 to December 2011. Exclusion criteria were age < 18 and concurrent use of anticoagulant agents. Out of 322 cases of hospital acquired VTE or readmission with VTE within 30 days of discharge, 289 cases were selected for final analysis and paired with age and sex matched controls. Patients with a hospital acquired VTE or a readmission for VTE within 30 days of discharge had a significantly reduced rate of VTE prophylaxis when compared to the control group (54.0 vs. 79.2 %, p < 0.0001). The VTE risk assessment rate was also lower in the VTE group (77.2 vs. 85.5 %, p = 0.035). No difference was noted in the time to prophylaxis administration between the two groups (34.8 vs. 33.1 h, p = 0.34). Lastly, sequential compression device (SCD) documentation rate was not different: 68/116 (58.6 %) vs. 44/87 (50.6 %), p = 0.32, between the two arms. Low adherence to the American College of Chest Physician (ACCP) guidelines for VTE prophylaxis correlated with an increase in hospital acquired VTE. The decreased adherence may be linked to a lower VTE risk assessment rate, and other barriers including incorrect identification of contraindications to pharmacologic prophylaxis, and poor documentation of mechanical prophylaxis. There was no difference in SCD documentation rate and timeliness to

  4. Promoting Breastfeeding-Friendly Hospital Practices: A Washington State Learning Collaborative Case Study.

    PubMed

    Freney, Emily; Johnson, Donna; Knox, Isabella

    2016-05-01

    Hospital breastfeeding support practices can affect breastfeeding outcomes. Learning collaboratives are an increasingly common strategy to improve practices in health care and have been applied to breastfeeding in many cases. The aims of this study of the Evidence-Based Hospital Breastfeeding Support Learning Collaborative (EBBS LC) were to describe the perceptions of participants regarding the process and effectiveness of the EBBS LC, describe perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, and identify additional actions and resources needed in future learning collaboratives. Qualitative, semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 key staff who represented 16 of the 18 participating hospitals. The learning collaborative was perceived positively by participants, meeting the expectations of 9 and exceeding the expectations of 4 persons interviewed. The most beneficial aspect of the program was its collaborative nature, and the most difficult aspect was the time required to participate as well as technological difficulties. The key barriers were staff time, staff changes, cost, and the difficulty of changing the existing practices of hospitals and communities. The key facilitating factors were supportive management, participation in multiple breastfeeding quality improvement projects, collecting data on breastfeeding outcomes, tangible resources regarding the Ten Steps, and positive community response. Participants in the EBBS LC stated that they would like to see the Washington State Department of Health create a resource-rich, centralized source of information for participants. This learning collaborative approach was valued by participants. Future efforts can be guided by these evaluation findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Cascade iatrogenesis: a case-control study to detect postoperative respiratory failure in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Thornlow, Deirdre K; Oddone, Eugene; Anderson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    During hospitalization, older adults are at high risk for cascade iatrogenesis, the serial development of complications. In this retrospective, descriptive, case-control pilot study, 28 patients (cases) who developed respiratory failure after an elective surgical procedure were compared to 28 matched controls who did not develop postoperative respiratory failure. The type, frequency, and timing of events that preceded the development of postoperative respiratory failure in hospitalized older adults (age 65 and older) and the presence and timing of similar events for matched controls during a postoperative period of the same length were recorded. Cases experienced certain trigger events, including atelectasis and fluid overload, at significantly higher rates than controls. Cases and controls experienced similar rates of oversedation and delirium, yet controls were less likely to aspirate following these episodes. Patients who developed postoperative respiratory failure were less likely to ambulate early and experienced more calls to rapid response or code teams, more transfers to higher levels of care, longer lengths of stay, and more deaths than matched controls. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Neurasthenia at Mengo Hospital, Uganda: A case study in psychiatry and a diagnosis, 1906–50

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, Yolana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article uses a case-study approach to examine the complex and contradictory nature of diagnoses like neurasthenia in colonial Africa. Drawing on the case notes of European and African patients diagnosed with neurasthenia at the Church Missionary Society's Mengo Hospital, Uganda, it argues that in practice, and outside the colonial asylum in particular, ideas about race and mental illness were more nuanced than histories of psychiatry and empire might imply. At Mengo, the tales of pain and suffering recorded by the doctors remind us that there is more to the history of neurasthenia than colonial anxieties and socio-political control. This was a diagnosis that was negotiated in hospital examination rooms as much as in medical journals. Significantly, it was also a diagnosis that was not always reserved exclusively for white colonisers—at Mengo Hospital from the early 1900s neurasthenia was diagnosed in African patients too. It became part of a wider discussion about detribalisation, in which a person's social environment was as important as race. PMID:27335533

  7. Neurasthenia at Mengo Hospital, Uganda: A case study in psychiatry and a diagnosis, 1906-50.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Yolana

    2016-03-03

    This article uses a case-study approach to examine the complex and contradictory nature of diagnoses like neurasthenia in colonial Africa. Drawing on the case notes of European and African patients diagnosed with neurasthenia at the Church Missionary Society's Mengo Hospital, Uganda, it argues that in practice, and outside the colonial asylum in particular, ideas about race and mental illness were more nuanced than histories of psychiatry and empire might imply. At Mengo, the tales of pain and suffering recorded by the doctors remind us that there is more to the history of neurasthenia than colonial anxieties and socio-political control. This was a diagnosis that was negotiated in hospital examination rooms as much as in medical journals. Significantly, it was also a diagnosis that was not always reserved exclusively for white colonisers-at Mengo Hospital from the early 1900s neurasthenia was diagnosed in African patients too. It became part of a wider discussion about detribalisation, in which a person's social environment was as important as race.

  8. Managing clinical integration: a comparative case study in a merged university hospital.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soki; Holmberg, Ingalill; Löwstedt, Jan; Brommels, Mats

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore critical factors that may obstruct or advance integration efforts initiated by the clinical management following a hospital merger. The aim is to increase the understanding of why clinical integration succeeds or fails. The authors compare two cases of clinical integration efforts following the Karolinska University Hospital merger in Sweden. Each case represents two merged clinical departments of the same specialty from each hospital site. In total, 53 interviews were conducted with individuals representing various staff categories and documents were collected to check data consistency. The study identifies three critical factors that seem to be instrumental for the process and outcome of integration efforts and these are clinical management's interpretation of the mandate; design of the management constellation; and approach to integration. Obstructive factors are: a sole focus on the formal assignment from the top; individual leadership; and the use of a classic, planned, top-down management approach. Supportive factors are: paying attention to multiple stakeholders; shared leadership; and the use of an emergent, bottom-up management approach within planned boundaries. These findings are basically consistent with the literature's prescriptions for managing professional organisations. Managers need to understand that public healthcare organisations are based on competing institutional logics that need to be handled in a balanced way if clinical integration is to be achieved--especially the tension between managerialism and professionalism. By focusing on the merger consequences for clinical units, this paper addresses an important gap in the healthcare merger literature.

  9. Building Data-Driven Pathways From Routinely Collected Hospital Data: A Case Study on Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt-Silva, Joao H; Clark, Jeremy; Cooper, Colin S; Mills, Robert; Rayward-Smith, Victor J; de la Iglesia, Beatriz

    2015-07-10

    Routinely collected data in hospitals is complex, typically heterogeneous, and scattered across multiple Hospital Information Systems (HIS). This big data, created as a byproduct of health care activities, has the potential to provide a better understanding of diseases, unearth hidden patterns, and improve services and cost. The extent and uses of such data rely on its quality, which is not consistently checked, nor fully understood. Nevertheless, using routine data for the construction of data-driven clinical pathways, describing processes and trends, is a key topic receiving increasing attention in the literature. Traditional algorithms do not cope well with unstructured processes or data, and do not produce clinically meaningful visualizations. Supporting systems that provide additional information, context, and quality assurance inspection are needed. The objective of the study is to explore how routine hospital data can be used to develop data-driven pathways that describe the journeys that patients take through care, and their potential uses in biomedical research; it proposes a framework for the construction, quality assessment, and visualization of patient pathways for clinical studies and decision support using a case study on prostate cancer. Data pertaining to prostate cancer patients were extracted from a large UK hospital from eight different HIS, validated, and complemented with information from the local cancer registry. Data-driven pathways were built for each of the 1904 patients and an expert knowledge base, containing rules on the prostate cancer biomarker, was used to assess the completeness and utility of the pathways for a specific clinical study. Software components were built to provide meaningful visualizations for the constructed pathways. The proposed framework and pathway formalism enable the summarization, visualization, and querying of complex patient-centric clinical information, as well as the computation of quality indicators and

  10. Building Data-Driven Pathways From Routinely Collected Hospital Data: A Case Study on Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jeremy; Cooper, Colin S; Mills, Robert; Rayward-Smith, Victor J; de la Iglesia, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Background Routinely collected data in hospitals is complex, typically heterogeneous, and scattered across multiple Hospital Information Systems (HIS). This big data, created as a byproduct of health care activities, has the potential to provide a better understanding of diseases, unearth hidden patterns, and improve services and cost. The extent and uses of such data rely on its quality, which is not consistently checked, nor fully understood. Nevertheless, using routine data for the construction of data-driven clinical pathways, describing processes and trends, is a key topic receiving increasing attention in the literature. Traditional algorithms do not cope well with unstructured processes or data, and do not produce clinically meaningful visualizations. Supporting systems that provide additional information, context, and quality assurance inspection are needed. Objective The objective of the study is to explore how routine hospital data can be used to develop data-driven pathways that describe the journeys that patients take through care, and their potential uses in biomedical research; it proposes a framework for the construction, quality assessment, and visualization of patient pathways for clinical studies and decision support using a case study on prostate cancer. Methods Data pertaining to prostate cancer patients were extracted from a large UK hospital from eight different HIS, validated, and complemented with information from the local cancer registry. Data-driven pathways were built for each of the 1904 patients and an expert knowledge base, containing rules on the prostate cancer biomarker, was used to assess the completeness and utility of the pathways for a specific clinical study. Software components were built to provide meaningful visualizations for the constructed pathways. Results The proposed framework and pathway formalism enable the summarization, visualization, and querying of complex patient-centric clinical information, as well as the

  11. Hospital food waste and environmental and economic indicators--A Portuguese case study.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, C; Santos, T; Oliveira, V

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a comprehensive characterization of plate waste (food served but not eaten) at an acute care hospital in Portugal and elaborates on possible waste reduction measures. Even though waste prevention is a priority in Europe, large amounts of food are still being wasted every day, with hospitals giving rise to two to three times more food waste than other foodservice sectors. For this work the plate waste arising at the ward level was audited during 8 weeks, covering almost 8000 meals, using a general hospital as case study. Weighing the food served to patients and that returned after the meal allowed calculating plate waste for the average meal, as well as for individual meal items. Comparison of food waste arising showed that differences exist among wards, with some generating more waste than others. On average each patient throws away 953 g of food each day, representing 35% of the food served. This equates to 8.7 thousand tonnes of food waste being thrown away each year at hospitals across Portugal. These tonnes of food transformed into waste represent economic losses and environmental impacts, being estimated that 16.4 thousand tonnes of CO2 (equivalent) and 35.3 million euros are the annual national indicators in Portugal. This means that 0.5% of the Portuguese National Health budget gets thrown away as food waste. Given the magnitude of the food problem five measures were suggested to reduce food waste, and their potential impact and ease of implementation were discussed. Even though food waste is unavoidable the results obtained in this work highlight the potential financial and environmental savings for Portuguese hospitals, providing a basis to establish future strategies to tackle food waste.

  12. Information security risk management for computerized health information systems in hospitals: a case study of Iran.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Javad; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, hospitals in Iran - similar to those in other countries - have experienced growing use of computerized health information systems (CHISs), which play a significant role in the operations of hospitals. But, the major challenge of CHIS use is information security. This study attempts to evaluate CHIS information security risk management at hospitals of Iran. This applied study is a descriptive and cross-sectional research that has been conducted in 2015. The data were collected from 551 hospitals of Iran. Based on literature review, experts' opinion, and observations at five hospitals, our intensive questionnaire was designed to assess security risk management for CHISs at the concerned hospitals, which was then sent to all hospitals in Iran by the Ministry of Health. Sixty-nine percent of the studied hospitals pursue information security policies and procedures in conformity with Iran Hospitals Accreditation Standards. At some hospitals, risk identification, risk evaluation, and risk estimation, as well as risk treatment, are unstructured without any specified approach or methodology. There is no significant structured approach to risk management at the studied hospitals. Information security risk management is not followed by Iran's hospitals and their information security policies. This problem can cause a large number of challenges for their CHIS security in future. Therefore, Iran's Ministry of Health should develop practical policies to improve information security risk management in the hospitals of Iran.

  13. Information security risk management for computerized health information systems in hospitals: a case study of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Javad; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, hospitals in Iran – similar to those in other countries – have experienced growing use of computerized health information systems (CHISs), which play a significant role in the operations of hospitals. But, the major challenge of CHIS use is information security. This study attempts to evaluate CHIS information security risk management at hospitals of Iran. Materials and methods This applied study is a descriptive and cross-sectional research that has been conducted in 2015. The data were collected from 551 hospitals of Iran. Based on literature review, experts’ opinion, and observations at five hospitals, our intensive questionnaire was designed to assess security risk management for CHISs at the concerned hospitals, which was then sent to all hospitals in Iran by the Ministry of Health. Results Sixty-nine percent of the studied hospitals pursue information security policies and procedures in conformity with Iran Hospitals Accreditation Standards. At some hospitals, risk identification, risk evaluation, and risk estimation, as well as risk treatment, are unstructured without any specified approach or methodology. There is no significant structured approach to risk management at the studied hospitals. Conclusion Information security risk management is not followed by Iran’s hospitals and their information security policies. This problem can cause a large number of challenges for their CHIS security in future. Therefore, Iran’s Ministry of Health should develop practical policies to improve information security risk management in the hospitals of Iran. PMID:27313481

  14. Understanding Technology and People Issues in Hospital Information System (HIS) Adoption: Case study of a tertiary hospital in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nasriah; Mohd Yusof, Shafiz Affendi

    Hospital Information Systems (HIS) can improve healthcare outcome quality, increase efficiency, and reduce errors. The government of Malaysia implemented HIS across the country to maximize the use of technology to improve healthcare delivery, however, little is known about the benefits and challenges of HIS adoption in each institution. This paper looks at the technology and people issues in adopting such systems. The study used a case study approach, using an in-depth interview with multidisciplinary medical team members who were using the system on a daily basis. A thematic analysis using Atlas.ti was employed to understand the complex relations among themes and sub-themes to discover the patterns in the data. . Users found the new system increased the efficiency of workflows and saved time. They reported less redundancy of work and improved communication among medical team members. Data retrieval and storage were also mentioned as positive results of the new HIS system. Healthcare workers showed positive attitudes during training and throughout the learning process. From a technological perspective, it was found that medical workers using HIS has better access and data management compared to the previously used manual system. The human issues analysis reveals positive attitudes toward using HIS among the users especially from the physicians' side. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Medical social work practice in child protection in China: A multiple case study in Shanghai hospitals.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Hämäläinen, Juha; Chen, Yu-Ting

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the child welfare system in China over recent years, medical social work has been increasingly involved in providing child protection services in several hospitals in Shanghai. Focusing on five cases in this paper, the exploratory study aims to present a critical overview of current practices and effects of medical social work for child protection, based on a critical analysis of the multidimensional role of social work practitioners engaged in the provision of child protection services as well as potential challenges. Implications and suggestions for future improvements of China's child protection system are also discussed.

  16. Improving Hospital Efficiency Through Data-Driven Management: A Case Study of Health First, Florida.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Janice C; Rudin, Robert S

    2016-05-09

    This article presents a case study of how one health system-Health First, in Brevard County, Florida-addressed resource challenges by using Lean thinking enabled by information technology. Examining Health First provides an opportunity to learn about how one hospital system addressed these challenges by making fundamental changes in their operations, in advance of the shift toward accountable care. Three years after Health First embarked on an effort to streamline patient flow and improve throughput, adult transfers within the system have increased by more than 300 percent and emergency department times between admission and inpatient bed occupancy decreased by 37 percent.

  17. [Cryptococcosis in AIDS patients: case study from 1996 to 2006 in Paroissien Hospital].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, L S; Tamayo Antabak, N

    2008-01-01

    Clinic, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of 128 episodes of cryptococcosis were retrospectively evaluated in 106 positive HIV patients hospitalized at the Paroissien Hospital on period 1996-2007. There were 75 male and 31 female patients, with a median age of 34 years, ranging from 20 to 68 years. Addiction to intravenous drugs was the main cause of HIV infection in 55 patients (51.9%). Cryptococcosis was detected as single episode in 85 patients (80.2%) and as relapse in 19 (17.9%). It appeared as the first marking disease in 36 patients (34.0%). Diagnosis was established in 116 episodes by CSF study (Indian ink, culture, antigen detection), in 9 cases by Cryptococcus sp. recovery from blood cultures, and in 3 cases by antigen detection in patient's serum with a latex reactive. Neurological symptomatology, with headache and fever as the most common signs, was presented by 89.6% of patients. Induction treatment was done in all cases with amphotericin B, and maintenance treatment was carried out with fluconazole. Mortality rate was 35.8%, being higher in those patients who had suffered relapses (41.3%) compared to those who presented a first episode of the mycosis (33.3%).

  18. Identification of promising strategies to sustain improvements in hospital practice: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Ament, Stephanie M C; Gillissen, Freek; Moser, Albine; Maessen, José M C; Dirksen, Carmen D; von Meyenfeldt, Maarten F; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2014-12-16

    A quality improvement collaborative is an intensive project involving a combination of implementation strategies applied in a limited "breakthrough" time window. After an implementation project, it is generally difficult to sustain its success. In the current study, sustainability was described as maintaining an implemented innovation and its benefits over a longer period of time after the implementation project has ended. The aim of the study was to explore potentially promising strategies for sustaining the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programme in colonic surgery as perceived by professionals, three to six years after the hospital had successfully finished a quality improvement collaborative. A qualitative case study was performed to identify promising strategies to sustain key outcome variables related to the ERAS programme in terms of adherence, time needed for functional recovery and hospital length of stay (LOS), as achieved immediately after implementation. Ten hospitals were selected which had successfully implemented the ERAS programme in colonic surgery (2006-2009), with success defined as a median LOS of 6 days or less and protocol adherence rates above 70%. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were held with eighteen key participants of the care process three to six years after implementation, starting with the project leader in every hospital. The interviews started by confronting them with the level of sustained implementation results. A direct content analysis with an inductive coding approach was used to identify promising strategies. The mean duration of the interviews was 37 minutes (min 26 minutes - max 51 minutes). The current study revealed strategies targeting professionals and the organisation. They comprised internal audit and feedback on outcomes, small-scale educational booster meetings, reminders, changing the physical structure of the organisation, changing the care process, making work agreements and delegating responsibility

  19. A Study of Acute Poisoning Cases Admitted to the University Hospital Emergency Department in Tabriz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Oraie, Mehdi; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal; Islambulchilar, Mina; Hosseini, Seyed-Hasan; Ahadi-Barzoki, Mehdi; Sadr, Habib; Yaghoubi, Hashem

    2017-03-01

    Chemical substances have an important threat due to extensive use in medicine, agriculture, industry and environment. In this retrospective study, etiological and demographic characteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to a hospital in Iran were investigated. We compared these data with those reported from other parts of the country and the international experiences to evaluate any difference if exists. 7 052 poisoned cases admitted to the hospital from April 2006 to March 2013, by data collected from the medical record in poison center section. According to our results there is a predominance of male patients and the majority of the poisoned patients were between 20-30 years old. Drug poisoning was the most common cause of poisonings. The most frequently involved drugs were benzodiazepines and antidepressants. The seasonal distribution of our study showed a peak in summer. To prevent acute poisonings, the social education about the risk assessment of central nervous system-acting drugs and reduction of the exposure period of people to pesticides are recommended. This study suggested a proper educational program for the public and primary care units. Our results provide useful information for preventive strategies.

  20. Do inter-hospital comparisons of in-hospital, acute myocardial infarction case-fatality rates serve the purpose of fostering quality improvement? An evaluative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In-hospital case-fatality rates in patients, admitted for acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CFRs), are internationally used as a quality indicator. Attempting to encourage the hospitals to assume responsibility, the Belgian Ministry of Health decided to stimulate initiatives of quality improvement by means of a limited set of indicators, among which AMI-CFR, to be routinely analyzed. In this study we aimed, by determining the existence of inter-hospital differences in AMI-CFR, (1) to evaluate to which extent Belgian discharge records allow the assessment of quality of care in the field of AMI, and (2) to identify starting points for quality improvement. Methods Hospital discharge records from all the Belgian short-term general hospitals in the period 2002-2005. The study population (N = 46,287) included patients aged 18 years and older, hospitalized for AMI. No unique patient identifier being present, we tried to track transferred patients. We assessed data quality through a comparison of MCD with data from two registers for acute coronary events and through transfer and sensitivity analyses. We compared AMI-CFRs across hospitals, using multivariable logistic regression models. In the main model hospitals, Charlson's co-morbidity index, age, gender and shock constituted the covariates. We carried out two types of analyses: a first one wherein transferred-out cases were excluded, to avoid double counting of patients when computing rates, and a second one with exclusion of all transferred cases, to allow the study of patients admitted into, treated in and discharged from the same hospital. Results We identified problems regarding both the CFR's numerator and denominator. Sensitivity analyses revealed differential coding and/or case management practices. In the model with exclusion of transfer-out cases, the main determinants of AMI-CFR were cardiogenic shock (ORadj 23.0; 95% CI [20.9;25.2]), and five-year age groups ORadj 1.23; 95% CI [1.11;1.36]). Sizable

  1. Social equity in perinatal survival: a case-control study at hospitals in Kigali, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Musafili, Aimable; Essén, Birgitta; Baribwira, Cyprien; Selling, Katarina Ekholm; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2015-12-01

    Rwanda has invested heavily in improving maternal and child health, but knowledge is limited regarding social equity in perinatal survival. We analysed whether perinatal mortality risks differed between social groups in hospitals in the country's capital. A case-control study was carried out on singleton births aged at least 22 weeks of gestation and born in district or tertiary referral hospitals in Kigali from July 2013 to May 2014. Perinatal deaths were recorded as they occurred, with the next two surviving neonates born in the same hospital selected as controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine social determinants of perinatal death after adjustments for potential confounders. We analysed 234 perinatal deaths and 468 controls. Rural residence was linked to an increased risk of perinatal death (OR = 3.31, 95% CI 1.43-7.61), but maternal education or household asset score levels were not. Having no health insurance (OR = 2.11, 95% CI 0.91-4.89) was associated with an increased risk of perinatal death, compared to having community health insurance. Living in a rural area and having no health insurance were associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality rates in the Rwandan capital, but maternal education and household assets were not. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  2. Implementing the RISE second victim support programme at the Johns Hopkins Hospital: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Edrees, Hanan; Connors, Cheryl; Paine, Lori; Norvell, Matt; Taylor, Henry; Wu, Albert W

    2016-01-01

    Background Second victims are healthcare workers who experience emotional distress following patient adverse events. Studies indicate the need to develop organisational support programmes for these workers. The RISE (Resilience In Stressful Events) programme was developed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital to provide this support. Objective To describe the development of RISE and evaluate its initial feasibility and subsequent implementation. Programme phases included (1) developing the RISE programme, (2) recruiting and training peer responders, (3) pilot launch in the Department of Paediatrics and (4) hospital-wide implementation. Methods Mixed-methods study, including frequency counts of encounters, staff surveys and evaluations by RISE peer responders. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise demographic characteristics and proportions of responses to categorical, Likert and ordinal scales. Qualitative analysis and coding were used to analyse open-ended responses from questionnaires and focus groups. Results A baseline staff survey found that most staff had experienced an unanticipated adverse event, and most would prefer peer support. A total of 119 calls, involving ∼500 individuals, were received in the first 52 months. The majority of calls were from nurses, and very few were related to medical errors (4%). Peer responders reported that the encounters were successful in 88% of cases and 83.3% reported meeting the caller's needs. Low awareness of the programme was a barrier to hospital-wide expansion. However, over the 4 years, the rate of calls increased from ∼1–4 calls per month. The programme evolved to accommodate requests for group support. Conclusions Hospital staff identified the need for a multidisciplinary peer support programme for second victims. Peer responders reported success in responding to calls, the majority of which were for adverse events rather than for medical errors. The low initial volume of calls emphasises the importance of

  3. Inpatient Suicide in a Psychiatric Hospital: A Nested Case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Khanra, Sourav; Mahintamani, Tathagata; Bose, Swarnali; Khess, Christoday Raja Jayant; Umesh, Shreekantiah; Ram, Daya

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for inpatient suicide are different from those in the general population. We examined sociodemographic and clinical variables of patients who committed suicide as an inpatient in a psychiatric hospital in India. Matched retrospective nested case-control design was adopted. Ten patients who died by suicide as inpatients between 2000 and 2013 were included, along with fifty controls, matched with respect to age, sex, diagnosis, and period of admission. Suicide completers were mostly unskilled in occupation (P = 0.03), had a history of past suicide attempts (P < 0.001), shorter duration of hospital stay (P = 0.001), poorer improvement on psychopathology (P = 0.02), and were having more suicidal ideation (P = 0.02). Significantly more completers were receiving antidepressants (P = 0.04). This study adds to the existing sparse literature on inpatient suicides from Asia. Strength of the study was close matching between case and controls and blindedness. Limitations were retrospective design, and variations in prescription behavior and treatment decisions.

  4. Infective endocarditis in Principal Hospital of Dakar: a retrospective study of 42 cases over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Djibril Marie; Mboup, Mouhamed Cherif; Zeba, Nafissatou; Dia, Khadidiatou; Fall, Awa Ndaw; Fall, Fatou; Fall, Pape Diadie; Gning, Sara Boury

    2017-01-01

    Infective Endocarditis (IE) is an endocardial infection usually caused by bacteria that affects not only the native heart valves but also, with increasing frequency intravascular implanted devices and congenital heart diseases. Despite medical advances, IE remains a life-threatening disease with substantial morbidity and mortality. In Africa, its diagnosis and treatment are still a major challenge in clinical practice. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiological, clinical features, diagnostic techniques currently used in medical practice and the range of micro-organisms that are responsible. This was a retrospective study done at Principal Hospital of Dakar. We include all patients who were admitted with clinical manifestations of definite or possible IE according to the extended DUKE criteria between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2014. We collected and analyzed epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and outcomes data of 42 patients. Hospital prevalence of IE was 0.078% (42/53711). The mean age was 27.5+/- 18 years with a sex ratio (M/F) of 0.55. IE were more common in patients with damaged or abnormal heart valves (78.6%) and in thoses with underlying structural defects (14.3%). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (90%) and cardiac murmurs (81%). Extracardiac clinical manifestations were very rare. The usual laboratory parameters of inflammation were elevated in 90% of patients. Blood cultures were negative in 50% of cases and positive in 21.4%. The main organism found was Staphylococcus aureus. Echocardiography found vegetations in 95.2% of cases, chamber enlargement in 73.8% and mitral regurgiation in 83.3%. Broad-spectrum penicillins including ampicillin and gentamycine were used for all patients. Major complications were heart failure (47.6%). Strokes and cerebral abcess (23.8%) and Vascular emboli 14.3%. Hospital mortality was 31%. IE remains a life-threatening disease with hight mortality despites improved techniques of

  5. Risk factors for multiple myeloma: a hospital-based case-control study in Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qixia; Wang, Yiwei; Ji, Zhaohua; Chen, Xiequn; Pan, Yaozhu; Gao, Guangxun; Gu, Hongtao; Yang, Yang; Choi, Bernard C K; Yan, Yongping

    2012-10-01

    The distinctive racial/ethnic and geographic distribution of multiple myeloma (MM) suggests that both family history and environmental factors may contribute to its development. A hospital-based case-control study consisting of 220 confirmed MM cases and 220 individually matched patient controls, by sex, age and hospital was carried out at 5 major hospitals in Northwest China. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographics, family history, and the frequency of food items consumed. Based on multivariate analysis, a significant association between the risk of MM and family history of cancers in first degree relatives was observed (OR=4.03, 95% CI: 2.50-6.52). Fried food, cured/smoked food, black tea, and fish were not significantly associated with the risk of MM. Intake of shallot and garlic (OR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.43-0.85), soy food (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.36-0.75) and green tea (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.27-0.53) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of MM. In contrast, intake of brined vegetables and pickle was significantly associated with an increased risk (OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.41-2.93). A more than multiplicative interaction on the decreased risk of MM was found between shallot/garlic and soy food. Our study in Northwest China found an increased risk of MM with a family history of cancer, a diet characterized by low consumption of garlic, green tea and soy foods, and high consumption of pickled vegetables. The effect of green tea in reducing the risk of MM is an interesting new finding which should be further confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lost in translation: a case-study of the travel of lean thinking in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Hege; Røvik, Kjell Arne

    2015-09-21

    Lean thinking as a quality improvement approach is introduced in hospitals worldwide, although evidence for its impact is scarce. Lean initiatives are social, complex and context-dependent. This calls for a shift from cause-effect to conditional attributions to understand how lean works. In this study, we bring attention to the transformative power of local translation, which creates different versions of lean in different contexts, and thereby affect the evidence for lean as well as the success of lean initiatives within and among hospitals. We explored the travel of lean within a hospital in Norway by identifying local actors' perceptions of lean through their images of enablers for successful interventions. These attributions describe the characteristics of lean in use, i.e. the prevailing version of lean. Local actors' perceptions of enablers for lean interventions were collected through focus group interviews with three groups of stakeholders: managers, internal consultants and staff. A questionnaire was used to reveal the enablers relative importance. The enablers known from the literature were retrieved at the case hospital. The only exception was that external expert change agents were not believed to promote lean. In addition, the stakeholders added a number of new and supplementary enablers. Two-thirds of the most important enablers for success were novel, local ones. Among these were a problem, not method focus, a bottom-up approach, the need of internal consultants, credibility, realism and patience. The local actors told different stories about local enablers and had different images of lean depending on their hierarchical level. By comparing and analyzing the findings from the literature review, the focus groups and the survey, we deduced that the travel of lean within the hospital was affected by three principles of translation: the practical, the pragmatic, and the sceptical. Further, three logics of translation were in play: translation as a funnel

  7. The efficiency and budgeting of public hospitals: case study of iran.

    PubMed

    Yusefzadeh, Hasan; Ghaderi, Hossein; Bagherzade, Rafat; Barouni, Mohsen

    2013-05-01

    Hospitals are the most costly and important components of any health care system, so it is important to know their economic values, pay attention to their efficiency and consider factors affecting them. The aim of this study was to assess the technical scale and economic efficiency of hospitals in the West Azerbaijan province of Iran, for which Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to propose a model for operational budgeting. This study was a descriptive-analysis that was conducted in 2009 and had three inputs and two outputs. Deap2, 1 software was used for data analysis. Slack and radial movements and surplus of inputs were calculated for selected hospitals. Finally, a model was proposed for performance-based budgeting of hospitals and health sectors using the DEA technique. The average scores of technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency (managerial efficiency) and scale efficiency of hospitals were 0.584, 0.782 and 0.771, respectively. In other words the capacity of efficiency promotion in hospitals without any increase in costs and with the same amount of inputs was about 41.5%. Only four hospitals among all hospitals had the maximum level of technical efficiency. Moreover, surplus production factors were evident in these hospitals. Reduction of surplus production factors through comprehensive planning based on the results of the Data Envelopment Analysis can play a major role in cost reduction of hospitals and health sectors. In hospitals with a technical efficiency score of less than one, the original and projected values of inputs were different; resulting in a surplus. Hence, these hospitals should reduce their values of inputs to achieve maximum efficiency and optimal performance. The results of this method was applied to hospitals a benchmark for making decisions about resource allocation; linking budgets to performance results; and controlling and improving hospitals performance.

  8. Application of life cycle assessment for hospital solid waste management: A case study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mustafa; Wang, Wenping; Chaudhry, Nawaz

    2016-10-01

    This study was meant to determine environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios using a life cycle analysis approach. The survey for this study was conducted at the largest hospital in a major city of Pakistan. The hospital was thoroughly analyzed from November 2014 to January 2015 to quantify its wastes by category. The functional unit of the study was selected as 1 tonne of disposable solid hospital waste. System boundaries included transportation of hospital solid waste and its treatment and disposal by landfilling, incineration, composting, and material recycling methods. These methods were evaluated based on their greenhouse gas emissions. Landfilling and incineration turned out to be the worst final disposal alternatives, whereas composting and material recovery displayed savings in emissions. An integrated system (composting, incineration, and material recycling) was found as the best solution among the evaluated scenarios. This study can be used by policymakers for the formulation of an integrated hospital waste management plan. This study deals with environmental aspects of hospital waste management scenarios. It is an increasing area of concern in many developing and resource-constrained countries of the world. The life cycle analysis (LCA) approach is a useful tool for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from different waste management activities. There is a shortage of information in existing literature regarding LCA of hospital wastes. To the best knowledge of the authors this work is the first attempt at quantifying the environmental footprint of hospital waste in Pakistan.

  9. Analysis of 104 cases of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy in a tertiary care hospital: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rashmi; Gupta, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the results of endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy performed in a tertiary care hospital. Prospective, nonrandomized, interventional clinical study. A prospective interventional study was performed on 104 patients presenting with epiphora between January 2006 and January 2010. All patients were operated by one surgeon. Out of 104 cases, 08 cases were of revision endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Bicanalicular silicon intubation was performed in all cases of revision endonasal DCR. Twelve patients had concomitant sinonasal disease for which septoplasty or FESS was done. The patency of nasolacrimal duct was assessed by doing syringing of lacrimal passage weekly for 1 month, monthly for 3 month, then at 6 month and 1 year. Out of 104 patients 10 patients lost follow up after surgery. Ninety four patients were followed for 1 year. On syringing, rhinostomy site was found patent in 80 patients (85.10 %), therefore they were fully satisfied. In 6 cases (6.38 %) minimal block was seen with clear fluid regurgitation, were to some extent symptomatically relieved and were found to be satisfied, whereas in 08 cases (8.51 %) syringing showed complete block. They required further management. Success rate of our study is comparable to other studies on endonasal DCR as well as external DCR, with advantages of less intra-operative bleeding, shorter operative time, better cosmesis, preservation of lacrimal pump mechanism. Other nasal pathology can be treated at the same time. Our results are clinically as well as statistically highly significant (P value < 0.0001).

  10. A cross sectional study of maternal 'near-miss' cases in major public hospitals in Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria.

    PubMed

    Bashour, Hyam; Saad-Haddad, Ghada; DeJong, Jocelyn; Ramadan, Mohammed Cherine; Hassan, Sahar; Breebaart, Miral; Wick, Laura; Hassanein, Nevine; Kharouf, Mayada

    2015-11-13

    The maternal near-miss approach has been increasingly used as a tool to evaluate and improve the quality of care in maternal health. We report findings from the formative stage of a World Health Organization (WHO) funded implementation research study that was undertaken to collect primary data at the facility level on the prevalence, characteristics, and management of maternal near-miss cases in four major public referral hospitals - one each in Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine and Syria. We conducted a cross sectional study of maternal near-miss cases in the four contexts beginning in 2011, where we collected data on severe maternal morbidity in the four study hospitals, using the WHO form (Individual Form HRP A65661). In each hospital, a research team including trained hospital healthcare providers carried out the data collection. A total of 9,063 live birth deliveries were reported during the data collection period across the four settings, with a total of 77 cases of severe maternal outcomes (71 maternal near-miss cases and 6 maternal deaths). Higher indices for the maternal mortality index were found in both Al Galaa hospital, in Egypt (8.6%) and Dar Al Tawleed hospital in Syria (14.3%), being large referral hospitals, compared to Ramallah hospital in Palestine and Rafik Hariri University hospital in Lebanon. Compared to the WHO's Multicountry Survey using the same data collection tool, our study's mortality indices are higher than the index of 5.6% among countries with a moderate maternal mortality ratio in the WHO Survey. Overall, haemorrhage-related complications were the most frequent conditions among maternal near-miss cases across the four study hospitals. In all hospitals, coagulation dysfunctions (76.1%) were the most prevalent dysfunction among maternal near-miss cases, followed by cardiovascular dysfunctions. The coverage of key evidence-based interventions among women experiencing a near-miss was either universal or very high in the study hospitals

  11. Information technology governance domains in hospitals: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Mehraban; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2014-11-30

    IT governance is a set of organizational structures ensuring decision-making rights and responsibilities with regard to the organization's IT assets. This qualitative study was carried out to identify the IT governance domains in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. There were 10 heads of IT departments and 10 hospital directors. Semi structured interviews used for data collection. To analyze the data content analysis was applied. All the interviewees (100%) believed that decisions upon hospital software needs could be made in a decentralized fashion by the IT department of the university. Most of the interviewees (90%) believed that there were policies for logistics and maintenance of networks, purchase and maintenance, standards and general policies in the direction of the policies of the ministry of health and medical education. About 80% of the interviewees believed that the current emphasis of the hospital's IT unit and the hospital management for outsourcing of services were in the format of specialized contracts and under supervision of the university Statistic and IT department. A hospital strategic committee is an official organizational group consisting of hospital executives, heads of IT and multiple functional areas and business units in a hospital. In this committee, "the head of hospital" acts as the director of IT activities and ensures that IT strategies are alignment with the hospital business strategies.

  12. Risk of asthma in relation to occupation: A hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wortong, Darika; Chaiear, Naesinee; Boonsawat, Watchara

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is a common occupational lung disease and is preventable by removing identifiable allergens. (1) To assess the relationship between occupation and asthma (2) To determine the agents associated with asthma. In this hospital-based, case-control study 153 cases from the Asthma Clinic and 306 non-asthmatic controls from Srinagarind Hospital, Thailand were interviewed. Crude odds ratios (COR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and adjusted ORs (AOR) for multiple logistic regression were calculated. Of the 153 cases, 70.6% were females with median age of 53 (IQR-14). Of the 306 controls, 62.4% were females with median age of 56 (IQR-16). The highest risk of asthma was family history of asthma and history of atopy [AOR 11.68 (95% CI 4.52, 30.24) and AOR 8.03 (95% CI 5.07, 13.60)], respectively. If only occupations were considered, healthcare workers had the highest risk [AOR 4.08 (95% CI 1.35, 12.30)], followed by textile workers [AOR 3.34 (95% CI 1.07, 10.47)] and school workers AOR 2.40 (95% CI 1.31, 4.41). When subgroups of non-atopy were considered, school workers had a significant association with asthma [COR 3.18 (95% CI 1.48, 6.83)]. When no family history of asthma was considered, school and textile workers had the most significant association with asthma [COR 3.10 (95% CI 1.87, 5.13) and COR 3.06 (95% CI 1.15, 8.13), respectively]. Inorganic dust was the agent most significantly associated with asthma COR 1.89 (95% CI 1.25, 2.82). School, textile and healthcare workers have the greatest risk of asthma. Family history of asthma and being atopic would also promote asthma in relation to occupation.

  13. Evaluation of system quality of hospital information system: a case study on nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Kimiafar, Khalil; Sarbaz, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at measuring the nurses' experiences on the system quality of the hospital information system (HIS). This applied, cross-sectional study was conducted in a case hospital in Iran. We developed a three part questionnaire including demographic information, nurses' experiences and satisfaction about different factors of system quality of a HIS. We asked the participants to rate their responses using five-point Likert scale. A total of 120 questionnaires were sent out for all 120 eligible nurses, with 80 completed copies returned. The data was finally analyzed using descriptive statistics. Regarding the interface quality, the most of nurses (37.5%) stated that data entry through input devices was somewhat quick. We found that HIS developers should pay more attention to the technical aspects of HIS and their correspondence with the nurses' needs, especially in terms of documentation, online assistance, response time, system reliability and flexibility, integration with current and new duties, as well as ability of the system to prevent data lose and handle bugs.

  14. Budget impact analysis of pemetrexed introduction: case study from a teaching hospital perspective, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chanjaruporn, Farsai; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Sooksriwong, Cha-oncin; Kaojarern, Sming

    2011-09-01

    Thailand does not currently require Budget Impact Analysis (BIA) assessment. The present study aimed to estimate the annual drug cost and the incremental impact on the hospital pharmaceutical budget of the introduction of pemetrexed to a Thai teaching hospital. The budget impact model was conducted in accordance with the Guidelines for preparing submissions to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC). The model variables consisted of number of patients, growth rate of lung cancer, uptake rate of pemetrexed over time, unit prices of drugs, and the length and cost of treatment. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine changes in budgetary impact due to variation of parameters or assumptions in the model. The introduction of pemetrexed was estimated to cause considerable costs for the teaching hospital. In the base-case analysis, the incremental costs were estimated at 8,553,984 Baht in the first year increasing to 12, 118, 144 Baht, 17,820,800 Baht and 17,820,800 Baht in the following years. The 4-year net budgetary impact was 20,154,480 Baht or approximately 127,560 Baht per patient. Sensitivity analyses found that number of treatment cycles andproportion of patients assumed to be treated with pemetrexed were the two most important influencing factors in the model. New costly innovative interventions should be evaluated using the BIA model to determine whether they are affordable. The Thai government should consider requiring the BIA study as one of the requirements for drug submission to assist in the determination of listing and subsidizing decision for medicines.

  15. Significance of User Participation in a Hospital Information System Success: Insights From a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Naveed; Steel, Douglas; Gercek, Gokhan; Chandra, Ashish

    User participation in the development of a system is universally prescribed as an effective strategy to ensure the success of the resultant system. However, the existing literature on the merits of user participation only provides equivocal evidence. Various analyses of this literature point out that this equivocal evidence may be due to inconsistent operational measures of the user participation and system success constructs. Planned organizational change and participative decision making, the underlying paradigms of user participation construct, suggest that the development of some information systems may require blending of users' system-related functional expertise and developers' technical expertise to ensure system success. These paradigms also maintain that in case of well-defined, structured information systems user participation should enhance the likelihood of system success through better user understanding of the need for the system and system content and objectives, user trust, and a sense of system ownership. This research also described a case study involving the development and implementation of a medical records system for a neonatal intensive care unit in a large hospital in Texas. The case study provides evidence that in systems that require incorporation of user functional expertise user participation will enhance the likelihood of system success.

  16. Breast Cancer Risk Factors among Ugandan Women at a Tertiary Hospital: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Galukande, Moses; Wabinga, Henry; Mirembe, Florence; Karamagi, Charles; Asea, Alexzander

    2016-01-01

    Background Although East Africa, like other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has a lower incidence of breast cancer than high-income countries, the disease rate is rising steeply in Africa; it has nearly tripled in the past few decades in Uganda. There is a paucity of studies that have examined the relation between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk factors in Ugandan women. Objective To determine breast cancer risk factors among indigenous Ugandan women. Methods This is a hospital-based unmatched case-control study. Interviews were conducted between 2011 and 2012 using structured questionnaires. Patients with histologyproven breast cancer were recruited over a 2-year period. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 350 women were recruited; 113 were cases and 237 were controls. The mean age was 47.5 years (SD 14) for the cases and 45.5 years (SD 14.1) for the controls. The odds of breast cancer risk seemed lower for those who breastfed (adjusted OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18). There was no significance for early age at first full-term birth (adjusted OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.96; p = 0.061), and urban residence carried no increased odds of breast cancer either (p = 0.201). Conclusion Breastfeeding seems to be associated with reduced odds of breast cancer. PMID:27104645

  17. Accidental out-of-hospital deliveries: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Renesme, L; Garlantézec, R; Anouilh, F; Bertschy, F; Carpentier, M; Sizun, J

    2013-04-01

    To determine risk factors for accidental out-of-hospital deliveries (OHDs), which represent 0.5% of live births in France and are associated with poor neonatal outcomes. This retrospective case-control study assessed accidental OHDs that occurred in the Finistère District (Brittany, France) between January 2007 and December 2009. For each OHD case, two controls were randomly selected. Outcome measures included maternal demographics, obstetric characteristics and neonatal outcomes. During the study period, accidental OHDs accounted for 0.42% of all births; 76 accidental OHDs were included in the analysis. Multivariate analysis found four independent risk factors for accidental OHD: multiparity [OR: 8.84 (3.22-24.29)], unemployment [OR: 4.99 (1.85-13.47)], lack of or poor antenatal care [OR: 9.00 (2.41-33.72)] and a travel time >45 min from home to the delivery unit [OR: 6.18 (1.33-28.65) versus < 15 min]. Significantly more newborns from the OHD group required admission to the neonatal unit (p = 0.04), but accidental OHD was not significantly associated with prematurity or low birth weight. Four risk factors for accidental OHD were identified. Setting up an anonymous registry of OHD cases could improve our knowledge and screening of women at risk. ©2013 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. Predictors of acute diarrhoea among hospitalized children in Gaza Governorates: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Alnawajha, Samer Khader; Bakry, Ghadeer Abdo; Aljeesh, Yousef Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to determine the predictors of acute diarrhoea among hospitalized children in the Gaza Governorates. The case-control design included 140 children (70 cases and 70 controls) in a stratified cluster sample from Naser Medical Complex and Alnasser Pediatric Hospital. An interview questionnaire was used, and face and content validations were performed. Multiple logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis of risk factors of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. Results showed a significant association between diarrhoea and family income, residence, complementary feeding, and age of weaning (p<0.05). Children living in villages had lower odds of having diarrhoea by 53.2% than children living in cities. Children of families with incomes between US$ 485 and 620 had lower odds of having diarrhoea by 80.8% than children of families with incomes less than US$ 485. Moreover, children who did not receive complementary feeding had lower odds of having diarrhoea by 59.0%. We found that, for one month increase in weaning age, the odds of diarrhoea decreased by 1.06 times (adjusted OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.0180-1.100). The study concludes that urban residence, lower family income, complementary feeding, and lower age of weaning are risk factors of diarrhoea among children aged less than five years in the Gaza Strip. The results of the study suggest that children of low-income families and those who were not naturally breastfed may warrant more attention for prevention and/or treatment of diarrhoea.

  19. Predictors of Acute Diarrhoea among Hospitalized Children in Gaza Governorates: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakry, Ghadeer Abdo; Aljeesh, Yousef Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the predictors of acute diarrhoea among hospitalized children in the Gaza Governorates. The case-control design included 140 children (70 cases and 70 controls) in a stratified cluster sample from Naser Medical Complex and Alnasser Pediatric Hospital. An interview questionnaire was used, and face and content validations were performed. Multiple logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis of risk factors of diarrhoea in children aged less than five years. Results showed a significant association between diarrhoea and family income, residence, complementary feeding, and age of weaning (p<0.05). Children living in villages had lower odds of having diarrhoea by 53.2% than children living in cities. Children of families with incomes between US$ 485 and 620 had lower odds of having diarrhoea by 80.8% than children of families with incomes less than US$ 485. Moreover, children who did not receive complementary feeding had lower odds of having diarrhoea by 59.0%. We found that, for one month increase in weaning age, the odds of diarrhoea decreased by 1.06 times (adjusted OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.0180-1.100). The study concludes that urban residence, lower family income, complementary feeding, and lower age of weaning are risk factors of diarrhoea among children aged less than five years in the Gaza Strip. The results of the study suggest that children of low-income families and those who were not naturally breastfed may warrant more attention for prevention and/or treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:25995716

  20. Determinants of compulsory admissions in a state psychiatric hospital-Case control study.

    PubMed

    Indu, Nair V; Vidhukumar, K; Sarma, P S

    2016-12-09

    Compulsory admissions are against the patient's will and are presumably due to diverse reasons. There has been a rise in compulsory admissions world over. The objective of the study was to determine the risk factors for compulsory admissions in a state psychiatric hospital. A case control study was conducted at the state psychiatric hospital, Trivandrum, Kerala. Cases were involuntary non-legal admissions while controls were voluntary admissions. Putative risk factors studied included social support, severity of psychopathology etc., in addition to the socio-demographic variables. Risk factors for compulsory admissions were higher age, 30-49 years, OR=1.98, 95% CI [1.03-3.81]; >50years, OR=2.2, 95% CI [1.03-4.72], being from an urban locale,OR=1.99, 95% CI [1.13-3.52], living in joint & extended families OR=2.12, 95% CI [1.3-3.4], homelessness OR=2.24, 95% CI [1.32-3.79] and poor social support, OR=4.45 [2.53-7.81]. The type of illness, its duration, diagnosis, or symptom severity were not significantly related to compulsory admissions, but past compulsory admissions OR=5.36, 95% CI [2.09-13.75], poor functioning OR=2.54, 95% CI [1.31-4.91] and poor compliance to medication OR=1.78, 95% CI [1.05-3.01] were associated with compulsory admission. Poor social support, past involuntary admissions and poor functional status retained their association after multivariate analysis. By addressing the modifiable factors like poor social support, poor functional status, and poor compliance to medication, compulsory admissions could be prevented. Since it is found that compulsory admissions are likely to repeat, such patients form a high risk group requiring specific interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Value and impact of international hospital accreditation: a case study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Y A; Zeng, W; Chappy, E; Shepard, D S

    2015-04-02

    We assessed the economic impact of Joint Commission International hospital accreditation on 5 structural and outcome hospital performance measures in Jordan. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study comparing 2 private accredited acute general hospitals with matched non-accredited hospitals, using difference-in-differences and adjusted covariance analyses to test the impact and value of accreditation on hospital performance measures. Of the 5 selected measures, 3 showed statistically significant effects (all improvements) associated with accreditation: reduction in return to intensive care unit (ICU) within 24 hours of ICU discharge; reduction in staff turnover; and completeness of medical records. The net impact of accreditation was a 1.2 percentage point reduction in patients who returned to the ICU, 12.8% reduction in annual staff turnover and 20.0% improvement in the completeness of medical records. Pooling both hospitals over 3 years, these improvements translated into total savings of US$ 593 000 in Jordan's health-care system.

  2. Case Study: Applying OpenEHR Archetypes to a Clinical Data Repository in a Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Min, Lingtong; Wang, Li; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2015-01-01

    openEHR is a flexible and scalable modeling methodology for clinical information and has been widely adopted in Europe and Australia. Due to the reasons of differences in clinical process and management, there are few research projects involving openEHR in China. To investigate the feasibility of openEHR methodology for clinical information modelling in China, this paper carries out a case study to apply openEHR archetypes to Clinical Data Repository (CDR) in a Chinese hospital. The results show that a set of 26 archetypes are found to cover all the concepts used in the CDR. Of all these, 9 (34.6%) are reused without change, 10 are modified and/or extended, and 7 are newly defined. The reasons for modification, extension and newly definition have been discussed, including granularity of archetype, metadata-level versus data-level modelling, and the representation of relationships between archetypes.

  3. Hospital-Based Case-Control Study of MDS Subtypes and Benzene Exposure in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Copley, G. Bruce; Schnatter, A. Robert; Armstrong, Thomas W.; Irons, Richard D.; Chen, Min; Wang, Xiao Qin; Kerzic, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Due to the sparse data on benzene exposure and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subtypes, we studied this relationship in patients from 29 hospitals in Shanghai, China. Methods: We recruited 604 cases of MDS and 1193 controls matched on age, sex, and admission date. We interviewed subjects for information on workplace and lifestyle exposures, and developed semi-quantitative exposure estimates. Results: Benzene exposure showed a direct exposure–response pattern with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, a less certain association with refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, and no association with other MDS subtypes. A different pattern was observed with farm residence and smoking, which was primarily related to refractory anemias. Conclusions: This research demonstrates the importance of MDS subtype specification for more robust etiologic insights. Our data suggests that subtypes with non-erythroid dysplasia are associated with benzene exposure. PMID:28146040

  4. Improving Community Health While Satisfying a Critical Community Need: A Case Study for Nonprofit Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Alicia M; Kephart, Donna K; Dillon, Judith F; McCullough, Jody R; Blatt, Barbara J; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L

    2015-10-29

    School-based student health screenings identify issues that may affect physical and intellectual development and are an important way to maintain student health. Nonprofit hospitals can provide a unique resource to school districts by assisting in the timely completion of school-based screenings and meet requirements of the Affordable Care Act. This case study describes the collaboration between an academic medical center and a local school district to conduct school-based health screenings. Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center and Penn State Hershey PRO Wellness Center collaborated with Lebanon School District to facilitate student health screenings, a need identified in part by a community health needs assessment. From June 2012 through February 2013, district-wide student health screenings were planned and implemented by teams of hospital nursing leadership, school district leadership, and school nurses. In fall 2013, students were screened through standardized procedures for height, weight, scoliosis, vision, and hearing. In 2 days, 3,105 students (67% of all students in the district) were screened. Letters explaining screening results were mailed to parents of all students screened. Debriefing meetings and follow-up surveys for the participating nurses provided feedback for future screenings. The 2-day collaborative screening event decreased the amount of time spent by school nurses in screening students throughout the year and allowed them more time in their role as school wellness champion. Additionally, parents found out early in the school year whether their child needed physician follow-up. Partnerships between school districts and hospitals to conduct student health screenings are a practical option for increasing outreach while satisfying community needs.

  5. Improving Community Health While Satisfying a Critical Community Need: A Case Study for Nonprofit Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Kephart, Donna K.; Dillon, Judith F.; McCullough, Jody R.; Blatt, Barbara J.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Background School-based student health screenings identify issues that may affect physical and intellectual development and are an important way to maintain student health. Nonprofit hospitals can provide a unique resource to school districts by assisting in the timely completion of school-based screenings and meet requirements of the Affordable Care Act. This case study describes the collaboration between an academic medical center and a local school district to conduct school-based health screenings. Community Context Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center and Penn State Hershey PRO Wellness Center collaborated with Lebanon School District to facilitate student health screenings, a need identified in part by a community health needs assessment. Methods From June 2012 through February 2013, district-wide student health screenings were planned and implemented by teams of hospital nursing leadership, school district leadership, and school nurses. In fall 2013, students were screened through standardized procedures for height, weight, scoliosis, vision, and hearing. Outcomes In 2 days, 3,105 students (67% of all students in the district) were screened. Letters explaining screening results were mailed to parents of all students screened. Debriefing meetings and follow-up surveys for the participating nurses provided feedback for future screenings. Interpretation The 2-day collaborative screening event decreased the amount of time spent by school nurses in screening students throughout the year and allowed them more time in their role as school wellness champion. Additionally, parents found out early in the school year whether their child needed physician follow-up. Partnerships between school districts and hospitals to conduct student health screenings are a practical option for increasing outreach while satisfying community needs. PMID:26513441

  6. Quieting Weinberg 5C: a case study in hospital noise control.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Mark; Dunn, Jeffrey; Busch-Vishniac, Ilene J; West, James E; Reedy, Anita

    2007-06-01

    Weinberg 5C of Johns Hopkins Hospital is a very noisy hematological cancer unit in a relatively new building of a large medical campus. Because of the requirements for dealing with immuno-suppressed patients, options for introducing sound absorbing materials are limited. In this article, a case study of noise control in a hospital, the sound environment in the unit before treatment is described, the chosen noise control approach of adding custom-made sound absorbing panels is presented, and the impact of the noise control installation is discussed. The treatment of Weinberg 5C involved creating sound absorbing panels of 2-in.-thick fiberglass wrapped in an anti-bacterial fabric. Wallpaper paste was used to hold the fabric to the backing of the fiberglass. Installation of these panels on the ceiling and high on corridor walls had a dramatic effect. The noise on the unit (as measured by the equivalent sound pressure level) was immediately reduced by 5 dB(A) and the reverberation time dropped by a factor of over 2. Further, this drop in background noise and reverberation time understates the dramatic impact of the change. Surveys of staff and patients before and after the treatment indicated a change from viewing the unit as very noisy to a view of the unit as relatively quiet.

  7. A 3 year case study of alcohol related psychotic disorders at Hospital Seremban.

    PubMed

    George, S; Chin, C N

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the characteristics and psychopathology of alcohol dependents with alcohol induced psychotic disorder admitted to the Seremban Hospital. The method is that of a case study of all alcohol dependents with alcohol induced psychotic disorder admitted to the Psychiatric Ward, Hospital Seremban over 3 years (1993-1995). There were 34 subjects, 30 Indians, 3 Chinese and 1 Malay with a mean age of 43 years. 32 were men and predominantly of Social Class IV and V (91%). They had a mean duration of drinking of 14.2 years and had a mean weekly consumption of 69.5 units of alcohol. There was a family history of alcohol dependence in (44%). The majority (68%) consumed samsu with beer the second choice. Auditory hallucinations (26) and delusions (16) were common while visual hallucinations (3) and depression (2) were less frequent. Speech disorder occurred in 4 subjects. 2 developed delirium tremens and 1 died. Liver function test was normal in 55%. All except the death from delirium tremens responded to treatment with a combination of anxiolytics, thiamine and antipsychotics and were rapidly discharged. The mean stay was 7 days. However, (68%) did not return for follow up and only 4 were abstinent from alcohol at the time of follow up.

  8. Risk factors for in-hospital venous thromboembolism in children: a case-control study employing diagnostic validation.

    PubMed

    Branchford, Brian R; Mourani, Peter; Bajaj, Lalit; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn; Wang, Michael; Goldenberg, Neil A

    2012-04-01

    Studies evaluating risk factors for in-hospital venous thromboembolism in children are limited by quality assurance of case definition and/or lack of controlled comparison. The objective of this study is to determine risk factors for the development of in-hospital venous thromboembolism in children. In a case-control study at The Children's Hospital, Colorado, from 1(st) January 2003 to 31(st) December 2009 we employed diagnostic validation methods to determine pediatric in-hospital venous thromboembolism risk factors. Clinical data on putative risk factors were retrospectively collected from medical records of children with International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition codes of venous thromboembolism at discharge, in whom radiological reports confirmed venous thromboembolism and no signs/symptoms of venous thromboembolism were noted on admission. We verified 78 cases of in-hospital venous thromboembolism, yielding an average incidence of 5 per 10,000 hospitalized children per year. Logistical regression analyses revealed that mechanical ventilation, systemic infection, and hospitalization duration of five days or over were statistically significant, independent risk factors for in-hospital venous thromboembolism (OR=3.29, 95%CI=1.53-7.06, P=0.002; OR=3.05, 95%CI=1.57-5.94, P=0.001; and OR=1.03, 95%CI=1.01-1.04, P=0.001, respectively). Using these factors in a risk model, post-test probability of venous thromboembolism was 3.6%. These data indicate that risk of in-hospital venous thromboembolism in children with this risk factor combination may exceed that of hospitalized adults in whom prophylactic anticoagulation is indicated. Substantiation of these findings via multicenter studies could provide the basis for future risk-stratified randomized control trials of pediatric venous thromboembolism prevention.

  9. Report: The assessment of hospital waste management:a case study in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Arab, Mohammad; Baghbani, Rouhollah Askari; Tajvar, Maryam; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Omrani, Ghasemali; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2008-06-01

    Hospital waste management is an important process that must be dealt with diligently. The management of hazardous waste material requires specific knowledge and regulations and it must be carried out by specialists in the field. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the main stages of hospital waste management including separation, containment, removal and disposal of waste materials in public hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). We selected 108 units of six hospitals (three general hospitals and three subspecialty hospitals) from those hospitals supervised by TUMS using the cluster sampling method. The measurement was conducted through a questionnaire and direct observation by researchers. Association analysis was done by statistical tests; Fisher exact test and chi-squared using SPSS software. According to the results obtained by the questionnaire, most of the studied wards scored moderately in terms of quality of their performance in all stages of waste management. About one-fifth of the wards were suffering from poor management of their medical waste and only a minority of wards obtained good scores for managing their waste materials. The findings also revealed significant associations between temporary waste storage and collection and the level of education of the managers (P = 0.040, P = 0.050, respectively). In summary, the study indicated a moderate management in all processes of separation, collection, containment, removal and disposal of waste materials in hospitals with several observed problems in the process.

  10. [Influential factors on congenital gastrointestinal malformation:a hospital-based case-control study].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuejin; Xu, Guang; Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Chen, Hui; Wang, Youjie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influential factors on congenital gastrointestinal malformation and to provide evidences for prevention. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted among infants with or without congenital gastrointestinal malformation at Children's hospital of Hunan province, from April 2011 to August 2012. Parents of 120 cases with congenital gastrointestinal malformation and another 170 controls were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software. Congenital gastrointestinal malformation was associated with intakes of maternal medication (OR = 3.35, 95%CI:1.51-7.41) and folic acid (OR = 0.28, 95%CI:0.15-0.52), exposure to paints (OR = 5.05, 95%CI:1.32-19.29) and pesticides (OR = 15.20, 95%CI:1.55-148.99) prior to or during pregnancy, and also associated with medication intake of the father (OR = 3.70, 95% CI:1.13-12.10), smoking (OR = 2.39, 95% CI:1.24-4.62), drinking alcohol (OR = 2.47, 95% CI:1.20-5.07), exposure to the agents for indoor cleaning (OR = 16.42, 95% CI:1.71-157.92) and exposure to paints (OR = 9.92, 95% CI:2.66-36.98) before conception. Congenital gastrointestinal malformation was affected by multiple factors. Potential risk factors for congenital gastrointestinal malformation would include intakes of medication by the pregnant mother, exposure to paints exposure and pesticide exposure before or during pregnancy, and medication intake by the father, smoking, drinking alcohol, exposure to indoor cleaning agents/paint before conception. The amount of folic acid intake by mother before or during pregnancy was likely to reduce the risk for congenital gastrointestinal malformation.

  11. How efficient are Greek hospitals? A case study using a double bootstrap DEA approach.

    PubMed

    Kounetas, Kostas; Papathanassopoulos, Fotis

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure Greek hospital performance using different input-output combinations, and to identify the factors that influence their efficiency thus providing policy makers with valuable input for the decision-making process. Using a unique dataset, we estimated the productive efficiency of each hospital through a bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. In a second stage, we explored, using a bootstrapped truncated regression, the impact of environmental factors on hospitals' technical and scale efficiency. Our results reveal that over 80% of the examined hospitals appear to have a technical efficiency lower than 0.8, while the majority appear to be scale efficient. Moreover, efficiency performance differed with inclusion of medical examinations as an additional variable. On the other hand, bed occupancy ratio appeared to affect both technical and scale efficiency in a rather interesting way, while the adoption of advanced medical equipment and the type of hospital improves scale and technical efficiency, correspondingly. The findings of this study on Greek hospitals' performance are not encouraging. Furthermore, our results raise questions regarding the number of hospitals that should operate, and which type of hospital is more efficient. Finally, the results indicate the role of medical equipment in performance, confirming its misallocation in healthcare expenditure.

  12. Risk factors for prostate cancer: An hospital-based case-control study from Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, B.; Saoba, Sushama L.; Sarade, Monika N.; Pinjari, Suvarna V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In India, prostate cancer is one of the five leading sites of cancers among males in all the registries. Very little is known about risk factors for prostate cancer among the Indian population. Objectives: The present study aims to study the association of lifestyle factors like chewing (betel leaf with or without tobacco, pan masala, gutka), smoking (bidi, cigarette), comorbid conditions, diet, body mass index (BMI), family history, vasectomy with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: This an unmatched hospital-based case-control study, comprised of 123 histologically proven prostate ‘cancer cases’ and 167 ‘normal controls. Univariate and regression analysis were applied for obtaining the odds ratio for risk factors. Results: The study revealed that there was no significant excess risk for chewers, alcohol drinkers, tea and coffee drinkers, family history of cancer, diabetes, vasectomy and dietary factors. However, patients with BMI >25 (OR = 2.1), those with hypertension history (OR = 2.5) and age >55 years (OR = 19.3) had enhanced risk for prostate cancer. Conclusions: In the present study age, BMI and hypertension emerged as risk factors for prostate cancer. The findings of this study could be useful to conduct larger studies in a more detailed manner which in turn can be useful for public interest domain. PMID:22022057

  13. Organochlorine pesticides accumulation and breast cancer: A hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    He, Ting-Ting; Zuo, An-Jun; Wang, Ji-Gang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the accumulation status of organochlorine pesticides in breast cancer patients and to explore the relationship between organochlorine pesticides contamination and breast cancer development. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in 56 patients with breast cancer and 46 patients with benign breast disease. We detected the accumulation level of several organochlorine pesticides products (β-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls-28, polychlorinated biphenyls-52, pentachlorothioanisole, and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) in breast adipose tissues of all 102 patients using gas chromatography. Thereafter, we examined the expression status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Ki-67 in 56 breast cancer cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we analyzed the risk of breast cancer in those patients with organochlorine pesticides contamination using a logistic regression model. Our data showed that breast cancer patients suffered high accumulation levels of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52. However, the concentrations of pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls-52 were not related to clinicopathologic parameters of breast cancer. Further logistic regression analysis showed polychlorinated biphenyls-52 and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane were risk factors for breast cancer. Our results provide new evidence on etiology of breast cancer.

  14. Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Chan Wha; Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has rapidly increased over the past decade, few studies have investigated its risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for thyroid cancer in Korean adults. Materials and Methods The study design was a hospital-based case-control study. Between August 2002 and December 2011, a total of 802 thyroid cancer cases out of 34,211 patients screened from the Cancer Screenee. Cohort of the National Cancer Center in South Korea were included in the analysis. A total of 802 control cases were selected from the same cohort, and matched individually (1:1) by age (±2 years) and area of residence for control group 1 and additionally by sex for control group 2. Results Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis using the control group 1 showed that females and those with a family history of thyroid cancer had an increased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas ever-smokers and those with a higher monthly household income had a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the analysis using control group 2 showed that a family history of cancer and alcohol consumption were associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas higher body mass index (BMI) and family history of thyroid cancer were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Conclusion These findings suggest that females, those with a family history of thyroid cancer, those with a higher BMI, non-smokers, non-drinkers, and those with a lower monthly household income have an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. PMID:27338034

  15. Factors influencing choice of hospitals: a case study of the northern part of Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egunjobi, L

    1983-01-01

    A total number of 859 patients were interviewed in the four hospitals that served Oyo Health Zone, Nigeria in 1979 on why they chose particular hospitals for treatment. The following factors in descending order of magnitude were identified as influencing their choice: nearness, quality of service, relative living in hospital town, finance, ease of transport, religion and connections with hospital staff. Although nearness was the leading factor, it accounted for only 31.8% of the total responses. In effect, about 70% of patients' behaviour are explained by other factors. This study points to the inappropriateness of the emphasis usually placed on linear distance as determining attractiveness of health service supply centres. In reality, a maze of interactions among spatial and non-spatial variables is at work in the choice of hospitals. Policy decisions should take cognizance of this if satisfactory health service to a majority of patients is to be achieved.

  16. Profiling quality of care for patients with chronic headache in three different German hospitals – a case study

    PubMed Central

    Melchart, Dieter; Wessel, Anne; Brand, Ronald; Hager, Stefan; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Background Legal requirements for quality assurance in German rehabilitation hospitals include comparisons of providers. Objective is to describe and to compare outcome quality of care offered by three hospitals providing in-patient rehabilitative treatment exemplified for patients with chronic headache. Methods We performed a prospective three center observational study on patients suffering from chronic headache. Patients underwent interventions commonly used according to internal guidelines of the hospitals. Measurements were taken at three points in time (at admission, at discharge and 6 months after discharge). Indicators of outcome quality included pain intensity and frequency of pain, functional ability, depression, quality of life and health related behavior. Analyses of differences amongst the hospitals were adjusted by covariates due to case-mix situation. Results 306 patients from 3 hospitals were included in statistical analysis. Amongst the hospitals, patients differed significantly in age, education, diagnostic subgroups, beliefs, and with respect to some pain-related baseline values (covariates). Patients in all three hospitals benefited from intervention to a clinically relevant degree. At discharge from hospital, outcome quality differed significantly after adjustment according to case-mix only in terms of patients' global assessment of treatment results. Six months after discharge, the only detectable significant differences were for secondary outcomes like improved coping with stress or increased use of self-help. The profiles for satisfaction with the hospital stay showed clear differences amongst patients. Conclusion The results of this case study do not suggest a definite overall ranking of the three hospitals that were compared, but outcome profiles offer a multilayer platform of reliable information which might facilitate decision making. PMID:18199321

  17. Information Technology Governance Domains in Hospitals: A Case Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Mehraban; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    IT governance is a set of organizational structures ensuring decision-making rights and responsibilities with regard to the organization’s IT assets. This qualitative study was carried out to identify the IT governance domains in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. There were 10 heads of IT departments and 10 hospital directors. Semi structured interviews used for data collection. To analyze the data content analysis was applied. All the interviewees (100%) believed that decisions upon hospital software needs could be made in a decentralized fashion by the IT department of the university. Most of the interviewees (90%) believed that there were policies for logistics and maintenance of networks, purchase and maintenance, standards and general policies in the direction of the policies of the ministry of health and medical education. About 80% of the interviewees believed that the current emphasis of the hospital’s IT unit and the hospital management for outsourcing of services were in the format of specialized contracts and under supervision of the university Statistic and IT department. A hospital strategic committee is an official organizational group consisting of hospital executives, heads of IT and multiple functional areas and business units in a hospital. In this committee, “the head of hospital” acts as the director of IT activities and ensures that IT strategies are alignment with the hospital business strategies. PMID:25948446

  18. A Simple Insightful Approach to Investigating a Hospital Standardised Mortality Ratio: An Illustrative Case-Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Stevens, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite methodological concerns Hospital Standardised Mortality Ratios (HSMRs) are promoted as measures of performance. Hospitals that experience an increase in their HSMR are presented with a serious challenge but with little guidance on how to investigate this complex phenomenon. We illustrate a simple penetrating approach. Methods Retrospective analysis of routinely collected hospital admissions data comparing observed and expected deaths predicted by the Dr Foster Unit case mix adjustment method over three years (n = 74,860 admissions) in Shropshire and Telford NHS Trust Hospital (SaTH) constituting PRH (Princess Royal Hospital) and RSH (Royal Shrewsbury Hospital); whose HSMR increased from 99 in the year 2008/09 to 118 in the year 2009/10. Results The step up in HSMR was primarily located in PRH (109 to 130 vs. 105 to 118 RSH). Disentangling the HSMR by plotting run charts of observed and expected deaths showed that observed deaths were stable in RSH and PRH but expected deaths, especially at PRH, had fallen. The fall in expected deaths has two possible explanations–genuinely lower risk admissions or that the case-mix adjustment model is underestimating the risk of admissions perhaps because of inadequate clinical coding. There was no evidence that the case-mix profile of admissions had changed but there was considerable evidence that clinical coding process at PRH was producing a lower depth of coding resulting in lower expected mortality. Conclusion Knowing whether the change (increase/decrease) in HSMR is driven by the numerator or the denominator is a crucial pivotal first step in understanding a given HSMR and so such information should be an integral part of the HSMR reporting methodology. PMID:23472111

  19. Incidence and transmission of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in Holstein dairy cows in a hospital pen: A case study.

    PubMed

    Punyapornwithaya, V; Fox, L K; Hancock, D D; Gay, J M; Wenz, J R; Alldredge, J R

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the incidence and transmission of mycoplasma mastitis in the hospital pen in a dairy herd of 650 lactating cows after a hospital pen was established following an outbreak of this disease. Mycoplasma mastitis status was monitored for 3 months through repeated collection of milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis (CM) and from bulk tank milk. During the outbreak 13 cows were diagnosed with Mycoplasma bovis CM, 1 cow with Mycoplasma sp. mastitis and 8 cows showed signs of arthritis, 3 of which were confirmed as having M. bovis arthritis. M. bovis isolates from cows with CM, arthritis and bulk tank milk had indistinguishable chromosomal digest pattern fingerprints. Incidence rates of M. bovis CM cases in the milking and hospital pens were 0.01 and 1.7 cases per 100 cow-days at risk. Approximately 70% of cows with M. bovis CM became infected within 12 days of entering the hospital pen. Transmission of M. bovis in the hospital pen occurred as 3 episodes. Each episode corresponded to the introduction of a cow with M. bovis CM from a milking pen. Evidence indicates that cows with M. bovis CM from milking pens were the source of transmission of the disease in the hospital pen and thus their presence in the hospital pen appeared to be a risk factor for transmission of M. bovis mastitis in this single case study herd.

  20. Association between air pollution and hospital admission: Case study at three monitoring stations in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, Marina; Zin@Ibrahim, Wan Zawiah Wan; Ismail, Noriszura; Ni, Tan Hui

    2014-06-01

    The relationships between the exposure of pollutants towards hospitalized admission and mortality have been identified in several studies on Asian cities such as Taipei, Bangkok and Tokyo. In Malaysia, evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to pollutants is limited. In this study, daily time-series data were analysed to estimate risks of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalized admissions associated with particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone concentrations in Klang Valley during 2004-2009. Daily counts of hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes were obtained from eleven hospitals while pollutants data were taken from several air quality monitoring stations located nearest to the hospitals. These data were fitted with Generalised Additive Poisson regression models. Additionally, temperature, humidity, and time data were also included to allow for potential effect of weather and time-varying influences on hospital admissions. CO showed the most significant (P < 0.05) relationship to cardiovascular admissions. An increment of 1 ppm in CO predicted an increase of 4% to 20% in cardiovascular admissions. Respiratory admissions were associated with PM10, which had about 1% increase in risk of admission per 10 ug/m3 increment in PM10. Exposure to CO and PM10 increases the risk of hospitalization for cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

  1. Direct hospital costs of total laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with fast-track open hysterectomy at a tertiary hospital: a retrospective case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Rhou, Yoon J J; Pather, Selvan; Loadsman, John A; Campbell, Neil; Philp, Shannon; Carter, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    To assess the direct intraoperative and postoperative costs in women undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy and fast-track open hysterectomy. A retrospective review of the direct hospital-related costs in a matched cohort of women undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and fast-track open hysterectomy (FTOH) at a tertiary hospital. All costs were calculated, including the cost of advanced high-energy laparoscopic devices. The effect of the learning curve on cost in laparoscopic hysterectomy was also assessed, as was the hospital case-weighted cost, which was compared with the actual cost. Fifty women were included in each arm of the study. TLH had a higher intraoperative cost, but a lower postoperative cost than FTOH (AUD$3877 vs AUD$2776 P < 0.001, AUD$3965 vs AUD$6233 P < 0.001). The total cost of TLH was not different from FTOH (AUD$7842 vs AUD$9009 P = 0.068) and after a learning curve; TLH cost less than FTOH (AUD$6797 vs AUD$8647, P < 0.001). The use of high-energy devices did not impact on the cost benefit of TLH, and hospital case-weight-based funding correlated poorly with actual cost. Despite the use of fast-track recovery protocols, the cost of TLH is no different to FTOH and after a learning curve is cheaper than open hysterectomy. Judicious use of advanced energy devices does not impact on the cost, and hospital case-weight-based funding model in our hospital is inaccurate when compared to directly calculated hospital costs. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Role of pay-for-performance in a hospital performance measurement system: a multiple case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor A; Mannion, Russell

    2013-03-01

    Pay for performance (P4P) is becoming increasingly popular in the health care sector as a tool for encouraging performance (especially quality) improvement. Evidence about the effect of policies in hospitals is rare and generally confined to developed countries. The Iranian hospital grading system, which links the charges hospitals can make for patient stay to the results of their annual performance grading, is one of the earliest examples of P4P in the world. We report here the first evaluation of the impact of the Iranian P4P system. We conducted a multiple case study using semi-structured interviews and observation in four hospitals with different ownership and grading results, to explore responses to the grading system and the P4P policy. The data were analysed using framework analysis assisted by Atlas-ti software. The findings showed hospital behaviour was influenced by and changed in response to P4P policy, despite serious concerns about the validity of the grading standards. The main driver for such changes was hospital revenue, which acted as a direct financial incentive for private hospital managers and as a factor for public hospital managers' sense of success and reputation. Frontline staff were motivated indirectly by higher revenue flowing into investment in better facilities and working environment. Other potential mechanisms by which the grading system could have influenced behaviour [such as patient and General Practitioner (GP) referral choice] did not appear to influence hospital behaviour.

  3. Negotiating jurisdiction in the workplace: a multiple-case study of nurse prescribing in hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Kroezen, M; Mistiaen, P; van Dijk, L; Groenewegen, P P; Francke, A L

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports on a multiple-case study of prescribing by nurse specialists in Dutch hospital settings. Most analyses of interprofessional negotiations over professional boundaries take a macro sociological approach and ignore workplace jurisdictions. Yet boundary blurring takes place and healthcare professionals renegotiate formal policies in the workplace. This paper studies the division of jurisdictional control over prescribing between nurse specialists and medical specialists in the workplace, and examines the relationship between workplace jurisdiction and legal jurisdiction over prescribing. Data collection took place in the Netherlands during the first half of 2013. The study used in-depth interviews with fifteen nurse specialists and fourteen medical specialists, non-participant observation of nurse specialists' prescribing consultations and document analysis. Great variety was found in the extent to which and way in which nurse specialists' legal prescriptive authority had been implemented. These findings suggest that there is considerable discrepancy between the division of jurisdictional control over prescribing at the macro (legal) level and the division at the micro (workplace) level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A case-control study of post-traumatic endophthalmitis at a Spanish hospital.

    PubMed

    Asencio, Maria Angeles; Huertas, María; Carranza, Rafael; Tenias, Jose Maria; Celis, Javier; Gonzalez-del Valle, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to identify the potential risk factors for developing post-traumatic endophthalmitis (PTE) and the possible measures of prevention. Retrospective case-control study, with 15 cases of PTE and 2 matched controls. We reviewed the medical records of the cases and their respective controls during the period 1996-2008 at a Spanish Hospital. We collected demographic data and information about the type of trauma, the potential risk factors, comorbidities, microbial isolations, antimicrobial susceptibility, administered treatments, and the visual outcome. The independent predictor factors identified for PTE were intraocular foreign body (IOFB) (OR 5.48; CI 95 % 1.05-28.7), dirty wound (OR 4.91; CI 95 % 0.96-25.3), and wound closure delays of 24 h or more (OR 5.48; CI 95 % 1.05-28.7). The probability of endophthalmitis in patients without these risk factors was 5.9 %, but ascended to 65.3 % and 90.3 %, in those patients with two and three risk factors, respectively. Infected patients presented a complication rate of 80 %, with an evisceration rate of 53 %; both were significantly associated with infection. The visual outcome was poor and related to the presence of IOFB and virulent microorganisms (Bacillus sp., filamentous fungus), visual acuity at presentation, and retinal detachment. Patients who presented an IOFB, dirty wound, and delayed wound closure were 15 times more likely to develop infection, and when infected, patients fared much worse than those non-infected. We thus recommend aggressive prophylactic measures in patients with these risk factors, adding antifungal prophylaxis when the injury is contaminated with vegetable matter.

  5. Kids' Perceptions toward Children's Ward Healing Environments: A Case Study of Taiwan University Children's Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the opinions of experts who participated in designing the environment of a children's hospital and reports the results of a questionnaire survey conducted among hospital users. The grounded theory method was adopted to analyze 292 concepts, 79 open codes, 25 axial codes, and 4 selective codes; in addition, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis were performed to identify elements for designing a healing environment in a children's hospital, and 21 elements from 4 dimensions, namely, emotions, space design, interpersonal interaction, and pleasant surroundings, were determined. Subsequently, this study examined the perceptions of 401 children at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital. The results revealed that, regarding the children's responses to the four dimensions and their overall perception, younger children accepted the healing environment to a significantly higher degree than did older children. The sex effect was significant for the space design dimension, and it was not significant for the other dimensions.

  6. Retrospective study of 149 cases of salivary gland carcinoma in a Spanish hospital population.

    PubMed

    Collazo-Fernández, L; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez, J; García-Martín, R; Ballestín-Carcavilla, C

    2017-03-01

    The clinical and histological characteristics of salivary gland tumors vary widely, complicating their diagnosis and management, and major differences have been recorded in the distribution of histopathological diagnoses among different countries. This retrospective study reviewed the demographic (age, sex) and clinicopathological (pathology diagnosis and localization) characteristics of cases diagnosed with primary SGC between June 1992 and May 2014 in the Pathology Department of the 12 de Octubre Hospital of Madrid. Diagnoses were recorded according to the 2005 WHO classification. The study included 149 SCG patients, aged between 11 and 94 yrs, with mean age at onset of 55.56 yrs and peak incidence in the eighth decade of life. The male:female ratio was 1.01. The parotid gland was the most frequently involved (75.2%). The most frequent carcinoma was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (24.2%), followed by acinic cell carcinoma (15.4%). The demographic and histopathological characteristics of patients with salivary gland carcinomas in Spain, reported here for the first time, are broadly similar to those found in other countries.

  7. Retrospective study of 149 cases of salivary gland carcinoma in a Spanish hospital population

    PubMed Central

    Campo-Trapero, Julián; Cano-Sánchez, Jorge; García-Martín, Rosa; Ballestín-Carcavilla, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Background The clinical and histological characteristics of salivary gland tumors vary widely, complicating their diagnosis and management, and major differences have been recorded in the distribution of histopathological diagnoses among different countries. Material and Methods This retrospective study reviewed the demographic (age, sex) and clinicopathological (pathology diagnosis and localization) characteristics of cases diagnosed with primary SGC between June 1992 and May 2014 in the Pathology Department of the 12 de Octubre Hospital of Madrid. Diagnoses were recorded according to the 2005 WHO classification. Results The study included 149 SCG patients, aged between 11 and 94 yrs, with mean age at onset of 55.56 yrs and peak incidence in the eighth decade of life. The male:female ratio was 1.01. The parotid gland was the most frequently involved (75.2%). The most frequent carcinoma was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (24.2%), followed by acinic cell carcinoma (15.4%). Conclusions The demographic and histopathological characteristics of patients with salivary gland carcinomas in Spain, reported here for the first time, are broadly similar to those found in other countries. Key words:Salivary gland carcinomas, descriptive, salivary glands, salivary gland tumors, head and neck cancer, oral cancer, Spain. PMID:28160579

  8. Safety of tetanus toxoid in pregnant women: a hospital-based case-control study of congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, C. M.; Cáceres, V. M.; Dutra, M. G.; Lopes-Camelo, J.; Castilla, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    Reported are the results of the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), a hospital-based case-control study of 34,293 malformed and 34,477 matched nonmalformed newborn controls. No statistical differences were found between the malformed and control groups, exposed or not exposed to tetanus toxoid. PMID:8846486

  9. Program Outcomes Assessment in Higher Education Hospitality Management Programs: A Qualitative Comparative Case Study of Learning Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John George

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, comparative case study was to determine the extent to which learning and improvement cultures were perceived to be linked to the traditional and non-traditional accreditation and Program Outcomes Assessment paradigms in use in two university hospitality programs. The findings of this study revealed that the…

  10. SARS and hospital priority setting: a qualitative case study and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jennifer AH; Hyland, Sylvia; DePellegrin, Tania; Upshur, Ross EG; Bernstein, Mark; Martin, Douglas K

    2004-01-01

    Background Priority setting is one of the most difficult issues facing hospitals because of funding restrictions and changing patient need. A deadly communicable disease outbreak, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto in 2003, amplifies the difficulties of hospital priority setting. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate priority setting in a hospital in response to SARS using the ethical framework 'accountability for reasonableness'. Methods This study was conducted at a large tertiary hospital in Toronto, Canada. There were two data sources: 1) over 200 key documents (e.g. emails, bulletins), and 2) 35 interviews with key informants. Analysis used a modified thematic technique in three phases: open coding, axial coding, and evaluation. Results Participants described the types of priority setting decisions, the decision making process and the reasoning used. Although the hospital leadership made an effort to meet the conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness', they acknowledged that the decision making was not ideal. We described good practices and opportunities for improvement. Conclusions 'Accountability for reasonableness' is a framework that can be used to guide fair priority setting in health care organizations, such as hospitals. In the midst of a crisis such as SARS where guidance is incomplete, consequences uncertain, and information constantly changing, where hour-by-hour decisions involve life and death, fairness is more important rather than less. PMID:15606924

  11. Graduate medical education funding: a Massachusetts General Hospital case study and review.

    PubMed

    Guss, Daniel; Prestipino, Ann L; Rubash, Harry E

    2012-02-15

    During the past century, graduate medical education funding has evolved in response to the increasing specialization of modern medicine as well as the need for federal funding to effectively sustain specialty training. This article reviews historical and current funding methods for graduate medical education and examines current funding using Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) as a case example. Notably, it also explores whether graduate medical education funding at a large academic center such as MGH is commensurate with expenditures.

  12. Case study of stomach adenocarcinoma conducted at a cancer referral hospital in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira; Campos, Brenda Prazeres de; Sousa, Rachid Marwan Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second leading cause of death due to cancer in the world and the incidence of this disease continues to be high in Brazil. In the Northern region, gastric cancer is the second most frequent cancer among men and the third among women. In the State of Pará, stomach adenocarcinoma is a public health problem since mortality rates are above the Brazilian average. To analyze the clinical and anatomopathological profile of stomach adenocarcinoma in patients seen at Ofir Loiola Hospital. In a retrospective study, records from 302 patients with gastric cancer undergoing surgery between 2006 and 2008 were analyzed. Data regarding patient profile, early symptoms, alterations upon physical examination, type of surgery, and macroscopic and histological findings were obtained from the records. Most patients (63.9%) were men, 48% were older than 60 years, 50.9% were from the metropolitan region of Belém, 68.2% presented epigastric pain as an early symptom, and abdominal tenderness upon palpation was observed in 63.7%. The antrum was the most affected anatomical site (62.1%), followed by the gastric body (26.9%). Borrmann III (ulcerated-infiltrative) was the predominant endoscopic type. Adenocarcinoma accounted for 95.4% of all cases, including the intestinal type in 56.6% and the diffuse type in 41.3%. Most patients had stage IIIB and IV tumors and total gastrectomy was the most frequent type of surgery (37.4%). The present study demonstrated that gastric adenocarcinoma mainly affected men over the age of 60 who were from the metropolitan region of Belém. Most adenocarcinomas were in an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis, a fact requiring more aggressive surgical resection in these cases. These data highlight the urgent need for the implementation of preventive measures and early detection programs of gastric cancer.

  13. Cutaneous sarcoidosis: A retrospective case series and a hospital-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kwei-Lan; Tsai, Wen-Chien; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2017-10-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology often involving skin. Studies on cutaneous sarcoidosis and comorbidities are limited. This study is aimed to describe the clinical features of cutaneous sarcoidosis diagnosed in our hospital and to determine the relationships between cutaneous sarcoidosis and comorbidities.This retrospective study evaluates patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis in a tertiary center in Taiwan from 1996 to 2015. The records of 38 patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis were reviewed for clinical characteristics and evaluated by analysis of variance. A 1:4 case-control analysis was conducted with 152 age- and sex-matched controls who underwent biopsy for other benign skin tumors.The male to female ratio was 1:4.4. The average age at diagnosis was 51.7 years. Female patients were on average 13.9 years older than male patients. The correlation of age with gender was statistically significant (P = .037). The most common cutaneous lesions were plaques (47.4%) and confined to the face (71.1%). Of the 38 patients, 26.3% had diabetes mellitus. Age over 40 (P = .014) and female (P = .014) were associated with facial involvement. In the case-control study, a higher percentage of patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis than of control subjects had diabetes mellitus (P = .001), hearing loss (P = .031) and eye diseases (P = .047).The present study demonstrates a striking female predominance and high proportions of facial involvement. Diabetes mellitus, hearing loss, and eye diseases may be associated with Taiwanese patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis.

  14. The productivity and its barriers in public hospitals: case study of ran

    PubMed Central

    Nabilou, Bahram; Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Rezapour, Aziz; Ebadi Fard Azar, Farbod; Salem Safi, Parviz; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the increasing health care costs, the issue of productivity in hospitals must be taken into great consideration in order to provide, preserve and promote public health services. Thus, increasing the level of productivity must become the main aim of any hospital. Objective of this study is to determine the total factor productivity and its components over the period under the study. Methods: In this cross sectional study, total factor productivity changes of hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences were measured according to Malmquist index over the period 2009-2014. To estimate total productivity changes using Data Envelopment Analysis method, inputoriented and variable return to scale assumptions were applied and Deap2.1 software was used. Results: The mean value of total productivity changes was 1.013. It means that during the study period the productivity experienced a 1.3% decrease. Technological efficiency changes have the greatest influence on productivity decrease than the other factors. Scale efficiency, managerial efficiency and technical efficiency changes were ranked. Conclusion: Lack of knowledge of hospital personnel on proper application of technology in patient treatment is the main factor leading to productivity decrease resulting from technological changes in the studied hospitals. Therefore, holding courses for personnel in order to teach them the proper use of technology in diagnosis and patient care can be helpful. PMID:27390686

  15. Occupational risk factors of lung cancer: a hospital based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Droste, J. H.; Weyler, J. J.; Van Meerbeeck, J. P.; Vermeire, P. A.; van Sprundel, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between lung cancer and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a highly industrialised region in western Europe. METHODS: In a case-control study 478 cases and 536 controls, recruited from 10 hospitals in the Antwerp region, were interviewed. Cases were male patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer; controls were male patients without cancer or primary lung diseases. Data were collected by questionnaires to obtain information on occupations, exposures, and smoking history. Job titles were coded with the Office of Populations, Censuses and Surveys industrial classification. Exposure was assessed by self report and by job-task exposure matrix. Exposure odds ratios were calculated with logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, smoking history, and marital and socio-economic status. RESULTS: A job history in the categories manufacturing of transport equipment other than automobiles (for example, shipyard workers), transport support services (for example, dockers), and manufacturing of metal goods (for example, welders) was significantly associated with lung cancer (odds ratios (ORs) 2.3, 1.6, and 1.6 respectively). These associations were independent of smoking, education, civil, and economic status. Self reported exposure to potential carcinogens did not show significant associations with lung cancer, probably due to nondifferential misclassification. When assessed by job-task exposure matrix, exposure to molybdenum, mineral oils, and chromium were significantly associated with lung cancer. A strong association existed between smoking and lung cancer: OR of ex- smokers 4.2, OR of current smokers 14.5 v non-smokers. However, smoking did not confound the relation between occupational exposure and lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study has shown a significant excess risk of lung cancer among workers in manufacturing of metal goods, manufacturing of transport equipment (other than automobiles), and transport support

  16. How Visual Management for Continuous Improvement Might Guide and Affect Hospital Staff: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ulhassan, Waqar; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Westerlund, Hugo; Sandahl, Christer; Thor, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Visual management (VM) tools such as whiteboards, often employed in Lean thinking applications, are intended to be helpful in improving work processes in different industries including health care. It remains unclear, however, how VM is actually applied in health care Lean interventions and how it might influence the clinical staff. We therefore examined how Lean-inspired VM using whiteboards for continuous improvement efforts related to the hospital staff's work and collaboration. Within a case study design, we combined semistructured interviews, nonparticipant observations, and photography on 2 cardiology wards. The fate of VM differed between the 2 wards; in one, it was well received by the staff and enhanced continuous improvement efforts, whereas in the other ward, it was not perceived to fit in the work flow or to make enough sense in order to be sustained. Visual management may enable the staff and managers to allow communication across time and facilitate teamwork by enabling the inclusion of team members who are not present simultaneously; however, its adoption and value seem contingent on finding a good fit with the local context. A combination of continuous improvement and VM may be helpful in keeping the staff engaged in the change process in the long run.

  17. Health System Responsiveness: A Case Study of General Hospitals in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimipour, Hossein; Vafaei Najjar, Ali; Khani Jahani, Ahmad; Pourtaleb, Arefeh; Javadi, Marzieh; Rezazadeh, Alireza; Vejdani, Marjan; Shirdel, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering patients’ needs and expectations in the process of healthcare delivery improves the quality of services. This study aimed to investigate the responsiveness of general public and private hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional and explanatory study, hospitalized patients (with at least 2 days of stay) in general private and public hospitals in Mashhad were investigated. In total 425 patients (259 from private and 166 from public hospitals) were selected using a stratified and simple random sampling. Standard responsiveness questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and ANOVA by SPSS 16 at a significance level of 0.05. Results: Access to the social support during hospitalization as well as confidentiality of the patient’s information achieved the highest score (3.21±0.73) while the patient participation in decision-making process of treatment received the least score (2.34±1.24). Among the research population 1.6%, 4.1%, 17.6%, 63.3% and 13.2% commented on the responsiveness level as very low, low, moderate, good, and excellent, respectively. There was no significant difference between the overall responsiveness scores of public and private hospitals ( P ≥0.05). Conclusion: The hospitals have enough potential to improve various aspects of their responsiveness. We suggest a number of measures can help improve the non-clinical aspects of care. These include: using educational courses to improve the knowledge and attitudes of medical and nonmedical staff, changing the resource allocation method, and using quality tools such as reengineering to modify the healthcare delivery processes. PMID:24596841

  18. Parenteral penicillin for children with meningococcal disease before hospital admission: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Harnden, Anthony; Ninis, Nelly; Thompson, Matthew; Perera, Rafael; Levin, Michael; Mant, David; Mayon-White, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact on mortality and morbidity of parenteral penicillin given to children before admission to hospital with suspected meningococcal disease. Design Retrospective comparison of fatal and non-fatal cases. Setting England, Wales, and Northern Ireland; December 1997 to February 1999. Participants 158 children aged 0-16 years (26 died, 132 survived) in whom a general practitioner had made the diagnosis of meningococcal disease before hospital admission. Results Administration of parenteral penicillin by general practitioners was associated with increased odds ratios for death (7.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 37.7) and complications in survivors (5.0, 1.7 to 15.0). Children who received penicillin had more severe disease on admission (median Glasgow meningococcal septicaemia prognostic score (GMSPS) 6.5 v 4.0, P = 0.002). Severity on admission did not differ significantly with time taken to reach hospital. Conclusions Children who were given parenteral penicillin by a general practitioner had more severe disease on reaching hospital than those who were not given penicillin before admission. The association with poor outcome may be because children who are more severely ill are being given penicillin before admission. PMID:16554335

  19. An investigation on physicians' acceptance of hospital information systems: a case study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rai-Fu; Hsiao, Ju-Ling

    2012-12-01

    Information technology is used to support a wide range of highly specified healthcare tasks and services. There is, therefore, a need to understand the factors affecting the acceptance of this technology by healthcare professionals. Physicians are key providers of healthcare services and are among the principal users of hospital information systems. Their acceptance of hospital information systems is hence of great significance when evaluating the success of those systems. The survey methodology was employed to targeted physicians in the selected case hospital for investigating factors affecting physicians' acceptance of hospital information systems. A total of 202 questionnaires were sent out, with 124 completed copies returned, indicating a valid response rate of 61.4%. We used structural equation modeling to analyze the data. The results indicated that top management support (γ=0.431, p<0.001) had a significant impact on perceived usefulness. Project team competency (γ=0.381, p<0.001) and system quality (γ=0.369, p<0.001) had a significant impact on physicians' perceived ease of use of hospital information systems. Physicians' perceptions of the usefulness (β=0.132, p<0.05, R(2)=0.296) and ease of use (β=0.952, p<0.001, R(2)=0.784) of hospital information systems had a significant impact on the acceptance of the systems, accounting for 81.4% of total explained variance. Through the understanding of the identified critical factors affecting physicians' HIS acceptance, the planners and managers should ensure that hospital information systems to be introduced into a hospital are useful and ease to use. Effort should be focuses on providing sufficient top management support, selecting qualified project team members, and delivering higher system quality in addressing physicians' clinical needs. Thus, our research results can help planners and managers understand key considerations affecting HIS development and use, and may be used as a reference for system

  20. A case study of hospital closure and centralization of coronary revascularization procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Ghali, William A.; Quan, Hude

    2001-01-01

    Background Despite nation-wide efforts to reduce health care costs through hospital closures and centralization of services, little is known about the impact of such actions. We conducted this study to determine the effect of a hospital closure in Calgary and the resultant centralization of coronary revascularization procedures from 2 facilities to a single location. Methods Administrative data were used to identify patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), including those who had combined CABG and valve procedures, and patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) in the Calgary Regional Health Authority from July 1994 to March 1998. This period represents the 21 months preceding and the 24 months following the March 1996 hospital closure. Measures, including mean number of discharges, length of hospital stay, burden of comorbidity and in-hospital death rates, were compared before and after the hospital closure for CABG and PTCA patients. Multivariate analyses were used to derive risk-adjustment models to control for sociodemographic variables and comorbidity. Results The number of patients undergoing CABG was higher in the year following than in the year preceding the hospital closure (51.6 per 100 000 before v. 67.3 per 100 000 after the closure); the same was true for the number of patients undergoing PTCA (129.8 v. 143.6 per 100 000). The burden of comorbidity was significantly higher after than before the closure, both for CABG patients (comorbidity index 1.3 before v. 1.5 after closure, p < 0.001) and for PTCA patients (comorbidity index 1.0 before v. 1.1 after, p = 0.04). After adjustment for comorbidity, the mean length of hospital stay was significantly lower after than before the closure for CABG patients (by 1.3 days) and for PTCA patients (by 1.0 days). The adjusted rates of death were slightly lower after than before the closure in the CABG group. The adjusted rates of death or CABG in the PTCA group did not

  1. Case-mix adjusted hospital mortality is a poor proxy for preventable mortality: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Alan J; Hofer, Timothy P; Wu, Jianhua; Chilton, Peter J; Nicholl, Jonathan P; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Lilford, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Risk-adjustment schemes are used to monitor hospital performance, on the assumption that excess mortality not explained by case mix is largely attributable to suboptimal care. We have developed a model to estimate the proportion of the variation in standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) that can be accounted for by variation in preventable mortality. The model was populated with values from the literature to estimate a predictive value of the SMR in this context—specifically the proportion of those hospitals with SMRs among the highest 2.5% that fall among the worst 2.5% for preventable mortality. The extent to which SMRs reflect preventable mortality rates is highly sensitive to the proportion of deaths that are preventable. If 6% of hospital deaths are preventable (as suggested by the literature), the predictive value of the SMR can be no greater than 9%. This value could rise to 30%, if 15% of deaths are preventable. The model offers a ‘reality check’ for case mix adjustment schemes designed to isolate the preventable component of any outcome rate. PMID:23069860

  2. Case-mix adjusted hospital mortality is a poor proxy for preventable mortality: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Girling, Alan J; Hofer, Timothy P; Wu, Jianhua; Chilton, Peter J; Nicholl, Jonathan P; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Lilford, Richard J

    2012-12-01

    Risk-adjustment schemes are used to monitor hospital performance, on the assumption that excess mortality not explained by case mix is largely attributable to suboptimal care. We have developed a model to estimate the proportion of the variation in standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) that can be accounted for by variation in preventable mortality. The model was populated with values from the literature to estimate a predictive value of the SMR in this context-specifically the proportion of those hospitals with SMRs among the highest 2.5% that fall among the worst 2.5% for preventable mortality. The extent to which SMRs reflect preventable mortality rates is highly sensitive to the proportion of deaths that are preventable. If 6% of hospital deaths are preventable (as suggested by the literature), the predictive value of the SMR can be no greater than 9%. This value could rise to 30%, if 15% of deaths are preventable. The model offers a 'reality check' for case mix adjustment schemes designed to isolate the preventable component of any outcome rate.

  3. [Intraosseous access for in-hospital emergencies. Intensive medical care case study].

    PubMed

    Werner, M; Daniel, H-P; Hoitz, J

    2010-07-01

    Since the release of the 2005 resuscitation guidelines intraosseous infusion has been recognized as the favorite alternative vascular access in emergency patients. It is no longer restricted to paediatric emergencies but is also considered the vascular access of choice for adult patients with difficult venous access. Intraosseous access has been used in an increasing proportion of patients especially in an out-of-hospital emergency care setting while only limited experience exists for in-hospital usage of this technique. This article reports on a case of intraosseous access performed in a critically ill patient directly after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to difficult peripheral venous access. Despite the extensive medical resources available in the ICU (i.e. central venous catheterization) less invasive means were used to render appropriate care. Based on this case different strategies of critical care and possible improvements will be discussed. Intraosseous infusion should be regarded as an infrequently needed but potentially life-saving procedure that is still too often considered as an option at later stages during in-hospital emergency care.

  4. Room transfers and the risk of delirium incidence amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Amanda; Straus, Sharon E; Hamid, Jemila S; Wong, Camilla L

    2015-06-25

    Room transfers are suspected to promote the development of delirium in hospitalized elderly patients, but no studies have systematically examined the relationship between room transfers and delirium incidence. We used a case-control study to determine if the number of room transfers per patient days is associated with an increased incidence of delirium amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients, controlling for baseline risk factors. We included patients 70 years of age or older who were admitted to the internal medicine or geriatric medicine services at St. Michael's Hospital between October 2009 and September 2010 for more than 24 h. The cases consisted of patients who developed delirium during the first week of hospital stay. The controls consisted of patients who did not develop delirium during the first week of hospital stay. Patients with evidence of delirium at admission were excluded from the analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the relationship between room transfers and delirium development within the first week of hospital stay. 994 patients were included in the study, of which 126 developed delirium during the first week of hospital stay. Using a multivariable logistic regression model which controlled for age, gender, cognitive impairment, vision impairment, dehydration, and severe illness, room transfers per patient days were associated with delirium incidence (OR: 9.69, 95 % CI (6.20 to15.16), P < 0.0001). An increased number of room transfers per patient days is associated with an increased incidence of delirium amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients. This is an exploratory analysis and needs confirmation with larger studies.

  5. The Effects of Multiple Chronic Conditions on Adult Patient Readmissions and Hospital Finances: A Management Case Study.

    PubMed

    Mihailoff, Michael; Deb, Shreyasi; Lee, James A; Lynn, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Medicare and other payers have launched initiatives to reduce hospital utilization, especially targeting readmissions within 30 days of discharge. Hospital managers have traditionally contended that hospitals would prosper better by ignoring the penalties for high readmission rates and keeping the beds more full. We aimed to test the financial effects of admissions and readmissions by persons with and without specified chronic conditions in one regional hospital. This is a management case study with a descriptive brief report. This study was conducted at Winchester Memorial Hospital, a general hospital in a largely rural area of Virginia, 2010-2015. The total margin per admission varied by diagnosis, with the average patient diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, pneumonia, or chronic renal disease having negative margins. The largest per-patient losses were in diagnostic categories coinciding with the highest readmission rates. The margin declined into substantial losses with an increasing number of chronic conditions, which also corresponded with higher readmission rates. Patients with 5 or more clinical conditions had highest risk of readmission within 30 days (24.8%) and had an average total loss of $865 per admission in 2015. The adverse financial effects worsened between 2010 and 2015. This hospital might improve its finances by investing in strategies to reduce chronic illness hospitalizations, especially those with multiple chronic conditions and high risk of readmission. These findings counter the common claim that the hospital would do better to fill beds rather than to work on efficient utilization. Other hospitals could replicate these analyses to understand their situations.

  6. Out of hospital sudden cardiac death in Italy: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Alessandro; Sessa, Emiliano; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Pecchioli, Serena; Capocchi, Rachele; Caprari, Francesca; Scivales, Alessandro; Cricelli, Claudio

    2008-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of death in western countries, with coronary heart disease (CHD) being the basis of over 70% of SCD. Incidence in high-CHD risk countries has already been studied, but this information is not available for Mediterranean low-CHD risk countries. Incidence is of paramount importance when cost-effectiveness rate of actions against SCD must be estimated. We estimated the incidence of SCD and its potential risk associated with clinical variables, by a means of a case-control study in a general practice setting. The enrolled general practitioners (GPs) provided data about the total number of their patients, and identified all their patients who suffered an out-of-hospital SCD during the previous 365 days. Two age-matched and gender-matched controls visiting GPs office after the SCD selection were also selected. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information about potential risk factors for SCD. Covariates that were univariately associated with SCD were included in the multivariate regression analyses. In a population of 297 340 (age greater than 14 years), a total of 230 cases were identified (0.77 per 1000 individuals), mostly occurring at home and among persons with known high cardiovascular risk. In the multivariate analysis only CHD (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.09-2.58), arrhythmia (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.9), obesity (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5-3.6), alcohol abuse (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.7), and family history of CHD (OR 3.1; 95% CI: 1.8-5.3) resulted in a significant association with SCD. The incidence of SCD in Italy is lower than that reported in high-CHD risk population, most of the cases occurring at home and among persons with known high cardiovascular risk. Implementing recommendations for these patients seems to be the most effective strategy to reduce the incidence of SCD.

  7. Applying the High Reliability Health Care Maturity Model to Assess Hospital Performance: A VA Case Study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jennifer L; Rivard, Peter E; Shin, Marlena H; Rosen, Amy K

    2016-09-01

    The lack of a tool for categorizing and differentiating hospitals according to their high reliability organization (HRO)-related characteristics has hindered progress toward implementing and sustaining evidence-based HRO practices. Hospitals would benefit both from an understanding of the organizational characteristics that support HRO practices and from knowledge about the steps necessary to achieve HRO status to reduce the risk of harm and improve outcomes. The High Reliability Health Care Maturity (HRHCM) model, a model for health care organizations' achievement of high reliability with zero patient harm, incorporates three major domains critical for promoting HROs-Leadership, Safety Culture, and Robust Process Improvement ®. A study was conducted to examine the content validity of the HRHCM model and evaluate whether it can differentiate hospitals' maturity levels for each of the model's components. Staff perceptions of patient safety at six US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals were examined to determine whether all 14 HRHCM components were present and to characterize each hospital's level of organizational maturity. Twelve of the 14 components from the HRHCM model were detected; two additional characteristics emerged that are present in the HRO literature but not represented in the model-teamwork culture and system-focused tools for learning and improvement. Each hospital's level of organizational maturity could be characterized for 9 of the 14 components. The findings suggest the HRHCM model has good content validity and that there is differentiation between hospitals on model components. Additional research is needed to understand how these components can be used to build the infrastructure necessary for reaching high reliability.

  8. The productive performance of public hospital clinics in Greece: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lyroudi, K; Glaveli, N; Koulakiotis, A; Angelidis, D

    2006-05-01

    One of the most important and crucial issues for political and social reasons in Greece is the reorganization of the public sector health system--more precisely, the improvement of public hospital operations, both in terms of the resources they use and the quality and quantity of the services they provide. This study focuses on investigating the productivity performance of 10 clinics in a public hospital located in Thessaloniki. The methodology applied is the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the Malmquist productivity index. The results indicated that the efficiency of the hospital clinics has improved. However, clinics' efficiency varies a lot from month to month. In a competitive environment, these differences need to be addressed, investigated and reduced in order to improve total efficiency.

  9. Developing a management information system for a hospital: a case study on vendor selection.

    PubMed

    Tsay, B Y; Stackhouse, J R

    1991-12-01

    This study examines the decision-making process that a medium-sized hospital took to develop a management information system. Since system developers in this particular hospital were all users without system expertise, a substantial amount of time was devoted to their search for relevant information. Outside consulting, literature review, and a market survey were conducted for the developers to understand the characteristics of systems products on the market. Developers also invited extended user participation in vendor evaluation. The authors analyzed the reasoning process behind the successful selection of a vendor-supported information system. The findings provide hospitals of similar characteristics a decision model to follow in their search for a vendor-supported information system.

  10. [Retrospective study of drug-induced agranulocytosis in hospitalized patients in Geneva and comparison with cases reported to IOCM].

    PubMed

    Krayenbühl, J C; Oestreicher, M K; Sievering, J; Stoller, R; Dayer, P

    1998-02-07

    In a retrospective study, 19 cases classified as idiosyncratic drug-induced agranulocytosis were found among 162 files of patients hospitalized in internal medicine clinics of the university hospital where this diagnosis had been coded. This would give an estimated incidence of 2.6 cases per million inhabitants per year for the Geneva area. In most cases several drugs were implicated in causation of the episodes. Suspected drugs were those commonly reported in the literature, but also some drugs which might already have been taken to treat infectious complications of agranulocytosis. A comparison of the Geneva cases with those notified to the Swiss Intercantonal Office for the Control of Medicines reveals a similar profile of involved drugs.

  11. Application of Process Mining in Healthcare - A Case Study in a Dutch Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mans, R. S.; Schonenberg, M. H.; Song, M.; van der Aalst, W. M. P.; Bakker, P. J. M.

    To gain competitive advantage, hospitals try to streamline their processes. In order to do so, it is essential to have an accurate view of the "careflows" under consideration. In this paper, we apply process mining techniques to obtain meaningful knowledge about these flows, e.g., to discover typical paths followed by particular groups of patients. This is a non-trivial task given the dynamic nature of healthcare processes. The paper demonstrates the applicability of process mining using a real case of a gynecological oncology process in a Dutch hospital. Using a variety of process mining techniques, we analyzed the healthcare process from three different perspectives: (1) the control flow perspective, (2) the organizational perspective and (3) the performance perspective. In order to do so we extracted relevant event logs from the hospital's information system and analyzed these logs using the ProM framework. The results show that process mining can be used to provide new insights that facilitate the improvement of existing careflows.

  12. Biomedical solid waste management in an Indian hospital: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Gayathri V. . E-mail: patilgayathripatil@rediffmail.com; Pokhrel, Kamala

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the waste handling and treatment system of hospital bio-medical solid waste and its mandatory compliance with Regulatory Notifications for Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998, under the Environment (Protection Act 1986), Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Govt. of India, at the chosen KLE Society's J. N. Hospital and Medical Research Center, Belgaum, India and (ii) to quantitatively estimate the amount of non-infectious and infectious waste generated in different wards/sections. During the study, it was observed that: (i) the personnel working under the occupier (who has control over the institution to take all steps to ensure biomedical waste is handled without any adverse effects to human health and the environment) were trained to take adequate precautionary measures in handling these bio-hazardous waste materials, (ii) the process of segregation, collection, transport, storage and final disposal of infectious waste was done in compliance with the Standard Procedures, (iii) the final disposal was by incineration in accordance to EPA Rules 1998 (iv) the non-infectious waste was collected separately in different containers and treated as general waste, and (v) on an average about 520 kg of non-infectious and 101 kg of infectious waste is generated per day (about 2.31 kg per day per bed, gross weight comprising both infectious and non-infectious waste). This hospital also extends its facility to the neighboring clinics and hospitals by treating their produced waste for incineration.

  13. Achieving organizational change: findings from a case study of health promoting hospitals in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiachi Bonnie; Chen, Michael S; Powell, Michael; Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk

    2014-06-01

    The Taiwanese Network of Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) has been in place since 2006 and developing rapidly. The criticism of inadequate evaluation of the HPH approach taken elsewhere also holds true for the Taiwan HPH Network. Organizational change is a key to sustainable and effective health promotion, and it is also an important aspect in the European HPH movement. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate changes in organizational capacity for the implementation of HPH in Taiwan. All 55 HPH coordinators were invited to participate in the study, and 52 of them completed the questionnaires. The survey covered seven dimensions of HPH organizational capacity, and a total score of each dimension was calculated and converted to a figure on a scale of 10. This study has shown that HPH made a positive impact on HP hospitals in Taiwan regarding organizational change in capacity building for HPH. Leadership, organization culture and mission and strategy received the top three highest mean scores (8.19 ± 1.25, 8.08 ± 1.39, 7.99 ± 1.42), while staff participation received the lowest score (7.62 ± 1.26). The high level of organizational change was associated with the high satisfaction levels of organizational support from the viewpoint of the HPH coordinators. Based on a cluster analysis, a majority of the HP hospitals in Taiwan seemed to have adopted the addition model in putting the HPH initiative into practice; a few hospitals appeared to have accepted HPH initiative well through the integration model. These results presented evidence that HPH contributed to organizational capacity building of hospitals for health promotion.

  14. Sensitivity of self-reported opioid use in case-control studies: Healthy individuals versus hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Hamideh; Hadji, Maryam; Marzban, Maryam; Gholipour, Mahin; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Kamangar, Farin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Babhadi-Ashar, Nima; Ghiasvand, Reza; Khavari-Daneshvar, Hossein; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Several case-control studies have shown associations between the risk of different cancers and self-reported opium use. Inquiring into relatively sensitive issues, such as the history of drug use, is usually prone to information bias. However, in order to justify the findings of these types of studies, we have to quantify the level of such a negative bias. In current study, we aimed to evaluate sensitivity of self-reported opioid use and suggest suitable types of control groups for case-control studies on opioid use and the risk of cancer. In order to compare the validity of the self-reported opioid use, we cross-validated the response of two groups of subjects 1) 178 hospitalized patients and 2) 186 healthy individuals with the results of their tests using urine rapid drug screen (URDS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The questioners were asked by trained interviewers to maximize the validity of responses; healthy individuals were selected from the companions of patients in hospitals. Self-reported regular opioid use was 36.5% in hospitalized patients 19.3% in healthy individuals (p-value> 0.001).The reported frequencies of opioid use in the past 72 hours were 21.4% and 11.8% in hospitalized patients and healthy individuals respectively. Comparing their responses with the results of urine tests showed a sensitivity of 77% and 69% among hospitalized patients and healthy individuals for self-reports (p-value = 0.4). Having corrected based on the mentioned sensitivities; the frequency of opioid regular use was 47% and 28% in hospitalized patients and healthy individuals, respectively. Regular opioid use among hospitalized patients was significantly higher than in healthy individuals (p-value> 0.001). Our findings showed that the level of opioid use under-reporting in hospitalized patients and healthy individuals was considerable but comparable. In addition, the frequency of regular opioid use among hospitalized patients was significantly higher than that in the

  15. A Case Study on the Implementation of the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System at Naval Hospital Pensacola

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-16

    health care administrator. S............Special thanks- -to -Captain Peter -F .--O’Con-nor and ---------.......... Captain Kim Lyons who shared their...are paying for HEICS training for all of their hospitals and outfitting them with vests and other tangible items (K. Burkholder -Allen, personal

  16. Understanding the context of balanced scorecard implementation: a hospital-based case study in pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As a response to a changing operating environment, healthcare administrators are implementing modern management tools in their organizations. The balanced scorecard (BSC) is considered a viable tool in high-income countries to improve hospital performance. The BSC has not been applied to hospital settings in low-income countries nor has the context for implementation been examined. This study explored contextual perspectives in relation to BSC implementation in a Pakistani hospital. Methods Four clinical units of this hospital were involved in the BSC implementation based on their willingness to participate. Implementation included sensitization of units towards the BSC, developing specialty specific BSCs and reporting of performance based on the BSC during administrative meetings. Pettigrew and Whipp's context (why), process (how) and content (what) framework of strategic change was used to guide data collection and analysis. Data collection methods included quantitative tools (a validated culture assessment questionnaire) and qualitative approaches including key informant interviews and participant observation. Results Method triangulation provided common and contrasting results between the four units. A participatory culture, supportive leadership, financial and non-financial incentives, the presentation of clear direction by integrating support for the BSC in policies, resources, and routine activities emerged as desirable attributes for BSC implementation. The two units that lagged behind were more involved in direct inpatient care and carried a considerable clinical workload. Role clarification and consensus about the purpose and benefits of the BSC were noted as key strategies for overcoming implementation challenges in two clinical units that were relatively ahead in BSC implementation. It was noted that, rather than seeking to replace existing information systems, initiatives such as the BSC could be readily adopted if they are built on existing

  17. Hospital waste management system - a case study of a south Indian city.

    PubMed

    Hanumantha Rao, P

    2009-06-01

    It is more than 5 years since the prescribed deadline, 30 December 2002, for all categories of towns covered by the Biomedical Waste Management (BMW) Rules 1998 elapsed. Various reports indicate that the implementation of the BMW Rules is not satisfactory even in the large towns and cities in India. Few studies have looked at the ;macro system' of the biomedical waste management in India. In this context the present study describes the role of the important stakeholders who comprise the 'macrosystem' namely the pollution control board, common waste management facilities, municipal corporation, state government (Directorate of Medical Education and Health Systems Development Project), professional agencies such as the India Medical Association and non-governmental organizations, in the implementation of BMW rules in a capital city of a state in south India. Brief descriptions of the ;micro-system' (i.e. biomedical waste management practices within a hospital) of six hospitals of different types in the study city are also presented.

  18. Effect of contraindicated drugs for heart failure on hospitalization among seniors with heart failure: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Girouard, Catherine; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Poirier, Paul; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), thiazolidinediones (TZDs), nifedipine and nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) usage on the risk of all-cause hospitalization among seniors with heart failure (HF). We assessed the risk of all-cause hospitalization associated with exposure to each of these drug classes, in a population of seniors with HF.Using the Quebec provincial databases, we conducted a nested case-control study in a population of individuals aged ≥65 with a first HF diagnosis between 2000 and 2009. Patients were considered users of a potentially inappropriate drug class if their date of hospital admission occurred in the interval between the date of the last drug claim and the end date of its days' supply. The risks of hospitalization were estimated using multivariate conditional logistic regression.Of the 128,853 individuals included in the study population, 101,273 (78.6%) were hospitalized. When compared to nonusers, users of NSAIDs (adjusted odds ratio: 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.20), TZD (1.09; 1.04-1.14), and CCBs (1.03; 1.01-1.05) had an increased risk of all-cause hospitalization, but not the users of nifedipine (1.00; 0.97-1.03).Seniors with HF exposed to a potentially inappropriate drug class are at increased risk of worse health outcomes. Treatment alternatives should be considered, as they are available.

  19. Risk factors and therapy for goat mastitis in a hospital-based case-control study in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Koop, Gerrit; Islam, Md Nurul; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Khatun, Momena; Ferdous, Jinnat; Sayeed, Md Abu; Islam, Shariful; Ahaduzzaman, Md; Akter, Sazeda; Mannan, Abdul; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Dissanayake, Ravi; Hoque, Md Ahasanul

    2016-02-01

    Bangladesh has a large population of goats, which contribute to the income, nutrition and welfare of the households of many families. Mastitis in goats has a low incidence, but is often very severe, making veterinary care necessary. The aim of this study was to identify seasonality and risk factors for goat mastitis in a hospital-based matched case-control study in a teaching veterinary hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh and to describe the range of antimicrobial treatments applied in this situation. Cases of mastitis and controls were drawn from the hospital patient recording system, along with their risk factor status. Multiple imputation was applied to deal with the missing values in the data analysis. Mastitis occurred somewhat more in the rainy season, and comprised about 3% of all goats admitted to the hospital during January 2011-June 2014. Free-ranging farming system, poor body condition score and non-native goat breeds were significantly associated with case status. Treatment of clinical mastitis was variable and unsystematic, but the use of gentamicin was commonly recorded. The need for more prudent and evidence-based antimicrobial therapies is discussed.

  20. [Descriptive study of malaria cases in a general hospital in Madrid between 1996 and 2011].

    PubMed

    Paredes, P; Pérez, E; Guizar, M; Penín, M; Gómez Carrasco, J A

    2014-11-01

    Malaria causes around 863,000 deaths per year, mostly of them in children under 5 years old. We have reviewed the epidemiological data of malaria cases in a pediatric department in a Hospital in the Community of Madrid, in the period 1996-2011. In the period reviewed, 103 cases of malaria were diagnosed in children under 14 years old. Sixty percent were males and the average age was 4.5 years. In most cases, the infection arose during a visit to relatives in the country of origin. The vast majority did not have malaria prophylaxis. Twenty-five percent of the cases were diagnosed as complicated malaria, the main criteria being hyperparasitemia, of which 80% of the patients did not present any other complications A high level of suspicion must be maintained in any patient who comes from a malaria endemic area. The key factor responsible for the infection was the lack of chemoprophylaxis. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. High Body Mass Index as a Risk Factor for Hospitalization Due to Influenza: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Martín, Vicente; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Soldevila, Nuria; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Molina, Antonio J; Astray, Jenaro; Castro, Ady; González-Candelas, Fernando; Mayoral, José María; Quintana, José María; Domínguez, Ángela

    2016-06-01

    Obesity has emerged as a significant independent predictor of severity in pandemic influenzaA (H1N1)pdm09. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of hospitalization due to influenza. Hospitalized patients (n=755) with laboratory-confirmed influenza were individually matched by age, admission/visit date, and province with an outpatient (n=783) with laboratory-confirmed influenza and an outpatient control (n=950). We compared the BMI using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounding factors (aOR). The population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated. A higher BMI was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization compared to both outpatient cases (aOR=1.11; 95%CI: 1.07-1.16) and outpatient controls (aOR=1.04; 95%CI: 1.01-1.07). Compared with normal weight, obesity type I, obesity type II and obesity type III was associated with a greater likelihood of hospitalization compared with outpatient cases (aOR=1.85, 95%CI: 1.05-3.26; aOR=5.24, 95%CI: 1.94-14.15 and aOR=44.38, 95%CI: 4.47-440.5). Compared with normal weight, obesity type II and obesity type III was associated with a greater likelihood of hospitalization compared with outpatient controls (aOR=4.37, 95%CI: 1.79-10.69 and aOR=4.95, 95%CI: 1.45-16.87). In persons without influenza vaccination, all categories of BMI≥30kg/m(2) were associated with a greater likelihood of hospitalization compared with normal weight in both outpatient cases and outpatient controls. The PAF of hospitalization by influenza due to BMI ranged from 21.9% to 8.5%; in the case of unvaccinated against influenza between 20.5% to 16.9%. A high BMI is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization due to influenza. High percentage of hospital admissions are attributable to their BMI, especially in non vaccinated. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. "Addressing the impact of stroke risk factors in a case control study in tertiary care hospitals": a case control study in Tertiary Care Hospitals of Peshawar, Khyber Phukhtoonkhwa (KPK) Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Muhammad; Shah, Syed Muhammad; Khan, Saima; Rehman, Shahzad; Khan, Zakir; Ahmed, Wisal; Zubair

    2013-07-12

    Stroke was the second most common cause of death worldwide in 2004, resulting in 5.7 million deaths. This case controlled study was conducted in Tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar, KPK Pakistan about common risk factors of stroke and the impact of these risk factors. Study was done at Government Tertiary Care Hospitals of Peshawar namely Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH), Lady Reading Hospital (LRH) and Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC).The hospital based case-control study included 50 cases (stroke patients) and 100 controls (non-stroke patients). This study was accomplished from 24th April 2012 to October 2012 in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar. A proper questionnaire was used to collect data from all the cases and controls, which was recorded in the form of tables and graphs. The risk factors studied were Hypertension, Smoking, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, cardiac problems, B.M.I, diet, stress and family history of stroke. Anthropometric (weight, height, body mass index) measurements were done on all patients. For determination of association and impact of these risk factors, analyses were performed by calculation of Chi-Square test and confidence interval using SPSS version 16 program. Comparing the cases with controls, hypertension (p = 0.000), sedentary life style (p = 0.000), cardiac problems (p = 0.009), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.010), smoking (p = 0. 042) were significant risk factors whereas B.M.I (p = 0. 393), stress (p = 0.705), family history of stroke (p = 0.729), diet (p = 0.908), were not found to be statistically significant risk factors. The most significant risk factor was systemic hypertension (OR = 4.16) followed by sedentary life style (OR = 3.60), cardiac problems (OR = 2.74) diabetes (OR = 2.49) and smoking (OR = 2.05). Hypertension, Smoking, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle and cardiac problems have strong correlations and association with Stroke and are the major risk factors of stroke

  3. Breakdown in informational continuity of care during hospitalization of older home-living patients: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Rose Mari; Hellzén, Ove; Skotnes, Liv Heidi; Enmarker, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The successful transfer of an older patient between health care organizations requires open communication between them that details relevant and necessary information about the patient's health status and individual needs. The objective of this study was to identify and describe the process and content of the patient information exchange between nurses in home care and hospital during hospitalization of older home-living patients. Methods A multiple case study design was used. Using observations, qualitative interviews and document reviews, the total patient information exchange during each patient's episode of hospitalization (n = 9), from day of admission to return home, was captured. Results Information exchange mainly occurred at discharge, including a discharge note sent from hospital to home care, and telephone reports from hospital nurse to home care nurse, and meetings between hospital nurse and patient coordinator from the municipal purchaser unit. No information was provided from the home care nurses to the hospital nurses at admission. Incompleteness in the content of both written and verbal information was found. Information regarding physical care was more frequently reported than other caring dimensions. Descriptions of the patients’ subjective experiences were almost absent and occurred only in the verbal communication. Conclusions The gap in the information flow, as well as incompleteness in the content of written and verbal information exchanged, constitutes a challenge to the continuity of care for hospitalized home-living patients. In order to ensure appropriate nursing follow-up care, we emphasize the need for nurses to improve the information flow, as well as to use a more comprehensive approach to older patients, and that this must be reflected in the verbal and written information exchange. PMID:24868195

  4. [The influence of intellectual capital in performance evaluation: a case-study in the hospital sector].

    PubMed

    Bonacim, Carlos Alberto Grespan; Araújo, Adriana Maria Procópio de

    2010-06-01

    This paper contributes to public institutions with the adaptation of a performance evaluation tool based on private companies. The objective is to demonstrate how the impact of an educational activity might be measured in the economic value added for the society of a public university hospital. The paper was divided in four parts, despite the introductory and methodological aspects and the final remarks. First, the hospital sector is explained, specifically in the context of the public university hospitals. Then, the definitions, the nature and measure of the intellectual capital are presented, followed by the disclosure of the main economic performance evaluation models. Finally, an adapted model is presented, under the approach of the value based management, considering adjustments of the return and the respective investment measures, showing the impacts of the intellectual capital management and the education activity on the economic result of those institutions. The study was developed based on a methodology supported by a bibliographical research, using a comparative method procedure in the descriptive modality. At last, it is highlighted the importance of accountability for the society regarding the use of public resources and how this study can help in this way.

  5. Risk factors for hospital admission of Brazilian children with non-rotavirus diarrhoea: a case control-study.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Maria Yury T; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santos, Carlos A S T; Teixeira, Maria da Glória L C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2015-07-01

    Rotavirus has been the leading cause of severe cases of acute diarrhoea (AD) among children worldwide; however, in the same areas, a large reduction in AD related to rotavirus has been observed after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. In Brazil, where there is a high rotavirus vaccine coverage, AD caused by pathogens other than rotavirus is still a frequent cause of outpatient visits and hospitalisations among children under 5 years. A hospital-based case-control study enrolled children aged 4 to 24 months admitted to 10 hospitals from all five Brazilian Regions. Cases (n=1178) were children admitted with diarrhoea who tested negative for rotavirus in a stool sample. Controls (n=2515) were children admitted without diarrhoea, frequency matched to cases by sex and age group. We estimated odds ratios using logistic regression, in a hierarchical approach according to a previously defined conceptual framework. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated for each variable, each block and for all significant variables in the latter model adjusted. The factors studied accounted for 41% of the non-rotavirus AD hospital admissions and the main risk factors included lack of adequate excreta disposal (PAF=12%), untreated drinking water (PAF=11%) and a history of previous hospitalization due to AD (PAF=21%). Low socio-economic conditions, no public water supply, crowding and low weight-for-age made smaller contributions. These findings further our knowledge of risk factors associated with severe AD in the post-rotavirus vaccination era. We recommend further increase in coverage of basic sanitation, improvements in water quality and further expansion of primary healthcare coverage to reduce the occurrence of non-rotavirus severe diarrhoea and subsequent hospitalization of Brazilian children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  6. Risk of Acute Stroke After Hospitalization for Sepsis: A Case-Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Amelia K; Ranawat, Purnima; Luna, Jorge; Kamel, Hooman; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-03-01

    Infections have been found to increase the risk of stroke over the short term. We hypothesized that stroke risk would be highest shortly after a sepsis hospitalization, but that the risk would decrease, yet remain up to 1 year after sepsis. This case-crossover analysis utilized data obtained from the California State Inpatient Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. All stroke admissions were included. Exposure was defined as hospitalization for sepsis or septicemia 180, 90, 30, or 15 days before stroke (risk period) or similar time intervals exactly 1 or 2 years before stroke (control period). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the association between sepsis/septicemia and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemic (n=37 377) and hemorrhagic (n=12 817) strokes that occurred in 2009 were extracted where 3188 (8.5%) ischemic and 1101 (8.6%) hemorrhagic stroke patients had sepsis. Sepsis within 15 days before the stroke placed patients at the highest risk of ischemic (OR, 28.36; 95% CI, 20.02-40.10) and hemorrhagic stroke (OR, 12.10; 95% CI, 7.54-19.42); however, although the risk decreased, it remained elevated 181 to 365 days after sepsis for ischemic (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 2.20-3.06) and hemorrhagic (OR, 3.92; 95% CI 3.29-4.69) strokes. There was an interaction with age (P=0.0006); risk of developing an ischemic stroke within 180 days of hospitalization for sepsis increased 18% with each 10-year decrease in age. Risk of stroke is high after sepsis, and this risk persists for up to a year. Younger sepsis patients have a particularly increased risk of stroke after sepsis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Analytical and subjective interpretation of thermal comfort in hospitals: A case study in two sterilization services.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Carlos; Santos, Joana; Vieira da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Hospital facilities are normally very complex, which combined with patient requirements promote conditions for potential development of uncomfortable working conditions. Thermal discomfort is one such example. This study aimed to determine levels of thermal comfort, sensations, and preferences, from a field investigation conducted in two sterilization services (SS) of two hospitals from Porto and Aveiro, Portugal. The analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort was based upon assumptions of ISO 7726:1998 and ISO 7730:2005. The predicted mean vote (PMV) and predicted percentage of dissatisfaction (PPD) indices were obtained by measurement and estimation of environmental and personal variables, respectively, and calculated according to ISO 7730 equations. The subjective variables were obtained from thermal sensation (subjective PMV) and affective assessment (subjective PPD), reported by a questionnaire based upon ISO 10551:1995. Both approaches confirmed thermal discomfort in both SS (codified as SS1 and SS2). For all areas, PMV and PPD exceeded in all periods of the day the recommended range of -0.5 to +0.5 and <10%, respectively. No significant differences were found between day periods. The questionnaire results showed that SS2 workers reported a higher level of thermal discomfort. There were no significant differences between PMV and thermal sensations, as well as between PPD and affective assessment. The PMV/PPD model was found suitable to predict thermal sensations of occupants in hospital SS located in areas with a mild climate in Portugal.

  8. Submerged discontent and patterns of accommodation: a case study of doctors' pay in two public hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xuebing

    2014-01-01

    The article evaluates submerged discontent among Chinese public hospital doctors (Note1) regarding their pay and patterns of accommodation, including doctors' responses through formal and informal actions in the context of health service marketization. On the basis of a case study of two public hospitals, the article illustrates the dynamical impact of marketization on Chinese doctors' pay-related dissatisfaction and health service employment relationship. Because of the authoritarian management and compliant trade unions, the conflict between doctors and hospitals is unable to be accommodated through collective methods. Instead, doctors' discontent is often channelled through informal, individual and subtle activities. Meanwhile, doctors' professional society is gradually influential, showing its potential of developing doctors' group identity and protecting members' interests in future.

  9. A method for estimating vaccine-preventable pediatric influenza pneumonia hospitalizations in developing countries: Thailand as a case study.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Fatimah S; Fry, Alicia M; Muangchana, Charung; Sanasuttipun, Wiwan; Baggett, Henry C; Chunsuttiwat, Supamit; Maloney, Susan A; Simmerman, James Mark

    2011-06-10

    The burden of influenza in children is increasingly appreciated; some middle-income countries are considering support for influenza vaccine programs. To support decision-making, methods to estimate the potential impact of proposed programs are needed. Using Thailand as a case-study, we present a model that uses surveillance data, published vaccine effectiveness estimates, and vaccination coverage assumptions to estimate the impact of influenza vaccination on pediatric influenza pneumonia hospitalizations. Approximately 56,000 influenza pneumonia hospitalizations occur annually among children aged <18 years in Thailand; 23,700 (41%) may be vaccine-preventable. Vaccination of 85% of Thai children aged 7 months-4 years might prevent 30% of all pediatric influenza pneumonia hospitalizations in Thailand.

  10. Outpatient waiting time in health services and teaching hospitals: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohebbifar, Rafat; Hasanpoor, Edris; Mohseni, Mohammad; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mousavi Isfahani, Haleh

    2013-11-10

    One of the most important indexes of the health care quality is patient's satisfaction and it takes place only when there is a process based on management. One of these processes in the health care organizations is the appropriate management of the waiting time process. The aim of this study is the systematic analyzing of the outpatient waiting time. This descriptive cross sectional study conducted in 2011 is an applicable study performed in the educational and health care hospitals of one of the medical universities located in the north west of Iran. Since the distributions of outpatients in all the months were equal, sampling stage was used. 160 outpatients were studied and the data was analyzed by using SPSS software. Results of the study showed that the waiting time for the outpatients of ophthalmology clinic with an average of 245 minutes for each patient allocated the maximum time among the other clinics for itself. Orthopedic clinic had the minimal waiting time including an average of 77 minutes per patient. The total average waiting time for each patient in the educational hospitals under this study was about 161 minutes. by applying some models, we can reduce the waiting time especially in the realm of time and space before the admission to the examination room. Utilizing the models including the one before admission, electronic visit systems via internet, a process model, six sigma model, queuing theory model and FIFO model, are the components of the intervention that reduces the outpatient waiting time.

  11. The real world journey of implementing fall prevention best practices in three acute care hospitals: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sandra; Kirkpatrick, Helen; Boblin, Sheryl; Robertson, Kim

    2013-05-01

    Globally, falls are the second leading cause of unintentional injury. In Canada, falls that occur in hospitals have been ranked second as an area of patient safety concern. Many Canadian hospitals seeking to achieve patient safety, accreditation and resource containment goals are implementing evidence-based practices in fall prevention. However, best practices are reported to be only variably effective in reducing hospital fall rates, indicating a potential gap in our understanding of the implementation process. This study was designed to provide insight into the real world of implementation of best practices in fall prevention in acute care Canadian hospitals. Using case study methodology, ninety-five administrative and point-of-care nurses at three hospitals participated in interviews or focus groups and provided documents and artifacts that described their implementation of a falls prevention guideline. Four recommendations with potential to guide others in fall prevention were identified: (1) the need to listen to and recognize the expertise and clinical realities of staff, (2) the importance of keeping the implementation process simple, (3) the need to recognize that what seems simple becomes complex when meeting individual patient needs, and (4) the need to view the process as one of continuous quality improvement. © Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Investigating the governance of autonomous public hospitals in England: multi-site case study of NHS foundation trusts.

    PubMed

    Allen, Pauline; Keen, Justin; Wright, John; Dempster, Paul; Townsend, Jean; Hutchings, Andrew; Street, Andrew; Verzulli, Rossella

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the external and internal governance of NHS foundation trusts (FTs), which have increased autonomy, and local members and governors unlike other NHS trusts. In depth, three-year case studies of four FTs; and analysis of national quantitative data on all FT hospitals and NHS Trust hospitals to give national context. Data included 111 interviews with managers, clinicians, governors and members, and local purchasers; observation of meetings; and analysis of FTs' documents. The four case study FTs were similar to other FTs. They had used their increased autonomy to develop more business-like practices. The FT regulator, Monitor, intervened only when there were reported problems in FT performance. National targets applying to the NHS also had a large effect on FT behaviour. FTs saw themselves as part of the local health economy and tried to maintain good relationships with local organisations. Relationships between governors and the FTs' executives were still developing, and not all governors felt able to hold their FT to account. The skills and experience of staff members and governors were under-used in the new governance structures. It is easier to increase autonomy for public hospitals than to increase local accountability. Hospital managers are likely to be interested in making decisions with less central government control, whilst mechanisms for local accountability are notoriously difficult to design and operate. Further consideration of internal governance of FTs is needed. In a deteriorating financial climate, FTs should be better placed to make savings, due to their more business-like practices.

  13. Quantitative optimization of emergency department's nurses of an educational hospital: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mehrolhasani, Mohammad Hosein; Mouseli, Ali; Vali, Leila; Mastaneh, Zahra

    2017-02-01

    Nurses account for the majority of human resources in hospitals, as such that 62% of the workforce and 36% of hospital expenditures are related to nurses. Considering its vital role in offering round-the-clock emergency healthcare services, an Emergency Department (ED) requires adequate nurses. Therefore, this study was conducted to optimize the number of nurses in ED. This was an applied study conducted using a Linear Programming (LP) model in 2015. The study population were selected by census who were all ED nurses (n=84) and patients referred to ED (n=3342). To obtain the statistics related to the number of patients and nurses, the hospital information system and human resources database were employed respectively. To determine the optimum number of nurses per shift, LP model was created via literature review and expert advice, and it was executed in WinQSB software. Before implementing the model, the number of nurses required for ED morning shift, evening shift, and night shift (2 shifts) was 26, 24 and 34 respectively. The optimum number of nurses who worked in ED after running the model was 62 nurses, 17 in the morning shift, 17 in the evening shift and 28 in the night shift (2 shifts). This reduced to 60 nurses after conducting sensitivity analysis. The estimated number of nurses using LP was less than the number of nurses working in ED. This discrepancy can be reduced by scientific understanding of factors affecting allocation and distribution of nurses in ED and flexible organization, to reach the optimal point.

  14. Medicinal plants used with Thai Traditional Medicine in modern healthcare services: a case study in Kabchoeng Hospital, Surin Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chotchoungchatchai, Somtanuek; Saralamp, Promchit; Jenjittikul, Thaya; Pornsiripongse, Saowapa; Prathanturarug, Sompop

    2012-05-07

    Thai Traditional Medicine (TTM) is available in many modern hospitals in Thailand. However, there have been difficulties in integrating TTM, particularly the practices of the use of herbal medicines, into modern healthcare services. Kabchoeng Hospital is one hospital that has been able to overcome these difficulties. Thus, this study aimed to document the successful utilization of herbal medicine at Kabchoeng Hospital. The documentation focused on both the knowledge of medicinal plants and the success factors that facilitated the utilization of herbal medicine in the context of a modern hospital in Thailand. Kabchoeng Hospital was intentionally selected for this case study. Participatory observation was used for the data collection. There were six groups of key informants: three applied Thai Traditional Medicine practitioners (ATTMPs), a pharmacist, two physicians, two folk healers, the head of an herbal cultivation and collection group, and 190 patients. The plant specimens were collected and identified based on the botanical literature and a comparison with authentic specimens; these identifications were assisted by microscopic and thin layer chromatography (TLC) techniques. Eighty-nine medicinal plants were used for the herbal preparations. The ATTMPs used these plants to prepare 29 standard herbal preparations and occasional extemporaneous preparations. Moreover, in this hospital, seven herbal preparations were purchased from herbal medicine manufacturers. In total, 36 preparations were used for 10 groups of symptoms, such as the treatment of respiratory system disorders, musculo-skeletal system disorders, and digestive system disorders. Four success factors that facilitated the utilization of herbal medicine at Kabchoeng Hospital were determined. These factors included a proper understanding of the uses of herbal medicines, the successful integration of the modern and TTM healthcare teams, the support of an herbal cultivation and collection group, and the

  15. Provision of alcohol hand rub at the hospital bedside: a case study.

    PubMed

    King, S

    2004-04-01

    A pilot study was performed on a 28-bed acute hospital ward, promoting hand disinfection by providing Sterillium alcohol hand rub at the bedside. Bottles of Sterillium with pump dispensers were attached to the end of each patient's bed, next to the observation charts. Posters promoting the use of the product were prominently displayed and several ward staff attended a presentation on the effectiveness of Sterillium. Although this was a small study, Alert Organism rates during the three-month trial indicated a reduction in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) incidence and an increased Clostridium difficile incidence. Several other factors that may have influenced the study outcomes will be discussed. There were no health and safety problems during the trial, but other issues were identified which have implications for introducing the bedside rub on a hospital wide basis, including the type of holder used, logistical arrangements and the staff and patient information requirements. The strategies adopted to address these issues will be discussed.

  16. Mental health and hospital chaplaincy: strategies of self-protection (case study: toronto, Canada).

    PubMed

    Kianpour, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    This is a study about emotion management among a category of healthcare professional - hospital chaplains - who have hardly been the subject of sociological research about emotions. The aim of the study was to understand how chaplains manage their work-related emotions in order to protect their mental health, whilst also providing spiritual care. Using in-depth, semi structured interviews, the author spoke with 21 chaplains from five faith traditions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism and modern paganism) in different Toronto (Canada) Hospitals to see how they manage their emotion, and what resources they rely on in order to protect their mental health. Data analysis was perfumed according to Sandelowski's method of qualitative description. The average age and work experience of the subjects interviewed in this study are 52 and 9.6 respectively. 11 chaplains worked part-time and 10 chaplains worked full-time. 18 respondents were women and the sample incudes 3 male chaplains only. The findings are discussed, among others, according to the following themes: work-life balance, self-reflexivity, methods of self-care, and chaplains' emotional make-up. Emotion management per se is not a problem. However, if chaplains fail to maintain a proper work-life balance, job pressure can be harmful. As a strategy, many chaplains work part-time. As a supportive means, an overwhelming number of chaplains regularly benefit from psychotherapy and/or spiritual guidance. None.

  17. Mental Health and Hospital Chaplaincy: Strategies of Self-Protection (Case Study: Toronto, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Kianpour, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This is a study about emotion management among a category of healthcare professional – hospital chaplains – who have hardly been the subject of sociological research about emotions. The aim of the study was to understand how chaplains manage their work-related emotions in order to protect their mental health, whilst also providing spiritual care. Methods: Using in-depth, semi structured interviews, the author spoke with 21 chaplains from five faith traditions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism and modern paganism) in different Toronto (Canada) Hospitals to see how they manage their emotion, and what resources they rely on in order to protect their mental health. Data analysis was perfumed according to Sandelowski’s method of qualitative description. Results: The average age and work experience of the subjects interviewed in this study are 52 and 9.6 respectively. 11 chaplains worked part-time and 10 chaplains worked full-time. 18 respondents were women and the sample incudes 3 male chaplains only. The findings are discussed, among others, according to the following themes: work-life balance, self-reflexivity, methods of self-care, and chaplains’ emotional make-up. Conclusion: Emotion management per se is not a problem. However, if chaplains fail to maintain a proper work-life balance, job pressure can be harmful. As a strategy, many chaplains work part-time. As a supportive means, an overwhelming number of chaplains regularly benefit from psychotherapy and/or spiritual guidance. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644502

  18. Public money, private control: a case study of hospital financing in Oakland and Berkeley, California.

    PubMed

    Woolhandler, S; Himmelstein, D U; Silber, R; Harnly, M; Bader, M; Jones, A A

    1983-05-01

    Government support of public and private hospitals in Oakland and Berkeley, California was investigated. The private hospitals received government subsidies amounting to at least 60 per cent of their total revenues. The dollar amount of the subsidies to private hospitals was four and one-half times greater than government expenditures on the public hospital. In Oakland and Berkeley, as in many cities, public medical services have been reduced while both government health expenditures and private hospital revenues have increased sharply. The private hospitals, although all nominally non-profit, exhibit revenue maximizing behavior which results in socially unjust and medically irrational resource allocation. Funds might be found for public hospitals and clinics, and resources allocated more justly and rationally, if government expenditures in the private sector were brought under greater public scrutiny and control.

  19. Public money, private control: a case study of hospital financing in Oakland and Berkeley, California.

    PubMed Central

    Woolhandler, S; Himmelstein, D U; Silber, R; Harnly, M; Bader, M; Jones, A A

    1983-01-01

    Government support of public and private hospitals in Oakland and Berkeley, California was investigated. The private hospitals received government subsidies amounting to at least 60 per cent of their total revenues. The dollar amount of the subsidies to private hospitals was four and one-half times greater than government expenditures on the public hospital. In Oakland and Berkeley, as in many cities, public medical services have been reduced while both government health expenditures and private hospital revenues have increased sharply. The private hospitals, although all nominally non-profit, exhibit revenue maximizing behavior which results in socially unjust and medically irrational resource allocation. Funds might be found for public hospitals and clinics, and resources allocated more justly and rationally, if government expenditures in the private sector were brought under greater public scrutiny and control. PMID:6837825

  20. Outpatient Waiting Time in Health Services and Teaching Hospitals: A Case Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohebbifar, Rafat; Hasanpoor, Edris; Mohseni, Mohammad; Sokhanvar, Mobin; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Isfahani, Haleh Mousavi

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the most important indexes of the health care quality is patient’s satisfaction and it takes place only when there is a process based on management. One of these processes in the health care organizations is the appropriate management of the waiting time process. The aim of this study is the systematic analyzing of the outpatient waiting time. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study conducted in 2011 is an applicable study performed in the educational and health care hospitals of one of the medical universities located in the north west of Iran. Since the distributions of outpatients in all the months were equal, sampling stage was used. 160 outpatients were studied and the data was analyzed by using SPSS software. Results: Results of the study showed that the waiting time for the outpatients of ophthalmology clinic with an average of 245 minutes for each patient allocated the maximum time among the other clinics for itself. Orthopedic clinic had the minimal waiting time including an average of 77 minutes per patient. The total average waiting time for each patient in the educational hospitals under this study was about 161 minutes. Conclusion: by applying some models, we can reduce the waiting time especially in the realm of time and space before the admission to the examination room. Utilizing the models including the one before admission, electronic visit systems via internet, a process model, six sigma model, queuing theory model and FIFO model, are the components of the intervention that reduces the outpatient waiting time. PMID:24373277

  1. [Gayet-Wernicke's encephalopathy. A study of 13 cases observed in a refugee population hospitalized at the Conakry Teaching Hospital].

    PubMed

    Cissé, A F; Camara, N; Diallo, L L; Morel, Y; Koné, S; Camara, M I; Koumbassa, M L; Tafsir, D; Soumah, D; Djigué, B S; Camara, O B; Barry, M; Bangoura, S A; Kourouma, S; Da Silva, L; Cissé, A

    2008-12-01

    The authors report 13 cases of Gayet-Wernicke's encephalopathy observed in 13 patients of a refugee population. 11 presented the classical triad: oculomotor signs, cerebral ataxia and state of confusion and in 2 patients, only 2 symptoms were noted. The etiological factors: chronic alcoholism, malnutrition, uncontrollable vomiting, HIV and tuberculosis were identified. The outcome was evaluated on the basis of the disappearance of symptoms after treatment with 500 mg of thiamine in 7 patients, 1 death and 5 patients progressed toward Korsakoff amnesic syndrome.

  2. Managing aggression in a psychiatric hospital using a behaviour plan: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bisconer, S W; Green, M; Mallon-Czajka, J; Johnson, J S

    2006-10-01

    This paper focuses on the critical role of nursing in implementing a behaviour plan in a psychiatric hospital. The plan was implemented with a 40-year-old man with a long history of aggression towards others and self. The study used a single-subject research design with baseline and intervention phases (AB Design). Data were collected on (1) frequency of incidents of aggression towards others and self; (2) use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression (i.e. restraints, pro re nata medication, 1:1 special observation); and (3) frequency of staff injury. The data show a decrease in frequency of aggression towards others and self, a concurrent reduction in the use of restrictive interventions to manage aggression, and a decrease in incidents of staff injury. The behaviour plan helped staff maintain a safe and therapeutic milieu. The behaviour plan has given the patient an opportunity to learn positive replacement behaviours and skills, and the opportunity eventually to leave the hospital to live in a less restrictive community home.

  3. Feasibility of hospital-based blood banking: a Tanzanian case study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, B; Mercer, A

    1999-12-01

    The demand for blood transfusion is high in sub-Saharan Africa because of the high prevalence of anaemia and pregnancy related complications, but the practice is estimated to account for 10% of HIV infections in some regions. The main response to this problem by the international donor community is to establish vertically implemented blood transfusion services producing suitable (safe) blood at a cost of US$25-40 per unit. However, the economic sustainability of such interventions is questionable and it is argued here that hospital-based blood transfusion services operating at a basic adequate level are sufficient for low-income African countries. The results of a project aimed at improving such services in Tanzania are presented. The main findings are: (1) the cost per suitable blood unit produced was US$12.4; (2) at an HIV test sensitivity of 93.5% during the study period, discounted financial benefits of the interventions exceeded costs by a factor of between 17.2 and 37.1; (3) the cost per undiscounted year of life saved by use of these interventions was US$2.7-2.8; and (4) safe blood transfusion practices can be assured at an annual cost of US$0.07 per capita. Recommendations are made to ensure safe blood transfusion practices at hospital-based blood banks in Tanzania.

  4. Ships of fools and vessels of the divine: mental hospitals and madness, a case study.

    PubMed

    Connor, L H

    1982-01-01

    Rural Balinese conceive of madness as a phenomenon which gives men intimations of another reality transcending the everyday world, and which reveals the possibility of more direct communication with the divine. European views of madness became gradually secularized over a period of several centuries, and were finally absorbed by the predominantly medical models of modern psychiatry. In Bali, this transformation is occurring within a much shorter time span, under different socioeconomic conditions. In this paper, I examine the ideas which traditional healers in Bali and their clients invoke about the influence of the supernatural in worldly affairs. I then contrast traditional classifications and treatments of madness with the version of Western psychiatry currently practised in mental hospitals and out-patient clinics on the island. This section of the paper is based on the author's field study of mental health services in Bali, incorporating a survey of mental hospital inpatients and their families. I conclude with a discussion of the genesis, future development and possible effects of the increase in psychiatric facilities on the island.

  5. A case control study on factors that influence depression among the elderly in Kuala Lumpur Hospital and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Hospital.

    PubMed

    Salimah, O; Rahmah, M A; Rosdinom, R; Azhar, S Shamsul

    2008-12-01

    Depressive illness is common among the aged population. A case control study was conducted, focusing on risk factors influencing depression among the elderly. This study involved 130 elderly patients diagnosed to have depressive illness from the psychiatric clinics of Kuala Lumpur Hospital (HKL) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Hospital (HUKM). Another group of 130 elderly patients with no history of depressive illness were recruited from the medical specialist clinics. The majority of cases were female (75.4%), aged 60-74 years (92.3%) and from Chinese ethnic group (59.2%). Non-Malay elderly has three times risk (AOR 2.537, 95% CI 1.439-4.471) of suffering the depressive illness compared to the Malay elderly, the elderly with chronic health problems are more likely to be depressed compared to those who do not suffer from any chronic illness (p trend <0.001). Other risk factors identified were family history of depression with four times risk (AOR 4.225, 95% CI 2.017-8.848) and lower social support with eight times risk (AOR 7.949, 95% CI 2.588-24.417). Social support is not only important in encouraging the elderly to practice healthy life style but proven to influence the risk of getting depression among them. Hence, it is very crucial that the elderly is given total attention, respect and love from all parties to ensure prosperity and meaningfulness in life.

  6. Absorbing citywide patient surge during Hurricane Sandy: a case study in accommodating multiple hospital evacuations.

    PubMed

    Adalja, Amesh A; Watson, Matthew; Bouri, Nidhi; Minton, Kathleen; Morhard, Ryan C; Toner, Eric S

    2014-07-01

    Hospital evacuations have myriad effects on all elements of the health care system. We seek to (1) examine the effect of patient surge on hospitals that received patients from evacuating hospitals in New York City during Hurricane Sandy; (2) describe operational challenges those hospitals faced pre- and poststorm; and (3) examine the coordination efforts to distribute patients to receiving hospitals. We used a qualitative, interview-based method to identify medical surge strategies used at hospitals receiving patients from evacuated health care facilities during and after Hurricane Sandy. We identified 4 hospital systems that received the majority of evacuated patients and those departments most involved in managing patient surge. We invited key staff at those hospitals to participate in on-site group interviews. We interviewed 71 key individuals. Although all hospitals had emergency preparedness plans in place before Hurricane Sandy, we identified gaps. Insights gleaned included improvement opportunities in these areas: prolonged increased patient volume, an increase in the number of methadone and dialysis patients, ability to absorb displaced staff, the challenges associated with nursing homes that have evacuated and shelters that have already reached capacity, and reimbursements for transferred patients. Our qualitative, event-based research identified key opportunities to improve disaster preparedness. The specific opportunities and this structured postevent approach can serve to guide future disaster planning and analyses. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Association between ambient air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for respiratory diseases: a case-crossover study].

    PubMed

    Su, Chang; Guo, Yu-Ming; Franck, Ulrich; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2010-08-01

    Using case-crossover design to explore the association between ambient air pollution and the hospital emergency room visits for respiratory diseases (International Classification of Diseases, tenth vision ICD-10: J00-J99) in Beijing, China. Data regarding the daily hospital emergency room visits of the respiratory diseases (ICD-10: J00-J99) were obtained in 2004.01.01 - 2005.12.31, from the Peking University Third Hospital and data on relevant air pollution and meteorological factors from the local municipal environmental monitoring center and meteorology bureau of Beijing, respectively. Time-stratified case-crossover technique was used to evaluate their relationships. Results from the bi-directional control sampling approach were compared with unidirectional approach. Using a unidirectional control sampling approach, the results obtained from a conditional logistic regression model (multi-pollutant model) after adjusting for meteorological variables, showed that the ORs of the hospital emergency room visits for the respiratory diseases associated with each 10 µg/m(3) increment of PM(10), SO(2), NO(2) were 1.010 (95%CI: 1.005 - 1.014), 1.010 (95%CI: 1.001 - 1.018), 0.996 (95%CI: 0.983 - 1.009) respectively. In the bi-directional control sampling approach, the ORs were 1.002 (95%CI: 0.998 - 1.005), 1.011 (95%CI: 1.003 - 1.018), 1.012 (95%CI: 1.001 - 1.022). Results from this study provided evidence that higher levels of ambient air pollutants increased the risk of hospital emergency room visits for respiratory diseases.

  8. A study of cases reported as incidents in a public hospital from 2011 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Göttems, Leila Bernarda Donato; Santos, Maria do Livramento Gomes Dos; Carvalho, Paloma Aparecida; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing incidents reported in a public hospital in the Federal District, Brasilia, according to the characteristics and outcomes involving patients. A descriptive and retrospective study of incidents reported between January 2011 and September 2014. 209 reported incidents were categorized as reportable occurrences (n = 22, 10.5%), near misses (n = 16, 7.7%); incident without injury (n = 4, 1.9%) and incident with injury (adverse events) (n = 167, 79.9%). The average age of patients was 44 years and the hospitalization time until the moment of the incident was on average 38.5 days. Nurses were the healthcare professionals who most reported the incidents (n = 55, 67%). No outcomes resulted in death. Incidents related to blood/hemoderivatives, medical devices/equipment, patient injuries and intravenous medication/fluids were the most frequent. Standardizing the reporting processes and enhancing participation by professionals in managing incidents is recommended. Analisar os incidentes notificados em um hospital público do Distrito Federal, segundo as características e os desfechos quando envolveram pacientes. Estudo descritivo e retrospectivo dos incidentes notificados entre janeiro de 2011 e setembro de 2014. Notificados 209 incidentes categorizados em ocorrência comunicável (n = 22, 10,5%), quase evento (n = 16, 7,7%), incidente sem dano (n = 4, 1,9%) e incidente com dano (eventos adversos) (n = 167, 79,9%). A idade média dos pacientes foi de 44 anos e o tempo da internação até o momento do incidente teve média de 38,5 dias. Os enfermeiros foram os que mais notificaram (n = 55, 67%). Nenhum desfecho resultou em morte. Os incidentes relacionados a sangue/hemoderivados, dispositivos/equipamento médico, acidentes do doente e medicação/fluidos endovenosos foram os mais frequentes. Recomenda-se padronizar os processos de notificação e potencializar a participação dos profissionais no manejo dos incidentes.

  9. Insights into physician scheduling: a case study of public hospital departments in Sweden.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Marco António Ferreira Rodrigues Nogueira; Eriksson, Henrik Kurt Olof

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe current physician scheduling and concomitant opportunities for improvement in public hospital departments in Sweden. A total of 13 departments spread geographically across Sweden covering seven different specialties participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews with individuals involved in creating physician schedules. All departments investigated provided copies of the documents necessary for physician scheduling. Physician scheduling required the temporal coordination of patients, physicians, non-physician staff, rooms and equipment. A six-step process for creating physician schedules could be distinguished: capacity and demand overview, demand goal and schedule setting, vacation and leave requests, schedule creation, schedule revision, and schedule execution. Several opportunities for improvement could be outlined; e.g. overreliance on memory, lacking coordination of resources, and redundant data entering. The paucity of previous studies on physician scheduling lends an exploratory character to this study and calls for a more thorough evaluation of the feasibility and effects of the approaches proposed. The study excluded the scheduling of non-physician staff. To improve physician scheduling and enable timeliness, three approaches are proposed: reinforcing centralisation, creating learning opportunities, and improving integration. This paper is among the few to investigate physician scheduling, which is essential for delivering high quality care, particularly concerning timeliness. Several opportunities for improvement identified in this study are not exclusive to physician scheduling but are pervasive in healthcare processes in general.

  10. Hospital to School Transitions for Children: A Multiple Case Study of Family Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rager, Rhiannon Y.

    2013-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders often present with significant impairments in social, emotional, and academic functioning. For those with the most severe impairments, hospitalization is an essential intervention. Prior to releasing children from the hospital, a discharge plan is typically created in order to facilitate successful…

  11. Designing and Delivering an English for Hospitality Syllabus: A Taiwanese Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Shao-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The paper illustrates an English for Specific Purposes design for English listening and speaking for students in hospitality fields, accompanied by an educational inquiry into its implementation in a bid to hold accountability to the course takers. The subject was 82 juniors and seniors at a national hospitality college in Southern Taiwan.…

  12. Hospital to School Transitions for Children: A Multiple Case Study of Family Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rager, Rhiannon Y.

    2013-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders often present with significant impairments in social, emotional, and academic functioning. For those with the most severe impairments, hospitalization is an essential intervention. Prior to releasing children from the hospital, a discharge plan is typically created in order to facilitate successful…

  13. The cost of the district hospital: a case study in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, A. J.; Kapalamula, J.; Chisimbi, S.

    1993-01-01

    Described in an analysis of the cost to the Ministry of Health of providing district health services in Malawi, with particular emphasis on the district hospital. District resource allocation patterns were assessed by carefully disaggregating district costs by level of care and hospital department. A strikingly low proportion of district recurrent costs was absorbed by salaries and wages (27-39%, depending on the district) and a surprisingly high proportion by medical supplies (24-37%). The most expensive cost centre in the hospital was the pharmacy. A total of 27-39% of total recurrent costs were spent outside the hospital and 61-73% on hospital services. The secondary care services absorbed 40-58% of district recurrent costs. Unit costs by hospital department varied considerably by district, with one hospital being consistently the most expensive and another the cheapest. A total of 3-10 new outpatients could be treated for the average cost of 1 inpatient-day, while 34-55 could be treated for the average cost of 1 inpatient. The efficiency of hospital operations, the scope for redistributing resources districtwide, and the costing methodology are discussed. PMID:8324852

  14. Mucormycosis in children: a study of 22 cases in a Mexican hospital.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Calderón, Luz; Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Kassack, Juan; Ponce, Rosa María; Mena, Carlos; Stchigel, Alberto; Cano, Josep; Guarro, Josep

    2014-12-01

    We present a single-centre, retrospective study (1985-2012) of 22 cases of mucormycosis in children. A total of 158 mucormycosis cases were identified, of which 22 (13.96%) were children. The mean age of the children was 10.3 years (range: 6 months-18 years), and 59% of the infections occurred in males. The rhinocerebral form was the main clinical presentation (77.27%), followed by the primary cutaneous and pulmonary patterns. The major underlying predisposing factors were diabetes mellitus in 68.18% of the patients and haematologic diseases in 27.7% of the patients. The cases were diagnosed by mycological tests, with positive cultures in 95.4% of the patients. Rhizopus arrhizus was the foremost aetiologic agent in 13/22 cases (59.1%). In 21 cultures, the aetiologic agents were identified morphologically and by molecular identification. In 10 cultures, the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA was sequenced. Clinical cure and mycological cure were achieved in 27.3% cases, which were managed with amphotericin B deoxycholate and by treatment of the underlying conditions.

  15. What happened to the no-wait hospital? A case study of implementation of operational plans for reduced waits.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Johan; Tolf, Sara; Øvretveit, John; Carlsson, Jan; Brommels, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Both research and practice show that waiting lists are hard to reduce. Implementing complex interventions for reduced waits is an intricate and challenging process that requires special attention for surrounding factors helping and hindering the implementation. This article reports a case study of a hospital implementation of operational plans for reduced waits, with an emphasis on the process of change. A case study research design, theoretically informed by the Pettigrew and Whipp model of strategic change, was applied. Data were gathered from individual and focus group interviews with informants from different organizational levels at different times and from documents and plans. The findings revealed arrangements both helping and hindering the implementation work. Helping factors were the hospital's contemporary savings requirements and experiences from similar change initiatives. Those hindering the actions to plan and agree the changes were unclear support functions and unclear task prioritization. One contribution of this study is to demonstrate the advantages, disadvantages, and challenges of a contextualized case study for increased understanding of factors influencing organizational change implementation. One lesson for current policy is to regard context factors that are critical for successful implementation.

  16. An Ambient Intelligence Framework for End-User Service Provisioning in a Hospital Pharmacy: a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Martín, Diego; Alcarria, Ramón; Sánchez-Picot, Álvaro; Robles, Tomás

    2015-10-01

    End-user development is a new trend to provide tailored services to dynamic environments such as hospitals. These services not only facilitate daily work for pharmacy personnel but also improve self-care in elder people that are still related to hospital, such as discharged patients. This paper presents an ambient intelligence (AmI) environment for End-user service provisioning in the pharmacy department of Gregorio Marañón Hospital in Madrid, composed of a drug traceability infrastructure (DP-TraIN) and a ubiquitous application for enabling the pharmacy staff to create and execute their own services for facilitating drug management and dispensing. The authors carried out a case study with various experiments where different roles from the pharmacy department of Gregorio Marañón Hospital were involved in activities such as drug identification, dispensing and medication administering. The authors analyzed the effort required to create services by pharmacy staff, the discharged patients' perception of the AmI environment and the quantifiable benefits in reducing patient waiting time for drug dispensing.

  17. [Hodgkin's disease in the Hospital General de México. Study of 309 cases].

    PubMed

    Soriano Rosas, J; Lazos Ochoa, M; Rojo Medina, J; Manrique, J J; Herrera Verdugo, D

    1990-12-01

    In order to know the frequency and distribution of the histologic types of Hodgkin disease (HD) in the general Hospital of Mexico City and to compare the results with those of other countries; 96,909 surgical specimens were reviewed; 422 were of HD, from which only 309 (0.31%) could be reclassified according to the modified Rye classification, 214 (69%) were male and 95 (31%) female (M:F = 1:2.25). The mean age for the group was 26 years, for females was 30 and for males 24. The graphic for age and sex showed a unimodal curve in both sexes. The most frequent histologic type was mixed cellularity with 175 cases (56.6%), followed by the NE type with 83 (26.9%), the DL with 26 (8.4%) and finally the PL type with 25 (8.1%). In all the groups predominated the males as reported by other authors, but they reported a bimodal curve of age distribution and ours was unimodal as reported in Peru, Colombia, Uganda. The mean age is also one decade younger than in other countries, probably because almost 50% of the Mexican population are youngsters. The distribution of histologic types is similar to those of South Africa, Colombia, Uganda, Zambia and to the poor black population from USA, where the most frequent type is the mixed cellularity. The frequency of the other histologic types differs from the reports of Denmark Sweden, USA and England were the NE type predominates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Risk factors of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke among hospitalized patients in Bangladesh--A case control study.

    PubMed

    Riaz, B K; Chowdhury, S H; Karim, M N; Feroz, S; Selim, S; Rahman, M R

    2015-04-01

    The risk factor profiles, management and outcome have significant difference between stroke subsets. Aim of this study was to investigate the risk for the two most common subtypes of stroke in Bangladeshi population. Seventy cases of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) and 105 cases of confirmed ischemic stroke (IS) were recruited from the Shaheed Suhrawardy Medical College Hospital (ShSMCH) and Dhaka Medical College Hospital between January-June 2011. Total 171 age, sex matched controls were selected from the hospitalized patients with history of no stroke ever. Average hemorrhagic stroke patients (60.4 ± 12.3 years) were younger than both ischemic strokes (63.5 ± 13 years). Family history of premature cardiovascular death was found more in HS patients (p = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed, in IS model 'less fruit consumption (OR 4.6), table salt intake (OR 8.15), psychosocial stress (OR 3.5), abnormal ECG (OR 3.6) and Increased WHR (OR 6.9) appeared as significant predictors adjusted for all potential candidate confounders. In HS model less fruit consumption (OR 5.0), table salt intake (OR 9.9), Stress (OR 4.1), family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death (OR 11.3), hypertension (OR 43), aspirin intake (OR 4.5) and increased WHR (OR 3.7) remained as significant predictors.

  19. Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations and Hospitalization for Stroke in 26 Chinese Cities: A Case-Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Tian, Yaohua; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the short-term health impacts of particulate matter (PM) on stroke in China. We, therefore, conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to examine the association between ambient PM and hospital admissions for stroke in 26 Chinese cities. We identified hospital admissions for stroke by using electronic hospitalization summary reports from January 1, 2014 through December, 31 2015. We applied conditional logistic regression to explore the association between PM and hospital admissions for stroke. We also assessed the effect modification of stroke risk by geographical region, sex, and age. Hospital admissions for ischemic (n=278 980) and hemorrhagic (69 399) strokes were examined separately. For ischemic stroke, both PM2.5 and PM10 had the strongest effect at lag 3 days, with an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (47.5 μg/m(3)) and PM10 (76.9 μg/m(3)) significantly associated with a 1.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.7%-1.4%) and 0.8% (95% confidence interval, 0.3%-1.3%) increase in admissions for ischemic stroke, respectively. In northern China where PM pollution is more severe, the risk estimates for both PM2.5 and PM10 were larger than those in southern China in all lag structures. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and PM10 in northern China corresponded to a 1.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.7%-1.4%) and 0.7% (95% confidence interval, 0.3%-1.2%) increase in ischemic stroke admissions at lag 3 days, respectively. For hemorrhagic stroke, no significant association was observed with PM in the 26 cities. This study suggests that short-term elevations in PM may increase the risk of ischemic but not hemorrhagic stroke. The associations of PM with ischemic stroke are stronger in northern China than in the south. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Race, Insurance Status, and Nulliparous, Term, Singleton, Vertex Cesarean Indication: A Case Study of a New England Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Morris, Theresa; Meredith, Olivia; Schulman, Mia; Morton, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    The current U.S. cesarean section rate (32.2%) is recognized as too high in light of its negative health impacts on women and infants. Efforts are underway in several states and individual hospitals to lower the rate of cesarean section among low-risk women, defined as nulliparous (first birth), term (≥37 weeks gestation), singleton (one baby), vertex (head down presentation; NTSV). We conducted a case study of one hospital's experience with NTSV cesarean sections to see whether race and insurance status affect the probability of cesarean indication. Many cesarean indications are ambiguous, and biases may seep into decisions with ambiguous diagnoses. We conducted a retrospective chart review of women who had NTSV cesarean sections at a tertiary care hospital in an urban New England city between June 2013 and November 2013. We analyzed the data using multinomial logistic regression to examine the marginal effect of race and health insurance status on the predicted probability for NTSV cesarean indication. We find that Black and Hispanic women have a lower predicted probability of having a cesarean section for cephalopelvic disproportion than do White women and that women with private health insurance have a lower predicted probability of having a cesarean section for nonreassuring fetal heart rate and for a clinical indication than do women without private health insurance. We suggest biases may seep into clinicians' decisions to perform an NTSV cesarean section. Hospital quality improvement efforts are aided by an examination of sociodemographic factors that influence clinician decision making in the specific hospital being studied. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Supporting management of medical equipment for inpatient service in public hospitals: a case study.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Rosa L; Vallejos, Guido E

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a study of medical equipment availability in the short and long term. The work is divided in two parts. The first part is an analysis of the medical equipment inventory for the institution of study. We consider the replacement, maintenance, and reinforcement of the available medical equipment by considering local guidelines and surveying clinical personnel appreciation. The resulting recommendation is to upgrade the current equipment inventory if necessary. The second part considered a demand analysis in the short and medium term. We predicted the future demand with a 5-year horizon using Holt-Winters models. Inventory analysis showed that 27% of the medical equipment in stock was not functional. Due to this poor performance result we suggested that the hospital gradually addresses this situation by replacing 29 non-functional equipment items, reinforcing stock with 40 new items, and adding 11 items not available in the inventory but suggested by the national guidelines. The results suggest that general medicine inpatient demand has a tendency to increase within the time e.g. for general medicine inpatient service the highest increment is obtained by respiratory (12%, RMSE=8%) and genitourinary diseases (20%, RMSE=9%). This increment did not involve any further upgrading of the proposed inventory.

  2. Socio-Demographic and Other Risk Factors of Pre Eclampsia at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Karnataka: Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sangeetha; Rao, Vishwas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pre-eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aetiopathogenesis of this condition involves combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The aim of the study was to determine the socio demographic and other risk factors of pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, Karnataka among 100 cases of pre-eclampsia and 200 controls without pre eclampsia. Non probability purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the study subjects. Data was collected by using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire which included information related to socio-demographic and other known risk factors of pre eclampsia. Primary data was collected by interviewing study subjects and secondary data of cases was obtained from case records. Data was analysed using SPSS. Results: Study subjects included 100 cases and 200 controls. Age of less than 20 y (OR=3.8), monthly income of less than Rs4000 (OR=6.8), age of menarche of less than 12 y (OR=13.1), family h/o pre eclampsia (OR=36.0), family h/o Diabetes (OR=44.9), family h/o hypertension (OR=16.7) and previous h/o PIH (OR=58.5) are found to be significant risk factors of pre eclampsia. Conclusion: The significant risk factors may be used for screening pre-eclampsia during registration of pregnancy. PMID:25386463

  3. Ambient Air Pollutant Exposures and Hospitalization for Kawasaki Disease in Taiwan: A Case-Crossover Study (2000-2010).

    PubMed

    Jung, Chau-Ren; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hwang, Bing-Fang

    2017-04-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute and multi-systemic vasculitis that occurs predominantly in infants and young children. Although the etiological agent of KD remains unclear, limited studies have reported that windborne environmental factors may trigger KD. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to assess the associations between air pollutants and KD in Taiwan. We identified children < 5 years old with a diagnosis of KD from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) between 2000 and 2010. We obtained data regarding carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm (PM10), and sulfate dioxide (SO2) from 70 monitoring stations and used inverse distance weighting to calculate average daily exposures for the residential postal code of each case. We performed conditional logistic regression to estimate associations between KD and each air pollutant according to interquartile range (IQR) increases and quartiles of exposure on the day of hospitalization versus 3-4 reference days during the same month for each case. Additionally, we estimated associations with single-day exposures lagged 1-2 days. We identified 695 KD hospital admissions during the study period. An IQR increase (28.73 ppb) of O3 was positively associated with KD after adjusting for temperature, humidity, northward wind, and eastward wind [adjusted odds ratio = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.44]. There were no significant associations between KD and CO, NO2, PM10, or SO2. The association with O3 was limited to exposure on the day of hospitalization and to exposure during the summer months (June-August). Our results provide new evidence that exposure to O3 may increase the risk of KD in children. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association and identify a potential biological mechanism.

  4. Ambient Air Pollutant Exposures and Hospitalization for Kawasaki Disease in Taiwan: A Case-Crossover Study (2000–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chau-Ren; Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hwang, Bing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute and multi-systemic vasculitis that occurs predominantly in infants and young children. Although the etiological agent of KD remains unclear, limited studies have reported that windborne environmental factors may trigger KD. Objectives: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to assess the associations between air pollutants and KD in Taiwan. Methods: We identified children < 5 years old with a diagnosis of KD from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 (LHID2000) between 2000 and 2010. We obtained data regarding carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm (PM10), and sulfate dioxide (SO2) from 70 monitoring stations and used inverse distance weighting to calculate average daily exposures for the residential postal code of each case. We performed conditional logistic regression to estimate associations between KD and each air pollutant according to interquartile range (IQR) increases and quartiles of exposure on the day of hospitalization versus 3–4 reference days during the same month for each case. Additionally, we estimated associations with single-day exposures lagged 1–2 days. Results: We identified 695 KD hospital admissions during the study period. An IQR increase (28.73 ppb) of O3 was positively associated with KD after adjusting for temperature, humidity, northward wind, and eastward wind [adjusted odds ratio = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.44]. There were no significant associations between KD and CO, NO2, PM10, or SO2. The association with O3 was limited to exposure on the day of hospitalization and to exposure during the summer months (June–August). Conclusions: Our results provide new evidence that exposure to O3 may increase the risk of KD in children. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association and identify a potential biological mechanism. Citation: Jung CR, Chen WT, Lin YT

  5. Facilitating the transition from physiology to hospital wards through an interdisciplinary case study of septic shock

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to develop clinical reasoning, medical students must be able to integrate knowledge across traditional subject boundaries and multiple disciplines. At least two dimensions of integration have been identified: horizontal integration, bringing together different disciplines in considering a topic; and vertical integration, bridging basic science and clinical practice. Much attention has been focused on curriculum overhauls, but our approach is to facilitate horizontal and vertical integration on a smaller scale through an interdisciplinary case study discussion and then to assess its utility. Methods An interdisciplinary case study discussion about a critically ill patient was implemented at the end of an organ system-based, basic sciences module at New York University School of Medicine. Three clinical specialists—a cardiologist, a pulmonologist, and a nephrologist—jointly led a discussion about a complex patient in the intensive care unit with multiple medical problems secondary to septic shock. The discussion emphasized the physiologic underpinnings behind the patient’s presentation and the physiologic considerations across the various systems in determining proper treatment. The discussion also highlighted the interdependence between the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems, which were initially presented in separate units. After the session students were given a brief, anonymous three-question free-response questionnaire in which they were asked to evaluate and freely comment on the exercise. Results Students not only took away physiological principles but also gained an appreciation for various thematic lessons for bringing basic science to the bedside, especially horizontal and vertical integration. The response of the participants was overwhelmingly positive with many indicating that the exercise integrated the material across organ systems, and strengthened their appreciation of the role of physiology in understanding

  6. Association between chronic periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Rosamma; Rajappan, Sreeraj; Nath, Sameera G; Paul, Binoy J

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases with remarkable pathological and clinical similarities. A lot of similarities exist between RA and periodontitis at cellular and molecular levels. The relationship between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is still unclear. This case-control study was undertaken to determine the possible association between chronic inflammatory diseases like RA and periodontitis. The case group consisted of 100 patients attending the Rheumatology clinic who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA group). Age- and gender-matched 112 patients without RA attending the Outpatient wing of Department of General Medicine formed the control group (NRA group). The number of missing teeth, gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment levels (CAL) were evaluated in both the groups. Rheumatoid disease activity was assessed by DAS-28 score system. Systemic markers of inflammation like erythrocytic sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference in GI, OHI-S, PPD, CAL, ESR and CRP levels between cases (RA group) and controls (NRA group) (P < 0.05). Among subjects with RA, there was no association between the rheumatoid disease activity and the severity of periodontal disease. The occurrence and severity of periodontitis was found to be higher in RA subjects as compared to subjects without RA, suggesting a positive relation between these two chronic inflammatory diseases.

  7. Genitourinary Procedures as Risk Factors for Prosthetic Hip or Knee Infection: A Hospital-Based Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arjun; Osmon, Douglas R.; Hanssen, Arlen D.; Lightner, Deborah J.; Wilson, Walter R.; Steckelberg, James M.; Baddour, Larry M.; Harmsen, William S.; Mandrekar, Jay N.; Berbari, Elie F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) as a complication of routine genitourinary (GU) procedures in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and to study the impact of antibiotic prophylaxis administered prior to these procedures. Methods. We conducted a prospective, single-center, case-control study between December 1, 2001 and May 31, 2006. Case patients were hospitalized with total hip or knee PJI. Control subjects underwent a THA or TKA and were hospitalized during the same period on the same orthopedic floor without a PJI. Data regarding demographic features and potential risk factors were collected. The outcome measure was the odds ratio (OR) of PJI after GU procedures performed within 2 years of admission. Results. A total of 339 case patients and 339 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Of these, 52 cases (15%) and 55 controls (16%) had undergone a GU procedure in the preceding 2 years. There was no increased risk of PJI for patients undergoing a GU procedure with or without antibiotic prophylaxis (adjusted OR [aOR] = 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2–4.5, P = .95 and aOR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6–1.7, P = .99, respectively). Results were similar in a subset of patients with a joint age less than 6 months, less than 1 year, or greater than 1 year. Conclusions. Genitourinary procedures were not risk factors for subsequent PJI. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis before GU procedures did not decrease the risk of subsequent PJI in our study. PMID:26258154

  8. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) outbreak at a university hospital in Kitakyushu, Japan: case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Muratani, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2008-10-01

    At a university hospital in Japan, a total of 15 patients (14 adults and 1 newborn baby) with vancomycinresistant enterococci (VRE) infection or colonization (inf/col) were identified via routine clinical examinations and two nonroutine examinations from January to April 2007. Two case-control studies were conducted to identify the factors related to VRE inf/col. In study 1, the patients with VRE inf/col from ward A (n = 8) were compared with all of the patients without VRE isolates in the same ward, i.e., the controls (n = 26). In study 2, all adult patients with VRE inf/col throughout the hospital (n = 14) were compared with controls randomly selected from among all patients without VRE isolates (n = 45). All the subject cases were found to be infected or colonized with Enterococcus faecium, vanB. All but two of the isolated strains were completely identical according to pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Univariate analysis in study 2 showed several factors, including the isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (odds ratio [OR], 8.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-53.7) and the use of antibiotics other than anti-MRSA drugs (OR, 33.0; 95% CI, 1.8-587.6) to be risk factors for VRE inf/col. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in study 2 demonstrated associations with VRE inf/col in the use of an ultrasound nebulizer (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 1.5-22.8) and extended bed rest (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.02-24.5). Although severe infection with VRE did not occur, to avoid the spread of VRE in hospital wards, further staff education should be implemented in regard to the usual standard and contact precautions, and the appropriate selection of antibiotics.

  9. Safety through redundancy: a case study of in-hospital patient transfers.

    PubMed

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Coiera, Enrico

    2010-10-01

    To study the extent and execution of redundant processes during inpatient transfers to Radiology, and their impact on errors during the transfer process; to explore the use of causal and reliability analyses for modelling error detection and redundancy in the transfer process; and to provide guidance on potential system improvements. A prospective observational study at a metropolitan teaching hospital. 101 patient transfers to Radiology were observed over a 6-month period, and errors in patient transfer process were recorded. Fault Tree Analysis was used to model error paths and identify redundant steps. Reliability Analysis was used to quantify system reliability. 420 errors were noted, an average of four errors per transfer. No incidents of patient harm were recorded. Inadequate handover was the most common error (43.1%), followed by failure to perform patient identification checks (41.9%), patient inadequately prepared for transfer (7.4%), inadequate infection control precautions (2.9%), inadequate clinical escort (2.1%), inadequate transport vehicle (2.1%) and equipment failure (0.2%). Four redundant steps for communicating patients' infectious status were identified (reliability=0.07, 0.37, 0.26, 0.31). Collectively, these yielded a system reliability of 0.7. The low reliability of each individual step was due to its low rate of execution. Analysis of the transfer process revealed a number of redundancies that safeguard against transfer errors. However, they were relatively ineffective in preventing errors, due to the poor compliance rate. Thus, the authors advocate increasing compliance to existing redundant processes as an improvement strategy, before investing resources on new processes.

  10. Subcutaneous mycoses: an aetiological study of 15 cases in a tertiary care hospital at Dibrugarh, Assam, northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, Pallabi; Nath, Reema; Borgohain, Mondita; Huda, M M; Barua, Shyamanta; Dutta, Debajit; Saikia, Lahari

    2015-06-01

    Subcutaneous mycoses are a group of fungal infections of dermis and subcutaneous tissue which consist of sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, mycetoma, subcutaneous zygomycosis, rhinosporidiosis, lobomycosis and disseminated penicilliosis. A total of 46 consecutive patients with clinically suspected subcutaneous mycoses attending various departments of Assam Medical College and Hospital were included in this prospective study to know the prevalence of subcutaneous mycoses in this eastern part of Assam. Direct microscopy in 10 and 40 % KOH, histopathological examination of biopsied tissue, colony characteristics on Sabourauds dextrose agar media both at 25 and 37 °C and detailed morphology of each fungus on lactophenol cotton blue mount were the basis of identification of the fungi. Subcutaneous mycoses were confirmed in 32.6 % (n = 15) cases. Out of 15 positive cases of subcutaneous mycoses, chromoblastomycosis was detected in six cases (n = 40 %), hyalohyphomycosis in three cases (n = 20 %), and lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis, disseminated penicilliosis and mycetoma in two cases each (n = 13.3 % each). In this study, seven different species of fungus were found to be responsible for five different clinical types of subcutaneous mycosis. Cladosporium cladosporioides, Bipolaris spicifera and Curvularia lunata were responsible for chromoblastomycosis, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus terreus for hyalohyphomycosis, C. lunata for mycetoma, Sporothrix schenckii for lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis and Penicillium marneffei for disseminated penicilliosis. C. cladosporioides and C. lunata were the commonest black fungi causing subcutaneous mycosis in this sub-Himalayan belt. Rare species C. cladosporioides, B. spicifera and C. lunata were found to be causing chromoblastomycosis in this study.

  11. Analyzing patient's waiting time in emergency & trauma department in public hospital - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, Shazwa; Tahir, Herniza Md; Nordin, Noraimi Azlin Mohd; Zaharudin, Zati Aqmar

    2014-09-01

    Emergency and Trauma Department (ETD) is an important element for a hospital. It provides medical service, which operates 24 hours a day in most hospitals. However overcrowding is not exclusion for ETD. Overflowing occurs due to affordable services provided by public hospitals, since it is funded by the government. It is reported that a patient attending ETD must be treated within 90 minutes, in accordance to achieve the Key Performance Indicator (KPI). However, due to overcrowd situations, most patients have to wait longer than the KPI standard. In this paper, patient's average waiting time is analyzed. Using Chi-Square Test of Goodness, patient's inter arrival per hour is also investigated. As conclusion, Monday until Wednesday was identified as the days that exceed the KPI standard while Chi-Square Test of Goodness showed that the patient's inter arrival is independent and random.

  12. Risk Factors for Neonatal Sepsis in Public Hospitals of Mekelle City, North Ethiopia, 2015: Unmatched Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Gebremedhin, Destaalem; Berhe, Haftu; Gebrekirstos, Kahsu

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. Delays in the identification and treatment of neonatal sepsis are among the main contributors to the high mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of neonatal sepsis in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray Region, North Ethiopia, 2015. A hospital based case control study was done in public hospitals of Mekelle City, Tigray region. Cases were neonates who had sepsis with their index mothers and controls were neonates who hadn't had sepsis with their index mothers. Hematologic findings were used to diagnose sepsis once the neonates were being clinically suspected. Cases and controls were selected using the systematic sampling technique. Data were entered using Epi info version 7 and then analyzed using SPSS window 20. The binary logistic regression model was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the associated risk factors to neonatal sepsis. A total of 78 cases and 156 controls were included in this study. More than three quarters (76.8%) of cases had early onset sepsis. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the possible risk factors of neonatal sepsis in this study were; history of maternal urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infection [AOR = 5. 23; 95% CI (1.82, 15.04)], prolonged rupture of membrane [AOR = 7. 43; 95% CI (2.04, 27.1)], Place of delivery; health center delivery [AOR = 5. 7; 95% CI (1.71, 19.03)], intrapartum fever [AOR = 6. 1 95% CI (1.29, 28.31)], APGAR score <7 at 5th minute [AOR = 68. 9; 95% CI (3.63, 1308)] and not crying immediately at birth [AOR = 124. 0; 95% CI (6.5, 2379)]. Both maternal and neonatal factors had contributed to the risk of neonatal sepsis. Strengthening of the existing risk based prevention strategies as well as improvement of institutional delivery practices

  13. [Early gastric cancer surgically treated at Rebagliati Hospital: study of 76 cases during 5 years].

    PubMed

    Portanova, Michel; Mena, Victor; Yábar, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of early gastric cancer surgically treated in the Gastric Cancer Unit at Rebagliati National Hospital between January 2004 and December 2008. Mean age was 68 years; males, distal location, submucosa infiltration and intestinal histological type predominate in these patients. Lymph node involvement was 13%.

  14. Factors associated with obstetric fistulae occurrence among patients attending selected hospitals in Kenya, 2010: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Roka, Zeinab Gura; Akech, Mathias; Wanzala, Peter; Omolo, Jared; Gitta, Sheba; Waiswa, Peter

    2013-02-28

    In Kenya, about 3000 fistula cases are estimated to occur every year with an incidence of 1/1000 women. This study sought to identify risk factors associated with developing obstetrics fistula in order to guide implementation of appropriate interventions. An unmatched case control study was conducted in three major hospitals in Kenya between October and December 2010. Cases were patients who had fistula following delivery within the previous five years. Controls were systematically selected from women who attended obstetrics and gynecology clinics at these hospitals, and did not have present or past history of fistula. Odds ratio was used as measure of association with their corresponding 95% confidence interval. Factors with p value of <0.1 were included into forward additive logistic regression model to generate adjusted odds ratios. Seventy cases and 140 controls were included in the study. Independent risk factors associated with obstetrics fistula included duration of labour of >24 hours (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.4 -9.2), seeking delivery services after 6 hours of labour onset (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 2.2-21.3), taking more than 2 hours to reach a health facility (OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 2.9 -11.5), having none or primary education (OR = 9.6, 95% CI = 3.3 -27.9) and being referred to another facility for emergency obstetrics services (OR = 8.6, 95% CI = 2.7 -27). Risk factors for developing obstetrics fistula were delays in care seeking including delay in making decision to seek delivery servers after six hours of labour onset, taking more than two hours to reach a health facility, labour duration of more than 24 hours and having no formal or primary education. Efforts geared at strengthening all levels of the health system to reduce delays in access to emergency obstetric care are needed.

  15. Can you see me? Experiences of nurses working night shift in Australian regional hospitals: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Powell, Idona

    2013-10-01

    To report a study that explored the experiences of night-shift nurses, focusing on employee interrelationships and work satisfaction. Night-shift nurses are a critical component in hospital care making it essential to understand the experiences that give meaning to their work and understand how these nurses and the organization can benefit from their contribution to hospital care. A literature review revealed minimal research in this area. Qualitative case study. A qualitative case study using semi-structured interviews and self-completed diaries was conducted in 2010 in regional public hospitals in Australia. Participants were 14 nurses working nights half or more of their shifts in medical or surgical wards. Thematic analysis identified four major areas of concern: work relationships, work environment, work practices and lifestyle impact. Notably, work relationships were most meaningful for nurses on the same shift; night-shift nurses experienced working conditions inferior to their daytime counterparts including a perception of minimal leadership. Despite limited education opportunities, night shift provided opportunity for professional growth for some nurses with a slippage in skills for others; night shift provided flexibility for family and social activities, yet impeded these same activities, primarily due to pervasive fatigue. Night-shift nurses considered their role critical, yet believed that they were poorly regarded. The strong interpersonal relationships developed between night-shift workers need to be capitalized on whilst developing a more effective leadership model, improved work environment, more equitable professional development, and genuine recognition of the critical role of night nurses. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Reproductive factors and breast cancer: a case-control study in tertiary care hospital of North India.

    PubMed

    Bhadoria, A S; Kapil, U; Sareen, N; Singh, P

    2013-01-01

    Clinical, animal, and epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated that cancer is a hormonally mediated disease and several factors that influence hormonal status or are markers of change in hormonal status have been shown to be associated with the risk of breast cancer. To identify the association of various reproductive factors with breast cancer. A hospital-based, matched, case-control study. Three hundred and twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and three hundred and twenty normal healthy individuals constituted the study population. The subjects in the control group were matched individually with the cases for their age ± 2 years and socioeconomic status. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to each individual to collect information on identification data, socio-demographic profile, and reproductive factors. The Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were used. The conditional univariate logistic regression analysis (unadjusted odds ratio and confidence intervals) was used to calculate the significance level of each variable followed by multivariate regression analysis. The cases had a lower mean age at menarche, higher age at marriage, higher mean age at last child birth, lower mean duration of breastfeeding, higher number of abortions, late age at menopause, history of oral contraceptive pills, and a family history of breast cancer as compared to the controls. The results of the present study revealed a strong association of reproductive factors with breast cancer in the Indian population.

  17. Sepsis and meningitis in hospitalized children: performance of clinical signs and their prediction rules in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Verbakel, Jan Y; MacFaul, Roderick; Aertgeerts, Bert; Buntinx, Frank; Thompson, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Feverish illness is a common presentation to acute pediatric services. Clinical staff faces the challenge of differentiating the few children with meningitis or sepsis from the majority with self-limiting illness. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of clinical features and their prediction rules (CPR) for identifying children with sepsis or meningitis among those children admitted to a District General Hospital with acute febrile illness. Acutely ill children admitted to a District General Hospital in England were included in this case-control study between 2000 and 2005. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of individual clinical signs and 6 CPRs, including the National Institute for Clinical Excellence "traffic light" system, to determine clinical utility in identifying children with a diagnosis of sepsis or meningitis. Loss of consciousness, prolonged capillary refill, decreased alertness, respiratory effort, and the physician's illness assessment had high positive likelihood ratios (9-114), although with wide confidence intervals, to rule in sepsis or meningitis. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence traffic light system, the modified Yale Observation Scale, and the Pediatric Advanced Warning Score performed poorly with positive likelihood ratios ranging from 1 to 3. The pediatrician's overall illness assessment was the most useful feature to rule in sepsis or meningitis in these hospitalized children. Clinical prediction rules did not effectively rule in sepsis or meningitis. The modified Yale Observation Scale should be used with caution. Single clinical signs could complement these scores to rule in sepsis or meningitis. Further research is needed to validate these CPRs.

  18. A retrospective study of pyometra at five RSPCA hospitals in the UK: 1728 cases from 2006 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, A.; Dean, R.; Yates, D.; Stavisky, J.

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective cross-sectional study was used to analyse pyometra cases at five RSPCA Animal Hospitals across the UK from 2006 to 2011. A total of 1728 cases of pyometra were recovered from a female dog outpatient caseload of 78,469 animals, giving a total prevalence of 2.2 per cent over the study period. There was an annual increase in the incidence of pyometra within the population, while elective ovariohysterectomy caseload has declined. There were variations in breed and age at presentation. Bullmastiffs (P<0.0001), golden retrievers (P=0.001) and dogue de Bordeaux (P=0.008) were over-represented in the pyometra population when compared with the female dog outpatient caseload. Mean age at presentation was 7.7 years. Some breeds presented at a significantly lower age, including dogue de Bordeaux (mean age 3.3 years) and bullmastiffs (mean age 5.4 years), while others presented as older dogs, including Yorkshire terriers (mean age 9.4 years) and border collies (mean age 10.3 years). Surgical mortality rate at the Greater Manchester Animal Hospital was 3.2 per cent. Pyometra is of significant welfare concern, and also has cost implications, particularly in charity practice. These results serve to highlight this condition so that future change in charity practice caseload can be anticipated and strategies can be directed to improve animal welfare. PMID:24114733

  19. A retrospective study of pyometra at five RSPCA hospitals in the UK: 1728 cases from 2006 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Gibson, A; Dean, R; Yates, D; Stavisky, J

    2013-10-26

    A retrospective cross-sectional study was used to analyse pyometra cases at five RSPCA Animal Hospitals across the UK from 2006 to 2011. A total of 1728 cases of pyometra were recovered from a female dog outpatient caseload of 78,469 animals, giving a total prevalence of 2.2 per cent over the study period. There was an annual increase in the incidence of pyometra within the population, while elective ovariohysterectomy caseload has declined. There were variations in breed and age at presentation. Bullmastiffs (P<0.0001), golden retrievers (P=0.001) and dogue de Bordeaux (P=0.008) were over-represented in the pyometra population when compared with the female dog outpatient caseload. Mean age at presentation was 7.7 years. Some breeds presented at a significantly lower age, including dogue de Bordeaux (mean age 3.3 years) and bullmastiffs (mean age 5.4 years), while others presented as older dogs, including Yorkshire terriers (mean age 9.4 years) and border collies (mean age 10.3 years). Surgical mortality rate at the Greater Manchester Animal Hospital was 3.2 per cent. Pyometra is of significant welfare concern, and also has cost implications, particularly in charity practice. These results serve to highlight this condition so that future change in charity practice caseload can be anticipated and strategies can be directed to improve animal welfare.

  20. [Risk factors for falls and fall-related injuries in an acute care hospital--a retrospective case control study].

    PubMed

    Müller, Rita; Halfens, Ruud; Schwendimann, René; Müller, Marianne; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Ballmer, Peter E

    2009-12-01

    Falls in patient are a major problem in acute care institutions because of direct and indirect consequences. The objectives of the present retrospective case control study were to explore predictors of falls and fall-related injuries in hospitalised patients in a department of internal medicine at a Swiss acute care hospital. The sample included 228 hospitalised patients with a fall and 228 patients without a fall as control subjects, matched by age, gender and medical diagnosis. The cases were further analysed, whereby injured patients were compared with uninjured ones. Data were obtained from patient records and the hospital information system (HIS). Patients with a previous fall, mobility disorders, altered cognition, altered urinary and fecal excretions, intake of sedativa or other psychotropic drugs, a higher amount of comorbidities and case mix, as well as a prolonged length of stay were significantly more frequent in the cases than in the controls. Patients with falls and controls showed no differences in terms of impaired vision, intake of five and more medications, or diuretica. Analysis by logistic regression revealed mobility disorder (OR 5,2; 95 % VI 2.39-11.44) and altered excretions (OR 1,8; 95 % VI 1.02-3.31) as significant main effects and there also were significant interactions between previous falls, intake of sedativa or other psychopharmaca and altered cognition. No difference could be seen in any variable between patients with a fall-related injury and no injury. Therefore a predictive profile could be found for patients at risk to fall which might be helpful for further prevention strategies. However, no predictive marker for fall-related injuries could be defined in the present study.

  1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection: A hospital based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Devrajani, Bikha Ram; Shah, Syed Zulfiquar Ali; Soomro, Aftab Ahmed; Devrajani, Tarachand

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in diabetic and non-diabetic patients and to compare the frequency of H. pylori infection in both groups. Study Design: Case control. Place and Duration: Department of Medicine, Liaquat University Hospital from October 2007 to March 2008. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was conducted on 148 subjects and divided into two groups i.e. type 2 diabetics and non-diabetics; each group consisting of 74 patients. All diabetic patients of ≥ 35 years of age, both gender and the known cases with history of dyspepsia, epigastric pain or bloating for more than a month were screened for Helicobacter pylori infection. The collected data of both groups was evaluated and separated for analysis. Results: Majority of the patients were male with mean age ± SD, 52.86 ± 8.51. Among the diabetic group, HpSA was positive in 54/74 (73%), whereas in the non-diabetic group HpSA was positive in 38/74 (51.4%) cases. Fasting blood glucose was identified as low in 04 (5.40%) H. pylori infected - diabetic patients where as the blood glucose level of 07 (9.45%) known diabetic patients was raised despite the ongoing medication. Conclusion: Diabetic patients are more prone and at risk to acquire H. Pylori infection. Therefore proper monitoring of blood glucose level and screening for H. pylori infection are effective preventive measures for this life threatening infection. PMID:20431802

  2. Establishing strategic alliance among hospitals through SAIS: a case study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Won-Fu; Hwang, Hsin-Ginn; Liao, Chechen

    2005-01-01

    Due to a reformed healthcare insurance system and a gradually decreasing public affairs' budget by the government year by year, Central Taiwan Office (CTO), the Department of Health (DOH) in Taiwan, initiated a strategic alliance project of the hospitals subordinated to the DOH in November, 2001. This project was a five-year plan with an attempt to expand and develop three more strategic alliances covering the northern, southern and eastern regions of Taiwan respectively. Through a cooperative system, such an alliance allows the following: resource sharing, technique collaboration, marketing affiliations and so on. In order to decrease operation management costs and improve the quality of service at hospitals, the strategic alliance practice is supported by IS. We call this alignment the IS-enabled strategic alliance. All the IS-enabled functions are supported by the Strategic Alliance Information System (SAIS). In this article, the SAIS developed by the CTO of the DOH is introduced.

  3. Management of medical technology: case study of a major acute hospital.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ian; Smale, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results of a Capital Equipment Management Plan undertaken at a major acute hospital in Australia. By classifying existing equipment using a threshold replacement value into Major and Minor items, detailed planning information was collected for 527 items of Major equipment representing 80% of the hospital's total equipment stock. A number of meaningful views of this significant asset base are presented, and a prioritisation method used to provide recommendations for future equipment replacement and acquisition for a 5 year planning period. The survey work to identify and document actual equipment items provides a convincing argument for the funding levels required for capital equipment replacement and acquisition, and evidence for the extent of technology reliance in modern health care facilities.

  4. Patient sociality in hospital architectural space: a qualitative case study in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Nord, Catharina

    2005-01-01

    The article presents research on the relationship between admitted patients' social needs and hospital architectural space in an African context. Interaction with relatives and fellow patients is very valuable to the well-being of the patient. The results show inflexible and restrictive spatial conditions that disturb this interaction, for instance, by aggravating the ubiquitous overcrowding and people leaving the ward. One important reason for leaving the ward is to socialise with other people. Relatives, who assist with caring tasks in the ward, stay overnight in a yard in the hospital grounds under uncomfortable and health threatening conditions. The results illustrate how patients' well-being can improve by removing inflexibility and restrictions on space.

  5. Antecedents and characteristics of lean thinking implementation in a Swedish hospital: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ulhassan, Waqar; Sandahl, Christer; Westerlund, Hugo; Henriksson, Peter; Bennermo, Marie; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Thor, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the reported success of Lean in health care settings, it is unclear why and how organizations adopt Lean and how Lean transforms work design and, in turn, affects employees' work. This study investigated a cardiology department's journey to adopt and adapt Lean. The investigation was focused on the rationale and evolution of the Lean adoption to illuminate how a department with a long quality improvement history arrived at the decision to introduce Lean, and how Lean influenced employees' daily work. This is an explanatory single case study based on semistructured interviews, nonparticipant observations, and document studies. Guided by a Lean model, we undertook manifest content analysis of the data. We found that previous improvement efforts may facilitate the introduction of Lean but may be less important when forecasting whether Lean will be sustained over time. Contextual factors seemed to influence both what Lean tools were implemented and how well the changes were sustained. For example, adoption of Lean varied with the degree to which staff saw a need for change. Work redesign and teamwork were found helpful to improve patient care whereas problem solving was found helpful in keeping the staff engaged and sustaining the results over time.

  6. Assessing and Improving Children's Rights in Hospitals: Case Studies from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Moldova.

    PubMed

    Isabel Fernandes Guerreiro, Ana; Kuttumuratova, Aigul; Monolbaev, Kubanychbek; Boderscova, Larisa; Pirova, Zulfiya; Weber, Martin W

    2016-06-01

    There is a recognized need to raise evidence on how to adopt human rights-based approaches (HRBAs) to health and to assess their impact. In 2013 and 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe used a set of tools to assess and improve the situation of children's rights in 11 hospitals in Kyrgyzstan, 10 hospitals in Tajikistan, and 21 hospitals in Moldova, by applying a HRBA to health, taking as a reference the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The assessment results show a similar situation across countries in some areas, and more or less significant variation in others. Common gaps include the need to improve adolescent-friendly health services, the rights to privacy and play; and infrastructure and equipment. In Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, a second round of assessment, was carried out, which showed an effective change in several areas, whilst other areas showed persistent gaps. Moldova did not carry out a second round of assessment. Involving children and parents in the assessment was crucial to obtain more reliable data; the project showed how to use the CRC as a framework to improve quality of care for children (QoC); and the tools were proven useful for self-assessment.

  7. Visual art in hospitals: case studies and review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lankston, Louise; Cusack, Pearce; Fremantle, Chris; Isles, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Summary In 2006 a Department of Health Working Group on Arts and Health reported that the arts have ‘a clear contribution to make and offer major opportunities in the delivery of better health, wellbeing and improved experience for patients, service users and staff alike’. In this review we examine the evidence underpinning this statement and evaluate the visual art of three of Scotland's newest hospitals: the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, the new Stobhill Hospital, and the new Victoria Infirmary in Glasgow. We conclude that art in hospitals is generally viewed positively by both patients and staff, but that the quality of the evidence is not uniformly high. Effects may be mediated by psychological responses to colour hue, brightness and saturation. Colours that elicit high levels of pleasure with low levels of arousal are most likely to induce a state of calm, while those causing displeasure and high levels of arousal may provoke anxiety. The fact that patients frequently express a preference for landscape and nature scenes is consistent with this observation and with evolutionary psychological theories which predict positive emotional responses to flourishing natural environments. Contrary to a view which may prevail among some contemporary artists, patients who are ill or stressed about their health may not always be comforted by abstract art, preferring the positive distraction and state of calm created by the blues and greens of landscape and nature scenes instead. PMID:21127332

  8. Visual art in hospitals: case studies and review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Lankston, Louise; Cusack, Pearce; Fremantle, Chris; Isles, Chris

    2010-12-01

    In 2006 a Department of Health Working Group on Arts and Health reported that the arts have 'a clear contribution to make and offer major opportunities in the delivery of better health, wellbeing and improved experience for patients, service users and staff alike'. In this review we examine the evidence underpinning this statement and evaluate the visual art of three of Scotland's newest hospitals: the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, the new Stobhill Hospital, and the new Victoria Infirmary in Glasgow. We conclude that art in hospitals is generally viewed positively by both patients and staff, but that the quality of the evidence is not uniformly high. Effects may be mediated by psychological responses to colour hue, brightness and saturation. Colours that elicit high levels of pleasure with low levels of arousal are most likely to induce a state of calm, while those causing displeasure and high levels of arousal may provoke anxiety. The fact that patients frequently express a preference for landscape and nature scenes is consistent with this observation and with evolutionary psychological theories which predict positive emotional responses to flourishing natural environments. Contrary to a view which may prevail among some contemporary artists, patients who are ill or stressed about their health may not always be comforted by abstract art, preferring the positive distraction and state of calm created by the blues and greens of landscape and nature scenes instead.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Wearable Sensor Systems: A Case Study in Moderate-Scale Deployment in Hospital Environment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Ge, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wong, Wai-Choong

    2015-09-25

    A wearable sensor system enables continuous and remote health monitoring and is widely considered as the next generation of healthcare technology. The performance, the packet error rate (PER) in particular, of a wearable sensor system may deteriorate due to a number of factors, particularly the interference from the other wearable sensor systems in the vicinity. We systematically evaluate the performance of the wearable sensor system in terms of PER in the presence of such interference in this paper. The factors that affect the performance of the wearable sensor system, such as density, traffic load, and transmission power in a realistic moderate-scale deployment case in hospital are all considered. Simulation results show that with 20% duty cycle, only 68.5% of data transmission can achieve the targeted reliability requirement (PER is less than 0.05) even in the off-peak period in hospital. We then suggest some interference mitigation schemes based on the performance evaluation results in the case study.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Wearable Sensor Systems: A Case Study in Moderate-Scale Deployment in Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen; Ge, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wong, Wai-Choong

    2015-01-01

    A wearable sensor system enables continuous and remote health monitoring and is widely considered as the next generation of healthcare technology. The performance, the packet error rate (PER) in particular, of a wearable sensor system may deteriorate due to a number of factors, particularly the interference from the other wearable sensor systems in the vicinity. We systematically evaluate the performance of the wearable sensor system in terms of PER in the presence of such interference in this paper. The factors that affect the performance of the wearable sensor system, such as density, traffic load, and transmission power in a realistic moderate-scale deployment case in hospital are all considered. Simulation results show that with 20% duty cycle, only 68.5% of data transmission can achieve the targeted reliability requirement (PER is less than 0.05) even in the off-peak period in hospital. We then suggest some interference mitigation schemes based on the performance evaluation results in the case study. PMID:26426015

  11. A case report: ethics of a proposed qualitative study of hospital closure in an Australian rural community.

    PubMed

    Fraser, John

    2004-02-01

    The GP and qualitative researcher use similar patient-centred approaches, but their roles are different. Guidelines for conducting GP research in small communities are limited. I planned a qualitative study about hospital closure in a small rural Australian town where I worked. Few studies have researched community reaction to hospital closure and this process of change. I used historical analysis to improve external reliability, and purposeful sampling to develop and pre-test a qualitative semi-structured research instrument. Newspaper articles, minutes and tape recordings of public meetings, annual reports from 1991 to 1997, quality assurance data and interviews with two health professionals were analysed in this process. These sources were coded using content and thematic analysis. Ethical issues arose during early stages of planning. Ethical guidelines and bioethics principles were discussed with colleagues and a member of an ethics committee. I validated my findings with three other community members involved in the hospital closure. Themes of a transition, from resistance to change and divisions between key stake holders, to a need to appreciate the benefits of change emerged in coding material from 1991 to 1997. The principle of non-maleficence outweighed the principle of beneficence in this study. Existing health services could be harmed by examining the process of change after spending time and resources to reconcile community differences. Individuals could be harmed as confidentiality in a small community was difficult to maintain, and discussions about sensitive issues could produce adverse public criticism. The autonomy of participants to give informed consent was complicated by the author providing clinical services in the community, raising concerns about patients feeling an obligation to participate. A justified case for discontinuing this study was made by the researcher on ethical grounds. Use of bioethical principles and community representatives

  12. Borderline ovarian tumors: a study of 100 cases from a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Semih; Uysal, Fatma; Öztekin, Murat; Büyüktosun, Cem; Şehirali1, Salim; Başoğul, Ömer; Taner, Cüneyt E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study The purpose of the study was to evaluate patients with borderline ovarian tumors. Material and methods Clinical features, treatment and survival status of 100 patients with borderline ovarian tumors were retrospectively evaluated between 1998 and 2007. Results Patients’ mean age was 37.75 years (range: 15–72); 22 of them were postmenopausal. Histopathological diagnoses were serous, mucinous, endometrioid and clear cell in 54%, 41%, 2% and 3% of the patients, respectively; 70 patients had stage IA disease, 8 were at stage IB, 16 at stage IC, 2 at stage IIIA, 3 at stage IIIB and 1 at stage IIIC. Restaging laparotomies were performed on 19 patients; fertility-sparing surgery was performed on 52 patients; 2 patients received chemotherapy because of advanced-stage disease. All patients are currently alive. The 5-year disease-free survival rate for 71 cases was 100%. Conclusions Borderline ovarian tumors have excellent prognoses, and fertility-conserving surgery can be performed in young patients with early-stage disease. PMID:24596520

  13. [Analysis of questionably allergic factors to parenterally administered shenmai--a nested case control study using hospital information system data].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Xin; Tang, Hao; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Parenterally administered Shenmai, made from constituents of Ginseng Rubra Radix and Ophiopogonis Radix has, confirmed by modem pharmacological studies, the function of increasing cardiac hypoxia tolerance and anti arrhythmic and antibacterial properties. However, parenterally administered Shenmai is also prone to cause allergic reactions, which is clearly a safety issue. NCCSs combine elements from case-control and cohort studies. HIS data provides real world clinical information on the use of parenterally administered Shenmai. To explore suspected allergic factors this article compares specific information of those who showed allergies to those who didnt in the real world clinical application based on HIS data from 20 nationwide hospitals. Data includes age, gender, severity and type of allergic response, dosage, solvents used in the medication's preparation and drugs used in combination with parenterally administered Shenmai. Whilst this methodology is a possible route of exploration, ultimately pharmaceutical experiments and prospective clinical studies are required to identify and confirm factors related to allergic reactions.

  14. Differences in the Implementation of Diagnosis-Related Groups across Clinical Departments: A German Hospital Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ridder, Hans-Gerd; Doege, Vanessa; Martini, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective This article aims to examine the implementation process of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) in the clinical departments of a German hospital group and to explain why some gain competitive advantage while others do not. Study Setting To investigate this research question, we conducted a qualitative study based on primary data obtained in six clinical departments in a German hospital group between 2003 and 2005. Study Design We chose the case study method in order to gain deep insights into the process dynamics of the implementation of DRGs in the six clinical departments. The dynamic capability approach is used as a theoretical foundation. Employing theory-driven categories we focused on idiosyncratic and common patterns of “successful coders” and “unsuccessful coders.” Data Collection To observe the implementation process of DRGs, we conducted 43 semistructured interviews with key persons, carried out direct observations of the monthly meetings of the DRG project group, and sampled written materials. Principal Findings “Successful coders” invest into change resources, demonstrate a high level of acceptance of innovations, and organize effective processes of coordination and learning. Conclusions All clinical departments only put an emphasis on the coding aspects of the DRGs. There is a lack of vision regarding the optimization of patient treatment processes and specialization. Physicians are the most important key actors, rather than the main barriers. PMID:17995556

  15. Factors associated with violence among Japanese patients with schizophrenia prior to psychiatric emergency hospitalization: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Imai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Naoki; Shiina, Akihiro; Sakikawa, Noriko; Igarashi, Yoshito

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have examined a wide range of risk factors associated with violence among patients with schizophrenia. However, risk factors linked to different socio-cultural backgrounds remain unclear. The objectives were to investigate factors associated with violence among Japanese patients with schizophrenia prior to emergency hospitalizations and to compare them with factors found in studies on other populations. We recruited 420 Japanese patients with schizophrenia who had committed violent acts immediately prior to emergency admission to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo, during the period 1986 to 2005. Cases were compared with controls (non violent hospitalized patients with schizophrenia) matched for gender, age and admission year. All medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Inter-rater reliability tests of assessment were performed. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with violence. The symptoms of gross excitement, prior violence, auditory hallucinations, systematization of delusions, incoherence of speech, delusions of reference, TCO symptoms, living with others and long duration of illness were found to be associated with violence. In contrast, antisocial traits such as substance abuse and antisocial episodes were not recognized as significant violence-associated factors. Violence among Japanese patients with schizophrenia was strongly associated with elements of schizophrenia itself, rather than antisocial traits. This study highlighted associated factors for violence among Japanese patients with schizophrenia which differ distinctly from associated factors in other countries. This result demonstrates that future studies assessing the risk of violence among patients with schizophrenia need to consider cultural and racial differences in cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypoglycemic effects of tramadol analgesia in hospitalized patients: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Golightly, Larry K; Simendinger, Bonita A; Barber, Gerard R; Stolpman, Nancy M; Kick, Steven D; McDermott, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    In outpatient populations, hypoglycemia has been associated with tramadol. We sought to determine the magnitude of risk for hypoglycemia associated with tramadol use in hospitalized patients. During a 2-year period of observation, adult inpatients who received ≥1 dose of tramadol were identified and their medical records were reviewed. Patients were included if they had blood or plasma glucose (BG) concentrations measured on at least two occasions within five days after the initial administration of tramadol. A contemporary comparator group of hospitalized oxycodone recipients was similarly reviewed. Tramadol was administered to 2927 patients who met inclusion criteria. Among these, hypoglycemia (BG ≤70 mg/dL) was documented in 22 (46.8%) of 47 patients with type 1 diabetes, 113 (16.8%) of 673 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 103 (4.7%) of 2207 patients who did not have a diabetes mellitus diagnosis. In those without a diabetes diagnosis, the causality association between hypoglycemia and tramadol use was probable in 77 patients (3.5%). By comparison, hypoglycemia was documented in 8 (1.1%) of 716 matched oxycodone recipients without diabetes (p = 0.002). As compared with tramadol recipients who did not develop low BG concentrations, those who experienced tramadol-related hypoglycemia were relatively young (mean age 52.0 versus 59.8 years; p = 0.027) and predominantly female (74.0% versus 59.8%; p = 0.012). Tramadol use was causally associated with hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients. The proportion of patients without diabetes who developed hypoglycemia was higher among those who received tramadol than among those who received oxycodone. Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board Protocol № 15-2215. Registered/approved 8 December 2015.

  17. Implementation, monitoring and utilization of an integrated Hospital Information System--lessons from a case study.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Correia, Ricardo João

    2010-01-01

    In most hospitals several heterogeneous Information Systems (IS) store parts of a still scattered patient record. Virtual Patient Records (VPR) are systems that aggregate known data elements about the patient from different IS in real-time. This papers aims to present the main lessons learned from the implementation and the usage during 6 years of a VPR system. Ten major lessons were divided in recommendations for software developers, information managers and institutional policy makers. Implementing and using a VPR is a difficult journey but can generate great value for the institution if most of these recommendations are taken in consideration.

  18. Managerial procedures and hospital practices: a case study of the development of a new medical discipline.

    PubMed

    Cabridain, M O

    1985-01-01

    In anesthésie-réanimation, a discipline that brings together anaesthesiology and emergency as well as intensive care, the managerial methods of evaluation and control of needs in personnel, were not adequate for describing medical practices. Around four managerial standards that were used by the Paris public hospital administration, new situations have crystalized. The historical analysis of how these standards have been put into use, used and put in question throws light upon the way organizations function. The present day situation in this speciality seems to be mainly determined by the strategies of specialists for obtaining professional recognition of their discipline and for advancing their careers.

  19. A case control study of risk factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in romania: experience at a clinical hospital of pneumology

    PubMed Central

    NDISHIMYE, PACIFIQUE; DOMOKOS, BIANCA; STILLO, JONATHAN; SEGHROUCHNI, FOUAD; MRABET, OULAYA; HOMORODEAN, DANIELA; POP, CARMEN MONICA; SADAK, ABDERRAHIM

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health issue in Romania. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors for TB among hospitalized patients in Romania. Methods This is a case-control study conducted between March 1st 2014 and March 30th 2015 at Leon Daniello Clinical Hospital of Pneumology, Cluj Napoca. A total of 150 TB patients defined as “cases” were matched for age, sex and county of residence to 150 controls selected from patients attending the same hospital with respiratory diseases other than TB. Data collection was obtained through patient interviews using a structured questionnaire. Factors potentially associated with TB infection were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Factors independently associated with TB were illiteracy (OR=2.42, 95% CI 1.09–5.37), unemployment (OR=2.08, 95% CI 1.23–3.53), low household income (OR=4.12, 95% CI 2.53–6.71), smoking (more than 20 cigarettes per day) (OR=2.12, 95% CI 1.20–3.74), poor knowledge of TB (OR=3.46, 95% CI 1.97–6.07), presence of TB patient in household (OR=4.35, 95% CI 1.42–13.36), prior TB treatment (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.93–2.5) and diabetes (OR=3.32, 95% CI 1.36–8.08). Conclusion This study provided useful information that might help to develop and adapt effective policies for TB control in Romania. PMID:28246498

  20. Effect of hospital case volume on treatment and in-hospital outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction. Results from the Ibaraki Coronary Artery Disease Study (ICAS) Registry.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka Machino, Tomoko; Toyama, Masahiro; Obara, Kenichi; Takeyasu, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2008-05-01

    The volume of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed in a hospital has been suggested to correlate with favorable outcomes in patients undergoing primary PCI for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, studies that use current data and compare treatment and outcomes for AMI among hospitals with different volumes are still limited in Japan. Between January 2004 and March 2006, 401 AMI patients underwent primary PCI in the 11 hospitals participating in the Ibaraki Coronary Artery Disease Study (ICAS). Clinical characteristics, treatment, and in-hospital outcomes were retrospectively compared between 254 patients admitted to high-volume PCI hospitals and 147 patients admitted to low-volume hospitals. Low-volume hospitals had a higher prevalence of multivessel disease patients. High-volume hospitals had longer onset-to-door times, which were offset by faster door-to-balloon times. Rates of coronary stent use and successful PCI were comparable between the groups. Low-volume hospitals more frequently performed intra-aortic balloon pumping. Length of stay was longer in low-volume hospitals, whereas in-hospital mortality, bypass surgery, and repeat PCI rates did not differ between groups. Although the present study assessed limited data based on small sample size, we observed that contemporary standard treatments including stent implantation were performed for AMI patients undergoing primary PCI in hospitals with both high and low case volumes. We did not find an obvious relationship between hospital PCI volume and in-hospital outcomes in our data. However, further prospective surveys should be attempted to confirm these results.

  1. Risk profiles for four types of work-related injury among hospital employees: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nancy I; Brown, Norman D; Hodges, Linda C; Gandy, Jay; Lawson, Louanne; Lord, Janet E; Williams, David K

    2006-02-01

    In this retrospective case-control study, researchers examined risk factors for four types of work-related injury (WRI) in hospital employees. Data were collected from employee health charts and computer databases (N = 2050) and analyzed using logistic regression. Study results showed that strain injuries were related to increased age, increased body mass index (BMI), and maintenance, custodial, and direct-caregiver employment types. Repetitive motion injuries were related to increased BMI and clerical and custodial employment types. Exposure/reaction injuries were related to increased age, increased BMI, and maintenance, custodial, and direct-caregiver employment types. Contact/assault injuries were related to increased age, increased BMI, and maintenance, custodial, and direct-caregiver employment types. All injury types were most often related to female gender and full-time employment status. Reformulating policies to improve screening, prevention, and education for those at risk for certain injury types may limit WRI occurrences and costs.

  2. Reduction in hospital admissions for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people as a result of influenza vaccination: a case-control study in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Barberà, J; Márquez-Calderón, S; Masoliver-Fores, A; Lloria-Paes, F; Ortega-Dicha, A; Gil-Martín, M; Calero-Martínez, M J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in preventing hospital admission for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people. DESIGN: This was a case-control study. SETTING: All three public hospitals in the Castellón area of Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were people aged 65 or more not living in an institution who were admitted to hospital for pneumonia between November 15, 1994 and March 31, 1995. Each case was matched with two sex matched control subjects aged 65 years or older admitted to hospital in the same week for acute abdominal surgical conditions or trauma. The sampling of incident cases was consecutive. Eighty three cases and 166 controls were identified and included in the study. MEASUREMENTS: Trained interviewers completed a questionnaire for each subject on the vaccination status, smoking habits, previous diseases, health care use, social contacts, family background, the vaccination status of the family carer, home characteristics, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio of the influenza vaccination preventing admission to hospital for pneumonia was 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.09, 0.55). The variables which best explained the risk of being a case were age, intensity of social contacts, health care use, previous diseases, and the existence of a vaccinated family carer. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination reduced significantly hospital admissions for pneumonia in non-institutionalised elderly people. PMID:9425463

  3. Air pollution/working activity correlation: a case study in a dental hospital.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, Anna; Fuselli, Sergio; Morlino, Roberta; Minniti, Gianluca; De Felice, Marco; Ortolani, Emanuela

    2011-02-01

    The paper deals with a multidimensional approach demonstrating a direct link between the entity of ongoing dentistry activity (number and kind of interventions) and specific pollution components. Simultaneously indoor/outdoor air concentrations of a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and activity variables, describing the amount and nature of ongoing dentistry activities, were monitored over a year at a dental hospital located in an urban area. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to single out mutually orthogonal pollution components which were then correlated to "pathology" factors arising from the analysis of dentistry activity indexes. The use of a multidimensional perspective allowed us to obtain a statistically significant model of the link between level of pollution and dentistry activity. In particular, the correlation approach linking pollution results to pathological variables allows us to establish a causative link even in the presence of sub-threshold concentrations of pollutants.

  4. Gaseous air pollution and emergency hospital visits for hypertension in Beijing, China: a time-stratified case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming; Tong, Shilu; Li, Shanshan; Barnett, Adrian G; Yu, Weiwei; Zhang, Yanshen; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2010-10-05

    A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to research the adverse effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between gaseous air pollution and morbidity for hypertension. Daily data on emergency hospital visits (EHVs) for hypertension were collected from the Peking University Third Hospital. Daily data on gaseous air pollutants (sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) were collected from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center. A time-stratified case-crossover design was conducted to evaluate the relationship between urban gaseous air pollution and EHVs for hypertension. Temperature and relative humidity were controlled for. In the single air pollutant models, a 10 μg/m3 increase in SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with EHVs for hypertension. The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.037 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.004-1.071) for SO2 at lag 0 day, and 1.101 (95% CI: 1.038-1.168) for NO2 at lag 3 day. After controlling for PM10, the ORs associated with SO2 and NO2 were 1.025 (95% CI: 0.987-1.065) and 1.114 (95% CI: 1.037-1.195), respectively. Elevated urban gaseous air pollution was associated with increased EHVs for hypertension in Beijing, China.

  5. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    López-Cima, María Felicitas; García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Tardón, Adonina; Pollán, Marina

    2011-01-25

    Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.

  6. Lung cancer risk and pollution in an industrial region of Northern Spain: a hospital-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias. Methods This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation. Results Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure. Conclusions This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:21266041

  7. The influence of power and actor relations on priority setting and resource allocation practices at the hospital level in Kenya: a case study.

    PubMed

    Barasa, Edwine W; Cleary, Susan; English, Mike; Molyneux, Sassy

    2016-09-30

    Priority setting and resource allocation in healthcare organizations often involves the balancing of competing interests and values in the context of hierarchical and politically complex settings with multiple interacting actor relationships. Despite this, few studies have examined the influence of actor and power dynamics on priority setting practices in healthcare organizations. This paper examines the influence of power relations among different actors on the implementation of priority setting and resource allocation processes in public hospitals in Kenya. We used a qualitative case study approach to examine priority setting and resource allocation practices in two public hospitals in coastal Kenya. We collected data by a combination of in-depth interviews of national level policy makers, hospital managers, and frontline practitioners in the case study hospitals (n = 72), review of documents such as hospital plans and budgets, minutes of meetings and accounting records, and non-participant observations in case study hospitals over a period of 7 months. We applied a combination of two frameworks, Norman Long's actor interface analysis and VeneKlasen and Miller's expressions of power framework to examine and interpret our findings RESULTS: The interactions of actors in the case study hospitals resulted in socially constructed interfaces between: 1) senior managers and middle level managers 2) non-clinical managers and clinicians, and 3) hospital managers and the community. Power imbalances resulted in the exclusion of middle level managers (in one of the hospitals) and clinicians and the community (in both hospitals) from decision making processes. This resulted in, amongst others, perceptions of unfairness, and reduced motivation in hospital staff. It also puts to question the legitimacy of priority setting processes in these hospitals. Designing hospital decision making structures to strengthen participation and inclusion of relevant stakeholders could

  8. Hospital Recorded Morbidity and Breast Cancer Incidence: A Nationwide Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Garne, Jens Peter; Nyström, Petra Mariann Witt; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Tarp, Maja; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chronic diseases and their complications may increase breast cancer risk through known or still unknown mechanisms, or by shared causes. The association between morbidities and breast cancer risk has not been studied in depth. Methods Data on all Danish women aged 45 to 85 years, diagnosed with breast cancer between 1994 and 2008 and data on preceding morbidities were retrieved from nationwide medical registries. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression associating the Charlson comorbidity score (measured using both the original and an updated Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)) with incident breast cancer. Furthermore, we estimated associations between 202 morbidity categories and incident breast cancer, adjusting for multiple comparisons using empirical Bayes (EB) methods. Results The study included 46,324 cases and 463,240 population controls. Increasing CCI score, up to a score of six, was associated with slightly increased breast cancer risk. Among the Charlson diseases, preceding moderate to severe renal disease (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48), any tumor (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.25), moderate to severe liver disease (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.62), and metastatic solid tumors (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.89), were most strongly associated with subsequent breast cancer. Preceding myocardial infarction (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), connective tissue disease (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.94), and ulcer disease (OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.99) were most strongly inversely associated with subsequent breast cancer. A history of breast disorders was associated with breast cancer after EB adjustment. Anemias were inversely associated with breast cancer, but the association was near null after EB adjustment. Conclusions There was no substantial association between morbidity measured with the CCI and breast cancer risk. PMID:23094045

  9. Optimal Decision Model for Sustainable Hospital Building Renovation—A Case Study of a Vacant School Building Converting into a Community Public Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Yi-Kai; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Perng, Yeng-Horng; Castro-Lacouture, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hospitals environments since modern pandemics have emerged. The building sector is considered to be the largest world energy consumer, so many global organizations are attempting to create a sustainable environment in building construction by reducing energy consumption. Therefore, maintaining high standards of hygiene while reducing energy consumption has become a major task for hospitals. This study develops a decision model based on genetic algorithms and A* graph search algorithms to evaluate existing hospital environmental conditions and to recommend an optimal scheme of sustainable renovation strategies, considering trade-offs among minimal renovation cost, maximum quality improvement, and low environmental impact. Reusing vacant buildings is a global and sustainable trend. In Taiwan, for example, more and more school space will be unoccupied due to a rapidly declining birth rate. Integrating medical care with local community elder-care efforts becomes important because of the aging population. This research introduces a model that converts a simulated vacant school building into a community public hospital renovation project in order to validate the solutions made by hospital managers and suggested by the system. The result reveals that the system performs well and its solutions are more successful than the actions undertaken by decision-makers. This system can improve traditional hospital building condition assessment while making it more effective and efficient. PMID:27347986

  10. Optimal Decision Model for Sustainable Hospital Building Renovation-A Case Study of a Vacant School Building Converting into a Community Public Hospital.

    PubMed

    Juan, Yi-Kai; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Perng, Yeng-Horng; Castro-Lacouture, Daniel

    2016-06-24

    Much attention has been paid to hospitals environments since modern pandemics have emerged. The building sector is considered to be the largest world energy consumer, so many global organizations are attempting to create a sustainable environment in building construction by reducing energy consumption. Therefore, maintaining high standards of hygiene while reducing energy consumption has become a major task for hospitals. This study develops a decision model based on genetic algorithms and A* graph search algorithms to evaluate existing hospital environmental conditions and to recommend an optimal scheme of sustainable renovation strategies, considering trade-offs among minimal renovation cost, maximum quality improvement, and low environmental impact. Reusing vacant buildings is a global and sustainable trend. In Taiwan, for example, more and more school space will be unoccupied due to a rapidly declining birth rate. Integrating medical care with local community elder-care efforts becomes important because of the aging population. This research introduces a model that converts a simulated vacant school building into a community public hospital renovation project in order to validate the solutions made by hospital managers and suggested by the system. The result reveals that the system performs well and its solutions are more successful than the actions undertaken by decision-makers. This system can improve traditional hospital building condition assessment while making it more effective and efficient.

  11. Role of mobile phones in motor vehicle crashes resulting in hospital attendance: a case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Suzanne P; Stevenson, Mark R; McCartt, Anne T; Woodward, Mark; Haworth, Claire; Palamara, Peter; Cercarelli, Rina

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To explore the effect of drivers' use of mobile (cell) phones on road safety. Design A case-crossover study. Setting Perth, Western Australia. Participants 456 drivers aged ≥ 17 years who owned or used mobile phones and had been involved in road crashes necessitating hospital attendance between April 2002 and July 2004. Main outcome measure Driver's use of mobile phone at estimated time of crash and on trips at the same time of day in the week before the crash. Interviews with drivers in hospital and phone company's records of phone use. Results Driver's use of a mobile phone up to 10 minutes before a crash was associated with a fourfold increased likelihood of crashing (odds ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 2.2 to 7.7, P < 0.001). Risk was raised irrespective of whether or not a hands-free device was used (hands-free: 3.8, 1.8 to 8.0, P < 0.001; hand held: 4.9, 1.6 to 15.5, P = 0.003). Increased risk was similar in men and women and in drivers aged ≥ 30 and < 30 years. A third (n = 21) of calls before crashes and on trips during the previous week were reportedly on hand held phones. Conclusions When drivers use a mobile phone there is an increased likelihood of a crash resulting in injury. Using a hands-free phone is not any safer. PMID:16012176

  12. Nurses' orientation toward lifelong learning: a case study of Uganda's national hospital.

    PubMed

    Muliira, Joshua Kanaabi; Etyang, Charles; Muliira, Rhoda Suubi; Kizza, Irene Betty

    2012-02-01

    The quality of nursing care in developing countries is poor, and attempts to improve it through continuing education programs are under way. Nurses' orientation toward lifelong learning has not been explored, despite its potential effect on the success of such programs. The Jefferson Scale of Physician Lifelong Learning (JSPLL) was used to measure orientation toward lifelong learning among 200 nurses at Uganda's national hospital. Most participants had fair orientation (52%) toward lifelong learning (JSPLL mean score = 36.8 [SD = 7.2]) and rated their skills in self-directed learning as good or excellent (44%). Reported barriers to lifelong learning included patient workload, lack of mentors, lack of library resources, and lack of computer skills. Nurses' orientation toward lifelong learning was significantly associated with professional experience (p ≤ .05), age (p ≤ .05), and education level (p ≤ .01). In Uganda, nurses' orientation toward lifelong learning remains low, and this has implications for successful implementation of continuing education programs for nurses. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. [Therapy of multiple myeloma. Study of hospital patients: 81 cases in 16 years' observation].

    PubMed

    Monti, G; Cereda, U G; Pessina, E; De Micheli, N; Grisetti, G C; Invernizzi, F

    1983-02-11

    The results achieved with different approaches of chemotherapy protocols applied to 81 patients affected by multiple mieloma and followed up for a duration of 16 years in the geographical area pertaining to the Saronno County Hospital are presented. All the patients are divided into sub-groups, according to the type of treatment they required while being monitored over the years. Each single sub-group is evaluated according to the following criteria: objective response to therapy; median survival rates; toxic effects due to drug exposure. The results are analyzed with reference to the most relevant literature on the matter. A comprehensive retrospective review of emerging data suggests an overlapping median survival--30 and 31 months--in patients given monochemotherapy as such as in those given polychemotherapy. Evidence is also made for a clearly meaningful increase of survival in treated patients compared with that of untreated ones. Median survival depends significantly on the initial stage of the disease. Both therapeutical effectiveness and toxicity are shown to be higher, in accordance with the current literature, in polychemotherapy which include vincristine--especially when a large tumor cell mass is pointed out--compared with therapy based on alkilating agents and prednisone.

  14. Vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza hospitalizations in Navarre, Spain, 2010-2011: cohort and case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Jesús; Martínez-Artola, Víctor; Salcedo, Esther; Martínez-Baz, Iván; Cenoz, Manuel García; Guevara, Marcela; Alvarez, Nerea; Irisarri, Fátima; Morán, Julio; Barricarte, Aurelio

    2012-01-05

    We evaluated the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing hospitalizations. Using healthcare databases we defined the target population for vaccination in Navarre, Spain, consisting of 217,320 people with major chronic conditions or aged 60 years and older. All hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) were swabbed for influenza testing. A total of 269 patients with ILI were hospitalized and 61 of them were found positive for influenza virus: 58 for A(H1N1)2009 and 3 for B virus. The incidence rates of hospitalization with laboratory-confirmed influenza were compared by vaccination status. In the Cox regression model adjusted for sex, age, children in the household, urban/rural residence, comorbidity, pandemic vaccination, pneumococcal vaccination, outpatient visits and hospitalization in the previous year, the seasonal vaccine effectiveness was 58% (95% CI: 16-79%). The nested test-negative case-control analysis gave an adjusted estimate of 59% (95% CI: 4-83%). These results suggest a moderate effect of the 2010-2011 seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing hospitalization in a risk population. The close estimates obtained in the cohort and the test-negative case-control analyses suggest good control of biases.

  15. Low birth weight at term and its determinants in a tertiary hospital of Nepal: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sudesh Raj; Giri, Smith; Timalsina, Utsav; Bhandari, Sanjiv Sudarshan; Basyal, Bikash; Wagle, Kusum; Shrestha, Laxman

    2015-01-01

    Birth weight of a child is an important indicator of its vulnerability for childhood illness and chances of survival. A large number of infant deaths can be averted by appropriate management of low birth weight babies and prevention of factors associated with low birth weight. The prevalence of low birth weight babies in Nepal is estimated to be about 12-32%.Our study aimed at identifying major determinants of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal. A hospital-based retrospective case control study was conducted in maternity ward of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from February to July 2011. A total of 155 LBW babies and 310 controls were included in the study. Mothers admitted to maternity ward during the study period were interviewed, medical records were assessed and anthropometric measurements were done. Risk factors, broadly classified into proximal and distal factors, were assessed for any association with birth of low-birth weight babies. Regression analysis revealed that a history of premature delivery (adjusted odds ratio; aOR5.24, CI 1.05-26.28), hard physical work during pregnancy (aOR1.48, CI 0.97-2.26), younger age of mother (aOR1.98, CI 1.15-3.41), mothers with haemoglobin level less than 11gm/dl (aOR0.51, CI0.24-1.07) and lack of consumption of nutritious food during pregnancy (aOR1.99, CI 1.28-3.10) were significantly associated with the birth of LBW babies. These factors should be addressed with appropriate measures so as to decrease the prevalence of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal.

  16. [Risk factors of influenza (H1N1) 2009 hospitalization and effectiveness of pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical interventions in its prevention: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Angela; Alonso, Jordi; Astray, Jenaro; Baricot, Maretva; Cantón, Rafael; Castilla, Jesús; Castro, Ady; Delgado, Miguel; Godoy, Pere; González-Candelas, Fernando; Martín, Vicente; Mayoral, José María; Quintana, José María; Perea, Emilio; Pumarola, Tomás; Soldevila, Nuria; Tamames, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Potentially useful pharmaceutical measures to limit the impact of pandemic influenza in the community include antiviral drugs (neuraminidase inhibitors) and the influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, as influenza predisposes to bacterial pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Non-pharmaceutical measures include hand washing and respiratory hygiene. Due to the lack of knowledge of the effectiveness of these measures in a pandemic situation, in September 2009, CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública presented a multicenter case-control study, with controls matched for age, hospital and date of hospitalization, to investigate these aspects in 37 hospitals in 7 Spanish autonomous communities, in response to the call for research projects by the Ministry of Science and Innovation Research Program on Influenza A (H1N1) in Spain. For each confirmed hospitalized case of pandemic influenza, 1 confirmed outpatient case and 3 controls (2 hospitalized and 1 outpatient) were selected. Demographic variables, underlying medical conditions, use of antiviral agents, vaccines received and hygiene habits were collected for all cases and controls. In hospitalized cases, information on antiviral therapy and disease progression was collected. A total of 3750 patients were recruited by October 2010. Data cleansing and the recovery of variables is now underway. The involvement of the Public Health Directorate has been instrumental in adapting the project to the evolution of the pandemic.

  17. Beta-blocker use and risk of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias: a hospital-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hou Tee; Kam, Jiyen; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Khelae, Surinder Kaur; Wang, Jing Mein; Choy, Chun Ngok; Lee, Chuey Yan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in relation to β-blockers use. Methods A hospital-based case-control study [228 patients: 108 with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias (cases) and 120 controls] was conducted in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Malaysia between January 2011 and January 2014. Results The mean age was 61.1 ± 13.3 years with a majority of men (68.9%). Cases were likely than control to be older, hypertensive, lower body mass index and concomitant use of rate-controlling drugs (such as digoxin, verapamil, diltiazem, ivabradine or amiodarone). Significantly higher level of serum potassium, urea, creatinine and lower level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were observed among cases as compared to controls. On univariate analysis among patients on β-blockers, older age (crude OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03–1.11, P = 0.000), hypertension (crude OR: 5.6; 95% CI: 1.51–20.72, P = 0.010), lower sodium (crude OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.81–0.99, P = 0.036), higher potassium (crude OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.31–4.26, P = 0.004) and higher urea (crude OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11–1.38, P = 0.000) were associated with increased risk of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias; eGFR was inversely and significantly associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in both ‘β-blockers’ (crude OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96–0.98, P = 0.000) and ‘non-β-blockers’ (crude OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97–0.99, P = 0.023) arms. However, eGFR was not significantly associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the final model of both ‘β-blockers’ (adjusted OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96–0.98, P = 0.103) and ‘non-β-blockers’ (adjusted OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97–1.01, P = 0.328) arms. Importantly, older age was a significant predictor of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the ‘β-blockers’ as compared to the ‘non-β-blockers’ arms (adjusted OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03–1.15, P = 0.003 vs. adjusted OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.98–1.09, P = 0.232, respectively). Conclusion Older

  18. Beta-blocker use and risk of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hou Tee; Kam, Jiyen; Nordin, Rusli Bin; Khelae, Surinder Kaur; Wang, Jing Mein; Choy, Chun Ngok; Lee, Chuey Yan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the risk factors of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in relation to β-blockers use. A hospital-based case-control study [228 patients: 108 with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias (cases) and 120 controls] was conducted in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Malaysia between January 2011 and January 2014. The mean age was 61.1 ± 13.3 years with a majority of men (68.9%). Cases were likely than control to be older, hypertensive, lower body mass index and concomitant use of rate-controlling drugs (such as digoxin, verapamil, diltiazem, ivabradine or amiodarone). Significantly higher level of serum potassium, urea, creatinine and lower level of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were observed among cases as compared to controls. On univariate analysis among patients on β-blockers, older age (crude OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03-1.11, P = 0.000), hypertension (crude OR: 5.6; 95% CI: 1.51-20.72, P = 0.010), lower sodium (crude OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.81-0.99, P = 0.036), higher potassium (crude OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.31-4.26, P = 0.004) and higher urea (crude OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11-1.38, P = 0.000) were associated with increased risk of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias; eGFR was inversely and significantly associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in both 'β-blockers' (crude OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96-0.98, P = 0.000) and 'non-β-blockers' (crude OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99, P = 0.023) arms. However, eGFR was not significantly associated with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the final model of both 'β-blockers' (adjusted OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-0.98, P = 0.103) and 'non-β-blockers' (adjusted OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97-1.01, P = 0.328) arms. Importantly, older age was a significant predictor of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in the 'β-blockers' as compared to the 'non-β-blockers' arms (adjusted OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03-1.15, P = 0.003 vs. adjusted OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.98-1.09, P = 0.232, respectively). Older age was a significant predictor of symptomatic bradyarrhythmias in patients on

  19. Associations between Dietary Allium Vegetables and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Hospital-Based Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pourzand, Ali; Tajaddini, Aynaz; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Samadi, Nasser; Ostadrahimi, Ali-Reza; Sanaat, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The protective effect of Allium vegetables against carcinogenesis has been reported in experimental studies particularly focusing on the gut. Therefore, we conducted a hospital-based matched case-control study to explore the association between dietary Allium consumption and risk of breast cancer among Iranian women in northwest Iran. Methods A validated, quantitative, food frequency questionnaire was completed in 285 women (aged 25–65 years old) newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed breast cancer (grade II, III or clinical stage II, III) in Tabriz, northwest Iran, and the completed questionnaires were included in an age- and regional-matched hospital based-control study. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models. Results Multivariate analysis showed that there was a negative association between the consumption of raw onion and risk of breast cancer after adjustment for covariates (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40–1.00); however, this association was insignificant. On the other hand, there was a positive association between consumption of cooked onion and risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for covariates (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.02–2.32). However, reduced risk of breast cancer was associated with higher consumption of garlic and leek with adjusted ORs of 0.41 (95% CI, 0.20–0.83) and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15–0.51), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that high consumption of certain Allium vegetables, in particular garlic and leek, may reduce the risk of breast cancer, while high consumption of cooked onion may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27721879

  20. RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS FOR GASTRIC METAPLASIA AND CANCER: A HOSPITAL-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY IN ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Iván; Mercado, Andrés; Bravo, Gabriela Liliana; Baldeón, Manuel; Fornasini, Marco

    2015-09-01

    worldwide, stomach cancer is the fifth most frequent cancer, with 952 000 new cases diagnosed in 2012. Ecuador currently holds the 15th place of countries with the highest incidence of stomach cancer for both sexes. the objective of this study was to evaluate risk and protective factors for gastric cancer/metaplasia. a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Quito, Ecuador. Cases were defined as patients with histological confirmation of gastric cancer (N = 60) or incomplete gastric metaplasia (N = 53). Controls were defined as patients free of gastric cancer or premalignant lesions (N = 144). All participants were personally interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect data about dietary habits, lifestyle and medical history. risk factors significantly associated to the presence of gastric cancer/metaplasia were the consumption of reheated foods at least 3 times per week (AOR: 4.57; CI: 2.2 - 9.5) and adding salt to more than 50% of foods (AOR: 1.32; CI: 1.04 - 1.67). Protective factors for gastric cancer/metaplasia were the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (AOR: 0.39; CI 0.19 - 0.83), age less than 58 years old (AOR: 0.38; CI: 0.18 - 0.79) and have received treatment for H. Pylori infection (AOR: 0.33; CI: 0.16 - 0.71). this study reports for the first time, the risk and protective factors associated with gastric cancer and metaplasia in Ecuador. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. A case study of technology transfer: Rehabilitative engineering at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital. [prosthetic devices engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildred, W.

    1973-01-01

    The transfer of NASA technolgy to rehabilitative applications of artificial limbs is studied. Human factors engineering activities range from orthotic manipulators to tiny dc motors and transducers to detect and transmit voluntary control signals. It is found that bicarbon implant devices are suitable for medical equipment and artificial limbs because of their biological compatibility with human body fluids and tissues.

  2. Cost-utility of burns management in Nigeria: a case study of the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu.

    PubMed

    Okafor, C E; Onunka, O; Idoko, L N

    2017-03-31

    A major problem of burns is the high cost of management, as well as the discrimination and disability they can cause to patients. Maximising resource utilisation is of key importance for lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) like Nigeria. There is a need to know if Nigerian patients who were victims of burns get the best value for money. This study aimed to evaluate the average cost of managing burns in Nigeria, and determine if the treatment approach is cost-effective. The study was a cost-utility analysis from the perspective of health service providers in Nigeria, a case study of the National Orthopaedic Hospital Enugu (NOHE) using 2013 Microsoft excel. Data on the cost of burn management were obtained from a retrospective study conducted in NOHE in 2012 on 285 patients. Costs were adjusted to reflect the future (2015) value using a real interest rate of 3%. These costs were presented in 2015 US dollars, and a discount rate of 3% was used for both cost and outcome. Health outcome was presented in disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Based on a cost-effectiveness threshold of $2,758.4 (i.e. representing Nigerian GDP/capita), burn management is cost-effective in Nigeria ($526.68/DALY averted). The result also showed that the cost of managing burns in Nigeria is $7,123.28 per patient, which is more than the average income. Burn management in Nigeria is cost-effective but too expensive for most Nigerians to afford.

  3. Association of Hepatitis C Virus Infection with Type II Diabetes in Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Solomon; Abera, Solomon; Mihret, Adane; Abebe, Tamrat

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become the global “epidemic” with an estimated 123 million people currently infected worldwide. As the same time diabetes is also rapidly emerging as a global health care problem that threatens to reach pandemic levels by 2030. Objective. To investigate the magnitude of HCV infection in type II diabetes as compared to controls. Methodology. A case control study design was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from May to June 2010. A total of 604 study subjects were included in this study. Sociodemographic and risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. From serum sample, HCVAb screening was done by rapid antibody screening test. Liver functioning tests and total cholesterol tests were done by Dr. Lange LP 800 spectrophotometer. Results. The prevalence of HCV in type II diabetes and nondiabetic controls was 9.9% and 3.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, HCV seropositives have high risk of developing diabetes as compared with seronegatives (AOR = 2.997, 95% CI: (1.08, 8.315)). Conclusion. In this study, we found a positive association between past HCV infection and type II diabetes. As we did not perform HCV RNA test, we could not assess the association with HCV viremia. PMID:23049551

  4. Is the corporate transformation of hospitals creating a new hybrid health care space? A case study of the impact of co-location of public and private hospitals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laurie; Barnett, J Ross

    2004-01-01

    A common feature of health reforms in western nations has been the transformation or (re)construction of health and health care as both a commodity and product. In the hospital sector, this transformation has become increasingly evident in the growth of for-profit involvement in service delivery. Investor-owned hospitals are now prominent providers of hospital care in Australia. This paper examines the changing nature of health care space through the changing portrayal and meaning of hospitals as represented by and encoded in the built environment. Public hospitals once occupied 'pride of place'. In contrast, up to the early 1980s, the private sector was seen as a cottage industry. However, increased levels of state subsidisation and government incentives and pro-market policies, combined with market-based opportunities for profit generation, have seen the emergence of large private hospital chains with a new corporate image to hospital care and the blurring of 'public' and 'private'. A significant factor in the reconstruction of hospital space in Australia has been the co-location of private and public hospitals. Co-location is a popular strategy proffered by State governments and one that has been quickly acted on by corporate providers. Using Mayne Health Ltd, Australia's largest for-profit hospital chain, and four specific case studies, this paper explores four variants of co-location. Each of these examples represent a different public and private hospital space. The growth of for-profit hospital chains signifies a new phase in the delivery of health care in Australia but also importantly the creation of a new hybridised 'health care' space. This space is neither private nor public but a reflection of the economic, political and social processes underlying this transformation.

  5. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Moorman, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices). Results In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million) on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million). The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467) and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874), thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion Hospital managers and

  6. Network security vulnerabilities and personal privacy issues in Healthcare Information Systems: a case study in a private hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Namoğlu, Nihan; Ulgen, Yekta

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare industry has become widely dependent on information technology and internet as it moves from paper to electronic records. Healthcare Information System has to provide a high quality service to patients and a productive knowledge share between healthcare staff by means of patient data. With the internet being commonly used across hospitals, healthcare industry got its own share from cyber threats like other industries in the world. The challenge is allowing knowledge transfer to hospital staff while still ensuring compliance with security mandates. Working in collaboration with a private hospital in Turkey; this study aims to reveal the essential elements of a 21st century business continuity plan for hospitals while presenting the security vulnerabilities in the current hospital information systems and personal privacy auditing standards proposed by regulations and laws. We will survey the accreditation criteria in Turkey and counterparts in US and EU. We will also interview with medical staff in the hospital to understand the needs for personal privacy and the technical staff to perceive the technical requirements in terms of network security configuration and deployment. As hospitals are adopting electronic transactions, it should be considered a must to protect these electronic health records in terms of personal privacy aspects.

  7. HIV infection, hypercoagulability and ischaemic stroke in adults at the University Teaching Hospital in Zambia: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Zimba, Stanley; Ntanda, Patrice Mukomena; Lakhi, Shabir; Atadzhanov, Masharip

    2017-05-18

    In Zambia, 14.2% of adults have HIV/AIDS. There has been a substantial and significant increase in patients hospitalized for ischaemic stroke with co-existing HIV infection. However, little is known about the mechanism of stroke in these HIV + ve patients let alone studied in our region. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the association of hypercoagulability state in HIV + ve patients with ischaemic stroke. This was achieved by comparing hypercoagulability state markers between HIV + ve ischaemic stroke patients with HIV-ve and HIV + ve patients with and without ischaemic stroke respectively. A matched case control study in which a total of 52 HIV + ve patients with ischaemic stroke were prospectively compared with control groups for the presence of protein S, protein C deficiencies and hyperhomocysteinaemia. The control groups comprised an equal number of consecutively matched for age and sex HIV-ve and HIV + ve patients with and without ischaemic stroke respectively. Data was analysed in contingency tables using Paired t- test, Chi square and conditional logistic regression. Ischaemic stroke of undetermined aetiology occurred more frequently in HIV + ve compared to HIV-ve patients (p < 0.001). In addition, protein S deficiency and Hyperhomocysteinaemia were more prominent in HIV + ve than HIV-ve ischaemic stroke patients (P = 0.011). There was no difference in the presence of hyperhomocysteinaemia or protein S deficiency in HIV + ve patients with or without ischaemic stroke. Protein C deficiency was not noted to be significantly different between the cases and the two control arms. Protein S deficiency and hyperhomocysteinaemia were associated with HIV infection, but not stroke in our study population. However, this is an area that requires extensive research and one that we cannot afford to ignore as it is an important bridge to all cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

  8. Risk of oral cancer associated with gutka and other tobacco products: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Sandeep; Kamath, Ramachandra; Shetty, Bharatesh K; Binu, V S

    2015-01-01

    Although tobacco deaths rarely make headlines, tobacco kills one person every six seconds. Tobacco kills a third to half of all people who use it, on average 15 years prematurely. To study the risk of oral cancer associated with gutka consumption and other tobacco products. (1) To find the association between gutka consumption and oral cancer. (2) To study the association between oral cancer and other tobacco products. A case-control study of 134 cases and 268 controls, over a period of 5 months, from March 2013 to July 2013, was carried out at the Kasturba medical hospital in Manipal, India. The participants were personally interviewed by the investigator using a structured questionnaire on consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient dip products, alcohol, dietary practices, oral hygiene practices and demographic status. Univariate logistic regression followed by multivariate logistic regression was done for identifying the risk factors and adjusted for the confounding variables. Analysis showed that gutka (<0.001, OR = 5.1 95% CI = 2.0-10.3), chewing tobacco (P < 0.001, OR = 6.0 95% CI = 2.3-15.7), supari (P < 0.001, OR = 11.4 95% CI = 3.4,38.2), betel quid (P < 0.001, OR = 6.4 95% CI = 2.6-15.5), bidi (P < 0.05, OR = 2.3 95% CI = 1.1-4.8) and alcohol (P < 0.001, OR = 3.7 95%CI = 1.8-7.5) had strong association with oral cancer upon adjustment. The study provided strong evidence that gutka, supari, chewing tobacco, betel quid, bidi and alcohol are independent risk factors for oral cancer.

  9. Appendectomy, tonsillectomy, and risk for sarcoidosis - A hospital-based case-control study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sawahata, Michiru; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Sugiyama, Yukihiko

    2017-05-01

    The role of surgery in the onset of sarcoidosis is unclear. We investigated whether surgery is an internal environmental factor for sarcoidosis onset within the Japanese population. We enrolled 222 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis (78 men, 144 women) who were admitted to our department between 1984 and 2012. We also enrolled 529 control subjects (251 men, 278 women), who were matched for sex, age at admission, and year of admission. Surgical history, family history, and smoking status were evaluated. Multivariate analysis correlated history of appendectomy (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.05-2.29) and tonsillectomy (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 0.91-8.56) with the occurrence of sarcoidosis; other surgical procedures had no correlation. In women, appendectomy had a stronger association with sarcoidosis (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.05-2.73), as opposed to that in men (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.68-2.85). This association was greater in women aged ≥45 years than in those aged <45 years. There was a stronger correlation between tonsillectomy and sarcoidosis in women (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 0.88-12.39), than in men (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.10-16.52). ORs for sarcoidosis were 5.55 (95% CI, 2.02-15.27) and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.52-1.84) in women aged ≥45 years with a history of appendectomy at <20 years and ≥20 years, respectively, with the former being statistically significant. Appendix and tonsil removal was associated with sarcoidosis onset, suggesting their potential protective role against sarcoidosis development. Further studies are needed to minimize possible confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Violence Perpetration Among Patients Hospitalized for Unintentional and Assault-Related Firearm Injury: A Case-Control Study and a Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Fan, Mary D; Simonetti, Joseph A; Lyons, Vivian H; Wang, Jin; Zatzick, Douglas; Rivara, Frederick P

    2016-12-20

    Hospital-based violence intervention programs typically focus on patients whose firearm injury occurred through interpersonal violence (assault). Knowledge of violence perpetration by victims of unintentional (accidental) firearm injury is limited. To examine violence perpetration before and after a patient becomes hospitalized for firearm injury according to injury intent (intentional [assault] or unintentional [accidental]). A case-control study and a retrospective cohort study. Hospitals in Washington. Persons aged 15 years or older hospitalized for a firearm injury, other injuries, or a noninjury reason from 2006 to 2007. In the case-control study, the odds of violence-related arrest from 2001 through hospitalization by injury intent among 3 groups were compared. In the cohort study, the rates of violence-related arrest from hospitalization through 2011 by injury intent among 3 groups were compared. Patients with unintentional firearm injuries (n = 180) were more likely than those with other unintentional injuries (n = 62 795; odds ratio [OR], 2.01 [95% CI, 1.31 to 3.09]) and no injuries (n = 172 830; OR, 3.43 [CI, 2.22 to 5.32]) to have been arrested for a violent crime before hospitalization. Prior violence-related arrest did not differ between patients with assault-related firearm injuries (n = 339) and those with other assault-related injuries (n = 2342; OR, 1.10 [CI, 0.84 to 1.46]). During follow-up, the cumulative incidence of violence-related arrest for patients with unintentional and assault-related firearm injuries was 10% and 15% (subhazard ratio, 1.88 [CI, 1.11 to 3.17] and 1.61 [CI, 1.08 to 2.44]), respectively, compared with 1% for those without injuries. Exclusion of self-inflicted injuries, misclassification of intent, and ascertainment bias. Some firearm injuries classified as accidental may indicate involvement in the cycle of violence and present an opportunity for intervention. City of Seattle and the University of Washington Royalty

  11. Legionella pneumonia cases over a five-year period: a descriptive, retrospective study of outcomes in a UK district hospital.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Tom; Rowell, Sam; Peel, Alex; Puli, Deeksha; Guleri, Achyut; Sharma, Rashmi

    2013-04-01

    As the recent outbreaks in Edinburgh and Camarthen, UK, have shown, Legionella pneumonia (LP) remains a significant public health problem, which is not only confined to those who have travelled abroad. In both outbreaks and sporadic cases, diagnosis can go unrecognised. We reviewed the demographics, comorbidities, diagnosis, treatment and clinical outcome of LP cases over five years in a district general hospital in northwest England. Over half of LP cases were UK acquired and 'classic' clinical features were common. Clinical criteria for diagnosing LP were confirmed, but few sputum samples were sent to reference laboratories, limiting further essential epidemiological mapping of UK cases. Following current UK community-acquired pneumonia guidance would have missed nearly one quarter of LP cases in our series, potentially leading to further morbidity and mortality.

  12. Hospital outpatients are satisfactory for case-control studies on cancer and diet in China: a comparison of population versus hospital controls.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the internal validity of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) developed for use in Chinese women and to compare habitual dietary intakes between population and hospital controls measured by the FFQ. A quantitative FFQ and a short food habit questionnaire (SFHQ) were developed and adapted for cancer and nutritional studies. Habitual dietary intakes were assessed in 814 Chinese women aged 18-81 years (407 outpatients and 407 population controls) by face-to-face interview using the FFQ in Shenyang, Northeast China in 2009-2010. The Goldberg formula (ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate, EI/BMR) was used to assess the validity of the FFQ. Correlation analyses compared the SFHQ variables with those of the quantitative FFQ. Differences in dietary intakes between hospital and population controls were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. The partial correlation coefficients were moderate to high (0.42 to 0.80; all p<0.05) for preserved food intake, fat consumption and tea drinking variables between the SFHQ and the FFQ. The average EI/BMR was 1.93 with 88.5% of subjects exceeding the Goldberg cut-off value of 1.35. Hospital controls were comparable to population controls in consumption of 17 measured food groups and mean daily intakes of energy and selected nutrients. The FFQ had reasonable validity to measure habitual dietary intakes of Chinese women. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group for food consumption and intakes of energy and nutrients measured by the FFQ in a Chinese hospital setting.

  13. Determination of Risk Factors for Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia in a Tertiary Hospital of India: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Bej, Punyatoya; Chhabra, Pragti; Sharma, Arun Kumar; Guleria, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia and eclampsia (PE) are pregnancy specific syndromes that contribute to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The identification of its predisposing factors in the pre-pregnancy and initial stage of pregnancy will help in reducing the morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors for PE among pregnant women in a tertiary level hospital. In this study, 122 women who delivered beyond 22 weeks of gestation and diagnosed as preeclampsia or eclampsia were selected. Simultaneously, 122 controls with no diagnosis of preeclampsia or eclampsia were selected from the post natal ward. Cases and controls were administered the same pre-tested questionnaire containing different risk factors. Logistic regression was applied in the statistical analysis. The factors that were found to be significant predictors of risk for development of PE were family history of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 18.57 [1.93-178.16], P = 0.011), higher calorie intake (adjusted OR 14.12 [6.41-43.23] body mass index (adjusted P < 0.001), employment (adjusted OR 6.35 [1.56-25.82] P = 0.010], less protein intake (adjusted OR 3.87 [1.97-8.01] P < 0.001), increased OR 5.86 [02.48-13.8] P < 0.001), mild physical activities (adjusted OR 3.46 [1.06-11.24] P = 0.039). Past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were also associated with development of PE.

  14. Effects of acupuncture during labor and delivery in a U.S. hospital setting: a case-control pilot study.

    PubMed

    Citkovitz, Claudia; Klimenko, Elena; Bolyai, Melani; Applewhite, Liat; Julliard, Kell; Weiner, Zeev

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess clinical effects and logistical feasibility of acupuncture given during labor and delivery in a U.S. hospital setting. A case-control pilot study was conducted with 45 parturients receiving acupuncture during labor and delivery alongside standard care. Primary outcome endpoints were incidence of cesarean section, amount of parenteral opioids used, use of epidural anesthesia, and duration of labor. Secondary endpoints included patient satisfaction and nursing staff acceptance as assessed by postpartum questionnaire, maximum flow rate of oxytocin, incidence of instrumental delivery, Apgar score, and incidence of adverse event. Forty-five (45) patients receiving acupuncture were compared to 127 historical controls matched for maternal age, gestational age, parity, and use of oxytocin (augmentation and induction were matched separately). Acupuncture patients underwent significantly fewer cesarean sections (7% versus 20%, p = 0.004). No significant differences were noted in other clinical endpoints. Seventy-eight percent (78%) of nurses reported a subjective perception of improvement in patients' comfort with acupuncture, while 83% reported that the acupuncturists' presence never interfered with their work. Eighty-seven percent (87%) of patients reported that acupuncture had helped them. Acupuncture during labor and delivery is well tolerated by patients and medical staff. It should be further evaluated for its promise in potentially reducing the incidence of cesarean section.

  15. Food groups and nutrient intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a hospital-based case-control study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Banqué, Marta; Raidó, Blanca; Masuet, Cristina; Ramon, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Although evidence supports that colorectal cancer (CRC) has an environmental etiology, the potential influence of diet appears to be one of the most important components. We studied the relation between food groups and nutrient intake and the risk of CRC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Spain between 2007 and 2009. The authors matched 245 patients with incident histologically confirmed CRC by age, gender, and date of admission with 490 controls. Information about nutrient intake was gathered by using a semiquantitative frequency food questionnaire. Univariate analysis was done with individual food items. Odds ratios (ORs) for consecutive tertiles of nutrient intake were computed after allowance for sociodemographic variables and consumption of food groups. Vitamin B6 (OR: 0.26), vitamin D (OR: 0.45), vitamin E (OR: 0.42), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR: 0.57), and fiber (OR: 0.40) were inversely associated with CRC, whereas carbohydrates (OR: 1.82) were significantly associated with CRC risk for the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis adjusting for major covariables (energy, age, and gender), vitamin D (OR:0.45), vitamin E (OR:0.36), and fiber (OR:0.46) remained associated with CRC. Data suggest that the etiology of colorectal cancer is not due to lifestyle and dietary patterns being important the effect of single nutrients.

  16. A case-control study of medium-term exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide pollution and hospitalization for stroke

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several plausible mechanisms whereby either short or long term exposure to pollution can increase the risk of stroke. Over the last decade, several studies have reported associations between short-term (day-to-day) increases in ambient air pollution and stroke. The findings from a smaller number of studies that have looked at long-term exposure to air pollution and stroke have been mixed. Most of these epidemiological studies have assigned exposure to air pollution based on place of residence, but these assignments are typically based on relatively coarse spatial resolutions. To date, few studies have evaluated medium-term exposures (i.e, exposures over the past season or year). To address this research gap, we evaluated associations between highly spatially resolved estimates of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker of traffic pollution, and emergency department visits for stroke in Edmonton, Canada. Methods This was a case-control study with cases defined as those who presented to an Edmonton area hospital emergency department between 2007 and 2009 with an acute ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, or transient ischemic attack. Controls were patients who presented to the same emergency departments for lacerations, sprains, or strains. A land-use regression model provided estimates of NO2 that were assigned to the place of residence. Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios for stroke in relation to an increase in the interquartile range of NO2 (5 ppb), adjusted for age, sex, meteorological variables, and neighborhood effects. Results The study included 4,696 stroke (cases) and 37,723 injury patients (controls). For all strokes combined, there was no association with NO2. Namely, the odds ratio associated with an interquartile increase in NO2 was 1.01 (95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.94-1.08). No associations were evident for any of the stroke subtypes examined. Conclusion When combined with our earlier work in

  17. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning. PMID:27433491

  18. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning.

  19. Cholera in children in Karachi from 1990 through 1995: a study of cases admitted to a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Nizami, S Q; Farooqui, B J

    1998-06-01

    Although cholera is an endemic disease in Bangladesh, India and other countries, it was never a significant cause of gastroenteritis in Pakistan before 1988. Since then, cases of cholera are identified each year, both in adults and children in Pakistan. In order to see the contribution of Vibrio cholerae as a cause of gastroenteritis in children, we reviewed the cases of cholera admitted in the pediatric ward of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Of 4346 children hospitalized with gastroenteritis during 1990 through 1995, 348 children (8%) were confirmed to have cholera. The youngest child with cholera was seven days old. The mean age was 31 +/- 34 months. The cases of cholera were received from all over the city. Most cases were due to Vibrio cholerae Ogawa biotype ELTOR but the new strain, i.e., Vibrio cholerae 0139 was isolated in 14% cases in 1994. The sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae has also changed. In 1994, the organisms were resistant to commonly recommended antibiotics, i.e., tetracycline, ampicillin and erythrocin but sensitive to ceftrioxone, cefixime, ofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Adequate measures to improve hygiene and sanitation and supply of safe potable water is needed to prevent any future epidemic of cholera in the city.

  20. Applying Task-Technology Fit Model to the Healthcare Sector: a Case Study of Hospitals' Computed Tomography Patient-Referral Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Shun; Yu, Chun-Jen; Chen, Gary Yu-Hsin

    2015-08-01

    With the growth in the number of elderly and people with chronic diseases, the number of hospital services will need to increase in the near future. With myriad of information technologies utilized daily and crucial information-sharing tasks performed at hospitals, understanding the relationship between task performance and information system has become a critical topic. This research explored the resource pooling of hospital management and considered a computed tomography (CT) patient-referral mechanism between two hospitals using the information system theory framework of Task-Technology Fit (TTF) model. The TTF model could be used to assess the 'match' between the task and technology characteristics. The patient-referral process involved an integrated information framework consisting of a hospital information system (HIS), radiology information system (RIS), and picture archiving and communication system (PACS). A formal interview was conducted with the director of the case image center on the applicable characteristics of TTF model. Next, the Icam DEFinition (IDEF0) method was utilized to depict the As-Is and To-Be models for CT patient-referral medical operational processes. Further, the study used the 'leagility' concept to remove non-value-added activities and increase the agility of hospitals. The results indicated that hospital information systems could support the CT patient-referral mechanism, increase hospital performance, reduce patient wait time, and enhance the quality of care for patients.

  1. A comparison of booked and unbooked mothers delivering at the Port Moresby General Hospital: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Failing, F; Ripa, P; Tefuarani, N; Vince, J

    2004-01-01

    A case-control study of unbooked mothers delivering at the maternity unit of the Port Moresby General Hospital was undertaken over a period of 7 months. 48 mothers who had no antenatal attendances during pregnancy were recruited with 96 booked controls. Reasons for non-attendance, understanding of the importance of antenatal clinics and socioeconomic and demographic factors were recorded to assess likely risk factors for non-attendance. Almost half the mothers cited financial difficulties as the reason for non-attendance at antenatal clinics despite most of them knowing that it was important to have antenatal care during pregnancy. The two most important risk factors for being unbooked were mothers having no education (p <0.001) and the type of employment of their spouse (p <0.01). Unbooked mothers were more likely to have preterm babies (OR 16.1; 95%CI 3.4-75.7) and all 6 perinatal deaths occurred in babies born to unbooked mothers. Remedial approaches would need to take into account maternal education, education of partners and the fact that despite free antenatal services in urban clinics financial difficulties in terms of other costs involved still remain an obstacle to overcome.

  2. [Clinical safety studies based on 30 026 post-marketing cases of Shenqi Fuzheng injection by intensive hospital monitoring nested NCCS].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-xin; Xie, Yan-ming; Ai, Qing-hua; Xu, Wen-fu

    2015-12-01

    This study adopted a large sample, multicenter, registered hospital centralized monitoring nested prospective case-control study design. From the real world clinical application of Shenqi Fuzheng injection, monitored 30 026 cases of patients with the use of Shenqi Fuzheng injection. A total of 51 adverse drug reaction (ADR) cases was monitored, including 1 case of severe adverse reactions. ADR incidence rate was 1.7 per 1,000. Blood samples were collected from patients with allergic reactions and their matched controls. Related biological indicators of allergic reactions were unified detected and analysed in order to explore the mechanism of allergic reaction and promote the clinical safety.

  3. Environmental risk factors for congenital heart disease in the Shandong Peninsula, China: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Junxiu; Tang, Ji; Ji, Jiafen; Chen, Jingwu; Liu, Changyun

    2009-01-01

    In China, and in Shandong province, the proportionate contribution of birth defects to infant mortality has increased, and congenital heart disease (CHD) is now the most common cause of birth defects. The cause of approximately 90% of cases of congenital heart disease is multifactorial. Little is known about modifiable environmental risk factors or regional differences. We investigated putative environmental risk factors for congenital heart disease in the Shandong province of China in order to improve prevention of CHD. We conducted a hospital-based 1:2 matched case-control study of 164 patients with congenital heart diseases and 328 controls, all of whom were retrospectively interviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify environmental risk factors for CHD. The environmental risk factors associated with CHD were mother's education level (odds ratio [OR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.67), neonatal asphyxia or hypoxia (OR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.25-11.18), number of previous pregnancies (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.44-4.97), maternal upper respiratory tract infection (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.56-10.85), maternal infection (OR, 7.98; 95% CI, 2.14-29.72), maternal B-mode ultrasound examination (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.48-11.08), and maternal mental stress (OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.94-7.94) during early pregnancy. No significant interactions were observed among these factors. Augmenting maternal mental healthcare, obtaining regular health counseling and testing during pregnancy, preventing upper respiratory tract infections, limiting medication during early pregnancy, offering health promotion and health education to women of childbearing age (especially those with less formal education), and improving obstetric procedures and techniques may lower the occurrence of congenital heart disease.

  4. Stifle Lameness in Cattle at Two Veterinary Teaching Hospitals: A Retrospective Study of Forty-two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ducharme, N. G.; Stanton, M. E.; Ducharme, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    Records of two veterinary teaching hospitals from January 1, 1976 to June 1, 1982 were searched for diagnoses of stifle lameness. Forty-two records were found and information was recorded regarding signalment, history and clinical presentation. The following abnormalities were associated with stifle lameness: subchondral bone cyst (18 cases), joint instability (15 cases), degenerative joint disease (12 cases), cranial cruciate ligament injury (9 cases), cytological or bacteriological evidence of sepsis (9 cases), collateral ligament injury (3 cases), femorotibial luxation (2 cases) and intra-articular fracture (2 cases). The duration of lameness presentation ranged from 0.3 to 24 weeks and the mean follow-up period was 20.47 ± 11.44 months (three animals were lost to follow-up). Animals (n = 15) with subchondral bone cysts as the sole association with lameness presented at an early age (range — 6 to 18 months) and apparently regardless of treatment, had a good prognosis as determined by 75% (three lost to follow-up) returning to their intended function. Cattle (n = 9) with septic arthritis were presented at an age ranging from two months to seven years and only 22.2% returned to function. Cattle (n = 15) with joint instability presented at an age varying from nine months to 13 years also did poorly as only 26.6% returned to function. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422551

  5. Cost-utility of burns management in Nigeria: a case study of the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, C.E.; Onunka, O.; Idoko, L.N.

    2017-01-01

    Summary A major problem of burns is the high cost of management, as well as the discrimination and disability they can cause to patients. Maximising resource utilisation is of key importance for lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) like Nigeria. There is a need to know if Nigerian patients who were victims of burns get the best value for money. This study aimed to evaluate the average cost of managing burns in Nigeria, and determine if the treatment approach is cost-effective. The study was a cost-utility analysis from the perspective of health service providers in Nigeria, a case study of the National Orthopaedic Hospital Enugu (NOHE) using 2013 Microsoft excel. Data on the cost of burn management were obtained from a retrospective study conducted in NOHE in 2012 on 285 patients. Costs were adjusted to reflect the future (2015) value using a real interest rate of 3%. These costs were presented in 2015 US dollars, and a discount rate of 3% was used for both cost and outcome. Health outcome was presented in disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Based on a cost-effectiveness threshold of $2,758.4 (i.e. representing Nigerian GDP/capita), burn management is cost-effective in Nigeria ($526.68/DALY averted). The result also showed that the cost of managing burns in Nigeria is $7,123.28 per patient, which is more than the average income. Burn management in Nigeria is cost-effective but too expensive for most Nigerians to afford. PMID:28592927

  6. Risk factors for low birth weight in Bale zone hospitals, South-East Ethiopia : a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Demelash, Habtamu; Motbainor, Achenif; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Melese, Addisu

    2015-10-13

    Low birth weight (LBW) is closely associated with foetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibite growth and cognitive development and resulted chronic diseases later in life. Many factors affect foetal growth and thus, the birth weight. These factors operate to various extents in different environments and cultures. The prevalence of low birth weight in the study area is the highest in the country. To the investigator's knowledge in Bale Zone, no study has yet been done to elucidate the risk factors for low birth weight using case control study design. This study was aimed to identify the risk factors of low birth weight in Bale zone hospitals. A case-control study design was applied from April 1st to August 30th, 2013. A total of 387 mothers (136 cases and 272 controls) were interviewed using structured and pretested questionnaire by trained data collectors working in delivery ward. For each case, two consecutive controls were included in the study. All cases and controls were mothers with singleton birth, full term babies, no diabetes mellitus and no hypertensive. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical package. The association between the independent variables and dependent variable (birth weight) was evaluated through bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. Maternal age at delivery <20 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-5.73), monthly income <26 United States Dollarr (USD) (AOR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.54-9.41), lack of formal education (AOR = 6; 95% CI = 1.34-26.90), being merchant (AOR = 0.1; 95%CI = 0.02-0.52) and residing in rural area (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.04-4.33) were socio-economic variables associated with low birth weight. Maternal risk factors like occurrence of health problems during pregnancy (AOR = 6.3; 95% CI = 2.75-14.48), maternal body mass index <18 kg/m2 (AOR = 6.7; 95% CI = 1.21-37.14), maternal height <1.5m (AOR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1

  7. Case-based hospital financing: the case of Norway.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, J; Solstad, K

    1994-03-01

    Several European countries are experimenting with new ways of organising and financing the hospital sector. This paper discusses the present Norwegian reform, where a system of fixed grants is replaced by a combination of payment per case and fixed grants. Initially implemented in four hospitals only, the decision to move to a full-scale reform will be based on the evaluation of this pilot project. The paper presents two alternative hypotheses on how a system with case-based financing will influence the performance of hospitals. Given that hospitals adjust passively to the constraints imposed by the financing system, increased efficiency is to be expected. If hospitals and hospital owners (i.e. the counties) interact in a game dominated by the hospital, however, the efficiency of the hospital will not be influenced by the financing system. We argue that the design of the pilot project limits the possibility of discriminating between these two hypotheses. Nevertheless, a comparison of key variables in the pilot hospitals with a set of reference hospitals indicates that the change of financing system has not had any substantial effect on hospital efficiency. Thus we are inclined to believe that hospitals in fact are able to set the level of efficiency independent of whether they are financed by fixed grants or a payment per case.

  8. Is opium a real risk factor for esophageal cancer or just a methodological artifact? Hospital and neighborhood controls in case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Nouraie, Mehdi; Khademi, Hooman; Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Marjani, Hajiamin; Fahimi, Saman; Sepehr, Alireza; Rahmati, Atieh; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Control selection is a major challenge in epidemiologic case-control studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate using hospital versus neighborhood control groups in studying risk factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We compared the results of two different case-control studies of ESCC conducted in the same region by a single research group. Case definition and enrollment were the same in the two studies, but control selection differed. In the first study, we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from inpatient subjects in hospitals, while for the second we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from each subject's neighborhood of residence. We used the test of heterogeneity to compare the results of the two studies. We found no significant differences in exposure data for tobacco-related variables such as cigarette smoking, chewing Nass (a tobacco product) and hookah (water pipe) usage, but the frequency of opium usage was significantly different between hospital and neighborhood controls. Consequently, the inference drawn for the association between ESCC and tobacco use did not differ between the studies, but it did for opium use. In the study using neighborhood controls, opium use was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.68), while in the study using hospital controls, this was not the case (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.63-1.87). Comparing the prevalence of opium consumption in the two control groups and a cohort enrolled from the same geographic area suggested that the neighborhood controls were more representative of the study base population for this exposure. Hospital and neighborhood controls did not lead us to the same conclusion for a major hypothesized risk factor for ESCC in this population. Our results show that control group selection is critical in drawing appropriate conclusions in observational studies.

  9. Is Opium a Real Risk Factor for Esophageal Cancer or Just a Methodological Artifact? Hospital and Neighborhood Controls in Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Nouraie, Mehdi; Khademi, Hooman; Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Marjani, Hajiamin; Fahimi, Saman; Sepehr, Alireza; Rahmati, Atieh; Abnet, Christian C.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Control selection is a major challenge in epidemiologic case-control studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate using hospital versus neighborhood control groups in studying risk factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the results of two different case-control studies of ESCC conducted in the same region by a single research group. Case definition and enrollment were the same in the two studies, but control selection differed. In the first study, we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from inpatient subjects in hospitals, while for the second we selected two age- and sex-matched controls from each subject's neighborhood of residence. We used the test of heterogeneity to compare the results of the two studies. We found no significant differences in exposure data for tobacco-related variables such as cigarette smoking, chewing Nass (a tobacco product) and hookah (water pipe) usage, but the frequency of opium usage was significantly different between hospital and neighborhood controls. Consequently, the inference drawn for the association between ESCC and tobacco use did not differ between the studies, but it did for opium use. In the study using neighborhood controls, opium use was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESCC (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17–2.68), while in the study using hospital controls, this was not the case (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.63–1.87). Comparing the prevalence of opium consumption in the two control groups and a cohort enrolled from the same geographic area suggested that the neighborhood controls were more representative of the study base population for this exposure. Conclusions/Significance Hospital and neighborhood controls did not lead us to the same conclusion for a major hypothesized risk factor for ESCC in this population. Our results show that control group selection is critical in drawing appropriate conclusions in observational studies. PMID

  10. The impact of airborne particulate matter on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia among children in Jinan, China: A case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chenguang; Wang, Xianfeng; Pang, Na; Wang, Lanzhong; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Tengfei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tianran; Li, Wei

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of short-term changes in the concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10) on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. It explores confoundings factors of weather, season, and chemical pollutants. Information on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in 2014 was extracted from the database of Jinan Qilu Hospital. The relative risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was assessed using a case-crossover approach, controlling weather variables, day of the week, and seasonality. The single-pollutant model demonstrated that increased risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was significantly associated with elevated PM2.5 concentrations the day before hospital admission and elevated PM10 concentrations 2 days before hospital admission. An increment of 10 μg/m(3) in PM2.5 and PM10 was correlated with a 6% (95% CI 1.02--1.10) and 4% (95% CI 1.00-1.08) rise in number of admissions for pneumonia, respectively. In two pollutant models, PM2.5 and PM10 remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide but not carbon monoxide. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China, and suggested the relevance of pollutant exposure levels and their effects. As a specific group, children are sensitive to airborne particulate matter. This study estimated the short-term effects attribute to other air pollutants to provide references for relevant studies.

  11. Forest Fire Smoke Exposures and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests in Melbourne, Australia: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Straney, Lahn D.; Erbas, Bircan; Abramson, Michael J.; Keywood, Melita; Smith, Karen; Sim, Malcolm R.; Glass, Deborah C.; Del Monaco, Anthony; Haikerwal, Anjali; Tonkin, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Millions of people can potentially be exposed to smoke from forest fires, making this an important public health problem in many countries. Objective In this study we aimed to measure the association between out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and forest fire smoke exposures in a large city during a severe forest fire season, and estimate the number of excess OHCAs due to the fire smoke. Methods We investigated the association between particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants and OHCA using a case-crossover study of adults (≥ 35 years of age) in Melbourne, Australia. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive estimates of the percent change in the rate of OHCA associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure. From July 2006 through June 2007, OHCA data were collected from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. Hourly air pollution concentrations and meteorological data were obtained from a central monitoring site. Results There were 2,046 OHCAs with presumed cardiac etiology during our study period. Among men during the fire season, greater increases in OHCA were observed with IQR increases in the 48-hr lagged PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) (8.05%; 95% CI: 2.30, 14.13%; IQR = 6.1 μg/m3) or ≤ 10 μm (PM10) (11.1%; 95% CI: 1.55, 21.48%; IQR = 13.7 μg/m3) and carbon monoxide (35.7%; 95% CI: 8.98, 68.92%; IQR = 0.3 ppm). There was no significant association between the rate of OHCA and air pollutants among women. One hundred seventy-four “fire-hours” (i.e., hours in which Melbourne’s air quality was affected by forest fire smoke) were identified during 12 days of the 2006/2007 fire season, and 23.9 (95% CI: 3.1, 40.2) excess OHCAs were estimated to occur due to elevations in PM2.5 during these fire-hours. Conclusions This study found an association between exposure to forest fire smoke and an increase in the rate of OHCA. These findings have implications for public health messages to raise

  12. Framing in policy processes: a case study from hospital planning in the National Health Service in England.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lorelei; Exworthy, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports from an ethnographic study of hospital planning in England undertaken between 2006 and 2009. We explored how a policy to centralise hospital services was espoused in national policy documents, how this shifted over time and how it was translated in practice. We found that policy texts defined hospital planning as a clinical issue and framed decisions to close hospitals or hospital departments as based on the evidence and necessary to ensure safety. We interpreted this framing as a rhetorical strategy for implementing organisational change in the context of community resistance to service closure and a concomitant policy emphasising the importance of public and patient involvement in planning. Although the persuasive power of the framing was limited, a more insidious form of power was identified in the way the framing disguised the political nature of the issue by defining it as a clinical problem. We conclude by discussing how the clinical rationale constrains public participation in decisions about the delivery and organisation of healthcare and restricts the extent to which alternative courses of action can be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Heart and Mind Coming Together: A Case Study of the Implementation of a University-Children's Hospital Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, C. Richele

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the perceptions of university students serving as volunteers in an oncology ward at a local children's hospital. The implementation of this project was guided by the body of literature regarding service learning. Data were collected from the five students using a structured interview and was…

  14. A multi-criteria assessment of scenarios on thermal processing of infectious hospital wastes: A case study for Central Macedonia

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannidis, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Perkoulidis, G.; Sanida, G.; Samaras, P.

    2010-02-15

    In Greece more than 14,000 tonnes of infectious hospital waste are produced yearly; a significant part of it is still mismanaged. Only one off-site licensed incineration facility for hospital wastes is in operation, with the remaining of the market covered by various hydroclave and autoclave units, whereas numerous problems are still generally encountered regarding waste segregation, collection, transportation and management, as well as often excessive entailed costs. Everyday practices still include dumping the majority of solid hospital waste into household disposal sites and landfills after sterilization, still largely without any preceding recycling and separation steps. Discussed in the present paper are the implemented and future treatment practices of infectious hospital wastes in Central Macedonia; produced quantities are reviewed, actual treatment costs are addressed critically, whereas the overall situation in Greece is discussed. Moreover, thermal treatment processes that could be applied for the treatment of infectious hospital wastes in the region are assessed via the multi-criteria decision method Analytic Hierarchy Process. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was performed and the analysis demonstrated that a centralized autoclave or hydroclave plant near Thessaloniki is the best performing option, depending however on the selection and weighing of criteria of the multi-criteria process. Moreover the study found that a common treatment option for the treatment of all infectious hospital wastes produced in the Region of Central Macedonia, could offer cost and environmental benefits. In general the multi-criteria decision method, as well as the conclusions and remarks of this study can be used as a basis for future planning and anticipation of the needs for investments in the area of medical waste management.

  15. Management of healthcare waste in circumstances of limited resources: a case study in the hospitals of Nablus city, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Al-Qaroot, Yousef S; Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammad S

    2009-06-01

    The objectives of this study were the assessment of healthcare waste management and the characterization of healthcare waste material generated in the hospitals in Nablus city, Palestine, and furthermore, to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B among the cleaning personnel working in these hospitals. The medical waste generation rate in kg per bed per day was between 0.59 and 0.93 kg bed(-1) day(-1). The waste generation rate in the healthcare facilities of Nablus city hospitals was similar to some other developing countries; however, the percentage of medical wastes in the total waste stream was comparatively high. The density of medical waste at the four hospitals studied ranged between 144.9 and 188.4 kg m(-3) with a mean value of 166.7 kg m(-3). The waste segregation and handling practices were very poor. Other alternatives for waste treatment rather than incineration such as a locally made autoclave integrated with a shredder should be evaluated and implemented. The system of healthcare waste management in Nablus city is in need of immediate improvement and attention. Formulating rules and guidelines for medical waste and developing strategies for overcoming the obstacles related to waste management should be considered as an urgent matter.

  16. Hypnotics and the Occurrence of Bone Fractures in Hospitalized Dementia Patients: A Matched Case-Control Study Using a National Inpatient Database

    PubMed Central

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matusi, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Preventing falls and bone fractures in hospital care is an important issue in geriatric medicine. Use of hypnotics is a potential risk factor for falls and bone fractures in older patients. However, data are lacking on the association between use of hypnotics and the occurrence of bone fracture. Methods We used a national inpatient database including 1,057 hospitals in Japan and included dementia patients aged 50 years or older who were hospitalized during a period of 12 months between April 2012 and March 2013. The primary outcome was the occurrence of bone fracture during hospitalization. Use of hypnotics was compared between patients with and without bone fracture in this matched case-control study. Results Of 140,494 patients, 830 patients suffered from in-hospital fracture. A 1:4 matching with age, sex and hospital created 817 cases with fracture and 3,158 matched patients without fracture. With adjustment for the Charlson comorbidity index, emergent admission, activities of daily living, and scores for level walking, a higher occurrence of fractures were seen with short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics (odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.19–1.73; P<0.001), ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (1.66; 1.37–2.01; P<0.001), hydroxyzine (1.45; 1.15–1.82, P=0.001), risperidone and perospirone (1.37; 1.08–1.73; P=0.010). Other drug groups were not significantly associated with the occurrence of in-hospital fracture. Conclusions Short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics and ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics may increase risk of bone fracture in hospitalized dementia patients. PMID:26061231

  17. Hypnotics and the Occurrence of Bone Fractures in Hospitalized Dementia Patients: A Matched Case-Control Study Using a National Inpatient Database.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matusi, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Preventing falls and bone fractures in hospital care is an important issue in geriatric medicine. Use of hypnotics is a potential risk factor for falls and bone fractures in older patients. However, data are lacking on the association between use of hypnotics and the occurrence of bone fracture. We used a national inpatient database including 1,057 hospitals in Japan and included dementia patients aged 50 years or older who were hospitalized during a period of 12 months between April 2012 and March 2013. The primary outcome was the occurrence of bone fracture during hospitalization. Use of hypnotics was compared between patients with and without bone fracture in this matched case-control study. Of 140,494 patients, 830 patients suffered from in-hospital fracture. A 1:4 matching with age, sex and hospital created 817 cases with fracture and 3,158 matched patients without fracture. With adjustment for the Charlson comorbidity index, emergent admission, activities of daily living, and scores for level walking, a higher occurrence of fractures were seen with short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics (odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.73; P<0.001), ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (1.66; 1.37-2.01; P<0.001), hydroxyzine (1.45; 1.15-1.82, P=0.001), risperidone and perospirone (1.37; 1.08-1.73; P=0.010). Other drug groups were not significantly associated with the occurrence of in-hospital fracture. Short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics and ultrashort-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotics may increase risk of bone fracture in hospitalized dementia patients.

  18. Hospital case payment systems in Europe.

    PubMed

    Busse, Reinhard; Schreyögg, Jonas; Smith, Peter C

    2006-08-01

    Since the introduction of the system of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) for USA Medicare patients in 1983, case payment mechanisms have gradually become the principal means of reimbursing hospitals in most developed countries. The use of case payments nevertheless poses severe technical and policy challenges, and there remain many unresolved issues in their implementation. This paper introduces a special issue of the journal that describes and compares experience with the use of case payments for reimbursing hospitals in nine European countries. The editorial sets the policy scene, and argues that DRG systems must be seen both as a technical reimbursement method and as a fundamental incentive mechanism within the health system.

  19. A lean case study in an oncological hospital: implementation of a telephone triage system in the emergency service.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, José Crespo; Ramos, Madalena; Paixão, Carina

    2013-01-01

    Lean practices and thinking have increased substantially in the last few years. Applications of lean practices to health care are found worldwide. Despite that, new contributions are required because the application of lean thinking to hospitals has a long way to go. Lean practices and thinking do not include, in the literature or practice programs, any references to triage systems in health care units. The common triage systems require physical presence, but there are alternative methods to avoid the need to move patients: these alternative triage systems, given their characteristics, may be included in the spectrum of lean practices. Currently, patients that are already known to suffer from cancer are encouraged to go to hospital (public or private, with an oncological focus) when facing side effects from chemotherapy or radiation treatments; they are then submitted to a triage system (present themselves to the hospital for examination). The authors of this paper propose the introduction of telephone or email triage for impaired patients as a valid substitute for moving them physically, thereby often avoiding several unnecessary moves. This approach has, in fact, characteristics similar to a lean practice in that it reduces costs and maintains, if done properly, the overall service offered. The proposed 'remote' triage emerged from the results of a large survey sent to patients and also as the outcome of a set of semistructured interviews conducted with hospital nurses. With the results they obtained, the authors felt comfortable proposing this approach both to public and private hospitals, because the study was conducted in the most important, largest, and best-known oncological unit in Spain. As a final result, the health care unit studied is now taking the first steps to implement a remote triage system by telephone, and has begun to reduce the previously necessary movement of impaired patients.

  20. A lean case study in an oncological hospital: implementation of a telephone triage system in the emergency service

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, José Crespo; Ramos, Madalena; Paixão, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Lean practices and thinking have increased substantially in the last few years. Applications of lean practices to health care are found worldwide. Despite that, new contributions are required because the application of lean thinking to hospitals has a long way to go. Lean practices and thinking do not include, in the literature or practice programs, any references to triage systems in health care units. The common triage systems require physical presence, but there are alternative methods to avoid the need to move patients: these alternative triage systems, given their characteristics, may be included in the spectrum of lean practices. Currently, patients that are already known to suffer from cancer are encouraged to go to hospital (public or private, with an oncological focus) when facing side effects from chemotherapy or radiation treatments; they are then submitted to a triage system (present themselves to the hospital for examination). The authors of this paper propose the introduction of telephone or email triage for impaired patients as a valid substitute for moving them physically, thereby often avoiding several unnecessary moves. This approach has, in fact, characteristics similar to a lean practice in that it reduces costs and maintains, if done properly, the overall service offered. The proposed ‘remote’ triage emerged from the results of a large survey sent to patients and also as the outcome of a set of semistructured interviews conducted with hospital nurses. With the results they obtained, the authors felt comfortable proposing this approach both to public and private hospitals, because the study was conducted in the most important, largest, and best-known oncological unit in Spain. As a final result, the health care unit studied is now taking the first steps to implement a remote triage system by telephone, and has begun to reduce the previously necessary movement of impaired patients. PMID:24376365

  1. [Protein-calorie nutritional state in elderly patients hospitalized in Lomé Campus university hospital: pilot study about 33 patients versus 30 reference cases registered in three care units].

    PubMed

    Kouassi, K C; Lamboni, C

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the protein-calorie nutritional status of elderly hospitalized patients admitted to the hepato-gastroenterology, cardiology and internal medicine departments of the Lomé Campus University Hospital and identify the endogenous and mixed undernutrition to provide patients with better nutrition and assistance. Methodology. This cross-sectional study conducted between April 1 and July 31, 2009, included 33 hospitalized case patients aged at least 55 years and 30 age-matched outpatient control subjects. Patients were evaluated according to body mass index (BMI), the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and their serum albumin, serum prealbumin and orosomucoid levels. Results. Among the hospitalized case patients, 37% had protein-calorie undernutrition (low serum albumin), and 73% were at risk of this undernutrition (low serum prealbumin). Five patients (16%) were endogenously undernourished and 17 (57%) exogenously undernourished. Six to 13% of the oupatient controls were undernourished and 33% at risk of undernutrition according to the MNA scale. A significant difference existed between the mean albumin values of case patients and controls (38 ± 9 g/L vs 46 ± 7 g/L, p = 0.002). Conclusion. Our results confirm that the elderly inpatients were regularly malnourished. Knowledge of their nutritional profile has allowed us to launch an improved nutritional assistance program and to supervise it properly.

  2. Retrospective observational case-control study comparing prehospital thrombolytic therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction with in-hospital thrombolytic therapy for patients from same area

    PubMed Central

    Chittari, M; Ahmad, I; Chambers, B; Knight, F; Scriven, A; Pitcher, D

    2005-01-01

    Design: Retrospective observational case-control study comparing patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with thrombolytic therapy in the prehospital environment with patients treated in hospital. Setting: Wyre Forest District and Worcestershire Royal Hospital, UK. Participants: (A) All patients who received prehospital thrombolytic therapy for suspected AMI accompanied by electrocardiographic features considered diagnostic. (B) Patients who received thrombolytic therapy after arrival at hospital for the same indication, matched with group A by age, gender and postcode. Main outcome measures: 1. Call to needle time 2. Percentage of patients treated within one hour of calling for medical help 3. Appropriateness of thrombolytic therapy 4. Safety of thrombolytic therapy Results: 1. The median call to needle time for patients treated before arriving in hospital (n = 27) was 40 minutes with an inter-quartile range 25–112 (mean 43 minutes). Patients from the same area who were treated in hospital (n = 27) had a median time of 106 minutes with an inter-quartile range 50–285 (mean 126 minutes). This represents a median time saved by prehospital treatment of 66 minutes. 2. 60 minutes after medical contact, 96 % of patients treated before arrival in hospital had received thrombolytic therapy; this compares with 4% of patients from similar areas treated in hospital. 3. Myocardial infarction was confirmed in 92% (25/27) of patients who received prehospital thrombolytic therapy and similarly 92% (25/27) of those given in-hospital thrombolytic therapy. 4. No major bleeding occurred in either group. Group A suffered fewer in-hospital deaths than group B (1 versus 4). Cardiogenic shock (3 patients) and ventricular arrhythmia (5 patients) were seen only in group B. Conclusion: Paramedic-delivered thrombolytic therapy can be delivered appropriately, safely, and effectively. Time gains are substantial and can meet the national targets for early

  3. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in prevention of hospital admissions for rotavirus gastroenteritis among young children in Belgium: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Braeckman, Tessa; Van Herck, Koen; Meyer, Nadia; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Azou, Myriam; Capiau, Heidi; De Koster, Jan; Maernoudt, Anne-Sophie; Raes, Marc; Verdonck, Lutgard; Verghote, Marc; Vergison, Anne; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Van Ranst, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination among young children in Belgium. Design Prospective case-control study. Setting Random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals, February 2008 to June 2010. Participants 215 children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 276 age and hospital matched controls. All children were of an eligible age to have received rotavirus vaccination (that is, born after 1 October 2006 and aged ≥14 weeks). Main outcome measure Vaccination status of children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and matched controls. Results 99 children (48%) admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis and 244 (91%) controls had received at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine (P<0.001). The monovalent rotavirus vaccine accounted for 92% (n=594) of all rotavirus vaccine doses. With hospital admission as the outcome, the unadjusted effectiveness of two doses of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine was 90% (95% confidence interval 81% to 95%) overall, 91% (75% to 97%) in children aged 3-11 months, and 90% (76% to 96%) in those aged ≥12 months. The G2P[4] genotype accounted for 52% of cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with eligible matched controls. Vaccine effectiveness was 85% (64% to 94%) against G2P[4] and 95% (78% to 99%) against G1P[8]. In 25% of cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with eligible matched controls, there was reported co-infection with adenovirus, astrovirus and/or norovirus. Vaccine effectiveness against co-infected cases was 86% (52% to 96%). Effectiveness of at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine (intention to vaccinate analysis) was 91% (82% to 95%). Conclusions Rotavirus vaccination is effective for the prevention of admission to hospital for rotavirus gastroenteritis among young children in Belgium, despite the high prevalence of G2P[4] and viral co-infection. PMID:22875947

  4. Forest Fire Smoke Exposures and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests in Melbourne, Australia: A Case-Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Dennekamp, Martine; Straney, Lahn D; Erbas, Bircan; Abramson, Michael J; Keywood, Melita; Smith, Karen; Sim, Malcolm R; Glass, Deborah C; Del Monaco, Anthony; Haikerwal, Anjali; Tonkin, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Millions of people can potentially be exposed to smoke from forest fires, making this an important public health problem in many countries. In this study we aimed to measure the association between out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and forest fire smoke exposures in a large city during a severe forest fire season, and estimate the number of excess OHCAs due to the fire smoke. We investigated the association between particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants and OHCA using a case-crossover study of adults (≥ 35 years of age) in Melbourne, Australia. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive estimates of the percent change in the rate of OHCA associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure. From July 2006 through June 2007, OHCA data were collected from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. Hourly air pollution concentrations and meteorological data were obtained from a central monitoring site. There were 2,046 OHCAs with presumed cardiac etiology during our study period. Among men during the fire season, greater increases in OHCA were observed with IQR increases in the 48-hr lagged PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) (8.05%; 95% CI: 2.30, 14.13%; IQR = 6.1 μg/m(3)) or ≤ 10 μm (PM10) (11.1%; 95% CI: 1.55, 21.48%; IQR = 13.7 μg/m(3)) and carbon monoxide (35.7%; 95% CI: 8.98, 68.92%; IQR = 0.3 ppm). There was no significant association between the rate of OHCA and air pollutants among women. One hundred seventy-four "fire-hours" (i.e., hours in which Melbourne's air quality was affected by forest fire smoke) were identified during 12 days of the 2006/2007 fire season, and 23.9 (95% CI: 3.1, 40.2) excess OHCAs were estimated to occur due to elevations in PM2.5 during these fire-hours. This study found an association between exposure to forest fire smoke and an increase in the rate of OHCA. These findings have implications for public health messages to raise community awareness and for planning of emergency

  5. Hospitality Studies: Escaping the Tyranny?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashley, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore current strands in hospitality management education and research, and suggest that future programs should reflect a more social science informed content. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current research in hospitality management education and in the study of hospitality and…

  6. Hospitality Studies: Escaping the Tyranny?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashley, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore current strands in hospitality management education and research, and suggest that future programs should reflect a more social science informed content. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current research in hospitality management education and in the study of hospitality and…

  7. Impact of intensive-care-unit(ICU)-acquired ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP) on hospital mortality: a matched-paired case-control study.

    PubMed

    Uno, Hideo; Takezawa, Jun; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Suka, Machi; Yoshida, Katsumi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ICU-acquired ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) on hospital mortality is still a controversial issue in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ICU-acquired VAP on hospital mortality in a Japanese university hospital. Our study population was comprised of patients aged 16 years or older who were admitted to our ICU and received mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours during a period of 42 months as of December 2003. To evaluate whether VAP was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality after controlling for other clinical factors, patients with fatal outcomes (cases) were compared to those who survived (controls). From 587 eligible patients, we analyzed 75 cases and 150 controls who were successfully matched on sex, age, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score using conditional logistic regression models. Univariate analysis demonstrated that hemodialysis (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.15; p = 0.01), surgical site infection (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.22-4.91; p = 0.01), and VAP (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.55-4.69; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with hospital mortality. After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that hemodialysis (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.06-3.94; p = 0.03) and VAP (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.10-4.39; p = 0.03) were independently associated with hospital mortality. In conclusion, these data suggest that ICU-acquired VAP significantly affects hospital mortality.

  8. Factors Associated With Pediatric Ventilator-Associated Conditions in Six U.S. Hospitals: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Cocoros, Noelle M; Priebe, Gregory; Gray, James E; Toltzis, Philip; Larsen, Gitte Y; Logan, Latania K; Coffin, Susan; Sammons, Julia S; Deakins, Kathleen; Horan, Kelly; Lakoma, Matthew; Young, Jessica; Burton, Michael; Klompas, Michael; Lee, Grace M

    2017-09-13

    A newly proposed surveillance definition for ventilator-associated conditions among neonatal and pediatric patients has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality among ventilated patients in cardiac ICU, neonatal ICU, and PICU. This study aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with pediatric ventilator-associated conditions. Retrospective cohort. Six U.S. hospitals PATIENTS:: Children less than or equal to 18 years old ventilated for greater than or equal to 1 day. None. We identified children with pediatric ventilator-associated conditions and matched them to children without ventilator-associated conditions. Medical records were reviewed for comorbidities and acute care factors. We used bivariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression models to identify factors associated with ventilator-associated conditions. We studied 192 pairs of ventilator-associated conditions cases and matched controls (113 in the PICU and cardiac ICU combined; 79 in the neonatal ICU). In the PICU/cardiac ICU, potential risk factors for ventilator-associated conditions included neuromuscular blockade (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.08-4.87), positive fluid balance (highest quartile compared with the lowest, odds ratio, 7.76; 95% CI, 2.10-28.6), and blood product use (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.70-3.28). Weaning from sedation (i.e., decreasing sedation) or interruption of sedation may be protective (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-1.11). In the neonatal ICU, potential risk factors included blood product use (odds ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.02-8.78), neuromuscular blockade use (odds ratio, 3.96; 95% CI, 0.93-16.9), and recent surgical procedures (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 0.77-6.28). Weaning or interrupting sedation was protective (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01-0.79). In mechanically ventilated neonates and children, we identified several possible risk factors associated with ventilator-associated conditions. Next steps include studying propensity

  9. Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Breurec, Sébastien; Vanel, Noémie; Bata, Petulla; Chartier, Loïc; Farra, Alain; Favennec, Loïc; Franck, Thierry; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Luong Nguyen, Liem Binh; Onambélé, Manuella; Rafaï, Clotaire; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Tondeur, Laura; Tricou, Vianney; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, infectious diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A case-control study was conducted to identify the etiology of diarrhea and to describe its main epidemiologic risk factors among hospitalized children under five years old in Bangui, Central African Republic. Methods All consecutive children under five years old hospitalized for diarrhea in the Pediatric Complex of Bangui for whom a parent’s written consent was provided were included. Controls matched by age, sex and neighborhood of residence of each case were included. For both cases and controls, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded. Stool samples were collected to identify enteropathogens at enrollment. Clinical examination data and blood samples were collected only for cases. Results A total of 333 cases and 333 controls was recruited between December 2011 and November 2013. The mean age of cases was 12.9 months, and 56% were male. The mean delay between the onset of first symptoms and hospital admission was 3.7 days. Blood was detected in 5% of stool samples from cases. Cases were significantly more severely or moderately malnourished than controls. One of the sought-for pathogens was identified in 78% and 40% of cases and controls, respectively. Most attributable cases of hospitalized diarrhea were due to rotavirus, with an attributable fraction of 39%. Four other pathogens were associated with hospitalized diarrhea: Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, astrovirus and norovirus with attributable fraction of 9%, 10%, 7% and 7% respectively. Giardia intestinalis was found in more controls than cases, with a protective fraction of 6%. Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus

  10. Factors predisposing to acute and recurrent bacterial non-necrotizing cellulitis in hospitalized patients: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Karppelin, M; Siljander, T; Vuopio-Varkila, J; Kere, J; Huhtala, H; Vuento, R; Jussila, T; Syrjänen, J

    2010-06-01

    Acute non-necrotizing cellulitis is a skin infection with a tendency to recur. Both general and local risk factors for erysipelas or cellulitis have been recognized in previous studies using hospitalized controls. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for cellulitis using controls recruited from the general population. We also compared patients with a history of previous cellulitis with those suffering a single episode, with regard to the risk factors: length of stay in hospital, duration of fever, and inflammatory response as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) level and leukocyte count. Ninety hospitalized cellulitis patients and 90 population controls matched for age and sex were interviewed and clinically examined during the period April 2004 to March 2005. In multivariate analysis, chronic oedema of the extremity, disruption of the cutaneous barrier and obesity were independently associated with acute cellulitis. Forty-four (49%) patients had a positive history (PH) of at least one cellulitis episode before entering the study. Obesity and previous ipsilateral surgical procedure were statistically significantly more common in PH patients, whereas a recent (<1 month) traumatic wound was more common in patients with a negative history (NH) of cellulitis. PH patients had longer duration of fever and hospital stay, and their CRP and leukocyte values more often peaked at a high level than those of NH patients. Oedema, broken skin and obesity are risk factors for acute cellulitis. The inflammatory response as indicated by CRP level and leukocyte count is statistically significantly more severe in PH than NH patients.

  11. Trends in case-fatality rates in hospitalized nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: results of a population-based study in Dijon, France, from 1985 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Biotti, Damien; Jacquin, Agnès; Boutarbouch, Mahjouba; Bousquet, Olivier; Durier, Jérôme; Ben Salem, Douraied; Salem, Douraïeb Ben; Ricolfi, Frederic; Beaurain, Jacques; Osseby, Guy-Victor; Moreau, Thibault; Giroud, Maurice; Béjot, Yannick

    2010-06-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for 2% to 5% of all strokes and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Reports in the literature show that case-fatality rates vary with time and according to geographical area. The objective of the study was to evaluate the case-fatality rates in subarachnoid hemorrhage at 1 and 6 months and to determine trends in these rates over 22 years using a population-based registry. The Dijon Stroke Registry has enabled us to perform a comprehensive analysis of subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosed in a population of >150 000 inhabitants hospitalized between 1985 and 2006 in the Dijon University Hospital, which has both a neurosurgery unit and a neuroradiology unit. Diagnosis was based on clinical and neuroimaging features and, when necessary, on lumbar puncture. Case-fatality rates for hospitalized subarachnoid hemorrhages at 1 and 6 months were 15.59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.37-25.34) and 16.84% (95% CI, 10.33-26.78), respectively. From 1985 to 1995, case-fatality rates for SAH at 1 and 6 months were 17.1% (95% CI, 8.1-34.2) and 17.7% (95% CI, 9.6-31.3), whereas from 1996 to 2006, they were 20.2% (95% CI, 10.2-37.8) and 19.7% (95% CI, 11.1-33.6), respectively. Case-fatality rates for hospitalized subarachnoid hemorrhages in this population-based study remained stable over 22 years, suggesting that this stroke subtype is still a very severe disease despite early management. Most deaths occurred during the first 30 days. Further work is necessary to evaluate levels of prehospital case-fatality in our population-based registry.

  12. Hospital program weds case, disease management.

    PubMed

    1997-10-01

    To lower its readmission rates and inpatient length of stay for three high-volume chronic conditions, Memorial Hospital in Colorado Springs, CO, developed a program that combines clinical pathways with a cross-continuum disease management program. Community physicians refer patients to the program. Hospital-based care managers guide patients in the acute setting before handing them off to outpatient case managers, who coordinate the patient's transition to home care. Clinicians at Memorial sold administrators on the "care-case management" approach by arguing that increased inpatient efficiency would offset potential revenue shortfalls due to fewer admissions.

  13. Organizational learning in the implementation and adoption of national electronic health records: case studies of two hospitals participating in the National Programme for Information Technology in England.

    PubMed

    Takian, Amirhossein; Sheikh, Aziz; Barber, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    To explore the role of organizational learning in enabling implementation and supporting adoption of electronic health record systems into two English hospitals. In the course of conducting our prospective and sociotechnical evaluation of the implementation and adoption of electronic health record into 12 "early adopter" hospitals across England, we identified two hospitals implementing virtually identical versions of the same "off-the-shelf" software (Millennium) within a comparable timeframe. We undertook a longitudinal qualitative case study-based analysis of these two hospitals (referred to hereafter as Alpha and Omega) and their implementation experiences. Data included the following: 63 in-depth interviews with various groups of internal and external stakeholders; 41-h on-site observation; and content analysis of 218 documents of various types. Analysis was both inductive and deductive, the latter being informed by the "sociotechnical changing" theoretical perspective. Although Alpha and Omega shared a number of contextual similarities, our evaluation revealed fundamental differences in visions of electronic health record and the implementation strategy between the hospitals, which resulted in distinct local consequences of electronic health record implementation and impacted adoption. Both hospitals did not, during our evaluation, see the hoped-for benefits to the organization as a result of the introduction of electronic health record, such as speeding-up tasks. Nonetheless, the Millennium software worked out to be easier to use at Omega. Interorganizational learning was at the heart of this difference. Despite the turbulent overall national "roll out" of electronic health record systems into the English hospitals, considerable opportunities for organizational learning were offered by sequential delivery of the electronic health record software into "early adopter" hospitals. We argue that understanding the process of organizational learning and its

  14. Creating patient value in glaucoma care: applying quality costing and care delivery value chain approaches--a five-year case study in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital.

    PubMed

    de Korne, Dirk F; Sol, Kees; Custers, Thomas; van Sprundel, Esther; van Ineveld, B Martin; Lemij, Hans G; Klazinga, Niek S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore in a specific hospital care process the applicability in practice of the theories of quality costing and value chains. In a retrospective case study an in-depth evaluation of the use of a quality cost model (QCM) and the applicability of Porter's care delivery value chain (CDVC) was performed in a specific care process: glaucoma care over the period 2001 to 2006 in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital in The Netherlands. The case study shows a reduction of costs per product by increasing the number of outpatient visits and surgery combined with a higher patient satisfaction. Reduction of costs of non-compliance by using the QCM is small, due to the absence of (external) financial incentives for both the hospital and individual physicians. For CDVC to be supportive to an integrated quality and cost management the notion "patient value" needs far more specification as mutually agreed on by the stakeholders involved and related reimbursement needs to depend on realised outcomes. The case study just focused on one specific care process in one hospital. To determine effects in other areas of health care, it is important to study the use and applicability of the QCM and the CDVC in other care processes and settings. QCM and a CDVC can be useful tools for hospital management to manage the outcomes on both quality and costs, but impact is dependent on the incentives in the context of the existing organisational and reimbursement system and asks for an agreed on operationalisation among the various stakeholders of the notion of patient value.

  15. Hazardous medical waste generation in Greece: case studies from medical facilities in Attica and from a small insular hospital.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Katsafaros, Nikolaos; Vassilopoulos, Panagiotis

    2011-08-01

    The accurate calculation of the unit generation rates and composition of medical waste generated from medical facilities is necessary in order to design medical waste treatment systems. In this work, the unit medical waste generation rates of 95 public and private medical facilities in the Attica region were calculated based on daily weight records from a central medical waste incineration facility. The calculated medical waste generation rates (in kg bed(-1) day( -1)) varied widely with average values at 0.27 ± 113% and 0.24 ± 121%, for public and private medical facilities, respectively. The hazardous medical waste generation was measured, at the source, in the 40 bed hospital of the island of Ikaria for a period of 42 days during a 6 month period. The average hazardous medical waste generation rate was 1.204 kg occupied bed(-1) day(-1) or 0.33 kg (official) bed( -1) day(-1). From the above amounts, 54% resulted from the patients' room (solid and liquid wastes combined), 24% from the emergency department (solid waste), 17% from the clinical pathology lab and 6% from the X-ray lab. In average, 17% of the total hazardous medical waste was solely infectious. Conclusively, no correlation among the number of beds and the unit medical waste generation rate could be established. Each hospital should be studied separately, since medical waste generation and composition depends on the number and type of departments/laboratories at each hospital, number of external patients and number of occupied beds.

  16. A comparative study on epidemiology, spectrum and outcome analysis of physical trauma cases presenting to emergency department of Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital and its outreach centers in rural area.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S K; Kayastha, S R; Parajuli, N; Dhoju, D; Shrestha, D

    2013-01-01

    Physical trauma is one of the major cause of mortality and morbidity among young and active age group and its increasing trend is of main concern. There are only few studies concerning the spectrum of physical trauma in Nepal. This study aims to evaluate the epidemiological spectrum, the extent, severity of the physical trauma and the outcome evaluation of patients with physical trauma over a period of one year in the emergency department of the Kathmandu University Hospital and compare the same parameters with those patients presenting to the various outreach centers of the hospital in the community. Patient treatment files from the emergency department and the reports from various outreach centers were retrieved for a period of one year (May 2011 to April 2012). Epidemiological information, mode, type and anatomic location of injuries were recorded. Outcome evaluation was assessed by number of patients discharged from emergency department of the hospital or the outreach centers after the treatment, patients admitted for inpatient management and referred to other centers for further specialty management. In a period of one year, total 2205 (20%) of physical trauma cases presented to the emergency department and 1994 (6.12%) in the outreach centres. Most commonly involved age group in physical trauma both in Hospital set up and in Community set up were the young adults (15 to 49 years). Fall from height was the commonest mode of injury followed by road traffic accidents among the patients coming to the hospital while significant number of trauma patients coming to outreach centers were due to fall from height. In the hospital set up, 1525 (69.2%) of the cases were discharged while 537 (24.4%) needed inpatient management and 85 (3.8%) needed referral to other centers for the specialty management. In case of outreaches, half of the patients were discharged after the primary treatment and almost another half were referred to the hospital, mainly for need of further

  17. Is it Clostridium difficile infection or something else? A case-control study of 352 hospitalized patients with new-onset diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Manian, Farrin A; Aradhyula, Sangita; Greisnauer, Sandy; Senkel, Diane; Setzer, Janice; Wiechens, Michele; Meyer, P Lynn

    2007-08-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States, and may be associated with significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Diarrhea is also very common among hospitalized patients and is often related to a variety of factors not related to C difficile infection. We performed a retrospective case-control study at a tertiary care community medical center to delineate factors that are predictive of CDAD among hospitalized patients with new-onset diarrhea (ie, not present at the time of admission). Controls were selected based on negative C difficile toxin test(s) (CDTTs) (> 95% by cytotoxic assay), presence on the same ward as the patients with first positive CDTT, and hospitalization around the same period as the positive cases. The study involved 352 patients (88 cases and 264 controls). In univariate analysis, age 75 years or greater, exposure to cefazolin or levofloxacin during the 4-week period preceding CDTT, and hospitalization for 7 days or greater before CDTT were significantly associated with a positive test; male gender and prior ceftriaxone exposure nearly reached statistical significance. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed age 75 years or greater (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-3.7), hospitalization for 7 days or more (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.8], and prior exposure to cefazolin (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.5) or levofloxacin (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) as independent predictors of a positive CDTT; male gender nearly achieved statistical significance (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.9-2.7). Among hospitalized patients with diarrhea who underwent testing for C difficile toxin, age 75 years or older, hospitalization for 7 days or greater, and recent exposure to cefazolin or levofloxacin were important predictors of a positive CDTT. These findings may help in the initiation of early presumptive treatment for CDAD, and appropriate isolation of higher risk patients before results become

  18. Short-term effects of fine particulate air pollution on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases: a case-crossover study in a tropical city.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Ching; Chen, Pei-Shih; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between fine particles (PM2.5) levels and hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for CVD (including ischemic heart disease [IHD], stroke, congestive heart failure [CHF], and arrhythmias) and ambient air pollution data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 2006-2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for CVD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), elevated number of admissions for CVD were significantly associated with higher PM2.5 levels only on cool days (<25°C), with an interquartile range rise associated with a 47% (95% CI = 39-56%), 48% (95% CI = 40-56%), 47% (95% CI = 34-61%), and 51% (95% CI = 34-70%) increase in IHD, stroke, CHF, and arrhythmias admissions, respectively. No significant associations between PM2.5 and hospital admissions for CVD were observed on warm days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 levels remained significant even controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5 enhance the risk of hospital admissions for CVD in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

  19. Life after hospital closure: users' views of living in residential 'resettlement' projects. A case study in consumer-led research.

    PubMed

    McCourt, Christine A.

    2000-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a user-led and focused study of the views and experiences of former psychiatric hospital patients in community-based residential projects four years after hospital closure. The aims of the study were to assess residents' views about their current living arrangements, their opportunities to give their views and their interest in a formal user-group such as a residents' council or citizen advocacy scheme. DESIGN: A small-scale, qualitative study designed to enable users to voice their own views and experiences in their own words, conducted by a project group of psychiatric service users/survivors. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: All eight residential 're-provision' projects in the area were included, with a total potential sample of 65 residents. All residents were invited to take part and a total of 26 were interviewed, although a larger number of residents together with residential care staff took part in initial 'house' meetings to discuss the study. METHODS: Semi-structured, open-ended interviews with all residents willing to participate, researcher participation in 'house meetings', researchers' personal reflection and discussion. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: On the whole, residents were content with community living arrangements and preferred these to hospital, although levels of satisfaction varied across different residential projects. Residents lacked awareness of rights to and means of voicing concerns and making choices about major issues in their lives. They showed greater interest in individualized rather than group advocacy. Ideally, research and evaluation, to be truly user-focused, should be long-term and continuous in order to involve participants more fully, and should anticipate the structures and processes needed to act on findings.

  20. “Addressing the impact of stroke risk factors in a case control study in tertiary care hospitals”: a case control study in Tertiary Care Hospitals of Peshawar, Khyber Phukhtoonkhwa (KPK) Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke was the second most common cause of death worldwide in 2004, resulting in 5.7 million deaths. This case controlled study was conducted in Tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar, KPK Pakistan about common risk factors of stroke and the impact of these risk factors. Method Study was done at Government Tertiary Care Hospitals of Peshawar namely Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH), Lady Reading Hospital (LRH) and Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC).The hospital based case–control study included 50 cases (stroke patients) and 100 controls (non-stroke patients). This study was accomplished from 24th April 2012 to October 2012 in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar. A proper questionnaire was used to collect data from all the cases and controls, which was recorded in the form of tables and graphs. The risk factors studied were Hypertension, Smoking, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, cardiac problems, B.M.I, diet, stress and family history of stroke. Anthropometric (weight, height, body mass index) measurements were done on all patients. For determination of association and impact of these risk factors, analyses were performed by calculation of Chi-Square test and confidence interval using SPSS version 16 program. Results Comparing the cases with controls, hypertension (p = 0.000), sedentary life style (p = 0.000), cardiac problems (p = 0.009), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.010), smoking (p = 0. 042) were significant risk factors whereas B.M.I (p = 0. 393), stress (p = 0.705), family history of stroke (p = 0.729), diet (p = 0.908), were not found to be statistically significant risk factors. The most significant risk factor was systemic hypertension (OR = 4.16) followed by sedentary life style (OR = 3.60), cardiac problems (OR = 2.74) diabetes (OR = 2.49) and smoking (OR = 2.05). Conclusion Hypertension, Smoking, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle and cardiac problems have strong correlations and association with Stroke

  1. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals. PMID:21067580

  2. [Factors associated with the occurrence of adverse reactions to drugs in patients who went to the emergency service of a general hospital: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Medina, M A; Puche, E; de Dios Luna, J

    2000-06-15

    To describe adverse reactions to medicine (ARM) and analyse the factors associated with their presenting in patients attending a general hospital's emergency service. Case-control epidemiological study. Emergency service of the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada. 654 patients over 15, men and women, who attended the emergency service between October and December 1997. 354 of them had an ARM (cases) and 300 did not (controls). 60% of the cases were women, with an average age of 53 +/- 20. 68% of the ARM were type-A (expected). The most affected organs and systems were: digestive tract (41.8%) and skin (31.6%). Drug groups most associated with presentation of ARM were hypnosedatives and salicylates used as analgesics--antithermic drugs (28.2%), and beta-lactams and macrolides (22.6%). Most ARM were classified as probable (52%) and moderate (62%). Family practitioners were the main prescribers (49%) of medicines. 13% of patients were admitted to hospital because of a serious ARM and two people died (0.5%). According to the odds ratio, treatment with cytostatics, psychiatric drugs, NSAIDs, amoxycillin, digoxin, ACEIs and calcium antagonists, being a woman, self-medication, being under 65 and history of ARM were all associated with the presence of an ARM in our patients (cases). The type of medicine, being a woman, history of ARM, self-medication, and presenting digestive and dermatological symptoms were factors strongly linked to an ARM in patients attending the emergency service.

  3. Effects of a malaria elimination program: a retrospective study of 623 cases from 2008 to 2013 in a Chinese county hospital near the China--Myanmar border.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Yang, Linlin; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Bingyan; Wang, Shuqing; Wu, Xingfen; Wang, Tianying; Li, Yanlin; Liu, Min; Peng, Quanbang; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-01-20

    The southwestern region of China, along the Myanmar border, has accounted for the highest number of cases of imported malaria since China shifted from a malaria control program to an elimination strategy in 2010. We conducted a retrospective study, in which 623 medical charts were analyzed to provide an epidemiological characterization of malaria cases that were diagnosed and treated at the People's Hospital of Tengchong County (PHTC), located in southwestern China, from 2008 to 2013. Our aim was to understand the characteristics of malaria in this region, which is a high-endemic region with imported cases. The majority of patients were male (91.7%), and the average age was 32.4 years. Most of the patients (86.4%) had visited Myanmar; labor was the purpose of travel for 63.9% of the patients. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were responsible for 53.8% and 34.9% of the infections, respectively. The number of hospitalized patients rose gradually from 2008 to 2010 and reached its peak in 2010 (191). After 2010, the number of hospitalized cases fell rapidly from 191 (2010) to 45 (2013), and the proportion of patients who lived in the forest and the number infected with P. falciparum also fell. In conclusion, the number of hospitalized patients in the southwestern region of China, Tengchong county, decreased after China implemented a malaria elimination strategy in 2010. However, migrant workers returning from Myanmar remained important contributors to cases of imported malaria. The management of imported malaria should be targeted by the malaria elimination program in China.

  4. Effects of a malaria elimination program: a retrospective study of 623 cases from 2008 to 2013 in a Chinese county hospital near the China – Myanmar border

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinyu; Yang, Linlin; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Bingyan; Wang, Shuqing; Wu, Xingfen; Wang, Tianying; Li, Yanlin; Liu, Min; Peng, Quanbang; Zhang, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    The southwestern region of China, along the Myanmar border, has accounted for the highest number of cases of imported malaria since China shifted from a malaria control program to an elimination strategy in 2010. We conducted a retrospective study, in which 623 medical charts were analyzed to provide an epidemiological characterization of malaria cases that were diagnosed and treated at the People's Hospital of Tengchong County (PHTC), located in southwestern China, from 2008 to 2013. Our aim was to understand the characteristics of malaria in this region, which is a high-endemic region with imported cases. The majority of patients were male (91.7%), and the average age was 32.4 years. Most of the patients (86.4%) had visited Myanmar; labor was the purpose of travel for 63.9% of the patients. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were responsible for 53.8% and 34.9% of the infections, respectively. The number of hospitalized patients rose gradually from 2008 to 2010 and reached its peak in 2010 (191). After 2010, the number of hospitalized cases fell rapidly from 191 (2010) to 45 (2013), and the proportion of patients who lived in the forest and the number infected with P. falciparum also fell. In conclusion, the number of hospitalized patients in the southwestern region of China, Tengchong county, decreased after China implemented a malaria elimination strategy in 2010. However, migrant workers returning from Myanmar remained important contributors to cases of imported malaria. The management of imported malaria should be targeted by the malaria elimination program in China. PMID:26785944

  5. The consumers' social media use in choosing physicians and hospitals: the case study of the province of Izmir.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Sarp, Nilgün; Yar, Cemre Eda; Bektaş, Meral; Hidir, Mehmet Nil; Korkmaz, Esin

    2017-01-01

    Manifested as a reflection of the Internet technology progress, web 2.0 has transformed communication among people to different dimensions while increasing the social use of Internet. Thus, the concept of social media has entered our lives. Blogs, forums, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube applications are but few of the social media platforms with active users exceeding millions. As in many other subjects, these and others are also environments where people share information and their positive or negative experiential views with respect to healthcare issues and services. Hence, the social media communication and exchange of information are deemed influential on the process of receiving health services. In the present study that aims to determine social media use of individuals in their choice of physicians, dentists and hospitals, a survey, as a data collection instrument, has been carried out to 947 residents of the province of Izmir. Individuals participating in the study have stated that they have used social media in choosing a physician (41.9% of the participants), dentist (34.1% of the participants) and hospitals (41.7% of the participants). The study has revealed that individuals are affected by social media in their healthcare choices. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The barriers to the application of the research findings from the nurses’ perspective: A case study in a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Mahaki, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of the nursing research findings is one of the most important indicators of development in the nursing profession, which leads to providing efficient and effective patient care and improving the quality of nursing care. According the result of some studies, transferring the evidence-based findings to the nurses’ practice and education in the world has been slow and sometimes unsuccessful. This study aimed to investigate the most important barriers to the application of research findings from the nurses’ perspective. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 210 nurses in a teaching hospital in Tehran in 2013. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire consisted of two parts, including items about nurses’ demographic characteristics and 30 items to identify the most important barriers to the application of research findings from the studied nurses’ perspective. Results: “The lack of sufficient time for reading the studies,” “the lack of sufficient time to implement the new ideas,” “the lack of adequate facilities to implement the ideas,” “nurses’ little interest in conducting studies,” and “the lack of authority to change the methods and patterns of care” with, respectively, 85%, 84.6%, 83.8%, 83.4%, and 80.5% agreement with the existence of barriers were the most barriers to application of research findings from the studied nurses’ perspective. Conclusion: The lack of time was the most important barrier to the use of research findings from the perspective of studied nurses. Therefore, some effective strategies should be used by hospital managers and health policy makers to overcome this barrier. Some of these strategies can be employing new personnel and hiring skilled and efficient human resources in order to decrease the workload of nurses, organizing the nurses’ work shifts, providing right balance between patients and nurses in the wards, etc. PMID

  7. [Effect of drug interaction between clopidogrel and omeprazole in hospital readmision of patients by a recurrent acute coronary syndrome: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Amariles, Pedro; Holguín, Héctor; Angulo, Nancy Yaneth; Betancourth, Piedad Maria; Ceballos, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of drug interaction between omeprazol and clopidogrel in hospital readmission of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Case-control study. University Clinic LeonXIII, Medellin, Colombia. We selected from a prevalent population, between 2009-2010, use of clopidogrel patients on an outpatient basis (less than one year and more than 30days), and hospital stay for ACS or the presence of a previous ACS. A case-patient was defined as one who had a recurrence of ACS and a patient-control is defined as one that no recurrence of ACS. Both groups used ambulatory prior clopidogrel due to ACS. As defined risk factor the joint use of omeprazole and clopidogrel outpatients. During the study, 1680patients clopidogrel formulated. This group identified 50cases readmitted with ACS and 76controls. No statistically significant association was found between use of clopidogrel-omeprazole and increased risk of hospital readmission for ACS (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 0.516-2.152; P=.8851). In this small group of patients with previous SCA, the simultaneous use of clopidogrel with omeprazole does not increase the risk of a readmission by recurrence of this type of coronary event. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Hospitals admitting at least 100 patients with stroke a year should have a stroke unit: a case study from Australia.

    PubMed

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Kilkenny, Monique F; Andrew, Nadine E; Ritchie, Elizabeth; Hill, Kelvin; Lalor, Erin

    2017-03-16

    Establishing a stroke unit (SU) in every hospital may be infeasible because of limited resources. In Australia, it is recommended that hospitals that admit ≥100 strokes per year should have a SU. We aimed to describe differences in processes of care and outcomes among hospitals with and without SUs admitting at least 100 patients/year. National stroke audit data of 40 consecutive patients per hospital admitted between 1/7/2010-31/12/2010 and organizational survey for annual admissions were used. Descriptive analyses and multilevel regression were used to compare patient outcomes. Sensitivity analysis including only hospitals meeting all of the Australian SU criteria (e.g., co-location of beds; inter-professional team; weekly meetings; regular training) was performed. Two thousand eight hundred ninety-eight patients from 72/108 eligible hospitals completing the audit (SU = 60; patients: 2,481 [mean age 76 years; 55% male] and non-SU patients: 417 [mean age 77; 53% male]). Hospitals with SUs had greater adherence to recommended care processes than non-SU hospitals. Patients treated in a SU hospital had fewer new strokes while in hospital (OR: 0.20; 95% CI 0.06, 0.61) and there was a borderline reduction in the odds of dying in hospital compared to patients in non-SU hospitals (OR 0.57 95%CI 0.33, 1.00). Among SU hospitals meeting all SU criteria (n = 59; 91%) the adjusted odds of having a poor outcome was further reduced compared with patients attending non-SU hospitals. Hospitals annually admitting ≥100 patients with acute stroke should be prioritized for establishment of a SU that meet all recommended criteria to ensure better outcomes.

  9. The influence of burnout on skills retention of junior doctors at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital: a case study.

    PubMed

    Stodel, J M; Stewart-Smith, A

    2011-02-01

    This study used the Maslach Burnout Inventory to evaluate the degree of burnout among junior doctors at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital (RXH), Cape Town, and the influence thereof on the retention of valuable skills in the hospital. It further considered measures that could be taken to mitigate the causes of burnout, by means of qualitative methods. The research explores the significance of burnout and the role it plays in the retention of junior doctors at RXH. There has been an increase in the migration of medical doctors worldwide, with an exodus of doctors from South Africa. Along with the effects of HIV/AIDS, this places extra strain on those who remain. A two-part, mixed quantitative and qualitative study consisting of a validated measure, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, was sent to 39 junior doctors at RXH. Responses were received from 23 doctors (one of which was invalid), constituting a 60% response rate. The second part consisted of four semistructured interviews. Of the 22 respondents, 100% experienced a high degree of burnout on one of the three scales of burnout, namely emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and reduced accomplishment. Of those surveyed, 95% expressed an intention to leave RXH. The degree of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation experienced by the junior doctors at RXH was significantly higher than that in a normative sample of 1 104 doctors. Recruitment, improved management and planning, increased support, mentorship and a more empathetic administration were some of the factors suggested to mitigate the burnout experienced by the junior doctors.

  10. On the measurement of hospital case mix.

    PubMed

    Klastorin, T D; Watts, C A

    1980-06-01

    This article discusses a number of issues related to the measurement of hospital diagnostic case mix. We initially examine a number of previous attempts to measure case mix based on surrogate measures (e.g., facilities and services) and information from predetermined discharge-classification systems. Since a number of researchers have attempted to reduce diagnostic classification data into a single-valued (i.e., scalar) case mix index, we then discuss a number of concepts and assumptions implicit in the construction of such indices. Among these assumptions is the property of functional homogeneity; this property and a methodology baed on Q-type factor analysis for testing for the presence of this property are defined. In order to illustrate the use of the methodology, it is applied to data from 153 hospitals in downstate New York.

  11. Effectiveness of monovalent human rotavirus vaccine against admission to hospital for acute rotavirus diarrhoea in South African children: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Groome, Michelle J; Page, Nicola; Cortese, Margaret M; Moyes, Jocelyn; Zar, Heather J; Kapongo, Constant N; Mulligan, Christine; Diedericks, Ralph; Cohen, Cheryl; Fleming, Jessica A; Seheri, Mapaseka; Mphahlele, Jeffrey; Walaza, Sibongile; Kahn, Kathleen; Chhagan, Meera; Steele, A Duncan; Parashar, Umesh D; Zell, Elizabeth R; Madhi, Shabir A

    2014-11-01

    The effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccine under conditions of routine use in an African setting with a high prevalence of HIV infection needs to be established. We assessed the vaccine effectiveness of monovalent human rotavirus vaccine in preventing admission to hospital for acute rotavirus diarrhoea, after its introduction at age 6 and 14 weeks into South Africa's national immunisation programme. This case-control study was done at seven hospitals in South Africa between April 19, 2010, and Oct 31, 2012. The hospitals were located in a range of urban, peri-urban, and rural settings, with varying rates of population HIV infection. Cases were children aged from 18 weeks to 23 months who were age-eligible to have received at least one dose of the human rotavirus vaccine (ie, those born after June 14, 2009) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed acute rotavirus diarrhoea, and the primary control group was children admitted to hospital with diarrhoea testing negative for rotavirus. A second control group comprised children admitted to a subset of three of the seven hospitals with respiratory illness. The primary endpoint was adjusted vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted odds ratio × 100%) in children aged from 18 weeks to 23 months and was calculated by unconditional logistic regression. This study is registered on the South African National Clinical Trial Register, number DOH-27-0512-3247. Of 540 rotavirus-positive cases, 278 children (52%) received two doses, 126 (23%) one dose, and 136 (25%) no doses of human rotavirus vaccine, compared with 1434 rotavirus-negative controls of whom 856 (60%) received two doses, 334 (23%) one dose, and 244 (17%) no doses. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness using rotavirus-negative controls was 57% (95% CI 40-68) for two doses and 40% (16-57) for one dose; estimates were similar when respiratory controls were used as the control group. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness for two doses was similar between age groups 18 weeks

  12. Application of Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Engineering Site Investigation. A Case Study on Prospective Hospital Site, Varamin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Amin; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2016-12-01

    The article addresses the application of electrical resistivity imaging for engineering site investigation in Pishva Hospital, Varamin, Iran. Some aqueduct shafts exist in the study area backfilled by loose materials. The goals of this study are to detect probable aqueduct tunnels and their depth, investigate filling quality in the shafts as well as connection(s) between them. Therefore, three profiles were surveyed by dipoledipole electrode array. Also, to investigate the potentially anomalous areas more accurately, five additional resistivity profiles were measured by a Combined Resistivity Sounding-Profiling array (CRSP). According to the results of 2-D inversion modelling, a main aqueduct tunnel was detected beneath the central part of the site. Finally, the resistivity pattern of the detected aqueduct system passing the investigated area was provided using the obtained results.

  13. Risk and management in hospital water systems for Legionella pneumophila: a case study in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco

    2004-12-01

    This article analyses the water used at hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The research, based on microbiological and physical-chemical aspects, suggests subsidies for normalization of hospital potable water systems and makes recommendations for standardization of operational procedures for inspection for Legionella pneumophila. A total of 16 hospitals were inspected and positive results for the presence of L. pneumophila were found at five hospitals. These hospitals were integrated in a research project aiming at the detection and quantification of this pathogen. During 10 consecutive weeks, four collections representing a total of 200 analyses were done at the five researched hospitals. In this way seven physical-chemical parameters and three microbiological parameters were observed to evaluate the quality of water in each hospital. The results showed that routine surveillance for a hospital water distribution system is fundamental for public health and must include, as a priority, monitoring of L. pneumophila. The water quality varies in accordance with the hospital water system involved. It is important and necessary to implement environmental culturing in order to minimize hospital infection, in particular, pneumonia data and also to provide the basis for disinfection of the water system.

  14. Association between salinity and hospital admission for hypertension: an ecological case-control study in the Mekong Delta Region in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Hieu Nguyen, Trung; Phung, Dung

    2017-04-13

    Drinking water in the Mekong Delta Region (MDR) is highly vulnerable to salinity intrusion and this problem is expected to increase with the projected climate change and sea level rise. Despite this, research on health effects of saline contaminated water is scarce in this region. This study examines the risk of hospital admission for hypertension in salinity-affected areas of the MDR. Cases and controls were obtained from national/provincial hospital admission records for 2013. The cases were adult patients whom hypertension (ICD10-code: I10-I15) was primary diagnosis for admission. Of the 13 provinces in the MDR, we identified seven as 'salinity exposed' and the remaining as 'non-exposed' areas. A multi-level logistic regression model was used to examine the association between salinity exposure and hypertension outcome. Of the total 573 650 hospital admissions, 22 382 (~3.9%) were hypertensive cases. The multi-level logistic model combining both individual and ecological factors showed a 9% increase in risk (95% CI: 3-14%) of hypertension admission among individuals in exposed areas compared to those in non-exposed areas. In order to develop and promote appropriate adaptation strategies, further research is recommended to identify the salt exposure pathways and consumption behaviours in the salinity exposed areas.

  15. Hospital malnutrition: a 33-hospital screening study.

    PubMed

    Kamath, S K; Lawler, M; Smith, A E; Kalat, T; Olson, R

    1986-02-01

    A collaborative study involving nutrition screening of 3,047 patients (excluding 125 pregnant women) at admission to 33 hospitals in and around the greater Chicago area was carried out to identify patients at nutritional risk. Information on sex, age, admitting diagnosis, serum albumin, hemoglobin, total lymphocyte count, and height and weight was collected from the medical chart within 48 hours of admission. Nutrition screening could not be completed for a larger number of patients (60%) because data at admission were not available. Of the remaining 40% of patients, more than 50% had below normal values for one or more of the variables studied: serum albumin, hemoglobin, and total lymphocyte count. A large number of the patients (40%) also were considered at nutritional risk as judged by the criteria of weight/height (measured only). Early nutrition intervention for high-risk patients cannot be implemented, nor can the efficacy of nutrition services be evaluated, unless nutrition screening is carried out on patients at admission.

  16. Mission statement perception: Are we all on the same wavelength? A case study in a Flemish hospital.

    PubMed

    Desmidt, Sebastian; Heene, Aimé

    2007-01-01

    Although it is widely recognized that the effectiveness of mission statements is contingent upon the extent to which they are communicated to the organization's members, there is virtually no literature on how organizational members perceive the mission statement. To address these shortcomings, a research project was set up to seek (a) to assess how managers and nonmanagers perceive the mission statement and (b) to determine if there is a perception gap between both groups. In total, 102 nurses, nurse managers, and senior managers in a 217-bed Flemish hospital filled up a questionnaire, based on the Competing Values Framework for Managerial Communication, to assess their perception of the organizational mission statement. There is a mission statement perception gap between managers and nonmanagers. The scores of the management group are, in almost all cases, significantly higher. These findings suggest that managers have a more positive attitude toward the mission statement. To optimize the impact of the mission statement, managers should measure the perception of the mission statement and try to remediate possible mission statement perception gaps. The Competing Values Framework for Managerial Communication is offered as a tool to assess (a) the presence, (b) the direction, and (c) the intensity of possible mission statement perception gaps.

  17. [Minor emergency cases in big hospitals].

    PubMed

    Streuli, Rolf A

    2015-01-01

    Our hospitals are suffering from an increasing run of "minor emergency cases". Those are simple medical or surgical ailments that could be taken care of by a general practitioner's office in a competent and cost efficient way. Because of the ever growing problem of a shortage of general practitioners, those patients are directly going to the emergency room of our hospitals, where they are usually seen by a young and yet unexperienced doctor, who is ordering an expensive battery of tests even for minor troubles of his or her wellbeing. It was shown that emergency room crowding has a negative impact on the quality of patient care. The establishment of an office run by a general practitioner within the hospital emergency room may result in a certain relief of the situation.

  18. Hospital Admissions, Biological Therapy, and Surgery in Familial and Sporadic Cases of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study 1977-2011.

    PubMed

    Trier Moller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke; Andersson, Mikael; Jess, Tine

    2015-12-01

    Easily accessible predictors of disease course in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are scarce, and it remains largely unknown whether a family history of IBD predicts the course of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to compare the course of disease in familial and sporadic cases of IBD in a nationwide cohort study. From national registries, covering a population of 8,295,773 individuals, we obtained information on date and year of diagnosis of IBD cases, gender, age, and family ties. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios for IBD-related hospitalization, biological treatment, and surgery in familial versus sporadic cases of IBD. A total of 27,886 IBD cases, including 1006 IBD-relative pairs, were followed-up for up to 16 years, totaling 164,979 person-years. We observed no difference in risk of hospital admissions between familial and sporadic cases of IBD. However, patients with familial CD had significantly higher risk of major surgery than sporadic CD cases after 2 years of disease duration (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.07). Also, sensitivity analysis suggested a slightly reduced time from diagnosis to first tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor treatment among familial CD and UC cases as compared with sporadic cases. We found only minor differences in surgery rates and tumor necrosis factor exposure, between familial and sporadic cases of IBD. These findings may represent purely social rather than functional effects, which is consoling for newly diagnosed CD or UC patients with a family history of IBD.

  19. Risk of Out-of-Hospital Sudden Cardiac Death in Users of Domperidone, Proton Pump Inhibitors, or Metoclopramide: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Arana, Alejandro; Johannes, Catherine B; McQuay, Lisa J; Varas-Lorenzo, Cristina; Fife, Daniel; Rothman, Kenneth J

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked domperidone use with serious cardiac arrhythmias, including sudden cardiac death, but data on age, dose, and duration of use are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death associated with domperidone use versus proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), metoclopramide, or non-use of all three medications, and to evaluate the risk of sudden cardiac death in relation to age and domperidone dose. This was a population-based case-control study nested in a cohort of subjects aged ≥2 years in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink with one or more prescriptions for domperidone, any PPI, or metoclopramide from 2005 to 2011. Out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death was assessed by linkage with Hospital Episode Statistics and death certificates. Controls were matched on age, sex, and medical practice. The risk of sudden cardiac death in domperidone users versus risk in users of PPIs or metoclopramide was evaluated with multivariable conditional logistic regression; case-crossover analysis addressed possible residual confounding. From the study cohort (n = 681,104), 3239 sudden cardiac death cases were matched to 12,572 controls. The adjusted odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) for sudden cardiac death with current use of domperidone alone was 1.71 (0.92-3.18) versus non-use of study medications, 1.26 (0.68-2.34) versus current PPI use, and 0.40 (0.17-0.94) current metoclopramide use. The adjusted odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) relative to exposure to no study drug for domperidone >30 mg/day (eight cases, five controls) was 3.20 (0.59-17.3) and 1.65 (0.89-3.07) for age ≥61 years (27 cases, 49 controls). The odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) was 3.17 (1.72-5.83) for within-person periods of domperidone use versus non-use in the case-crossover analysis. Compared with non-use of any study drug, current domperidone use was associated with sudden cardiac death in nested case-control and case

  20. Analysis of nurse navigators' activities for hospital discharge coordination: a mixed method study for the case of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yatim, Fatima; Cristofalo, Paula; Ferrua, Marie; Girault, Anne; Lacaze, Marilene; Di Palma, Mario; Minvielle, Etienne

    2017-03-01

    Modern cancer care requires the development of clinical pathways to enhance coordination, but there are few descriptive studies about the content of coordination activities. More specifically, little is known about hospital discharge coordination, although this is seen as a sensitive phase of clinical pathway. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the categories of activities performed by nurse navigators for hospital discharge coordination. Patients supported within the Coordinating Outpatient Care department (COC) at Gustave Roussy (Villejuif, France). Study conducted over two consecutive phases (Feb-September 2014): (1) a qualitative phase to identify the categories of coordination activities (interviews with patients plus, focus groups with nurse navigators-NNs); (2) a quantitative phase to quantify the relative share of each category. The calls received through the telephone platform of COC (made by both patients and primary care providers) were systematically reported (caller; reason for the call; procedure performed) and then analyzed. Qualitative phase: 17 interviews with patients, plus 2 focus groups with NNs. Quantitative phase: 543 calls analyzed. The callers were patients or their relatives (38 %), private nurses (35 %), medical device providers (20 %), and other primary care providers (e.g., pharmacists, family physicians) (7 %). Five categories of coordination activities identified: (F1) Patient monitoring (29 %); (F2) Helping to navigate (24 %); (F3) Managing technical problems (17 %); (F4) Explaining care protocols (16 %); (F5) Collecting and transmitting the patient medical record information (14 %). The majority of requirements are related to organizational issues (e.g., navigation, lack of information, appointments). Nurse navigators' training and qualification must therefore combine both clinical and managerial skills.

  1. Short-term effects of ozone air pollution on hospital admissions for myocardial infarction: A time-stratified case-crossover study in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was a correlation between ambient ozone (O3) levels and number of hospital admissions for myocardial infarction (MI) in Taipei, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for MI and ambient air pollution data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006 to 2010. The relative risk (RR) of hospital admissions for MI was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased RR for a number of MI admissions was significantly associated with higher O3 levels both on warm days (>23°C) and on cool days (<23°C). This observation was accompanied by an interquartile range elevation correlated with a 7% (95% CI = 2%-12%) and 17% (95% CI = 11%-25%) rise in number of MI admissions, respectively. In the two-pollutant models, no significant associations between ambient O3 concentrations and number of MI admissions were observed on warm days. However, on cool days, correlation between ambient O3 after inclusion of each of the other five pollutants, particulate matter (PM10 or PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) or carbon monoxide (CO), and number of MI admissions remained significant. This study provides evidence that higher levels of ambient O3 increase the RR of number of hospital admissions for MI.

  2. [Breastfeeding counseling and early mother-child contact are associated with exclusive maternal breastfeeding. A hospital-based-case-control study].

    PubMed

    González-Salazar, Francisco; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Robledo-García, José A; Valdovinos-Chávez, Salvador; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and some factors that may influence breastfeeding in a closely related population attending a private hospital sponsored by a major Mexican brewing company. We carried out a retrospective hospital-based unmatched case-control study. A sample of 124 mother-newborn couples was interviewed in a private medical unit in Monterrey, Mexico, from January 2001 to January 2002. The association between EBF and 11 explanatory factors was analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Counseling and early contact between mother-newborn couples were positively associated with EBF. Counseling and early contact improve EBF practice. We believe these two practices would favor better adherence to EBF in other populations.

  3. Risk factors associated with carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae fecal carriage: A case-control study in a Spanish tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Madueño, Ana; González García, Jonathan; Ramos, Maria José; Pedroso, Yanet; Díaz, Zaida; Oteo, Jesus; Lecuona, María

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is an important reservoir for transmission that may precede infection. This prospective, observational, case-control study was designed to identify risk factors for carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPKP) fecal carriage. This study included 87 cases and 200 controls. Multivariate analysis identified length of stay (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.03; P = .03), previous hospitalization (OR, 5.89; 95% CI, 1.73-20.68; P = .01), antibiotic use (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.65-0.62; P = .01), and corticosteroid use (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.74; P = .007) as independent risk factors for CPKP rectal carriage. Length of hospital stay, previous hospitalization, corticosteroid use, and antimicrobial exposure are important risk factors for CPKP rectal colonization. Adherence to infection control practices and directed surveillance programs appear to be critical components for CPKP control programs.

  4. [Multicenter study of pain assessment in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Vallano, A; Payrulet, P; Malouf, J; Baños, J E

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the recording of pain intensity in hospital charts. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 15 hospitals in a sample of admitted patients with pain. Clinical data, including pain intensity, were gathered from the hospital records. Multiple analysis of variance was used to identify factors related to the intensity of pain recorded in the patients' charts. A total of 1038 patients with a mean (SD) age of 56.1 (18.9) years were included. Pain intensity was noted in the charts of 47.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44.9%-50.9%) of the patients. Pain intensity had been noted for 68.9% (95% CI, 61.4%-76.4%) of the patients with cancer, 43% (95% CI, 38.2%-47.8%) of postoperative patients, 38.2% (95% CI, 35%-41.4%) of trauma patients, and 26.6% (95% CI, 16.9%-36.3%) of postpartum women. There was great interhospital variability. Factors associated with the recording of pain intensity in medical charts were hospital characteristics (large hospitals, teaching hospitals, hospitals and internal medicine and surgical specialities) and type of patient (cancer and trauma cases and patients reporting pain to the staff). There is inadequate written recording of intensity of pain in hospitals, even though there is considerable interhospital variation. Pain intensity assessment and recording is an indicator of quality of health care and should become a routine practice in hospital health care.

  5. Effectiveness of adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines (Inflexal V ® and Fluad ® ) in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia in the elderly: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela; Lai, Piero Luigi; Rossi, Stefania; Panatto, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Annual vaccination is the main mean of preventing influenza in the elderly. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines available in Italy in preventing hospitalization for influenza and pneumonia, a matched case-control study was performed in elderly subjects during the 2010-2011 season in Genoa (Italy). Cases and controls were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to gender, age, socio-economic status and type of influenza vaccine. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as IVE = [(1-OR)x100] and crude odds ratios were estimated through conditional logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated through multivariable logistic models.   In the study area, influenza activity was moderate in the 2010-2011 season, with optimal matching between circulating viruses and vaccine strains. We recruited 187 case-control pairs; 46.5% of cases and 79.1% of controls had been vaccinated. The adjuvanted influenza vaccines (Fluad (®) considered together with Inflexal V (®) ) were associated with a significant reduction in the risk of hospitalization, their effectiveness being 94.8% (CI 77.1-98.8). Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 95.2% (CI 62.8-99.4) and 87.8 (CI 0.0-98.9) for Inflexal V (®) and Fluad (®) , respectively. Both adjuvanted vaccines proved effective, although the results displayed statistical significance only for Inflexal V (®) (p = 0.004), while for Fluad (®) statistical significance was not reached (p = 0.09). Our study is the first to provide information on the effectiveness of Inflexal V (®) in terms of reducing hospitalizations for influenza or pneumonia in the elderly, and demonstrates that this vaccine yields a high degree of protection and that its use would generate considerable saving for the National Health Service.

  6. Variation between Hospitals with Regard to Diagnostic Practice, Coding Accuracy, and Case-Mix. A Retrospective Validation Study of Administrative Data versus Medical Records for Estimating 30-Day Mortality after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Skyrud, Katrine Damgaard; Lindman, Anja Schou

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of patient administrative data (PAS) for calculating 30-day mortality after hip fracture as a quality indicator, by a retrospective study of medical records. Methods We used PAS data from all Norwegian hospitals (2005–2009), merged with vital status from the National Registry, to calculate 30-day case-mix adjusted mortality for each hospital (n = 51). We used stratified sampling to establish a representative sample of both hospitals and cases. The hospitals were stratified according to high, low and medium mortality of which 4, 3, and 5 hospitals were sampled, respectively. Within hospitals, cases were sampled stratified according to year of admission, age, length of stay, and vital 30-day status (alive/dead). The final study sample included 1043 cases from 11 hospitals. Clinical information was abstracted from the medical records. Diagnostic and clinical information from the medical records and PAS were used to define definite and probable hip fracture. We used logistic regression analysis in order to estimate systematic between-hospital variation in unmeasured confounding. Finally, to study the consequences of unmeasured confounding for identifying mortality outlier hospitals, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The estimated overall positive predictive value was 95.9% for definite and 99.7% for definite or probable hip fracture, with no statistically significant differences between hospitals. The standard deviation of the additional, systematic hospital bias in mortality estimates was 0.044 on the logistic scale. The effect of unmeasured confounding on outlier detection was small to moderate, noticeable only for large hospital volumes. Conclusions This study showed that PAS data are adequate for identifying cases of hip fracture, and the effect of unmeasured case mix variation was small. In conclusion, PAS data are adequate for calculating 30-day mortality after hip-fracture as a quality

  7. Opioid-Linked Hospitalizations Rising Fastest for Women: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hospitalizations Rising Fastest for Women: Study U.S. cases rose 75 percent for females vs. 55 percent for ... Among women, hospitalizations involving opioid painkillers or heroin rose 75 percent, compared to 55 percent among men, ...

  8. Bathing hospitalized dependent patients with prepackaged disposable washcloths instead of traditional bath basins: A case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily Toth; Haider, Samran; Palleschi, Maria; Eagle, Sommer; Crisostomo, Delfin V; Haddox, Pamela; Harmon, Laura; Mazur, Robin; Moshos, Judy; Marchaim, Dror; Kaye, Keith S

    2017-09-01

    Basins used for patient bathing have been shown to be contaminated with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) and have prompted the evaluation of alternatives to soap and water bathing methods. We conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label interventional crossover study to assess the impact of replacing traditional bath basins with prepackaged washcloths on the incidence of hospital-associated infections (HAIs), MDROs, and secondarily, rates of skin deterioration. Unit-wide use of disposable washcloths over an 8-month period was compared with an 8-month period of standard care using basins. A total of 2,637 patients were included from 2 medical-surgical units at a single tertiary medical center, contributing 16,034 patient days. During the study period, there were a total of 33 unit-acquired infections, the rates of which were not statistically different between study phases (incidence rate ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-2.23; P = .88). However, occurrence of skin integrity deterioration was significantly less in the intervention group (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.22-0.88; P = .02). Although we were unable to demonstrate a significant reduction in HAI or MDRO acquisition, we found a decrease in skin deterioration with the use of disposable washcloths and confirmed earlier findings of MDRO contamination of wash basins. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Is Sexual Abuse a Part of War? A 4-Year Retrospective Study on Cases of Sexual Abuse at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omondi, Lilian; Olando, Yvonne; Makenyengo, Margaret; Bukusi, David

    2013-01-01

    The harmful effects of sexual abuse are long lasting. Sexual abuse when associated with violence is likely to impact negatively on the life of the victim. Anecdotal reports indicate that there was an increase in the number of cases of sexual violence following the 2007 post election conflict and violence in Kenya. Although such increases in sexual abuse are common during war or conflict periods the above reports have not been confirmed through research evidence. The purpose of the current study is to establish the trend in numbers of reported cases of sexual abuse at Kenyatta National Hospital over a 4-year period (2006-2009). Data on sexually abused persons for the year 2006-2009 was retrieved from the hospitals record. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect relevant data from the completed Post Rape Care (PRC) form. The PRC-Ministry of Health no. 363 (MOH363) form is mandatorily completed by the physician attending the sexually abused patient. There was an increase in the number of cases of sexual abuse reported in 2007 election year in Kenya, with a statistically significant increase in the sexually abused male cases. Sexual crime is more prevalent when there is war or conflict. PMID:28299094

  10. [Healthcare and maternal morbidity and mortality: a hospital-based case-control study in two regions of Colombia (Bogotá and Antioquia), 2009-2011].

    PubMed

    Yepes, Francisco J; Gómez, Joaquin G; Zuleta, John Jairo; Londoño, Juan Luis; Acosta-Reyes, Jorge Luis; Sánchez-Gómez, Luz Helena; Ramírez, Marta L

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to identify whether payment forms and insurance schemes are associated with severe obstetric complications and maternal mortality. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in two regions of Colombia, 2009-2011. Data were obtained from each woman's clinical history. Unconditional logistic regression was used. The sample included 1,011 patients: 337 cases and 674 controls. No quality component was statistically significant in either region. In Bogotá, the risk of obstetric complications was significantly higher in the contributive insurance scheme than in subsidized coverage or uninsured; Antioquia showed similar associations, but not statistically significant. Differences in maternal morbidity according to payment scheme were not statistically significant in either Antioquia or Bogotá. Factors associated with maternal morbidity and mortality differed according to the study population, suggesting the need for local studies to identify determinants and make appropriate decisions.

  11. Incorporation of public hospitals: a "silver bullet" against overcapacity, managerial bottlenecks and resource constraints? Case studies from Austria and Estonia.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Armin H; Haslinger, Reinhard R; Hofmarcher, Maria M; Jesse, Maris; Palu, Toomas

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach for incorporating public hospitals by contrasting the experience from an "old" EU country (Austria) with a new EU member state (Estonia). In the EU (including the new member states) hospital overcapacity is a serious problem, from a technical, fiscal and political perspective. Few countries have succeeded in establishing an appropriate framework for resource management and for guaranteeing long-term financial viability of their hospital network. Many countries are in search of effective policies for improved hospital management and more cost-effective resource use in the health sector. Over the past decade, experiences in Austria and Estonia have emerged as innovative examples which may provide lessons for other EU countries and beyond. This paper describes the evolution of public hospitals from public budgetary units and public management to incorporated autonomous organizations under private corporate law, resulting in a contractual relationship between (public) owners and private hospital management. Outdated and inefficient public sector structures were replaced by more agile corporate management. The arrangement allows for investments, operating costs and budgeting according to strategic business goals as opposed to political "fiat". Shielding hospitals from local political influence is an important aspect of this concept. Horizontal integration through networking of public hospitals and introducing private management helps create a new corporate culture, allowing for more flexibility to achieve efficiencies through downsizing and economies of scale. Based on contracts the new balance between ownership and managerial functions create strong incentives for a more business-like, results-oriented and consumer-friendly management. This was achieved both in Austria and Estonia in a politically sensitive way, adopting a long-term vision and by protecting the interests of hospital owners and staff.

  12. Comparing approaches for studying the effects of climate extremes - a case study of hospital admissions in Sweden during an extremely warm summer.

    PubMed

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Forsberg, Bertil

    2009-11-11

    Health effects induced by climate, weather and climatic change may act directly or indirectly on human physiology. The future total burden of global warming is uncertain, but in some areas and for specific outcomes, mortality and morbidity are likely to increase. One likely effect of global warming is an increasing number of extreme weather events, such as floods, storms and heat waves. The excess numbers of specific health outcomes attributable to climate-induced events can be estimated. This paper compares approaches for estimating excess numbers of outcomes associated with climate extremes, exemplified by a case study of hospital admissions during the extremely warm summer of 2006 in southern Sweden. Daily hospital admission data were obtained from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare for six hospitals in the Skåne region of southern Sweden for the period 1998 to 2006. Daily temperature data for the region were obtained from the meteorological station in the city of Malmö. We used four established approaches for estimating the daily excess numbers associated with extreme heat. Time series of daily event rates were assumed to follow a Poisson distribution. Excess event rates were compared by using several approaches, such as standardised event ratios and generalised additive models to estimate the health risks attributable to the extreme climate event. The four approaches yielded vastly different results. The estimates of excess were considerably biased when not accounting for time trends in previous years' data. Three of four approaches showed a significant increase in excess hospitalisation rates attributable to the heat episode in Skåne in 2006. However, modelling the effect of temperature failed to describe the risks induced by the extreme heat. Estimates of excess events depend greatly on the approach used. Further research is needed to identify which method yielded the most accurate estimates. However, one of the approaches used generally

  13. [Does the hospital cost of care differ for inflammatory bowel disease patients with or without gastrointestinal infections? A case-control study].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Köhler, F; Kräplin, T; Hartmann, M; Lerch, M M; Stallmach, A

    2014-07-01

    Gastrointestinal Infections have been implicated as possible causes of exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or risk factors for severe flares in general. The introduction of the G-DRG reimbursement system has greatly increased the pressure to provide cost effective treatment in German hospitals. Few studies have compared the costs of treating IBD patients with or without gastrointestinal infections and none of them have specifically considered the German reimbursement situation. We performed a single center case-control retrospective chart review from 2002 to 2011 of inpatients with IBD (Department of Internal Medicine IV, University Hospital Jena) with an exacerbation of their disease. The presence of gastrointestinal infections (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, adeno-, rota-, norovirus and Clostridium difficile) was assessed in all inpatients with Cohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). IBD patients with gastrointestinal infections (n = 79) were matched for age to IBD patients who were negative for gastrointestinal pathogens (n = 158). Patient level costing (PLC) was used to express the total cost of hospital care for each patient; PLC comprised a weighted daily bed cost plus cost of all medical services provided (e. g., endoscopy, microbiology, pathology) calculated according to an activity-based costing approach. All costs were discounted to 2012 values. Gastrointestinal infections in IBD patients were not associated with an increase in mortality (0%); however, they were associated with 2.3-fold higher total hospital charges (6499.10 € vs. 2817.00 €; p = 0.001) and increased length of stay in hospital (14.5 vs. 9.4 days; p <  0.0001). Despite increased reimbursement by DRG for IBD patients with gastrointestinal infections compared to patients without infections (3833.90 € vs. 2553.50 €; p = 0.005), hospital care in these patients was substantially underfunded (deficit -2496.80 € vs. -433.10 €) because of

  14. Short-Term Effects of Coarse Particulate Matter on Hospital Admissions for Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case-Crossover Study in a Tropical City.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between coarse particles (PM2.5-10) levels and frequency of hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Hospital admissions for CVD, including ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, congestive heart failure (CHF), and arrhythmias, and ambient air pollution data levels for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period 2006-2010. The relative risk of hospital admissions for CVD was estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), increased rates of admissions for CVD were significantly associated with higher coarse PM levels only on cool days (< 25°C), with a 10-μg/m(3) elevation in PM2.5-10 concentrations associated with a 3% (95% CI = 2-4%) rise in IHD admissions, 5% (95% CI = 4-6%) increase in stroke admissions, 3% (95% CI = 1-6%) elevation in CHF admissions, and 3% (95% CI = 0-6%) rise in arrhythmias admissions. No significant associations were found between coarse particle levels and number of hospital admissions for CVD on warm days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5-10 levels remained significantly correlated with higher rate of CVD admissions even controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, or ozone on cool days. Compared to the effect estimate associated with a 10-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 levels, effect estimates of frequency of CVD-related admissions associated with a 10-μg/m(3) rise in coarse PM levels were weaker. This study provides evidence that higher levels of PM2.5-10 enhance the risk of hospital admissions for CVD.

  15. Serological Evidence of Scrub Typhus among Cases of PUO in the Kashmir Valley- A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Nargis; Kanth, Farhath; Farooq, Rumana; Haq, Inam Ul; Shah, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rickettsial infections are being increasingly recognized as a cause of acute febrile illnesses and should be considered a distinct possibility in patients presenting with suggestive clinical features. Their diagnosis remains a challenge in a country like ours where tests like immunofluorescence assay cannot be routinely done. Results of serological tests, when correlated with patients clinical profile can aid in the timely diagnosis of scrub typhus. Aim To find out the extent to which scrub typhus contributes to Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) in patients admitted to or attending the OPD of our hospital using simple tests like Weil-Felix Agglutination Test (WFT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Srinagar, over a period of eight months (1st March to 31st October 2015). Serum samples from patients suffering from Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) were processed for the detection of Scrub typhus. A total of 162 samples were included in the study. These were subjected to WFT using OX-K strain. The serum samples were diluted 1/20 to 1/640 and a titre of ≥ 1:160 was considered as positive. The samples were also tested for IgM and IgG antibodies for scrub typhus by ELISA and tube agglutination test was done to detect typhoid fever and brucellosis. Results Of the 162 serum samples tested 22.8% tested positive scrub typhus by WFT. IgM ELISA and IgG was positive in 8 (4.9%) and 15 (9.3%) samples respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of WFT; taking IgM ELISA as a reference standard were 75%, 79.9%, 16.2% and 98.4% respectively. Conclusion Scrub typhus is prevalent in our state and the results of WFT supplemented by those of ELISA can aid in its diagnosis. However the results of these tests should always be regarded in light of the clinical condition of the patient. PMID

  16. A case study: surface contamination of cyclophosphamide due to working practices and cleaning procedures in two Italian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Acampora, Antonio; Castiglia, Loredana; Miraglia, Nadia; Pieri, Maria; Soave, Claudio; Liotti, Francesco; Sannolo, Nicola

    2005-10-01

    The efficacy of preventive and organisational measures implemented in Italy to prevent the contamination of cytotoxic drug preparation rooms has been investigated, and oncologic wards of two Italian hospitals were examined. The sampling strategy was based not only on potential sources of contamination but also on responses to detailed questionnaires on workplace practices and work organisation. Wipe samples were taken from different surfaces of preparation rooms, before and after the work shift, over a span of a month. Cyclophosphamide was taken as the marker drug that reflects exposure to cytotoxic drugs, being measurable by GC/MS. In one of the two hospitals (Hospital A), a large amount of cyclophosphamide was found, both before and after shift, on the workbench (median value, 2.55 microg dm(-2), before shift), on the floor between the operator working position and the waste bin (>10 microg dm(-2), after shift), as also on door handles and storage shelves. No quantifiable levels of cytotoxic drug were detected in the second hospital investigated (Hospital B). These results could be attributed to the efficacy of cleaning procedures and working practices. In fact, both hospitals were provided with vertical-laminar airflow hoods and the (male) nurses had attended special training courses; but in Hospital A, cleaning procedures were carried out without substances used specifically for the cleaning of surfaces contaminated by cytotoxic drugs such as sodium hypochlorite. Working practices did not include Luer Lock devices. Cyclophosphamide concentrations found in both hospitals, compared with the quantities of drug handled, gave evidence of the importance of the correct handling of cytotoxic agents as a major tool in reducing contamination levels. The results reveal the insufficiency of the risk management measures which do not take into account working practices that are prevailing, and stress the necessity for periodic environmental monitoring, indispensable for

  17. Preparedness of County Referral Health Facilities in Implementing Adolescent Friendly Health Services: A Case Study of Mama Lucy Kibaki Hospital.

    PubMed

    Owuondo, Pacific Akinyi; Mwaura-Tenembergen, Wanja; Adoyo, Maureen; Kiilu, Elizabeth M

    2015-03-25

    Health service delivery is a key pillar of the health system management. The World Health Organization recently emphasized the need to develop adolescent -friendly health services to improve the care provided to young people throughout the world. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on this subject therefore necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities are prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Adolescent friendly health services remains a relatively new and sensitive area mainly due to restrictive norms and policies guiding the services. After International Conference on Population and Development in 1994, countries started implementing adolescent friendly health services. The Government of Kenya together with partners in an attempt to address the health challenges came up with the Adolescent package of care (APOC) in 2013 whose guidelines were finalized in November 2014 and released for use by service providers . Despite this package of care, there is still ineffective staff capacity in relation to skills and knowledge gap of health professionals, training needs, health resources as well as health system factors that can affect implementation of AFHS. The study explored ways of mitigating or addressing the barriers to implementation of these services. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to collect data. The study utilized survey research adapting descriptive cross sectional design and semi-structured questionnaire to interview 348 health care providers and 472 adolescents in Mam Lucy Kibaki Hospital from 3rd May 2014 to 16 June 2014. The key informants were mainly nurses, clinical officers and Medical doctors who were working at the health service delivery area at the time of study and were interviewed using an interview guide. The managers at the hospital were interviewed using an in-depth interview guide while the adolescents were interviewed through interview guide and focused

  18. Lifestyle-Associated Risk Factors for Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in the Netherlands: An Exploratory Hospital-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    van Rijen, Miranda M. L.; Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein F. Q.; Verkade, Erwin J. M.; ten Ham, Peter B. G.; Feingold, Beth J.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is rapidly increasing. Currently, it is unknown which reservoirs are involved. An exploratory hospital-based case-control study was performed in sixteen Dutch hospitals to identify risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage in patients not belonging to established risk groups. Methods Cases were in- or outpatients from sixteen Dutch hospitals, colonised or infected with MRSA without healthcare- or livestock-associated risk factors for MRSA carriage. Control subjects were patients not carrying MRSA, and hospitalised on the same ward or visited the same outpatients' clinic as the case. The presence of potential risk factors for CA-MRSA carriage was determined using a standardised questionnaire. Results Regular consumption of poultry (OR 2⋅40; 95% CI 1⋅08–5⋅33), cattle density per municipality (OR 1⋅30; 95% CI 1⋅00–1⋅70), and sharing of scuba diving equipment (OR 2⋅93 95% CI 1⋅19–7⋅21) were found to be independently associated with CA-MRSA carriage. CA-MRSA carriage was not related to being of foreign origin. Conclusions The observed association between the consumption of poultry and CA-MRSA carriage suggests that MRSA in the food chain may be a source for MRSA carriage in humans. Although sharing of scuba diving equipment was found to be associated with CA-MRSA carriage, the role played by skin abrasions in divers, the lack of decontamination of diving materials, or the favourable high salt content of sea water is currently unclear. The risk for MRSA MC398 carriage in areas with a high cattle density may be due to environmental contamination with MRSA MC398 or human-to-human transmission. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and to determine the absolute risks of MRSA acquisition associated with the factors identified. PMID:23840344

  19. The SNP rs931794 in 15q25.1 Is Associated with Lung Cancer Risk: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Weiguo; Lu, Xuzai; Wang, Zhenling; Gong, Hongyun; Xu, Tangpeng; Chen, Xueqin; Xu, Bin; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Yun; Gong, Yajie; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the most common human malignant diseases and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The rs931794, a SNP located in 15q25.1, has been suggested to be associated with lung cancer risk. Nevertheless, several genetic association studies yielded controversial results. Methods and Findings A hospital-based case-control study involving 611 cases and 1062 controls revealed the variant of rs931794 was related to increased lung cancer risk. Stratified analyses revealed the G allele was significantly associated with lung cancer risk among smokers. Following meta-analysis including 6616 cases and 7697 controls confirmed the relevance of rs931794 variant with increased lung cancer risk once again. Heterogeneity should be taken into account when interpreting the consequences. Stratified analysis found ethnicity, histological type and genotyping method were not the sources of between-study heterogeneity. Further sensitivity analysis revealed that the study “Hsiung et al (2010)” might be the major contributor to heterogeneity. Cumulative meta-analysis showed the trend was increasingly obvious with adding studies, confirming the significant association. Conclusions Results from our current case-control study and meta-analysis offered insight of association between rs931794 and lung cancer risk, suggesting the variant of rs931794 might be related with increased lung cancer risk. PMID:26079375

  20. Campylobacter jejuni infection in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a prospective case control study in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Lal, V; Modi, M; Vaishnavi, C; Prabhakar, S

    2011-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is a common post-infectious polyradiculoneuropathy worldwide. The commonest implicated causative organism the world over is Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni). This study was carried out to determine the relationship between C. jejuni infection and GBS in an Indian setting. This prospective study was carried out on a cohort of 50 patients with GBS who were treated in a tertiary care hospital in India. Based on electrophysiological findings the patients were divided into various subtypes. Serology for C. jejuni (Immunoglogulin G, IgG and Immunoglogulin, IgM) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA) was done both in patients and 40 age, sex and geographically matched controls. Evidence of recent C. jejuni infection was present in 30% of GBS patients compared to 8% of controls (15/50 vs. 3/40 P<0.005). Eight (47%) C. jejuni-positive patients reported symptoms of gastroenteritis 4-30 days (mean 13 days) prior to onset of GBS. Of the 15 patients with evidence of C. jejuni infection, 10 (67%) patients had axonal type of GBS. Axonal variety of GBS presented in a younger age group compared to acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) patients (mean age: axonal vs. AIDP: 30.11 + 13.73 vs. 40.2 + 18.77). C. jejuni-positive patients presented mainly in spring and winter and had a similar age and sex incidence as compared to the rest of the GBS patients. Preceding C. jejuni infection is common among GBS patients and is often associated with the axonal variety of GBS. Axonal variety of GBS generally presents in a younger age group as compared to AIDP.

  1. Risk factors for surgical site infection following cesarean section in a Brazilian Women's Hospital: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Farret, Túlio Cícero Franco; Dallé, Jessica; Monteiro, Vinícius da Silva; Riche, Cezar Vinícius Würdig; Antonello, Vicente Sperb

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated patients with diagnosis of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean section and their controls to determinate risk factors and impact of antibiotic prophylaxis on this condition. All cesareans performed from January 2009 to December 2012 were evaluated for SSI, based on criteria established by CDC/NHSN. Control patients were determined after inclusion of case patients. Medical records of case and control patients were reviewed and compared regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Our study demonstrated an association following univariate analysis between post-cesarean SSI and number of internal vaginal examinations, time of membrane rupture, emergency cesarean and improper use of antibiotic prophylaxis. This same situation did not repeat itself in multivariate analysis with adjustment for risk factors, especially with regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, considering the emergency cesarean factor only. The authors of the present study not only question surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis use based on data presented here and in literature, but suggest that the prophylaxis is perhaps indicated primarily in selected groups of patients undergoing cesarean section. Further research with greater number of patients and evaluated risk factors are fundamental for better understanding of the causes and evolution of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. The impact of PPS on hospital-sponsored post-acute services: a case study of Delaware Medicare providers.

    PubMed

    Kulesher, Robert R; Wilder, Margaret G

    2008-01-01

    Hospitals were the first providers to experience the change in Medicare reimbursement from a cost basis to the prospective payment system (PPS). In the 1980s, this switch was accomplished through the development of diagnosis-related groups, a unique formula for Medicare reimbursement of inpatient hospital services. During that time, the concern was that, with the anticipated reduced payments to hospitals, adverse impacts on Medicare beneficiaries were likely, including premature release of patients from hospital care resulting in medical complications, increased readmissions, prolonged episodes of recuperation, and preventable mortality. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) mandated the implementation of the PPS for Medicare providers of skilled nursing home care and home health care. This change from cost-based reimbursement to PPS raised concerns that these providers would react as hospitals had done-that is, skilled nursing homes might limit their admission of Medicare patients and home health agencies might cut back on visits. As a result of that, hospitals might be faced with providing care for these post-acute patients without receiving additional reimbursement, and these changes in utilization patterns would be of critical importance to both providers and Medicare beneficiaries. This article examines the decisions that providers made in response to the perceived impact of the BBA. Qualitative data were derived from provider interviews. The article concludes with a discussion of how changes in Medicare reimbursement policy have influenced providers of post-acute care services to alter their level of participation in Medicare and the impact this may have on the general public as well as on Medicare beneficiaries.

  3. Lifestyle and diet in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in Vietnam: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chung T; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Tran, Dinh V; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle and diet are important determinants of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Their impact on T2D can be evaluated using clinical and epidemiological approaches. Randomised controlled trials are the most rigorous design but expensive to conduct, whereas prospective cohort studies are time-consuming and less powerful for populations with a low incidence of the disease. Case-control studies are considered appropriate in resource-limited settings. A hospital-based case-control study protocol has been developed to investigate the role of lifestyle and dietary factors in T2D aetiology for adults in Vietnam. A total of 1100 patients aged 40-65 years (550 T2D cases and 550 controls) will be recruited from a tertiary hospital in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. Cases and controls will be frequency-matched on age (±3 years), gender, and residential location. T2D will be diagnosed according to the 2006 World Health Organisation criteria. Habitual physical activity will be assessed by the Vietnamese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Food and beverage consumption will be ascertained using a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire, specifically developed for the Vietnamese population. Information on demographic and other personal characteristics will be collected, together with anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Descriptive statistics and unconditional logistic regression analyses will be performed to examine factors associated with the T2D prevalence. The proposed study will elucidate the role of lifestyle and diet in T2D prevalence among Vietnamese adults. Findings concerning pertinent factors will provide epidemiological evidence for the development of focused interventions, and contribute to the formulation of national policies to prevent and control T2D in Vietnam.

  4. A Process Model for IT Migrations in the Context of a Hospital Merger - Results from an Austrian Case Study.

    PubMed

    Steininger, Katharina; Kempinger, Birgit; Schiffer, Stefan; Pomberger, Gustav

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, a new university hospital merged from three former independent Austrian hospitals started its operation. This paper presents a process model developed to coordinate the IT migration after the merger, using five phases to meet the requirements of the specific setting. A methodological mix of interviews, surveys and workshops was applied during the IT migration process. High stakeholder participation and a transparent methodical approach led to a broad agreement on success factors, migration objectives, and evaluation results. Thus, acceptance for the finally selected migration scenario was very high among employees, which is known to be crucial for the success of migration projects.

  5. Beta-Blockers, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, and the Risk of Hyperkalemia Requiring Hospitalization in the Elderly: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Matthew A.; Juurlink, David N.; Gomes, Tara; Mamdani, Muhammad; Hackam, Daniel G.; Jain, Arsh K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The simultaneous use of beta adrenergic receptor blockers (β-blockers) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) may confer a high risk of hyperkalemia. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Two nested case-control studies were conducted to examine the association between hospitalization for hyperkalemia and the use of TMP-SMX in older patients receiving β-blockers. Linked health administrative records from Ontario, Canada, were used to assemble a cohort of 299,749 β-blockers users, aged 66 years or older and capture data regarding medication use and hospital admissions for hyperkalemia. Results: Over the study period from 1994 to 2008, 189 patients in this cohort were hospitalized for hyperkalemia within 14 days of receiving a study antibiotic. Compared with amoxicillin, the use of TMP-SMX was associated with a substantially greater risk of hyperkalemia requiring hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio, 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 9.4). No such risk was identified with ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, or nitrofurantoin. When dosing was considered, the association was greater at higher doses of TMP-SMX. When the primary analysis was repeated in a cohort of non-β-blocker users, the risk of hyperkalemia comparing TMP-SMX to amoxicillin was not significantly different from that found among β-blocker users. Conclusions: Although TMP-SMX is associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia in older adults, these findings show no added risk when used in combination with β-blockers. PMID:20595693

  6. Impact of China's Public Hospital Reform on Healthcare Expenditures and Utilization: A Case Study in ZJ Province.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Hu, Huimei; Wu, Christina; Yu, Hai; Dong, Hengjin

    2015-01-01

    High drug costs due to supplier-induced demand (SID) obstruct healthcare accessibility in China. Drug prescriptions can generate markup-related profits, and the low prices of other medical services can lead to labor-force underestimations; therefore, physicians are keen to prescribe drugs rather than services. Thus, in China, a public hospital reform has been instituted to cancel markups and increase service prices. A retrospective pre/post-reform study was conducted in ZJ province to assess the impact of the reform on healthcare expenditures and utilization, ultimately to inform policy development and decision-making. The main indicators are healthcare expenditures and utilization. Post-reform, drug expenditures per visit decreased by 8.2% and 15.36% in outpatient and inpatient care, respectively; service expenditures per visit increased by 23.03% and 27.69% in outpatient and inpatient care, respectively. Drug utilization per visit increased by 5.58% in outpatient care and underwent no significant change in inpatient care. Both were lower than the theoretical drug-utilization level, which may move along the demand curve because of patient-initiated demand (PID); this indicates that SID-promoted drug utilization may decrease. Finally, service utilization per visit increased by 6% in outpatient care and by 13.10% in inpatient care; both were higher than the theoretical level moving along the demand curve, and this indicates that SID-promoted service utilization may increase. The reform reduces drug-prescription profits by eliminating drug markups; additionally, it compensates for service costs by increasing service prices. Post-reform, the SID of drug prescriptions decreased, which may reduce drug-resource waste. The SID of services increased, with potentially positive and negative effects: accessibility to services may be promoted when physicians provide more services, but the risk of resource waste may also increase. This warrants further research. It is

  7. The impact of physician-owned specialty orthopaedic hospitals on surgical volume and case complexity in competing hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Hagen, Tyson P; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Cram, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Published studies of physician-owned specialty hospitals have typically examined the impact of these hospitals on disparities, quality, and utilization at a national level. Our objective was to examine the impact of newly opened physician-owned specialty orthopaedic hospitals on individual competing general hospitals. We used Medicare Part A administrative data to identify all physician-owned specialty orthopaedic hospitals performing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 1991 and 2005. We identified newly opened specialty hospitals in three representative markets (Durham, NC, Kansas City, and Oklahoma City) and assessed their impact on surgical volume and patient case complexity for the five competing general hospitals located closest to each specialty hospital. The average general hospital maintained THA and TKA volume following the opening of the specialty hospitals. The average general hospital also did not experience an increase in patient case complexity. Thus, based on these three markets, we found no clear evidence that entry of physician-owned specialty orthopaedic hospitals resulted in declines in THA or TKA volume or increases in patient case complexity for the average competing general hospital.

  8. Physician’ entrepreneurship explained: a case study of intra-organizational dynamics in Dutch hospitals and specialty clinics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Challenges brought about by developments such as continuing market reforms and budget reductions have strained the relation between managers and physicians in hospitals. By applying neo-institutional theory, we research how intra-organizational dynamics between physicians and managers induce physicians to become entrepreneurs by starting a specialty clinic. In addition, we determine the nature of this change by analyzing the intra-organizational dynamics in both hospitals and clinics. Methods For our research, we interviewed a total of fifteen physicians and eight managers in four hospitals and twelve physicians and seven managers in twelve specialty clinics. Results We found evidence that in becoming entrepreneurs, physicians are influenced by intra-organizational dynamics, including power dependence, interest dissatisfaction, and value commitments, between physicians and managers as well as among physicians’ groups. The precise motivation for starting a new clinic can vary depending on the medical or business logic in which the entrepreneurs are embedded, but also the presence of an entrepreneurial nature or nurture. Finally we found that the entrepreneurial process of starting a specialty clinic is a process of sedimented change or hybridized professionalism in which elements of the business logic are added to the existing logic of medical professionalism, leading to a hybrid logic. Conclusions These findings have implications for policy at both the national and hospital level. Shared ownership and aligned incentives may provide the additional cement in which the developing entrepreneurial values are ‘glued’ to the central medical logic. PMID:24885912

  9. Physician' entrepreneurship explained: a case study of intra-organizational dynamics in Dutch hospitals and specialty clinics.

    PubMed

    Koelewijn, Wout T; de Rover, Matthijs; Ehrenhard, Michel L; van Harten, Wim H

    2014-05-19

    Challenges brought about by developments such as continuing market reforms and budget reductions have strained the relation between managers and physicians in hospitals. By applying neo-institutional theory, we research how intra-organizational dynamics between physicians and managers induce physicians to become entrepreneurs by starting a specialty clinic. In addition, we determine the nature of this change by analyzing the intra-organizational dynamics in both hospitals and clinics. For our research, we interviewed a total of fifteen physicians and eight managers in four hospitals and twelve physicians and seven managers in twelve specialty clinics. We found evidence that in becoming entrepreneurs, physicians are influenced by intra-organizational dynamics, including power dependence, interest dissatisfaction, and value commitments, between physicians and managers as well as among physicians' groups. The precise motivation for starting a new clinic can vary depending on the medical or business logic in which the entrepreneurs are embedded, but also the presence of an entrepreneurial nature or nurture. Finally we found that the entrepreneurial process of starting a specialty clinic is a process of sedimented change or hybridized professionalism in which elements of the business logic are added to the existing logic of medical professionalism, leading to a hybrid logic. These findings have implications for policy at both the national and hospital level. Shared ownership and aligned incentives may provide the additional cement in which the developing entrepreneurial values are 'glued' to the central medical logic.

  10. Towards Customer-Driven Management in Hospitality Education: A Case Study of the Higher Hotel Institute, Cyprus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnavas, Andreas P.; Soteriou, Andreas C.

    2002-01-01

    Presents and discusses the approach used by the Higher Hotel Institute in Cyprus to incorporate total quality management through establishment of a customer-driven management culture in its hospitality education program. Discusses how it collects and uses service-quality related data from future employers, staff, and students in pursuing this…

  11. Towards Customer-Driven Management in Hospitality Education: A Case Study of the Higher Hotel Institute, Cyprus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnavas, Andreas P.; Soteriou, Andreas C.

    2002-01-01

    Presents and discusses the approach used by the Higher Hotel Institute in Cyprus to incorporate total quality management through establishment of a customer-driven management culture in its hospitality education program. Discusses how it collects and uses service-quality related data from future employers, staff, and students in pursuing this…

  12. Humane design for hospital landscapes: a case study in landscape architecture of a healing garden for nurses.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Jody Rosenblatt; Shin, Woo-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to design a beautiful garden to provide a spatial experience of renewal for hospital nursing staff and for their ecologically- and culturally-specific healing. The first objective of this study was to identify the physical, social, and spiritual attributes of an existing courtyard to determine which features encouraged or discouraged use. A site-specific design concept and user-specific survey instrument were developed to gather data directly from the nursing staff on campus. There has been growing evidence that landscapes for renewal have measurable characteristics. Physical, social, and spiritual characteristics of the landscape interrelate to determine the appropriateness of a landscape for a particular health outcome. Increasingly, evidence demonstrates that contact with the living world around us is an important part of healing and recovery. This design project created a natural opportunity to research the effect of landscape improvements on renewal. The method combined standard landscape architecture ecological site design process with a qualitative empirical study of staff characteristics and landscape preferences. The transparency of the landscape design process provided the basis for a post-occupancy evaluation in the future. Sixty-one nurses participated in the qualitative phase of the design process. Preferences for contact with nature and privacy were significant among the staff. The spatial structure of the concepts was revised to include private table-and-chair places for one or two people and features that would encourage a contemplative pedestrian walk along existing shortcuts. To encourage the benefits of the typical staff's very short exposure to the garden, archetypal landscape features-thresholds, contemplative paths, garden benches, a symbolic creek, and sacred springs-were arranged to shift the spiritual dimension of the place from that of an exposed, dry gulley ravine to a green, fertile oasis. The courtyard

  13. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Cecilia MJ; Angeletti, Claudio; Festa, Anna; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA) infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2) study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI) "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7%) among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures. PMID:17470274

  14. "We are talking about saving lives": the welfare state, health care policy, and nongovernability--a case study of an Israeli Hospital.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nissim

    2013-01-01

    Literature about welfare states worldwide, and specifically in Israel, emphasizes economic and political variables and the importance of ideology in explaining a given social policy in those societies. According to this literature, ideology and strategic long-term goals account for the waning of the Israeli welfare state since the 1970s. At the same time, for upwards of a decade, the literature dealing with Israeli public policy has emphasized that Israeli society suffers from a crisis of "nongovernability" and a political culture that is characterized by illegality. The author defines nongovernability as the inability to formulate public policy and implement it effectively over time. In such an environment, long-term strategic considerations based on a coherent ideology take a back seat to short-term considerations in the conduct of the various players in the public policy arena. The author discusses the building of a hospital in Ashdod as a case study in nongovernability. The hospital's construction was steeped in political intrigue based wholly on short-term considerations and was built in a political culture characterized by either illegality or outright rejection of the law. This behavior is characteristic of Israeli politicians, bureaucrats, and interest groups. The author maintains that the creation of this hospital is emblematic of the Israeli health care policy overall, a policy shaped by bottom-up processes whose defining characteristic is a political culture based on illegality and narrow, short-term interests.

  15. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections pose growing threat to health care-associated infection control in the hospitals of Southern China: a case-control surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yang; Bi, Jiaqi; Shi, Jing; Li, Ying; Ye, Xiaohua; Chen, Xiaofeng; Yao, Zhenjiang

    2014-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) is one of the most common agents among health care-associated infections. There is a lack of data on the clinical features of MDRPA from Southern China. A case-control surveillance study of P aeruginosa was conducted based on surveillance from July 2008-December 2012, in 5 hospitals of Guangzhou, China. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression using Stata 13 (StataCorp, College Station, TX). Of the 348 P aeruginosa strains, the prevalence of MDRPA was 54%, and it has increased over time. Isolates of P aeruginosa showed increased resistance to most antimicrobials during this time period. Independent risk factors were tracheal intubation insertion (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-4.23; P = .02) and use of carbapenem (odds ratio [OR], 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75-6.47; P < .01). The distribution of MDRPA infections was uneven among the 5 hospitals (P = .01). Being infected with MDRPA strains resulted in longer duration of hospitalization (39 vs 24 days) and higher mortality (49% vs 20%). The infections of MDRPA were severe issues. More stringent measures should be applied for those with independent predictors of MDRPA infections because they may induce adverse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Who is my leader? A case study from a hospital disaster scenario in a less developed country.

    PubMed

    Filmer, Leighton B; Ranse, Jamie

    2013-11-01

    A paucity of literature exists pertaining to the role of leaders during the health response to disasters. The minimal published literature regarding disaster leadership suggests that health leadership in a disaster should adopt an approach similar to that of professions such as law enforcement, military and freighting. This paper aims to describe observations pertaining to disaster leadership during a mock disaster scenario. This case study is set in Surkhet, Nepal, a small city prone to disasters such as earthquakes and floods. This case presents a mock disaster scenario of an earthquake set at a nongovernment health facility. Observations were made of the performance of responders in establishing triage, treatment and command centers. Institutional leaders among the responders struggled to apply the disaster plans in the face of spontaneous disaster leadership. Both the recognised leadership of an organisation, and those who in a disaster may step up as disaster leaders need to be confident in implementing the disaster contingency plans. Leadership in disasters must have a clear distinction between incident controller and 'clinical leader' roles. This paper provides recommendations that may have applicability to leadership in real world disasters. Copyright © 2013 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of payer-specific hospital case mix on hospital costs and revenues for third-party patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keon-Hyung; Roh, M P H Chul-Young

    2007-02-01

    Competition among hospitals and managed care have forced hospital industry to be more efficient. With higher degrees of hospital competition and managed care penetration, hospitals have argued that the rate of increase in hospital cost is greater than the rate of increase in hospital revenue. By developing a payer-specific case mix index (CMI) for third-party patients, this paper examined the effect of hospital case mix on hospital cost and revenue for third-party patients in California using the hospital financial and utilization data covering 1986-1998. This study found that the coefficients for CMIs in the third-party hospital revenue model were greater than those in the hospital cost model until 1995. Since 1995, however, the coefficients for CMIs in the third-party hospital revenue model have been less than those in hospital cost models. Over time, the differences in coefficients for CMIs in hospital revenue and cost models for third-party patients have become smaller and smaller although those differences are statistically insignificant.

  18. Mental hospital reform in Asia: the case of Yuli Veterans Hospital, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Ai-Ling; Minas, Harry; Cohen, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Background Yuli Veterans Hospital (YVH) has been the largest mental hospital for the patients with chronic and severe mental illness in Taiwan for the past 50 years. While this hospital used to be a symbol of hopelessness among patients and their families and an unspoken shame among Taiwan psychiatry and mental health circles it now represents an example of how an old, custodial hospital can be transformed into a very different institution. In this case study we will describe the features of this transformation, which, over the past 20 years, has aimed to help extended stay inpatients with severe mental illness to integrate into the local community of Yuli even though it is not their original home. Methods Using historical documents and oral narratives from Yuli inhabitants, workers and patients of YVH, we will offer a case study of the Yuli model. Results There are four main components of the Yuli model: holistic medical support, vocational rehabilitation, case management, and the residential program. The four components help patients recover two essential features of their lives: vocational life and ordinary daily routines. As the process of recovery evolves, patients gradually regain inner stability, dignity, self-confidence, and a sense of control. The four components are critical to rebuild the structure and order of life of the patients and are indispensable and interdependent parts of one service package. They operate simultaneously to benefit the patients to the greatest degree possible. Discussion There are many challenges to the further development and financial viability of the model of services developed at YVH. There are also important questions concerning the replicability of the Yuli model in other sociocultural and service system contexts. Conclusion This case study reveals the possibility of transforming a custodial mental hospital into a hospital providing high quality care. Hospital and community are not in opposition. They are part of a

  19. Study of Twenty One Cases of Red Cell Exchange in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Muddegowda, Prakash H; Chezhiansubash; Lingegowda, Jyothi B; Gopal, Niranjan; Prasad, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Red Cell Exchange (RCE) is removal of a patient’s red blood cells while replacing with donor red blood cells either manually or using automated systems. RCE is beneficial in patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) either during sickling crisis or prior to major surgical procedures to bring down the sickling percentage as high sickling percentage during prolonged anaesthesia may lead to vaso-occlusive crisis. It is also employed in patients infested with malaria and babesiosis where parasitic index remain high despite medical management. RCE is also tried as an adjuvant therapy in certain poisons like nitrobenzene and carbon monoxide when first line management fails. Aim To study the effectiveness, clinical outcome, challenges and complications of RCE in various clinical scenario and to understand how this procedure can be effectively utilized in the management of patients in Indian scenario. Materials and Methods This retro prospective study was conducted in tertiary care center in southern India which analyzed 21 RCE procedures performed on patients with different clinical conditions. Of the 21 RCE performed, 18 procedures were performed on patients with case of sickle cell disease, Two procedures were performed on patients infested with severe falciparum malaria and one procedure was performed on a patient with nitrobenzene poisoning. All procedures were performed using Spectra Optia® Apheresis System - Terumo BCT. Results All the 18 patients who underwent the RCE for sickle cell anaemia were admitted for hemi-arthroplasty for avascular necrosis of the head of femur. The average initial HbS levels were between 73-85% and post RCE it was brought down to 22-29% and was achieved in a single sitting in all the cases. Among the two patients infested with severe falciparum malaria, RCE helped in reducing the infestation rate. In case of nitrobenzene poisoning, RCE helped in improvement of oxygen saturation and patient showed significant improvement

  20. [Muskuloskeletal disorders in construction industry: hospital cases].

    PubMed

    Santini, M; Riva, M M; Mosconi, G

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyse 493 hospital cases in 356 workers from the construction industry, came to observation for musculoskeletal disorders (average age 48, 2 years, SD 9; work seniority 32, 2 years, SD 9, 7; work seniority in construction industry 27, 3 years, SD 12, 4). The evaluation was required in 305 subjects (85.7% of the sample) to investigate one or more suspected WMDS; in 51 subjects (14.3% of the sample) to express an opinion on fitness to work or residual work capacity. Investigations led to diagnosis of 479 musculoskeletal disorders; the districts most affected are spine and upper limb. 64.7% of the musculoskeletal disorders was evaluated to be work-related, the percentage rises to 68% when considering only cases sent for evaluation of suspected WMDS. The most frequent reasons to exclude relation between the musculoskeletal disorders and work were an high age at diagnosis, presence of comorbidity or outcome of trauma, a disease mismatch exposure.

  1. Impact of China's Public Hospital Reform on Healthcare Expenditures and Utilization: A Case Study in ZJ Province

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Hu, Huimei; Wu, Christina; Yu, Hai; Dong, Hengjin

    2015-01-01

    Background High drug costs due to supplier-induced demand (SID) obstruct healthcare accessibility in China. Drug prescriptions can generate markup-related profits, and the low prices of other medical services can lead to labor-force underestimations; therefore, physicians are keen to prescribe drugs rather than services. Thus, in China, a public hospital reform has been instituted to cancel markups and increase service prices. Methods A retrospective pre/post-reform study was conducted in ZJ province to assess the impact of the reform on healthcare expenditures and utilization, ultimately to inform policy development and decision-making. The main indicators are healthcare expenditures and utilization. Results Post-reform, drug expenditures per visit decreased by 8.2% and 15.36% in outpatient and inpatient care, respectively; service expenditures per visit increased by 23.03% and 27.69% in outpatient and inpatient care, respectively. Drug utilization per visit increased by 5.58% in outpatient care and underwent no significant change in inpatient care. Both were lower than the theoretical drug-utilization level, which may move along the demand curve because of patient-initiated demand (PID); this indicates that SID-promoted drug utilization may decrease. Finally, service utilization per visit increased by 6% in outpatient care and by 13.10% in inpatient care; both were higher than the theoretical level moving along the demand curve, and this indicates that SID-promoted service utilization may increase. Conclusion The reform reduces drug-prescription profits by eliminating drug markups; additionally, it compensates for service costs by increasing service prices. Post-reform, the SID of drug prescriptions decreased, which may reduce drug-resource waste. The SID of services increased, with potentially positive and negative effects: accessibility to services may be promoted when physicians provide more services, but the risk of resource waste may also increase. This

  2. Implementing an Online Reporting System in the Anatomical Pathology Department of a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in India: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishna, Kedar; Correa, Marjorie; Thounaojam, Deepak; Raj, Tony D. S.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study in designing, developing, and implementing a web-enabled reporting application for the anatomical pathology (histopathology) department of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. The article describes workflows, requirements assessment, and implementation methods that the investigators adopted for deploying the solution. The primary focus of the study was to demonstrate the requirements assessment performed, the strategies adopted, and the challenges encountered during the development and implementation. The study demonstrates a successful deployment as well as successful adoption of healthcare information technology by the end users. Factors that played a crucial role in adoption included the combination of people, processes, and technology. The lessons learned from this study would help application developers design efficient systems that suit the requirements of the end users while keeping in mind the ever-changing need for workflows and scalability in a developing country. PMID:23861673

  3. Implementing "lean" principles to improve the efficiency of the endoscopy department of a community hospital: a case study.

    PubMed

    Laing, Karen; Baumgartner, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Many endoscopy units are looking for ways to improve their efficiency without increasing the number of staff, purchasing additional equipment, or making the patients feel as if they have been rushed through the care process. To accomplish this, a few hospitals have looked to other industries for help. Recently, "lean" methods and tools from the manufacturing industry, have been applied successfully in health care systems, and have proven to be an effective way to eliminate waste and redundancy in workplace processes. The "lean" method and tools in service organizations focuses on providing the most efficient and effective flow of service and products. This article will describe the journey of one endoscopy department within a community hospital to illustrate application of "lean" methods and tools and results.

  4. The interface between the national tuberculosis control programme and district hospitals in Cameroon: missed opportunities for strengthening the local health system -a multiple case study.

    PubMed

    Keugoung, Basile; Macq, Jean; Buve, Anne; Meli, Jean; Criel, Bart

    2013-03-22

    Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. District hospitals (DHs) play a central role in district-based health systems, and their relation with vertical programmes is very important. Studies on the impact of vertical programmes on DHs are rare. This study aims to fill this gap. Its purpose is to analyse the interaction between the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTCP) and DHs in Cameroon, especially its effects on the human resources, routine health information system (HIS) and technical capacity at the hospital level. We used a multiple case study methodology. From the Adamaoua Region, we selected two DHs, one public and one faith-based. We collected qualitative and quantitative data through document reviews, semi-structured interviews with district and regional staff, and observations in the two DHs. The NTCP trained and supervised staff, designed and provided tuberculosis data collection and reporting tools, and provided anti-tuberculosis drugs, reagents and microscopes to DHs. However, these interventions were limited to the hospital units designated as Tuberculosis Diagnostic and Treatment Centres and to staff dedicated to tuberculosis control activities. The NTCP installed a parallel HIS that bypassed the District Health Services. The DH that performs well in terms of general hospital care and that is well managed was successful in tuberculosis control. Based on the available resources, the two hospitals adapt the organisation of tuberculosis control to their settings. The management teams in charge of the District Health Services are not involved in tuberculosis control. In our study, we identified several opportunities to strengthen the local health system that have been missed by the NTCP and the health system managers. Well-managed DHs perform better in terms of tuberculosis control than DHs that are not well managed. The analysis of the effects of the NTCP on the human resources, HIS and technical capacity of DHs

  5. The interface between the national tuberculosis control programme and district hospitals in Cameroon: missed opportunities for strengthening the local health system –a multiple case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. District hospitals (DHs) play a central role in district-based health systems, and their relation with vertical programmes is very important. Studies on the impact of vertical programmes on DHs are rare. This study aims to fill this gap. Its purpose is to analyse the interaction between the National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTCP) and DHs in Cameroon, especially its effects on the human resources, routine health information system (HIS) and technical capacity at the hospital level. Methods We used a multiple case study methodology. From the Adamaoua Region, we selected two DHs, one public and one faith-based. We collected qualitative and quantitative data through document reviews, semi-structured interviews with district and regional staff, and observations in the two DHs. Results The NTCP trained and supervised staff, designed and provided tuberculosis data collection and reporting tools, and provided anti-tuberculosis drugs, reagents and microscopes to DHs. However, these interventions were limited to the hospital units designated as Tuberculosis Diagnostic and Treatment Centres and to staff dedicated to tuberculosis control activities. The NTCP installed a parallel HIS that bypassed the District Health Services. The DH that performs well in terms of general hospital care and that is well managed was successful in tuberculosis control. Based on the available resources, the two hospitals adapt the organisation of tuberculosis control to their settings. The management teams in charge of the District Health Services are not involved in tuberculosis control. In our study, we identified several opportunities to strengthen the local health system that have been missed by the NTCP and the health system managers. Conclusion Well-managed DHs perform better in terms of tuberculosis control than DHs that are not well managed. The analysis of the effects of the NTCP on the human

  6. Epidemiologic pattern of paediatric supracondylar fractures of humerus in a teaching hospital of rural India: A prospective study of 263 cases.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Rashid; Sharma, Vivek; Jindal, Ramesh; Singh, Tarun Pratap; Rathee, Narender

    2017-06-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the epidemiologic parameters of supracondylar humeral fractures in children admitted to a teaching institution of a developing country primarily catering to rural population, to find any preventable cause of such injuries. All suspected cases of supracondylar humeral fracture reporting to emergency or outpatients department were analysed for various epidemiologic parameters including age, sex, laterality, time of presentation, associated injuries, neurovascular complications and classification over a period of four years. We analysed a total of 263 patients and most of the fractures were seen in 5-8-year age group with a mean of 7.9 years. A total of 157 cases were males and non-dominant extremity was involved in 65% of fractures in our series. Fall on outstretched hand was the predominant cause of injury and fall from rooftop was the predominant mode. In all patients, 36.12% reported to our hospital 1 week after injury, 39.92% presented to hospital within 48 h after trauma and the remaining 23.95% presented 48 h to 1 week after trauma. None had a bilateral injury. Gartland type 3 fractures constituted 54.37% of patients, followed by type 1 (23.95%) and type 2 (21.67%). Almost one fourth of supracondylar humeral fractures in children can be prevented by installing railing of rooftops and stairs. It is necessary to educate people on hazards of treatment by traditional bonesetters. Moreover, the children with supracondylar humeral fractures should be screened for associated injuries. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of childhood vaccination completion at a peri-urban hospital in Kenya, December 2013 -January 2014: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Okunga Wandera; Samuel, Amwayi Anyangu; Helen, Kutima Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vaccine preventable diseases account for about 17% of deaths among children below five years in Kenya. Immunization is one the most cost-effective ways of reducing child mortality and morbidity worldwide. In Kenya, national full vaccination coverage today stands at above 80%. However there continue to be pockets of low full vaccination coverage like the catchment area of Alupe Sub-District Hospital which pose a threat to the rest of the country. Methods This was a case-control study at Alupe Sub-District Hospital, Western Kenya. Sixty one (61) cases and 122 controls were sampled from the facility maternal and child health register by systematic random sampling and traced to their households. Cases were defined as children 12-23 months resident in Kenya who received at least one infant vaccine at the facility but were not fully vaccinated at the time of the study, while controls were children 12-23 months who were fully vaccinated by the time of the study. Pretested structured questionnaires were used for data collection. Data entry and analysis was done using Epi-Info 3.5.4 statistical software. Results Independent determinants of infant vaccination completion were the child's age < 18 months (AOR 4.2(1.8-9.6), p < 0.01), maternal age < 25 years (AOR 2.5(1.1-5.0), p = 0.03), maternal tetanus toxoid vaccination status < 2 TT doses (AOR 2.5(1.2-5.4), p < 0.02) and late receipt of BCG [AOR 3.2(1.4-7.3), p = 0.005). Conclusion Strategies to increase full vaccination should target young mothers especially during antenatal period. PMID:26161200

  8. Prevalence, clinical predictors, and outcome of hypocalcaemia in severely-malnourished under-five children admitted to an urban hospital in Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chisti, Mohammod J; Salam, Mohammed A; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, A S G; Bardhan, Pradip K; Shahid, Abu S M S B; Shahunja, K M; Das, Sumon K; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-06-01

    Hypocalcaemia is common in severely-malnourished children and is often associated with fatal outcome. There is very limited information on the clinical predicting factors of hypocalcaemia in hospitalized severely-malnourished under-five children. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence, clinical predicting factors, and outcome of hypocalcaemia in such children. In this case-control study, all severely-malnourished under-five children (n=333) admitted to the Longer Stay Ward (LSW), High Dependency Unit (HDU), and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b between April 2011 and April 2012, who also had their total serum calcium estimated, were enrolled. Those who presented with hypocalcaemia (serum calcium <2.12 mmol/L) constituted the cases (n=87), and those admitted without hypocalcaemia (n=246) constituted the control group in our analysis. The prevalence of hypocalcaemia among severely-malnourished under-five children was 26% (87/333). The fatality rate among cases was significantly higher than that in the controls (17% vs 5%; p < 0.001). Using logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, such as vomiting, abdominal distension, and diastolic hypotension, we identified acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.08-4.43, p = 0.030), convulsion on admission (OR 21.86, 95% CI 2.57-185.86, p = 0.005), and lethargy (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.633-5.46, p = 0.006) as independent predictors of hypocalcaemia in severely-malnourished children. It is concluded, severely-malnourished children presenting with hypocalcaemia have an increased risk of death than those without hypocalcaemia. AWD, convulsion, and lethargy assessed on admission to hospital are the clinical predictors of hypocalcaemia in such children. Presence of these features in hospitalized children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) should alert clinicians about the possibility of hypocalcaemia and may help undertake potential preventive measures, such as calcium

  9. Prevalence, Clinical Predictors, and Outcome of Hypocalcaemia in Severely-malnourished Under-five Children Admitted to an Urban Hospital in Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Mohammed A.; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, A.S.G.; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Shahid, Abu S.M.S.B.; Shahunja, K.M.; Sumon K., Das; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hypocalcaemia is common in severely-malnourished children and is often associated with fatal outcome. There is very limited information on the clinical predicting factors of hypocalcaemia in hospitalized severely-malnourished under-five children. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence, clinical predicting factors, and outcome of hypocalcaemia in such children. In this case-control study, all severely-malnourished under-five children (n=333) admitted to the Longer Stay Ward (LSW), High Dependency Unit (HDU), and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b between April 2011 and April 2012, who also had their total serum calcium estimated, were enrolled. Those who presented with hypocalcaemia (serum calcium <2.12 mmol/L) constituted the cases (n=87), and those admitted without hypocalcaemia (n=246) constituted the control group in our analysis. The prevalence of hypocalcaemia among severely-malnourished under-five children was 26% (87/333). The fatality rate among cases was significantly higher than that in the controls (17% vs 5%; p<0.001). Using logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, such as vomiting, abdominal distension, and diastolic hypotension, we identified acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.08-4.43, p=0.030), convulsion on admission (OR 21.86, 95% CI 2.57-185.86, p=0.005), and lethargy (OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.633-5.46, p=0.006) as independent predictors of hypocalcaemia in severely-malnourished children. It is concluded, severely-malnourished children presenting with hypocalcaemia have an increased risk of death than those without hypocalcaemia. AWD, convulsion, and lethargy assessed on admission to hospital are the clinical predictors of hypocalcaemia in such children. Presence of these features in hospitalized children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) should alert clinicians about the possibility of hypocalcaemia and may help undertake potential preventive measures, such as calcium

  10. A workflow-oriented framework-driven implementation and local adaptation of clinical information systems: a case study of nursing documentation system implementation at a tertiary rehabilitation hospital.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeeyae; Kim, Hyeoneui

    2012-08-01

    Health information systems are often designed and developed without integrating users' specific needs and preferences. This decreases the users' productivity, satisfaction, and acceptance of the system and increases the necessity for a local adaptation process to reduce the unwanted outcomes after implementation. A workflow-oriented framework developed in a previous study indicates that users' needs and preferences could be incorporated into the system when implementation follows the steps of the framework, eventually increasing satisfaction with and usefulness of the system. The overall goal of this study was to demonstrate application of the workflow-oriented framework to the implementation of a nursing documentation system at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital. In this case study, we present specific steps of implementing and adapting a health information system at a local site and raise critical questions that need to be answered in each step based on the workflow-oriented framework.

  11. The effects of severe iron-deficiency anaemia on maternal and neonatal outcomes: A case-control study in an inner-city London hospital.

    PubMed

    Luis, J; Fadel, M G; Lau, G Y; Houssein, S; Ravikumar, N; Yoong, W

    2016-05-01

    This case-control study investigates the effects of severe iron-deficiency anaemia in pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes in a relatively deprived inner-city population in a North London hospital. The study group comprised of 106 women with haemoglobin (Hb) < 8 g/dl at any point during pregnancy, while controls were 106 women with Hb > 11 g/dl throughout pregnancy. The study group lost an average of 80 ml more blood at delivery (p = 0.032) and had higher rates of postpartum haemorrhage than the control group (27 vs 12 patients, p = 0.012). However, anaemia did not appear to influence other maternal or neonatal outcomes; these may have been confounded by antenatal intervention with oral haematinics or blood transfusion.

  12. Changes in Haematological Parameters in Newborns Born to Preeclamptic Mothers - A Case Control Study in a Rural Hospital.

    PubMed

    Mouna, Kalavakuru; Doddagowda, Shilpa Manigatta; Junjegowda, Krishnappa; Krishnamurthy, Latha

    2017-07-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological phenomenon. However, some women develop problems during pregnancy period, which puts both the mother's and the foetus health at risk. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the type of the maternal diseases that can cause the most detrimental effects to the mother and foetus. To determine the haematological parameters in neonates born to preeclamptic mothers. It was a prospective case control study carried out on neonates born to preeclamptic mothers in our institute from March 2016 to November 2016. All the haematological parameters of the neonates were recorded and analyzed using SPSS 22.0 version software. Mean, Standard deviation, minimum and maximum values were calculated for continuous variables. The difference between the two groups was compared using independent student 't' test. The p-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. About 120 mothers were included in the study out of which 60 were of study group and 60 of control group. Mean hemoglobin, PCV, red cell count, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), reticulocyte count and nRBC were significantly increased p<0.001, whereas total leucocyte count, mean neutrophil count, absolute neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, platelet count were significantly decreased p<0.001 in babies born to preeclamptic mothers. No difference was found between the two groups in the Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) value p(>0.05). The babies born to preeclamptic mothers are more prone for development of prematurity, low birth weight, Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR), sepsis, neutropenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, increased RBC count, nRBC and reticulocyte count. Early haematological screening helps to decrease morbidity, improve growth, development and survival of the baby.

  13. Risk for attempted suicide in children and youths after contact with somatic hospitals: a Danish register based nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, E; Stenager, E

    2012-03-01

    A range of studies have found an association between some somatic diseases and increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide. These studies are mostly analyses of adult populations and illnesses related to adulthood. To study the risk of attempted suicide in children and youths with a somatic diagnosis, and to assess a possible association from a somatic perspective. From a cohort of 403 431 individuals (born 1983-89), 3465 children and youths who had attempted suicide were identified. Each case was matched with 20 population controls. 72 765 children and youths constituted the case-control population. All data were obtained from national population registers and analysed in a nested case-control design. Contact of children and youths with a somatic hospital is correlated with increased risk of attempted suicide; the risk peaks in the time immediately after contact. Risk factors were treatment for injury caused by violence, epilepsy, asthma and malformation for males; and spontaneous and medical abortions, treatment for injury caused by violence, epilepsy, asthma, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and malformation for females. Not all the mentioned diagnoses were significant in the adjusted model. Based on the results of the study a strategy to minimise the risk of attempted suicide among children and youths must be implemented. The strategy should mainly focus on children at high risk-that is, children from families with low socioeconomic status, and children with a psychiatric history, a history of previous suicide attempts and with an unstable somatic disease subsequently causing many admissions.

  14. Fever in the tropics: aetiology and case-fatality - a prospective observational study in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to describe aetiology and case fatality of fever among inpatients in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods This was an observational, prospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Between July 2nd 2007 and August 2nd in 2007, adult patients admitted to the hospital with temperature ≥ 38.0°C were included consecutively and followed during the hospitalisation period. Demographic and clinical data were collected and analysed for each patient. Associations were sought between death and various clinical and demographic variables. Results One hundred patients were included, 61 male and 39 female. Mean age was 37.5 (range: 16 to 84) years. Mean fever duration was 5.4 (range: 0.1 to 42.9) weeks. The following infectious aetiologies were recorded: tuberculosis (19%), lower respiratory infection (11%) including three with sepsis, urinary tract infection (10%) including three with E. coli sepsis, Plasmodium falciparum malaria (5%) including three patients with mixed P. vivax infection, scrub typhus (5%), typhoid fever (4%), cryptococcal meningitis (4%) including three HIV positive patients, endocarditis (3%) including two patients with Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, spleen abscess (2%), amoebic liver abscess (2%), sepsis undefined focus (1%), HIV infection (1%), hepatitis B (1%), rubella (1%), peritonitis (1%) and cholecystitis (1%). Non-infectious causes of fever were diagnosed in 15%, including systemic lupus erythematosus in four and malignancy in six patients. Cause of fever remained unknown in 13%. Case fatality during hospitalisation was 7% (7/100). Six of those who died were male. Five fatalities had bacterial sepsis, one spleen abscess and malignancy, and one had lymphomalignant disorder. Diabetes and increasing age were significant risk factors for fatal outcome in unadjusted analyses, but only increasing age was a risk factor for death in adjusted analysis

  15. Risk factors associated with unplanned endotracheal self-extubation of hospitalized intubated patients: a 3-year retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Chun; Liu, Pei-Fen; Huang, Yu-Lu; Yang, Sien-Sing; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2011-08-01

    This 3-year retrospective case-control study aimed to identify risk factors associated with unplanned endotracheal self-extubation (UESE) of hospitalized intubated patients and to compare unplanned and planned extubation groups' characteristics of patients and nurses, vital signs, serum laboratory values, Glasgow Coma Scale scores, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, and use of physical restraints and sedatives. The study found that most UESEs occurred during evening or night shifts or during shifts staffed by nurses with less experience and less education. Most of the self-extubated patients (80%) were physically restrained. Pulse rate and APACHE II score were both significant predictors of UESE. Efforts to prevent UESEs should include identification of patients at higher risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Involuntary hospitalization under the Act of July 5th 2011: A study of patients' experience and understanding of their hearing with the judge ruling on civil detention cases].

    PubMed

    Rossini, K; Verdoux, H

    2015-09-01

    hospitalization represents a major evolution in the patients' rights field. This study shows that their experience and understanding of the hearing with the judge ruling on civil detention cases are quite mixed. In clinical practice, informing the patient about the upcoming hearing may allow the physician who initiates the hospitalization to reassure him/her as the intervention of a third party will be required to confirm the legality of involuntary admission. Furthermore, such information about the judicial intervention might avoid unproductive confrontation between the patient and the physician when the person remains opposed to the hospitalization. However, some patients may be disappointed as they are heavily invested in the preparation of their "defence" and have high hopes in the intervention of a judge who most often maintains the hospitalization. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…

  18. Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two case studies using online surveys for evaluation. The authors begin with an example of a needs assessment survey designed to measure the amount of help new students at a university require in their first year. They then discuss the follow-up survey conducted by the same university to measure the effectiveness of the…

  19. Pharmaceuticals and iodinated contrast media in a hospital wastewater: A case study to analyse their presence and characterise their environmental risk and hazard.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Aceña, J; Pérez, S; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Gil, A; Valcárcel, Y

    2015-07-01

    naproxen, the antibiotics (ABIs) clarithromycin, ofloxacin and trimethoprim, and the β-blocker (BBL) propranolol were present at concentrations leading to HQ values higher than 10, thus indicating high risk. When applying a factor to take into account potential dilution and degradation processes, only the compound ibuprofen showed a HQ higher than 1. Likewise, the cumulative HQ or Toxic Units (TUs) calculated in the raw water for each of the therapeutic groups studied showed that these three classes of drugs were at concentrations high enough to potentially generate high risk to aquatic organisms while taking into account possible dilution and degradation processes only one of them, the AAFs can be considered to represent high risk. Finally, the environmental hazard assessment performed showed that the AAFs diclofenac and ibuprofen and the ABI clarithromycin have the highest, maximum value of 9 of PBT Index due to their inherent environmentally damaging characteristics of persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. The methodology followed in the present case study can be taken as a novel approach to classify and categorize pharmaceuticals on the basis of their occurrence in hospital effluents, their derived environmental risks, and their associated environmental hazard. This classification becomes important because it can be used as a model or orientation for hospitals in the process of developing environmentally sustainable policies and as an argument to justify the adoption of advanced, specific treatments for hospital effluents before being discharged into the public sewage system.

  20. The intended and unintended consequences of communication systems on general internal medicine inpatient care delivery: a prospective observational case study of five teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Robert C; Lo, Vivian; Morra, Dante; Wong, Brian M; Sargeant, Robert; Locke, Ken; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Quan, Sherman D; Rossos, Peter; Tran, Kim; Cheung, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Effective clinical communication is critical to providing high-quality patient care. Hospitals have used different types of interventions to improve communication between care teams, but there have been few studies of their effectiveness. To describe the effects of different communication interventions and their problems. Prospective observational case study using a mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative methods. General internal medicine (GIM) inpatient wards at five tertiary care academic teaching hospitals. Clinicians consisting of residents, attending physicians, nurses, and allied health (AH) staff working on the GIM wards. Ethnographic methods and interviews with clinical staff (doctors, nurses, medical students, and AH professionals) were conducted over a 16-month period from 2009 to 2010. We identified four categories that described the intended and unintended consequences of communication interventions: impacts on senders, receivers, interprofessional collaboration, and the use of informal communication processes. The use of alphanumeric pagers, smartphones, and web-based communication systems had positive effects for senders and receivers, but unintended consequences were seen with all interventions in all four categories. Interventions that aimed to improve clinical communications solved some but not all problems, and unintended effects were seen with all systems.

  1. The intended and unintended consequences of communication systems on general internal medicine inpatient care delivery: a prospective observational case study of five teaching hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Robert C; Lo, Vivian; Morra, Dante; Wong, Brian M; Sargeant, Robert; Locke, Ken; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Quan, Sherman D; Rossos, Peter; Tran, Kim; Cheung, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective clinical communication is critical to providing high-quality patient care. Hospitals have used different types of interventions to improve communication between care teams, but there have been few studies of their effectiveness. Objectives To describe the effects of different communication interventions and their problems. Design Prospective observational case study using a mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting General internal medicine (GIM) inpatient wards at five tertiary care academic teaching hospitals. Participants Clinicians consisting of residents, attending physicians, nurses, and allied health (AH) staff working on the GIM wards. Methods Ethnographic methods and interviews with clinical staff (doctors, nurses, medical students, and AH professionals) were conducted over a 16-month period from 2009 to 2010. Results We identified four categories that described the intended and unintended consequences of communication interventions: impacts on senders, receivers, interprofessional collaboration, and the use of informal communication processes. The use of alphanumeric pagers, smartphones, and web-based communication systems had positive effects for senders and receivers, but unintended consequences were seen with all interventions in all four categories. Conclusions Interventions that aimed to improve clinical communications solved some but not all problems, and unintended effects were seen with all systems. PMID:23355461

  2. Factors influencing choice of care-seeking for acute fever comparing private chemical shops with health centres and hospitals in Ghana: a study using case-control methodology.

    PubMed

    Ansah, Evelyn K; Gyapong, Margaret; Narh-Bana, Solomon; Bart-Plange, Constance; Whitty, Christopher J M

    2016-05-25

    Several public health interventions to improve management of patients with fever are largely focused on the public sector yet a high proportion of patients seek care outside the formal healthcare sector. Few studies have provided information on the determinants of utilization of the private sector as against formal public sector. Understanding the differences between those who attend public and private health institutions, and their pathway to care, has significant practical implications. The chemical shop is an important source of care for acute fever in Ghana. Case-control methodology was used to identify factors associated with seeking care for fever in the Dangme West District, Ghana. People presenting to health centres, or hospital outpatients, with a history or current fever were compared to counterparts from the same community with fever visiting a chemical shop. Of 600 patients, 150 each, were recruited from the district hospital and two health centres, respectively, and 300 controls from 51 chemical shops. Overall, 103 (17.2 %) patients tested slide positive for malaria. Specifically, 13.7 % (41/300) of chemical shop patients, 30.7 % (46/150) health centre and 10.7 % (16/150) hospital patients were slide positive. While it was the first option for care for 92.7 % (278/300) chemical shop patients, 42.7 % (64/150) of health centre patients first sought care from a chemical shop. More health centre patients (61.3 %; 92/150) presented with fever after more than 3 days than chemical shop patients (27.7 %; 83/300) [AOR = 0.19; p < 0.001 CI 0.11-0.30]. Although the hospital was the first option for 83.3 % (125/150) of hospital patients, most (63.3 %; 95/150) patients arrived there over 3 days after their symptoms begun. Proximity was significantly associated with utilization of each source of care. Education, but not other socioeconomic or demographic factors were significantly associated with chemical shop use. The private drug retail sector is

  3. We are bitter, but we are better off: case study of the implementation of an electronic health record system into a mental health hospital in England

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast to the acute hospital sector, there have been relatively few implementations of integrated electronic health record (EHR) systems into specialist mental health settings. The National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT) in England was the most expensive IT-based transformation of public services ever undertaken, which aimed amongst other things, to implement integrated EHR systems into mental health hospitals. This paper describes the arrival, the process of implementation, stakeholders’ experiences and the local consequences of the implementation of an EHR system into a mental health hospital. Methods Longitudinal, real-time, case study-based evaluation of the implementation and adoption of an EHR software (RiO) into an English mental health hospital known here as Beta. We conducted 48 in-depth interviews with a wide range of internal and external stakeholders, undertook 26 hours of on-site observations, and obtained 65 sets of relevant documents from various types relating to Beta. Analysis was both inductive and deductive, the latter being informed by the ‘sociotechnical changing’ theoretical framework. Results Many interviewees perceived the implementation of the EHR system as challenging and cumbersome. During the early stages of the implementation, some clinicians felt that using the software was time-consuming leading to the conclusion that the EHR was not fit for purpose. Most interviewees considered the chain of deployment of the EHR–which was imposed by NPfIT–as bureaucratic and obstructive, which restricted customization and as a result limited adoption and use. The low IT literacy among users at Beta was a further barrier to the implementation of the EHR. This along with inadequate training in using the EHR software led to resistance to the significant cultural and work environment changes initiated by EHR. Despite the many challenges, Beta achieved some early positive results. These included: the ability to

  4. We are bitter, but we are better off: case study of the implementation of an electronic health record system into a mental health hospital in England.

    PubMed

    Takian, Amirhossein; Sheikh, Aziz; Barber, Nicholas

    2012-12-31

    In contrast to the acute hospital sector, there have been relatively few implementations of integrated electronic health record (EHR) systems into specialist mental health settings. The National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT) in England was the most expensive IT-based transformation of public services ever undertaken, which aimed amongst other things, to implement integrated EHR systems into mental health hospitals. This paper describes the arrival, the process of implementation, stakeholders' experiences and the local consequences of the implementation of an EHR system into a mental health hospital. Longitudinal, real-time, case study-based evaluation of the implementation and adoption of an EHR software (RiO) into an English mental health hospital known here as Beta. We conducted 48 in-depth interviews with a wide range of internal and external stakeholders, undertook 26 hours of on-site observations, and obtained 65 sets of relevant documents from various types relating to Beta. Analysis was both inductive and deductive, the latter being informed by the 'sociotechnical changing' theoretical framework. Many interviewees perceived the implementation of the EHR system as challenging and cumbersome. During the early stages of the implementation, some clinicians felt that using the software was time-consuming leading to the conclusion that the EHR was not fit for purpose. Most interviewees considered the chain of deployment of the EHR-which was imposed by NPfIT-as bureaucratic and obstructive, which restricted customization and as a result limited adoption and use. The low IT literacy among users at Beta was a further barrier to the implementation of the EHR. This along with inadequate training in using the EHR software led to resistance to the significant cultural and work environment changes initiated by EHR. Despite the many challenges, Beta achieved some early positive results. These included: the ability to check progress notes and monitor staff

  5. Pneumococcal Colonization Rates in Patients Admitted to a United Kingdom Hospital with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection: a Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Catherine M. K.; Gritzfeld, Jenna F.; Banyard, Antonia; Hancock, Carole A.; Wright, Angela D.; Macfarlane, Laura; Ferreira, Daniela M.

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests are ineffective for identifying the etiological pathogen in hospitalized adults with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). The association of pneumococcal colonization with disease has been suggested as a means to increase the diagnostic precision. We compared the pneumococcal colonization rates and the densities of nasal pneumococcal colonization by (i) classical culture and (ii) quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting lytA in patients with LRTIs admitted to a hospital in the United Kingdom and control patients. A total of 826 patients were screened for inclusion in this prospective case-control study. Of these, 38 patients were recruited, 19 with confirmed LRTIs and 19 controls with other diagnoses. Nasal wash (NW) samples were collected at the time of recruitment. Pneumococcal colonization was detected in 1 patient with LRTI and 3 controls (P = 0.6) by classical culture. By qPCR, pneumococcal colonization was detected in 10 LRTI patients and 8 controls (P = 0.5). Antibiotic usage prior to sampling was significantly higher in the LRTI group than in the control group (19 versus 3; P < 0.001). With a clinically relevant cutoff of >8,000 copies/ml on qPCR, pneumococcal colonization was found in 3 LRTI patients and 4 controls (P > 0.05). We conclude that neither the prevalence nor the density of nasal pneumococcal colonization (by culture and qPCR) can be used as a method of microbiological diagnosis in hospitalized adults with LRTI in the United Kingdom. A community-based study recruiting patients prior to antibiotic therapy may be a useful future step. PMID:26791364

  6. A large-scale, hospital-based case-control study of risk factors of breast cancer according to menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Tajima, K; Hamajima, N; Inoue, M; Takezaki, T; Kuroishi, T; Yoshida, M; Tokudome, S

    1995-02-01

    We conducted a large-scale, hospital-based case-control study to evaluate differences and similarities in the risk factors of female breast cancer according to menopausal status. This study is based on a questionnaire survey on life style routinely obtained from outpatients who first visited the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital between January 1, 1988 and December 31, 1992. Among 36,944 outpatients, 1,186 women with breast cancer detected by histological examination were taken as the case group (607 premenopausal women and 445 postmenopausal women) and 23,163 women confirmed to be free of cancer were selected as the control group. New findings and reconfirmed factors of breast cancer were as follows. 1) The risk of at least one breast cancer history among subjects' first-degree relatives was relatively high among pre- as well as post-menopausal women. 2) A protective effect of physical activity against breast cancer was observed among both pre- and post-menopausal women. 3) Dietary control decreased the risk of premenopausal breast cancer. 4) Current smoking and drinking elevated the risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women. 5) Decreasing trends of breast cancer risk were associated with intake of bean curd, green-yellow vegetables, potato or sweet potato, chicken and ham or sausage in premenopausal women, while in postmenopausal women a risk reduction was associated with a more frequent intake of boiled, broiled and/or raw fish (sashimi). Further study will be needed to clarify the age group- and/or birth cohort-specific risk factors for breast cancer among the young generation in Japan.

  7. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients 80 years old or older: a retrospective case-series study

    PubMed Central

    Konstanty-Kalandyk, Janusz; Kiełbasa, Grzegorz; Olszewska, Marta; Song, Bryan HyoChan; Wierzbicki, Karol; Milaniak, Irena; Darocha, Tomasz; Sobczyk, Dorota; Kapelak, Bogusław

    2016-01-01

    Background Age remains a significant and unmodifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and an increasing number of patients older than 80 years of age undergo Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). Old age is also an independent risk factor for postoperative complications. The aim of this study is to describe the population of patients 80 years of age or older who underwent CABG procedure and to assess the mortality rate and risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Methods A retrospective case-series study analyzing 388 consecutive patients aged 80 years of age or older who underwent isolated CABG procedure between 2010 and 2014 in the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantology, John Paul II Hospital, Krakow. Results In-hospital mortality stood at 7%, compared to 3.4% for all isolated CABG procedures at our Institution. In an univariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors for in-hospital mortality were as follows: NYHA class (p = 0.005, OR 1.95, 95% CI [1.23–3.1]), prolonged mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001, OR 7.08, 95% CI [2.47–20.3]), rethoracotomy (p = 0.04, OR 3.31, 95% CI [1.04–10.6]), duration of the procedure and ECC (for every 10 min p = 0.01, OR 1.01, 95% CI [1.0–1.01]; p = 0.03, OR 1.01, 95% CI [1.0–1.02], respectively), PRBC, FFP, and PLT transfusion (for every unit transfused p = 0.004, OR 1.42, 95% CI [1.12–1.8]; p = 0.002, OR 1.55, 95% CI [1.18–2.04]; p = 0.009, OR 1.93, 95% CI [1.18–3.14], respectively). Higher LVEF (p = 0.02, OR 0.97, 95% CI [0.94–0.99]) and LIMA graft implantation (p = 0.04, OR 0.36, 95% CI [0.13–0.98) decreased the in-hospital mortality. Death before discharge was more often observed in patients with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (0–2 –5.7%; 3–7.4%, 4–26.6%; p = 0.03). Conclusions Older age is associated with higher in-hospital mortality after isolated CABG at our Institution. Risk stratification scores and individualized risk

  8. Utilizing health analytics in improving the performance of healthcare services: A case study on a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Zabani, Ibrahim

    Among the most common and chronic problems in the healthcare system worldwide is the crowding of emergency rooms (ER); leading to many serious complications. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center utilized health analytics methods to identify areas of deficiency and suggest potential improvements to ER performance. The project implemented solutions and monitored two indicators; ER length of stay (LOS), reflecting efficiency, and percentage of patients leaving without treatment, reflecting effectiveness of the ER. A retrospective analysis of 26,948 ER encounters in 2014 was done in January 2015. Analytics techniques were used to suggest process redesign based on results. Two recommendations were implemented; a Fast-Track for lower acuity ER patients and an internal waiting area, for those patients who can stay vertical and spare an ER bed. 32.8% of ER patients had lower acuity levels and less than 0.5% of them were admitted to the hospital. After implementing the two solutions, the total ER LOS was reduced from 20h in 2014 to less than 12h in 2016; 40% improvement. The percentages of patients left without being seen stayed around 3.5%, while the percentages of patients left before complete treatment was significantly reduced from 13.5% in 2014 to 5.5% in 2016. Consequently, the total percentage of patients left without treatment was reduced from 17% in 2014 to 9% in 2016, with 50% improvement. All other factors were the same, including numbers of ER visits, Patient Acuity Level, working staff, working hours, and the count of ER beds. Health analytics methods can be used to identify areas of deficiency, potential improvements, and recommend effective solutions to positively enhance ER performance. More solutions should be examined such as team triaging, patients palmar scanning, and placing a physician in triage. Additionally, more indicators should be monitored, such as the effectiveness of ER treatment-including the rates of revisits. Copyright © 2016

  9. Effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine against invasive disease and hospital-treated pneumonia among people aged ≥65 years: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Leventer-Roberts, Maya; Feldman, Becca S; Brufman, Ilan; Cohen-Stavi, Chandra J; Hoshen, Moshe; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-05-15

    Streptococcus pneumoniae contributes considerably to the burden of pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), with the effectiveness of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for preventing all-cause pneumonia still undetermined. The aim of this study was to control for common biases and confounders associated with previous observational studies and to assess PPSV23 vaccine effectiveness in preventing IPD and the most resource-intensive type of community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-treated pneumonia (HTP). This was a retrospective case-control study nested in a population-based cohort, with age-, sex-, and risk-matched controls as the base case. Demographic information, laboratory data, and diagnoses were extracted from the chronic disease registry and from inpatient and outpatient records in the Clalit Health Services database. Vaccine effectiveness for PPSV23 was assessed using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Subgroup, sensitivity, and secondary analyses were conducted to validate findings. A total of 470 070 individuals aged ≥65 years were members of Clalit Health Services during the study period (1 January 2007 through 31 December 2010). The case cohort consisted of 212 participants with IPD and 23 441 with HTP. The adjusted association between vaccination and IPD was protective (odds ratio [OR], 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], .41-.81), whereas there was no demonstrated protective effect between vaccination and HTP (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, .97-1.04). The sensitivity analysis and all but 1 subgroup analysis provided consistent results to the base case. The PPSV23 vaccine is effective against the most severe invasive forms of pneumococcal disease, but the lack of effectiveness of PPSV23 in protecting against all-cause HTP should be considered for future vaccine policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  10. International study on antidepressant prescription pattern at 20 teaching hospitals and major psychiatric institutions in East Asia: Analysis of 1898 cases from China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoki; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Tan, Chay Hoon; Nagai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Mariko; Lee, Min-Soo; Fujii, Senta; Yang, Shu-Yu; Si, Tainmei; Sim, Kang; Wei, Hao; Ling, He Yan; Nishimura, Ryoji; Kawaguchi, Yoshichika; Edwards, Glen; Sartorius, Norman; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to review the prescription patterns of antidepressants in different countries in East Asia. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan from October 2003 to March 2004 using the unified research protocol and questionnaire. Twenty teaching hospitals and major psychiatric hospitals participated and a total of 1898 patients receiving antidepressants were analyzed. The survey provided a number of interesting characteristics on the prescription patterns of antidepressant in East Asia. Out of 56 antidepressants listed in the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) index by the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Center for Drug Statistics Methodology (Oslo), only 26 antidepressants were prescribed in participating countries in East Asia. On average 38.4% of prescriptions of antidepressants were for patients with diagnoses other than depressive disorders. The availability and commonly prescribed antidepressants varied greatly by country. The selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) and other newer antidepressants were prescribed in approximately 77.0% of all cases. At the time of the survey, only two SSRI medications were available in Japan. However, five types of SSRI were available and were often prescribed in Korea.

  11. Association between maternal exposure to housing renovation and offspring with congenital heart disease: a multi-hospital case-control study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiaohong; Li, Nana; Li, Shengli; Deng, Kui; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Xinlin; You, Fengzhi; Li, Jun; Mu, Dezhi; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Jun

    2013-03-25

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most prevalent birth defects. Housing renovations are a newly recognized source of indoor environmental pollution that is detrimental to health. A growing body of research suggests that maternal occupational exposure to renovation materials may be associated with an increased risk of giving birth to fetuses with CHD. However, the effect of indoor housing renovation exposure on CHD occurrence has not been reported. A multi-hospital case-control study was designed to investigate the association between maternal periconceptional housing renovation exposure and the risk of CHD for offspring. In total, 346 cases and 408 controls were enrolled in this study from four hospitals in China. Exposure information was based on a questionnaire given to women during pregnancy. The association between housing renovation exposure and CHD occurrence was assessed by estimating odds ratios (OR) with logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. The risk for CHD in offspring was significantly associated with maternal exposure to housing renovations (AOR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.29-2.77). There were similar risks for cardiac defects with or without extra-cardiac malformation (AOR of 2.65 and 1.76, respectively). Maternal housing renovation exposure may increase the fetus' risk of suffering from conotruncal defect or anomalous venous return. There were significant risks for cardiac defects if the pregnant woman moved into a new house within one month after decoration at either 3 months before pregnancy (AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.03 to 5.48) or during first trimester (AOR: 4.00, 95% CI: 1.62 to 9.86). Maternal exposure to housing renovations may have an increased risk of giving birth to fetuses with some selected types of CHD. This relationship was stronger for women who moved into a newly decorated house. However, considering the limited number of subjects and the problem of multiple exposures, more research is needed to clarify the

  12. Case studies combined with or without concept maps improve critical thinking in hospital-based nurses: a randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Chung, Yu-Chu

    2012-06-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is essential to the exercise of professional judgment. As nurses face increasingly complex health-care situations, critical thinking can promote appropriate clinical decision-making and improve the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a program of case studies, alone (CS) or combined with concept maps (CSCM), on improving CT in clinical nurses. The study was a randomized controlled trial. The experimental group participated in a 16-week CSCM program, whereas the control group participated in a CS program of equal duration. A randomized-controlled trial with a multistage randomization process was used to select and to assign participants, ultimately resulting in 67 nurses in each group. Data were collected before and after the program using the California Critical Thinking Skill Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). After the programs, there were significant differences between the two groups in the critical thinking skills of analysis, evaluation, inference, deduction, and induction. There was also an overall significant difference, and a significant difference in the specific disposition of open-mindedness. This study supports the application of case studies combined with concept maps as a hospital-based teaching strategy to promote development of critical thinking skills and encourage dispositions for nurses. The CSCM resulted in greater improvements in all critical thinking skills of as well as the overall and open-minded affective dispositions toward critical thinking, compared with the case studies alone. An obvious improvement in the CSCM participants was the analytic skill and disposition. Further longitudinal studies and data collection from multisite evaluations in a range of geographic locales are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The economics of pressure relieving surfaces: an illustrative case study of the impact of high-specification surfaces on hospital finances.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Paul; Whitehead, Sarah J

    2010-02-01

    Pressure ulcers are associated with a significant economic burden that, in many cases, is recognised as being avoidable. The effectiveness of pressure relieving surfaces is well documented and acknowledged in clinical guidelines on the prevention and management of pressure ulcers. Whilst pressure relieving surfaces are more expensive than traditional hospital mattresses, judicious use, targeted to patients most at risk, can help to reduce the incidence and costs of pressure ulcers in hospital settings. This review paper includes a summary of pivotal clinical evidence on pressure relieving surfaces as well as a suggested approach for modelling their financial impact on hospital budgets. Simple financial modelling suggests that pressure relieving surfaces could lead to financial savings for a hospital when used appropriately.

  14. [Management of emergency cases, hospitalized in Romania in 2007].

    PubMed

    Tarcea, Monica; Zugravu, Corina; Szavuj, J; Finta, Hajnal; Patraulea, F; Szasz, F

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the main aspects of the management of emergency cases, hospitalized in Romania in 2007, by following the frequency of main diagnosis, their distribution by place and hospital and hospital indicators. We collected our data from the Insurance Houses and National Institute of Statistics. Emergency cases represented in 2007 half of total cases hospitalized in Romania. Women are more frequent hospitalized then man or children. The Romanian South-East area had the highest frequency of emergency cases hospitalized. From all types of deceased cases, the emergency cases had the highest frequency. In emergency, the main category of diagnosis by frequency is "pregnancy, birth and recently given birth", much higher than non-emergency cases registered, also at the Obstretics-Gynecology and Emergency Hospitals. The medium period of days hospitalized for emergency cases was one week time. Most of the emergency cases are healed comparing to non-emergency ones. The main problem of hospitals in Romania is related to health services financing, costs for health care are still growing but also did the quality of health services and number of cases coming in emergency rooms.

  15. Dream vs. reality: seven case-studies on the desirability and feasibility of cross-border hospital collaboration in Europe.

    PubMed

    Glinos, Irene A; Baeten, Rita

    2014-09-01

    Despite being a niche phenomenon, cross-border health care collaboration receives a lot of attention in the EU and figures visibly on the policy agenda, in particular since the policy process which eventually led to the adoption of Directive 2011/24/EU. One of the underlying assumptions is that cross-border collaboration is desirable, providing justification to both the European Commission and to border-region stakeholders for promoting it. The purpose of this paper is to question this assumption and to examine the role of actors in pushing (or not) for cross-border collaboration. The analysis takes place in two parts. First, the EU policies to promote cross-border collaboration and the tools employed are examined, namely (a) use of European funds to sponsor concrete border-region collaboration projects, (b) use of European funds to sponsor research which gives visibility to cross-border collaboration, and (c) use of the European Commission's newly acquired legal mandate to encourage "Member States to cooperate in cross-border health care provision in border-regions" (Art. 10) and support "Member States in the development of European reference networks between health care providers and centres of expertise" (Art. 12). Second, evidence gathered in 2011-2013 from seven European border-regions on hospital cross-border collaboration is systematically reviewed to assess the reality of cross-border collaboration - can it work and when, and why do actors engage in cross-border collaboration? The preliminary findings suggest that while the EU plays a prominent role in some border-region initiatives, cross-border collaboration needs such a specific set of circumstances to work that it is questionable whether it can effectively be promoted. Moreover, local actors make use of the EU (as a source of funding, legislation or legitimisation) to serve their needs.

  16. Circulating fetuin-A in patients with pancreatic cancer: a hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Dalamaga, Maria; Polyzos, Stergios A; Karmaniolas, Konstantinos; Chamberland, John; Lekka, Antigoni; Migdalis, Ilias; Papadavid, Evangelia; Dionyssiou-Asteriou, Amalia; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2014-12-01

    A proteomic analysis has proposed fetuin-A (alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein) as a new potential marker for pancreatic cancer (PC). Circulating fetuin-A levels in patients with PC. Serum fetuin-A was measured in 81 cases with PC and 81 matched controls before the initiation of any treatment. Serum fetuin-A was not independently associated with the presence of PC. Although there was a trend with higher fetuin-A levels across PC stages, comparisons of fetuin-A in patients within different PC prognostic stages revealed no differences. Circulating fetuin-A was similar between patients and controls and was not associated with the disease severity.

  17. [Risk factors and antibiotic use in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in hospitalized patients at Hacettepe University Adult and Oncology Hospitals (2004-2011) and antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates: a nested case-control study].

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Ozgür; Zarakolu, Pınar; Karahan, Ceren; Cakır, Banu; Unal, Serhat

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia cases who were followed at the Infectious Diseases Unit of Internal Medicine Department, at Hacettepe University Adult and Oncology Hospitals between January 2004-December 2011. A total of 198 patients, of them 99 had positive MRSA blood cultures (case group), and 99 without MRSA bacteremia (control group) who were selected randomly among patients at the same wards during the same time period, were included in the study. Demographic data, risk factors for MRSA bacteremia and antibiotic use of case (60 male, 39 female; mean age: 59.37 ± 16.96 yrs) and control (60 male, 39 female; mean age: 59.11 ± 17.60 yrs) groups were obtained from the patient files and the hospital data system and were compared. Methicillin susceptibility was determined by the cefoxitin (30 µg, BD, USA) disc diffusion method and confirmed by mecA PCR test. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were also determined by disc diffusion and Etest (BioMerieux, France) methods according to CLSI guidelines. There was no statistically